WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric sound

  1. Entropic "sound" in the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, B. -F.; Stefan, S.; Apostol, M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that small, local disturbances of entropy in the atmosphere may give rise to "sound" waves propagating with a velocity which depends on the amplitude ratio of the local relative variations of temperature and volume. This velocity is much smaller than the mean molecular velocity and the usual, adiabatic sound velocity.

  2. Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith

    Propagation of sound close to the ground outdoors involves geometric spreading, air absorption, interaction with the ground, barriers, vegetation and refraction associated with wind and temperature gradients. After a brief survey of historical aspects of the study of outdoor sound and its applications, this chapter details the physical principles associated with various propagation effects, reviews data that demonstrate them and methods for predicting them. The discussion is concerned primarily with the relatively short ranges and spectra of interest when predicting and assessing community noise rather than the frequencies and long ranges of concern, for example, in infrasonic global monitoring or used for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Specific phenomena that are discussed include spreading losses, atmospheric absorption, diffraction by barriers and buildings, interaction of sound with the ground (ground waves, surface waves, ground impedance associated with porosity and roughness, and elasticity effects), propagation through crops, shrubs and trees, wind and temperature gradient effects, shadow zones and incoherence due to atmospheric turbulence. The chapter concludes by suggesting a few areas that require further research.

  3. Infrasound data inversion for atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, J.-M.; Sèbe, O.; Landès, M.; Blanc-Benon, Ph.; Matoza, R. S.; Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.

    2012-07-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) continuously records acoustic waves in the 0.01-10 Hz frequency band, known as infrasound. These waves propagate through the layered structure of the atmosphere. Coherent infrasonic waves are produced by a variety of anthropogenic and natural sources and their propagation is controlled by spatiotemporal variations of temperature and wind velocity. Natural stratification of atmospheric properties (e.g. temperature, density and winds) forms waveguides, allowing long-range propagation of infrasound waves. However, atmospheric specifications used in infrasound propagation modelling suffer from lack and sparsity of available data above an altitude of 50 km. As infrasound can propagate in the upper atmosphere up to 120 km, we assume that infrasonic data could be used for sounding the atmosphere, analogous to the use of seismic data to infer solid Earth structure and the use of hydroacoustic data to infer oceanic structure. We therefore develop an inversion scheme for vertical atmospheric wind profiles in the framework of an iterative linear inversion. The forward problem is treated in the high-frequency approximation using a Hamiltonian formulation and complete first-order ray perturbation theory is developed to construct the Fréchet derivatives matrix. We introduce a specific parametrization for the unknown model parameters based on Principal Component Analysis. Finally, our algorithm is tested on synthetic data cases spanning different seasonal periods and network configurations. The results show that our approach is suitable for infrasound atmospheric sounding on a regional scale.

  4. Sound radiation in atmosphere during underwater earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovichenko, S. P.; Zaslavskiy, Y. M.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic fields in the atmosphere generated by hydroacoustic disturbances which are caused by seismic movements of bottom rocks during an underwater earthquake are used to predict tsunami waves. Different models of deepened seismic sources equivalent to an earthquake focus with respect to the total quantity of released energy are outlined. The characteristics of radiation introduced by the ocean water layer are examined. The dependence of the level and directional diagram of radiation of focal depth is examined. The level of acoustic oscillations is examined at the maximum of the diagram at altitudes were the appearance of ionized regions detectable during sounding by Doppler radars is possible.

  5. Atmospheric effects on microphone array analysis of aircraft vortex sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-08

    This paper provides the basis of a comprehensive analysis of vortex sound propagation : through the atmosphere in order to assess real atmospheric effects on acoustic array : processing. Such effects may impact vortex localization accuracy and detect...

  6. A microscopic description of sound absorption in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    The various mechanisms which contribute to sound absorption in the atmosphere are identified and a technique for computing the contribution from each is presented. The similarities between sound absorption, laser fluorescence measurements, and the opto-acoustic effect are discussed. Finally, experimental sound absorption results are compared to predictions to test the microscopic energy transfer approach.

  7. Refraction of Sound in the Atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2006-01-01

    It is natural to think that the path sound travels is more or less straight. Certainly sound “leaks” around buildings and reflects from walls but, for the most part, when you hear a sound, you know where to look to find the source...

  8. Satellite Moisture Retrieval Techniques. Volume 2. Atmospheric Sounding Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    RADIATION THROUGH THE LOW ATMOSPHERE Tomasi, C; Vittori ,0. Sezione Microfisica Atmosfera , Ifa Cnr, Bologna, Italy Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. (Italy...IMPROVED VOIGT ALGORITHM Van Derwook, Peter Clark (Masters Thesis) Texas University (May 1977) 37. A TECHNIQUE FOR ESTIMATING ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE...AN IMPROVED VOIGT ALGORITHM Van Derwook, Peter Clark (Masters Thesis) Texas University (May 1977) 43 REMOTE SENSING ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING OF THE

  9. Atmospheric ducts can transport sound in two directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-07-01

    When conditions are right, temperature gradients and fast jets of wind can help to establish atmospheric ducts—pathways in the atmosphere that promote the propagation of low-frequency acoustic waves (infrasound)—across long distances. Atmospheric ducts are part of the basis behind over-the-horizon radar, the source of some particularly clear mirages, and a channel through which sounds can travel relatively unperturbed across vast distances.

  10. Propagation of sound through the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, R. W.; Becher, J.

    1983-01-01

    The data collected at a pressure of one atmosphere for the different temperatures and relative humidities of the air-water vapor mixtures is summarized. The dew point hygrometer used in these measurements did not give reliable results for dew points much above the ambient room temperature. For this reason measurements were not attempted at the higher temperatures and humidities. Viscous wall losses in the resonant tube at 0 C so dominate the molecular relaxation of nitrogen, in the air-water vapor mixture, that reliable data could not be obtained using the free decay method in a resonant tube at one atmosphere. In an effort to obtain viable data at these temperatures, measurements were performed at a pressure of 10 atmospheres. Since the molecular relaxation peak is proportional to the pressure and the viscous losses are proportional to the inverse square root of the pressure the peak height should be measurable at the higher pressure. The tradeoff here is that at 10 atmospheres; the highest relative humidity attainable is 10 percent. The data collected at 10 atmospheres is also summarized.

  11. An analysis of the Infrasound Atmospheric Sounding problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, J.; Sebe, O. G.; Landes, M.; Matoza, R. S.; Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.; Blanc-Benon, P.

    2011-12-01

    The increasing number of infrasound arrays deployed worldwide have significantly enlarge the scope of infrasound studies. Infrasonic waves are low frequencies sound waves (0.01-20 Hz) which propagate over long range with low attenuation through atmospheric waveguides. Thus, they provide a valuable information for understanding the atmospheric dynamics and improving current atmospheric specifications. Infrasound atmospheric sounding can be objectively treated using inverse methods theory. We develop an iterative linear inversion algorithm to retrieve vertical atmospheric profiles from infrasonic observations. The forward problem is treated in the high-frequency approximation using the Hamiltonian formulation and complete first-order ray perturbation theory is developed in order to construct the Frechet derivatives matrix. We introduce a specific regularization and give a detail analysis of this inverse problem. Our algorithm is compared with results from global optimization methods and validated through realistic experiments.

  12. Atmospheric temperature sounding with the Fourier spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, V. V.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Polyakov, A. V.; Uspensky, A. B.; Golovin, Yu. M.; Zavelevich, F. S.; Kozlov, D. A.; Rublev, A. N.; Kukharsky, A. V.; Pyatkin, V. P.; Rusin, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    Preliminary results of a space experiment using the IKFS-2 infrared sounder (Meteor-M2 satellite) showed high-quality of measurements of spectra of the outgoing thermal radiation of the atmosphere-surface system and the adequacy of developed IR radiation atmospheric models in the 15-μm carbon gas absorption band used to recover the vertical profiles of the atmospheric temperature. Outgoing radiation spectra measured by IKFS-2 instruments make it possible to restore vertical temperature profiles with errors close to 1K in most of the 0-30 km high-altitude region, except for the lower troposphere and altitudes above 30 km, where these errors are close to 2-3K.

  13. Improved Green's function parabolic equation method for atmospheric sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The numerical implementation of the Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) method for atmospheric sound propagation is discussed. Four types of numerical errors are distinguished: (i) errors in the forward Fourier transform; (ii) errors in the inverse Fourier transform; (iii) errors in the

  14. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Geoffrey [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) with miniature sensor systems for atmospheric research is an important capability to develop. The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) project, lead by Dr. Gijs de Boer of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES- a partnership of NOAA and CU-Boulder), is a significant milestone in realizing this new potential. This project has clearly demonstrated that the concept of sUAS utilization is valid, and miniature instrumentation can be used to further our understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer in the arctic.

  15. Application of beamform to sound propagation in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Wiese, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of applying beam-former technology (i.e., the technique that uses the combined signal from an array of sensors as a spatial filter to locate sound sources) in atmospheric acoustics is examined. Special attention is given to the microphone array, data collection, and signal processing technology as well as to an array processing algorithm. It is shown that this algorithm, which incorporates the maximum-likelihood method, is operational. Also discussed is a postprocessing algorithm for eliminating the ghosting sidelobes that arise from the moving sources.

  16. Scattering of coherent sound waves by atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P. L.; Liu, C. H.; Maestrello, L.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study of the propagation of coherent sound waves through an atmosphere containing both mean and fluctuating flow variables is presented. The general flow problem is formulated as a time-dependent wave propagation in a half-space containing the turbulent medium. The coherent acoustic waves are analyzed by a smoothing technique, assuming that mean flow variables vary with the height only. The general equations for the coherent waves are derived, and then applied to two special cases, corresponding to uniform and shear mean flow, respectively. The results show that mean shear and turbulence introduce pronounced effects on the propagation of coherent acoustic disturbances.

  17. Effects of wind turbine wake on atmospheric sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine considering the effects of wake-induced velocity deficit and turbulence. In order to address this issue, an advanced approach was developed in which both scalar and vector parabolic equations in two dimensions are solved. Flow...... source. Unsteady acoustic simulations were carried out with the AL/LES input for three cases with different incoming turbulence intensity, and a moving source approach to mimic the rotating turbine blades. The results show a non-negligible effect of the wake on far-field noise prediction. Particularly...... under stable atmospheric conditions, SPL amplification reaches up to 7.5dB at the wake centre. Furthermore, it was observed that when the turbulence intensity level of the incoming flow is higher, the SPL difference between the moving and the steady source is lower....

  18. Effect of different sound atmospheres on SnO2:Sb thin films prepared by dip coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Adem; Ozturk, Erhan; Ejderha, Kadir; Turgut, Guven

    2017-11-01

    Different sound atmosphere effects were investigated on SnO2:Sb thin films, which were deposited with dip coating technique. Two sound atmospheres were used in this study; one of them was nay sound atmosphere for soft sound, another was metallic sound for hard sound. X-ray diffraction (XRD) graphs have indicated that the films have different orientations and structural parameters in quiet room, metallic and soft sound atmospheres. It could be seen from UV-Vis spectrometer measurements that films have different band gaps and optical transmittances with changing sound atmospheres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and AFM images of the films have been pointed out that surfaces of films have been affected with changing sound atmospheres. The electrical measurements have shown that films have different I-V plots and different sheet resistances with changing sound atmospheres. These sound effects may be used to manage atoms in nano dimensions.

  19. Sound, infrasound, and sonic boom absorption by atmospheric clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Michaël; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    This study quantifies the influence of atmospheric clouds on propagation of sound and infrasound, based on an existing model [Gubaidulin and Nigmatulin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 26, 207-228 (2000)]. Clouds are considered as a dilute and polydisperse suspension of liquid water droplets within a mixture of dry air and water vapor, both considered as perfect gases. The model is limited to low and medium altitude clouds, with a small ice content. Four physical mechanisms are taken into account: viscoinertial effects, heat transfer, water phase changes (evaporation and condensation), and vapor diffusion. Physical properties of atmospheric clouds (altitude, thickness, water content and droplet size distribution) are collected, along with values of the thermodynamical coefficients. Different types of clouds have been selected. Quantitative evaluation shows that, for low audible and infrasound frequencies, absorption within clouds is several orders of magnitude larger than classical absorption. The importance of phase changes and vapor diffusion is outlined. Finally, numerical simulations for nonlinear propagation of sonic booms indicate that, for thick clouds, attenuation can lead to a very large decay of the boom at the ground level. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  20. Microbiological sampling of the atmosphere using a latex sounding balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, W. P.; Bryan, N.; Christner, B. C.; Guzik, T. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Giammanco, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The occurrence of microbes in the atmosphere has been the subject of scientific inquiry since Louis Pasteur’s time; however, data on the nature and diversity of microbial life in the upper troposphere and stratosphere is very limited. To experimentally address this, we have designed, constructed, and field-tested a lightweight, autonomous system that can sample at high altitudes using a latex sounding balloon. An important aspect of our sampling protocol is the ability to decontaminate and assess the level of background contamination during laboratory and field handling. Our approach involves the parallel decontamination and monitoring of 3 identical payloads: (i) one that remains in the laboratory, (ii) a control on the flight string, and (iii) a payload that opens and samples airborne particles in the atmosphere. Comparative analysis of various sterilization methods indicated that ethylene oxide was most effective at decreasing the concentration of DNA-containing cells, decreasing background cellular contamination by 94%. In conjunction, germicidal ultraviolet light, sodium hypochlorite, and 70% ethanol were used to decrease the concentration of microbes associated with payload surfaces. Bioaerosol collection is achieved by impact sampling on a 3.5 mm^2 retention surface covered with a thin layer of sterile silicone grease as the payload travels through the atmosphere. Initial flights have been successful in recovering viable microorganisms present in parcels of air at altitudes of 3 km to 9 km. Microscopic analysis on the collected cell assemblages implied that ~70% of the cells were potentially viable, and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were cultured and isolated from liquid and agar-solidified culture media. Future plans include increasing the sampling altitude up to ~30 km in a series of discrete steps, maintaining our background controls and connection to lower altitude measurements. The pressure, temperature, and radiation levels in Earth’s stratosphere

  1. A Nondimensional Parameterization for Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mungiole, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Parabolic equation (PE) techniques have been successfully used to obtain numerical solutions of sound pressure attenuation in which sound propagation is affected by turbulence and vertical gradients in wind and temperature...

  2. An Energy Budget Model to Calculate the Low Atmosphere Profiles of Effective Sound Speed at Night

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tunick, Arnold

    2003-01-01

    ...) for generating low atmosphere profiles of effective sound speed at night. The alternate model is based on the solution of a quartic equation for surface temperature, which assumes a balance between the net long wave...

  3. A satellite-based multichannel infrared radiometer to sound the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Roy W.; Batty, J. Clair; Jensen, Mark; McLain, Dave; Jensen, Scott; Stauder, John; Stump, Charles W.; Roettker, William A.; Vanek, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a 12-channel infrared radiometer with the acronym SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission radiometry) that has been selected by NASA to fly on the TIMED (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) mission.

  4. On the excess attenuation of sound in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, R.

    1975-01-01

    The attenuation suffered by an acoustic plane wave propagating from an elevated source to the ground, in excess of absorption losses, was studied. Reported discrepancies between attenuation measurements made in the field and theories which only account for absorption losses are discussed. It was concluded that the scattering of sound by turbulence results in a nonnegligible contribution to the total attenuation.

  5. Wind turbine power and sound in relation to atmospheric stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G. P.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric stability cannot, with respect to modem, toll wind turbines, be viewed as a 'small perturbation to a basic neutral state' This can be demonstrated by comparison of measured wind velocity at the height of the rotor with the wind velocity expected in a neutral or 'standard' atmosphere.

  6. Diffusion of Sound Waves in a Turbulent Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard H.

    1960-01-01

    The directional and frequency diffusion of a plane monochromatic 2 sound wave in statistically homogeneous, isotropic, and stationary turbulence is analyzed theoretically. The treatment is based on the diffusion equation for the energy density of sound waves, using the scattering cross section derived by Kraichnan for the type of turbulence assumed here. A form for the frequency-wave number spectrum of the turbulence is adopted which contains the pertinent parameters of the flow and is adapted to ease of calculation. A new approach to the evaluation of the characteristic period of the flow is suggested. This spectrum is then related to the scattering cross section. Finally, a diffusion equation is derived as a small-angle scattering approximation to the rigorous transport equation. The rate of spread of the incident wave in frequency and direction is calculated, as well as the power spectrum and autocorrelation for the wave.

  7. Complementary roles of microwave and infrared instruments in atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, L.; Fleming, H.; Gray, D.; Grody, N.; Reale, A.

    1987-02-01

    Radiance measurements in the infrared and microwave regions respond differently to changes in the atmosphere. These differences in response lead to differences in the ability to derive profiles of atmospheric parameters such as temperature and moisture. A summary of the characteristics of each region is presented, followed by an evaluation of the results of simulation studies and extrapolations from existing instruments, both of which were designed to assess the relative advantages of the two wavelength regions. The studies show that the combination of the information from the two spectral regions leads to more accurate retrievals than can be obtained from either spectral region alone at all levels of the atmosphere.

  8. Time-domain simulations of sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere over an impedance ground

    OpenAIRE

    Cotté, Benjamin; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Finite-difference time-domain simulations of broadband sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere are presented. A method recently proposed to obtain an impedance time-domain boundary condition is implemented in a linearized Euler equations solver, which enables to study long range sound propagation over an impedance ground. Some features of the pressure pulse evolution with time are analyzed in both upward-and downward-refracting conditions, and the time-domain simu...

  9. Parametric generation of Alfven and sound waves in the solar atmosphere. Isothermal atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fajnshtejn, S.M. (Gor' kovskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    The parametric instability of Alfven and sound waves in an isothermal layer of the solar plasma is investigated. Conditions of the wave generation are found under the condition that the velocities of Alfven waves and isothermal sound are constant. The results obtained are used for the interpretation of attenuation of Alfven wave fluxes in solar spots.

  10. Features of sound refraction in the atmosphere in fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagapov, V. Sh.; Sarapulova, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The reflection and refraction of acoustic waves at the air-fog interface are considered. The phase velocity and the coefficient of sound damping for fog, as well as the reflection and refraction coefficients at normal and oblique incidences of a wave, are calculated. A dependence of the refraction angle on a frequency and the angle of acoustic wave incidence on the air-mist interface is studied. Based on the analytical expressions obtained and the analysis of numerical calculations, it is established that if a wave is incident from fog to the interface there is a critical angle of incidence so that total internal reflection occurs at greater angles. It is shown that the total internal reflection does not occur when a wave is incident from air on the air-fog interface.

  11. The sound-speed gradient and refraction in the near-ground atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D Keith

    2003-02-01

    A systematic description of sound refraction in the near-ground atmosphere is developed by modeling the effective sound-speed gradient with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The resulting gradient equation can be recast in a form involving just three nondimensional variables. The first is the ratio of a sound-speed scale (representing the strength of the turbulent fluctuations in the sound speed) to the friction velocity. The second is the ratio of the actual height to a transitional height where contributions from the near-ground wind-speed gradients and the adiabatic lapse rate are roughly balanced. The third is simply the cosine of the angle between the propagation direction and mean wind direction. When the magnitude of the sound-speed scale/friction velocity ratio is large, refraction is unconditionally upward or downward, depending on sign of the ratio. A small value for this ratio indicates nearly neutral atmospheric stratification, for which refraction is determined by the wind direction for small values of the nondimensional height and is upward for larger values. The contribution to refraction from air humidity is determined as a function of the Bowen ratio and found to be significant over wet surfaces. Weather conditions appropriate for measurement of sound pressure levels are also discussed.

  12. Simplified procedure for computing the absorption of sound by the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-31

    This paper describes a study that resulted in the development of a simplified : method for calculating attenuation by atmospheric-absorption for wide-band : sounds analyzed by one-third octave-band filters. The new method [referred to : herein as the...

  13. Generation of sound by Alfven waves with random phases in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fainshtein, S.M.

    1976-11-01

    The problem of the excitation of sound by Alfven waves meeting in the solar plasma is discussed. Kinetic equations for the interacting waves are derived and analyzed on the assumption that the Alfven waves have random phases. Estimates are given which show the possibility of the generation of LF-pulsations in the solar atmosphere.

  14. Speed of Sound Measurements and the Methane Abundance in Titan's Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hagermann, A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Towner , M. C.; Garry, J.R.C.; Svedhem, H.; Leese, M. R.; Hathi, B.; R. D. Lorenz; Zarnecki, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Speed of Sound Measurements and the Methane Abundance in Titan's Atmosphere (Hagermann, A.) PSSRI--> , The Open University--> , Walton Hall--> , Milton Keynes--> - UNITED KINGDOM (Hagermann, A.) PSSRI--> , The Open University--> , Walton Hall--> , Milton Keynes--> - UNITED KINGDOM (Rosenberg, P.D.) PSSRI--> , The Open University--> , Walton Hall--> , Milto...

  15. Vocal tract resonances in oscine bird sound production: evidence from birdsongs in a helium atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, S

    The complexity and dependence on learning of many bird sounds have suggested parallels between birdsong and human speech, but the mechanisms by which each is produced have been supposed to differ markedly. In human speech, resonances of the vocal tract are thought to modulate in complex ways the sound produced by vibration of the vocal folds. The current theory of birdsong production holds that all variation in sound quality arises from the primary sound-producing organ, the syrinx, and that resonances of the vocal tract play no part. Here I present evidence, obtained from acoustic analyses of birdsongs recorded in a helium atmosphere, which contradicts this hypothesis. Not only does the songbird's vocal tract act as an acoustic filter, but its filter characteristics are actively coordinated with the output of the syrinx. Songbird and human phonation are thus more analogous than previously thought, in that both require coordination of an array of diverse motor systems.

  16. Time-domain simulations of sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere over an impedance ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotté, Benjamin; Blanc-Benon, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Finite-difference time-domain simulations of broadband sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere are presented. A method recently proposed to obtain an impedance time-domain boundary condition is implemented in a linearized Euler equations solver, which enables to study long range sound propagation over an impedance ground. Some features of the pressure pulse evolution with time are analyzed in both upward-and downward-refracting conditions, and the time-domain simulations are compared to parabolic equation calculations in the frequency domain to show the effectiveness of the proposed impedance boundary condition.

  17. A tomographic visualization of electric discharge sound fields in atmospheric pressure plasma using laser diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamiya, Toshiyuki; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Iwasaki, Yoichiro; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Tsuda, Ryoichi; Sonoda, Yoshito; Danuta Stryczewska, Henryka

    2013-02-01

    The phase modulation of transparent gas can be detected using Fraunhofer diffraction technique, which we call optical wave microphone (OWM). The OWM is suitable for the detection of sonic wave from audible sound to ultrasonic wave. Because this technique has no influence on sound field or electric field during the measurement, we have applied it to the sound detection for the electric discharges. There is almost no research paper that uses the discharge sound to examine the electrical discharge phenomenon. Two-dimensional visualization of the sound field using the OWM is also possible when the computerized tomography (CT) is combined. In this work, coplanar dielectric barrier discharge sin different gases of Ar, N2, He were characterized via the OWM as well as applied voltage and discharge current. This is the first report to investigate the influence of the type of the atmospheric gas on the two-dimensional sound field distribution for the coplanar dielectric barrier discharge using the OWM with CT. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  18. Global navigation satellite sounding of the atmosphere and GNSS altimetry : prospects for geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Tom P.; Hajj, George A.

    2003-01-01

    The vast illuminating power of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which transformed space geodesy in the 199Os, is now serving to probe the earth's fluid envelope in unique ways. Three distinct techniques have emerged: ground-based sensing of the integrated atmospheric moisture; space-based profiling of atmospheric refractivity, pressure, temperature, moisture, and other properties by active limb sounding; and surface (ocean and ice) altimetry and scatterometry with reflected signals detected from space. Ground-based GPS moisture sensing is already in provisional use for numerical weather prediction. Limb sounding, while less mature, offers a bevy of attractions, including high accuracy, stability, and vertical resolution; all-weather operation; and exceptionally low cost. GPS bistatic radar, r 'reflectometry,' is the least advanced but shows promise for a number of niche applications.

  19. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements Using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finnamore, W [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, P [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Gao, Rushan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Hock, T [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) campaign was proposed with two central goals; to obtain scientifically relevant measurements of quantities related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation, including profiles of temperature, humidity, and aerosol particles, the structure of the arctic atmosphere during transitions between clear and cloudy states, measurements that would allow us to evaluate the performance of retrievals from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility remote sensors in the Arctic atmosphere, and information on the spatial variability of heat and moisture fluxes from the arctic surface; and to demonstrate unmanned aerial system (UAS) capabilities in obtaining measurements relevant to the ARM and ASR programs, particularly for improving our understanding of Arctic clouds and aerosols.

  20. Gas Nonideality at One Atmosphere Revealed through Speed of Sound Measurements and Heat Capacity Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Liu, Allen

    2008-01-01

    Using an easy-to-make cylindrical resonator, students can measure the speed of sound in a gas, u, with sufficiently high precision (by locating standing-wave Lissajous patterns on an oscilloscope) to observe real gas properties at one atmosphere and 300 K. For CO[subscript 2] and SF[subscript 6], u is found to be 268.83 and 135.25 m s[superscript…

  1. Hotel Payload - a low-cost sounding rocket concept - for middle atmosphere and ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglund, Kenneth; Hansen, Gudmund

    2005-08-01

    European scientists are invited to utilize the "Hotel Payload" concept developed at Andøya Rocket Range (ARR) for scientific research in Middle Atmosphere and Ionosphere. The concept is shaped to give scientists predictability and assurance on configuration, costs and timeframe for their projects. The scientists are offered one sounding rocket partner from planning till launch - so they can focus on their instruments. To demonstrate the capabilities, this paper presents the "Hotel Payload" concept, its configurations and specific projects with instrumentation.

  2. Sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere near the ground: a parabolic equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostashev, V E; Salomons, E M; Clifford, S F; Lataitis, R J; Wilson, D K; Blanc-Benon, P; Juvé, D

    2001-05-01

    The interference of the direct wave from the point source to the receiver and the wave reflected from the impedance ground in a turbulent atmosphere is studied. A parabolic equation approach for calculating the sound pressure p at the receiver is formulated. Then, the parabolic equation is solved by the Rytov method yielding expressions for the complex phases of direct and ground-reflected waves. Using these expressions, a formula for the mean squared sound pressure [absolute value(p)2] is derived for the case of anisotropic spectra of temperature and wind velocity fluctuations. This formula contains the "coherence factor," which characterizes the coherence between direct and ground-reflected waves. It is shown that the coherence factor is equal to the normalized coherence function of a spherical sound wave for line-of-sight propagation. For the case of isotropic turbulence, this result allows one to obtain analytical formulas for [absolute value(p)2] for the Kolmogorov, Gaussian, and von Karman spectra of temperature and wind velocity fluctuations. Using these formulas, the effects of temperature and wind velocity fluctuations, and the effects of different spectra of these fluctuations on the mean squared sound pressure, are numerically studied. Also the effect of turbulent anisotropy on the interference of direct and ground reflected waves is numerically studied. Finally, it is shown that the mean squared sound pressure [absolute value(p)2] calculated for the von Karman spectrum of temperature fluctuations agrees well with experimental data obtained in a laboratory experiment.

  3. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  4. Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Crecelius, Eric A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Gill, Gary A.; Garland, Charity R.; Williamson, J. B.; Dhammapala, R.

    2010-07-05

    The results of the Phase 1 Toxics Loading study suggested that runoff from the land surface and atmospheric deposition directly to marine waters have resulted in considerable loads of contaminants to Puget Sound (Hart Crowser et al. 2007). The limited data available for atmospheric deposition fluxes throughout Puget Sound was recognized as a significant data gap. Therefore, this study provided more recent or first reported atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs, PBDEs, and select trace elements for Puget Sound. Samples representing bulk atmospheric deposition were collected during 2008 and 2009 at seven stations around Puget Sound spanning from Padilla Bay south to Nisqually River including Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Revised annual loading estimates for atmospheric deposition to the waters of Puget Sound were calculated for each of the toxics and demonstrated an overall decrease in the atmospheric loading estimates except for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and total mercury (THg). The median atmospheric deposition flux of total PBDE (7.0 ng/m2/d) was higher than that of the Hart Crowser (2007) Phase 1 estimate (2.0 ng/m2/d). The THg was not significantly different from the original estimates. The median atmospheric deposition flux for pyrogenic PAHs (34.2 ng/m2/d; without TCB) shows a relatively narrow range across all stations (interquartile range: 21.2- 61.1 ng/m2/d) and shows no influence of season. The highest median fluxes for all parameters were measured at the industrial location in Tacoma and the lowest were recorded at the rural sites in Hood Canal and Sequim Bay. Finally, a semi-quantitative apportionment study permitted a first-order characterization of source inputs to the atmosphere of the Puget Sound. Both biomarker ratios and a principal component analysis confirmed regional data from the Puget Sound and Straits of Georgia region and pointed to the predominance of biomass and fossil fuel (mostly liquid petroleum products such

  5. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Sound has the power to soothe, excite, warn, protect, and inform. Indeed, the transmission and reception of audio signals pervade our daily lives. Readers will examine the mechanics and properties of sound and provides an overview of the "interdisciplinary science called acoustics." Also covered are functions and diseases of the human ear.

  6. Pressure Contact Sounding Data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.; Long, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 41 stations participating in the AVE III measurement program that began at 0000 GMT on February 6 and ended at 1200 GMT on February 7, 1975. Soundings were taken at 3-hour intervals during a large period of the experiment from most stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data processing, change in reduction scheme since the AVE II pilot experiment, and data accuracy are briefly discussed. An example of contact data is presented, and microfiche cards of all the contact data are included in the appendix. The AVE III project was conducted to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales of-motion interrelationships.

  7. Pressure contact sounding data for NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE 2). [rawinsondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The basic rawinsonde data are described at each pressure contact from the surface to sounding termination for the 54 stations participating in the AVE 2 pilot experiment. Soundings were taken at three-hour intervals from stations within the United States east of about 105 degrees west longitude. Methods of data reduction and estimates of data accuracy are discussed. Examples of the data records produced are shown. The AVE 2 pilot experiment was conducted as part of NASA's program to better understand and establish the extent of applications for meteorological satellite sensor data through correlative ground truth experiments and to provide basic experimental data for use in studies of atmospheric scales-of-motion interrelationships.

  8. Vibrational behavior of a soundbox in an atmosphere with a variable speed of sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Kotlicki, Andrzej; Waltham, Chris; Wolfe, Nathan; Yu, Jing Fei; Zhu, Chenchong

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes a semi-quantitative method, suitable for a student laboratory exercise that shows that the acoustic properties of the soundbox of a musical instrument depend on the sound speed of the atmosphere surrounding and filling the instrument. A gas tent was constructed and used to enclose instruments in helium, carbon dioxide and mixtures thereof, allowing the sound speed to be varied from 250 to 1000 m/s. Soundboard admittance data were taken using a guitar and a violin as examples. The data, expressed as contour plots, show clearly the qualitative relationship between air and wood modes, and the guitar data are compared with a simple mechanical model. Experimental details of the construction and operation of gas tent are given, with attention paid to safety issues. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  9. DYNAMIC ERROR OF THE TEMPERATURE SENSORS WITH THE SOUNDING OF THE ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bolelov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiosounding of the atmosphere is an essential component constituting the base for prognostic aviation authorities. GPR scanning data are the basis for the mapping of baric topography used in the development of aviation weather forecasts. Currently, numerical methods of weather forecast have become especially popular. This is quite justified, as these methods allow to increase the accuracy of weather forecasts and these techniques represent the future. However, the era of "numerical weather prediction" will not come soon. This is primarily due to imperfect numerical forecast models, which do not provide for timeliness and reliability of weather forecasting required for aviation. However, the quality of meteorological support of aircraft flights is largely determined by the timeliness and predictability of the aviation weather forecasts. In this regard, the network of radiosounding functions require the presentation of the theoretical foundations and providing consumers with normalized metrological characteristics of the measuring system of radio sounding, methods of measurement and a reasonable assessment of the reliability of the results of sensing. A number of these problems have been resolved nowadays, however, so far the problem of estimating dynamic measurement errors in the sounding is not solved. The metrological characteristics and the dynamic error of measurement of temperature with the new temperature sensors of foreign production (NТС MFB-5000-3220, recently used in the Russian radiosondes still require the detailed studies.This article is devoted to one of the most important types of errors of radio sounding – the dynamic errors of measurement, to be precise, the dynamic error of the temperature measurement. In the article the problem of determining the value of dynamic errors of radiosondes is being solved alongside with the investigation of the role of this kind of errors when assessing the reliability of the results of the

  10. On Peculiarities of Radio Wave Scattering by a Sound Pulse in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryukhovetski, A. S.; Vichkan', A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Scattering of radio waves by a sound pulse in the atmosphere is investigated theoretically. Design/methodology/approach: The asymptotic of the scattered field in the approximation of the Fresnel diffraction is analyzed using the quadratic expansion of the phase and Gaussian directional patterns of radiating systems. Findings: It is shown that for small angles of backscattering the field is determined by the focusing effects. Conclusions: Explanation of the focus by “degenerate” saddle points of the studied integrand phase is suggested.

  11. Calculating the micrometeorological influences on the speed of sound through the atmosphere in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    A key element in determining point-to-point acoustic transmission within and above forests is modeling the variation (with height above ground) of the effective speed of sound. Effective speed of sound is readily derived from estimates of air temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity. However, meteorological models for the forest canopy vary from comparatively simple to academically complex, requiring different amounts and numbers of inputs and computer capabilities. In addition, not all canopy profile models are suitable for acoustic applications. In this paper, a meteorological computer model for the forest canopy is developed to derive continuous profiles of effective sound speed from the ground to 3 h, where h is the height of the canopy. In turn, these profiles are used to make some initial approximations of short-range acoustic transmission loss through a uniform forest stand for typical clear sky, midday atmospheric conditions. Also, a radiative transfer and energy budget algorithm is incorporated into the model to obtain the appropriate heat source profile for any time of day. Thus, physics-based micrometeorology is coupled to acoustics for future applications of acoustic information in forest environments.

  12. A turbulence spectral model for sound propagation in the atmosphere that incorporates shear and buoyancy forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson

    2000-11-01

    A three-dimensional model for turbulent velocity fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer is developed and used to calculate scattering of sound. The model, which is based on von Karman's spectrum, incorporates separate contributions from shear- and buoyancy-forced turbulence. New equations are derived from the model that predict the strength and diffraction parameters for scattering of sound as a function of height from the ground and atmospheric conditions. The need is demonstrated for retaining two distinct scattering length scales, one associated with scattering strength and the other with diffraction. These length scales are height dependent and vary substantially with the relative proportions of shear and buoyancy forcing. The turbulence model predicts that for forward-scattered waves the phase variance is much larger than the log-amplitude variance, a behavior borne out by experimental data. A new method for synthesizing random fields, based on empirical orthogonal functions, is developed to accommodate the height dependence of the turbulence model. The method is applied to numerical calculations of scattering into an acoustic shadow zone, yielding good agreement with previous measurements.

  13. Atmospheric and tidal forcing of the exchange between Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Mark J.

    2014-03-01

    Current meter data from a series of oceanographic moorings spanning a total of five years was analyzed to quantify the tidal and subtidal exchange of water between Prince William Sound and the adjacent continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Alaska. Velocity profiles were used to quantify the exchange in terms of a transport through each of the two largest passages: Montague Strait and Hinchinbrook Entrance. Buoy wind and atmospheric pressure observations, as well as bottom pressure records, are then used to elucidate the role of atmospheric forcing on the exchange. An EOF analysis shows that the barotropic component accounts for 62% or more of the variance in the velocity profiles even after tides are removed by low-pass filtering, and thus the analysis is concerned primarily with depth-integrated transport. The estimated depth-integrated transport can reach ±0.6 Sv in Montague Strait, and ±1.5 Sv in Hinchinbrook Entrance. The largest fluctuations occur in response to the semidiurnal tides. Transport variations on subtidal time scales, which can reach -0.2 Sv in Montague Strait, and +0.6 Sv in Hinchinbrook Entrance, are shown by a frequency domain analysis to be dominated by easterly wind stress events which occur at periods of 2-5 days in both summer and winter. Atmospheric pressure has much less impact on transport, but there is some evidence that it might play a small role on time scales of a few weeks. Bottom pressure records suggest that easterly wind events set up a sea level height gradient in Hinchinbrook Entrance such that it tilts up to the east, which under geostrophy drives a barotropic flow into Prince William Sound. The same winds also raise the sea level in Hinchinbrook Entrance relative to Montague Strait, encouraging an outflow there in agreement with the ADCP observations. There is no evidence that the wind drives a vertically sheared bi-directional flow in either entrance, as has been observed in some estuaries. It is hypothesized that the

  14. The sound of high winds : The effect of atmospheric stability on wind turbine sound and microphone noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This is the story of the discovery of a new phenomenon: why wind turbines sound different at night time. This discovery was related to a problem in society, namely that of perceived noise by residents living close to such turbines.

  15. Asymptotics, structure, and integration of sound-proof atmospheric flow equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rupert

    2009-07-01

    Relative to the full compressible flow equations, sound-proof models filter acoustic waves while maintaining advection and internal waves. Two well-known sound-proof models, an anelastic model by Bannon and Durran’s pseudo-incompressible model, are shown here to be structurally very close to the full compressible flow equations. Essentially, the anelastic model is obtained by suppressing ∂ t ρ in the mass continuity equation and slightly modifying the gravity term, whereas the pseudo-incompressible model results from dropping ∂ t p from the pressure equation. For length scales small compared to the density and pressure scale heights, the anelastic model reduces to the Boussinesq approximation, while the pseudo-incompressible model approaches the zero Mach number, variable density flow equations. Thus, for small scales, both models are asymptotically consistent with the full compressible flow equations, yet the pseudo-incompressible model is more general in that it remains valid in the presence of large density variations. For the relatively small density variations found in typical atmosphere-ocean flows, both models are found to yield very similar results, with deviations between models much smaller than deviations obtained when using different numerical schemes for the same model. This in agreement with Smolarkiewicz and Dörnbrack (Int J Numer Meth Fluids 56:1513-1519, 2007). Despite these useful properties, neither model can be derived by a low-Mach number asymptotic expansion for length scales comparable to the pressure scale height, i.e., for the regime they were originally designed for. Derivations of these models via scale analysis ignore an asymptotic time scale separation between advection and internal waves. In fact, only the classical Ogura and Phillips model, which assumes weak stratification of the order of the Mach number squared, can be obtained as a leading-order model from systematic low Mach number asymptotic analysis. Issues of formal

  16. Propagation of sound through the Earth's atmosphere. 1: Measurement of sound absorption in the air. 2: Measurement of ground impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, J.; Meredith, R. W.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of parts for the acoustic ground impedance meter was completed, and the instrument tested. Acoustic ground impedance meter, automatic data processing system, cooling system for the resonant tube, and final results of sound absorption in N2-H2O gas mixtures at elevated temperatures are described.

  17. A comparison between GPS Radio Occultation technique and radio sounds data for atmospheric corrections in InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirboroon, S.; Safavian, S.

    2012-12-01

    Fluctuation in atmospheric conditions is a major source of error in repeat-pass interferometry, which can seriously compromise the accuracy of InSAR data. An accurate estimation of atmospheric parameters is therefore necessary for reliable InSAR measurements. The GPS Radio Occultation method is an innovative remote sensing technique for indirect measurement of atmospheric parameters using signals broadcast by GPS satellites. The GPS signals are influenced by the atmospheric refractivity field, resulting in a time delay and bending of the signal, which are analyzed to obtain temperature profile, pressure and water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, we use GPS Radio Occultation data from the COSMIC mission, extract atmospheric parameters, and apply them to correct differential interferograms affected by atmospheric artifact. Moreover, to estimate the accuracy and efficacy of GPS Radio Occultation method, we assimilate the Radio sounds data for the nearest stations, then compare the results. GPS Radio Occultation profiles show better corrections than Radio sounds and could be used in interferograms atmospheric corrections.

  18. Comparison of measurements and predictions of sound propagation in a valley-slope configuration in an inhomogeneous atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Lercher, P

    2007-05-01

    Mountainous areas form a very specific context for sound propagation: There is a particular ground effect and meteorological conditions are often extreme. In this paper, detailed sound propagation calculations are compared to noise measurements accompanied by meteorological observations. The sound source considered is road traffic along the center axis of a valley. Noise levels were measured in two cross sections, at three locations each: one on the valley floor and two on the slopes, up to 166 m above the source. For the numerical calculations, the rotated Green's function parabolic equation method is used, taking into account the undulation of the terrain and an inhomogeneous atmosphere. Typical parameters of this method were optimized for computational efficiency. Predictions agree with measurements to within 3 dBA up to propagation distances of 1 km, in windless conditions. The calculations further show that the terrain profile is responsible for an increase in sound pressure level at distant, elevated points up to 30 dBA compared to a flat ground situation. Complex temperature profiles account for level changes between -3 dBA and +10 dBA relative to a homogeneous atmosphere. This study shows that accurate sound level prediction in a valley-slope configuration requires detailed numerical calculations.

  19. Microwave complex for ground based ozone and thermal sounding of middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, Alexander; Krasil'nikov, Alexander; Kulikov, Mihail; Ryskin, Vitaly; Bolshakov, Oleg; Belikovich, Mihail; Mukhin, Dmitry; Karashtin, Dmitry; Fedoseev, Lev; Feigin, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Description of the novel ground-based microwave complex for ozone and thermal sounding of middle atmosphere is presented. The instrument include two spectroradiometers operating in the frequency range 110.3-111.3 GHz (ozone line), and in the in the frequency range 52.5 - 54.5 GHz (edge of 5-mm molecular oxygen band), accordingly. The latter includes band slope and four resolved from the earth's surface relatively weak oxygen lines. Both spectroradiometers employ feed cone as antenna with half-power beam width approximately equal 4 degree. Two digital fast Fourier transform spectrometers developed by "Acqiris" are used for signal analysis in the intermediate frequency range 0.05 - 1 GHz with the effective resolution 61 KHz. Both spectroradiometers operate in total power mod with fast internal calibration that realize by electrically controlled noise generator on basis of Shottky barrier diodes. Noise temperature is approximately 3000 K for ozone spectroradiometer and 1400 K for thermometer. Novel method for retrieval vertical profiles of ozone and temperature from radiometric data is applied. The procedure is based on Bayesian approach to inverse problems which assumes a construction of probability distribution of the characteristics of retrieved profiles with taking into account measurement noise and available a priori information about possible distributions of ozone and temperature in the middle atmosphere. At the present time we carry out the experimental campaign aimed to simultaneous measurements temperature and ozone profile above Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The work was done under support of the RFBR (projects 11-05-97050 and 12-05-00999)

  20. Detecting volcanic SO2 emissions with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Isabelle; Carboni, Elisa; Mather, Tamsin; Grainger, Don

    2017-04-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions are one of the many hazards associated with volcanic activity. Close to the volcano they have negative impacts on human and animal health and affect the environment. Further afield they present a hazard to aviation (as well as being a proxy for volcanic ash) and can cause global changes to climate. These are all good reasons for monitoring gas emissions at volcanoes and this monitoring can also provide insight into volcanic, magmatic and geothermal processes. Advances in satellite technology mean that it is now possible to monitor these emissions from space. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on board the European Space Agency's MetOp satellites is commonly used, alongside other satellite products, for detecting SO2 emissions across the globe. A fast linear retrieval developed in Oxford separates the signal of the target species (SO2) from the spectral background by representing background variability (determined from pixels containing no SO2) in a background covariance matrix. SO2 contaminated pixels can be distinguished from this quickly, facilitating the use of this algorithm for near real time monitoring and for scanning of large datasets for signals to explore further with a full retrieval. In this study, the retrieval has been applied across the globe to identify volcanic emissions. Elevated signals are identified at numerous volcanoes including both explosive and passive emissions, which match reports of activity from other sources. Elevated signals are also evident from anthropogenic activity. These results imply that this tool could be successfully used to identify and monitor activity across the globe.

  1. A model for the vertical sound speed and absorption profiles in Titan's atmosphere based on Cassini-Huygens data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petculescu, Andi; Achi, Peter

    Measurements of thermodynamic quantities in Titan's atmosphere during the descent of Huygens in 2005 are used to predict the vertical profiles for the speed and intrinsic attenuation (or absorption) of sound. The calculations are done using one author's previous model modified to accommodate non-ideal equations of state. The vertical temperature profile places the tropopause about 40 km above the surface. In the model, a binary nitrogen-methane composition is assumed for Titan's atmosphere, quantified by the methane fraction measured by the gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) onboard Huygens. To more accurately constrain the acoustic wave number, the variation of thermophysical properties (specific heats,viscosity, and thermal conductivity) with altitude is included via data extracted from the NIST Chemistry WebBook [URL webbook.nist.gov, National Institute of Standards and Technology Chemistry WebBook (Last accessed 10/20/2011)]. The predicted speed of sound profile fits well inside the spread of the data recorded by Huygens' active acoustic sensor. In the N2-dominated atmosphere, the sound waves have negligible relaxational dispersion and mostly classical (thermo-viscous) absorption. The cold and dense environment of Titan can sustain acoustic waves over large distances with relatively small transmission losses, as evidenced by the small absorption. A ray-tracing program is used to assess the bounds imposed by the zonal wind-measured by the Doppler Wind Experiment on Huygens-on long-range propagation.

  2. A model for the vertical sound speed and absorption profiles in Titan's atmosphere based on Cassini-Huygens data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petculescu, Andi; Achi, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of thermodynamic quantities in Titan's atmosphere during the descent of Huygens in 2005 are used to predict the vertical profiles for the speed and intrinsic attenuation (or absorption) of sound. The calculations are done using one author's previous model modified to accommodate non-ideal equations of state. The vertical temperature profile places the tropopause about 40 km above the surface. In the model, a binary nitrogen-methane composition is assumed for Titan's atmosphere, quantified by the methane fraction measured by the gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS) onboard Huygens. To more accurately constrain the acoustic wave number, the variation of thermophysical properties (specific heats, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) with altitude is included via data extracted from the NIST Chemistry WebBook [URL webbook.nist.gov, National Institute of Standards and Technology Chemistry WebBook (Last accessed 10/20/2011)]. The predicted speed of sound profile fits well inside the spread of the data recorded by Huygens' active acoustic sensor. In the N(2)-dominated atmosphere, the sound waves have negligible relaxational dispersion and mostly classical (thermo-viscous) absorption. The cold and dense environment of Titan can sustain acoustic waves over large distances with relatively small transmission losses, as evidenced by the small absorption. A ray-tracing program is used to assess the bounds imposed by the zonal wind-measured by the Doppler Wind Experiment on Huygens-on long-range propagation.

  3. The contribution of molecular relaxation in nitrogen to the absorption of sound in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Meredith, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Results and statistical analysis are presented for sound absorption in N2-H2O binary mixtures at room temperature. Experimental procedure, temperature effects, and preliminary results are presented for sound absorption in N2-H2O binary mixtures at elevated temperatures.

  4. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    original sound file from collected data, the filter was inverted . To identify the distance between an original and a distorted sound file, the decibel...between 9 different ground conditions: New Fallen Snow, 2-Layer Snow, Sugar Snow, Forest Floor, Grass Covered Pasture, Roadside Dirt, Packed Sandy Silt...extrapAtt=interp2(humidity,freq,dbAtten,wantedHumid,wa ntedFreq,’linear ’)’%interpolate to get the actual dB values and invert so it matches

  5. Normal mode solution for low-frequency sound propagation in a downward refracting atmosphere above a complex impedance plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, R; Baird, G; Wu, W

    1992-03-01

    The development of the fast field and parabolic equation solutions to the wave equation has made it possible to solve for the combined effects of refraction in a layered atmosphere and the interaction of sound with a complex impedance ground surface. In many respects the numerical methods have advanced beyond our understanding of the basic phenomena. In an earlier study [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 107-114 (1991)], the residue series solution for upward refraction was investigated and provided insight into the nature of the interaction of refraction and ground reflection. In this paper results are presented of a similar normal mode solution for downward refraction above a complex impedance ground surface. This model is used to investigate when the surface wave is excited for downward refraction conditions and to develop criteria for the maximum range of cylindrical decay as a function of phase and magnitude of the ground impedance and the magnitude of the sound velocity gradient.

  6. Parametric generation of Alfven and sound waves in the solar atmosphere. A homogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fajnshtejn, S.M. (Gor' kovskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    The parametric generation of Alfven and sound waves in a homogeneous plasma layer with constant values of Alfven (Csub(A)) and sound (Csub(S)) velocities is considered. The two cases are studied. In the first case Csub(A) > Csub(S) which one is realized in active regions. The second one Csub(S) > Csub(A) is taken place in the quiet chromosphere. Conditions are found out for excitation of waves at different ratios of magnetic and gas-kinetic pressures. Coefficients of the nonlinear wave scattering in a layer of the solar plasma have been found.

  7. Data processing technique for multiangle lidar sounding of poorly stratified polluted atmospheres: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle E. Wold; Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander P. Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    Scanning elastic lidar, which can operate in different slant directions, is the most appropriate remote sensing tool for investigating the optical properties of smoke-polluted atmospheres. However, the commonly used methodologies of multiangle measurements are based on the assumption of horizontal stratification of the searched atmosphere1,2. When working in real...

  8. Assessments of F16 Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder Antenna Temperatures at Lower Atmospheric Sounding Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banghua Yan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reflector of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F-16 satellite emits variable radiation, and the SSMIS warm calibration load is intruded by direct and indirect solar radiation. These contamination sources produce antenna brightness temperature anomalies of around 2 K at SSMIS sounding channels which are obviously inappropriate for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models and remote sensing retrievals of atmospheric and surface parameters. In this study, antenna brightness temperature anomalies at several lower atmospheric sounding (LAS channels are assessed, and the algorithm is developed for corrections of these antenna temperature anomalies. When compared against radiative transfer model simulations and simultaneous observations from AMSU-A aboard NOAA-16, the SSMIS antenna temperatures at 52.8, 53.6, 54.4, 55.5, 57.3, and 59.4 GHz after the anomaly correction exhibit small residual errors (<0.5 K. After such SSMIS antenna temperatures are applied to the National Center for Environmental Prediction Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model, more satellite data is used and the analysis field of the geopotential height is significantly improved throughout troposphere and lower stratosphere. Therefore, the SSMIS antenna temperatures after the anomaly correction have demonstrated their potentials in NWP models.

  9. Technical Note: Evolution, current capabilities, and future advance in satellite nadir viewing ultra-spectral IR sounding of the lower atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Smith Sr.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Infrared ultra-spectral spectrometers have brought in a new era in satellite remote atmospheric sounding capability. During the 1970s, after the implementation of the first satellite sounding instruments, it became evident that much higher vertical resolution sounding information was needed to be able to forecast life and property threatening localized severe weather. The demonstration of the ultra-spectral radiance measurement technology required to achieve higher vertical resolution began in 1985, with the aircraft flights of the High resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS instrument. The development of satellite instruments designed to have a HIS-like measurement capability was initiated in the late 1980's. Today, after more than a decade of development time, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI are now operating successfully from the Aqua and MetOp polar orbiting satellites. The successful development and ground demonstration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS, during this decade, is now paving the way toward the implementation of the ultra-spectral sounding capability on the international system of geostationary environmental satellites. This note reviews the evolution of the satellite ultra-spectral sounding systems, shows examples of current polar satellite sounding capability, and discusses future advances planned for geostationary orbit.

  10. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changyong; Wu, Suqin; Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Andong; Wang, Qianxin; Zhang, Kefei

    2017-06-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV). In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm) is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models - GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTmN - using different data sources in 2014 - the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  11. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV. In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP. The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models – GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTm_N – using different data sources in 2014 – the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  12. Improved Atmospheric Soundings and Error Estimates from Analysis of AIRS/AMSU Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5.0 retrieval algorithm became operational at the Goddard DAAC in July 2007 generating near real-time products from analysis of AIRS/AMSU sounding data. This algorithm contains many significant theoretical advances over the AIRS Science Team Version 4.0 retrieval algorithm used previously. Three very significant developments of Version 5 are: 1) the development and implementation of an improved Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA) which allows for accurate treatment of non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) effects on shortwave sounding channels; 2) the development of methodology to obtain very accurate case by case product error estimates which are in turn used for quality control; and 3) development of an accurate AIRS only cloud clearing and retrieval system. These theoretical improvements taken together enabled a new methodology to be developed which further improves soundings in partially cloudy conditions, without the need for microwave observations in the cloud clearing step as has been done previously. In this methodology, longwave C02 channel observations in the spectral region 700 cm-' to 750 cm-' are used exclusively for cloud clearing purposes, while shortwave C02 channels in the spectral region 2195 cm-' to 2395 cm-' are used for temperature sounding purposes. The new methodology for improved error estimates and their use in quality control is described briefly and results are shown indicative of their accuracy. Results are also shown of forecast impact experiments assimilating AIRS Version 5.0 retrieval products in the Goddard GEOS 5 Data Assimilation System using different quality control thresholds.

  13. Infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer correlation interferometry for the retrieval of atmospheric gases: the case of H2O and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Giuseppe; Masiello, Guido; Serio, Carmine; Jones, Roderic L; Mead, Mohammed I

    2011-08-01

    Correlation interferometry is a particular application of Fourier transform spectroscopy with partially scanned interferograms. Basically, it is a technique to obtain the difference between the spectra of atmospheric radiance at two diverse spectral resolutions. Although the technique could be exploited to design an appropriate correlation interferometer, in this paper we are concerned with the analytical aspects of the method and its application to high-spectral-resolution infrared observations in order to separate the emission of a given atmospheric gas from a spectral signal dominated by surface emission, such as in the case of satellite spectrometers operated in the nadir looking mode. The tool will be used to address some basic questions concerning the vertical spatial resolution of H2O and to develop an algorithm to retrieve the columnar amount of CO2. An application to complete interferograms from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer will be presented and discussed. For H2O, we have concluded that the vertical spatial resolution in the lower troposphere mostly depends on broad features associated with the spectrum, whereas for CO2, we have derived a technique capable of retrieving a CO2 columnar amount with accuracy of ≈±7 parts per million by volume at the level of each single field of view.

  14. Measurements of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetylene (C2H2) from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflot, V.; Hurtmans, D.; Clarisse, L.; R'honi, Y.; Vigouroux, C.; De Mazière, M.; Mahieu, E.; Servais, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetylene (C2H2) are ubiquitous atmospheric trace gases with medium lifetime, which are frequently used as indicators of combustion sources and as tracers for atmospheric transport and chemistry. Because of their weak infrared absorption, overlapped by the CO2 Q branch near 720 cm-1, nadir sounders have up to now failed to measure these gases routinely. Taking into account CO2 line mixing, we provide for the first time extensive measurements of HCN and C2H2 total columns at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) and Jungfraujoch (46° N, 8° E) in 2009-2010 using observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). A first order comparison with local ground-based Fourier transform infraRed (FTIR) measurements has been carried out allowing tests of seasonal consistency which is reasonably captured, except for HCN at Jungfraujoch. The IASI data shows a greater tendency to high C2H2 values. We also examine a nonspecific biomass burning plume over austral Africa and show that the emission ratios with respect to CO agree with previously reported values.

  15. Measurements of hydrogen cyanide (HCN and acetylene (C2H2 from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duflot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen cyanide (HCN and acetylene (C2H2 are ubiquitous atmospheric trace gases with medium lifetime, which are frequently used as indicators of combustion sources and as tracers for atmospheric transport and chemistry. Because of their weak infrared absorption, overlapped by the CO2 Q branch near 720 cm−1, nadir sounders have up to now failed to measure these gases routinely. Taking into account CO2 line mixing, we provide for the first time extensive measurements of HCN and C2H2 total columns at Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E and Jungfraujoch (46° N, 8° E in 2009–2010 using observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI. A first order comparison with local ground-based Fourier transform infraRed (FTIR measurements has been carried out allowing tests of seasonal consistency which is reasonably captured, except for HCN at Jungfraujoch. The IASI data shows a greater tendency to high C2H2 values. We also examine a nonspecific biomass burning plume over austral Africa and show that the emission ratios with respect to CO agree with previously reported values.

  16. Computation of atmospheric attenuation of sound for fractional-octave bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegani, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Correct methods of accounting for atmospheric attenuation in band data requiring consideration of the integrated effect across the bands of the specific distance involved are discussed. Computer programs are provided that are understandable, efficient, and simple to use. It is hoped that this will facilitate more widespread use of correct computational methods, especially where routine computer processing of data is employed.

  17. Examining Atmospheric and Ecological Drivers of Wildfires, Modeling Wildfire Occurrence in the Southwest United States, and Using Atmospheric Sounding Observations to Verify National Weather Service Spot Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauslar, Nicholas J.

    This dissertation is comprised of three different papers that all pertain to wildland fire applications. The first paper performs a verification analysis on mixing height, transport winds, and Haines Index from National Weather Service spot forecasts across the United States. The final two papers, which are closely related, examine atmospheric and ecological drivers of wildfire for the Southwest Area (SWA) (Arizona, New Mexico, west Texas, and Oklahoma panhandle) to better equip operational fire meteorologists and managers to make informed decisions on wildfire potential in this region. The verification analysis here utilizes NWS spot forecasts of mixing height, transport winds and Haines Index from 2009-2013 issued for a location within 50 km of an upper sounding location and valid for the day of the fire event. Mixing height was calculated from the 0000 UTC sounding via the Stull, Holzworth, and Richardson methods. Transport wind speeds were determined by averaging the wind speed through the boundary layer as determined by the three mixing height methods from the 0000 UTC sounding. Haines Index was calculated at low, mid, and high elevation based on the elevation of the sounding and spot forecast locations. Mixing height forecasts exhibited large mean absolute errors and biased towards over forecasting. Forecasts of transport wind speeds and Haines Index outperformed mixing height forecasts with smaller errors relative to their respective means. The rainfall and lightning associated with the North American Monsoon (NAM) can vary greatly intra- and inter-annually and has a large impact on wildfire activity across the SWA by igniting or suppressing wildfires. NAM onset thresholds and subsequent dates are determined for the SWA and each Predictive Service Area (PSA), which are sub-regions used by operational fire meteorologists to predict wildfire potential within the SWA, April through September from 1995-2013. Various wildfire activity thresholds using the number

  18. Using a fast Fourier method to model sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere over a stratified porous-elastic ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, S.; Attenborough, K.

    1990-01-01

    Using a Fast Fourier integration method and a global matrix method for solution of the boundary condition equations at all interfaces simultaneously, a useful tool for predicting acoustic propagation in a stratified fluid over a stratified porous-elastic solid was developed. The model for the solid is a modified Biot-Stoll model incorporating four parameters describing the pore structure corresponding to the Rayleigh-Attenborough rigid-porous structure model. The method is also compared to another Fast Fourier code (CERL-FFP) which models the ground as an impedance surface under a horizontally stratified air. Agreement with the CERL FFP is good. The effects on sound propagation of a combination of ground elasticity, complex ground structure, and atmospheric conditions are demonstrated by theoretical results over a snow layer, and experimental results over a model ground surface.

  19. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, G [University of Colorado, Boulder/CIRES; Argrow, B [University of Colorado; Bland, G [NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center - Wallops Flight Facility; Elston, J [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lawrence, D [University of Colorado; Maslanik, J [University of Colorado; Palo, S [University of Colorado; Tschudi, M [NCAR

    2015-12-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is becoming increasingly popular for a variety of applications. One way in which these systems can provide revolutionary scientific information is through routine measurement of atmospheric conditions, particularly properties related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation. Improved understanding of these topics at high latitudes, in particular, has become very relevant because of observed decreases in ice and snow in polar regions.

  20. Studies of atmosphere radio-sounding for monitoring of radiation environments around nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarchuk, Kirill; Karelin, Alexander; Tumanov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The nuclear power plants practically do not discharge to the atmosphere any products causing significant radioactive contaminations. However, during the years of the nuclear power industry, some large accidents occurred at the nuclear objects, and that caused enormous environmental contamination. Among the most significant accidents are: thermal explosion of a reservoir with high-level wastes at the Mayak enterprise in the South Ural region, near the town of Kyshtym, in the end of September 1957; accident at the nuclear power plant in Windscale, UK, in October 1957; accident at the Three-Mile Island, USA, in 1979; accident at the Chernobyl power plant in April 1986. In March of 2011, a large earthquake and the following tsunami caused the largest nuclear catastrophe of XXI century, the accident at the Fucushima-1 power plant. The last accident highlighted the need to review seriously the safety issues at the active power plants and to develop the new effective methods for remote detection and control over radioactive environmental contamination and over general geophysical situation in the areas. The main influence of the fission products on the environment is its ionisation, and therefore various detectable biological and physical processes that are caused by ions. Presence of an ionisation source within the area under study may cause significant changes of absolute humidity and, that is especially important, changes of the chemical potential of atmosphere vapours indicating presence of charged condensation centres. These effects may cause anomalies in the IR radiation emitted from the Earth surface and jumps in the chemical potentials of water vapours that may be observed by means of the satellite remote sensing by specialized equipment (works by Dimitar Ouzounov, Sergey Pulinets, e.a.). In the current study, the theoretical description is presented from positions of the molecular-kinetic condensation theory that shows significant changes of the absolute and

  1. EAQUATE: An International Experiment for Hyper-Spectral Atmospheric Sounding Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. P.; Smith, W.; Cuomo, V.; Larar, A.; Zhou, D.; Serio, C.; Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Newman, S.; Antonelli, P.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The international experiment called EAQUATE (European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment) was held in September 2004 in Italy and the United Kingdom to demonstrate certain ground-based and airborne systems useful for validating hyperspectral satellite sounding observations. A range of flights over land and marine surfaces were conducted to coincide with overpasses of the AIRS instrument on the EOS Aqua platform. Direct radiance evaluation of AIRS using NAST-I and SHIS has shown excellent agreement. Comparisons of level 2 retrievals of temperature and water vapor from AIRS and NAST-I validated against high quality lidar and drop sonde data show that the 1K/1km and 10%/1km requirements for temperature and water vapor (respectively) are generally being met. The EAQUATE campaign has proven the need for synergistic measurements from a range of observing systems for satellite cal/val and has paved the way for future cal/val activities in support of IASI on the European Metop platform and CrIS on the US NPP/NPOESS platform.

  2. Development of simplified procedure for computing the absorption of sound by the atmosphere and applicability to aircraft noise certification : proposed SAE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This report presents the results of the study to extend the useful attenuation range of the Approximate Method outlined in the American National Standard, Method for Calculation of the Absorption of Sound by the Atmosphere (ANSI S1.26-1995), an...

  3. Life in Sounds, Colours and Atmospheres: A Case Study on Synaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruismäki Heikki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we focus on the world of colour associations and atmospheres experienced by afamous and successful piano pedagogue. The aim of the study is to open one point of view insidethe phenomenon of synaesthesia through one case which is truly reliable. This case study isbased on personal interviews with the pedagogue (August 16-19, 1999, and April 27, 2010, andthe findings are anchored theoretically in the synaesthetic experience. The article subtitles arethe themes and subjects used in the interviews, and the free association discussions have beenshaped into more structured form. To express the events in a way that is similar to the real lifeexperiences, we have quoted the interviewee directly in our text.

  4. The beat is getting stronger : The effect of atmospheric stability on low frequency modulated sound of wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G P

    2005-01-01

    Sound from wind turbines involves a number of sound production mechanisms related to different interactions between the turbine blades and the air. An important contribution to the low frequency part of the sound spectrum is due to the sudden variation in air flow which the blade encounters when it

  5. A vertical eigenfunction expansion for the propagation of sound in a downward-refracting atmosphere over a complex impedance plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxler, Roger

    2002-12-01

    The propagation of sound in a stratified downward-refracting atmosphere over a complex impedance plane is studied. The problem is solved by separating the wave equation into vertical and horizontal parts. The vertical part has non-self-adjoint boundary conditions, so that the well-known expansion in orthonormal eigenfunctions cannot be used. Instead, a less widely known eigenfunction expansion for non-self-adjoint ordinary differential operators is employed. As in the self-adjoint case, this expansion separates the acoustic field into a ducted part, expressed as a sum over modes which decrease exponentially with height, and an upwardly propagating part, expressed as an integral over modes which are asymptotically (with height) plane waves. The eigenvalues associated with the modes in this eigenfunction expansion are, in general, complex valued. A technique is introduced which expresses the non-self-adjoint problem as a perturbation of a self-adjoint one, allowing one to efficiently find the complex eigenvalues without having to resort to searches in the complex plane. Finally, an application is made to a model for the nighttime boundary layer.

  6. A new Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer channel selection and assessment of its impact on Met Office NWP forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young-Chan; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Kim, Yoonjae; Joo, Sangwon; Bell, William; Saunders, Roger

    2017-11-01

    A new set of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) channels was re-selected from 314 EUMETSAT channels. In selecting channels, we calculated the impact of the individually added channel on the improvement in the analysis outputs from a one-dimensional variational analysis (1D-Var) for the Unified Model (UM) data assimilation system at the Met Office, using the channel score index (CSI) as a figure of merit. Then, 200 channels were selected in order by counting each individual channel's CSI contribution. Compared with the operationally used 183 channels for the UM at the Met Office, the new set shares 149 channels, while the other 51 channels are new. Also examined is the selection from the entropy reduction method with the same 1D-Var approach. Results suggest that channel selection can be made in a more objective fashion using the proposed CSI method. This is because the most important channels can be selected across the whole IASI observation spectrum. In the experimental trial runs using the UM global assimilation system, the new channels had an overall neutral impact in terms of improvement in forecasts, as compared with results from the operational channels. However, upper-tropospheric moist biases shown in the control run with operational channels were significantly reduced in the experimental trial with the newly selected channels. The reduction of moist biases was mainly due to the additional water vapor channels, which are sensitive to the upper-tropospheric water vapor.

  7. Sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere near the ground: an approach based on the spectral representation of refractive-index fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, E M; Ostashev, V E; Clifford, S F; Lataitis, R J

    2001-05-01

    A new, rigorous approach is presented for the computation of the fluctuating field of a monopole source in a nonrefracting, turbulent atmosphere above a ground surface. The time-averaged sound pressure level is considered, as well as statistical distributions of the sound pressure level. The computation is based on the Rytov solution of the wave equation for a turbulent medium, evaluated for the half-space above the ground surface. The solution takes into account the ground reflection of scattered waves, which has been neglected in previous work on this subject. The present approach is based on a Fourier-Stieltjes representation of refractive-index fluctuations, and makes use of a turbulent image atmosphere to account for the ground reflection of scattered waves. This approach is rigorous only for a rigid ground surface, but it is shown that it also yields a good approximation for a finite-impedance ground surface. The accuracy of the solution is demonstrated by comparison with results of numerical computations with the parabolic equation method for a turbulent atmosphere. The assumption of a nonrefracting atmosphere implies that direct application of the solution is limited to propagation over relatively small distances. However, this study can also be considered as a basis for a generalized solution for a downward refracting atmosphere, which can be applied for larger propagation distances.

  8. Determination of enhancement ratios of HCOOH relative to CO in biomass burning plumes by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Matthieu; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois

    2017-09-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) concentrations are often underestimated by models, and its chemistry is highly uncertain. HCOOH is, however, among the most abundant atmospheric volatile organic compounds, and it is potentially responsible for rain acidity in remote areas. HCOOH data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) are analyzed from 2008 to 2014 to estimate enhancement ratios from biomass burning emissions over seven regions. Fire-affected HCOOH and CO total columns are defined by combining total columns from IASI, geographic location of the fires from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the surface wind speed field from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Robust correlations are found between these fire-affected HCOOH and CO total columns over the selected biomass burning regions, allowing the calculation of enhancement ratios equal to 7.30 × 10-3 ± 0.08 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over Amazonia (AMA), 11.10 × 10-3 ± 1.37 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over Australia (AUS), 6.80 × 10-3 ± 0.44 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over India (IND), 5.80 × 10-3 ± 0.15 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over Southeast Asia (SEA), 4.00 × 10-3 ± 0.19 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over northern Africa (NAF), 5.00 × 10-3 ± 0.13 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over southern Africa (SAF), and 4.40 × 10-3 ± 0.09 × 10-3 mol mol-1 over Siberia (SIB), in a fair agreement with previous studies. In comparison with referenced emission ratios, it is also shown that the selected agricultural burning plumes captured by IASI over India and Southeast Asia correspond to recent plumes where the chemistry or the sink does not occur. An additional classification of the enhancement ratios by type of fuel burned is also provided, showing a diverse origin of the plumes sampled by IASI, especially over Amazonia and Siberia. The variability in the enhancement ratios by biome over the different regions show that the levels of HCOOH and CO do not only depend on the fuel types.

  9. An improved fast radiative transfer model for special sensor microwave imager/sounder upper atmosphere sounding channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; van Delst, Paul; Weng, Fuzhong

    2010-08-01

    Special sensor microwave imager/sounder (SSMIS) on board the U. S. Defense Meteorology Satellite Program satellites includes six upper atmosphere sounding (UAS) channels for probing air temperature in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Three of the UAS channels 19-21 are sensitive to the Doppler frequency shift due to Earth's rotation. The sensitivity to the frequency shift in large degree depends on the O2 Zeeman splitting effect, which is a function of the Earth's magnetic field strength and the angle between the Earth's magnetic field and propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave. Since the brightness temperatures can change up to 2 K as a result of the Doppler shift, the fast radiative transfer model developed earlier for the SSMIS UAS channels has recently been improved to take the Doppler shift into account. In the fast model, an averaged transmittance within the channel frequency passbands is parameterized and trained with a line-by-line radiative transfer model that accurately computes the monochromatic transmittances at fine frequency steps within each passband. The model is evaluated by comparing it with the line-by-line model in an independent experiment. The root mean square differences between the two models are 0.21, 0.39, 0.34, and 0.19 K for channels 19-22, respectively. Using the model, the sensitivities of the radiances to the Doppler shift are analyzed through simulations. A theoretical explanation is given for the dependence of the sensitivities on the Zeeman splitting effect. Results from the analysis are then compared to the observations and a good agreement is achieved.

  10. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from UNKNOWN and STIRNI in the Long Island Sound from 1952-01-21 to 1971-06-06 (NCEI Accession 9000041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains two files of salinity/temperature/oxygen data from Long Island Sound data submitted by J.C. Ayers from Cornell University and Davids Island...

  11. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from UNKNOWN in the New York Bight and Long Island Sound from 1972-08-01 to 1973-09-20 (NODC Accession 9000039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession consists of nutrient data from Long Island Sound provided by Mr. Robert N. Reid from NOAA/NMFS Sandy Hook Laboratory. The data were collected from...

  12. Determination of enhancement ratios of HCOOH relative to CO in biomass burning plumes by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pommier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Formic acid (HCOOH concentrations are often underestimated by models, and its chemistry is highly uncertain. HCOOH is, however, among the most abundant atmospheric volatile organic compounds, and it is potentially responsible for rain acidity in remote areas. HCOOH data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI are analyzed from 2008 to 2014 to estimate enhancement ratios from biomass burning emissions over seven regions. Fire-affected HCOOH and CO total columns are defined by combining total columns from IASI, geographic location of the fires from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, and the surface wind speed field from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Robust correlations are found between these fire-affected HCOOH and CO total columns over the selected biomass burning regions, allowing the calculation of enhancement ratios equal to 7.30  ×  10−3 ± 0.08  ×  10−3 mol mol−1 over Amazonia (AMA, 11.10  ×  10−3 ± 1.37  ×  10−3 mol mol−1 over Australia (AUS, 6.80  ×  10−3 ± 0.44  ×  10−3 mol mol−1 over India (IND, 5.80  ×  10−3 ± 0.15  ×  10−3 mol mol−1 over Southeast Asia (SEA, 4.00  ×  10−3 ± 0.19  ×  10−3 mol mol−1 over northern Africa (NAF, 5.00  ×  10−3 ± 0.13  ×  10−3 mol mol−1 over southern Africa (SAF, and 4.40  ×  10−3 ± 0.09  ×  10−3 mol mol−1 over Siberia (SIB, in a fair agreement with previous studies. In comparison with referenced emission ratios, it is also shown that the selected agricultural burning plumes captured by IASI over India and Southeast Asia correspond to recent plumes where the chemistry or the sink does not occur. An additional classification of the enhancement ratios by type of fuel burned is also provided, showing a diverse

  13. Evaluation of atmospheric correction procedures for ocean color data processing using hyper- and multi-spectral radiometric measurements from the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S.; Gilerson, A.; Harmel, T.; Hlaing, S.; Tonizzo, A.; Weidemann, A.; Arnone, R.

    2012-06-01

    In Ocean Color (OC) data processing one of the most critical steps is the atmospheric correction procedure used to separate the water leaving radiance, which contains information on water constituents, from the total radiance measured by space borne sensors, which contains atmospheric contributions. To ensure reliability of retrieved water leaving radiance values, and OC information derived from them, the quality of the atmospheric correction procedures applied needs to be assessed and validated. In this regard, the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO), jointly established by the City College of New York and the Naval Research Laboratory is becoming one of the key elements for OC sensors validation efforts, in part because of its capabilities for co-located hyper and multi-spectral measurements using HyperSAS and SeaPRISM radiometers respectively, with the latter being part of the NASA AERONET - OC network. Accordingly, the impact of the procedures used for atmospheric correction on the retrieval of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) data can then be evaluated based on satellite OC data acquired from the LISCO site over the last two years. From this, the qualities of atmospheric correction procedures are assessed by performing matchup comparisons between the satellites retrieved atmospheric data and that of LISCO.

  14. Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study Of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Simonich, D.A. Jaffe, L.H. Geiser , D.H. Campbell, A.R. Schwindt, C.B. Schreck, M.L. Kent, W.D. Hafner, H.E. Taylor, K.J. Hageman, S...Organic Geochemistry. F-60 2008-09 Atmospheric Deposition Data Report 53 Landers, D.H., S.L. Simonich, D.A. Jaffe, L.H. Geiser , D.H. Campbell

  15. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...

  16. Possibility to sound the atmospheric ozone by a radiosonde equipped with two temperature sensors, sensitive and non-sensitive to the long wave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, T.; Sumi, T.

    1994-01-01

    The sensitiveness of white coated thermistor sensors and non-sensitiveness of the gold coated over white thermistor sensors (which have been manufactured by a vacuum evaporation process) to long wave radiation were ascertained by some simple experiments in-room and also by analyses of some results of experimental soundings. From results of analyses on the temperature discrepancies caused by long wave radiation, the possibility to sound the atmospheric ozone partial pressure by a radiosonde equipped with two kinds of sensors, sensitive and non-sensitive to the long wave radiation was suggested, and the test results of the newly developed software for the deduction of ozone partial pressure in upper layers was also shown. However, it was found that the following is the necessary condition to realize the purpose. The sounding should be made by a radiosonde equipped with three sensors, instead of two, one being non-sensitive to the long wave radiation perfectly, and the other two also non-sensitive partially to the downward one, with two different angles of exposure upward. It is essential for the realization of the purpose to get two different values of temperature discrepancies simultaneously observed by the three sensors mentioned above and to avoid the troublesome effects of the upward long wave radiation.

  17. Acoustical effects of a large ridge on low-frequency sound propagation in stationary and moving atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. S.; Jacobson, M. J.; Siegmann, W. L.; Santandrea, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a ridge on a low-frequency acoustic propagation in quiescent and windy atmospheres are investigated using a parabolic approximation. A logarithmic wind-speed profile, commonly employed to model atmospheric wind currents, is modified and used to model two-dimensional atmospheric flow over a triangularly-shaped hill. The parabolic equation is solved using an implicit finite-difference algorithm. Several examples are examined to determine the combined effects of source-ridge distance, ridge dimensions, wind-speed profile, and CW source frequency on the received acoustic field.

  18. Assessments of F16 Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder Antenna Temperatures at Lower Atmospheric Sounding Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Banghua Yan; Fuzhong Weng

    2009-01-01

    The main reflector of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-16 satellite emits variable radiation, and the SSMIS warm calibration load is intruded by direct and indirect solar radiation. These contamination sources produce antenna brightness temperature anomalies of around 2 K at SSMIS sounding channels which are obviously inappropriate for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models and remote sensing retrie...

  19. NOAA Climate Data Record of Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Mean Atmospheric Layer Temperature, Version 1.2 (Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  20. Searching Sound with Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Martin; Chapman, A.

    2010-01-01

    A sound installation developed to accompany Anna Chapman's sound installtion "Subjects for Melancholy Retrospection" that was presented t the Edinburgh Art Festrival in August 2010 at the National Trust for Scotland's Newhailes estate.

  1. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Algorithm for Infrasound Atmospheric Sounding: Application to the Humming Roadrunner experiment in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, Jean-Marie; Waxler, Roger; Velea, Doru

    2016-04-01

    As infrasonic waves propagate at long ranges through atmospheric ducts it has been suggested that observations of such waves can be used as a remote sensing techniques in order to update properties such as temperature and wind speed. In this study we investigate a new inverse approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. This approach as the advantage of searching for the full Probability Density Function in the parameter space at a lower computational cost than extensive parameters search performed by the standard Monte Carlo approach. We apply this inverse methods to observations from the Humming Roadrunner experiment (New Mexico) and discuss implications for atmospheric updates, explosion characterization, localization and yield estimation.

  2. MISTiC Winds, a Micro-Satellite Constellation Approach to High Resolution Observations of the Atmosphere using Infrared Sounding and 3D Winds Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Susskind, J.; Aumann, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    MISTiCTM Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sun-synchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  3. A hot companion to Mu Sagittarii - An opportunity to sound the atmosphere of a B8 Ia supergiant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidan, R. S.; Plavec, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that the bright supergiant star Mu Sagittarii is accompanied by a smaller and hotter star, of spectral type approximately B1.5 V. The single-line radial-velocity curve of the B8 star leads to a fairly large mass function, f(m) = 2.64 solar masses, implying that the companion should have at least 50 percent of the mass of the visible star. Older optical observations indicated the presence of a shallow eclipse at the time of the conjunction with the supergiant behind the companion. Since the Copernicus, IUE, and Voyager observations show that the companion is the hotter component, that eclipse must have been the secondary eclipse (if it was an eclipse at all). A deeper, primary eclipse has been predicted by Plavec in 1978. It was indeed observed as a marked decrease of the far-ultraviolet flux from the system both with the Copernicus and the IUE satellites. The presence of a hotter but smaller component in Mu Sagittarii offers a unique opportunity to study the outer atmospheric layers of a supergiant which is of a much earlier spectral type than the supergiants in the Zeta Aurigae systems.

  4. Interpolated Sounding and Gridded Sounding Value-Added Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toto, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Standard Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sounding files provide atmospheric state data in one dimension of increasing time and height per sonde launch. Many applications require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE (i.e., Interpolated Sounding) Value-Added Product (VAP) transforms sounding data into continuous daily files on a fixed time-height grid, at 1-minute time resolution, on 332 levels, from the surface up to a limit of approximately 40 km. The grid extends that high so the full height of soundings can be captured; however, most soundings terminate at an altitude between 25 and 30 km, above which no data is provided. Between soundings, the VAP linearly interpolates atmospheric state variables in time for each height level. In addition, INTERPOLATEDSONDE provides relative humidity scaled to microwave radiometer (MWR) observations.

  5. Mistic winds, a microsatellite constellation approach to high-resolution observations of the atmosphere using infrared sounding and 3d winds measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2016-10-01

    MISTiC Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  6. MISTiC Winds: A micro-satellite constellation approach to high resolution observations of the atmosphere using infrared sounding and 3D winds measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2016-09-01

    MISTiCTM Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  7. MISTiC Winds, a Micro-Satellite Constellation Approach to High Resolution Observations of the Atmosphere Using Infrared Sounding and 3D Winds Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.

    2016-01-01

    MISTiC(TM) Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiCs extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenasat much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  8. Atmospheric Physics and Sound Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-09-01

    eligc»" troacouötic reciprocity theorem holds are diacussod ax^ ajqje^mental evidence is presented to shew that the experi^nlau! arrangement uged...ployed the electroäcoustic reciprocity theorem in. the manner given | by Maclean?:* The reciprocity method has been .successfully applied . | in...132* ’ ~" ’ U. E. Fubini =Ghiron, Alta. Ereq. h, 530 (1935)5 Eer* ~D’ässaatw 6, 118 (1937). o*** _i. -. ^ — •=, . jäS» *k9- . Vŕ"-!1

  9. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  10. Interpolated Sounding and Gridded Sounding Value-Added Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toto, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jensen, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Standard Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sounding files provide atmospheric state data in one dimension of increasing time and height per sonde launch. Many applications require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE (i.e., Interpolated Sounding) Value-Added Product (VAP) transforms sounding data into continuous daily files on a fixed time-height grid, at 1-minute time resolution, on 332 levels, from the surface up to a limit of approximately 40 km. The grid extends that high so the full height of soundings can be captured; however, most soundings terminate at an altitude between 25 and 30 km, above which no data is provided. Between soundings, the VAP linearly interpolates atmospheric state variables in time for each height level. In addition, INTERPOLATEDSONDE provides relative humidity scaled to microwave radiometer (MWR) observations.The INTERPOLATEDSONDE VAP, a continuous time-height grid of relative humidity-corrected sounding data, is intended to provide input to higher-order products, such as the Merged Soundings (MERGESONDE; Troyan 2012) VAP, which extends INTERPOLATEDSONDE by incorporating model data. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE VAP also is used to correct gaseous attenuation of radar reflectivity in products such as the KAZRCOR VAP.

  11. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  12. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  13. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; Conley, Benjamin; Hogan, Roy; Boslough, Mark; Gonzales, Gigi; Spurný, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with -11 to -13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that -12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs.

  14. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  15. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  16. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  17. Interannual Variability of Dust and Ice in the Mars Atmosphere: Comparison of MRO Mars Climate Sounder Retrievals with MGS-TES Limb Sounding Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, J. H.; McConnochie, T. H.; Kleinbohl, A.; Schofield, J. T.; Kass, D.; Heavens, N. G.; Benson, J.; McCleese, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Dust and ice play important roles in Martian atmospheric dynamics on all time scales. Dust loading in particular exerts an important control on atmospheric temperatures and thereby on the strength of the atmospheric circulation in any given year. We present the first comparisons of MGS-TES aerosol opacity profiles with MRO-MCS aerosol opacity profiles. While the differences in vertical resolution are significant (a factor of 2), we find good agreement at particular seasons between nightside zonal average dust opacity profiles from the two instruments. Derived water ice opacities are likewise similar but show greater variability.

  18. 2-m Bathymetric ArcRaster Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11250 of Eastern Long Island Sound (H11250U, UTM, Zone 18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  19. 2-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11996 in Rhode Island Sound (H11996_2M_GEO, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  20. Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12012 Offshore in Northeastern Long Island Sound (Geographic, WGS84, H12012_INTERP.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  1. Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12023 in Block Island Sound (H12023_INTERP shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  2. Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11997 Offshore in Eastern Long Island Sound (H11997_INTERP.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  3. H11321_GEO45M: 45-m Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11321 in Central Rhode Island Sound (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial...

  4. Interpretation of Sea Floor Features of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) H11320 Sidescan Sonar and Bathymetric Data from Rhode Island Sound (H11320INTERP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial geology in...

  5. Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11996 in Rhode Island Sound (H11996_INTERP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  6. Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12298 in Block Island Sound (Geographic, WGS 84, H12298INTERP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  7. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  8. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  9. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  10. Errors in Sounding of the Atmosphere Using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) Kinetic Temperature Caused by Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Comas, Maya; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Bermejo-Pantaleon, D.; Marshall, Benjamin T.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Gordley, L. L.; Russell, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The vast set of near global and continuous atmospheric measurements made by the SABER instrument since 2002, including daytime and nighttime kinetic temperature (T(sub k)) from 20 to 105 km, is available to the scientific community. The temperature is retrieved from SABER measurements of the atmospheric 15 micron CO2 limb emission. This emission separates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions in the rarefied mesosphere and thermosphere, making it necessary to consider the CO2 vibrational state non-LTE populations in the retrieval algorithm above 70 km. Those populations depend on kinetic parameters describing the rate at which energy exchange between atmospheric molecules take place, but some of these collisional rates are not well known. We consider current uncertainties in the rates of quenching of CO2 (v2 ) by N2 , O2 and O, and the CO2 (v2 ) vibrational-vibrational exchange to estimate their impact on SABER T(sub k) for different atmospheric conditions. The T(sub k) is more sensitive to the uncertainty in the latter two and their effects depend on altitude. The T(sub k) combined systematic error due to non-LTE kinetic parameters does not exceed +/- 1.5 K below 95 km and +/- 4-5 K at 100 km for most latitudes and seasons (except for polar summer) if the Tk profile does not have pronounced vertical structure. The error is +/- 3 K at 80 km, +/- 6 K at 84 km and +/- 18 K at 100 km under the less favourable polar summer conditions. For strong temperature inversion layers, the errors reach +/- 3 K at 82 km and +/- 8 K at 90 km. This particularly affects tide amplitude estimates, with errors of up to +/- 3 K.

  11. Data for NASA's AVE 3 experiment: 25-mb sounding data and synoptic charts. [investigation of atmospheric parameters detected from satellite data under conditions of heavy snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The atmospheric variability experiment (AVE 3) is described and tabulated rawinsonde data at 25-mb intervals from the surface to 25 mb for the 41 stations is presented. The experiment was conducted between February 6 and February 7, 1975. Brief discussions are given on methods of data processing, changes in the reduction scheme since the AVE 2 pilot experiment, and data accuracy. An example of contact data is presented as well as synoptic charts prepared from the data.

  12. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  13. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  14. Sound settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  15. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  16. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. Second Sound - Waves of Entropy and Temperature. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp 16-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/03/0016-0024 ...

  17. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... essential dynamic parameters when designing atmospheres. This research is based on the development of the novel research artefact Kidkit, designed for children, who are going to meet a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries in a Neuro–Intensive Care Unit. Sounds from hospital equipment have important...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...

  18. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a microwave atmospheric sounder developed by JPL under the NASA...

  19. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  20. Benchmark cases for outdoor sound propagation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attenborough, K.; Taherzadeh, S.; Bass, H.E.; Di, X.; Raspet, R.; Becker, G.R.; Gdesen, A.; Chrestman, A.; Daigle, G.A.; Esp‚rance, A. L; Gabillet, Y.; Gilbert, K.E.; Li, Y.L.; White, J.; Naz, P.; Noble, J.M.; Hoof, H.A.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The computational tools available for prediction of sound propagation through the atmosphere have increased dramatically during the past decade. The numerical techniques include analytical solutions for selected index of refraction profiles, ray trace techniques which include interaction with a

  1. AFSC/ABL: Salisbury Sound sponge recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1995, an area of the seafloor near Salisbury Sound was trawled to identify immediate effects on large, erect sponges and sea whips. Video transects were made in...

  2. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  3. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  4. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  5. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  6. Unidentified Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    , contextualised and conceptualised in an era of transmission. Observing that urban sounds until late 1930es are rarely heard in Danish radio compared to German and English broadcasting, I argue that an urban and auditory aesthetics incorporating noise, heterogeneity and unpredictability did not really develop......This article investigates how urban spaces and its noises are approached by radio reporters in the first decades of public radio production in Denmark. Focussing on the period before reel tape was incorporated in production by late 1940es, I ask how urban space and urban sounds are heard...... in Danish radio until early post-war years. Yet I trace early attempts at managing noisy urban conditions and demonstrate how reporters experimented with available technological repositories and developed techniques in order to make sense in and through urban environments. Inspired by Michel Serres idea...

  7. Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyan, D [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-04-01

    The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.

  8. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  9. Enviromental contaminants in Puget Sound fish - Histological Preparation and Chemical Analyses of Puget Sound Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...

  10. Puget Sound Intertidal Habitat Inventory; Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program, 1996 (NODC Accession 9900221)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound's intertidal areas provide habitat for species of commercial, recreational, biotic, and aesthetic value. Habitat is a critical ecosystem component -- it...

  11. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  12. A Method for Extrapolation of Atmospheric Soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Extrap . WRF New Extrap . Old Surface 1470 1570 1670 1770...1870 1970 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 H e ig h t (m M SL ) Wind Speed (knot) Radiosonde WRF Old Extrap . WRF New Extrap . Old Surface 18 cases where...km WRF Old Extrap . WRF 3-km New Extrap . Old Surface 820 870 920 970 1020 1070 1120 1170 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 H e ig h t (m M SL )

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYPSOMETER FOR ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The summarized program resulted in the development of a miniature hypsometer for rocket-borne dropsonde application. The developed unit met or...the sensor’s design and development, the laboratory performance tests, the actual rocket flight tests, and the development of a pressure calibration stand are discussed. (Author)

  14. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  15. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Erik M; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i) reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii) reduction of the lattice spacing.

  16. New perspectives on mechanisms of sound generation in songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goller, Franz; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2002-01-01

    The physical mechanisms of sound generation in the vocal organ, the syrinx, of songbirds have been investigated mostly with indirect methods. Recent direct endoscopic observation identified vibrations of the labia as the principal sound source. This model suggests sound generation in a pulse-tone...... atmosphere) as well as direct (labial vibration during tonal sound) measurements of syringeal vibrations support a vibration-based soundgenerating mechanism even for tonal sounds.......The physical mechanisms of sound generation in the vocal organ, the syrinx, of songbirds have been investigated mostly with indirect methods. Recent direct endoscopic observation identified vibrations of the labia as the principal sound source. This model suggests sound generation in a pulse......-tone mechanism similar to human phonation with the labia forming a pneumatic valve. The classical avian model proposed that vibrations of the thin medial tympaniform membranes are the primary sound generating mechanism. As a direct test of these two hypotheses we ablated the medial tympaniform membranes in two...

  17. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim of the res......The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...

  18. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  19. Calculating Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  20. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  1. Multichannel Sound Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkki, Ville

    Spatial reproduction of sound is a field in which the spatial attributes of a real recording room or a virtual space are reproduced to the listener. Spatial attributes include for example directions of sound sources, directions of reflections and envelopment by reverberation. Many such systems employ more than two loudspeakers to create virtual sources. This is called multichannel sound or spatial sound reproduction.

  2. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  3. The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo

    The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...... of the ground in a homogeneous atmosphere. Propagation of sound above a mixed impedance ground and up-slope sound propagation is investigated. In the third application the influence of the atmosphere is studied, characterized and implemented in the CNPE-model. The refraction of the sound due to the wind...

  4. Profile temperature, salinity, and hydrostatic pressure from CTD casts in McMurdo Sound from 2011-11-26 to 2011-12-03 (NCEI Accession 0131073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Full-depth CTD profiles taken on along-sound and cross-sound transects of McMurdo Sound. Eleven stations with six independent sites were visited.

  5. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  6. Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring Data for Puget Sound - SoundToxins: Partnership for Enhanced Monitoring and Emergency Response to Harmful Algal Blooms in Puget Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Toxic outbreaks of species of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium have become pervasive in the Puget Sound region over the last two decades, escalating the threats to...

  7. Synthesized size-sound sound symbolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Hagoort, P.; Dingemanse, M.; Papafragou, A.; Grodner, D.; Mirman, D.; Trueswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of sound symbolism have shown that people can associate sound and meaning in consistent ways when presented with maximally contrastive stimulus pairs of nonwords such as bouba/kiki (rounded/sharp) or mil/mal (small/big). Recent work has shown the effect extends to antonymic words from

  8. AVE-SESAME 1: 25-MB sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, M. L.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Williams, S. F.; Turner, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seven atmospheric variability experiments (AVE), two atmospheric variability and severe storms experiments (AVSSE), and six atmospheric variability experiment-severe environmental storm and mesoscale experiments (AVE-SESAME) conducted by NASA are discussed. The dates, observation times, and data reports for each of the experiments for which data was processed are listed. The AVE experiments were conducted primarily to study atmospheric variability with emphasis on spatial and temporal in atmospheric structure that can be detected from soundings taken at 3 hr intervals but not seen in soundings taken at 12 hr intervals. The AVSSE experiments were conducted to study atmospheric structure and variability associated with severe storms combining both rawinsonde and aircraft data to provide information on near storm environments. The method of processing is discussed, estimates of the rms errors in the data are presented, an example of contact data is given, and soundings are listed which exhibited abnormal characteristics.

  9. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  10. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  11. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  12. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  13. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Bird Nests)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  14. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  15. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Prescott: Norton Sound Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled approximately 230,000 National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 39 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted...

  16. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  17. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Prescott: Norton Sound Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled approximately 230,000 National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 39 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted...

  18. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  19. Halifax Sound Range Trials (DE0301, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiated sound measurements of vessels are important for monitoring the noise characteristics of fishing and research vessels. A vessel's radiated noise can have...

  20. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  1. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Prescott: Norton Sound Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled approximately 230,000 National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 39 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted...

  2. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  3. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Prescott: Norton Sound Shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled approximately 230,000 National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings from 39 lead-line and single-beam echosounder hydrographic surveys conducted...

  4. NAMMA HIGH ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset consists of data collected by HAMSR, which is a 25-channel microwave atmospheric sounder operating...

  5. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  6. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  7. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  8. Form Follows Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Caramiaux, Baptiste; Altavilla, Alessandro; Pobiner, Scott G.; Tanaka, Atau

    2015-01-01

    Sonic interaction is the continuous relationship between user actions and sound, mediated by some technology. Because interaction with sound may be task oriented or experience-based it is important to understand the nature of action-sound relationships in order to design rich sonic interactions. We propose a participatory approach to sonic interaction design that first considers the affordances of sounds in order to imagine embodied interaction, and based on this, generates interaction models...

  9. Underwater Sound Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutger van Aalst; Ines Simic

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a possible solution to the underwater sound filtering problem, using Blind Source Separation. The problem regards splitting sound from a boat engine and the water waves to prove the possibility to extract one sound fragment from the other on the open sea. The illustrations shown

  10. March 1964 Prince William Sound, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Prince William Sound magnitude 9.2 Mw earthquake on March 28, 1964 at 03:36 GMT (March 27 at 5:36 pm local time), was the largest U.S. earthquake ever recorded...

  11. 2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Unclassified Topographic LiDAR: Puget Sound Lowlands Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 730 square miles and covers the...

  12. Sound art and the annihilation of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Shaun

    This thesis describes the way in which sound is taken up and subsequently suppressed within the visual arts. The idealisation and development of sound as a plastic material is able to be traced within the modernist trajectory, which, reflecting a set of cultural practices and having developed its own specific terminologies, comes to regard any material, or anything conceived of as material, as appropriate and adequate to the expression of its distinctive and guiding concepts and metaphors. These concepts and metaphors are discussed as already having at their bases strongly visualist biases, the genealogies of which are traced within traditional or formal philosophies. Here, the marginalising tendency of ocularcentrism is exposed, but the very nature and contingency of marginalisation is found to work for the sound artist (where the perpetuation of the mythologised 'outsider' figure is desired) but against sound which is positioned in a purely differential and negative relation. In this epistemological and ontological reduction, sound becomes simply a visual metaphor or metonymic contraction which forecloses the possibility of producing other ways of articulating its experience or of producing any markedly alternative 'readings'. Rather than simply attempting to reverse the hierarchisation of the visual over the aural, or of prefacing sound within a range of artistic practices (each which would keep the negative tradition going) sound's ambiguous relation to the binarism of presence/absence, system and margin, is, however oddly, elaborated. The strategy which attempts to suspend sound primarily within and under the mark of the concept is interrogated and its limits exposed. The sound artist, the 'margin surfer' is revealed as a perhaps deeply conservative figure who may in the end desire the suppression of sound, and who, actually rejecting any destabilising and threatening notion of 'radical alterity' anxiously clings to the 'marginalised' modernist pretence. It is

  13. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering.......The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...

  14. Priming Gestures with Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge.

  15. GHRSST Level 2P Global skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the Metop-A satellite (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P Global skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the Metop-B satellite (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in real-time...

  17. 2-m Bathymetric ArcRaster Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11361 from Eastern Long Island Sound (H11361U_2M, UTM Zone 18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  18. Composite 2-m ASCII Bathymetric grid from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11252 and h11361 of the Sea Floor in Eastern Long Island Sound (SMR_COMP_2MUTM_XYZ.TXT, UTM Zone18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  19. 1-meter composite digital sidescan sonar mosaic of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) survey H11043 in north-central Long Island Sound off Branford, Connecticut (H11043_GEO_WGS84.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  20. 1-m Stretched Sidescan-Sonar Image of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11322 in Western Rhode Island Sound (H11322_1M_SSS_UTM_STR.TIF, UTM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial...

  1. 2-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12012 Offshore in Northeastern Long Island Sound (UTM Zone 18, NAD83, H12012_2M_UTM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  2. Interpretation of Sedimentary Environments Within the Area of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12013 Offshore in Northeastern Long Island Sound (Geographic, WGS84, H12012_SEDENV.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  3. Esri Binary 2-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12298 in Block Island Sound (UTM Zone 19, NAD 83, H12298_2M_UTM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  4. ESRI Binary 2-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11999 in Long Island Sound, North of Duck Pond Point, New York (H11999_2M_UTM, UTM Zone 18, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  5. Combined 2-m and Interpolated 10-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12013 Off the Entrance to the Connecticut River in Northeastern Long Island Sound (H12013_INTGEO, Geographic, WGS-84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  6. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11995 in Rhode Island Sound (H11995_MB2M_GEO.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  7. Esri Binary 2-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12023 in Block Island Sound (H12023_2M_GEO, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  8. 1-m Stretched Sidescan Sonar Image of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11321 in Central Rhode Island Sound (H11321_1M_SSS_UTM_STR.TIF, UTM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial...

  9. H11321_1M_SSS_GEO_STR.TIF: Stretched Sidescan-Sonar Image of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11321 in Central Rhode Island Sound (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial...

  10. Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12013 Off the Entrance to the Connecticut River in Eastern Long Island Sound (H12013_INTERP.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  11. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from FIXED STATIONS and MULTIPLE SHIPS in the Kattegat, The Sound, Great Belt, Little Belt from 1972-01-01 to 1972-12-31 (NCEI Accession 7800305)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains oceanographical observations from Danish light vessels and coastal stations for the year 1972. This publication was issued by the Danske...

  12. Composite sidescan sonar mosaic of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) survey H11044 in West-Central Long Island Sound off Milford, Connecticut (H11044_GEO_WGS84.TIF, geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection,...

  13. Color Hill-Shaded GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11250 in Eastern Long Island Sound (H11250_GEO_2MMBES.TIF, Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  14. 2-m ASCII Bathymetric Grid from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11361 of the Sea Floor in Eastern Long Island Sound (H11361_2MUTM18_XYZ.TXT, UTM Zone18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  15. 1-meter Composite Mosaic of the Sidescan Sonar Survey National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) H11045 in west-central Long Island Sound off Bridgeport, Connecticut in Geographic (H11045_GEO1M_WGS84_INV.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  16. Composite 2-m Bathymetric ArcRaster Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11252 and H11361 from Eastern Long Island Sound (COMP2M_UTM, UTM Zone 18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  17. 2-m Bathymetric ArcRaster Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11252 from Eastern Long Island Sound (H11252U_2M, UTM Zone 18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  18. Interpretation of Sedimentary Environments from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12007 in the Vicinity of Cross Rip Channel in Nantucket Sound, Offshore Southeastern Massachusetts (H12007_SEDENV.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  19. 1-m Bathymetric Grid Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12007 in the Vicinity of Cross Rip Channel, Nantucket Sound (H12007_UTM, UTM Zone 19, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  20. H11320_1M_SSS_GEO_EN.TIF: Enhanced Composite Sidescan Sonar Mosaic of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11320 in Rhode Island Sound (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial geology in...

  1. ESRI Binary 2-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11995 in Rhode Island Sound (H11995_2M_UTM, UTM Xone 19, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  2. Esri Binary 2-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12296 in Block Island Sound (H12296_2M_UTM, UTM Zone 19, NAD 83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  3. COMP2M_GEO: Composite 2-m Bathymetric ArcRaster Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11252 and H11361 from Eastern Long Island Sound (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  4. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  5. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  6. The sound of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglia, Cristina D; Maglio, Sam J; Krehm, Madelaine; Seok, Jin H; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-07-01

    Human languages may be more than completely arbitrary symbolic systems. A growing literature supports sound symbolism, or the existence of consistent, intuitive relationships between speech sounds and specific concepts. Prior work establishes that these sound-to-meaning mappings can shape language-related judgments and decisions, but do their effects generalize beyond merely the linguistic and truly color how we navigate our environment? We examine this possibility, relating a predominant sound symbolic distinction (vowel frontness) to a novel associate (spatial proximity) in five studies. We show that changing one vowel in a label can influence estimations of distance, impacting judgment, perception, and action. The results (1) provide the first experimental support for a relationship between vowels and spatial distance and (2) demonstrate that sound-to-meaning mappings have outcomes that extend beyond just language and can - through a single sound - influence how we perceive and behave toward objects in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  8. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  9. Orcas in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Washington. Mumford, T.F. 2007. Kelp and Eelgrass in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-05. Published by Seattle District, U.S...2006). Wild Chinook populations continue to decline due to dam con- struction, overall habitat loss , loss of prey and historical over-fishing...Sanford (2006) pointed out that current mean weight of adult Chinook salmon returning to their spawn- ing grounds in Puget Sound is only 56 percent of

  10. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 13: Ground-based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, R. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Topics of activities in the middle Atmosphere program covered include: lidar systems of aerosol studies; mesosphere temperature; upper atmosphere temperatures and winds; D region electron densities; nitrogen oxides; atmospheric composition and structure; and optical sounding of ozone.

  11. A coherent line source in a turbulent atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The sound field of a coherent line source in a nonrefracting, turbulent atmosphere is studied. An expression for the sound pressure level in the frequency domain is developed, based on a discretization of the line source into a set of point sources. Atmospheric turbulence is taken into account by

  12. Notes on Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Jones

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bonnie Jones creates improvised and composed text-sound performances that explore the fluidity and function of electronic noise (field recordings, circuit bending and text (poetry, found, spoken. She is interested in how people perceive, “read” and interact with these sounds and texts given our current technological moment.

  13. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  14. Shadow of sound

    OpenAIRE

    Prvacki, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Shadow of sound is a musical flip book, an attempt to move sound through pages and to measure music visually. Prvacki demonstrates that 40 seconds of Bach's Minuet in G Major fit on 150 pages.".

  15. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  16. The sounds of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norah; Deane, Cormac; Murphy, Padraig

    2017-07-01

    Public perceptions of nanotechnology are shaped by sound in surprising ways. Our analysis of the audiovisual techniques employed by nanotechnology stakeholders shows that well-chosen sounds can help to win public trust, create value and convey the weird reality of objects on the nanoscale.

  17. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  18. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  19. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  20. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  1. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories...... of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel....... The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  2. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form.......Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...

  3. Categorization of environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastavino, Catherine

    2007-03-01

    This paper investigates the way in which people categorize environmental sounds in their everyday lives. Previous research has shown that isolated environmental sounds are categorized on the basis of high-level semantic features when the sounds can be attributed to specific sound sources. However, in the presence of numerous sound sources, as occur in most real-world situations, the process of source identification is often hindered. In the present study, a free categorization task with open-ended verbal descriptions was used to investigate auditory categories for environmental sounds in complex real-world sonic environments. Two main categories emerged from the free-sort, reflecting the absence or presence of human activity in relation to hedonic judgments. At a subordinate level, subcategories were mediated by the participant's reported interactions with the environment through socialized activities. The spontaneous verbal descriptors collected were successful in discriminating categories. These findings indicate that complex environmental sounds are processed and categorized as meaningful events providing relevant information about the environment. The relevance of situational factors in categorization and the notion of auditory category in its relation to linguistic labeling are then discussed.

  4. Sound as artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jeffrey L.

    A distinguishing feature of the discipline of archaeology is its reliance upon sensory dependant investigation. As perceived by all of the senses, the felt environment is a unique area of archaeological knowledge. It is generally accepted that the emergence of industrial processes in the recent past has been accompanied by unprecedented sonic extremes. The work of environmental historians has provided ample evidence that the introduction of much of this unwanted sound, or "noise" was an area of contestation. More recent research in the history of sound has called for more nuanced distinctions than the noisy/quiet dichotomy. Acoustic archaeology tends to focus upon a reconstruction of sound producing instruments and spaces with a primary goal of ascertaining intentionality. Most archaeoacoustic research is focused on learning more about the sonic world of people within prehistoric timeframes while some research has been done on historic sites. In this thesis, by way of a meditation on industrial sound and the physical remains of the Quincy Mining Company blacksmith shop (Hancock, MI) in particular, I argue for an acceptance and inclusion of sound as artifact in and of itself. I am introducing the concept of an individual sound-form, or sonifact , as a reproducible, repeatable, representable physical entity, created by tangible, perhaps even visible, host-artifacts. A sonifact is a sound that endures through time, with negligible variability. Through the piecing together of historical and archaeological evidence, in this thesis I present a plausible sonifactual assemblage at the blacksmith shop in April 1916 as it may have been experienced by an individual traversing the vicinity on foot: an 'historic soundwalk.' The sensory apprehension of abandoned industrial sites is multi-faceted. In this thesis I hope to make the case for an acceptance of sound as a primary heritage value when thinking about the industrial past, and also for an increased awareness and acceptance

  5. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    As an acoustic signal travels from the source to a receiver, it is affected by a variety of physical processes, all dictated by properties of the signal and the environment. The signal energy is weakened by geometric attenuation as well as absorption by the medium. The temporal and spectral prope...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  6. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the productions of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces. Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become...

  7. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  8. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  9. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  10. Sound field modeling in architectural acoustics using a diffusion equation

    OpenAIRE

    Picaut, Judicaël; Valeau, Vincent; Billon, Alexis; Sakout, Anas

    2006-01-01

    A numerical approach is proposed to model the reverberated sound field in rooms. The model is based on the numerical implementation of a diffusion model enabling spatial variations of the sound energy within a room, unlike the statistical theory. The proposed method allows to take into account most of complex phenomena encountered in room acoustics, like mixed reflections on walls (diffuse and specular), low and high absorption on walls, atmospheric attenuation, fitted zones. Moreover, the mo...

  11. Sound field modeling in architectural acoustics using a diffusion equation

    OpenAIRE

    PICAUT, J; VALEAU, V; BILLON, A; SAKOUT, A

    2006-01-01

    A numerical approach is proposed to model the reverberated sound field in rooms. The model is based on the numerical implementation of a diffusion model enabling spatial variations of the sound energy within a room, unlike the statistical theory. The proposed method allows to take into account most of complex phenomena encountered in room acoustics, like mixed reflections on walls (diffuse and specular), low and high absorption on walls, atmospheric attenation, fitted zones. Moreover, the mod...

  12. One sound velocity profile collected aboard the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 1 in Berwick Bay near Morgan City, Louisiana on October 4, 2006 (NODC Accession 0013777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A sound velocity profile was collected using a sound velocimeter cast in Berwick Bay near Morgan City, Louisiana on 04 October 2006 as part of project number...

  13. Sound velocity profiles collected in the Great Lakes and one station in Galveston Bay by NOAA Navigation Response Team 4, April - August 2006 (NODC Accession 0002823)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity profiles were collected using sound velocimeter in the Great Lakes and Galveston Bay from NOAA NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 4 from 11 April 2006 to 04...

  14. Atchafalaya Bay, LA (G220) Bathymetric Digital ElevationModel (30 meter resolution) Derived From Source Hydrographic SurveySoundings Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry for Atchafalaya Bay was derived from eleven surveys containing127,192 soundings. No surveys were omitted. The average separationbetween soundings was 130...

  15. SOUND MORPHING BY FEATURE INTERPOLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas Caetano, Marcelo; Rodet, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The goal of sound morphing by feature interpolation is to obtain sounds whose values of features are intermediate between those of the source and target sounds. In order to do this, we should be able to resynthesize sounds that present a set of predefined feature values, a notoriously difficult problem. In this work, we present morphing techniques to obtain hybrid musical instrument sounds whose feature values correspond as close as possible to the ideal interpolated v...

  16. Sound velocity and temperature data from sound velocity strip charts and XBT casts from the USS PORTER from 28 August 2000 to 22 October 2000 (NODC Accession 0000343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity and temperature data were collected from the USS PORTER from August 28, 2000 to October 22, 2000. Data were submitted by the US NAVY; Ships of...

  17. Central Puget Sound Ecopath/Ecosim model outputs - Developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs and contractors, in...

  18. Central Puget Sound Ecopath/Ecosim model biological parameters - Developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing food web models for ecosystem-based management applications in Puget Sound. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs and contractors, in...

  19. Atmospheric and ocean sensing with GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunck, Thomas P.; Hajj, George A.

    2003-01-01

    The 1980s and 1990s saw the Global Positioning System (GPS) transform space geodesy from an elite national enterprise to one open to the individual researcher. By adapting the tools from that endeavor we are learning to probe the atmosphere and the ocean surface in novel ways, including ground-based sensing of atmospheric moisture; space-based profiling of atmospheric refractivity by active limb sounding; and global ocean altimetry with reflected signals.

  20. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  1. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  2. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  3. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological construction...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  4. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  5. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  6. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Through the coupling of dispositif with atmosphere this paper engages in a discussion of the atmospherics as both a form of knowledge and a material practice. In doing so the objective is to provide an inventory of tools and methodologies deployed in the construction of atmosphere understood......, the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  7. ELISCOMB_4MBAT_GEO.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the Combined 4-m Multibeam and LIDAR Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11224, H11225, H11250, H11251, H11252, H11361, H11441, H11442, H11445, H11446, H11997, H11999, H12012, and H12013 offshore in eastern Long Island Sound and westernmost Block Island Sound (Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in cooperation with NOAA and the Connecticut DEP, is producing detailed maps of the seafloor in Long Island Sound. The current phase of this cooperative...

  8. ELISCOMB_4MBAT_UTM18.TIF: Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the Combined 4-m Multibeam and LIDAR Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11224, H11225, H11250, H11251, H11252, H11361, H11441, H11442, H11445, H11446, H11997, H11999, H12012, and H12013 Offshore in Eastern Long Island Sound and Westernmost Block Island Sound (UTM Zone 18, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in cooperation with NOAA and the Connecticut DEP, is producing detailed maps of the seafloor in Long Island Sound. The current phase of this cooperative...

  9. ELISCOMB_UTM: 4-m Grid of the Combined Multibeam and LIDAR Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11224, H11225, H11250, H11251, H11252, H11361, H11441, H11442, H11445, H11446, H11997, H11999, H12012, and H12013 Offshore in Eastern Long Island Sound and Westernmost Block Island Sound (UTM Zone 18, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in cooperation with NOAA and the Connecticut DEP, is producing detailed maps of the seafloor in Long Island Sound. The current phase of this cooperative...

  10. ELISCOMB_GEO: 4-m Grid of the Combined Multibeam and LIDAR Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11224, H11225, H11250, H11251, H11252, H11361, H11441, H11442, H11445, H11446, H11997, H11999, H12012, and H12013 Offshore in Eastern Long Island Sound and Westernmost Block Island Sound (Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in cooperation with NOAA and the Connecticut DEP, is producing detailed maps of the seafloor in Long Island Sound. The current phase of this cooperative...

  11. ELISCOMB_OUTLINE.SHP: Outline the Combined 4-m Multibeam and LIDAR Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11224, H11225, H11250, H11251, H11252, H11361, H11441, H11442, H11445, H11446, H11997, H11999, H12012, and H12013 offshore in eastern Long Island Sound and westernmost Block Island Sound (Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS, in cooperation with NOAA and the Connecticut DEP, is producing detailed maps of the seafloor in Long Island Sound. The current phase of this cooperative...

  12. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    are colored by contextual information. This can be longterm contextual information, such as knowledge of phonological or emotional categories, but can also be short-term local expectancies, such as the previous sound heard. In this paper, I present original electrophysiological data illustrating the early...

  13. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  14. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig unders...

  15. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  16. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...

  17. Neurobiology: Sounding the Alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Pascal; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-09-21

    Acoustical analysis has revealed a peculiar pattern of energy distribution in human screams; behavioral and neuroimaging data suggest that this pattern is associated with rapid and enhanced processing of sound cues signalling fear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sounds of the Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough-Brabson, Ellen; Achilles, Elayne; Ashcraft, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the program called "Sounds of the Desert" that celebrates the Southwest indigenous culture and focuses on understanding music in relation to history and culture. Emphasizes the study of Mariachi music that is being taught alongside band, orchestra, and chorus from the third grade to senior high in many Tucson (Arizona) schools.…

  19. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live...

  20. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  1. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  2. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  3. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  4. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  5. MULTIMEDIA CARTOGRAPHY: MAPS WITH SOUND DESIGN AND SOUND MAPS

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

     Today,sound maps is not so popular like other and not so interested for social oriented projects. Basically only these typesof thematic maps are use sound like the way of representation: political, zoogeographical, vegetation, ethnographic isthe most meeting application of sound registration to maps. In this article a new way of presenting the terrain with sound that is designed for interactive maps with audio support for disabled people is described. The method is based on a comparison betw...

  6. Littoral Sediment Budget for the Mississippi Sound Barrier Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    which in turn forces inlet channels and entrance boundaries to migrate westward in a conveyor -like process. Most coastal systems experience...Applications. NOAA Special Publication NOS CO- OPS 1, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring , MD, 112 p...Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring , MD, 98 p. NOAA. 2010. Gulfport Harbor, Mississippi Sound, MS, tidal datums, 1983 to 2001 tidal

  7. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Atmospheric Layer Temperatures, Version 3.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atmospheric Layer Temperature Climate Data Record (CDR) dataset is a monthly analysis of the tropospheric and stratospheric data using temperature sounding...

  8. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDARConsortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  9. Sound Reflection from the Sea Floor and its Geological Significance (NODC Accession 7001147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this investigation was to measure bottom loss in normal incident reflection of pluses of twelve keps sound and to study its geological significance....

  10. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  11. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  12. EPA Townetting CTD casts - Evaluating the ecological health of Puget Sound's pelagic foodweb

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To evaluate effects of human influence on the health of Puget Sound's pelagic ecosystems, we propose a sampling program across multiple oceanographic basins...

  13. EPA2011 Microbial & nutrient database - Evaluating the ecological health of Puget Sound's pelagic foodweb

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To evaluate effects of human influence on the health of Puget Sound's pelagic ecosystems, we propose a sampling program across multiple oceanographic basins...

  14. Food web model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  15. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  16. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  17. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  18. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Snohomish County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 167 square miles and covers a...

  19. ADVANCED MICROWAVE SOUNDING UNIT-A (AMSU-A) SWATH FROM NOAA-16 V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSU-A,the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, is a 15-channel passive microwave radiometer used to profile atmospheric temperature and moisture from the earth's...

  20. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  1. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  2. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  3. Field Grow-out of Juvenile American Lobsters in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Early benthic stage American lobsters, Homarus americanus, were held in a pilot nursery system in Long Island Sound (LIS) to test field grow-out, as a step toward...

  4. AFSC/ABL: Frederick Sound Echo-integrated Trawl Survey, 2001 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Frederick Sounds echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004. The surveys were conducted throughout most of the southern part...

  5. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of Western Lewis County for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data set covers...

  6. Bioenergetics model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  7. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  8. 2000 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 1,146 square miles and covers part...

  9. Townet database - Evaluating the ecological health of Puget Sound's pelagic foodweb

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To evaluate effects of human influence on the health of Puget Sound's pelagic ecosystems, we propose a sampling program across multiple oceanographic basins...

  10. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Yakima County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 77 square miles and covers a...

  11. 2003 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract. The area surveyed is approximately 100 square miles and covers part of...

  12. Salish Sea Marine Survival (Steelhead) - Early Marine Survival of Puget Sound Steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The primary objectives of this study are to estimate a predation rate by harbor seals on steelhead smolt in Puget Sound, and determine whether predation by harbor...

  13. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily exper......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience.......This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  14. Just How Does Sound Wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    When children first hear the term "sound wave" perhaps they might associate it with the way a hand waves or perhaps the squiggly line image on a television monitor when sound recordings are being made. Research suggests that children tend to think sound somehow travels as a discrete package, a fast-moving invisible thing, and not something that…

  15. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  16. Data sonification and sound visualization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wiebel, E.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois

    1999-07-01

    Sound can help us explore and analyze complex data sets in scientific computing. The authors describe a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis (Diass) and a program to visualize sounds in a virtual reality environment (M4Cave). Both are part of a comprehensive music composition environment that includes additional software for computer-assisted composition and automatic music notation.

  17. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  18. Can Ionospheric Sounding Help Oceanic Monitoring ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Lognonne, P.

    2009-05-01

    A series of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami has been reported in the scientific literature (e.g., Liu et al. 2006; DasGupta et al. 2006; Occhipinti et al. 2006). Similar anomalies were also observed after the tsunamigenic earthquake in Peru in 2001 (Artru et al., 2005). All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. The strong amplification mechanism of atmospheric IGW allows to detect these anomalies when the tsunami is offshore where the see level displacement is still small. In addition, the dense coverage of ionospheric sounding instruments over the oceans increases over time and more instruments will be able to provide ionospheric measurements: i.d., Doppler sounding, over-the-horizon radar (OTH) and space-based GPS data (e.g., COSMIC). Most of the ionospheric anomalies are also deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2006, 2008) via the ocean/neutral atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. In addition, the numerical modeling supplies useful helps in the estimation of expected anomalies The sensitivity of altimeters, OTH radar, ground-based and space-based GPS measurements is analyzed in this work by the way of the modeling and data. The results are used to discuss the role of ionospheric sounding in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning system. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006 [Occhipinti et al., 2008] Geophys. J. Int., 173, 3, 753-1135, 2008.

  19. Great Alaska Earthquake, Prince William Sound, March 28, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Prince William Sound magnitude 8.4 earthquake at 03:36 UT on March 28, 1964, was one of the largest shocks ever recorded on the North American Continent. The...

  20. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  1. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  2. Sound spectral analysis of voice-transmitted sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, R P; Loudon, R G

    1986-07-01

    There is a change in voice-generated sound heard over an area of pulmonary consolidation described as the "e" to "a" change. The lung may act as a low pass filter with properties that are changed by consolidation. We studied 5 patients with pneumonia. Using an electronic stethoscope, we recorded the voice-generated sounds "e" and "9-9-9." Sound spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transformation technique was used to characterize the frequency spectrum of the recorded sound. This technique allowed us to evaluate the filter properties of the normal and consolidated lung. We found that the normal lung allowed transmission of sound as high as 250 Hz with a gradual cutoff by 400 Hz. The consolidated lung allowed transmission of sound of a higher frequency; however, there was no significant transmission of sound with a frequency higher than 1,000 Hz.

  3. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  4. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    -max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  5. Synchronization of sound sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Markus; Ahnert, Karsten; Bergweiler, Steffen

    2009-09-11

    Sound generation and interaction are highly complex, nonlinear, and self-organized. Nearly 150 years ago Rayleigh raised the following problem: two nearby organ pipes of different fundamental frequencies sound together almost inaudibly with identical pitch. This effect is now understood qualitatively by modern synchronization theory M. Abel et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2467 (2006)10.1121/1.2170441]. For a detailed investigation, we substituted one pipe by an electric speaker. We observe that even minute driving signals force the pipe to synchronization, thus yielding three decades of synchronization-the largest range ever measured to our knowledge. Furthermore, a mutual silencing of the pipe is found, which can be explained by self-organized oscillations, of use for novel methods of noise abatement. Finally, we develop a reconstruction method which yields a perfect quantitative match of experiment and theory.

  6. Optimal Sound Absorbing Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Min; Fu, Caixing; Sheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Causal nature of the acoustic response, for any materials or structures, dictates an inequality that relates the absorption spectrum of the sample to its thickness. We present a general recipe for constructing sound-absorbing structures that can attain near-equality for the causal relation with very high absorption performance; such structures are denoted optimal. Our strategy involves using carefully designed acoustic metamaterials as backing to a thin layer of conventional sound absorbing material, e.g., acoustic sponge. By using this design approach, we have realized a 12 cm-thick structure that exhibits broadband, near-perfect flat absorption spectrum starting at around 400 Hz. From the causal relation, the calculated minimum sample thickness is 11.5 cm for the observed absorption spectrum. We present the theory that underlies such absorption performance, involving the evanescent waves and their interaction with a dissipative medium, and show the excellent agreement with the experiment.

  7. Synchronization of Sound Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Markus; Ahnert, Karsten; Bergweiler, Steffen

    2009-09-01

    Sound generation and interaction are highly complex, nonlinear, and self-organized. Nearly 150 years ago Rayleigh raised the following problem: two nearby organ pipes of different fundamental frequencies sound together almost inaudibly with identical pitch. This effect is now understood qualitatively by modern synchronization theory M. Abel et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2467 (2006)JASMAN0001-496610.1121/1.2170441]. For a detailed investigation, we substituted one pipe by an electric speaker. We observe that even minute driving signals force the pipe to synchronization, thus yielding three decades of synchronization—the largest range ever measured to our knowledge. Furthermore, a mutual silencing of the pipe is found, which can be explained by self-organized oscillations, of use for novel methods of noise abatement. Finally, we develop a reconstruction method which yields a perfect quantitative match of experiment and theory.

  8. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  9. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors ......, and can therefore be utilized outside the laboratory setting. A first experimental evaluation indicates that the device can effectively modulate the perception of the ground surface during walking, thereby, inducing changes in the gait of healthy subjects....

  10. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  11. Caustic diffraction fields in a downward refracting atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    A fast and accurate ray model is developed for sound propagation in a downward refracting atmosphere. The model employs a new approach to the classification and computation of ray paths and caustic curves. The approach is valid for a large set of smooth sound-speed profiles, including realistic,

  12. Synaesthetic metaphors and sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Primožič

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a phenomenon called synaesthetic metaphors, in which one sensory modality is described in terms of another (e.g. bright sound, sharp taste, sweet smell. The aim of the research, based on the contrastive analysis of Slovenian and French music reviews, is to determine which sense domains are employed for (synaesthetic description of sound, more precisely music, and how frequent they are. In this regard the paper examines the directionality principle according to which more concrete and more accessible lower senses (touch, taste, smell tend to map onto less concrete and less accessible higher senses (sound, sight. Furthermore, the analysis focuses on two other aspects: the conventionality of synaesthetic metaphors and their connotative meaning. Since the source and target domain in synaesthetic transfers belong to sense domains, the paper emphasizes the experiential – i.e. perceptive, cognitive, and sociocultural – dimension of this phenomenon, with regard to which rises the main question concerning the universal and cultural tendencies of synaesthetic metaphors.

  13. Feedback control of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then

  14. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  15. Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    MAS is a remote sensing instrument for passive sounding (limb sounding) of the earth's atmosphere from the Space Shuttle. The main objective of the MAS is to study the composition and dynamic structure of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere in the height range 20 to 100 km, the region known as the middle atmosphere. The MAS will be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission scheduled for late 1990. The Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder will provide, for the first time, information obtained simultaneously on the temperature and on ozone concentrations in the 20 to 90 km altitude region. The information will cover a large area of the globe, will have high accuracy and high vertical resolution, and will cover both day and night times. Additionally, data on the two important molecules, H2O and ClO, will also be provided.

  16. Atmospheric Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roald, Tone; Pedersen, Ida Egmose; Levin, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In this article we establish intersubjective meaning-making in infancy as atmospheric. Through qualitative descriptions of five mother–infant dyads in a video-recorded, experimental setting when the infant is 4, 7, 10, and 13 months, we discovered atmospheric appearances with a developmental...... pattern of atmospheric variations. These appearances, we argue, are contextual and intersubjective monologues. The monologues are similar to what Daniel Stern describes with his concept of “vitality affects,” but they arise as a unified force that envelops the mother and child. As such, we present a new...

  17. Nonlinear generation of sound pulses in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fainshtein, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction of two opposed Alfven waves in the horizontal part of a coronal arch will produce an efficient generation of acoustic waves with a period of approximately 10/sup 3/ sec. This effect might serve to explain the quasiperiodic pulsations.

  18. Atmospheric diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation, driven by solar forcing, is a fundamental mode in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate provide nearly uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal variations of temperature and refractivity from three-year (2007–2009 COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere between 30° S and 30° N. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity shows the minimum around 14 km and increases to a local maximum around 32 km in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from stratopause to the upper troposphere with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. At ~32 km the seasonal variation of the tidal amplitude maximizes at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. The vertical structure of tidal amplitude shows strong seasonal variations and becomes asymmetric along the equator and tilted toward the summer hemisphere in the solstice months. Such asymmetry becomes less prominent in equinox months.

  19. Propagation of Sound Through the Atmosphere: Effects of Ground Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-19

    temperature and wind velocity was monitored using a Wallac GGA23S Thermo-Anes~meter with a Nil25ANE probe. A log was kept of these variables during...RETURN rND FUNCION EAST611101,D31*1 DIME~ýIOW 11M(4 LEAST52 =IS MAE IS BXZST QUALITY FRLI=40 C D)UNA4I𔃻 AS TEVFITF 1,FD)AN4fN C(~r PHECTLO T( US AI

  20. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...

  1. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  2. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  3. THE SOUNDING WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2018-01-01

    Church as harmonious moving waters. This vision is shared both by the Eastern and the Western world. With its renewed marble revetments, Aquasgrani still conveys the appearance of the Ambrosian vision of the primordial waters. The church is constructed according to propria dispositione, this is...... and non-sounding phenomena (the figures of choreography). Finally, the paper unveils a dramatization of two choreographies (one physical, another incorporeal, of the soul) unfolding in the space of Aachen which becomes the stage for a Gesamtkunstwerk performance where music and words, and each stone joins...

  4. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  5. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having...... to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played....

  6. A linearized Eulerian sound propagation model for studies of complex meteorological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Reinhard; Heimann, Dietrich

    2002-08-01

    Outdoor sound propagation is significantly affected by the topography (including ground characteristics) and the state of the atmosphere. The atmosphere on its part is also influenced by the topography. A sound propagation model and a flow model based on a numerical integration of the linearized Euler equations have been developed to take these interactions into account. The output of the flow model enables the calculation of the sound propagation in a three-dimensionally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Rigid, partly reflective, or fully absorptive ground can be considered. The linearized Eulerian (LE) sound propagation model has been validated by means of four different scenarios. Calculations of sound fields above rigid and grass-covered ground including a homogeneous atmosphere deviate from analytic solutions by less-than-or-equal1 dB in most parts of the computed domain. Calculations of sound propagation including wind and temperature gradients above rigid ground agree well with measured scale model data. Calculations of sound propagation over a screen including ground of finite impedance show little deviations to measured scale model data which are probably caused by an insufficient representation of the complex ground impedance. Further calculations included the effect of wind on shading by a screen. The results agree well with the measured scale model data. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  7. Looming sounds are perceived as faster than receding sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhoff, John G

    2016-01-01

    Each year thousands of people are killed by looming motor vehicles. Throughout our evolutionary history looming objects have posed a threat to survival and perceptual systems have evolved unique solutions to confront these environmental challenges. Vision provides an accurate representation of time-to-contact with a looming object and usually allows us to interact successfully with the object if required. However, audition functions as a warning system and yields an anticipatory representation of arrival time, indicating that the object has arrived when it is still some distance away. The bias provides a temporal margin of safety that allows more time to initiate defensive actions. In two studies this bias was shown to influence the perception of the speed of looming and receding sound sources. Listeners heard looming and receding sound sources and judged how fast they were moving. Listeners perceived the speed of looming sounds as faster than that of equivalent receding sounds. Listeners also showed better discrimination of the speed of looming sounds than receding sounds. Finally, close sounds were perceived as faster than distant sounds. The results suggest a prioritization of the perception of the speed of looming and receding sounds that mirrors the level of threat posed by moving objects in the environment.

  8. Can Ionospheric Sounding Help Tsunami Warning Systems ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Lognonné, P.; Komjathy, A.; Kherani, E. A.; Crespon, F.; Mannucci, A.

    2007-12-01

    A series of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami has been recently reported in the scientific literature (e.g., Liu et al. 2006; DasGupta et al. 2006; Occhipinti et al. 2006). Similar anomalies were also observed after the tsunamigenic earthquake in Peru in 2001 (Artru et al., 2005). All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. The strong amplification mechanism of atmospheric IGW allows to detect these anomalies when the tsunami is offshore where the see level displacement is still small. In addition, the dense coverage of ionospheric sounding instruments over the oceans increases over time and more instruments will be able to provide ionospheric measurements: i.d., Doppler sounding, over-the-horizon radar (OTH) and space-based GPS data (e.g., COSMIC). Most of the ionospheric anomalies are also deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2006), this latter will supply an useful help in the estimation of expected anomalies. The sensitivity of altimeters, OTH radar, ground-based and space-based GPS measurements is analyzed in this work by the way of the modeling. The results are used to discuss the role of ionospheric sounding in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning system. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006

  9. Walrus Movements in Smith Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Flora, Janne; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2017-01-01

    Fifty of 58 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) instrumented with satellite-linked transmitters in four areas in eastern Smith Sound, Northwest Greenland, during May and June of 2010 – 13 and 2015 provided data for this study. These animals departed from the feeding banks along the Greenland...... coast in June – July (average 14th June), simultaneously with the disappearance of sea ice from these areas. Most of them moved to Canadian waters in western Smith Sound. The most frequently used summering grounds were along the coasts of Ellesmere Island: on the eastern coast, the area around Alexandra...... of Jones Sound and Lancaster Sound for short periods during the summer, though this cannot be confirmed with certainty. The return migration from western Smith Sound to the wintering area in eastern Smith Sound takes place in October. The tracked walrus showed high affinity to coastal areas, while walruses...

  10. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-02-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are most familiar to students, such as human voices and musical instruments. Fortunately, several sound spectrum analysis programs are available that can bridge this gap.2

  11. Statistics of Natural Binaural Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor Młynarski; Jürgen Jost

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment....

  12. Natural statistics of binaural sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural time (ITD) and level (ILD) disparities at pure frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. In order to process...

  13. Sound simulaton of granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Marko, Matej

    2013-01-01

    Title: Sound simulation of granular materials Author: Matej Marko Department: Department of Software and Computer Science Education Supervisor: doc. Ing. Jaroslav Křivánek Ph.D., Department of Software and Computer Science Education Abstract: In recent years, methods for simulating sounds of solid objects, fluids, fire and cloth have been developed. These methods extend existing methods for simulation of the visual behaviour of the respective phenomena and add physically based sounds that cor...

  14. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  15. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  16. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  17. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  18. A Study of Sound Contents Development based On Analysis and Compare Foley Sound to Actual Sound of Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Ik-Soo Ahn; Seong-Geon Bae; Myung-Jin Bae

    2015-01-01

    Foley sound of wind is often used as a background sound of radio drama in early period of broadcasting. It is one of the tools that has applied the most creative and scientific theory. This research provides scientific proof on similarities and creativity of Foley sound of wind through comparison and analysis of Foley sound and the actual wind sound.

  19. Atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons and electrons. Depending on the energy of the neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos are observed as fully contained events, partially contained events and upward-going muon events. The energy range covered by these events is from a few hundred MeV to >1 TeV. Data from various experiments showed zenith angle- and energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} events, while {nu}{sub e} events did not show any such effect. It was also shown that the {nu}{sub {mu}} survival probability obeys the sinusoidal function as predicted by neutrino oscillations. Two-flavour {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_reversible} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations, with sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 and {delta}m{sup 2} in the region of 1.9 x 10{sup -3} to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, explain all these data. Various detailed studies using high statistics atmospheric neutrino data excluded the alternative hypotheses that were proposed to explain the {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit.

  20. The monster sound pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  1. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...... attending to the project’s material form as a time-based sonic work designed to last one hundred years, and through considering its dynamic relations with the pasts, presents and futures of the area as the city itself changes....

  2. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  3. Field support, data analysis and associated research for the acoustic grenade sounding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, T. G.; Bullard, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature and horizontal winds in the 30 to 90 km altitude range of the upper atmosphere, were determined by acoustic grenade soundings conducted at Wallops Island, Virginia and Kourou, French Guiana. Field support provided at these locations included deployment of the large area microphone system, supervision, maintenance and operation of sound ranging stations; and coordination of activities. Data analysis efforts included the analysis of field data to determine upper atmospheric meteorological parameters. Profiles for upper atmospheric temperature, wind and density are provided in plots and tables for each of the acoustic grenade soundings conducted during the contract period. Research efforts were directed toward a systematic comparison of temperature data from acoustic grenade with other meteorological sensor probes in the upper atmosphere.

  4. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  5. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  6. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are…

  7. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  8. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  9. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  10. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    -scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview......Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create...

  11. Acoustic tomography in the atmospheric surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ziemann

    Full Text Available Acoustic tomography is presented as a technique for remote monitoring of meteorological quantities. This method and a special algorithm of analysis can directly produce area-averaged values of meteorological parameters. As a result consistent data will be obtained for validation of numerical atmospheric micro-scale models. Such a measuring system can complement conventional point measurements over different surfaces. The procedure of acoustic tomography uses the horizontal propagation of sound waves in the atmospheric surface layer. Therefore, to provide a general overview of sound propagation under various atmospheric conditions a two-dimensional ray-tracing model according to a modified version of Snell's law is used. The state of the crossed atmosphere can be estimated from measurements of acoustic travel time between sources and receivers at different points. Derivation of area-averaged values of the sound speed and furthermore of air temperature results from the inversion of travel time values for all acoustic paths. Thereby, the applied straight ray two-dimensional tomographic model using SIRT (simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique is characterised as a method with small computational requirements, satisfactory convergence and stability properties as well as simple handling, especially, during online evaluation.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques.

  12. Atmospheric humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  13. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 14 December 1977 - 19 April 1978 (NODC Accession 8000053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from December 14, 1977 to April 19, 1978. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 17 June 1977 - 01 August 1977 (NODC Accession 7800337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from June 17, 1977 to August 1, 1977. Data were submitted by University of the...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Long-Range Effects Program Puget Sound project from 1979-08-02 to 1980-04-09 (NODC Accession 9600006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from August 2, 1979 to April 9, 1980. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Long-Range Effects Program Puget Sound project from 1983-11-29 to 1984-08-01 (NODC Accession 8800119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from November 29, 1983 to August 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  17. Precision Sound Velocity Profiles in the Ocean - Volume 5: Sound speed and temperature of Bermuda Waters in Autumn and Winter from October 1964 to March 1966 (NODC Accession 7000472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A collection of high-resolution, precision simultaneous sound speed and temperature profiles to 2200 m depth, and their envelopes for each station is presented for...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 16 September 1975 - 01 April 1976 (NODC Accession 7601229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from September 16, 1975 to April 1, 1976. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound as part of the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP project, 25 February 1976 - 01 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800051)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Puget Sound from February 25, 1976 to September 1, 1977. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  20. 4-m Grid of the Combined Multibeam Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11922, H11995, H11996, H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12023, H12033, H12137, H12139, H12296, H12298, and H12299 Offshore in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds (RICOMB_4MGEO, Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research...

  1. 4-m Grid of the Combined Multibeam Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11922, H11995, H11996, H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12023, H12033, H12137, H12139, H12296, H12298, H12299 Offshore in Rhode island and Block Island Sound (RICOMB_4MUTM, UTM Zone 19, NAD 83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Block Island and Rhode Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research...

  2. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  3. PHYTOPLANKTON - WET WEIGHT and Other Data from UNKNOWN From Long Island Sound from 19520305 to 19591109 (NODC Accession 9000037)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains two files of nutrient and chlorophyll data for Long Island Sound collected from 1952-59. The data were originally collected by G.A. Riley,...

  4. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  5. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from UNKNOWN From Long Island Sound from 19710809 to 19710814 (NODC Accession 8900019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data contains two versions of a Long Island Sound Data Set collected between August 9-14, 1971. Data was originally collected by SUNY at Stony Brook and automated by...

  6. Estuarine Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (30 meter resolution) Derived From Source Hydrographic Survey Soundings Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were generated from original point soundings collected during hydrographic surveys conducted by the National Ocean...

  7. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Quinault River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Quinault watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This...

  8. 2001-2002 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Clallam County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TerraPoint surveyed and created this data for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium under contract with Clallam County. The data covers an area of approximately 524...

  9. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biological Effects of Toxic Contaminants in Sediments from Long Island Sound and Environs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of sediment toxicity was carried out by NOAA's National Status and Trends Program in the coastal bays that surround Long Island Sound in New York and...

  10. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Cedar River Watershed (Delivery 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In September 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  11. Potential impacts of ocean acidification on the Puget Sound food web from a model study (NCEI Accession 0134852)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains output from a study designed to evaluate the impacts of ocean acidification on the food web of Puget Sound, a large estuary in the...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Prince William Sound, Alaska, Volumes 1 and 2, geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0019218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  13. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)-A Brightness Temperature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) for Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) brightness temperature in "window channels". The data cover a time period from...

  14. Derelict Gear - Impacts of derelict fishing gear on marine fauna in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits have experienced a long history of commercial fishing activity. Although much of this fishing activity no longer takes place,...

  15. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and the...

  16. Environmental baselines in Long Island Sound, 1972 to 1975 : tables and figures : final report (NODC Accession 8300070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic species, marine sediments, and temperature profile data were collected using bottle in the Long Island Sound from 01 January 1972 to 31 December 1975. Data...

  17. Sediment Sampling for Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound in 2013 (NODC Accession 0116480)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sediment samples were collected at ten sites within Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound on January 28, 2013, for PAH analysis. All samples tested were below detection...

  18. 75 FR 70818 - Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Its Approaches; in Puget Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Fuca and Its Approaches; in Puget Sound and Its Approaches; and in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the... Strait of Juan de Fuca and its approaches, in Puget Sound and its approaches, and in Haro Strait... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) charts since 2006, and are currently documented in the IMO...

  19. Dimensions of vehicle sounds perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Foehl, Ulrich

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle sounds play an important role concerning customer satisfaction and can show another differentiating factor of brands. With an online survey of 1762 German and American customers, the requirement characteristics of high-quality vehicle sounds were determined. On the basis of these characteristics, a requirement profile was generated for every analyzed sound. These profiles were investigated in a second study with 78 customers using real vehicles. The assessment results of the vehicle sounds can be represented using the dimensions "timbre", "loudness", and "roughness/sharpness". The comparison of the requirement profiles and the assessment results show that the sounds which are perceived as pleasant and high-quality, more often correspond to the requirement profile. High-quality sounds are characterized by the fact that they are rather gentle, soft and reserved, rich, a bit dark and not too rough. For those sounds which are assessed worse by the customers, recommendations for improvements can be derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  1. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  3. Neural processing of natural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Frédéric E; Elie, Julie E

    2014-06-01

    We might be forced to listen to a high-frequency tone at our audiologist's office or we might enjoy falling asleep with a white-noise machine, but the sounds that really matter to us are the voices of our companions or music from our favourite radio station. The auditory system has evolved to process behaviourally relevant natural sounds. Research has shown not only that our brain is optimized for natural hearing tasks but also that using natural sounds to probe the auditory system is the best way to understand the neural computations that enable us to comprehend speech or appreciate music.

  4. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  5. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    drill Brushing teeth Coin in glass Electric lock Bubbles Coins falling Electric saw cutting Bugle Coins shook Falling stone Burp Comb Fan...report is to establish what properties of environmental sounds are important to document for the purposes of a database. We end this discussion by...measurement standards for those recordings are included here. It is important to point out that creation of an environmental sound database is a complex

  6. Sound propagation from a ridge wind turbine across a valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Sound propagation outdoors can be strongly affected by ground topography. The existence of hills and valleys between a source and receiver can lead to the shielding or focusing of sound waves. Such effects can result in significant variations in received sound levels. In addition, wind speed and air temperature gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer also play an important role. All of the foregoing factors can become especially important for the case of wind turbines located on a ridge overlooking a valley. Ridges are often selected for wind turbines in order to increase their energy capture potential through the wind speed-up effects often experienced in such locations. In this paper, a hybrid calculation method is presented to model such a case, relying on an analytical solution for sound diffraction around an impedance cylinder and the conformal mapping (CM) Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) technique. The various aspects of the model have been successfully validated against alternative prediction methods. Example calculations with this hybrid analytical-CM-GFPE model show the complex sound pressure level distribution across the valley and the effect of valley ground type. The proposed method has the potential to include the effect of refraction through the inclusion of complex wind and temperature fields, although this aspect has been highly simplified in the current simulations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  7. Sound propagation from a ridge wind turbine across a valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Timothy

    2017-04-13

    Sound propagation outdoors can be strongly affected by ground topography. The existence of hills and valleys between a source and receiver can lead to the shielding or focusing of sound waves. Such effects can result in significant variations in received sound levels. In addition, wind speed and air temperature gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer also play an important role. All of the foregoing factors can become especially important for the case of wind turbines located on a ridge overlooking a valley. Ridges are often selected for wind turbines in order to increase their energy capture potential through the wind speed-up effects often experienced in such locations. In this paper, a hybrid calculation method is presented to model such a case, relying on an analytical solution for sound diffraction around an impedance cylinder and the conformal mapping (CM) Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) technique. The various aspects of the model have been successfully validated against alternative prediction methods. Example calculations with this hybrid analytical-CM-GFPE model show the complex sound pressure level distribution across the valley and the effect of valley ground type. The proposed method has the potential to include the effect of refraction through the inclusion of complex wind and temperature fields, although this aspect has been highly simplified in the current simulations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Understanding the developing sound system: interactions between sounds and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne; Zamuner, Tania S

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of the first 2 years of life, infants are learning a great deal about the sound system of their native language. Acquiring the sound system requires the infant to learn about sounds and their distributions, sound combinations, and prosodic information, such as syllables, rhythm, and stress. These aspects of the phonological system are being learned simultaneously as the infant experiences the language around him or her. What binds all of the phonological units is the context in which they occur, namely, words. In this review, we explore the development of phonetics and phonology by showcasing the interactive nature of the developing lexicon and sound system with a focus on perception. We first review seminal research in the foundations of phonological development. We then discuss early word recognition and learning followed by a discussion of phonological and lexical representations. We conclude by discussing the interactive nature of lexical and phonological representations and highlight some further directions for exploring the developing sound system. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:589-602. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1307 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Non-Line of Sight Sound Propagation Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chulsoo

    The parabolic equation (PE) method is a useful tool for describing outdoor sound propagation over flat, open, locally reacting ground with a realistic sound speed variation with altitude. The polar parabolic equation (POPE) method is presented here which is an extension of the PE to allow for propagation over irregular terrain (hills). A coordinate system which uses distance along the ground surface and height perpendicular to the surface is introduced into the PE. To verify the numerical accuracy of POPE, computational results are compared to the residue series solution for propagation over a curved surface with a homogeneous atmosphere and to results from a conformal mapping method. The results agree to within one dB. For sound propagation over a 30 m high smooth hill, POPE has been used to calculate transmission loss (TL) for constant sound speed profiles and for upward and downward refracting sound speed profiles. POPE calculations are compared to the experimental data from the Terrain Masking Experiment performed in the vicinity of Instrument Hill at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. POPE calculations predict a rapidly decreasing sound level along the masked side of the hill. The field far behind the hill becomes almost constant in level or decreases slowly with distance. The calculation predicts that rays shed along the hillside contribute to the sound level behind the hill and shows that the field level along the ground beyond the base of a hill is determined by the superposition of shedding of rays from the creeping wave and a wave along the flat surface. This effect is strongly affected by the hill shape (hillside) and ground impedance of the hill.

  10. Wind turbine sound power measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides experimental validation of the sound power level data obtained from manufacturers for the ten wind turbine models examined in Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study (CNHS). Within measurement uncertainty, the wind turbine sound power levels measured using IEC 61400-11 [(2002). (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva)] were consistent with the sound power level data provided by manufacturers. Based on measurements, the sound power level data were also extended to 16 Hz for calculation of C-weighted levels. The C-weighted levels were 11.5 dB higher than the A-weighted levels (standard deviation 1.7 dB). The simple relationship between A- and C- weighted levels suggests that there is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference between analysis based on either C- or A-weighted data.

  11. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  12. Combined multibeam and bathymetry data from Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Danforth, William W.; Blankenship, Mark R.; Clos, Andrew R.; Glomb, Kimberly A.; Lewit, Peter G.; Nadeau, Megan A.; Wood, Douglas A.; Parker, Castleton E.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed bathymetric maps of the sea floor in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds are of great interest to the New York, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts research and management communities because of this area's ecological, recreational, and commercial importance. Geologically interpreted digital terrain models from individual surveys provide important benthic environmental information, yet many applications of this information require a geographically broader perspective. For example, individual surveys are of limited use for the planning and construction of cross-sound infrastructure, such as cables and pipelines, or for the testing of regional circulation models. To address this need, we integrated 14 contiguous multibeam bathymetric datasets that were produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration during charting operations into one digital terrain model that covers much of Block Island Sound and extends eastward across Rhode Island Sound. The new dataset, which covers over 1244 square kilometers, is adjusted to mean lower low water, gridded to 4-meter resolution, and provided in Universal Transverse Mercator Zone 19, North American Datum of 1983 and geographic World Geodetic Survey of 1984 projections. This resolution is adequate for sea-floor feature and process interpretation but is small enough to be queried and manipulated with standard Geographic Information System programs and to allow for future growth. Natural features visible in the data include boulder lag deposits of winnowed Pleistocene strata, sand-wave fields, and scour depressions that reflect the strength of oscillating tidal currents and scour by storm-induced waves. Bedform asymmetry allows interpretations of net sediment transport. Anthropogenic features visible in the data include shipwrecks and dredged channels. Together the merged data reveal a larger, more continuous perspective of bathymetric topography than previously available, providing a fundamental framework for

  13. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  14. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals.

  15. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  16. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  17. [Sound levels in nursery schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysel-Gosepath, K; Pape, H G; Erren, T; Thinschmidt, M; Lehmacher, W; Piekarski, C

    2010-10-01

    Children and teenagers often suffer from hearing loss because of exposure to sound levels above 100 dB generated by toys, portable music players and stereo equipment in discotheques. Even in nursery schools and schools, considerable noise levels are produced by children's voices. Sound levels were measured in a nursery school in Cologne in four different rooms, each with 22 children aged between 3 and 6 years and two teachers. Sound dosimeters detected sound levels in each room for 5 days of the week. These were positioned in the room above the playing children as well as near the teachers' ears. The same measurements were repeated after the children had been instructed about noise and possible noise damage. In addition, the children were now able watch the "noise lights", an instrument resembling traffic lights which translated the sound levels actually measured in their room into optical signals. A questionnaire containing 13 questions about noise and sensitivity to noise was distributed to 35 teachers at nursery schools in the Cologne municipal area. Mean sound levels of an 8-h/day measuring period (L(eq)) were 80.1 ± 2.3 dB(A) near the ear of the teacher and 70.87 ± 2.5 dB(A) measured in the room. The maximal sound level for 1 s, L(max) dB(A), was 112.55 ± 2.3 dB(A) near the ear and 103.77 ± 8.1 dB(A) in the room. After the children had learned about noise and were able to check the sound level they produced with the help of the "noise lights", a tendency towards a reduction of sound levels in the room and near the teachers' ears could be seen. An evaluation of the questionnaire revealed the high physical strain and emotional stress the teachers were subjected to due to noise. Children and teachers in nursery schools are subjected to high sound levels. Therefore, the education and early sensitization of children to noise in order to prevent prospective hearing damage, e.g. using the "noise light", should be set as a goal. Soundproofing measures are also

  18. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  19. Effects of wind shear and temperature inversion on sound propagation from wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, Henk de [Golder Associates (Canada)], email: Henk_deHaan@golder.com

    2011-07-01

    Noise impact assessment of wind turbines usually takes into account sound speed and propagation at ground level, and those are influenced by wind shear and atmospheric temperature changes. This paper focuses on a week-long monitoring study and presents the observed and anticipated effects of wind shear and temperature on the level of ground sound emitted from a 65m high wind turbine. Working with anemometers at ground level and turbine height, it is shown that wind shear can influence sound propagation, and that atmospheric stability must be taken into account for accurate wind speed calculations to be made. Temperature must also be addressed and the heating of the earth by solar radiation and the re-radiation of that heat in a day-night cycle, resulting in temperature inversion in the atmosphere, must be taken into account. Observations of temperature changes over a week can then yield sound speed and sound power levels with respect to altitude, and show that sound power levels are higher at ground levels during the night.

  20. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...... as a gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  1. Atmospheric Climate Experiment Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, K.

    ACE+ is an atmospheric sounding mission using radio occultation techniques and is a combination of the two Earth Explorer missions ACE and WATS earlier proposed to ESA. ACE was highly rated by ESA in the Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 1999 and was prioritised as number three and selected as a "hot-stand-by". A phase A study was carried out during 2000 and 2001. ACE will observe atmospheric parameters using radio occultations from an array of 6 micro-satellites which track the L- band signal of GPS satellites to map the detailed refractivity and thermal structure of the global atmosphere from surface to space. Water vapour and wind in Atmospheric Troposphere and Stratosphere WATS was the response to ESA's Call for Ideas for the next Earth Explorer Core Missions in 2001. WATS combines ACE GPS atmospheric occultations and LEO-LEO cross-link occultations. Cross-links strongly enhance the capability of measuring humidity relative to the ACE mission. The Earth Science Advisory Committée at ESA noted that the LEO-GNSS occultation technique is already well established through several missions in recent years and could not recommend WATS for a Phase A study as an Earth Explorer Core Mission. The ESAC was, however, deeply impressed by the LEO-LEO component of the WATS proposal and would regard it as regrettable if this science would be lost and encourages the ACE/WATS team to explore other means to achieve its scientific goal. ACE+ is therefore the response to ESA's 2nd Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 2001 and will contribute in a significant manner to ESA's Living Planet Programme. ACE+ will considerably advance our knowledge about atmosphere physics and climate change processes. The mission will demonstrate a highly innovative approach using radio occultations for globally measuring profiles of humidity and temperature throughout the atmosphere and stratosphere. A constellation of 4 small satellites, tracking L-band GPS/GALILEO signals and

  2. TOGA COARE Upper-Air Sounding Data Archive: Development and Quality Control Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehrer, Scot M.; Edmands, Todd A.; Moore, James A.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most important datasets to wine from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) is the most complete, high-resolution upper-air sounding dataset ever collected in the equatorial western Pacific Ocean. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research/Office of Field Project Support UCAR/OFPS (recently combined with the UCAR/Joint International Climate Projects Planning Office and renamed the Joint Office for Science Support)' was given the responsibility of processing, quality controlling, and archiving the dataset. OFPS, in consultation with the TOGA COARE scientific community, developed a four-stage process to provide the community with a thoroughly quality controlled dataset.The TOGA COARE sounding dataset includes over 14 000 soundings, collected from 14 countries, in over 20 different original formats. The first OFPS processing step was the conversion of all soundings to a single, easy to use format, the OFPS quality control format. The second stage was a series of automated internal consistency cheeks on each sounding. This stage was particularly important as it directly led to the improvement of several of the datasets. The third step was a visual examination of each sounding to provide another layer of internal consistency cheeks, for dewpoint and wind in particular. The final process used spatial quality control checks to put each station into context with its neighboring stations as well as the network as a whole. These cheeks provided statistics from which both systematic and individual sounding problems could be determined. Finally, some derived sounding parameters such as convective available potential energy (CAPE) were calculated for each sounding. The CAPE calculations provided a quick method to qualitatively examine the high-resolution sounding data for low-level humidity problems. A composite dataset of all soundings at a uniform vertical resolution of 5 hPa was created to provide

  3. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...... separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...

  4. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  5. Landing site considerations for atmosphere structure and meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, Alvin; Haberle, R.; Murphy, J.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the ASI/MET experiments is to extend our knowledge of Mars atmosphere structure and meteorology over that established by the Viking mission. The two in situ soundings of Mars atmosphere by Vikings 1 and 2 were highly similar, but radio occultations and infrared soundings have shown large variability in atmosphere structure on Mars with latitude, season, and terrain elevation. It would be of great interest to obtain an in situ sounding showing strong contrast in thermal structure with the Viking profiles. These would be expected to occur in the winter season, in the southern hemisphere, or at polar latitudes. These options are ruled out by Pathfinder Mission constraints, which place the entry in low, northern latitudes in mid summer, with small seasonal difference from the two Viking landers, and small latitude difference from Viking 1.

  6. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  7. Sound source tracking device for telematic spatial sound field reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Bruno

    This research describes an algorithm that localizes sound sources for use in telematic applications. The localization algorithm is based on amplitude differences between various channels of a microphone array of directional shotgun microphones. The amplitude differences will be used to locate multiple performers and reproduce their voices, which were recorded at close distance with lavalier microphones, spatially corrected using a loudspeaker rendering system. In order to track multiple sound sources in parallel the information gained from the lavalier microphones will be utilized to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio between each performer and the concurrent performers.

  8. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  9. Tracheal Sounds Acquisition Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersain A. Reyes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal sounds have received a lot of attention for estimating ventilation parameters in a non-invasive way. The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of extracting accurate airflow, and automating the detection of breath-phase onset and respiratory rates all directly from tracheal sounds acquired from an acoustic microphone connected to a smartphone. We employed the Samsung Galaxy S4 and iPhone 4s smartphones to acquire tracheal sounds from N = 9 healthy volunteers at airflows ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 L/s. We found that the amplitude of the smartphone-acquired sounds was highly correlated with the airflow from a spirometer, and similar to previously-published studies, we found that the increasing tracheal sounds’ amplitude as flow increases follows a power law relationship. Acquired tracheal sounds were used for breath-phase onset detection and their onsets differed by only 52 ± 51 ms (mean ± SD for Galaxy S4, and 51 ± 48 ms for iPhone 4s, when compared to those detected from the reference signal via the spirometer. Moreover, it was found that accurate respiratory rates (RR can be obtained from tracheal sounds. The correlation index, bias and limits of agreement were r2 = 0.9693, 0.11 (−1.41 to 1.63 breaths-per-minute (bpm for Galaxy S4, and r2 = 0.9672, 0.097 (–1.38 to 1.57 bpm for iPhone 4s, when compared to RR estimated from spirometry. Both smartphone devices performed similarly, as no statistically-significant differences were found.

  10. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  11. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  12. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Liping; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  13. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...... and discusses the sources of error in measurement of sound intensity and the resulting limitations imposed on various applications of such measurements. Finally, some unresolved problems are mentioned, and the possibility of improving the instrumentation is discussed....

  14. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  15. Patterns of fish sound production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David A.

    2003-04-01

    While vocalization and chorusing behavior has been intensively studied in frogs and birds, little has been done with fishes. This paper presents patterns of sound production in damselfish, toadfish, and spotted seatrout on seasonal, daily, and subdaily time scales. Chorus behavior ranges from highly coordinated behavior between neighboring toadfish to uncoordinated behavior in spotted seatrout. Differences in coordination of sound production (i.e., the degree of overlap in calls) can be related to differences in territoriality and modes of reproduction. Toadfish and damselfish are territorial fishes in which males guard benthic eggs laid in nests. Sciaenids (croakers and drums) spawn planktonic eggs, and form temporary aggregations of calling males.

  16. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  17. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...... with microphones mounted on the musician’s ears and recorded digitally. The recorded sound was analysed and the specific sound exposure of the left and the right ear was determined for the musicians. A total of 114 measurements covering 106 h were recorded in two symphony orchestras.Results: Sound exposure depends...

  18. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  19. Transcoding sound to spelling: single or multiple sound unit correspondence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, D M; Warrington, E K

    1987-03-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the written spelling of an aphasic patient, KT, in whom no viable comprehension could be demonstrated despite accurate repetition and fluent speech (transcortical sensory aphasia). His spelling conformed in all respects with the definition of an orthographic/lexical dysgraphic such that his writing of regular, orthographically unambiguous words and nonsense syllables was entirely satisfactory. Lexical variables such as word class or word frequency had no effect on his performance. Irregular or ambiguously spelled words were selectively impaired. An independent measure of orthographical ambiguity was defined in relation to the frequency with which a phoneme was represented by a particular grapheme and the number of alternative graphemes for the same sound. For the majority of sounds studied, KT was able to demonstrate the use of all the most frequent alternative transcoding units for each sound but he did not use them in the same frequency with which they occurred in written English. Thus his performance bore little or no relationship to predictions based on single phoneme/grapheme counts and there was unequivocal evidence for his ability to use multiple sound-unit correspondences.

  20. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  1. Caustics of atmospheric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A.

    2015-04-01

    Much like light and sound, acoustic-gravity waves in inhomogeneous atmosphere often have a caustic or caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Increase of the wave magnitude in the vicinity of a caustic makes such vicinities of primary interest in a number of problems, where a signal needs to be separated from a background noise. The value of wave focusing near caustics should be carefully quantified in order to evaluate possible nonlinearities promoted by the focusing. Physical understanding of the wave field in the vicinity of a caustic is also important for understanding of the wave reflection from and transmission (tunneling) through the caustic. To our knowledge, in contrast to caustics of acoustic, electromagnetic, and seismic waves as well as gravity waves in incompressible fluids, asymptotics of acoustic-gravity waves in the vicinity of a caustic have never been studied systematically. In this paper, we fill this gap. Atmospheric waves are considered as linear acoustic-gravity waves in a neutral, horizontally stratified, moving ideal gas of variable composition. Air temperature and wind velocity are assumed to be gradually varying functions of height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. The scale height of the atmosphere can be large or small compared to the vertical wavelength. It is found that the uniform asymptotics of the wave field in the presence of a simple caustic can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. As for the acoustic waves, the argument of the Airy function is expressed in terms of the eikonal calculated in the ray, or WKB, approximation. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent WKB approximation for acoustic-gravity waves, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the uniform asymptotics, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by cosine

  2. Sounding rocket activities of Japan in 2003 and 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Nobuaki; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Nakajima, Takashi; Takumi, Abe; Yuichi, Tsuda; Yamagami, Takamasa

    2005-08-01

    In October 2003, a new space agency, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) was reorganized and started as a primary space agency to promote all space activities in Japan. The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) belonged to JAXA and continued to promote space science and technologies using unique scientific satellites, sounding rockets and balloons. This paper summarizes sounding rocket and ballooning activities of ISAS in the fiscal year of 2003 and 2004, associated with satellite launch programs. In this time period, three sounding rockets and nineteen balloons were launched by ISAS. One of the sounding rocket, S-310-35 was an international collaboration between Japan and Norway, which was launched from Andoya Rocket Range (ARR), Andenes, Norway, so as to study the upper atmospheric dynamics and energetics associated with the auroral energy in the polar lower thermosphere. Through the combination with the national researchers and the cooperation with international organizations, ISAS will keep its own flight opportunities and be able to obtain many new scientific findings.

  3. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lemaitre

    Full Text Available Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by through a different system (the voice apparatus. The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products, human vocal imitations, and computational "auditory sketches" (created by algorithmic computations. The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access

  4. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  5. Plasma density enhancements created by the ionization of the Earth's upper atmosphere by artificial electron beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Banks, P.M.

    line) and down-going differential energy flux. The equations are solved numerically, using the MSIS atmospheric model and the IRI ionospheric model. The results from the model compare well with recent observations from the CHARGE 2 sounding rocket experiment. Two aspects of the beam-neutral atmosphere...... electrons and thereby limits the ionization of the neutral atmosphere. As an example we find from CHARGE 2 observations and from the model calculations that below about 180 km, secondary electrons generated through the ionization of the neutral atmosphere by 1-10 keV electron beams from sounding rockets...

  6. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  7. Product sound design in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, L.H.; Jansen, R.J.; van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product Sound Design is an elective course of the Master of Industrial Design Engineering at the Delft University of Technology. The educational goal of the course is to make students consciously aware of constructive parts in the design of appliances. The paper details the experience and the design

  8. Optical Measurement Of Sound Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Gaspar, Mark; Leung, Emily W.

    1989-01-01

    Noninvasive technique does not disturb field it measures. Sound field deflects laser beam proportionally to its amplitude. Knife edge intercepts undeflected beam, allowing only deflected beam to reach photodetector. Apparatus calibrated by comparing output of photodetector with that of microphone. Optical technique valuable where necessary to measure in remote, inaccessible, or hostile environment or to avoid perturbation of measured region.

  9. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interestingly, anatomical studies of the adult human brain indi- cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, speech and environment noise are processed in areas that are anatomically distinct [2]. However, the reasons for this kind of functional organization are not clearly identified.

  10. Sounding Off and Lighting Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Teaching about light and sound is to teach about the processes of hearing and seeing. In considering the kinds of leading questions that we might ask in teaching, I suggest that a rethinking of how we consider the contribution of the energetic descriptions to this area will probably help to make these questions more fruitful. A subtly changed…

  11. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  12. The actuation of sound change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinget, A.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is a sociophonetic study on sound change in progress. It addresses the actuation problem, i.e. the question as to why a particular change takes place in a particular language at a given time. The study is implemented in the framework of exemplar-based theories, which incorporates

  13. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  14. Sound is Multi-Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive Music at Music Therapy, AAU. 20 of these have sound files as well. The work thus serves as an anthology of this form of composition. All the compositions are systematically presented according to parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre, density, pulse-no pulse, tempo, stylistic...

  15. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  16. Intercepting a sound without vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Vercillo

    Full Text Available Visual information is extremely important to generate internal spatial representations. In the auditory modality, the absence of visual cues during early infancy does not preclude the development of some spatial strategies. However, specific spatial abilities might result impaired. In the current study, we investigated the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability to localize static and moving auditory stimuli by comparing sighted and early blind individuals' performance in different spatial tasks. We also examined perceptual stability in the two groups of participants by matching localization accuracy in a static and a dynamic head condition that involved rotational head movements. Sighted participants accurately localized static and moving sounds. Their localization ability remained unchanged after rotational movements of the head. Conversely, blind participants showed a leftward bias during the localization of static sounds and a little bias for moving sounds. Moreover, head movements induced a significant bias in the direction of head motion during the localization of moving sounds. These results suggest that internal spatial representations might be body-centered in blind individuals and that in sighted people the availability of visual cues during early infancy may affect sensory-motor interactions.

  17. The Sound/Music Dilemma: Why Is It That All Music Is Sound but Only Some Sounds Are Music?

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Velardo

    2014-01-01

    Even if sound and music are deeply intertwined phenomena, it is still fiercely debated whether all music is made up of sound, and vice versa, whether all sound can be deemed as music. Researchers from many different backgrounds have proposed numerous solutions to the conundrum; however, most of them analyse music and sound out of their natural context, ignoring not negligible variables such as listeners and cognitive constraints. \\ud \\ud This paper fills this gap, by introducing a theoretical...

  18. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the Combined 2-m and Interpolated 10-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12013 Off the Entrance to the Connecticut River in Northeastern Long Island Sound (H12013_INT2M_GEO.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  19. Color Hill-Shaded GeoTIFF Image Showing the Composite 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surveys H11252 and H11361 in Eastern Long Island Sound (SMR_COMP_2MUTM.TIF, UTM, Zone 18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  20. Color Hill-Shaded GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11361 in Eastern Long Island Sound (H11361_2MUTM18_MB.TIF, UTM Zone 18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  1. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12012 Offshore in Northeastern Long Island Sound (UTM Zone 18, NAD83, H12012_2MMB_UTM18.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  2. Interpretation of Bottom Features from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12007 and USGS Cruise 2011-006-FA in the Vicinity of Cross Rip Channel in Nantucket Sound, Offshore Southeastern Massachusetts (H12007_INTERP.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  3. Grayscale GeoTIFF Image of the 1-m Sidescan-Sonar Data From National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12023 in Block Island Sound (H12023_1MSSS_UTM19.TIF, UTM Zone 19, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  4. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11922 in Rhode Island Sound (H11922_2MMB_UTM19.TIF, UTM Zone 19, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  5. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11995 in Rhode Island Sound (H11995_MB2M_UTM.TIF, UTM Zone 19, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  6. Color Hill-Shaded GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11252 in Eastern Long Island Sound (H11252_2MUTM18_MB.TIF, UTM Zone 18)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, has...

  7. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 1-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12007 in the Vicinity of Cross Rip Channel, Nantucket Sound (H12007_1MMB_UTM19.TIF, UTM Zone 19, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  8. Surficial Sediment Data Collected Within National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Survey H12012 During U.S. Geological Survey Cruises 2010-010-FA and 2010-015-FA Offshore in Northeastern Long Island Sound (Geographic, WGS84, H12012_SEDDATA.SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  9. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12023 in Block Island Sound (H12023_MB2M_UTM.TIF, UTM Zone 19, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  10. Grayscale TIFF Image of the 1-m Sidescan-Sonar Data From National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12013 off the entrance to the Connecticut River in northeastern Long Island Sound (H12013_1MSSS_UTM18.TIF, UTM Zone 18, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  11. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12296 in Block Island Sound (H12296_MB2M_UTM.TIF, UTM Zone 19, NAD 83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  12. Color Shaded-Relief GeoTIFF Image Showing the 2-m Bathymetry Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12013 Off the Entrance to the Connecticut River in Northeastern Long Island Sound (H12013_2M_UTM18.TIF, UTM Zone 18, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Connecticut Department of Energy and...

  13. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  14. Optimal Use of Space-Borne Advanced Infrared and Microwave Soundings for Regional Numerical Weather Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian-Yi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations can either be assimilated as radiances or as retrieved physical parameters to reduce error in the initial conditions used by the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model. Assimilation of radiances requires a radiative transfer model to convert atmospheric state in model space to that in radiance space, thus requiring a lot of computational resources especially for hyperspectral instruments with thousands of channels. On the other hand, assimilating the retrieved physical parameters is computationally more efficient as they are already in thermodynamic states, which can be compared with NWP model outputs through the objective analysis scheme. A microwave (MW sounder and an infrared (IR sounder have their respective observational limitation due to the characteristics of adopted spectra. The MW sounder observes at much larger field-of-view (FOV compared to an IR sounder. On the other hand, MW has the capability to reveal the atmospheric sounding when the clouds are presented, but IR observations are highly sensitive to clouds, The advanced IR sounder is able to reduce uncertainties in the retrieved atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles due to its higher spectral-resolution than the MW sounder which has much broader spectra bands. This study tries to quantify the optimal use of soundings retrieved from the microwave sounder AMSU and infrared sounder AIRS onboard the AQUA satellite in the regional Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF model through three-dimensional variational (3D-var data assimilation scheme. Four experiments are conducted by assimilating soundings from: (1 clear AIRS single field-of-view (SFOV; (2 retrieved from using clear AMSU and AIRS observations at AMSU field-of-view (SUP; (3 all SFOV soundings within AMSU FOVs must be clear; and (4 SUP soundings which must have all clear SFOV soundings within the AMSU FOV. A baseline experiment assimilating only conventional data is generated for comparison

  15. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons that represent the following sensitive human-use management areas in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington:...

  17. Sound velocity profiles collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team No. 4 in the Great Lakes, July 5 - September 25, 2007 (NODC Accession 0020370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Navigation Response Team-4 in the Great Lakes from 05 July 2007 to 25 September 2007. Sound velocity profiles...

  18. Seawater Temperature and Salinity Moored Time-Series Records, Collected During 2010 and 2011 in Vieques Sound and Virgin Passage (NODC Accession 0088063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea-Bird SBE37SM MicroCat Conductivity/Temperature (CT) recorders were deployed between March 2010 and April 2011 on shallow water moorings located in Vieques Sound,...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: HABITATL (Habitat Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine vegetation in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector lines in...

  20. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Benthic Habitat Data, Long Island Sound, Jamaica Bay, and Lower Bay of NY/NJ Harbor, NY, 1994-2002 (NODC Accession 0089467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of benthic habitat data from studies conducted in the coastal Long Island Sound, NY region in GIS shapefile (.shp, .dbf, .shx, and .prj...

  1. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) (NODC Accession 0014156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Standard Marine Bird Sighting, Land Census (F034) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975...

  2. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1982): Feeding Flock (F037) (NODC Accession 0014157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Feeding Flock (F037) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1982). Each dataset uses the NODC...

  3. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974-1983): Marine Bird Sighting, Ship/Aircraft Census (F033) (NODC Accession 0014155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Sighting, Ship/Aircraft Census (F033) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1974 -1983)....

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Puget Sound...

  5. Sound velocity profiles from velocimeter casts by NOAA Navigation Response Team-4 in the Great Lakes from 16 August 2006 to 18 October 2006 (NODC Accession 0012524)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Navigation Response Team-4 in the Great Lakes from 16 August 2006 to 18 October 2006. Sound velocity profiles...

  6. Sound velocity profiles from velocimeter casts by NOAA Navigation Response Team-1 in the Gulf of Mexico from 02 April 2008 to 22 May 2008 (NODC Accession 0051847)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Navigation Response Team-1 in the Gulf of Mexico from 02 April 2008 to 22 May 2008. Sound velocity profiles were...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine vegetation in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector polygons...

  8. CTD and sound speed profile data acquired in support of hydrographic multibeam surveys to meet NOAA/NOS, Office of Coast Survey charting requirements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple sensors are used to acquire sound speed profiles in the survey areas assigned to the ships and navigation response teams. Some vessels have CTDs and acquire...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea otters, sea lions, and harbor seals in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector...

  10. Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) data collected during shipboard surveys during 2010 and 2011 in Vieques Sound, Virgin Passage and surrounding regions (NODC Accession 0088063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea-Bird Electronics CTDs were utilized during cruises conducted between March 2010 and April 2011 in Vieques Sound, Puerto Rico, Virgin Passage USVI, and the...

  11. 2012-2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Hoh River Watershed, Washington (Deliveries 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the Hoh River watershed survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium and the...

  12. Sound velocity profiles from velocimeter casts by NOAA Navigation Response Team-1 in the NW Atlantic from 09 May 2007 to 26 October 2007 (NODC Accession 0038808)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Navigation Response Team-1 in the NW Atlantic from 09 May 2007 to 26 October 2007. Sound velocity profiles were...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for forage fish in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector polygons in this data set...

  15. SOUND VELOCITY and Other Data from FIXED PLATFORM and Other Platforms From NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) and Others from 19860512 to 19891112 (NODC Accession 9000121)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sound velocity and other data in this accession has been processed by NODC from a tape submitted by the originator containing Inverted Echo Sounder data from the...

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013952)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca from 1978 to 2006. ESI data characterize...

  17. Estuarine Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (30 meter and 3 arc second resolution) Derived From Source Hydrographic Survey Soundings Collected by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These Bathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were generated from original point soundings collected during hydrographic surveys conducted by the National Ocean...

  18. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1978): Marine Bird Habitats (F040) (NODC Accession 0014159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Habitats (F040) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975 -1978). Each dataset uses the...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bald eagle, great blue heron, and seabird nesting sites in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  20. Salinity, sound velocity, and other data from CTD, XBT, XSV, AXBT, and XCTD casts from 20 May 1978 to 01 September 2000 (NODC Accession 0000383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity, sound velocity, depth, and temperature data were collected using CTD, XBT, XSV, AXBT, and XCTD casts from May 20, 1978 to September 1, 2000. Data were...