WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric sciences

  1. Statistics in Atmospheric Science

    OpenAIRE

    Solow, Andrew R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of statistical methods in atmospheric science. The applications covered include the development, assessment and use of numerical physical models of the atmosphere and more empirical analysis unconnected to physical models.

  2. A glossary of atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book concentrates on the glossary of atmospheric science, which contains summary, for enactment and deliberation on choosing special glossary on atmospheric science in Korea, examiner for the glossary on atmospheric science, reference, explanatory notes and a lot of glossary on atmospheric science. It also has an appendix on commercial abbreviation, prefix, unit, wavelength and the number o vibrations of electromagnetic waves, ICAO classified catalogue on cloud, list of varietal cloud and list of local wind. It has explanation of the glossary in English, Korea, China and Japan.

  3. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  4. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  5. Applications of theoretical methods in atmospheric science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Goodsite, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical chemistry involves explaining chemical phenomenon using natural laws. The primary tool of theoretical chemistry is quantum chemistry, and the field may be divided into electronic structure calculations, reaction dynamics and statistical mechanics. These three all play a role in...... addressing an issue of primary concern: understanding photochemical reaction rates at the various conditions found in the atmosphere. Atmospheric science includes both atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, meteorology, climatology and the study of extraterrestrial atmospheres....

  6. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  7. Atmospheric sciences annual progress report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities in atmospheric sciences in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory carried out during 1974 are described. Included are contributions from the Meteorology, Atmospheric Diagnostics, Atmospheric Chemistry Research, and Atmospheric Instrumentation Groups. Programs in Meteorology reported on include diffusion from an off-shore source, plume dynamics studies, modeling of coastal effects on wind and temperature fields and pollutant distributions, effects of indoor shelter on inhalation of airborne radionuclides, chemical-dynamical interactions, techniques for determining acid-rain impact upon the ecology of the eastern U.S., and climatology. Work under Atmospheric Chemistry Research was concentrated on atmospheric aerosol studies, including formation by free radical and neutral association reactions, identification of reactive systems leading to aerosol formation, growth of sodium aerosols under atmospheric conditions and clustering reactions. Atmospheric Diagnostics presents work on field sampling and analytical technology for atmospheric pollutants, airborne sampling systems, atmospheric sulfate particulates methodology, and on a pyroturbidometric method for particulate sulfate discrimination and determination. Methodology for the use of sulfur hexafluoride in field tracer studies is discussed under Atmospheric Instrumentation. A list of publications is included

  8. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an STS-66 mission onboard photo of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis showing the payload of the third Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission. During the ATLAS missions, international teams of scientists representing many disciplines combined their expertise to seek answers to complex questions about the atmospheric and solar conditions that sustain life on Earth. The ATLAS program specifically investigated how Earth's middle and upper atmospheres and climate are affected by by the sun and by products of industrial and agricultural activities on Earth. Thirteen ATLAS instruments supported experiments in atmospheric sciences, solar physics, space plasma physics, and astronomy. The instruments were mounted on two Spacelab pallets in the Space Shuttle payload bay. The ATLAS-3 mission continued a variety of atmospheric and solar studies to improve understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and its energy input from the sun. A key scientific objective was to refine existing data on variations in the fragile ozone layer of the atmosphere. The Orbiter Atlantis was launched on November 3, 1994 for the ATLAS-3 mission (STS-66).

  9. Understanding versus prediction in the atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Von Humboldt recognized that meteorological phenomena are all interconnected - and that a disturbance in one produces a disturbance in the others. This very interconnectedness made it very difficult to fully explain these phenomena. How would one be able to separate them out for study? As a result of this difficulty, in 1845 von Humboldt maintained that the 'predetermination of atmospheric changes' would be limited or 'wholly precluded'. With apparent chagrin, he noted that those who maintained that prediction was the true value of meteorology were more than willing to place their confidence in 'superstition' while decrying the lack of progress in physics to explain the phenomena. Less than eighty years later, Norwegian physicist-turned-meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes was applying graphical techniques to the hydrodynamic equations that defined atmospheric motion to predict the weather even though physical understanding remained elusive. One hundred years later, in 1945, the US Weather Bureau decided to pursue the possibility of using an electronic digital computer to forecast the weather - even though atmospheric scientists still had not developed anything approaching an adequate theory of general atmospheric circulation. This paper explores why the scientific mindset shifted from disdaining prediction as beneath the science (although the public was desperate for it) to embracing prediction as a way of developing the physical knowledge of the atmosphere that von Humboldt was seeking.

  10. Atmospheric Science using CRISM EPF Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M. J.; Clancy, R. T.; Arvidson, R.; Smith, M. D.; Murchie, S. L.; McGuire, P. C.

    2006-12-01

    Near the end of September 2006, the MRO/CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars; Murchie et al., 2006, JGR, in press.) will acquire its first observations of Mars. MRO's Primary Science Phase beginning in early November. One of CRISM's investigations is characterization of seasonal variations in dust and ice aerosols and trace gases using a systematic, global grid of hyperspectral measurements of emission phase functions (EPFs) acquired repetitively throughout the Martian year. EPFs will also be obtained as part of each of approximately 5000 "targeted" observations of surface geologic features. EPF measurements allow accurate determination of column abundances of water vapor, CO, dust and ice aerosols, and their seasonal variations (e.g., Clancy et al., 2003, 108(E9), 5098). EPFs are measured using eleven superimposed images within which the slit field-of-view is swept across a target point on the Martian surface. When EPFs are taken as part of a global grid, 10x spatial pixel binning will be used in all of the images, providing data at 150-200 m/pixel. In the targeted observations, the central image will be obtained at either full resolution or with 2x binning (15-38 m/pixel). In all cases, hyperspectral data (545 wavelengths) will be taken during each of the 11 superimposed scans. There are two types of global EPF grids, one with better temporal sampling and one with better spatial sampling of the atmosphere. The "atmospheric monitoring campaign" consists one Martian day of pole-to-pole EPF's every ~9°\\ of solar longitude (Ls). There is sufficient time for 8 EPFs in an orbit, one approximately every 22°\\ of latitude. Alternate orbits (projected onto the planet) are offset in latitude by about 11°\\ north or south to increase latitudinal resolution. Longitude spacing between the orbits is about 27°. The "seasonal change campaign" occurs approximately every ~36°\\ of Ls. A grid similar to that executed during the atmospheric monitoring

  11. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  12. Fast Temperature Sensor for use in Atmospheric Sciences Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes a novel sensor to measure atmospheric temperature at high frequency (10 Hz) and with high precision and accuracy (0.1 degrees C)....

  13. Updating the science of atmospheric electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Williams, Earle R.

    2011-12-01

    XIV International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 7-12 August 2011 The main goal of the XIV International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity (ICAE 2011) was to provide a comprehensive description of the status of knowledge in the field of atmospheric electricity, as well as to provide an opportunity for extensive interaction among researchers in this field. The history of the ICAE goes back to the first conference held in May 1954 in Portsmouth, N. H. The conference was attended by 51 scientists from 10 countries, and only three topics were addressed: fair weather electricity, thunderstorm electrification, and lightning.

  14. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherestha, S.; Iyngararasan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs) and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  15. An Atmospheric Science Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard; Qu, Zheng; Bowman, Kevin; Eldering, Annmarie

    2010-01-01

    An atmospheric sounding mission starts with a wide range of concept designs involving measurement technologies, observing platforms, and observation scenarios. Observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) is a technical approach to evaluate the relative merits of mission and instrument concepts. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the OSSE team has developed an OSSE environment that allows atmospheric scientists to systematically explore a wide range of mission and instrument concepts and formulate a science traceability matrix with a quantitative science impact analysis. The OSSE environment virtually creates a multi-platform atmospheric sounding testbed (MAST) by integrating atmospheric phenomena models, forward modeling methods, and inverse modeling methods. The MAST performs OSSEs in four loosely coupled processes, observation scenario exploration, measurement quality exploration, measurement quality evaluation, and science impact analysis.

  16. Atmospheric science: Pacific trade wind intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The unprecedented recent intensification of the Pacific trade winds cannot simply be explained by natural variability alone. Now research finds that the more local influence of sulfate aerosols of human and volcanic origin play a significant role, in addition to the Pacific's coupling to the Atlantic Ocean via the 'atmospheric bridge'.

  17. A Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, W. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Russell, J. M.; Anderson, J.; Kireev, S.; Loughman, R. P.; Smith, W. L.

    2006-12-01

    With this presentation we discuss the status of plans for a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University. Hampton University is a privately endowed, non-profit, non-sectarian, co-educational, and historically black university with 38 baccalaureate, 14 masters, and 4 doctoral degree programs. The graduate program in physics currently offers advanced degrees with concentration in Atmospheric Science. The 10 students now enrolled benefit substantially from the research experience and infrastructure resident in the university's Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), which is celebrating its tenth anniversary. Promoting a greater diversity of participants in geosciences is an important objective for CAS. To accomplish this, we require reliable pipelines of students into the program. One such pipeline is our undergraduate minor in Space, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences (SEAS minor). This minor concentraton of study is contributing to awareness of geosciences on the Hampton University campus, and beyond, as our students matriculate and join the workforce, or pursue higher degrees. However, the current graduate program, with its emphasis on physics, is not necessarily optimal for atmospheric scientists, and it limits our ability to recruit students who do not have a physics degree. To increase the base of candidate students, we have proposed creation of a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, which could attract students from a broader range of academic disciplines. The revised curriculum would provide for greater concentration in atmospheric and planetary sciences, yet maintain a degree of flexibility to allow for coursework in physics or other areas to meet the needs of individual students. The department would offer the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and maintain the SEAS minor. The university's administration and faculty have approved our plan for this new department pending authorization by the university's board of trustees, which will

  18. Comparing Unique Title Coverage of Web of Science and Scopus in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…

  19. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  20. Visualization Techniques in Space and Atmospheric Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P. (Editor); Bredekamp, Joseph H. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Unprecedented volumes of data will be generated by research programs that investigate the Earth as a system and the origin of the universe, which will in turn require analysis and interpretation that will lead to meaningful scientific insight. Providing a widely distributed research community with the ability to access, manipulate, analyze, and visualize these complex, multidimensional data sets depends on a wide range of computer science and technology topics. Data storage and compression, data base management, computational methods and algorithms, artificial intelligence, telecommunications, and high-resolution display are just a few of the topics addressed. A unifying theme throughout the papers with regards to advanced data handling and visualization is the need for interactivity, speed, user-friendliness, and extensibility.

  1. Atmospheric sciences students present papers, get career tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Jane M.

    At AGU's Spring Meeting the Atmospheric Sciences Section hosted a series of special sessions to highlight student research and provide advice and information about securing successful careers in the geosciences. Eighteen graduate students presented papers and posters covering field, laboratory, and modeling efforts. Subject areas included aerosol chemistry, morphology, physics, sources and transport of atmospheric species, and issues relating to regional and global climate. The panel discussion on successfulcareers drew a wide audience, from students to accomplished researchers. Topics discussed included postdoctoral positions job applications, research funding proposals, and time management.

  2. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division Program Report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In 1990, the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division begins its 17th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to decades and from local to global. Our modeling is now reaching out from its atmospheric focus to treat linkages with the oceans and the land. In this report, we describe the Division's goal and organizational structure. We also provide tables and appendices describing the Division's budget, personnel, models, and publications. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Promoting Interests in Atmospheric Science at a Liberal Arts Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussev, S.; Sherengos, P. M.; Limpasuvan, V.; Xue, M.

    2007-12-01

    Coastal Carolina University (CCU) students in Computer Science participated in a project to set up an operational weather forecast for the local community. The project involved the construction of two computing clusters and the automation of daily forecasting. Funded by NSF-MRI, two high-performance clusters were successfully established to run the University of Oklahoma's Advance Regional Prediction System (ARPS). Daily weather predictions are made over South Carolina and North Carolina at 3-km horizontal resolution (roughly 1.9 miles) using initial and boundary condition data provided by UNIDATA. At this high resolution, the model is cloud- resolving, thus providing detailed picture of heavy thunderstorms and precipitation. Forecast results are displayed on CCU's website (https://marc.coastal.edu/HPC) to complement observations at the National Weather Service in Wilmington N.C. Present efforts include providing forecasts at 1-km resolution (or finer), comparisons with other models like Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the examination of local phenomena (like water spouts and tornadoes). Through these activities the students learn about shell scripting, cluster operating systems, and web design. More importantly, students are introduced to Atmospheric Science, the processes involved in making weather forecasts, and the interpretation of their forecasts. Simulations generated by the forecasts will be integrated into the contents of CCU's course like Fluid Dynamics, Atmospheric Sciences, Atmospheric Physics, and Remote Sensing. Operated jointly between the departments of Applied Physics and Computer Science, the clusters are expected to be used by CCU faculty and students for future research and inquiry-based projects in Computer Science, Applied Physics, and Marine Science.

  4. Applications of multigrid software in the atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J.; Garcia, R.; Gross, B.; Hack, J.; Haidvogel, D.; Pizzo, V.

    1992-01-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations from different areas in the atmospheric sciences are efficiently and easily solved utilizing the multigrid software package named MUDPACK. It is demonstrated that the multigrid method is more efficient than other commonly employed techniques, such as Gaussian elimination and fixed-grid relaxation. The efficiency relative to other techniques, both in terms of storage requirement and computational time, increases quickly with grid size.

  5. Atmospheric sciences division. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research activities of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of the Department of Energy and Environment for FY 1981 are presented. Facilities and major items of equipment are described. Research programs are summarized in three categories, modeling, field and laboratory experiments and data management and analysis. Each program is also described individually with title, principal investigator, sponsor and funding levels for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Future plans are summarized. Publications for FY 1981 are listed with abstracts. A list of personnel is included

  6. Professional development for graduate students in the atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.

    2015-12-01

    The field of atmospheric sciences is rapidly changing, and with it, the employment outlook for recent graduate students. Weather and climate applications for society and the private industry are in demand and have increased significantly over the last few years, creating new employment opportunities for atmospheric scientists. It is therefore more important than ever that our graduates are well prepared for the newly emerging careers. The Bureau's Occupational Outlook predicts that opportunities for atmospheric scientists will increase more rapidly in the private industry than in other sectors (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Employers in the private sector indicate that, while job applicants often bring the required scientific training, there is a gap between the technical and professional skills needed in those positions and those possessed by graduates. Job candidates were found to be most lacking in written and oral communication skills, adaptability, and project management (Chronicle for Higher Education, 2012). The geoscience community needs to come together to better prepare our graduate students. While some of this work can be done within academic institutions, partnerships with mentoring programs and the private industry are essential. In this paper we will present one approach taken by the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program to improve its students' skills in project management, collaborating, communication, problem solving, and essential leadership skills.

  7. Enhancing climate literacy by melding the atmospheric and geospatial sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupigny-Giroux, L.; Toolin, R.; Morrissey, L.; Fortney, M. D.; Hogan, S.; Pontius, J.; Berryman, B.; Shafer, J.; Atkins, N.; Shepherd, M.; Mote, T. L.; Raphael, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Climate literacy involves an understanding of the interconnectedness of various components of the climate system over space and time, as well as the influence of humans on that system and the ability to use that understanding to "act accordingly". Understanding the climate system relies on techniques that include statistics, modelling, visualization and geospatial technologies such as remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS). The melding of these geospatial technologies with the atmospheric and climate sciences has become increasingly common and ubiquitous from the nightly weather presentations to the weekly U.S. Drought Monitor. This presentation will delve into the successes and ongoing challenges for a climate literate society that exist at the transdisciplinary border of the atmospheric and geospatial sciences. Two National Science Foundation (NSF) funded programs will be highlighted. The first is the Satellites, Weather and Climate (SWAC) professional development program for K-12 teachers and the second is the Diversity Climate Network (D-ClimNet) for high school to graduate students.

  8. Atmospheric Sciences Program summaries of research in FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Atmospheric Science Program of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history; the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date. Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used. This document has been indexed to aid the reader in locating research topics, participants, and research institutions in the text and the project descriptions. Comprehensive subject, principal investigator, and institution indexes are provided at the end of the text for this purpose. The comprehensive subject index includes keywords from the introduction and chapter texts in addition to those from the project descriptions.

  9. Atmospheric Biosignatures in the Context of Exoplanetary Science - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, John Lee; Rauer, Heike

    We review the main principles, methods and theoretical results related to atmospheric biosignatures in exoplanetary science. The term atmospheric "biosignature" is rather diverse and there are different approaches e.g. searching for the presence of (i) a particular chemical species (e.g. ozone), (ii) a combination of species (e.g. the "triple signature") and (iii) a process such as the departure from chemical or redox equillibrium. We first review these three approaches and their applications for a range of simulated planetary atmospheres (varying e.g. central star, planet mass etc.). Debate continues as to the extent by which true biosignature signals could be destroyed or mimicked by abiotic processes. We therefore summarise understanding of "false positive" signals i.e. where abiotic processes could mimic life and "false negatives" i.e. where signals of life may be masked. Finally we provide a link with future observational facilities e.g. the E-ELT by discussing theoretical spectra and SN of some specific atmospheric case-studies.

  10. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE's programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols

  11. SOARS: Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, T. L.; Hagan, M. E.

    2001-05-01

    SOARS, a model program, has developed a unique mutli-year mentoring and learning community to support, teach, and guide college students from diverse backgrounds. SOARS is dedicated to increasing the number of African American, American Indian, and Hispanic/Latino students enrolled in master's and doctoral degree programs in the atmospheric and related sciences with the goal of supporting the development of a diverse, internationally competitive and globally engaged workforce within the scientific community. Since its 1996 inception, 51 undergraduates have participated. All 51 completed or are on schedule to complete their undergraduate degrees with a major in an atmospheric or related science. Currently 17 protégés are in graduate programs. Eight have completed M.S. degrees; two are Ph.D. candidates. SOARS has a retention rate of 82 percent. The SOARS learning community provides multi-year programing for protégés that includes educational and research opportunities, mentoring, career counseling and guidance, and the possibility of financial support for a graduate level program. Protégés spend their summers at NCAR, participate in ongoing research projects, an eight week scientific writing and communication workshop, and scientific seminars. They benefit from long-term mentoring from respected scientists and professionals, learn about career opportunities, practice leadership and are encouraged to complete a graduate program in an atmospheric or related science. In this presentation we highlight the SOARS program structure and objectives with particular emphasis on the mentoring model that is fundamental to SOARS. We conclude with a summary of SOARS protégés' contributions to the broader scientific community which include oral and poster presentations at national and regional scientific conferences, as well as co-authorship of refereed journal articles.

  12. Using Case Studies as a Tool for Teaching Science Policy within the Atmospheric and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G.; Hooke, W.

    2006-12-01

    Earth system science is a field where policy, societal, & economic aspects are becoming increasingly important as our society becomes more dependent on activities and technologies that affect and are affected by the Earth system. It is important that present and future scientists are prepared to fully participate in the challenging opportunities that lie ahead, including communicating to policy makers, making public policy decisions, & communicating science to the public. One way of providing a better foundation is to integrate policy and science at universities. Therefore, the American Meteorological Society Policy Program (APP) is developing materials for university science policy curricula and the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium. In providing policy education activities and promoting policy research, the APP hopes to encourage more people to enter the field of science policy, contribute to and enhance the current policy dialogue, and create a clearinghouse for science policy case studies. Case studies are an excellent method to study policy issues in the atmospheric and space sciences for the following reasons: issues are too complex to be handled by any single factor (economic, social, or political science); purpose is to identify and analyze the impacts rather than test theoretical hypotheses; problems involve large number of participants (government at various levels, industries, and researchers); and study requires giving alternatives and consequence analysis for policy makers. Lessons learned will be presented on implementation of science policy case studies at the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium and George Mason University.

  13. Communications Blackout Prediction for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, David; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    When a supersonic spacecraft enters a planetary atmosphere with v >> v(sub sound), a shock layer forms in the front of the body. An ionized sheath of plasma develops around the spacecraft, which results from the ionization of the atmospheric constituents as they are compressed and heated by the shock or heated within the boundary layer next to the surface. When the electron density surrounding the spacecraft becomes sufficiently high, communications can be disrupted (attenuation/blackout). During Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL's) atmospheric entry there will likely be a communication outage due to charged particles on the order of 60 to 100 seconds using a UHF link frequency looking out the shoulders of the wake region to orbiting relay asset. A UHF link looking out the base region would experience a shorter duration blackout, about 35 seconds for the stressed trajectory and possibly no blackout for the nominal trajectory. There is very little likelihood of a communications outage using X-band (however, X-band is not currently planned to be used during peak electron density phase of EDL).

  14. Linking Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences in Continental Water Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C. H.; Gochis, D. J.; Maidment, D. R.; Wilhelmi, O.

    2006-12-01

    Atmospheric observation and model output datasets as well as hydrologic datasets are increasingly becoming available on a continental scale. Although the availability of these datasets could allow large-scale water dynamics modeling, the different objects and semantics used in atmospheric science and hydrology set barriers to their interoperability. Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility for modeling terrestrial water dynamics for the continental United States of America. Continental water dynamics defines the interaction of the hydrosphere, the land surface and subsurface at spatial scales ranging from point to continent. The improved version of the National Hydrographic Dataset (NHDPlus, an integrated suite of geospatial datasets stored in a vector and raster GIS format) was used as hydrologic and elevation data input to the Noah community Land Surface Model, developed at NCAR. Noah was successfully run on a watershed in the Ohio River Basin with NHDPlus inputs. The use of NHDPlus as input data for Noah is a crucial improvement for community modeling efforts allowing users to by-pass much of the time consumed in Digital Elevation Model and hydrological network processing. Furthermore, the community Noah land surface model, in its hydrologically-enhanced configuration, is capable of providing flow inputs for a river dynamics model. Continued enhancement of Noah will, as a consequence, be beneficial to the atmospheric science community as well as to the hydrologic community. Ongoing research foci include using a diversity of weather drivers as an input to Noah, and investigation of how to use land surface model outputs for river forecasting, using both the ArcHydro and OpenMI frameworks.

  15. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division: Program report, FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988 the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division began its 15th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to years, and from kilometers to global, respectively. For this report, we have chosen to show a subset of results from several projects to illustrate the breadth, depth, and diversity of the modeling activities that are a major part of the Division's research, development, and application efforts. In addition, the recent reorganization of the Division, including the merger of another group with the Division, is described, and the budget, personnel, models, and publications are reviewed. 95 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division: Program report, FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    In 1988 the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division began its 15th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to years, and from kilometers to global, respectively. For this report, we have chosen to show a subset of results from several projects to illustrate the breadth, depth, and diversity of the modeling activities that are a major part of the Division's research, development, and application efforts. In addition, the recent reorganization of the Division, including the merger of another group with the Division, is described, and the budget, personnel, models, and publications are reviewed. 95 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  18. Propulsion Selection for 85kft Remotely Piloted Atmospheric Science Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Mockler, Ted; Maldonado, Jaime; Hahn, Andrew; Cyrus, John; Schmitz, Paul; Harp, Jim; King, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how a 3 stage turbocharged gasoline engine was selected to power NASA's atmospheric science unmanned aircraft now under development. The airplane, whose purpose is to fly sampling instruments through targeted regions of the upper atmosphere at the exact location and time (season, time of day) where the most interesting chemistry is taking place, must have a round trip range exceeding 1000 km, carry a payload of about 500 lb to altitudes exceeding 80 kft over the site, and be able to remain above that altitude for at least 30 minutes before returning to base. This is a subsonic aircraft (the aerodynamic heating and shock associated with supersonic flight could easily destroy the chemical species that are being sampled) and it must be constructed so it will operate out of small airfields at primitive remote sites worldwide, under varying climate and weather conditions. Finally it must be low cost, since less than $50 M is available for its development. These requirements put severe constraints on the aircraft design (for example, wing loading in the vicinity of 10 psf) and have in turn limited the propulsion choices to already-existing hardware, or limited adaptations of existing hardware. The only candidate that could emerge under these circumstances was a propeller driven aircraft powered by spark ignited (SI) gasoline engines, whose intake pressurization is accomplished by multiple stages of turbo-charging and intercooling. Fortunately the turbocharged SI powerplant, owing to its rich automotive heritage and earlier intensive aero powerplant development during WWII, enjoys in addition to its potentially low development costs some subtle physical advantages (arising from its near-stochiometric combustion) that may make it smaller and lighter than either a turbine engine or a diesel for these altitudes. Just as fortunately, the NASA/industry team developing this aircraft includes the same people who built multi-stage turbocharged SI powerplants

  19. SAVS: A Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Mankofsky, A.; Blanchard, P.; Goodrich, C.; McNabb, D.; Kamins, D.

    1995-01-01

    The research environment faced by space and atmospheric scientists in the 1990s is characterized by unprecedented volumes of new data, by ever-increasing repositories of unexploited mission files, and by the widespread use of empirical and large-scale computational models needed for the synthesis of understanding across data sets and discipline boundaries. The effective analysis and interpretation of such massive amounts of information have become the subjects of legitimate concern. With SAVS (a Space and Atmospheric Visualization Science System), we address these issues by creating a 'push-button' software environment that mimics the logical scientific processes in data acquisition, reduction, and analysis without requiring a detailed understanding of the methods, networks, and modules that link the tools and effectively execute the functions. SAVS provides (1) a customizable framework for accessing a powerful set of visualization tools based on the popular AVS visualization software with hooks to PV-Wave and access to Khoros modules, (2) a set of mathematical and statistical tools, (3) an extensible library of discipline-specific functions and models (e.g., MSIS, IRI, Feldstein Oval, IGRF, satellite tracking with CADRE-3, etc.), and (4) capabilities for local and remote data base access. The system treats scalar, vector, and image data, and runs on most common Unix workstations. We present a description of SAVS and its components, followed by several applications based on generic research interests in interplanetary and magnetospheric physics (IMP/ISTP), active experiments in space (CRRES), and mission planning focused on the Earth's thermospheric, ionospheric, and mesospheric domains (TIMED).

  20. Atmospheric studies from the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing atmospheric structure reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Maue, A.; Withers, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entered the martian atmosphere on Aug. 6, 2012 landing in Gale crater (4.6°S, 137.4°E) in the local mid-afternoon. Aerodynamic accelerations were measured during descent and atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles have been calculated from this data. Using an averaging technique developed for the NASA Phoenix Mars mission, the profiles are extended to 134.1 km, twice that of the engineering reconstruction. Large-scale temperature oscillations in the MSL temperature profile are suggestive of thermal tides. Comparing the MSL temperature profile with measured Mars Climate Sounder temperature profiles and Mars Climate Database model output highlights the presence of diurnal tides. Derived vertical wavelengths for the diurnal migrating tide are larger than predicted from idealized tidal theory, indicating an added presence of nonmigrating diurnal tides. Sub-CO2 condensation mesospheric temperatures, very similar to the Pathfinder temperature profile, allude to the possibility of CO2 clouds. This is however not supported by recent observations and models.

  1. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. MSL will be the first mission to demonstrate the new technology of 'smart landers', which include precision landing and hazard avoidance in order to -land at scientifically interesting sites that would otherwise be unreachable. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have an X-band direct-to-Earth (DTE) link as well as a UHF proximity link. There is also a possibility of an X-band proximity link. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, hazard avoidance, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized plasma for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this report is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal likely trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  2. Semantic Data Access Services at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffer, E.; Hertz, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    The corpus of Earth Science data products at the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA's Langley Research Center comprises a widely heterogeneous set of products, even among those whose subject matter is very similar. Two distinct data products may both contain data on the same parameter, for instance, solar irradiance; but the instruments used, and the circumstances under which the data were collected and processed, may differ significantly. Understanding the differences is critical to using the data effectively. Data distribution services must be able to provide prospective users with enough information to allow them to meaningfully compare and evaluate the data products offered. Semantic technologies - ontologies, triple stores, reasoners, linked data - offer functionality for addressing this issue. Ontologies can provide robust, high-fidelity domain models that serve as common schema for discovering, evaluating, comparing and integrating data from disparate products. Reasoning engines and triple stores can leverage ontologies to support intelligent search applications that allow users to discover, query, retrieve, and easily reformat data from a broad spectrum of sources. We argue that because of the extremely complex nature of scientific data, data distribution systems should wholeheartedly embrace semantic technologies in order to make their data accessible to a broad array of prospective end users, and to ensure that the data they provide will be clearly understood and used appropriately by consumers. Toward this end, we propose a distribution system in which formal ontological models that accurately and comprehensively represent the ASDC's data domain, and fully leverage the expressivity and inferential capabilities of first order logic, are used to generate graph-based representations of the relevant relationships among data sets, observational systems, metadata files, and geospatial, temporal and scientific parameters to help prospective data consumers

  3. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Program report, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes research programs from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory from 1990--1991 in atmospheric chemistry and geophysics. Programs such as mathematical modeling of atmospheric dispersions of pollutants and radionuclides,tropospheric chemistry, clouds, climate models, and the effects of atmospheric trace constiuents on ozone are described

  4. Atmospheric science: Ancient air caught by shooting stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Buick, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Ashes of ancient meteors recovered from a 2.7-billion-year-old lake bed imply that the upper atmosphere was rich in oxygen at a time when all other evidence implies that the atmosphere was oxygen-free. See Letter p.235

  5. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  6. What the Cited and Citing Environments Reveal of "Advances in Atmospheric Sciences"?

    OpenAIRE

    Aolan, Shi; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    The networking ability of journals reflects their academic influence among peer journals. This paper analyzes the cited and citing environments of the journal--Advances in Atmospheric Sciences--using methods from social network analysis. The journal has been actively participating in the international journal environment, but one has a tendency to cite papers published in international journals. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences is intensely interrelated with international peer journals in ter...

  7. Advancing Solid Earth Science through Improved Atmosphere Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    We proposed to investigate and develop better models for the effect of the hydrostatic and water vapor components of the neutral atmosphere on delay for VLBI and GPS by using a Numerical Weather Model to better simulate realistic atmosphere conditions. By using a raytrace calculation through the model atmosphere at the times of actual VLBI observations, the potential improvement in geodetic results can be evaluated. Also, by calculating the actual variation of delays with elevation and azimuth, the errors in current mapping function models can be assessed. The VLBI data to be initially analyzed are the fifteen days of the CONT02 sessions of 2002 October which included eight stations. There are three segments to the research. 1) The PSU/NCAR fifth generation mesoscale numerical weather model (MM5) will be used to provide the state of the atmosphere with highest horizontal resolution of 3 km. 2) A three-dimensional raytrace program will be developed to determine the delays through the model atmosphere at the times and in the directions of the VLBI observations for each of the sites. 3) The VLBI data will be analyzed using both standard models for the atmosphere mapping functions and the mapping functions derived from the NWM raytracing.

  8. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  9. Atmospheric science and emergency preparedness: the DOE/OHER perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950s, Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) funded pioneering research on precipitation scavenging and dry deposition as processes removing radioactive particles and gases from the atmosphere. In the early 1970s, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) was conceived. This is a system combining knowledge of atmospheric transport and diffusion with hihg-speed computing and modern communications systems. It provides real-time advice on the movement and spread of a radioactive or chemical release to the atmosphere. ARAC has been activated in a variety of threatening situations. Through the lessons learned from real-world accident responses, ARAC has evolved an extensive set of emergency response services. ARAC is now supported by operational groups in the Departments of Defense and Energy. In 1989 there are 73 sites and facilities in the U.S. being served by the ARAC system. In the 1980s, two major programs were launched. The first was a tracer experiment, CAPTEX (Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment), which used perfluorocarbons and explored transport and diffusion over distances greater than 1000km. The second is a continuing field and modeling activity, ASCOT (Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain), studying the meteorology of transport and dispersion over the rugged terrain that dominates the western energy-rich regions of the U.S. ASCOT is currently focusing its research activities on fundamental meteorological forecasting problems that have generic value to the emergency preparedness planning at key DOE facilities

  10. Evaluation of the NOAA CAREERS Weather Camp's Effectiveness in Promoting Atmospheric Science amongst High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgin, J. G.; Fitzgerald, R. M.; Morris, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) sponsors the Channeling Atmospheric Research into Educational Experiences Reaching Students program (CAREERS); a program that manages a network of weather camps for students in secondary education with particular focus on increasing access for students from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. Hosted by a college or university, the primary mission goals of the program are to engage students in discussions, lectures and interactive projects to better learn and comprehend a suite of atmospheric science disciplines (i.e. weather forecasting, environmental modeling, atmospheric data acquisition), and guide talented students towards higher education to pursue careers in atmospheric science primarily, or toward other STEM field professions. The need to evaluate and analyze the program's efficacy is crucial for continued growth and sustainability. Therefore a means to identify and measure the success of the program's initiatives will be addressed. Two Hispanic serving institutions, the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez (UPRM), both hosted the CAREER weather camps during the summers of 2012 and 2013, and provide the basis of this initial analysis. Participants performed entrance surveys of their knowledge of atmospheric science prior to the course. They were then re-evaluated through exit surveys over the topics covered during the weather camp. These data will be analyzed to correlate which program activities worked best in increasing participant awareness (i.e. geology tours of the local area, discussion on local climate variations, geophysical and geochemical demonstrations), and comprehension of atmospheric science. A comparison between the two universities on their uniqueness in program design and execution will also highlight those activities that best progressed CAREERS' program goals. Results from this analysis, along with possible new strategies for improved

  11. Improving SLCF Science in the Himalayan Region: ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, A. K.; Pradhan, B. B.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    What fraction of the black carbon arriving on Yala Glacier in Langtang, Nepal, is from cooking fires in the houses in the valley below? What fraction is from elsewhere in rural Nepal? What fraction is from industrial and transport sources in Kathmandu? What fraction is from northern India and beyond? What fraction is from the high altitude forest fires that take place during March or April? Effectively mitigating the impacts of black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers requires detailed understanding not just of emissions and impacts, but also of the atmospheric transport pathways that connect the two. In mountainous areas of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya detailed quantitative knowledge about emissions, atmospheric processes, and impacts is still largely missing. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental organization covering Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. ICIMOD's recently established Atmosphere Initiative not only assesses mitigation options and contributes to policy and capacity building in the region, but also works actively to promote collaboration among researchers in the region, while building up an in-house team whose research will address key questions about SLCF. In Spring 2013 ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative, in collaboration with the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany, carried out the largest field campaign to date in Nepal, hosting instruments belonging to dozens of institutions around the world, at nine field site within and upwind of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The dataset that has been collected gives unprecedented insights into the emissions and atmospheric processes taking place downwind of and within the largest urban agglomeration in the Himalaya region. Meanwhile, in collaboration with national partner institutions, ICIMOD is in the process of setting up one atmospheric observatory each in Bhutan and in

  12. Atmospheric Science Program. Summaries of research in FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report provides descriptions for all projects funded by ESD under annual contracts in FY 1994. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than one year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states it goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used.

  13. NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Centers Near Real-Time Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, T.; Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center has archived and distributed a variety of satellite mission data sets. NASA's goal in Earth science is to observe, understand, and model the Earth system to discover how it is changing, to better predict change, and to understand the consequences for life on Earth. The ASDC has collaborated with Science Teams to accommodate emerging science users in the climate and modeling communities. The ASDC has expanded its original role to support operational usage by related Earth Science satellites, support land and ocean assimilations, support of field campaigns, outreach programs, and application projects for agriculture and energy industries to bridge the gap between Earth science research results and the adoption of data and prediction capabilities for reliable and sustained use in Decision Support Systems (DSS). For example; these products are being used by the community performing data assimilations to regulate aerosol mass in global transport models to improve model response and forecast accuracy, to assess the performance of components of a global coupled atmospheric-ocean climate model, improve atmospheric motion vector (winds) impact on numerical weather prediction models, and to provide internet-based access to parameters specifically tailored to assist in the design of solar and wind powered renewable energy systems. These more focused applications often require Near Real-Time (NRT) products. Generating NRT products pose their own unique set challenges for the ASDC and the Science Teams. Examples of ASDC NRT products and challenges will be discussed.

  14. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) Department of Marine Geosciences.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) Department of Marine Geosciences made a one-time contribution of data describing geological samples...

  15. Atmospheric risk assessment for the Mars Science Laboratory entry, descent, and landing system

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Allen; Vasavada, Ashwin; Cianciolo, Alicia; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Dan; Rafkin, Scot; Hinson, David; Lewis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems, by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. As with previous Mars landers, atmospheric conditions during entry, descent, and landing directly impact the performance of MSL's EDL system. While the vehicle's novel guided entry system allows it to "fly out" a range of atmospheric uncertainties, its trajectory through the at...

  16. Dessler, Jimenez, Klein, and Nenes Receive 2012 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Athanasios Nenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2013-11-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the four Ascent Awards to Professor Athanasios Nenes, of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering of the Georgia Institute of Technology, for the creation of thermodynamical models for tropospheric aerosols and the development of physically based aerosol-cloud parameterizations. In addition, he is recognized for the design of instrumentation and techniques to characterize the hygroscopicity and activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and also for contributions to the understanding of the role of aerosols in climate and air quality.

  17. Proceedings of the second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting was held in Denver, Colorado, in October 1991. The five-day meeting provided a forum for a technical exchange among the members of the ARM Science Team and a discussion of the technical aspects of the project infrastructure. The meeting included several activities: Science Team presentations, discussions of the first site occupation plan, experiment design sessions, and poster sessions. This Proceedings document includes papers presented at the meeting. The papers included are those from the technical sessions, the experiment design sessions, the first site occupation, and descriptions of locales for future sites. Individual projects are processed separately for the database

  18. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division, Physics Department program report, FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on the development of a number of mathematical models for the simulation and computer analysis of a variety of environmental conditions. Regional, local, and global models for the environmental transport of chemical and radioactive effluents at surface and stratospheric levels are described. A list is included of publications in the atmospheric sciences during the time covered by this report

  19. Active Learning in the Atmospheric Science Classroom and beyond through High-Altitude Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jill S. M.; Mitchell, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of high-altitude balloon (HAB) research into a variety of undergraduate atmospheric science classes as a means of increasing active student engagement in real-world, problem-solving events. Because high-altitude balloons are capable of reaching heights of 80,000-100,000 ft (24-30 km), they provide a…

  20. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  1. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Cantor, Bruce; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Daniel, Jr.; Rafkin, Scot; Chen, Allen; Kass, David; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2013-01-01

    On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, developed by two independent organizations (Oregon State University and the Southwest Research Institute), were validated against observations at Mars from three prior years. In the weeks and days before entry, the MSL "Council of Atmospheres" (CoA), a group of atmospheric scientists and modelers, instrument experts and EDL simulation engineers, evaluated the latest Mars data from orbiting assets including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The observations were compared to the mesoscale models developed for EDL performance simulation to determine if a spacecraft parameter update was necessary prior to entry. This paper summarizes the daily atmosphere observations and comparison to the performance simulation atmosphere models. Options to modify the atmosphere model in the simulation to compensate for atmosphere effects are also presented. Finally, a summary of the CoA decisions and recommendations to the MSL project in the days leading up to EDL is provided.

  3. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications.

  4. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications

  5. Interview with Warren Wiscombe on scientific programing and his contributions to atmospheric science tool making

    CERN Document Server

    Flatau, Piotr J

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2013 I talked with Warren Wiscombe about his contributions to scientific computer programming, atmospheric science and radiative transfer. Our conversation is divided into three parts related to light scattering, radiative transfer and his general thoughts about scientific programming. There are some reflections on how radiative transfer parameterizations gradually sneaked in to modern Global Circulation Models. Why some software programs such as light scattering code MIEV and DISORT are very successful and why some of them fizzle. We talked about the role of tools in modern science, open source movement, repeatability of scientific results, computer languages, computer programs as objects of arts, and even if programs can be revolutionary.

  6. Program report for FY 1980. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FY 1980 research program conducted by the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division and supporting segments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is reviewed briefly. The work is divided into five research themes: advanced modeling, regional modeling and assessments, CO2 and climate research, stratospheric research, and special projects. Specific projects are described, and significant findings of the work are indicated. Unique numerical modeling capabilities in use and under development are described

  7. Earth Science Data and Applications for K-16 Education from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Alston, E. J.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate aims to stimulate public interest in Earth system science and to encourage young scholars to consider careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at Langley Research Center houses over 700 data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry that are being produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influence global climate change. However, barriers still exist in the use of these actual satellite observations by educators in the classroom to supplement the educational process. Thus, NASA is sponsoring the "Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs" (MY NASA DATA) project to systematically support educational activities by reducing the ASDC data holdings to `microsets' that can be easily accessible and explored by the K-16 educators and students. The microsets are available via Web site (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov) with associated lesson plans, computer tools, data information pages, and a science glossary. A MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) has been populated with ASDC data such that users can create custom microsets online for desired time series, parameters and geographical regions. The LAS interface is suitable for novice to advanced users, teachers or students. The microsets may be visual representations of data or text output for spreadsheet analysis. Currently, over 148 parameters from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are available and provide important information on clouds, fluxes and cycles in the Earth system. Additionally, a MY NASA DATA OPeNDAP server has been established to facilitate file transfer of

  8. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Trajectory and Atmosphere Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kutty, Prasad; Schoenenberer, Mark; Shidner, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    On August 5th 2012, The Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle successfully entered Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover on its surface. A Kalman filter approach has been implemented to reconstruct the entry, descent, and landing trajectory based on all available data. The data sources considered in the Kalman filtering approach include the inertial measurement unit accelerations and angular rates, the terrain descent sensor, the measured landing site, orbit determination solutions for the initial conditions, and a new set of instrumentation for planetary entry reconstruction consisting of forebody pressure sensors, known as the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System. These pressure measurements are unique for planetary entry, descent, and landing reconstruction as they enable a reconstruction of the freestream atmospheric conditions without any prior assumptions being made on the vehicle aerodynamics. Moreover, the processing of these pressure measurements in the Kalman filter approach enables the identification of atmospheric winds, which has not been accomplished in past planetary entry reconstructions. This separation of atmosphere and aerodynamics allows for aerodynamic model reconciliation and uncertainty quantification, which directly impacts future missions. This paper describes the mathematical formulation of the Kalman filtering approach, a summary of data sources and preprocessing activities, and results of the reconstruction.

  9. Aura Atmospheric Data Products and Their Availability from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Gopalan, A.; Smith, P.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft was launched successfully on July 15, 2004. The four instruments onboard the spacecraft are the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HBDLS). The Aura instruments are designed to gather earth sciences measurements across the ultraviolet, visible, infra-red, thermal and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aura will provide over 70 distinct standard atmospheric data products for use in ozone layer and surface UV-B monitoring, air quality forecast, and atmospheric chemistry and climate change studies (http://eosaura.gsfc.nasa.gov/). These products include earth-atmosphere radiances and solar spectral irradiances; total column, tropospheric, and profiles of ozone and other trace gases, surface W-B flux; clouds and aerosol characteristics; and temperature, geopotential height, and water vapor profiles. The MLS, OMI, and HIRDLS data products will be archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), while data from TES will be archived at NASA Langley Research Center DAAC. Some of the standard products which have gone through quick preliminary checks are already archived at the GES DAAC (http://daac.nsfc.nasa.gov/) and are available to the Aura science team and data validation team members for data validation; and to the application and visualization software developers, for testing their application modules. Once data are corrected for obvious calibration problems and partially validated using in-situ observations, they would be made available to the broader user community. This presentation will provide details of the whole suite of Aura atmospheric data products, and the time line of the availability of the rest of the preliminary products and of the partially validated provisional products. Software and took available for data access, visualization, and data

  10. The Atmospheric Sciences in the 1990s: Accomplishments, Challenges, and Imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, John A.

    1992-10-01

    The atmospheric sciences, along with other disciplines, are today contemplating strong competition for resources, exciting scientific challenges, and the need to assess opportunities and priorities. This review is intended to stimulate thought, discussion, and the active participation of the community in charting a course into the next century.Current efforts concentrate on mesoscale phenomena and severe weather, climate dynamics and prediction, the interplay of chemical and physical processes, the interactions of planetary atmospheres with ionospheres and solar processes, and the predictability of chaotic systems. These efforts are the foundation for initiatives involving global and regional climate change, mesoscale research and prediction, and the modernization of the National Weather Service.Contemporary imperatives include developing leadership and management capabilities, making the requisite investments in advanced data and information systems, enabling the prediction of predictability, and developing appropriate approaches to education and to cooperation with other disciplines. Most of all, the atmospheric sciences community must learn to be more effective in determining priorities and in developing compelling rationales for obtaining the resources necessary to pursue signal opportunities for scientific advance and service to the nation.

  11. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  12. An Analysis of Cloud Computing with Amazon Web Services for the Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. L.; Little, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    NASA science and engineering efforts rely heavily on compute and data handling systems. The nature of NASA science data is such that it is not restricted to NASA users, instead it is widely shared across a globally distributed user community including scientists, educators, policy decision makers, and the public. Therefore NASA science computing is a candidate use case for cloud computing where compute resources are outsourced to an external vendor. Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a commercial cloud computing service developed to use excess computing capacity at Amazon, and potentially provides an alternative to costly and potentially underutilized dedicated acquisitions whenever NASA scientists or engineers require additional data processing. AWS desires to provide a simplified avenue for NASA scientists and researchers to share large, complex data sets with external partners and the public. AWS has been extensively used by JPL for a wide range of computing needs and was previously tested on a NASA Agency basis during the Nebula testing program. Its ability to support the Langley Science Directorate needs to be evaluated by integrating it with real world operational needs across NASA and the associated maturity that would come with that. The strengths and weaknesses of this architecture and its ability to support general science and engineering applications has been demonstrated during the previous testing. The Langley Office of the Chief Information Officer in partnership with the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has established a pilot business interface to utilize AWS cloud computing resources on a organization and project level pay per use model. This poster discusses an effort to evaluate the feasibility of the pilot business interface from a project level perspective by specifically using a processing scenario involving the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project.

  13. Earth System Data Microsets for Education From the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Oots, P. C.; Moore, S. W.; Lorentz, K. E.; Dalton, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) at NASA's Langley Research Center houses over 700 data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry. These data sets were produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influence global climate change. Scientists have been analyzing the extensive data to discover and quantify the complex interactions and feedbacks in the Earth system, communicating conclusions frequently with colleagues, policy makers and the general public. NASA's Science Mission Directorate aims to stimulate public interest in the understanding of these Earth system science findings and to encourage young scholars to consider careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. However, barriers still exist to the use of actual satellite observations in the classroom to energize the educational process. NASA is sponsoring the "Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs" (MY NASA DATA) project to systematically support educational activities at all levels of formal and informal education by reducing the ASDC data holdings to `microsets' that will be easily accessible and explored by the K-12 and the citizen scientist communities. The microsets are available via Web site (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov) with associated lesson plans, computer tools, data information pages, and a science glossary. Teacher workshops will be held each summer for five years to help teachers learn about incorporating the microsets in their curriculum. Additionally, a Live Access Server (LAS) has been populated with ASDC data holdings such that users can create custom microsets for desired time series, parameters and geographical regions. Currently, parameters from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), the Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) and the International Satellite Cloud

  14. Repository Profiles for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences: Capabilities and Trends in Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, C. Y.; Thompson, C. A.; Palmer, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    As digital research data proliferate and expectations for open access escalate, the landscape of data repositories is becoming more complex. For example, DataBib currently identifies 980 data repositories across the disciplines, with 117 categorized under Geosciences. In atmospheric and climate sciences, there are great expectations for the integration and reuse of data for advancing science. To realize this potential, resources are needed that explicate the range of repository options available for locating and depositing open data, their conditions of access and use, and the services and tools they provide. This study profiled 38 open digital repositories in the atmospheric and climate sciences, analyzing each on 55 criteria through content analysis of their websites. The results provide a systematic way to assess and compare capabilities, services, and institutional characteristics and identify trends across repositories. Selected results from the more detailed outcomes to be presented: Most repositories offer guidance on data format(s) for submission and dissemination. 42% offer authorization-free access. More than half use some type of data identification system such as DOIs. Nearly half offer some data processing, with a similar number providing software or tools. 78.9% request that users cite or acknowledge datasets used and the data center. Only 21.1% recommend specific metadata standards, such as ISO 19115 or Dublin Core, with more than half utilizing a customized metadata scheme. Information was rarely provided on repository certification and accreditation and uneven for transfer of rights and data security. Few provided policy information on preservation, migration, reappraisal, disposal, or long-term sustainability. As repository use increases, it will be important for institutions to make their procedures and policies explicit, to build trust with user communities and improve efficiencies in data sharing. Resources such as repository profiles will be

  15. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out

  16. Overview of Data Discovery and Access at the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, P. L.; Little, M. M.; Kusterer, J.; Tisdale, M.; Johnson, C. J.; Quam, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC), in its role as an Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has made substantial improvements to the ways in which data is delivered. The architecture and services have been developed in response to both emerging customer needs to support multiple paths for access and associated technologies. Consideration of user interfaces and automated machine to machine methods will be described. This presentation provides an overview of the approach and how the various elements of data, metadata, and documentation are provided to the access methods at the ASDC. These include recently refreshed conventional ordering tools, Esri and Open-source GIS products, and piloting efforts to optimize Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), Hadoop, and Integrated Rule Oriented Data Systems (iRODS).

  17. Attitude Controller for the Atmospheric Entry of the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul B.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Wong, Edward C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude controller for the atmospheric entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The controller will command 8 RCS thrusters to control the 3- axis attitude of the entry capsule. The Entry Controller is formulated as three independent channels in the control frame, which is nominally aligned with the stability frame. Each channel has a feedfoward and a feedback path. The feedforward path enables fast response to large bank commands. The feedback path stabilizes the vehicle angle of attack and sideslip around its trim position, and tracks bank commands. The feedback path has a PD/D control structure with deadbands that minimizes fuel usage. The performance of this design is demonstrated via computer simulations.

  18. New observational capabilities on atmospheric sciences of the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) Graciosa island ARM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Kim; Ortega, Paul; Azevedo, Eduardo; Miller, Mark

    2016-04-01

    with an extensive set of radiometric measurements and routine radiosonde soundings, a full three-dimensional view of the atmospheric phenomena, some of them poorly understood until now, are freely available to the research community. This presentation, besides showcasing the capabilities of this ARM Facility, aims to promote discussion about the potential for the facilities use in collaborative efforts in support of atmospheric and climatic sciences and in particular how they may relate to European research initiatives. The facility as a designated DOE user facility makes all of its data freely and publicly available. In addition, there may be opportunities for the facility to be used as a deployment platform with instrument accommodation and infrastructure available on request.

  19. Increasing Access to Atmospheric Science Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K. L.; LaPan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Science Directorate (SD) at NASA's Langley Research Center conducts cutting edge research in fundamental atmospheric science topics including radiation and climate, air quality, active remote sensing, and upper atmospheric composition. These topics matter to the public, as they improve our understanding of our home planet. Thus, we have had ongoing efforts to improve public access to the results of our research. These efforts have accelerated with the release of the February OSTP memo. Our efforts can be grouped in two main categories: 1. Visual presentation techniques to improve science understanding: For fundamental concepts such as the Earth's energy budget, we have worked to display information in a more "digestible" way for lay audiences with more pictures and fewer words. These audiences are iPad-lovers and TV-watchers with shorter attention spans than audiences of the past. They are also educators and students who need a basic understanding of a concept delivered briefly to fit into busy classroom schedules. We seek to reach them with a quick, visual message packed with important information. This presentation will share several examples of visual techniques, such as infographics (e.g., a history of lidar at Langley and a timeline of atmospheric research, ozone garden diagrams (http://science-edu.larc.nasa.gov/ozonegarden/ozone-cycle.php); history of lidar at LaRC; DISCOVER-AQ maps. It will also share examples of animations and interactive graphics (DISCOVER-AQ); and customized presentations (e.g., to explain the energy budget or to give a general overview of research). One of the challenges we face is a required culture shift between the way scientists traditionally share knowledge with each other and the way these public audiences ingest knowledge. A cross-disciplinary communications team in SD is crucial to bridge that gap. 2. Lay research summaries to make research more accessible: Peer-reviewed publications are a primary product of the SD, with more

  20. Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION METHOD TO NUMERICAL STUDIES OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wan-suo; MU Mu

    2005-01-01

    Linear singular vector and linear singular value can only describe the evolution of sufficiently small perturbations during the period in which the tangent linear model is valid.With this in mind, the applications of nonlinear optimization methods to the atmospheric and oceanic sciences are introduced, which include nonlinear singular vector (NSV) and nonlinear singular value (NSVA), conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP), and their applications to the studies of predictability in numerical weather and climate prediction.The results suggest that the nonlinear characteristics of the motions of atmosphere and oceans can be explored by NSV and CNOP. Also attentions are paid to the introduction of the classification of predictability problems, which are related to the maximum predictable time,the maximum prediction error, and the maximum allowing error of initial value and the parameters. All the information has the background of application to the evaluation of products of numerical weather and climate prediction. Furthermore the nonlinear optimization methods of the sensitivity analysis with numerical model are also introduced, which can give a quantitative assessment whether a numerical model is able to simulate the observations and find the initial field that yield the optimal simulation. Finally, the difficulties in the lack of ripe algorithms are also discussed, which leave future work to both computational mathematics and scientists in geophysics.

  2. Paleoclimate Modelling at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Paleoclimate modelling is one of the core topics in the Past Global Changes project under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and has received much attention worldwide in recent decades.Here we summarize the research on the Paleoclimate modeling, including the Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum, and pre-Quaternary climate intervals or events performed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS) for over one decade. As an attempt to review these academic activities, we emphasize that vegetation and ocean feedbacks can amplify East Asian climate response to the Earth's orbital parameters and atmospheric CO2 concentration at the mid-Holocene. At the Last Glacial Maximum, additional cooling in interior China is caused by the feedback effects of East Asian vegetation and the ice sheet over the Tibetan Plateau, and the regional climate model RegCM2 generally reduces data-model discrepancies in East Asia. The simulated mid-Pliocene climate is characterized by warmer and drier conditions as well as significantly weakened summer and winter monsoon systems in interior China. On a tectonic timescale, both the Tibetan Plateau uplift and the Paratethys Sea retreat play important roles in the formation of East Asian monsoon-dominant environmental pattern during the Cenozoic.

  3. Paleoclimate modelling at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dabang; Zhang, Zhongshi

    2006-12-01

    Paleoclimate modelling is one of the core topics in the Past Global Changes project under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and has received much attention worldwide in recent decades. Here we summarize the research on the Paleoclimate modeling, including the Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum, and pre-Quaternary climate intervals or events performed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS) for over one decade. As an attempt to review these academic activities, we emphasize that vegetation and ocean feedbacks can amplify East Asian climate response to the Earth’s orbital parameters and atmospheric CO2 concentration at the mid-Holocene. At the Last Glacial Maximum, additional cooling in interior China is caused by the feedback effects of East Asian vegetation and the ice sheet over the Tibetan Plateau, and the regional climate model RegCM2 generally reduces data-model discrepancies in East Asia. The simulated mid-Pliocene climate is characterized by warmer and drier conditions as well as significantly weakened summer and winter monsoon systems in interior China. On a tectonic timescale, both the Tibetan Plateau uplift and the Paratethys Sea retreat play important roles in the formation of East Asian monsoon-dominant environmental pattern during the Cenozoic.

  4. A-Train Data for Assessing Air Quality From the Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. A.

    2008-05-01

    A-Train Data for Assessing Air Quality from the Atmospheric Science Data Center The Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA Langley Research Center is the archive and distribution center for data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments. CALIPSO was launched into a sun-synchronous orbit on April 28, 2006, where it joined the A-Train constellation of four other Earth-orbiting satellites: Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and Parasol. The primary objective of CALIPSO's three-year mission is to make a global survey of the vertical structure of aerosols and clouds, and their physical properties. CALIPSO comprises three instruments, the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR), and the Wide Field Camera (WFC). CALIOP is a two-wavelength, polarization- sensitive lidar that provides information about the composition of clouds, the abundance and sizes of aerosols, and the altitudes of cloud and aerosol layers. The IIR measures outgoing radiation at three wavelengths in the thermal infrared window (8.65 mm, 10.6 mm, and 12.0 mm) to determine cloud emissivity and particle size. The high resolution, nadir-viewing WFC images the region around the lidar and IIR measurements in a single spectral channel (645 nm), which is matched to Band 1 of the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite in the A- Train, to provide context for the data from the other instruments. CALIPSO Level 2 products include an aerosol extinction profile product, an aerosol layer product and a vertical feature mask product that includes aerosol type information. TES flies on Aura, the third of NASA's Earth Observing System spacecraft, on July 15, 2004. The primary objective of TES is to make global, three-dimensional measurements of ozone and other chemical species involved in its formation and destruction. The NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) is the

  5. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  6. Data-driven Ontology Development: A Case Study at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, J.; Huffer, E.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Well-founded ontologies are key to enabling transformative semantic technologies and accelerating scientific research. One example is semantically enabled search and discovery, making scientific data accessible and more understandable by accurately modeling a complex domain. The ontology creation process remains a challenge for many anxious to pursue semantic technologies. The key may be that the creation process -- whether formal, community-based, automated or semi-automated -- should encompass not only a foundational core and supplemental resources but also a focus on the purpose or mission the ontology is created to support. Are there tools or processes to de-mystify, assess or enhance the resulting ontology? We suggest that comparison and analysis of a domain-focused ontology can be made using text engineering tools for information extraction, tokenizers, named entity transducers and others. The results are analyzed to ensure the ontology reflects the core purpose of the domain's mission and that the ontology integrates and describes the supporting data in the language of the domain - how the science is analyzed and discussed among all users of the data. Commonalities and relationships among domain resources describing the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy (CERES) Bi-Directional Scan (BDS) datasets from NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center are compared. The domain resources include: a formal ontology created for CERES; scientific works such as papers, conference proceedings and notes; information extracted from the datasets (i.e., header metadata); and BDS scientific documentation (Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents, collection guides, data quality summaries and others). These resources are analyzed using the open source software General Architecture for Text Engineering, a mature framework for computational tasks involving human language.

  7. Testimony presented to the Committee on Science and Technology's Subcommittee on Environment and the Atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the basis for oral testimony to the House Committee on Science and Technology's Subcommittee on Environment and the Atmosphere in November 1975. The subject of the hearings was ''Effects and Costs of Long-term Exposure to Low Levels of Manmade Pollutants'' and the purpose of the hearings was to increase the awareness of low-level pollution and its impacts on human health, agriculture and climate. This report contains information related to impacts of low-level pollutants on human health. I have attempted to point out the major adverse health effects (e.g., carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic) that may result from chronic exposure to low-level pollutants. Also addressed are important questions such as what do we know about dose-response relations for chronic exposure to pollutants and how can we establish comparisons with knowledge obtained from exposure to ionizing radiations. The report also considers the wisdom of extrapolating from health effects data obtained from acute, high-level exposures to chronic, low-level exposure conditions. Lastly, a few examples of the societal costs related to low-level pollutant exposure are presented

  8. Mars' gravity field and upper atmosphere with MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO radio science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars exploration program conducted by NASA during the last decade has enabled continuous observations of the planet from orbit with three different missions: the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). These spacecraft were equipped with on board instrumentation dedicated to collect radio tracking data in the X-band. The analysis of these data has provided a high-resolution gravity field model of Mars. MGS and ODY were inserted into two separate frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbits with different local times, with their periapsis altitude at ~370 km and ~390 km, respectively. MGS was in orbit around Mars between 1999 and 2006, whereas ODY has been orbiting the planet since January 2002. Using the radio science data of these two spacecraft, gravity models with a maximum resolution of degree and order 95 in spherical harmonics (spatial resolution of 112 km) have been determined. MRO has been orbiting Mars since August 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous orbit with a periapsis at 255 km altitude. Therefore, its radio data helped significantly improve Mars' gravity field model, up to degree and order 110 (spatial resolution of 96 km). However, mismodeling of the atmospheric drag, which is the strongest non-conservative force acting on the spacecraft at MRO's low altitude, compromises the estimation of the temporal variations of the gravity field zonal harmonics that provide crucial information on the seasonal mass of carbon dioxide in the polar caps. For this reason, we implemented the Drag Temperature Model (DTM)-Mars model (Bruinsma and Lemoine 2002) into our Precise Orbit Determination (POD) program GEODYN-II. We estimated key model parameters to adequately reproduce variations in temperatures and (partial) density along the spacecraft trajectories. Our new model allows us to directly estimate the long-term periodicity of the major constituents at MGS, ODY, and MRO altitudes (~255-450 km). In this

  9. 14C accelerator mass spectrometry - applications in archaeology, biomedicine and in the atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA adducts in humans. 'Bomb-peak' dating of macromolecular substances such as collagen, lipids and keratin from individuals of different age was used to study carbon turnover times in humans. With regard to forensic medicine, collagen has to be discarded for reliable determination of the time of death due to its long turnover time of several decades, whereas using the 'short-lived' lipids and also keratin for that purpose looks highly promising. In the Atmospheric Sciences emphasis was put on the role of 14C monoxide. 14CO is so far the only natural gauge of the hydroxyl (OH) radical which is the most important, however short-lived, oxidant in the atmosphere. From air samples, taken at Mt. Sonnblick, Austria since 1996 and comprising about 600 liters each, a first detailed long-term record of 14C (and stable isotope analysis) in atmospheric CO has been obtained for the temperate northern hemisphere. The overall detection limit is about 1/4 molecule 14CO in one cm3 of air. A low-background graphitization unit for small samples made sample processing possible at a background level of 0.1 to 0.2 percent Modern Carbon. In this connection, the term 'percent Modern Carbon' used in many 14C studies was critically examined. Due to its ability to discriminate biogenic from fossil carbon sources, 14C AMS is also helpful in the analysis and identification of individual organic components in aerosols which still is a major problem. Water-insoluble carbon in aerosols, filtered from snow samples at Mt. Sonnblick and yielding a sample amount of a few tens μg C, was investigated. About 65 % of this non-soluble carbon was of biogenic origin. Statistically significant temporal variations of the 14C/12C isotopic ratios of the snow aerosol samples suggest alterations in the contribution of specific aerosol sources. (author)

  10. New Ideas for REUs - some Strategies from SOARS (Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R. E.; Kennedy, M.

    2009-12-01

    Research shows that even talented and academically well-prepared students encounter significant challenges when applying to and entering graduate school, and that these challenges may be especially discouraging for students from historically under-represented groups. SOARS, a multi-year undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program designed to broaden participation in the atmospheric and related sciences, prepares its students for these challenges with year-round training, mentoring and support. Our presentation will describe particular SOARS elements that help students prepare for graduate school, including authentic summer research experience at NCAR and partnering labs, strong mentoring that extends over several years, and a supportive community of peers. We will also discuss our leadership training, comprehensive psychological support, graduate school seminars, GRE courses, school funding and the advice we provide on applying to and choosing a graduate program. Drawing from our ongoing program evaluation, we will highlight those strategies that students describe as most useful. Studies suggest that many students from under-represented communities choose not to pursue graduate school in STEM in part because STEM offers less opportunity to serve their community than careers like medicine or law. To address this, SOARS has created opportunities for interested students to do educational projects or participate in research with clear societal relevance. In 2009, several students organized and offered hands-on science outreach to low-income immigrant families in Colorado. In addition, many students have also spent time doing research in partnership with local communities - including working with indigenous communities in the United States. All these approaches have helped, as shown by the SOARS protégés who will present at the 2009 AGU fall meeting. Since SOARS’ founding, 129 students have participated in the program. Of those participants, 18 are still enrolled as

  11. Developing Atmospheric Science Tools for Teachers Based on Research at the Pico Mountain Observatory, Pico Island, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, L.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric science and climate change are becoming increasingly important, especially in education, as the Next Generation Science Standards now include climate change. A collaborating team of research scientists and students are studying the free troposphere, specifically the aerosol composition and properties, on the island of Pico in the Azores Archipelago. The research station sits in the caldera of Mount Pico, 2225 meters above sea level. At this elevation, the station is above the marine boundary layer, thus placing it in the free troposphere. In this work, collaboration between a high school Earth Science teacher and university researchers was formed with the goal of developing classroom and outreach materials regarding atmospheric science. Among the materials, a video was created containing: site and project background, explanation of some of the instruments used and candid conversations regarding science and research. The video serves several purposes, such as informing students and the general public about what is happening in the atmosphere and informing students about the importance of science and research. The video could also be used to educate the local island community and tourists. Other materials designed include data directly obtained from the project, such as measurements of aerosol particles in electron microscopy photos (which were imaged for particle morphology and size), and composition of the aerosol particles. Students can use this evidence, as well as other data, to gain a better understanding of aerosols and the overall effect they have on the climate. Students will discover this evidence as they work through a series of experiments and activities. Using the strategy of Claim-Evidence-Reasoning as a way to answer scientific questions, students will use the evidence they gathered to explain their ideas. One such question could be, 'How do aerosols affect the climate?' and the student's 'claim' is their answer to that question. In the

  12. Planetary Science by the NLSI LUNAR Team: The Lunar Core, Ionized Atmosphere, & Nanodust Weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph; Team, for the NLSI LUNAR

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) undertakes investigations across the full spectrum of science within the mission of the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI), namely science of, on, and from the Moon. The LUNAR team's work on science of and on the Moon, which is the subject of this white paper, is conducted in the broader context of ascertaining the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system.

  13. Preliminary Interpretations of Atmospheric Stable Isotopes and Argon from Mars Science Laboratory (SAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Niles, P. B.; Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Christensen, L. E.; Leshin, L. A.; Franz, H.; Wong, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Manning, H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Owen, T.; Pepin, B.; Stern, J. C.; Trainer, M.; Schwenzer, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Given the broad agreement between C, H, and O isotopic ratios in the modern atmosphere and the ALH 84001 meteorite, it is possible that these reservoirs were established after early atmospheric loss prior to 4 Ga. The preservation of these signals over this long period of history can be explained in several slightly different ways: 1) C, O, and H have remained static in the atmosphere and have not exchanged with the surface over the past 4 Ga; 2) C, O, and H in the atmosphere have potentially varied widely over history but have been continually buffered by larger reservoirs in the crust which have remained unchanged over the past 4 Ga. This second possibility allows for potentially large variations in atmospheric pressure to occur as CO2 is recycled back into the atmosphere from crustal reservoirs or degassed from the mantle.

  14. The use of geospatial technologies to increase students' spatial abilities and knowledge of certain atmospheric science content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Mikell Lynne

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to use geospatial technologies to improve the spatial abilities and specific atmospheric science content knowledge of students in high schools and junior highs in primarily high-needs schools. These technologies include remote sensing, geographic information systems, and global positioning systems. The program involved training the teachers in the use of the technologies at a five-day institute. Scientists who use the technologies in their research taught the basics of their use and scientific background. Standards-based activities were used to integrate the technologies in the classroom setting. Students were tested before any instruction in the technologies and then tested two other times. They used the technologies in field data collection and used that data in an inquiry-based project. Their projects were presented at a mini-science conference with scientists, teachers, parents, and other students in attendance. Significant differences were noted from pre-test to second post-test in the test in both the spatial abilities and science section. There was a gain in both spatial abilities and in specific atmospheric science content knowledge.

  15. Forging Educational Partnerships Between Science Centers and Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    When most people think about science education, they usually consider classrooms as ideal venues for communicating and disseminating knowledge. But most learning that we humans engage in happens outside of the classroom and after we finish our formal education. That is where informal science education picks up the ball. The forums for these learning opportunities are diverse: museum exhibits, the Web, documentaries, and after school settings are becoming increasingly important as venues to keep up with the ever changing world of science. . The Exploratorium and other science centers act as transformers between the world of science and the public. As such they are ideal partners for scientists who would like to reach a large and diverse audience of families, adults, teens, and teachers. In this session, Senior Science Producer Mary Miller will discuss the ways that the Exploratorium engages working scientists in helping the museum-going public and Web audiences understand the process and results of scientific research.

  16. Libraries and Information Science: the Profession. Alternative Career Opportunities for Atmospheric, Earth, and Geo-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Many graduate students, researchers and scientists may not be aware that there are other career opportunities available to them as scientists besides the traditional academic, government, industrial and private sector tracks. Subject specialists with science backgrounds are in great demand. Knowledge management and information services affiliated with science and research is an exciting and creative profession. Contributing to, finding and delivering the range of information now emerging from new and established disciplines in all formats defines Information Science and Librarianship with a multitude of opportunities. This poster will offer information to encourage students and researchers with these skills and backgrounds to consider Information and Library Science as an exciting career path.

  17. Comparison of the technical performance of the atmospheric radionuclide monitoring systems and their applications to science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radionuclide monitoring systems set up around a nuclear facility work for detecting radioactivities which might be released into the atmosphere by an accident of the nuclear facility. On the other hand, similar monitoring techniques are applied to an international monitoring network for CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty). The network is prepared for verification of compliance with this treaty, and for detecting a nuclear explosion. For this purpose, 80 atmospheric radionuclide monitoring stations will be set up all over the world, and among them two radionuclide stations will be established in Japan (Takasaki and Okinawa). An automatic monitoring system which is commercially available will be installed at each of Japanese stations. There are requirements to be met by the system such as the detection limit and the data availability, and these are severer than those for environmental monitoring systems in use. If the data obtained from the CTBT monitoring network are opened for use in research fields, they could be useful not only for the monitoring of radioactivities caused by a nuclear power accident but also in the fields of environmental sciences and earth sciences. In this report, performance of a CTBT monitoring system is compared with that of the environmental monitoring system in use, and applications of the CTBT monitoring data to the environmental and earth sciences are considered. (author)

  18. Applications of Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Supporting Mission Site Selection for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. One new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005 is the 'auxiliary profile' option. In this option, an input file of temperature and density versus altitude is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5)model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer(TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components,averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree L(s) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  19. Improved methodology for surface and atmospheric soundings, error estimates, and quality control procedures: the atmospheric infrared sounder science team version-6 retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) science team version-6 AIRS/advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU) retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard Data and Information Services Center (DISC). AIRS version-6 level-2 products are generated near real time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. Some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in version-5 are described. In particular, the AIRS science team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to (1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; (2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and (3) derive error estimates and use them for quality control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, version-6 also operates in an AIRS only (AO) mode, which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. The improvements of some AIRS version-6 and version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using version-5 are also demonstrated.

  20. Advantages of a Unified Earth and Space Science Approach for Geoscience Education: Perspectives from the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Barnes, T.; Bergman, J.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Foster, S.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.; Lagrave, M.; Munoz, R.; Russell, R.; Araujo-Pradere, E.; Metcalfe, T.; Mastie, D.; Pennington, P.

    2005-05-01

    The intellectual divisions common among scientists involved in research in specific disciplines are frequently not shared by the broader community of learners. For example, in K-12 education, the Earth sciences and the space sciences have generally been taught in an integrated approach, until opportunities for more advanced courses become available at the higher grade levels in some fortunate school districts. When scientists involved in EPO activities retain a perspective limited to their particular science mission, rather than stepping back to a broader perspective that places the research in a larger context, they risk limiting the usefulness of these activities to a broad cross-section of learners that seek to learn in a contextual framework. The re-integration of Earth and space sciences within NASA's Science Mission Directorate provides an opportunity to more systematically take advantage of the fact that Earth is one of many examples of possible planetary evolution scenarios presented in our solar system and beyond. This development should encourage integration of research across the SMD into a broader context that encourages the development of higher learning skills and a systems thinking approach. At the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the interdisciplinary nature of the research problems we address requires an approach that integrates Earth and space science, and we parallel this in our education and outreach activities, ranging from our exhibits on climate change to our professional development workshops and online courses to our websites and curriculum development efforts. The Windows to the Universe project (http://www.windows.ucar.edu), initiated at the University of Michigan with support from NASA in 1995 and now developed and maintained at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, has maintained this integrated approach from its inception with great success - leading to over 6 million users of our English and Spanish language

  1. AMPS sciences objectives and philosophy. [Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas-in-Space project on Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will open a new era in the exploration of earth's near-space environment, where the weight and power capabilities of Spacelab and the ability to use man in real time add important new features. The Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas-in-Space project (AMPS) is conceived of as a facility where flexible core instruments can be flown repeatedly to perform different observations and experiments. The twin thrusts of remote sensing of the atmosphere below 120 km and active experiments on the space plasma are the major themes. They have broader implications in increasing our understanding of plasma physics and of energy conversion processes elsewhere in the universe.

  2. First Atmospheric Science Results from the Mars Exploration Rovers Mini-TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Spanovich, Nicole; Banfield, Don; Budney, Charles J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Ghosh, Amitabha; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Smith, Peter; Whitney, Barbara; Christensen, Philip R.; Squyres, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal infrared spectra of the martian atmosphere taken by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) were used to determine the atmospheric temperatures in the planetary boundary layer and the column-integrated optical depth of aerosols. Mini-TES observations show the diurnal variation of the martian boundary layer thermal structure, including a near-surface superadiabatic layer during the afternoon and an inversion layer at night. Upward-looking Mini-TES observations show warm and cool parcels of air moving through the Mini-TES field of view on a time scale of 30 seconds. The retrieved dust optical depth shows a downward trend at both sites.

  3. The role of computational chemistry in the science and measurements of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The role of computational chemistry in determining the stability, photochemistry, spectroscopic parameters, and parameters for estimating reaction rates of atmospheric constituents is discussed. Examples dealing with the photolysis cross sections of HOCl and (1 Delta g) O2 and with the stability of gaseous NH4Cl and asymmetric ClO3 are presented. It is concluded that computational chemistry can play an important role in the study of atmospheric constituents, particularly reactive and short-lived species which are difficult to investigate experimentally.

  4. Atmosphere/soil exchange processes of importance for molecular soil sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Klasinc, Leo; McGlynn, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally the atmosphere/soil exchange can be interpreted as part of the biogeochemical cycles describing the transport of main chemical elements and their gaseous compounds between the compartments of the geosphere. Approaches to monitor and analyze these transport processes are described. The paramount role of Earth’s life, the biosphere, in these processes is emphasized.

  5. Cognitive-based approach in teaching 1st year Physics for Life Sciences, including Atmospheric Physics and Climate Change components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelina, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    Most 1st year students who take the service course in Physics - Physics for Life Sciences - in Australia encounter numerous problems caused by such factors as no previous experience with this subject; general perception that Physics is hard and only very gifted people are able to understand it; lack of knowledge of elementary mathematics; difficulties encountered by lecturers in teaching university level Physics to a class of nearly 200 students with no prior experience, diverse and sometime disadvantageous backgrounds, different majoring areas, and different learning abilities. As a result, many students either drop, or fail the subject. In addition, many of those who pass develop a huge dislike towards Physics, consider the whole experience as time wasted, and spread this opinion among their peers and friends. The above issues were addressed by introducing numerous changes to the curriculum and modifying strategies and approaches in teaching Physics for Life Sciences. Instead of a conventional approach - teaching Physics from simple to complicated, topic after topic, the students were placed in the world of Physics in the same way as a newborn child is introduced to this world - everything is seen all the time and everywhere. That created a unique environment where a bigger picture and all details were always present and interrelated. Numerous concepts of classical and modern physics were discussed, compared, and interconnected all the time with “Light” being a key component. Our primary field of research is Atmospheric Physics, in particular studying the atmospheric composition and structure using various satellite and ground-based data. With this expertise and also inspired by an increasing importance of training a scientifically educated generation who understands the challenges of the modern society and responsibilities that come with wealth, a new section on environmental physics has been developed. It included atmospheric processes and the greenhouse

  6. An analysis of gender mainstreaming and education in atmospheric sciences in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunova, V.

    2009-04-01

    As a participant in the international science community, Ukraine is constantly updating its understanding of worldwide trends in science and education. There is a growing demand to establish new starting points for young generations in order that they could better understand and improve our changing world. This means a renovation of school curricula. School disciplines must provide people with much more in depth information on global climate changes, their causes and effects. Scientists' involvement in the educational process could become an important factor in enhancement of educational attainments in environmental sciences. A professional scientist who is able to bring difficult research topics to the middle school students' level can be a valuable source of information. A radical political and economic transformation in the early 1990s created in Ukraine new opportunities for women and increased their interest in graduate and post-graduate studies in the sciences. The stable growth of female students has been observed. For instance, girls make up more than 70 % of university meteorology students, a percentage that is held for the last decade. In high schools and universities women make up 50 % of teachers and lectors in meteorology. Moreover, the number of female PhD scientists has been rising rather than that of male scientists. Nevertheless, the fraction of women in leading posts is considerable lower than it should be. This phenomenon is the outcome of a process that is influenced by many forces. In this paper a few suggestions and some findings from a statistics review will be presented.

  7. Program report: FY 1976, Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division, Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its central facility located at LLL, is meeting the long-term need for rapid and accurate regional dose-to-man estimates of nuclear material released as a result of accidents, operations, or terrorism acts. During the past two years, ARAC has been used in four potential WARMSPOT events and for one accidental release. Continuing research, in terms of new modeling techniques, simulation of regional tracer experiments, and other verification activities, support this capability. Emergency response is currently being upgraded to evaluate the consequences of atmospheric releases at selected nuclear facilities and for potential acts of nuclear terrorism anywhere in the Northern Hemisphere. Regional modeling was also applied in monitoring SO2-sulfate concentrations in the northeastern USA

  8. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, G [University of Colorado, Boulder/CIRES; Argrow, B [University of Colorado; Bland, G [NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center - Wallops Flight Facility; Elston, J [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lawrence, D [University of Colorado; Maslanik, J [University of Colorado; Palo, S [University of Colorado; Tschudi, M [NCAR

    2015-12-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is becoming increasingly popular for a variety of applications. One way in which these systems can provide revolutionary scientific information is through routine measurement of atmospheric conditions, particularly properties related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation. Improved understanding of these topics at high latitudes, in particular, has become very relevant because of observed decreases in ice and snow in polar regions.

  9. 大气科学原始创新的学科背景视角%Original Innovation of Atmospheric Science Based on Discipline Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学浩; 陈正洪

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the historical analysis of meteorological science and technology, this paper is characterized by the innovation derived from atmospheric science. It would further promote the original innovation of atmospheric science by the aid of comparative analysis of science background including mathematics, physics, and so on. This characteristic is closely related to the development of atmospheric science and is primarily determined by the nature of atmospheric science. Our results indicate that attention to the discipline background is of signiifcance in talent cultivation.%基于气象科技史的研究,探索大气科学发展的某些创新规律,通过对比分析揭示出数学和物理等理科背景对于大气科学的原始创新具有重要作用。这种规律与大气科学自身发展有密切关系,也是大气科学本质决定的。分析表明学科背景规律对人才培养有重要借鉴和启示。

  10. Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Observations: Atmospheric Temperatures During Aerobraking and Science Phasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrath, Barney J.; Pearl, John C.; Smith, Michael D.; Maguire, William C.; Christensen, Philip R.; Dason, Shymala; Kaelberer, Monte S.

    1999-01-01

    Between September 1997, when the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft arrived at Mars, and September 1998 when the final aerobraking phase of the mission began, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) has acquired an extensive data set spanning approximately half of a Martian year. Nadir-viewing spectral measurements from this data set within the 15-micrometers CO2 absorption band are inverted to obtain atmospheric temperature profiles from the surface up to about the 0.1 mbar level. The computational procedure used to retrieve the temperatures is presented. Mean meridional cross sections of thermal structure are calculated for periods of time near northern hemisphere fall equinox, winter solstice, and spring equinox, as well as for a time interval immediately following the onset of the Noachis Terra dust storm. Gradient thermal wind cross sections are calculated from the thermal structure. Regions of possible wave activity are identified using cross sections of rms temperature deviations from the mean. Results from both near-equinox periods show some hemispheric asymmetry with peak eastward thermal winds in the north about twice the magnitude of those in the south. The results near solstice show an intense circumpolar vortex at high northern latitudes and waves associated with the vortex jet core. Warming of the atmosphere aloft at mid-northern latitudes suggests the presence of a strong cross-equatorial Hadley circulation. Although the Noachis dust storm did not become global in scale, strong perturbations to the atmospheric structure are found, including an enhanced temperature maximum aloft at high northern latitudes resulting from intensification of the Hadley circulation. TES results for the various seasonal conditions are compared with published results from Mars general circulation models, and generally good qualitative agreement is found.

  11. Probing the sky with radio waves from wireless technology to the development of atmospheric science

    CERN Document Server

    Yeang, Chen-Pang

    2013-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century, engineers and experimental scientists generally knew how radio waves behaved, and by 1901 scientists were able to manipulate them to transmit messages across long distances. What no one could understand, however, was why radio waves followed the curvature of the Earth. Theorists puzzled over this for nearly twenty years before physicists confirmed the zig-zag theory, a solution that led to the discovery of a layer in the Earth's upper atmosphere that bounces radio waves earthward-the ionosphere. In Probing the Sky with Radio Waves,

  12. Science requirements and feasibility/design studies of a very-high-altitude aircraft for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Philip B.; Lux, David P.; Reed, R. Dale; Loewenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and shortcomings of currently available aircraft for use in very high altitude missions to study such problems as polar ozone or stratosphere-troposphere exchange pose the question of whether to develop advanced aircraft for atmospheric research. To answer this question, NASA conducted a workshop to determine science needs and feasibility/design studies to assess whether and how those needs could be met. It was determined that there was a need for an aircraft that could cruise at an altitude of 30 km with a range of 6,000 miles with vertical profiling down to 10 km and back at remote points and carry a payload of 3,000 lbs.

  13. Application of Spaceborne Infrared Atmospheric Sounder for Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (SIRAS-G) technology to future Earth science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, Thomas U.

    2008-04-01

    The Spaceborne Infrared Sounder for Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (SIRAS-G) was developed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp (BATC) under NASA's 2002 Instrument Incubator Program. SIRAS-G was a technology development program focused on next-generation IR imaging spectrometers for sounding of the atmosphere. SIRAS-G demonstrated that the dispersive grating spectrometer is a suitable instrument architecture for this application. In addition to providing atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, SIRAS-G can provide trace gases concentrations, land and ocean surface temperatures and the IR mineral dust aerosol signature from satellite. The 3-year SIRAS-G IIP development effort included the successful cryogenic testing of the SIRAS-G laboratory demonstration spectrometer operating in the 2083 to 2994 cm -1 frequency range. The performance of the demonstration instrument has been quantified including measurement of keystone distortion, spectral smile, MTF, and the spectral response function (SRF). Development efforts associated with this advanced infrared spectrometer technology provides the basis for instrumentation to support future Earth science missions.

  14. Sulfuric acid vapor in the atmosphere of Venus as observed by the Venus Express Radio Science experiment VeRa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oschlisniok, Janusz; Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Tellmann, Silvia; Bird, Mike; Andert, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The cloud deck within Venus' atmosphere, which covers the entire planet between approx. 50 and 70 km altitude, consists mostly of liquid and gaseous sulfuric acid. The gaseous part increases strongly just below the main clouds and builds an approx. 15 km thick haze layer of H2SO4. This region is responsible for a strong absorption of radio waves as seen in VeRa radio science observations. The amount of the absorption, which is used to derive the abundance of gaseous sulfuric acid, depends on the signal frequency. VeRa probed the atmosphere of Venus between 2006 and 2015 with radio signals at 13 cm (S-band) and 3.6 cm (X-band) wavelengths. We present H2SO4 profiles derived from S-band and X-band absorption during the first occultation season in 2006. The comparison of the H2SO4 profiles derived from both frequency bands provides a reliable picture of the H2SO4 abundance. Distinct differences in the S- and X-band profiles may give a clue to increased SO2 abundances. The derived VeRa results shall be compared with results provided by other experiments onboard Venus Express as well as with previous missions.

  15. Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Electron Density Profiles: Interannual Variability and Implications for the Neutral Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.; Engel, S.; Hinson, D. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) experiment employs an ultrastable oscillator aboard the spacecraft. The signal from the oscillator to Earth is refracted by the Martian ionosphere, allowing retrieval of electron density profiles versus radius and geopotential. The present analysis is carried out on five sets of occultation measurements: (1) four obtained near northern summer solstice (Ls = 74-116, near aphelion) at high northern latitudes (64.7-77.6N), and (2) one set of profiles approaching equinox conditions (Ls = 135- 146) at high southern latitudes (64.7-69.1S). Electron density profiles (95 to 200 km) are examined over a narrow range of solar zenith angles (76.5-86.9 degrees) for local true solar times of (1) 3-4 hours and (2) 12.1 hours. Variations spanning 1-Martian year are specifically examined in the Northern hemisphere.

  16. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite: From Coffee Table Art to Quantitative Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has provided an unprecedented set of observations of constituents of the stratosphere. When used in combination with data from other sources and appropriate modeling tools, these observations are useful for quantitative evaluation of stratospheric photochemical processes. This is illustrated by comparing ozone observations from airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM), from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and from the Halogen occultation Experiment (HALOE) with ozone fields generated with a three dimensional model. For 1995-96, at polar latitudes, observations from DIAL flights on December 9 and January 30, and POAM and MLS between late December and late January are compared with ozone fields from the GSFC 3D chemistry and transport model. Data from the three platforms consistently show that the observed ozone has a negative trend relative to the modeled ozone, and that the trend is uniform in time between early and mid winter, with no obvious dependence on proximity to the vortex edge. The importance of chlorine catalyzed photochemistry to this ozone loss is explored by comparing observations from MLS and HALOE with simulations for other northern winters, particularly 1997-98.

  17. Innovative optical spectrometers for ice core sciences and atmospheric monitoring at polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Roberto; Alemany, Olivier; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Desbois, Thibault; Faïn, Xavier; Kassi, Samir; Kerstel, Erik; Legrand, Michel; Marrocco, Nicola; Méjean, Guillaume; Preunkert, Suzanne; Romanini, Daniele; Triest, Jack; Ventrillard, Irene

    2015-04-01

    In this talk recent developments accomplished from a collaboration between the Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPhy) and the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) both in Grenoble (France), are discussed, covering atmospheric chemistry of high reactive species in polar regions and employing optical spectrometers for both in situ and laboratory measurements of glacial archives. In the framework of an ANR project, a transportable spectrometer based on the injection of a broadband frequency comb laser into a high-finesse optical cavity for the detection of IO, BrO, NO2 and H2CO has been realized.[1] The robust spectrometer provides shot-noise limited measurements for as long as 10 minutes, reaching detection limits of 0.04, 2, 10 and 200 ppt (2σ) for the four species, respectively. During the austral summer of 2011/12 the instrument has been used for monitoring, for the first time, NO2, IO and BrO at Dumont d'Urville Station at East of Antarctica. The measurements highlighted a different chemistry between East and West coast, with the halogen chemistry being promoted to the West and the OH and NOx chemistry on the East.[2] In the framework of a SUBGLACIOR project, an innovative drilling probe has been realized. The instrument is capable of retrieving in situ real-time vertical profiles of CH4 and δD of H2O trapped inside the ice sheet down to more than 3 km of depth within a single Antarctic season. The drilling probe containing an embedded OFCEAS (optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy) spectrometer will be extremely useful for (i) identify potential sites for investigating the oldest ice (aiming 1.5 Myrs BP records for resolving a major climate reorganization called the Mid-Pleistocene transition occurred around 1 Myrs ago) and (ii) providing direct access to past temperatures and climate cycles thanks to the vertical distribution of two key climatic signatures.[3] The spectrometer provides detection

  18. Evaluating Mars Science Laboratory Landing Sites with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL) [1]. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: (1) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) mapping years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results driven by observed TES dust optical depth or (2) TES mapping year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated [2] against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from TES [3]. There are several new features included in Mars-GRAM 2005. The first is the option to use input data sets from MGCM model runs that were designed to closely simulate conditions observed during the first two years of TES observations at Mars. The TES Year 1 option includes values from April 1999 through January 2001. The TES Year 2 option includes values from February 2001 through December 2002. The second new feature is the option to read and use any auxiliary profile of temperature and density versus altitude. In exercising the auxiliary profile Mars-GRAM option, values from the auxiliary profile replace data from the original MGCM databases. Some examples of auxiliary profiles include data from TES nadir or limb observations and Mars mesoscale model output at a particular

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1982 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1983-02-01

    This report is organized in terms of generic studies: theoretical studies of atmospheric processes; pollutant characterizations and transformation; boundary layer meteorology; and dispersion, deposition and resuspension of atmospheric pollutants.

  1. Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education: Activities in Support of Earth, Oceans and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty, and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF offers funding programs that support geoscience education spanning atmospheric, oceans, and Earth sciences, as well as environmental science, climate change and sustainability, and research on learning. The 'Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education' (RTUGeoEd) is an NSF Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) Type 2 special project aimed at supporting college-level geoscience faculty at all types of institutions. The project's goals are to carry out activities and create digital resources that encourage the geoscience community to submit proposals that impact their courses and classroom infrastructure through innovative changes in instructional practice, and contribute to making transformative changes that impact student learning outcomes and lead to other educational benefits. In the past year information sessions were held during several national and regional professional meetings, including the GSA Southeastern and South-Central Section meetings. A three-day proposal-writing workshop for faculty planning to apply to the TUES program was held at the University of South Florida - Tampa. During the workshop, faculty learned about the program and key elements of a proposal, including: the need to demonstrate awareness of prior efforts within and outside the geosciences and how the proposed project builds upon this knowledge base; need to fully justify budget and role of members of the project team; project evaluation and what matters in selecting a project evaluator; and effective dissemination practices. Participants also spent time developing their proposal benefitting from advice and feedback from workshop facilitators. Survey data gathered from workshop participants point to a consistent set of challenges in seeking grant support for a desired educational innovation, including poor understanding of the educational literature, of available funding programs, and of learning assessment and project evaluation. Many also noted

  2. An 11-year global gridded aerosol optical thickness reanalysis (v1.0) for atmospheric and climate sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Hogan, Timothy F.; Hyer, Edward J.; Curtis, Cynthia A.; Hegg, Dean A.; Shi, Yingxi; Campbell, James R.; Rubin, Juli I.; Sessions, Walter R.; Turk, F. Joseph; Walker, Annette L.

    2016-04-01

    While stand alone satellite and model aerosol products see wide utilization, there is a significant need in numerous atmospheric and climate applications for a fused product on a regular grid. Aerosol data assimilation is an operational reality at numerous centers, and like meteorological reanalyses, aerosol reanalyses will see significant use in the near future. Here we present a standardized 2003-2013 global 1 × 1° and 6-hourly modal aerosol optical thickness (AOT) reanalysis product. This data set can be applied to basic and applied Earth system science studies of significant aerosol events, aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction, and electro-optical propagation and sensor performance, among other uses. This paper describes the science of how to develop and score an aerosol reanalysis product. This reanalysis utilizes a modified Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) at its core and assimilates quality controlled retrievals of AOT from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on Terra. The aerosol source functions, including dust and smoke, were regionally tuned to obtain the best match between the model fine- and coarse-mode AOTs and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOTs. Other model processes, including deposition, were tuned to minimize the AOT difference between the model and satellite AOT. Aerosol wet deposition in the tropics is driven with satellite-retrieved precipitation, rather than the model field. The final reanalyzed fine- and coarse-mode AOT at 550 nm is shown to have good agreement with AERONET observations, with global mean root mean square error around 0.1 for both fine- and coarse-mode AOTs. This paper includes a discussion of issues particular to aerosol reanalyses that make them distinct from standard meteorological reanalyses, considerations for extending such a reanalysis outside of the NASA A-Train era, and examples of how

  3. ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Copyright Submission of a manuscript implies:that the work described has not been published before(except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture,review,or thesis);that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere;that its publication has been approved by all co-authors,if any,as well as-tacitly or explicit-by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

  4. SAVEnergy Action Plan: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Richman, E.E.; Sandusky, W.F. III; Dittmer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a SAVEnergy Audit of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, Washington. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of all energy-consuming equipment in the facility, to estimate energy consumption and demand by end-use and to recommend energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs) to reduce costs . This section describes the facility and the systems encountered during the visit by the audit team. It also presents a summary of energy conservation measures. Section 2 shows energy consumption and costs for electricity, natural gas and water. A breakdown of energy consumed by end-use is also presented. Recommended energy conservation measures are presented in Section 3. Section 4 contains a discussion of operations and maintenance issues and other energy measures that can be implemented on a replace-on-failure basis rather than replacing immediately. Appendix A contains a three-year history of consumption, demand and cost for electric, natural gas and water utilities. Appendix B contains information on local weather data correlated to utility billing periods. A brief summary on Federal life-cycle costing is located in Appendix C along with the life-cycle cost analyses summaries for the energy and water conservation measures detailed in this report. Information on the rebate program sponsored by Seattle City Light, the electric utility, is located in Appendix D. Sample information for water-efficient equipment is located in Appendix E. Appendix F contains submittal forms to the Federal Energy Efficiency Fund for the energy conservation measures recommended in Section 3 of this report. A glossary of terms and abbreviations used in this report is located in Appendix G.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  7. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  8. Mirador - Atmospheric Composition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Atmospheric Composition is focused on the composition of Earth's atmosphere in relation to climate prediction, solar effects,...

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate absracts were prepared for the 15 sections of this progress report which is a description of atmospheric research at PNL organized in terms of the following energy technologies: coal, gas and oil; fission and fusion; and oil shale

  11. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. For several years, studies of transport and diffusion have been extended to mesoscale areas of complex terrain. Atmospheric cleansing research has expanded to a regional scale, multilaboratory investigation of precipitation scavenging processes involving the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, the redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. A few long-range tracer experiments conducted in recent years and the special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity following the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986 offer important initial data bases for studying atmospheric processes at these super-regional scales.

  13. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: State of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more seriou...

  14. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  15. Upgrade of the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) to its Full Science Capability of Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry in Airborne Science Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P.; Dunagan, S.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Flynn, C.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this task in the AITT (Airborne Instrument Technology Transition) Program are to (1) upgrade the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument to its full science capability of measuring (a) direct-beam sun transmission to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (b) sky radiance vs scattering angle to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index spectra, shape, and mode-resolved size distribution), (c) zenith radiance for cloud properties, and (d) hyperspectral signals for trace gas retrievals, and (2) demonstrate its suitability for deployment in challenging NASA airborne multiinstrument campaigns. 4STAR combines airborne sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith pointing with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air pollution, radiant energy budgets (hence climate), and remote measurements of Earth's surfaces. Direct beam hyperspectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements are intended to tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. 4STAR test flights, as well as science flights in the 2012-13 TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) and 2013 SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) have demonstrated that the following are essential for 4STAR to achieve its full science potential: (1) Calibration stability for both direct-beam irradiance and sky radiance, (2) Improved light collection and usage, and (3) Improved flight operability and reliability. A particular challenge

  16. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  17. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: state of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; McConnell, L L; Hapeman, C J; Papiernik, S K; Gao, S; Trabue, S L

    2011-01-01

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more serious effects on human or environmental health, such as those posed by pesticides and other toxic industrial pollutants. It is recognized that deterioration of the atmosphere is undesirable, but the short- and long-term impacts of specific agricultural activities on air quality are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2009 American Chemical Society Symposium titled . An outcome of this symposium is this special collection of 14 research papers focusing on various issues associated with production agriculture and its effect on air quality. Topics included emissions from animal feeding operations, odors, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, mitigation, modeling, and risk assessment. These papers provide new research insights, identify gaps in current knowledge, and recommend important future research directions. As the scientific community gains a better understanding of the relationships between anthropogenic activities and their effects on environmental systems, technological advances should enable a reduction in adverse consequences on the environment. PMID:21869496

  18. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Applications for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Site Selection Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2007-01-01

    The new Mars-GRAM auxiliary profile capability, using data from TES observations, mesoscale model output, or other sources, allows a potentially higher fidelity representation of the atmosphere, and a more accurate way of estimating inherent uncertainty in atmospheric density and winds. Figure 3 indicates that, with nominal value rpscale=1, Mars-GRAM perturbations would tend to overestimate observed or mesoscale-modeled variability. To better represent TES and mesoscale model density perturbations, rpscale values as low as about 0.4 could be used. Some trajectory model implementations of Mars-GRAM allow the user to dynamically change rpscale and rwscale values with altitude. Figure 4 shows that an mscale value of about 1.2 would better replicate wind standard deviations from MRAMS or MMM5 simulations at the Gale, Terby, or Melas sites. By adjusting the rpscale and rwscale values in Mars-GRAM based on figures such as Figure 3 and 4, we can provide more accurate end-to-end simulations for EDL at the candidate MSL landing sites.

  19. Fiscal Year 1991 summary report of NOAA Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Sciences Modeling Division provided meteorological research and operational support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency during FY-1991. Meteorological support consisted of the application of dispersion models, and the conduct of dispersion studies and model evaluations. The primary research effort was the development and evaluation of air quality simulation models using numerical and physical techniques supported by field studies. This included development of the Regional Acid Deposition Model - Version 2.6, the Tagged Species Engineering Model, and the Asymmetrical Convective Model; examination of the effect of oxidant limitations on emission changes; publication of the Regional Oxidant Model user's guides; study of the effect of biogenic emissions on ozone concentrations; incorporation of a new method describing aerosol dynamics into the Regional Particulate Model; participation in a field study of sustained stagnation conditions; conduct of a wind tunnel study of the dispersion of dense gas jets; and a study of flow and dispersion through an urban industrial complex

  20. Stationary Planetary Waves in the Mars Winter Atmosphere as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, Silvia; Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Tyler, Leonard G.; Hinson, David P.

    2015-11-01

    Stationary (Rossby) Waves are excited by the interaction of the zonally varying topography with the strong eastward winter jets. They lead to distinctive longitudinal temperature variations which contribute significantly to the asymmetry of the seasonal polar CO2 ice caps and are also important for the dust redistribution in the planetary atmosphere.Radio Science profiles from the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment MaRS at northern and southern high latitudes are used to gain insight into winter stationary wave structures on both hemispheres.Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation measurements from the same season and year with their exceptionally good longitudinal and temporal coverage can be used to estimate the influence of transient eddies. Transient waves are especially important in the northern winter hemisphere.Wave number 2 stationary waves, driven by topography, are dominant in the northern winter latitudes while the wave number 1 wave is the most significant wave number during southern winter. The wave amplitudes peak around winter solstice on both hemispheres.Radio occultation measurements provide the unique opportunity to determine simultaneous measurements of temperature and geopotential height structures. Assuming geostrophic balance, these measurements can be used to determine meridional winds and eddy heat fluxes which provide further insight into the contribution of stationary waves to the heat exchange between the poles and the lower latitudes.

  1. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  2. High Data Rates for AubieSat-2 A & B, Two CubeSats Performing High Energy Science in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss a proposed CubeSat size (3 Units / 6 Units) telemetry system concept being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in cooperation with Auburn University. The telemetry system incorporates efficient, high-bandwidth communications by developing flight-ready, low-cost, PROTOFLIGHT software defined radio (SDR) payload for use on CubeSats. The current telemetry system is slightly larger in dimension of footprint than required to fit within a 0.75 Unit CubeSat volume. Extensible and modular communications for CubeSat technologies will provide high data rates for science experiments performed by two CubeSats flying in formation in Low Earth Orbit. The project is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Auburn University to study high energy phenomena in the upper atmosphere. Higher bandwidth capacity will enable high-volume, low error-rate data transfer to and from the CubeSats, while also providing additional bandwidth and error correction margin to accommodate more complex encryption algorithms and higher user volume.

  3. Improved Instrumentation for the Detection of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration using an Airborne IPDA LIDAR for 2014 NASA ASCENDS Science Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G. R.; Riris, H.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Rodriguez, M.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Sun, X.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    NASA-GSFC is developing a twin-channel, Integrated-Path, Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar to measure atmospheric CO2 from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons). This lidar consists of two independent, tuned, pulsed transmitters on the same optical bench using a common 8" receiver telescope. The system measures CO2 abundance and O2 surface pressure in the same column to derive the dry volume mixing ratio (vmr). The system is being tested on an airborne platform up to altitudes of 13 Km. The lidar uses a cw scanning laser, externally pulsed and a fiber amplifier in a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) configuration to measure lineshape, range to scattering surfaces and backscatter profiles. The CO2 operates at 1572.335 nm. The O2 channel uses similar technology but frequency doubles to the O2 A-band absorption, around 765nm. Both lasers are scanned across the absorption feature measuring at a fixed number of discrete (~30) wavelengths per scan around ~300 scans/s. Each output pulse is slightly chirped 80%, linear over five decades is now used for CO2 channel. We have increased spatial resolution by an order of magnitude using 0.1s along track integration. The increased signal, negligible nonlinear response and increased spatial resolution will improve our CO2 retrievals. We will discuss the improvements and effects on the retrievals from the Summer 2014 ASCENDS Science campaign.

  4. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  5. Atmospheric physics. Background - methods - trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Ulrich (ed.) [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    2012-11-01

    Presents more than 51 outstanding contributions of DLR-IPA to Atmospheric science. Gives a specific reference to Aerospace aspects. Prepared for educated laymen readers. Self-explaining. Understandable without the need to read references. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), this book presents more than 50 chapters highlighting results of the institute's research. The book provides an up-to-date, in-depth survey across the entire field of atmospheric science, including atmospheric dynamics, radiation, cloud physics, chemistry, climate, numerical simulation, remote sensing, instruments and measurements, as well as atmospheric acoustics. The authors have provided a readily comprehensible and self-contained presentation of the complex field of atmospheric science. The topics are of direct relevance for aerospace science and technology. Future research challenges are identified.

  6. Escape of Pluto's Atmosphere: In Situ Measurements from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument on New Horizons and Remote Observations from the Chandra X-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Hill, Matthew E.; Lisse, Carey M.; Kollmann, Peter; Bagenal, Fran; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McComas, David J.; Elliott, Heather A.; Wolk, Scott J.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Zhu, Xun; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.; Ennico, K.; Olkin, C. B.

    2015-11-01

    The escape rate of Pluto's atmosphere is of significant scientific interest. The Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) is a compact, energy by time-of-flight (TOF) instrument developed to help address this science goal. Pluto is known to have an atmosphere, and pre-encounter models have postulated a majority N2 composition with free escape of up to ~1028 molecules/sec. The expected major ionization product near Pluto is singly ionized N2 molecules with pickup energies sufficient to be measured with PEPSSI. In the process of measuring the local energetic particle environment, such measurements can also provide constraints on the local density of Pluto's extended atmosphere, which, along with plasma measurements from the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument, also on New Horizons, could allow the inference of the strengh and extent of mass-loading of the solar wind due to Pluto's atmosphere. Pluto's neutral atmosphere also provides a source population for charge exchange of highly ionized, minor ions in the solar wind, such as O, C, and N. This process allows these ions to capture one electron and be left in an excited state. That state, in turn decays with the emission of a low-energy (100 eV to 1 keV) X-ray. Observations of such solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays have been made in the past of the Earth's geocorona and Mars's extended atmosphere. The award of almost 40 hours of Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) for observing Pluto with the Chandra X-ray observatory near the period of closest approach of New Horizons to Pluto potentially enabled a remote determination of Pluto's global outgassing rate using the local solar wind flux as measured by the SWAP instrument. Preliminary anaysis of data returned from these observations reveal a definite interaction of Pluto with the solar wind, but at a lower strength than had been predicted. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  7. Atmospheric Research 2012 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K -M.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report, as before, is intended for a broad audience. Our readers include colleagues within NASA, scientists outside the Agency, science graduate students, and members of the general public. Inside are descriptions of atmospheric research science highlights and summaries of our education and outreach accomplishments for calendar year 2012.The report covers research activities from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office under the Office of Deputy Director for Atmospheres, Earth Sciences Division in the Sciences and Exploration Directorate of NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall mission of the office is advancing knowledge and understanding of the Earths atmosphere. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential to our continuing research.

  8. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Oregon State University (OSU) College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS) Marine Geology Repository (MGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon State University Marine Geology Repository (OSU-MGR) is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS) database, contributing...

  9. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  10. Atmospheric Physics Background – Methods – Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), this book presents more than 50 chapters highlighting results of the institute’s research. The book provides an up-to-date, in-depth survey across the entire field of atmospheric science, including atmospheric dynamics, radiation, cloud physics, chemistry, climate, numerical simulation, remote sensing, instruments and measurements, as well as atmospheric acoustics. The authors have provided a readily comprehensible and self-contained presentation of the complex field of atmospheric science. The topics are of direct relevance for aerospace science and technology. Future research challenges are identified.

  11. Fair weather terrestrial atmospheric electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, G.

    Atmospheric electricity is one of the oldest experimental topics in atmospheric science. The fair weather aspects, although having less dramatic effects than thunderstorm electrification, link the microscale behaviour of ion clusters to currents flowing on the global scale. This talk will include a survey of some past measurements and measurement methods, as atmospheric electrical data from a variety of sites and eras are now being used to understand changes in atmospheric composition. Potential Gradient data was the original source of information on the global atmospheric electrical circuit, and similar measurements can now be used to reconstruct past air pollution concentrations, and black carbon loading.

  12. Why Earth Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  13. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Sciences (UCAR-SOARS) program: A paradigm case for a research based analysis of elements and attributes of a highly successful research experience for undergraduate (REU) program designed to broaden participation in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    REU (research experience for undergraduate) programs in science serve as a centerpiece for: recruitment improved learning, retention and increased graduation rates among students in STEM fields. Structured REUs are highly effective programs for broadening participation and remedying inequities, to increase and diversify the STEM talent pool and professional workforce. Now in its 16th year, SOARS is dedicated to broadening participation in the atmospheric and related sciences. SOARS is an undergraduate through graduate program built on the structure of: a summer research internship, mentoring by professional scientists, and a supportive learning community. SOARS is an exemplar. Its structure serves as a paradigm case for the recruitment, retention, and graduation of students from underserved populations. This research-based examination of SOARS explores its program elements and identifies attributes and practices that contribute to its impact and lasting outcomes.

  14. Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report, which represents the results of the workshop, is divided into two sections. Section I includes an executive summary, a chapter introducing the reader to GPS and its usefulness for Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric research, and four chapters summarizing the themes of the workshop presentations, poster papers, and working group discussions. Section II contains the proceedings of the workshop and is divided into five chapters corresponding to the five categories of invited papers written by workshop speakers and authors of poster papers. The appendices contain additional information about the workshop and the Steering Committee.

  15. Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S

    2010-01-01

    At the dawn of the first discovery of exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars in the mid-1990s, few believed that observations of exoplanet atmospheres would ever be possible. After the 2002 Hubble Space Telescope detection of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere, many skeptics discounted it as a one-object, one-method success. Nevertheless, the field is now firmly established, with over two dozen exoplanet atmospheres observed today. Hot Jupiters are the type of exoplanet currently most amenable to study. Highlights include: detection of molecular spectral features; observation of day-night temperature gradients; and constraints on vertical atmospheric structure. Atmospheres of giant planets far from their host stars are also being studied with direct imaging. The ultimate exoplanet goal is to answer the enigmatic and ancient question, "Are we alone?" via detection of atmospheric biosignatures. Two exciting prospects are the immediate focus on transiting super Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs, and u...

  16. The Earth's atmosphere its physics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Kshudiram

    2008-01-01

    The book entitled ""Atmospheric science and Global Warming"" covers a wide area of the atmospheric science, focusing particularly on those physical and dynamical aspects of our environment which tend to create heat sources and sinks in the earth-atmosphere system and which it seeks to balance through circulation at different time and space scales. The processes of heat transfer in the atmosphere and ocean by general circulation and by waves and oscillations are discussed in detail. The heat balance of the atmosphere is discussed after taking into consideration the role of various types of gree

  17. Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references

  18. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  19. Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindzen, Richard A.

    2005-08-01

    Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.

  20. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  1. Atmospheric sciences transfer between research advances and energy-policy assessments (ASTRAEA). Final report, 1 April 1996--31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1997-12-10

    Consistent with the prime goal of the ASTRAEA project, as given in its peer-reviewed proposal, this final report is an informal report to DOE managers about a perceived DOE management problem, specifically, lack of vision in DOE`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). After presenting a review of relevant, current literature, the author suggests a framework for conceiving new visions for ACP, namely, multidisciplinary research for energy policy, tackling tough (e.g., nonlinear) problems as a team, ahead of political curves. Two example visions for ACP are then described, called herein the CITIES Project (the Comprehensive Inventory of Trace Inhalants from Energy Sources Project) and the OCEAN Project (the Ocean-Circulation Energy-Aerosol Nonlinearities Project). Finally, the author suggests methods for DOE to provide ACP with needed vision.

  2. Atmospheric Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliski, Lori

    Because radiative transfer cuts across many scientific disciplines with applications including remote sensing, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and photobiology, there is a need for comprehensive books on this subject that can appeal to a wide readership. While Atmospheric Radiative Transfer takes strides toward filling this niche by addressing a broad range of topics, it is dry reading and suffers from lack of detail. The book was based on a graduate-level course taught at the University of Sciences and Technologies in Lille, France, and indeed, the text reads much like an expanded outline perhaps derived from lecture notes.Part one deals with general radiative transfer, and part two covers Earth's radiation budget, the climate system, and remote sensing techniques. The radiative transfer equation and solutions for absorbing and scattering atmospheres are discussed as are the details of absorption, such as energy levels, line strengths, line intensities, equivalent widths, and weak- and strong-line limits.

  3. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  4. Reaching out in new Ways: Bridging the gap Between Science and Media Through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Ocean Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorell, F. R.; Martinez, C.

    2006-12-01

    NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (OE) was created in response to the recommendations of the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration in 2000. With the establishment of OE, NOAA developed a great opportunity to reach out to teachers, students, and the general public to share the excitement of discovery. As exciting expeditions are the core of our NOAA program, outreach efforts are focused around these cruises. Through various initiatives, OE works with the science community to share the excitement of ocean science and discovery with a wide variety of audiences. Initiatives include media events held during port calls, media conference calls arranged with scientists at sea, journalists' participation in expeditions, and select interviews with scientist-explorers. NOAA OE is now poised to initiate a major ongoing satellite-based education and public outreach program from its new dedicated research vessel, the Okeanos Explorer that will become operational in 2008. Through telepresence technology designed by the Institute for Exploration (IFE) in Mystic, CT, expeditions can be managed `virtually' by scientists working from Science Command Centers on land, live education broadcasts can be produced in real-time, and media events can be held through shore-based consoles connected to scientists at sea. Three pilot programs were successfully completed in the past few years demonstrating the potential for this new technology to allow for unlimited access to data, including video, from expeditions, sharing in real-time the excitement of discovery through multiple virtual pathways. News media provide a powerful means to inform and educate the public. In some cases, scientists may believe that interaction with media representatives poses risks unmatched by rewards. While it is important to serve the public's right to know, scientist-explorers on NOAA-sponsored ocean expeditions have a recognized interest in protecting certain data, including images, for a number of legitimate

  5. Long-term Academic and Career Impacts of Undergraduate Research: Diverse Pathways to Geoscience Careers Following a Summer Atmospheric Science Research Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, C. D.; Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Boyd, K.; Bowker, C.

    2015-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to support the success of STEM undergraduates through improving their research skills, ability to synthesize knowledge, and personal and professional development, all while socializing them into the nature of science. REUs are further intended to support STEM career choice and professional advancement, and have thus played a key role in diversity efforts. Recruiting and retaining diverse students in STEM through REUs is of particular importance in the geosciences, where women and ethnic minorities continue to be significantly underrepresented. However, few studies have examined the long-term impacts of these REUs on students' academic and career trajectories. Further, those that do exist primarily study the experiences of current graduate students, scientists, and faculty members—that is, those who have already persisted—which overlooks the multiple academic and career paths REU students might follow and may preclude a thorough examination of REUs' diversity impacts. In this long-term retrospective study of the academic and career impacts of a REU program at a large Western U.S. research university, we interviewed 17 former REU participants on their expectations prior to their REU participation, their experiences during the REU, the immediate outcomes from the experience, and its long-term impacts on their academic and career choices. To address gaps in the existing literature on REU impacts, we purposively sampled students who have taken a variety of educational and career paths, including those not engaged in science research. Despite varied trajectories, the majority of the students we interviewed have persisted in the geosciences and attest to the REU's profound impact on their career-related opportunities and choices. This presentation describes students' diverse STEM pathways and discusses how students' REU expectations, experiences, and immediate outcomes continued to make an impact long-term.

  6. Atmospheric soundings from Mount Abu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Som; Sinha, H. S. S.

    2005-06-01

    An atmospheric science laboratory was set up at Gurushikhar, in the campus of PRL's Infrared observatory, in 1994. A variety of scientific instruments were housed in the atmospheric science laboratory to explore the Earth's ionosphere and neutral atmosphere. A powerful Nd-YAG laser based Lidar, a multi-wavelength all sky imaging system, Day-night-airglow photometer/spectrometer and a proton precession magnetometer are in operation along with a surface ozone sampler, a carbon mono-oxide analyzer and a UV radiometer (measures solar ultraviolet irradiance between 280 and 320 nm). This article highlights the neutral density and temperature measurements by the lidar as well as Atmospheric/Ionospheric parameters derived by other instruments.

  7. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience....

  8. Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan; Barman, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The study of exoplanetary atmospheres is one of the most exciting and dynamic frontiers in astronomy. Over the past two decades ongoing surveys have revealed an astonishing diversity in the planetary masses, radii, temperatures, orbital parameters, and host stellar properties of exoplanetary systems. We are now moving into an era where we can begin to address fundamental questions concerning the diversity of exoplanetary compositions, atmospheric and interior processes, and formation histories, just as have been pursued for solar system planets over the past century. Exoplanetary atmospheres provide a direct means to address these questions via their observable spectral signatures. In the last decade, and particularly in the last five years, tremendous progress has been made in detecting atmospheric signatures of exoplanets through photometric and spectroscopic methods using a variety of space-borne and/or ground-based observational facilities. These observations are beginning to provide important constraints...

  9. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    . Nevertheless, people’s experience of the environment is sought manipulated in a variety of contexts, often without offering a less ‘true’ experience of a situation than if it had not been manipulated by people. In fact, orchestrations of space are often central to sociality, politics and aesthetics. This...... introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  10. Effects of chronic exposure to low-level pollutants in the environment. Prepared for the Subcommittee on the Environment and the Atmosphere of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Serial 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    This report was prepared for the Subcommittee on the Environment and the Atmosphere of the US House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology. It describes the effects of low-level, persistent pollutants on human health, fish and wildlife, agriculture, and climate.

  11. The Atmospheres of Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Marley, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of irradiated solar system planetary atmospheres have been studied for decades, consequently modern planetary science benefits from an exhaustive body of ground- and space-based data. The study of extrasolar planetary atmospheres, by contrast, is still in its infancy and currently rests on a few score of datapoints, mostly of the transiting planets. This short survey aims not to review this dynamic field but rather stresses the importance of a few theoretical concepts and processes for our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres. Topics covered include atmospheric structure and dynamics, cloud processes and photochemistry of planetary atmospheres. Influences on the albedos, spectra, and colors of extrasolar planets are reviewed and caution is urged in the interpretation of exoplanet colors.

  12. Methods for conduct of atmospheric tracer studies at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been developed to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. This report discusses the tracer release, sampling and analysis methods

  13. Carnegie Institution Atmospheric-Electricity and Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institute of Science conducted observations of atmospheric electricity and magnetic storms. In addition to...

  14. Atmospheric Smell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslund, Anette

    awareness. Subsequently, visitor interviews revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not...... alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell was gestured through non-olfactory effects and it was put in words metonymically, gesturing a reversibly synaesthetic atmosphere of a hospital. Visitor conversations revealed how smell could be poignantly picked up in situ, yet not until frequenting the museum...

  15. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    . As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the...

  16. Properties of daytime tweek atmospherics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolmašová, Ivana; Santolík, Ondřej; Lán, Radek; Uhlíř, Luděk

    Miltenberg: U.R.S.I. Landesausschuss in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e.V, 2015. s. 53. [URSI Kleinheubacher Tagung 2015. 28.09.2005-30.09.2005, Miltenberg] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : tweek atmospherics * ionospheric cutoff * ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.kh2015.de/KH2015_book_of_abstracts.pdf

  17. 77 FR 58356 - Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... the meeting date. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Science Advisory Board (SAB) was established by a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Oceanic...

  18. 77 FR 476 - Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... be reviewed prior to the meeting date. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Science Advisory Board (SAB... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Oceanic...

  19. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    In view of the observation by IceCube of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, it is important to quantify the uncertainty in the background of atmospheric neutrinos. There are two sources of uncertainty, the imperfect knowledge of the spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic rays that produce the neutrinos and the limited understanding of hadron production, including charm, at high energy. This paper is an overview of both aspects.

  20. The bibliometrics of atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M.

    Bibliometric analysis is an important tool in the management of a journal. SCOPUS output is used to assess the increase in the quantity of material in Atmospheric Environment and stylistic changes in the way authors choose words and punctuation in titles and assemble their reference lists. Citation analysis is used to consider the impact factor of the journal, but perhaps more importantly the way in which it reflects the importance authors give to papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The impact factor of Atmospheric Environment (2.549 for 2007) from the Journal Citation Reports suggests it performs well within the atmospheric sciences, but it conceals the long term value authors place on papers appearing in the journal. Reference lists show that a fifth come through citing papers more than a decade old.

  1. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research...

  2. Climate Change Science Program Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Collection consists of publications and other resources produced between 2007 and 2009 by the CCSP with the intention of...

  3. Early MAVEN results on the Mars Upper Atmosphere and Atmospheric Loss to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2015-10-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft went into orbit around Mars on 21 September 2014. After a commissioning phase that included science observations of Mars and of Comet Siding Spring during its close approach, its primary science phase began on 16 November 2014 and will run for a full Earth year, until November 2015. Early results on structure, composition and dynamics of the upper atmosphere and on escape to space will be presented.

  4. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. A.; Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  5. Juno's investigation of Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Scott

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in 2016 for a one year prime mission. Juno primary science goals include the study of Jupiter’s origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Juno’s orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager/spectrometer and a visible camera. An overview of Juno's investigation of Jupiter and its atmosphere will be presented.

  6. Environmental Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalyzers) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization)

  7. ZAP: Zurich Atmosphere Purge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Kurt T.; Lilly, Simon J.; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Conseil, Simon

    2016-02-01

    ZAP (Zurich Atmosphere Purge) provides sky subtraction for integral field spectroscopy; its approach is based on principal component analysis (PCA) developed for the Multi Unit Spectrographic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. ZAP employs filtering and data segmentation to enhance the inherent capabilities of PCA for sky subtraction. ZAP reduces sky emission residuals while robustly preserving the flux and line shapes of astronomical sources; this method works in a variety of observational situations from sparse fields with a low density of sources to filled fields in which the target source fills the field of view. With the inclusion of both of these situations the method is generally applicable to many different science cases and should also be useful for other instrumentation.

  8. Earth's Mysterious Atmosphere: Atlas 1 Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex Corp., Huntsville, AL.

    This atmospheric studies teacher's guide for use with middle school students blends lessons in chemistry, physics, and the life, earth, and space sciences in an attempt to accomplish the following: to nurture students' natural curiosity and excitement about science, mathematics, and technology; to encourage career exploration in science,…

  9. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work’ by...

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  11. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the GERDA as part of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) project from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957 (NODC Accession 7000057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the GERDA from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957. Data were collected as part of the Rosenstiel...

  12. Science of Team Science

    OpenAIRE

    Foti, Roseanne

    2012-01-01

    Psychology researcher Roseanne J. Foti, Ph.D., describes the Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of effective teams and proposes collaborating in the creation and evaluation of science teams at the Center for Autism Research.

  13. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A summary final report of work accomplished is presented. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) Galileo Probe science analysis, (2) Galileo probe Atmosphere Structure Instrument, (3) Mars Pathfinder Atmosphere Structure/Meteorology instrument, (4) Mars Pathfinder data analysis, (5) Science Definition for future Mars missions, (6) Viking Lander data analysis, (7) winds in Mars atmosphere Venus atmospheric dynamics, (8) Pioneer Venus Probe data analysis, (9) Pioneer Venus anomaly analysis, (10) Discovery Venus Probe Titan probe instrument design, and (11) laboratory studies of Titan probe impact phenomena. The work has resulted in more than 10 articles published in archive journals, 2 encyclopedia articles, and many working papers. This final report is organized around the four planets on which there was activity, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Titan, with a closing section on Miscellaneous Activities. A major objective was to complete the fabrication, test, and evaluation of the atmosphere structure experiment on the Galileo probe, and to receive, analyze and interpret data received from the spacecraft. The instrument was launched on April 14, 1989. Calibration data were taken for all experiment sensors. The data were analyzed, fitted with algorithms, and summarized in a calibration report for use in analyzing and interpreting data returned from Jupiter's atmosphere. The sensors included were the primary science pressure, temperature and acceleration sensors, and the supporting engineering temperature sensors. Computer programs were written to decode the Experiment Data Record and convert the digital numbers to physical quantities, i.e., temperatures, pressures, and accelerations. The project office agreed to obtain telemetry of checkout data from the probe. Work to extend programs written for use on the Pioneer Venus project included: (1) massive heat shield ablation leading to important mass loss during entry; and (2) rapid planet rotation, which introduced

  14. The Significance of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R.

    2002-05-01

    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  15. Exoplanetary Atmospheres - Chemistry, Formation Conditions, and Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Moses, Julianne I; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the atmospheres of extrasolar planets is the new frontier in exoplanetary science. The last two decades of exoplanet discoveries have revealed that exoplanets are very common and extremely diverse in their orbital and bulk properties. We now enter a new era as we begin to investigate the chemical diversity of exoplanets, their atmospheric and interior processes, and their formation conditions. Recent developments in the field have led to unprecedented advancements in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets and the implications for their formation conditions. We review these developments in the present work. We review in detail the theory of atmospheric chemistry in all classes of exoplanets discovered to date, from highly irradiated gas giants, ice giants, and super-Earths, to directly imaged giant planets at large orbital separations. We then review the observational detections of chemical species in exoplanetary atmospheres of these various types using different methods, incl...

  16. Climate Change and the Science of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; Hack

    2011-01-01

    <正>1.Endeavors for constructing a comprehensive science of human settlements A new science of human settlements is emerging as a result of the threats we all face as a result of excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,

  17. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  18. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; Gonzaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  19. Nucleation of atmospheric particles

    OpenAIRE

    Curtius J

    2009-01-01

    Two types of particles exist in the atmosphere, primary and secondary particles. While primary particles such as soot, mineral dust, sea salt particles or pollen are introduced directly as particles into the atmosphere, secondary particles are formed in the atmosphere by condensation of gases. The formation of such new aerosol particles takes place frequently and at a broad variety of atmospheric conditions and geographic locations. A considerable fraction of the atmospheric particles is form...

  20. 75 FR 22790 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Candidates for EPA's Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...; economic modeling; air quality modeling; atmospheric science and engineering; ecology and ecological risk... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Candidates for EPA's Advisory...) and EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  1. High Performance Nitrous Oxide Analyzer for Atmospheric Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project targets the development of a highly sensitive gas sensor to monitor atmospheric nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is an important species in Earth science...

  2. Science Sacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Kimberlee

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

  3. Global Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  4. Science With A Vengeance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devorkin, David H.

    The exploration of the upper atmosphere was given a jump start in the United States by German V-2 rockets - Hitler's "vengeance weapon" - captured at the end of World War II. The science performed with these missiles was largely determined by the missile itself, such as learning more about the medium through which a ballistic missile travels. Groups rapidly formed within the military and military-funded university laboratories to build instruments to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, the nature of cosmic radiation, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun. Few, if any, members of these research groups had prior experience or demonstrated interests in atmospheric, cosmic-ray, or solar physics. Although scientific agendas were at first centered on what could be done with missiles and how to make ballistic missile systems work, reports on techniques and results were widely publicized as the research groups and their patrons sought scientific legitimacy and learned how to make their science an integral part of the national security state. The process by which these groups gained scientific and institutional authority was far from straightforward and offers useful insight both for the historian and for the scientist concerned with how specialties born within the military services became part of post-war American science.

  5. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems–Atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, Kim; Sutton, M.A.;

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O3, CH4, N2O and particles...

  6. Evolution of an Early Titan Atmosphere: Comment

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Robert E; Volkov, Alexey N

    2015-01-01

    Escape of an early atmosphere from Titan, during which time NH3 could be converted by photolysis into the present N2 dominated atmosphere, is an important problem in planetary science. Recently Gilliam and Lerman (2014) estimated escape driven by the surface temperature and pressure, which we show gave loss rates that are orders of magnitude too large. Their model, related to Jeans escape from an isothermal atmosphere, was used to show that escape driven only by surface heating would deplete the atmospheric inventory of N for a suggested Titan accretion temperature of ~355 K. Therefore, they concluded that the accretion temperature must be lower in order to retain the present Titan atmosphere. Here we show that the near surface atmospheric temperature is essentially irrelevant for determining the atmospheric loss rate from Titan and that escape is predominantly driven by solar heating of the upper atmosphere. We also give a rough estimate of the escape rate in the early solar system (~10^4 kg/s) consistent wi...

  7. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This...

  8. A Unique Approach for Studying Venus’s Atmosphere: Technology Development for the Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuele, Rocco; Lee, Greg; Sokol, Daniel; Polidan, Ron; Griffin, Kristen; Bolisay, Linden; Michi, Yuki; Barnes, Nathan

    2014-11-01

    We are investigating a novel, reduced-risk approach to long-duration upper atmosphere exploration of Venus. The Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) concept is a semi-buoyant plane with a science payload that can perform in situ measurements of Venus’s atmosphere. VAMP is also capable of revisiting scientifically interesting locations. Designed with a low ballistic coefficient, VAMP deploys in space and enters Venus’s atmosphere without an aeroshell. Once in the atmosphere, it can engage in a variety of science campaigns while varying its altitude between 50 and 68 km as it circumnavigates Venus. During daytime, VAMP will be able to make continuous science measurements at a range of latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes, while at night the vehicle will descend to a fully-buoyant, lower-power state, capable of performing modest science measurements at the float altitude. Near the end of VAMP’s mission life, the vehicle may attempt an end-of-life trajectory into higher latitudes or descend to lower altitudes. This presentation focuses on the technology roadmap that will allow the vehicle to accomplish these science measurements. The roadmap is driven by high priority science measurements and the technology needed to implement VAMP’s main mission phases: deployment, entry into Venus’s atmosphere, and the transition to flight and science flight performance. The roadmap includes materials tests, planform aerodynamic characterization, various subscale and full-scale packaging and deployment tests, and a full-scale suborbital flight and is being produced with extensive science community interaction to define the science measurements that would be uniquely possible with this new science platform.

  9. Our shared atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...

  10. Earth's changeable atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Billions of years ago, high atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations were vital to life's tenuous foothold on Earth. Despite new constraints, the composition and evolution of Earth's early atmosphere remains hazy.

  11. Atmospheric Lepton Fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    This review of atmospheric muons and neutrinos emphasizes the high energy range relevant for backgrounds to high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. After a brief historical introduction, the main distinguishing features of atmospheric $\

  12. Estimate Total Number of the Earth Atmospheric Particle with Standard Atmosphere Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong-Yi

    2001-01-01

    The total number of atmospheric particle (AP) is an important datum for planetary science and geoscience.Estimating entire AP number is also a familiar question in general physics.With standard atmosphere model,considering the number difference of AP caused by rough and uneven in the earth surface below,the sum of dry clean atmosphere particle is 1.06962 × 1044.So the whole number of AP including water vapor is 1.0740 × 1044.The rough estimation for the total number of AP on other planets (or satellites) in condensed state is also discussed on the base of it.

  13. Earth's Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-11-01

    A new AGU book, Earth's Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, edited by Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, and James A. Carton, presents current observations, theories, and models of ocean-atmosphere interaction that helps shape climate and its variations over the global ocean. The book represents the climate community's first effort to summarize the modern science of ocean-atmosphere interaction and the roles that the interaction play in climate variability in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans as well as interactions across basins and between the tropics and extratropics. In this issue, Eos talks with lead editor Chunzai Wang. Wang is a research oceanographer at the Physical Oceanography Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, in Miami, Florida.

  14. Exploring surface science and restructuring in reactive atmospheres of colloidally prepared bimetallic CuNi and CuCo nanoparticles on SiO2 in situ using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Simon K.; Alayoglu, S.; V. V. Pushkarev; Liu, Z.; Kruse, N; Somorjai, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles (11 nm diameter) of CuNi and CuCo were prepared by a new synthetic route and the 1:1 atomic ratio of their constituent elements confirmed using STEM-EDS at a single particle level. These nanoparticles, supported on the native oxide layer of a silicon wafer, were studied in situ in a series of reactive gas atmospheres (H2 → CO or CO/H2 → O2 → H2) using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). Despite the deliberate similarity of nickel and cobalt wit...

  15. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    understanding of atmospheres as aesthetically ‘radiating’ from the surfaces of space, thinks physiognomically, the article argues for a spatial morphological perspective on atmospheres. Thus, post-phenomeno¬logically, it is argued that the atmospheric given is given by the density of pedestrians, which are...

  16. Nonisothermal Pluto atmosphere models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thermal profile calculation for a Pluto atmosphere model characterized by a high number fraction of CH4 molecules encompasses atmospheric heating by solar UV flux absorption and conductive transport cooling to the surface of Pluto. The stellar occultation curve predicted for an atmosphere of several-microbar surface pressures (which entail the existence of a substantial temperature gradient close to the surface) agrees with observations and implies that the normal and tangential optical depth of the atmosphere is almost negligible. The minimum period for atmospheric methane depletion is calculated to be 30 years. 29 refs

  17. Cyberinfrastructure for Atmospheric Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmson, R.; Moore, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each year across the United States, floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds, lightning, hurricanes, and winter storms cause hundreds of deaths, routinely disrupt transportation and commerce, and result in billions of dollars in annual economic losses . MEAD and LEAD are two recent efforts aimed at developing the cyberinfrastructure for studying and forecasting these events through collection, integration, and analysis of observational data coupled with numerical simulation, data mining, and visualization. MEAD (Modeling Environment for Atmospheric Discovery) has been funded for two years as an NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Alliance Expedition. The goal of this expedition has been the development/adaptation of cyberinfrastructure that will enable research simulations, datamining, machine learning and visualization of hurricanes and storms utilizing the high performance computing environments including the TeraGrid. Portal grid and web infrastructure are being tested that will enable launching of hundreds of individual WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) simulations. In a similar way, multiple Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) or WRF/ROMS simulations can be carried out. Metadata and the resulting large volumes of data will then be made available for further study and for educational purposes using analysis, mining, and visualization services. Initial coupling of the ROMS and WRF codes has been completed and parallel I/O is being implemented for these models. Management of these activities (services) are being enabled through Grid workflow technologies (e.g. OGCE). LEAD (Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery) is a recently funded 5-year, large NSF ITR grant that involves 9 institutions who are developing a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology, particularly one that can interoperate with others being developed. LEAD is addressing the fundamental information technology (IT) research challenges needed

  18. Dramatic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about science.…

  19. Science First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycker, Jan Adkins

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's efforts to put science first in the classroom. Discusses changing the place of science on the schedule and presents an activity to engage student interest. Concludes that a difference in teacher attitude towards science motivates students to learn. (NB)

  20. AVC Helps Teachers View the Atmosphere and Play in the Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Christopher; Andrew, Keith; McCollum, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Atmospheric Visualization Collection (AVC), part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) that contains an archive of weather images as well as a collection of educational material that uses the images to teach atmospheric science concepts. Discusses the potential use of this information for K-12 and undergraduate students.…

  1. TeraGrid Gateways for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins-Diehr, Nancy

    2010-05-01

    The increasingly digital component of science today poses exciting challenges and opportunities for researchers. Whether it's streaming data from sensors to computations, tagging video in the study of language patterns or the use of geographic information systems to anticipate the spread of disease, the challenges are enormous and continue to grow. The existence of advanced cyberinfrastructure (CI) tools or science gateways can significantly increase the productivity of researchers facing the most difficult challenges - in some cases making the impossible possible. The TeraGrid Science Gateways program works to incorporate high end resources through these community-designed interfaces. This talk will present an overview of TeraGrid's gateway program and highlight several gateways in atmospheric science, earth sciences and geography and regional science, geophysics, global atmospheric research, materials research and seismology.

  2. Airships: A New Horizon for Science

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Sarah H.; Fesen, Robert; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Rhodes, Jason; Baird, Gil; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Booth, Jeff; Carlile, David E.; Duren, Riley; Edworthy, Frederick G.; Freeze, Brent; Friedl, Randall R.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Hoffman, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    The "Airships: A New Horizon for Science" study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies investigated the potential of a variety of airships currently operable or under development to serve as observatories and science instrumentation platforms for a range of space, atmospheric, and Earth science. The participants represent a diverse cross-section of the aerospace sector, NASA, and academia. Over the last two decades, there has been wide interest in developing a high altitude...

  3. Airships: A New Horizon for Science

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Sarah H.; Fesen, Robert; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rhodes, Jason; Baird, Gil; Blake, Geoffrey; Booth, Jeff; Carlile, David E.; Duren, Riley; Edworthy, Frederick G.; Freeze, Brent; Friedl, Randall R.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Hoffman, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    The "Airships: A New Horizon for Science" study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies investigated the potential of a variety of airships currently operable or under development to serve as observatories and science instrumentation platforms for a range of space, atmospheric, and Earth science. The participants represent a diverse cross-section of the aerospace sector, NASA, and academia. Over the last two decades, there has been wide interest in developing a high altitude, stratospheric li...

  4. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-51L) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Alexander, M.; Fichtl, G. H.; Batts, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-51L launch time on January 28, 1986, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51L vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-51L ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  5. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-51D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near the space shuttle STS-51D launch time on April 12, 1985, at Kennedy Space Center Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51D vehicle ascent is constructed. The STS-51D ascent atmospheric data tape is compiled by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  6. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-51B) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-51B launch time on April 29, 1985, at Kennedy Space Center Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51B vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-51B ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  7. Pluto's atmosphere near perihelion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent stellar occultation has confirmed predictions that Pluto has an atmosphere which is sufficiently thick to uniformly envelope the planet and to extend far above the surface. Pluto's atmosphere consists of methane and perhaps other volatile gases at temperatures below their freezing points; it should regulate the surface temperature of its volatile ices to a globally uniform value. As Pluto approaches and passes through perihelion, a seasonal maximum in the atmospheric bulk and a corresponding minimum in the exposed volatile ice abundance is expected to occur. The lag in maximum atmospheric bulk relative to perihelion will be diagnostic of the surface thermal properties. An estimate of Pluto's atmospheric bulk may result if a global darkening (resulting from the disappearance of the seasonally deposited frosts) occurs before the time of maximum atmospheric bulk. The ice deposited shortly after perihelion may be diagnostic of the composition of Pluto's volatile reservoir

  8. Measurement of the Atmospheric $\

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Boser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glusenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klas, J; Klein, S R; Kohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Kopke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meszaros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Perez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Radel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schoneberg, S; Schonherr, L; Schonwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoss, A; Strahler, E A; Strom, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos of all flavors. Using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension, a sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data. The number of observed cascades is $N_{\\rm cascade} = 496 \\pm 66 (stat.) \\pm 88(syst.)$ and the rest of the sample consists of residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is determined in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV and is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos.

  9. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric d...

  10. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  11. Photochemistry in planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Graedel, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Widely varying paths of evolutionary history, atmospheric processes, solar fluxes, and temperatures have produced vastly different planetary atmospheres. The similarities and differences between the earth atmosphere and those of the terrestrial planets (Venus and Mars) and of the Jovian planets are discussed in detail; consideration is also given to the photochemistry of Saturn, Uranus, Pluto, Neptune, Titan, and Triton. Changes in the earth's ancient atmosphere are described, and problems of interest in the earth's present troposphere are discussed, including the down wind effect, plume interactions, aerosol nucleation and growth, acid rain, and the fate of terpenes. Temperature fluctuations in the four principal layers of the earth's atmosphere, predicted decreases in the ozone concentration as a function of time, and spectra of particles in the earth's upper atmosphere are also presented. Finally, the vertical structure of the Venus cloud system and the thermal structure of the Jovian planets are shown graphically.

  12. Global Daily Atmospheric State Profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Chahine, Moustafa T.

    2008-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 (micro)m to 15.4 (micro)m and a 13.5 km footprint. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles, clouds, dust and trace gas amounts for CO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CH4.[1] AIRS data are used for weather forecasting and studies of global climate change. The AIRS is a 'facility' instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations.

  13. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful......, in order to encompass dynamic atmospheres as intertwined, constantly shifting negotiations between the rhythms of the environment and of the body. The contribution of this paper is to unravel these negotiations of diverse rhythms, in order to approach dynamic atmospheres from an operational...

  14. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  15. FMCW Radar Performance for Atmospheric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ince

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-modulated continuous-wave radars (FMCW have been used in the investigation of the atmosphere since the late 1960’s. FMCW radars provide tremendous sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to their pulsed counterparts and are therefore attractive for clear-air remote-sensing applications. However, these systems have some disadvantages and performance limitations that have prevented their widespread use by the atmospheric science community. In this study, system performance of atmospheric FMCW radar is analyzed and some measurement limitations for atmospheric targets are discussed. The effects of Doppler velocities and spectral widths on radar performance, radar’s near-field operation, and parallax errors for two-antenna radar systems are considered. Experimental data collected by the highresolution atmospheric FMCW radar is used to illustrate typical performance qualitatively based on morphological backscattered power information. A post-processing based on single-lag covariance differences between the Bragg and Rayleigh echo is applied to estimate clear-air component from refractive index turbulence and perform quantitative analysis of FMCW radar reflectivity from atmospheric targets.

  16. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  17. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  18. Computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Edward K

    2011-01-01

    Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It focuses on the deeper aspects of the two recognized subdivisions of Computer Science, Software and Hardware. These subdivisions are shown to be closely interrelated as a result of the stored-program concept. Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It includes certain classical theoretical computer science topics such as Unsolvability (e.g. the halting problem) and Undecidability (e.g. Godel's incompleteness theorem) that treat problems that exist under the Church-Turing thesis of computation. These problem topics explain in

  19. On the thermally stratified atmospheric flow modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Ivo; Kozel, K.; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky, AV ČR, v. v. i., 2010 - (Příhoda, J.; Kozel, K.), s. 135-138 ISBN 978-80-87012-25-3. [Topical Problems of Fluid Mechanics 2010. Praha (CZ), 10.02.2010-11.02.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : atmospheric boundary layer * turbulence model * finite volume method Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  20. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  1. Occultations for probing atmosphere and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Steiner, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite­ crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi­ fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a...

  2. Update on Atmospheric Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M Concepción; Peres, O L G; Stanev, T; Valle, José W F

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the impact of recent experimental results on the determination of atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. We use all published results on atmospheric neutrinos, including the preliminary large statistics data of Super-Kamiokande. We re-analyze the data in terms of both $\

  3. Atmosphere and Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventzel Riis, Nina

    2012-01-01

    -between of the materials. This is what we identify as atmosphere, an enveloping phenomenon that surrounds and affects our sensuous system and well-being when we approach, enter, stay or move in a building. When we leave the building again we carry this atmospheric multi-sensory experience with us without adequate methods...

  4. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  5. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Science literacy is imperative for well informed civic and personal decision making, yet only a quarter of American adults are proficient enough in science to understand science stories reported in the popular press. Hands-on research increases confidence in and understanding of science. When guiding students in designing and conducting science fair projects, mentors can foster science literacy by helping students focus on three goals: (1) articulating hypotheses or questions, (2) designing feasible projects, and (3) learning to make and interpret graphs. These objectives introduce students to the methodological nature of scientific research and give them the tools to interpret scientific facts and data in order to make informed decisions for themselves and society.

  6. Magneto-atmospheric waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of magneto-atmospheric waves is presented and applied to the modelling of waves in the solar atmosphere. The waves arise in compressible, stratified, electrically conductive atmospheres within gravitational fields when permeated by a magnetic field. Compression, buoyancy, and distortion of the magnetic field all contribute to the existence of the waves. Basic linearized equations are introduced to describe the waves and attention is given to plane-stratified atmospheres and their stability. A dispersion relation is defined for wave propagation in a plane-stratified atmosphere when there are no plane-wave solutions. Solutions are found for the full wave equation in the presence of either a vertical or a horizontal magnetic field. The theory is applied to describing waves in sunspots, in penumbrae, and flare-induced coronal disturbances.

  7. NASA Earth science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2013-10-01

    NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its space missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. Through partnerships with national and international agencies, NASA enables the application of this understanding. The ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting ground segment infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth system science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 15 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Landsat-8/Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The ESD has 16 more missions planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity utilizing rideshares that are part of the Earth Venture (EV) Program. The recently selected Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) microsatellite constellation and the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument are examples. In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) is being increasingly used to host NASA Earth observing science instruments. An overview of plans

  8. Personalizing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielowich, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers are aware of many social issues that intersect with science. These socio-scientific issues (SSIs) are "open-ended problems without clear-cut solutions [that] can be informed by scientific principles, theories, and data, but…cannot be fully determined by [them]" (Sadler 2011, p. 4). This article describes the SSI lessons…

  9. Big Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions

  10. "Children's Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The revamped New Zealand curriculum emphasises "scientific literacy for all students" and provides teachers with an opportunity to promote science as an integral element of the primary school curriculum. Exploring and explaining the natural world in primary science can provide authentic contexts for the development of knowledge, skills, and…

  11. Deconstructing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  12. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  13. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  14. MAVEN Imaging UV Spectrograph Results on the Mars Atmosphere and Atmospheric Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefevre, Franck; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Stiepen, Arnaud; Crismani, Matteo; Mayyasi, Majd; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Mike; Yelle, Roger; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) is one of nine science instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft, whose payload is dedicated to exploring the upper atmosphere of Mars and understanding the magnitude and drivers of Mars' atmospheric escape rate. IUVS uses ultraviolet light to investigate the lower and upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. The instrument is among the most powerful spectrographs sent to another planet, with several key capabilities: (1) separate Far-UV & Mid-UV channels for stray light control, (2) a high resolution echelle mode to resolve deuterium and hydrogen emission, (3) internal instrument pointing and scanning capabilities to allow complete mapping and nearly continuous operation, and (4) optimization for airglow studies. IUVS, along with other MAVEN instruments, obtains a comprehensive picture of the current state of the Mars upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes that control atmospheric escape. We present an overview of selected IUVS results, including (1) the discovery of diffuse aurora at Mars, and its contrast with previously detected discrete aurora localized near crustal magnetic fields; (2) widespread detection of mesospheric clouds; (3) Significant seasonal and short-timescale variability in thermospheric composition; (4) Global ozone maps spanning six months of seasonal evolution; and (5) mapping of the Mars H and O coronas, deriving the escape rates of H and O and their variability. This last is of particular importance for understanding the long term evolution of Mars and its atmosphere, with the observed preset escape of H potentially capable of removing a large fraction of Mars' initial water inventory, and the differential escape of O relative to H potentially providing a net source of oxidizing power to the atmosphere and planet at present, in contrast with a photochemical theory that predicts stoichiometrically balanced escape. The atmospheric and escape

  15. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to bring together

  16. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2006-11-01

    Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to

  17. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  18. [Basic science and applied science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2001-01-01

    A lecture was presented by the author at the Democratic Opinion Forum on Health Teaching and Research, organized by Mexico's National Health Institutes Coordinating Office, at National Cardiology Institute "Ignacio Chavez", where he presented a critical review of the conventional classification of basic and applied science, as well as his personal view on health science teaching and research. According to the author, "well-conducted science" is that "generating reality-checked knowledge" and "mis-conducted science" is that "unproductive or producing 'just lies' and 'non-fundable'. To support his views, the author reviews utilitarian and pejorative definitions of science, as well as those of committed and pure science, useful and useless science, and practical and esoterical science, as synonyms of applied and basic science. He also asserts that, in Mexico, "this classification has been used in the past to justify federal funding cutbacks to basic science, allegedly because it is not targeted at solving 'national problems' or because it was not relevant to priorities set in a given six-year political administration period". Regarding health education and research, the author asserts that the current academic programs are inefficient and ineffective; his proposal to tackle these problems is to carry out a solid scientific study, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of experts, "to design the scientific researcher curricula from recruitment of intelligent young people to retirement or death". Performance assessment of researchers would not be restricted to publication of papers, since "the quality of scientific work and contribution to the development of science is not reflected by the number of published papers". The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html PMID:11547597

  19. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  20. Revolutionary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-01-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  1. Revolutionary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind’s view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn’s formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. PMID:26933052

  2. International Conference on Environment Science (ICES 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Computational Environment Science

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Environment Science and 2012 International Conference on Computer Science (ICES 2012/ICCS 2012) will be held in Australia, Melbourne, 15‐16 March, 2012.Volume 1 contains some new results in computational environment science. There are 47 papers were selected as the regular paper in this volume. It contains the latest developments and reflects the experience of many researchers working in different environments (universities, research centers or even industries), publishing new theories and solving new technological problems on computational environment science.   The purpose of volume 1 is interconnection of diverse scientific fields, the cultivation of every possible scientific collaboration, the exchange of views and the promotion of new research targets as well as the further dissemination, the dispersion, the diffusion of the environment science, including but not limited to Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Soil Science, Geology, Atmospheric Science and Geography �...

  3. The Atmosphere of Pluto as Observed by New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Randy

    2016-07-01

    A major goal of the New Horizons (NH) mission was to explore and characterize the structure and composition of Pluto's atmosphere. Several instruments onboard NH contributed to these goals, primarily: 1) the REX instrument, through uplink X-band radio occultations, 2) the Alice instrument, through extreme- and far-ultraviolet solar occultations, and 3) the LORRI panchromatic and MVIC color imagers, through high-resolution imaging. The associated datasets were obtained near closest approach of NH to Pluto at 11:48 UT on 14 July 2015. Pressure and temperature profiles of the lower atmosphere are derived from the REX radio occultation data, the composition and structure of the extended atmosphere are derived from the Alice solar occultation data, and the distribution and properties of Pluto's hazes are derived from the LORRI and MVIC imaging data. The observations made during the NH flyby provide a detailed snapshot of the current state of Pluto's atmosphere. While the lower atmosphere (at altitudes less than 200 km) is largely consistent with ground-based stellar occultations, the upper atmosphere is much colder and more compact than indicated by pre-encounter models. Molecular nitrogen dominates the atmosphere (at altitudes less than 1800 km or so), while methane, acetylene, ethylene, and ethane are important minor species, and likely help produce the haze which surrounds Pluto. The cold upper atmosphere considerably reduces the magnitude of the hydrodynamic escape of Pluto's atmosphere to space. In this talk an overview of the atmosphere science results will be presented.

  4. Atmospheric Neutrino Status

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, E

    2016-01-01

    This conference proceeding discusses new results arising from atmospheric neutrino detection in the Super-Kamiokande and IceCube experiments. Super-Kamiokande has measured atmospheric neutrinos in the energy range of 100 MeV-10 TeV and uses this data set to conclusively measure the east-west effect to 8.0 (6.0) $\\sigma$ for electron (muon) neutrinos. IceCube is ideal for measuring high energy atmospheric neutrinos and has explored how different production channels for atmospheric neutrinos contribute to the total overall observed flux. The measurement is consistent with the conventional spectrum, produced by the decay of pions and kaon, while the contribution from the prompt channel (due to charm decay) is consistent with zero.

  5. Unravelling our atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Martin

    2014-05-01

    A main limiting factor in climate predictions is that we do not understand atmospheric processes as a function of height. An upcoming European and Japanese space mission called EarthCARE seeks to remedy this, as Martin Caldwell explains.

  6. Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  7. The origin of atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether the pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied. (Sz.Z.)

  8. The invention of atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The word "atmosphere" was a neologism Willebrord Snellius created for his Latin translation of Simon Stevin's cosmographical writings. Astronomers and mathematical practitioners, such as Snellius and Christoph Scheiner, applying the techniques of Ibn Mu'ādh and Witelo, were the first to use the term in their calculations of the height of vapors that cause twilight. Their understandings of the atmosphere diverged from Aristotelian divisions of the aerial region. From the early years of the seventeenth century, the term was often associated with atomism or corpuscular matter theory. The concept of the atmosphere changed dramatically with the advent of pneumatic experiments in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi, Walter Charleton, and Robert Boyle transformed the atmosphere of the mathematicians giving it the characteristics of weight, specific gravity, and fluidity, while disputes about its extent and border remained unresolved. PMID:26193787

  9. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  10. Carbon neutron star atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V F; Pavlov, G G; Werner, K

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, atmospheres of thermally - emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in CasA, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho & Heinke (2009). To test such a composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed such a grid using the standard LTE approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10^8 G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra.

  11. Middle atmospheric electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is presented of the advances made during the last few years with respect to the study of the electrodynamics in the earth's middle atmosphere. In a report of the experimental work conducted, attention is given to large middle atmospheric electric fields, the downward coupling of high altitude processes into the middle atmosphere, and upward coupling of tropospheric processes into the middle atmosphere. It is pointed out that new developments in tethered balloons and superpressure balloons should greatly increase the measurement duration of earth-ionospheric potential measurements and of stratospheric electric field measurements in the next few years. Theoretical work considered provides an excellent starting point for study of upward coupling of transient and dc electric fields. Hays and Roble (1979) were the first to construct a model which included orographic features as well as the classical thunderstorm generator.

  12. Potential Biosignatures in Super-Earth Atmospheres II. Photochemical Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Grenfell, J. L.; Gebauer, S.; Godolt, M.; Palczynski, K.; Rauer, H.; Stock, J.; von Paris, P.; R. Lehmann; Selsis, F.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral characterization of super-Earth atmospheres for planets orbiting in the habitable zone of M dwarf stars is a key focus in exoplanet science. A central challenge is to understand and predict the expected spectral signals of atmospheric biosignatures (species associated with life). Our work applies a global-mean radiative-convective-photochemical column model assuming a planet with an Earth-like biomass and planetary development. We investigated planets with gravities of 1g and 3g and ...

  13. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  14. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  15. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  16. Atmospheric muons: experimental aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of atmospheric muon flux and energy spectrum measurements over almost six decades of muon momentum. Sea-level and underground/water/ice experiments are considered. Possible sources of systematic errors in the measurements are examinated. The characteristics of underground/water muons (muons in bundle, lateral distribution, energy spectrum) are discussed. The connection between the atmospheric muon and neutrino measurements are also reported.

  17. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  18. Saturday Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugart, Cecil G.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the organization of demonstration oriented seminars in which the physics of toys, music, sports and other topics are investigated. Reports that this university based service has increased high school physics and science fair enrollments. (CP)

  19. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  20. Capitalist Science

    CERN Document Server

    Knuteson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The economic structure of basic science is currently socialist, funded by the public at large through taxes for the benefit of the public at large. This socialist system should be augmented by a capitalist system, in which basic science is also funded by private investors who reap financial benefit from the sale of subsequent technologies based on the knowledge obtained from the research funded by their investments. A capitalist system will provide benefits extending from the broad target audience of this paper -- which includes politicians, financiers, economists, and scientists in all fields -- to the average taxpayer and consumer. Capitalist science will better align the incentives of scientists with taxpayer interests, channel more money into basic science, lower your taxes, and generally improve the quality of your life.

  1. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  2. GREAT/SOFIA atmospheric calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xin; Stutzki, Jürgen; Graf, Urs U.; Güsten, Rolf; Okada, Yoko; Torres, Miguel Angel Requena; Simon, Robert; Wiesemeyer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    The GREAT observations need frequency-selective calibration across the passband for the residual atmospheric opacity at flight altitude. At these altitudes the atmospheric opacity has both narrow and broad spectral features. To determine the atmospheric transmission at high spectral resolution, GREAT compares the observed atmospheric emission with atmospheric model predictions, and therefore depends on the validity of the atmospheric models. We discusse the problems identified in this compari...

  3. The Atmosphere and Climate of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, M. A.; Grinspoon, D. H.

    Venus lies just sunward of the inner edge of the Sun's habitable zone. Liquid water is not stable. Like Earth and Mars, Venus probably accreted at least an ocean's worth of water, although there are alternative scenarios. The loss of this water led to the massive, dry CO2 atmosphere, extensive H2SO4 clouds (at least some of the time), and an intense CO2 greenhouse effect. This chapter describes the current understanding of Venus' atmosphere, established from the data of dozens of spacecraft and atmospheric probe missions since 1962, and by telescopic observations since the nineteenth century. Theoretical work to model the temperature, chemistry, and circulation of Venus' atmosphere is largely based on analogous models developed in the Earth sciences. We discuss the data and modeling used to understand the temperature structure of the atmosphere, as well as its composition, cloud structure, and general circulation. We address what is known and theorized about the origin and early evolution of Venus' atmosphere. It is widely understood that Venus' dense CO2 atmosphere is the ultimate result of the loss of an ocean to space, but the timing of major transitions in Venus' climate is very poorly constrained by the available data. At present, the bright clouds allow only 20% of the sunlight to drive the energy balance and therefore determine conditions at Venus' surface. Like Earth and Mars, differential heating between the equator and poles drives the atmospheric circulation. Condensable species in the atmosphere create clouds and hazes that drive feedbacks that alter radiative forcing. Also in common with Earth and Mars, the loss of light, volatile elements to space produces long-term changes in composition and chemistry. As on Earth, geologic processes are most likely modifying the atmosphere and clouds by injecting gases from volcanos as well as directly through chemical reactions with the surface. The sensitivity of Venus' atmospheric energy balance is quantified in

  4. Air ions and aerosol science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, Hannes

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4-1.8 nm.

  5. Air ions and aerosol science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammet, H. [Department of Environmental Physics, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia (Estonia) 2400

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. High resolution IR spectrometry and detection of atmospheric gravity waves in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcheva, K. I.; Barrow, D. J.; Drossart, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Galileo and the Cassini observations at Jupiter returned a large volume of information about the planet's atmosphere. Some of the results posed new questions that need to be addressed. The energy balance of the jovian thermosphere still presents a problem in our understanding of the nature of the energy source that provides for the observed high thermospheric temperatures. The Galileo probe temperature profile showed an imbedded wavelike structure in the thermosphere. The same pressure region has been also sampled through radio occultations. The derived electron density profiles show a system of several narrow peaks in the lower ionosphere. They too have been successfully modeled as signatures of high altitude atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are potentially an important mechanism of energy and momentum transport in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. At the moment we have no direct information about the level of wave activity (rate of wave occurrence , amplitudes, horizontal wavelengths, wave periods, global distribution on the planet, direction of propagation, possible sources of waves) in order to be able to assess the role of atmospheric waves in the dynamics of Jupiter's upper atmosphere. We present a study of the effects of atmospheric gravity waves on the H3+ emission of Jupiter and assess the fisability of wave detection through high resolution infrared spectrometry. This study is in support of the science definition of the planed joint NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). We have developed a 2-D, time dependent fully nonlinear model of the chemical and the dynamic response of the ionospheric plasma to the propagation of atmospheric gravity waves. The model is coupled with a H3+ radiative transfer model to estimate the magnitude of the expected observable signature in the H3+ IR emission. The detection and the characterization of the gravity wave modes present in the Jovian atmosphere will allow us to estimate the amount of energy

  7. Web portal on environmental sciences "ATMOS''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Lykosov, V. N.; Fazliev, A. Z.

    2006-06-01

    The developed under INTAS grant web portal ATMOS (http://atmos.iao.ru and http://atmos.scert.ru) makes available to the international research community, environmental managers, and the interested public, a bilingual information source for the domain of Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry, and the related application domain of air quality assessment and management. It offers access to integrated thematic information, experimental data, analytical tools and models, case studies, and related information and educational resources compiled, structured, and edited by the partners into a coherent and consistent thematic information resource. While offering the usual components of a thematic site such as link collections, user group registration, discussion forum, news section etc., the site is distinguished by its scientific information services and tools: on-line models and analytical tools, and data collections and case studies together with tutorial material. The portal is organized as a set of interrelated scientific sites, which addressed basic branches of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Modeling as well as the applied domains of Air Quality Assessment and Management, Modeling, and Environmental Impact Assessment. Each scientific site is open for external access information-computational system realized by means of Internet technologies. The main basic science topics are devoted to Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Spectroscopy and Radiation, Atmospheric Aerosols, Atmospheric Dynamics and Atmospheric Models, including climate models. The portal ATMOS reflects current tendency of Environmental Sciences transformation into exact (quantitative) sciences and is quite effective example of modern Information Technologies and Environmental Sciences integration. It makes the portal both an auxiliary instrument to support interdisciplinary projects of regional environment and extensive educational resource in this important domain.

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of a Regional Atmospheric Chemical Data Assimilation System for Environmental Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Pius Lee; Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    We report the progress of an ongoing effort by the Air Resources Laboratory, NOAA to build a prototype regional Chemical Analysis System (ARLCAS). The ARLCAS focuses on providing long-term analysis of the three dimensional (3D) air-pollutant concentration fields over the continental U.S. It leverages expertise from the NASA Earth Science Division-sponsored Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) for the state-of-science knowledge in atmospheric and data assimilation sciences. The ARLCAS com...

  9. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-26) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-26 launch time on September 29, 1988, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida is given. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-26 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-26 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  10. Introduction to the special issue on atmospheric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Peter; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric science relies heavily on molecular spectroscopy as illustrated by this special issue. Remote sensing of atmospheric composition is completely dependent on spectroscopy because by definition, direct sampling is not possible. Interesting advances have recently been made in the instrumentation available for performing spectroscopic measurements in the lab as well as in the field. Gains in sensitivity, resolution and duty cycle allow for spectroscopic measurements of unprecedented precision and accuracy. These technical advances have led to spectroscopic characterization of atmospheric components and measurements of the abundance of gas-phase and particulate species.

  11. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Geoffrey [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) with miniature sensor systems for atmospheric research is an important capability to develop. The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) project, lead by Dr. Gijs de Boer of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES- a partnership of NOAA and CU-Boulder), is a significant milestone in realizing this new potential. This project has clearly demonstrated that the concept of sUAS utilization is valid, and miniature instrumentation can be used to further our understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer in the arctic.

  12. All sky camera for the CTA atmospheric calibration work package

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandát, Dušan; Pech, Miroslav; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Trávníček, Petr; Janeček, Petr; Ebr, Jan; Doro, M.; Gaug, M.

    Les Ulis: EDP SCIENCES, 2015 - (Doro, M.), "03007-1"-"03007-3". (EPJ Web of Conferences. 89). ISSN 2100-014X. [Conference on Atmospheric Monitoring for High Energy AstroParticle Detectors /2./ AtmoHEAD 2014. Padova (IT), 19.05.2014-21.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : all sky camera * CTA * atmospheric calibration * atmosphere monitoring Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  13. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  14. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...

  15. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-41G) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Jasper, G.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions that were observed near Space Shuttle STS-41G launch time on October 5, 1984 at Kennedy Space Center in Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual obsrvations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape consisting of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude for STS-41G vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-41G ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed. The STS-41G ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  16. Solid State Laser Technology Development for Atmospheric Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James C.

    1998-01-01

    NASA atmospheric scientists are currently planning active remote sensing missions that will enable global monitoring of atmospheric ozone, water vapor, aerosols and clouds as well as global wind velocity. The measurements of these elements and parameters are important because of the effects they have on climate change, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, atmospheric transport and, in general, the health of the planet. NASA will make use of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and backscatter lidar techniques for active remote sensing of molecular constituents and atmospheric phenomena from advanced high-altitude aircraft and space platforms. This paper provides an overview of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC's) development of advanced solid state lasers, harmonic generators, and wave mixing techniques aimed at providing the broad range of wavelengths necessary to meet measurement goals of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  18. From Atmospheric Scientist to Data Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Most of my career has been spent analyzing data from research projects in the atmospheric sciences. I spent twelve years researching boundary layer interactions in the polar regions, which included five field seasons in the Antarctic. During this time, I got both a M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric science. I learned most of my data science and programming skills throughout this time as part of my research projects. When I graduated with my Ph.D., I was looking for a new and fresh opportunity to enhance the skills I already had while learning more advanced technical skills. I found a position at the University of Colorado Boulder as a Data Research Specialist with Research Computing, a group that provides cyber infrastructure services, including high-speed networking, large-scale data storage, and supercomputing, to university students and researchers. My position is the perfect merriment between advanced technical skills and "softer" skills, while at the same time understanding exactly what the busy scientist needs to understand about their data. I have had the opportunity to help shape our university's data education system, a development that is still evolving. This presentation will detail my career story, the lessons I have learned, my daily work in my new position, and some of the exciting opportunities that opened up in my new career.

  19. Airships: A New Horizon for Science

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Sarah H; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rhodes, Jason; Baird, Gil; Blake, Geoffrey; Booth, Jeff; Carlile, David E; Duren, Riley; Edworthy, Frederick G; Freeze, Brent; Friedl, Randall R; Goldsmith, Paul F; Hall, Jeffery L; Hoffman, Scott E; Hovarter, Scott E; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M; Jones, Ross M; Kauffmann, Jens; Kiessling, Alina; King, Oliver G; Konidaris, Nick; Lachenmeier, Timothy L; Lord, Steven D; Neu, Jessica; Quetin, Gregory R; Ram, Alan; Sander, Stanley; Simard, Marc; Smith, Mike; Smith, Steve; Smoot, Sara; Susca, Sara; Swann, Abigail; Young, Eliot F; Zambrano, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The "Airships: A New Horizon for Science" study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies investigated the potential of a variety of airships currently operable or under development to serve as observatories and science instrumentation platforms for a range of space, atmospheric, and Earth science. The participants represent a diverse cross-section of the aerospace sector, NASA, and academia. Over the last two decades, there has been wide interest in developing a high altitude, stratospheric lighter-than-air (LTA) airship that could maneuver and remain in a desired geographic position (i.e., "station-keeping") for weeks, months or even years. Our study found considerable scientific value in both low altitude ( 60 kft) airships across a wide spectrum of space, atmospheric, and Earth science programs. Over the course of the study period, we identified stratospheric tethered aerostats as a viable alternative to airships where station-keeping was valued over maneuverability. By opening up the sky and Earth's strato...

  20. Presidential Citation for Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    AGU presented its Presidential Citation for Science and Society to three recipients at a reception on 1 May 2012 in the Rayburn House Office Building as part of the inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference. Google Earth, Jane Lubchenco, who is the under secretary of Commerce for oceans and atmosphere and administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Sen. Olympia Snowe (R-Maine) were recognized for their leadership and vision in shaping policy and heightening public awareness of the value of Earth and space science. “This is an important award because with it AGU brings to light the importance of cutting-edge use-inspired science that helps people, communities, and businesses adapt to climate change and sustainably manage our oceans and coasts,” Lubchenco said.

  1. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  2. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  3. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  4. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedynitch, Anatoli

    2016-04-01

    The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossfield, Ian J. M.

    2015-10-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics and circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress, while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  6. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  7. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  8. NASA Science Engagement Through "Sky Art"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, K. L.; Damadeo, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sky Art is a NASA-funded online community where the public can share in the beauty of nature and the science behind it. At the center of Sky Art is a gallery of amateur sky photos submitted by users that are related to NASA Earth science mission research areas. Through their submissions, amateur photographers from around the world are engaged in the process of making observations, or taking pictures, of the sky just like many NASA science instruments. By submitting their pictures and engaging in the online community discussions and interactions with NASA scientists, users make the connection between the beauty of nature and atmospheric science. Sky Art is a gateway for interaction and information aimed at drawing excitement and interest in atmospheric phenomena including sunrises, sunsets, moonrises, moonsets, and aerosols, each of which correlates to a NASA science mission. Educating the public on atmospheric science topics in an informal way is a central goal of Sky Art. NASA science is included in the community through interaction from scientists, NASA images, and blog posts on science concepts derived from the images. Additionally, the website connects educators through the formal education pathway where science concepts are taught through activities and lessons that align with national learning standards. Sky Art was conceived as part of the Education and Public Outreach program of the SAGE III on ISS mission. There are currently three other NASA mission involved with Sky Art: CALIPSO, GPM, and CLARREO. This paper will discuss the process of developing the Sky Art online website, the challenges of growing a community of users, as well as the use of social media and mobile applications in science outreach and education.

  9. Climate Change Connections: Student Awareness of the Whole Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, P. J.; Ciarametaro, V. J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Zhang, S.

    2011-12-01

    Recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change findings have raised public awareness of long term studies of temperature at the surface and in the troposphere, where conventional weather reside. The middle and upper atmosphere surrounding Earth also contain their own climate and weather patterns which are far less generally known. New and exciting findings in the geospace science community have highlighted strong and previously unsuspected connections between the lower and upper atmosphere, many of which cause dramatic and unexpected effects. Many high school science programs do not focus on Earth science, and in particular do not cover atmospheric science at levels other than tropospheric weather. As a means of addressing this, we describe a classroom unit developed as part of the NSF Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program at MIT Haystack Observatory in the summer of 2011. The opportunity to study the upper atmosphere provides a rare opportunity in the classroom. Students have an authentic experience of asking questions whose answers cannot be easily found on the Web, and indeed are subjects of active scientific research. This unit begins with a series of activities and lessons designed to provide background information about how Earth's atmosphere responds to environmental changes in ways which differ markedly depending on the location, altitude, and time period of observation. Our teaching unit takes advantage of cutting edge research on the upper atmosphere done at MIT Haystack Observatory, which operates one of a small number of powerful ground based ionospheric radars making direct observations of the upper atmosphere. The unit develops an exploration into understanding and analyzing data with a critical eye. Our teaching unit concludes with a discerning look at climate change in the lower and upper atmosphere, and the connection between the two. Given the current concern for the state of Earth's changing climate in the lower atmosphere, this unit

  10. Big data era in meteor science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinković, D.; Gritsevich, M.; Srećković, V.; Pečnik, B.; Szabó, G.; Debattista, V.; Škoda, P.; Mahabal, A.; Peltoniemi, J.; Mönkölä, S.; Mickaelian, A.; Turunen, E.; Kákona, J.; Koskinen, J.; Grokhovsky, V.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last couple of decades technological advancements in observational techniques in meteor science have yielded drastic improvements in the quality, quantity and diversity of meteor data, while even more ambitious instruments are about to become operational. This empowers meteor science to boost its experimental and theoretical horizons and seek more advanced science goals. We review some of the developments that push meteor science into the big data era that requires more complex methodological approaches through interdisciplinary collaborations with other branches of physics and computer science. We argue that meteor science should become an integral part of large surveys in astronomy, aeronomy and space physics, and tackle the complexity of micro-physics of meteor plasma and its interaction with the atmosphere.

  11. Photochemistry of Pluto's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    1999-01-01

    This work include studies of two problems: (1) Modeling thermal balance, structure. and escape processes in Pluto's upper atmosphere. This study has been completed in full. A new method, of analytic solution for the equation of hydrodynamic flow from in atmosphere been developed. It was found that the ultraviolet absorption by methane which was previously ignored is even more important in Pluto's thermal balance than the extreme ultraviolet absorption by nitrogen. Two basic models of the lower atmosphere have been suggested, with a tropopause and a planetary surface at the bottom of the stellar occultation lightcurve, respectively, Vertical profiles, of temperature, density, gas velocity, and the CH4 mixing ratio have been calculated for these two models at low, mean, and high solar activity (six models). We prove that Pluto' " s atmosphere is restricted to 3060-4500 km, which makes possible a close flyby of future spacecraft. Implication for Pluto's evolution have also been discussed. and (2) Modeling of Pluto's photochemistry. Based on the results of (1), we have made some changes in the basic continuity equation and in the boundary conditions which reflect a unique can of hydrodynamic escape and therefore have not been used in modeling of other planetary atmospheres. We model photochemistry of 44 neutral and 23 ion species. This work required solution of a set of 67 second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Two models have been developed. Each model consists of the vertical profiles for 67 species, their escape and precipitation rates. These models predict the chemical structure and basic chemical processes in the current atmosphere and possible implication of these processes for evolution. This study has also been completed in full.

  12. Composition of Estonian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric study, particularly that of its chemical composition, has a long tradition in Estonia. Since middle of this century, in addition to meteorological observations, some chemical compounds in precipitations have been regularly measured in many meteorological stations. The main aim was to acquire information about the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, main attention was paid to monitoring chemical compounds which have a direct impact on the human environment. As energy production developed intensively and SO2 and NOx increased drastically in the atmosphere in acidic rock areas, like Scandinavia, the problem of acid rain became the most important environmental problem in Europe and North-America. As a consequence, monitoring the compounds of sulphur in precipitation was organized in Estonia. In the 1970 s, as related to large operating oil shale-based power plants, Estonia became a country , where emissions of sulphur compounds per capita were extremely high. In 1979, Estonia became a participant in the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme - the network created to study transboundary air pollution. The aims of the precipitation chemistry study and the related problems of the formation and transformation of the atmospheric composition have varied over the years. But monitoring of pollutant (in particular, sulphur compound) loads has been a central issue. Over recent years, an attempt was made to estimate the spatial regularities of atmospheric impurities and their impact on the pH of mean monthly precipitations. Furthermore, calculations were provided to find out the origin of atmospheric impurities washed out in Estonia. Until the 1990 s, CO2, and some other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were not studied in Estonia. The first inventory of GHG for Estonia was provided in 1995 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology

  13. Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) is the home (archive) of Precipitation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics, and...

  14. Characterization of air flow patterns at the Atmospheric Station Křešín u Pacova

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošková, K.; Sedlák, Pavel; Dvorská, Alice; Prošek, P.

    Berlín: European Meteorological Society, 2014, s. 16. [EMS Annual Meeting, 14th & European Conference on Applications of Meteorology (ECAM), 10th. Prague (CZ), 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : atmospheric station Křešín * atmospheric tower * greenhouse gases * atmospheric pollution Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  15. Science employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    Rapid growth in private sector high-technology companies coupled with the expected unprecedented U.S. peacetime defense buildup paint an optimistic picture for future employment in scientific and engineering fields, according to forecasts by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Between 1982 and 1987, up to nearly 750,000 new positions will be created in scientific, engineering, or technical fields, a new NSF report states. By 1987 these occupations will account for 4 million jobs, or 3.5% of the total U.S. work force. New positions in the earth sciences are predicted to increase about 2% per year.

  16. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  17. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man

  18. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introdu

  19. Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs to the Ocean and their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickells, Tim D.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs to the Ocean and their Impact T Jickells (1), K. Altieri (2), D. Capone (3), E. Buitenhuis (1), R. Duce (4), F. Dentener (5), K. Fennel (6), J. Galloway (7), M. Kanakidou (8), J. LaRoche (9), K. Lee (10), P. Liss (1), J. Middleburg (11), K. Moore (12), S. Nickovic (13), G. Okin (14), A. Oschilies (15), J. Prospero (16), M. Sarin (17), S. Seitzinger (18), J. Scharples (19), P. Suntharalingram (1), M. Uematsu (20), L. Zamora (21) Atmospheric nitrogen inputs to the ocean have been identified as an important source of nitrogen to the oceans which has increased greatly as a result of human activity. The significance of atmospheric inputs for ocean biogeochemistry were evaluated in a seminal paper by Duce et al., 2008 (Science 320, 893-7). In this presentation we will update the Duce et al 2008 study estimating the impact of atmospheric deposition on the oceans. We will summarise the latest model estimates of total atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the ocean, their chemical form (nitrate, ammonium and organic nitrogen) and spatial distribution from the TM4 model. The model estimates are somewhat smaller than the Duce et al estimate, but with similar spatial distributions. We will compare these flux estimates with a new estimate of the impact of fluvial nitrogen inputs on the open ocean (Sharples submitted) which estimates some transfer of fluvial nitrogen to the open ocean, particularly at low latitudes, compared to the complete trapping of fluvial inputs on the continental shelf assumed by Duce et al. We will then estimate the impact of atmospheric deposition on ocean primary productivity and N2O emissions from the oceans using the PlankTOM10 model. The impacts of atmospheric deposition we estimate on ocean productivity here are smaller than those predicted by Duce et al impacts, consistent with the smaller atmospheric deposition estimates. However, the atmospheric input is still larger than the estimated fluvial inputs to the open ocean

  20. International space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author begins his paper by noting the range of international cooperation which has occured in science since its earliest days. The brightest minds were allowed to cross international frontiers even in the face of major wars, to work on their interests and to interact with like minded scientists in other countries. There has of course been a political side to this movement at times. The author makes the point that doing science on an international basis is extemely important but it is not a way of conducting foreign policy. Even though governments may work together on scientific efforts, it is no glue which will bind them to work together on larger political or economic issues. The reason for doing science on an international basis is that it will lead to better science, not better international relations. There are a limited number of great scientists in the world, and they must be allowed to develop their talents. He then discusses two internationl space programs which have has such collaboration, the Soviet-American Space Biology Program, and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). He then touches on the NASA space exploration program, and the fact that its basic objectives were laid out in the 1940's and l950's. With this laid out he argues in favor of establishment of a lunar base, one of the key elements of NASA's plan, arguing for the value of this step based upon the infrared astronomical work which could be done from a stable lunar site, away from the earth's atmosphere

  1. Radio Science Measurements with Suppressed Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Divsalar, Dariush; Oudrhiri, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Radio Science started when it became apparent with early Solar missions that occultations by planetary atmospheres would affect the quality of radio communications. Since then the atmospheric properties and other aspects of planetary science, solar science, and fundamental physics were studied by scientists. Radio Science data was always extracted from a received pure residual carrier (without data modulation). For some missions, it is very desirable to obtain Radio Science data from a suppressed carrier modulation. In this paper we propose a method to extract Radio Science data when a coded suppressed carrier modulation is used in deep space communications. Type of modulation can be BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, MPSK or even GMSK. However we concentrate mostly on BPSK modulation. The proposed method for suppressed carrier simply tries to wipe out data that acts as an interference for Radio Science measurements. In order to measure the estimation errors in amplitude and phase of the Radio Science data we use Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The CRB for the suppressed carrier modulation with non-ideal data wiping is then compared with residual carrier modulation under the same noise condition. The method of derivation of CRB for non-ideal data wiping is an innovative method that presented here. Some numerical results are provided for coded system.

  2. Role of natural radiation environment in earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural ionizing radiations play an important role in a wide spectrum of earth sciences, including meteorology, geophysics, hydrology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry. The nature and distribution of ionizing radiation sources and natural radionuclides in the atmospheric environment are summarized. The present status of the use of natural radioactive tracers for atmospheric studies is discussed. The effect of ionization produced by natural radiation sources on atmospheric electricity, the relationship of electrical and meteorological variables, and the possible effects of man-made releases of 85Kr are considered. Experimental evidence is presented for the production of condensation nuclei by the combined effects of radon and sulfur dioxide

  3. Voyager radio science observations of Neptune and Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, G. L.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Anderson, J. D.; Borutzki, S. E.; Campbell, J. K.; Kursinski, E. R.; Levy, G. S.; Lindal, G. F.; Lyons, J. R.; Wood, G. E.

    1989-12-01

    Voyager 2 undertook radio science investigations of the Neptune and Triton masses and densities, as well as of their atmospheric and ionospheric vertical structures, the atmospheric composition and low-order gravitational harmonics of Neptune, and ring material characteristics. Upon probing the atmosphere of Neptune to a pressure level of about 500,000 Pa, the effects of a methane cloud region and of ammonia absorption below the cloud have become apparent. The tenuous neutral atmosphere of Triton produced distinct signatures in the occultation data; it is inferred that the Triton atmosphere is controlled by water-pressure equilibrium with surface ices.

  4. 5th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, Reinhold; Landsberg, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    These Proceedings are published to give a full account of the Fifth International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity held in September 1974 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the Bavarian Alps in Germany. Traditionally, the Proceedings of these Conferences have served as reference books updating the textbooks and monographs on Atmospheric Electricity. As treated by these Conferences, Atmos­ pheric Electricity covers all aspects of this science, including the processes and problems which reach out into the Earth's environment as well as analogous processes on other planets and on the Moon. A history of these Conferences, an account of their purpose, and an outline of the scope and the preparation is to be found at the end of these Proceedings. There, also the Business Meetings of the involved organizations are mentioned. The Proceedings closely follow the original program and are accordingly organized into "Sessions". The papers printed in each "Session" in this book are the ones which were accepted for the sess...

  5. Plasma-ion Induced Sputtering and Heating of Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. E.; Tucker, O. J.

    2007-05-01

    Titan is unique among the outer solar system icy satellites in having an atmosphere with a column density about ten times that of the Earth's atmosphere and an atmospheric mass to solid mass ratio comparable to that of Venus. Atmospheres equivalent in size to that at Titan would have been removed from the icy Galilean satellites by the plasma trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere (Johnson 2004). Therefore, the use of Cassini data to determine the present erosion rate of Titan's atmosphere provides an important end point for studying the erosion and heating of planetary and satellite atmospheres by an ambient plasma. In this paper we describe the deposition of energy, the erosion and the expansion of the upper atmosphere of Titan using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo models (Shematovich et al. 2003; Michael et al. 2005; Michael and Johnson 2005). These calculations are used to calibrate semi-empirical models of atmospheric sputtering (Johnson 1994) that are used to interpret Cassini data at Titan. Using a number of plasma conditions, the temperature and density vs. altitude above the exobase and the rate of escape are calculated. References: Johnson, R.E. "Plasma-induced Sputtering of an Atmosphere" in Space Science Reviews 69 215-253 (1994). Johnson. R.E., " The magnetospheric plasmadriven evolution of satellite atmospheres" Astrophys. J. 609, L99-L102 (2004). Michael, M. and R.E. Johnson, "Energy deposition of pickup ions and heating of Titan's atmosphere", Planetary & Space Sci.53, 1510-1514 (2005). Michael M., R.E. Johnson, F. Leblanc, M. Liu, J.G. Luhmann, and V.I. Shematovich, "Ejection of nitrogen from Titan's atmosphere by magnetospheric ions and pick-up ions", Icarus 175, 263-267 (2005). Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, M. Michael, and J.G. Luhmann, "Nitrogen loss from Titan", JGR 108, No. E8, 5087, doi:10.1029/2003JE002094 (2003).

  6. Organizational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  7. Science Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Joseph; Newman, Alan; Farrar, Cathy; Saul, E. Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Much of the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), aside from the inquiry and teaching sections, focus on content. The authors' call is instead to build standards that focus on what students need to be scientifically literate in 10 or 15 years. Although a basic understanding of important scientific concepts and an understanding of how…

  8. Redirecting science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters. Science policy and fund-raising up to 1934; The Copenhagen spirit at work, late 1920's to mid-1930s; The refugee problem, 1933 to 1935; Experimental biology, late 1920s to 1935; and Consolidation of the transition, 1935 to 1940

  9. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Provides a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Contains several experiments and demonstrations with topics on: the intestine, bullock corneal cells, valences, the science of tea, automated hydrolysis, electronics characteristics, bromine diffusion, enthalpy of vaporization determination, thermometers, pendulums, hovercraft, Bernoulli fluid…

  10. Computational Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ Computer science is the discipline that anchors the computer industry which has been improving processor performance, communication bandwidth and storage capacity on the so called "Moore's law" curve or at the rate of doubling every 18 to 24 months during the past decades.

  11. Skeptical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  12. Nuclear Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    This document is a report on a course in nuclear science for the high school curriculum. The course is designed to provide a basic but comprehensive understanding of the atom in the light of modern knowledge, and to show how people attempt to harness the tremendous energy liberated through fission and fusion reactions. The course crosses what are…

  13. Polymer Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Curtis W.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a series of four graduate level courses in polymer science, offered or currently in preparation, at Stanford University. Course descriptions and a list of required and recommended texts are included. Detailed course outlines for two of the courses are presented. (BT)

  14. Science insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    "Below is an essay by Prof. Tanabe originally written in Japanese. It gives an insight to Prof. Tanabe's inquiring mind and his approach to science. He also seek, as always, to inspire and nudge the young to scientific discovery". PMID:25463310

  15. Science and anti-science

    CERN Document Server

    Holton, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    What is good science? What goal--if any--is the proper end of scientific activity? Is there a legitimating authority that scientists mayclaim? Howserious athreat are the anti-science movements? These questions have long been debated but, as Gerald Holton points out, every era must offer its own responses. This book examines these questions not in the abstract but shows their historic roots and the answers emerging from the scientific and political controversies of this century. Employing the case-study method and the concept of scientific thematathat he has pioneered, Holton displays the broad scope of his insight into the workings of science: from the influence of Ernst Mach on twentiethcentury physicists, biologists, psychologists, and other thinkers to the rhetorical strategies used in the work of Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and others; from the bickering between Thomas Jefferson and the U.S. Congress over the proper form of federal sponsorship of scientific research to philosophical debates since Oswald...

  16. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  17. Solar Atmosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution honoring Kees de Jager's 80th birthday is a review of "one-dimensional" solar atmosphere modeling that followed on the initial "Utrecht Reference Photosphere" of Heintze, Hubenet & de Jager (1964). My starting point is the Bilderberg conference, convened by de Jager in 1967 at the time when NLTE radiative transfer theory became mature. The resulting Bilderberg model was quickly superseded by the HSRA and later by the VAL-FAL sequence of increasingly sophisticated NLTE continuum-fitting models from Harvard. They became the "standard models" of solar atmosphere physics, but Holweger's relatively simple LTE line-fitting model still persists as a favorite of solar abundance determiners. After a brief model inventory I discuss subsequent work on the major modeling issues (coherency, NLTE, dynamics) listed as to-do items by de Jager in 1968. The present conclusion is that one-dimensional modeling recovers Schwarzschild's (1906) finding that the lower solar atmosphere is grosso modo in radiative equilibrium. This is a boon for applications regarding the solar atmosphere as one-dimensional stellar example - but the real sun, including all the intricate phenomena that now constitute the mainstay of solar physics, is vastly more interesting.

  18. Climate and atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the scientific journal of the Humboldt university is dedicated to results of research work carried out to the greatest extent at the meteorological institute in the last two years on the area of climate and atmospheric research. The traditional research areas of the institute are climatology and the dynamics of the atmosphere, in particular the atmospherical boundary layer. Considering the high probability of a global climatic fluctuation due to the anthropogenic change of composition of the atmosphere and other climate-relevant factors imminent in the next century, climatological research today is an important part of global and regional environmental research. From the necessity of determination and evaluation of the effect of climatic fluctuations on nature and society the contours of a new interdisciplinary research area are already visible now. This is suitable as hardly any other area to be the supporting idea of environmental research at universities. The contributions contained in the issue already consider, in addition to results on climate diagnosis, also results on aspects of climate effect research. (orig./KW)

  19. Results from atmospheric neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J G Learned

    2000-07-01

    With the announcement of new evidence for muon neutrino disappearance observed by the super-Kamiokande experiment, the more than a decade old atmospheric neutrino anomaly moved from a possible indication for neutrino oscillations to an apparently inescapable fact. The evidence is reviewed, and new indications are presented that the oscillations are probably between muon and tau neutrinos. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  20. Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, Ara; Darrach, Muray

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) identifies gases that are present in minute quantities in the International Space Station (ISS) breathing air that could harm the crew s health. If successful, instruments like VCAM could accompany crewmembers during long-duration exploration missions to the Moon or traveling to Mars.

  1. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.;

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...

  2. Variability study of ionospheric and neutral atmospheric parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koucká Knížová, Petra; Jačková, Kateřina; Kouba, Daniel; Mošna, Zbyšek

    Merida: International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 2013. s. 175. [IAGA Scientific Assembly /12./. 26.08.2013-31.08.2013, Merida] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * neutral atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.iaga2013.org.mx/public/1/ABSTRACTvolume-IAGA2013.pdf

  3. An interactive parallel programming environment applied in atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonLaszewski, G.

    1996-01-01

    This article introduces an interactive parallel programming environment (IPPE) that simplifies the generation and execution of parallel programs. One of the tasks of the environment is to generate message-passing parallel programs for homogeneous and heterogeneous computing platforms. The parallel programs are represented by using visual objects. This is accomplished with the help of a graphical programming editor that is implemented in Java and enables portability to a wide variety of computer platforms. In contrast to other graphical programming systems, reusable parts of the programs can be stored in a program library to support rapid prototyping. In addition, runtime performance data on different computing platforms is collected in a database. A selection process determines dynamically the software and the hardware platform to be used to solve the problem in minimal wall-clock time. The environment is currently being tested on a Grand Challenge problem, the NASA four-dimensional data assimilation system.

  4. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  5. The promise of remote sensing in the atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, D.

    1981-01-01

    The applications and advances in remote sensing technology for weather prediction, mesoscale meteorology, severe storms, and climate studies are discussed. Doppler radar permits tracking of the three-dimensional field of motion within storms, thereby increasing the accuracy of convective storm modeling. Single Doppler units are also employed for detecting mesoscale storm vortices and tornado vortex signatures with lead times of 30 min. Clear air radar in pulsed and high resolution FM-CW forms reveals boundary layer convection, Kelvin-Helmoltz waves, shear layer turbulence, and wave motions. Lidar is successfully employed for stratospheric aerosol measurements, while Doppler lidar provides data on winds from the ground and can be based in space. Sodar is useful for determining the structure of the PBL. Details and techniques of satellite-based remote sensing are presented, and results from the GWE and FGGE experiments are discussed.

  6. Does science need computer science?

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Jeremy; Reynolds, Andrew; Roberts, Matt; Legg, Steve; Jones, Nick; Glover-Gunn, May

    2004-01-01

    IBM Hursley Talks Series 3 An afternoon of talks, to be held on Wednesday March 10 from 2:30pm in Bldg 35 Lecture Room A, arranged by the School of Chemistry in conjunction with IBM Hursley and the Combechem e-Science Project. The talks are aimed at science students (undergraduate and post-graduate) from across the faculty. This is the third series of talks we have organized, but the first time we have put them together in an afternoon. The talks are general in nature and knowledge...

  7. Complementarity of UV and IR differential absorption lidar for global measurements of atmospheric species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megie, G.; Menzies, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the potential capabilities of a spectrally diversified DIAL technique for monitoring atmospheric species is presented assuming operation from an earth-orbiting platform. Emphasis is given to the measurement accuracies and spatial and temporal resolutions required to meet present atmospheric science objectives. The discussion points out advantages of spectral diversity to perform comprehensive studies of the atmosphere; in general it is shown that IR systems have an advantage in lower atmospheric measurements, while UV systems are superior for middle and upper atmospheric measurements.

  8. Portraying Real Science in Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    In both formal and informal settings, not only science but also views on the nature of science are communicated. Although there probably is no singular nature shared by all fields of science, in the field of science education it is commonly assumed that on a certain level of generality there is a consensus on many features of science. In this…

  9. Improving practical atmospheric dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new generation of practical atmospheric dispersion model (for short range ≤ 30 km) are based on dispersion science and boundary layer meteorology which have widespread international acceptance. In addition, recent improvements in computer skills and the widespread availability of small powerful computers make it possible to have new regulatory models which are more complex than the previous generation which were based on charts and simple formulae. This paper describes the basis of these models and how they have developed. Such models are needed to satisfy the urgent public demand for sound, justifiable and consistent environmental decisions. For example, it is preferable that the same models are used to simulate dispersion in different industries; in many countries at present different models are used for emissions from nuclear and fossil fuel power stations. The models should not be so simple as to be suspect but neither should they be too complex for widespread use; for example, at public inquiries in Germany, where simple models are mandatory, it is becoming usual to cite the results from highly complex computational models because the simple models are not credible. This paper is written in a schematic style with an emphasis on tables and diagrams. (au) (22 refs.)

  10. Atmospheric station Kresin u Pacova , Czech Republic-a uniques research infrastrucuture for studying atmospheric chemistry in a changing climate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Váňa, Milan; Dvorská, Alice; Hošková, K.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zíková, Naděžda; Sedlák, Pavel; Prošek, P.

    Helsinky: University of Helsinky, 2014, s. 33. [ICOS International Conference on Greenhouse Gases and Biogeochemical Cycles /1./. Brusels (BE), 23.09.2014-25.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : atmospheric station Křešín * climate change * Košetice observatory Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  11. The Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Peter, Ed.

    This 12-chapter book discusses the scientific facts behind the ideas included in the novels of Robert Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, Frederik Pohl, Arthur C. Clark and other science fiction writers. Areas explored in the first 11 chapters include: exploration of deep space; energy and exotic power sources; likelihood of extra-terrestrial life and the…

  12. Board on chemical sciences and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current and Ongoing Projects include: Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry; Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry Workshop on Training Requirements for Chemists in Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Industry, and Related Areas; Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry Workshop on High-Temperature and Nuclear Chemical Processes in Severe Reactor Accidents; Committee on Chemical Engineering Frontiers Research Needs and Opportunities; Committee on Separation Science on Technology; Panel on Future Directions for Fundamental Science in Fossil Energy Research; Committee for Handling and Disposal of Biohazards in the Laboratory (BIL); Advisory Panels to the AFSOR Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences Directorate; US National Committee for Pure and Applied Chemistry; US National Committee for Biochemistry; US National Committee for Crystallography

  13. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  14. Fictitious Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Science and Technology (S&T), like Research and Development (R&D), has become a case of capital investment like any other economic sector. This has distanced R&D from social needs, to the extent that part of R&D ends up actually being fictitious, in the sense that it acquires a price on the market but never becomes part of material…

  15. Ground-based atmospheric remote sensing in the Netherlands: European outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russchenberg, H.; Bosveld, F.; Swart, D.; Brink, H. ten; Leeuw, G. de; Uijlenhoet, R.; Arbesser-Rastburg, B.; Marel, H. van der; Ligthart, L.; Boers, R.; Apituley, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the contours of a Dutch monitoring and research site for climate change and related atmospheric processes. The station has large benefits for atmospheric science, both in The Netherlands and internationally. It provides a platform for collaboration in this important field, and w

  16. Preservice Science Teachers' Science Teaching Orientations and Beliefs about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers clarification of science teacher orientations as a potential component of pedagogical content knowledge. Science teaching orientations and beliefs about science held by 237 preservice science teachers were gathered via content-specific vignettes and questionnaire, respectively, prior to participation in a UK-based teacher…

  17. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  18. Dreaming of atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Waldmann, I P

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrievals of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognise molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as `dreams' of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work towards retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from curre...

  19. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  20. Atmospheric lepton fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of atmospheric muons and neutrinos emphasizes the high energy range relevant for backgrounds to high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. After a brief historical introduction, the main distinguishing features of atmospheric νμ and νe are discussed, along with the implications of the muon charge ratio for the νµ / ν̅µ ratio. Methods to account for effects of the knee in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and the energy-dependence of hadronic interactions on the neutrino fluxes are discussed and illustrated in the context of recent results from IceCube. A simple numerical/analytic method is proposed for systematic investigation of uncertainties in neutrino fluxes arising from uncertainties in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum/composition and hadronic interactions.

  1. Understanding Atmospheric Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Winston C.

    2009-01-01

    The atmosphere, as in other parts of nature, is full of phenomena that involve rapid transitions from one (quasi-) equilibrium state to another--- i.e. catastrophes. These (quasi-) equilibria are the multiple solutions of the same dynamical system. Unlocking the mystery behind a catastrophe reveals not only the physical mechanism responsible for the transition, but also how the (quasi-) equilibria before and after the transition are maintained. Each catastrophe is different, but they do have some common traits. Understanding these common traits is the first step in studying these catastrophes. In this seminar, three examples chosen based on the speaker's research interest--tropical cyclogenesis, stratospheric sudden warming, and monsoon onset--are given to illustrate how atmospheric catastrophes can be studied.

  2. 24. Atmosphere and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Earth's atmosphere is changing, and we do not fully understand what the effect of those changes will be on our own lives, much less the lives of our children. It is easy to imagine effects that could be catastrophic for life on this planet. Yet, in the face of these possibilities and our inadequate understanding of Earth processes, anthropogenic emissions of trace gases - pollutants that affect climate, the ozone layer, and human health - continue. Tables give information on the following: CO2 emissions from industrial processes, 1989; Other greenhouse gas emissions, 1989; Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases, 1959-90; World CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950-89; Sulfur and nitrogen emissions, 1970-89; and Common anthropogenic pollutants, 1980-89

  3. Perspectives of precipitation science: Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Silas

    2016-03-01

    This Special Issue of Atmospheric Research entitled "Perspectives of Precipitation Science: Part III" encompasses selected papers that were presented at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union, held in Vienna, Austria, from 27 April to 2 May 2014, within the framework of the (General) Session "Precipitation: Measurement, Climatology, Remote Sensing, and Modeling".

  4. 78 FR 38297 - Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board (SAB) AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and... dial in to this meeting. Status: The meeting will be open to public participation with a 10...

  5. Water Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Water Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) atmosphere (highlighting the processes of evaporation, condensation, convection, wind movement and air pollution); (2) water (examining the properties of liquids, water distribution, use, and quality, and the water…

  6. Atmospheric tides in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Newman, C. E.; de la Torre Juárez, M.; Wilson, R. J.; Lemmon, M.; Smith, M. D.; Kahanpää, H.; Harri, A.-M.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric tides are the primary source of daily air pressure variation at the surface of Mars. These tides are forced by solar heating of the atmosphere and modulated by the presence of atmospheric dust, topography, and surface albedo and thermal inertia. This results in a complex mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous tides propagating both eastward and westward around the planet in periods that are integer fractions of a solar day. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station on board the Mars Science Laboratory has observed air pressure at a regular cadence for over 1 Mars year and here we analyze and diagnose atmospheric tides in this pressure record. The diurnal tide amplitude varies from 26 to 63 Pa with an average phase of 0424 local true solar time, while the semidiurnal tide amplitude varies from 5 to 20 Pa with an average phase of 0929. We find that both the diurnal and semidiurnal tides in Gale Crater are highly correlated to atmospheric opacity variations at a value of 0.9 and to each other at a value of 0.77, with some key exceptions occurring during regional and local dust storms. We supplement our analysis with MarsWRF general circulation modeling to examine how a local dust storm impacts the diurnal tide in its vicinity. We find that both the diurnal tide amplitude enhancement and regional coverage of notable amplitude enhancement linearly scales with the size of the local dust storm. Our results provide the first long-term record of surface pressure tides near the martian equator.

  7. Discovering Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of the occultation of an obscure 12th-magnitude star in eastern Virgo by Pluto on June 9, 1988 are discussed. The occultation was observed by astronomers aboard NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory flying over the Pacific. The prediction of the occultation and the results of the observations are examined. The study demonstrated that Pluto has a thin atmosphere and that its diameter is about two-thirds that of the moon

  8. Tritium in atmospheric hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J. David; Hackett, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The radioactivity of tritiated hydrogen (HT) in the atmosphere in Westwood, New Jersey was measured at approximately weekly intervals from August 1971 to August 1973. The background level remained constant at approximately 80 tritium atoms per milligram of air. Frequent increases in the activity level of up to an order of magnitude were observed until January 1973. The source(s) of HT which was responsible for the frequent increases apparently ceased as a tropospheric source in January 1973. ...

  9. Atmospheric Disturbance Environment Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, the application of atmospheric disturbance data to airplane design problems has been the domain of the structures engineer. The primary concern in this case is the design of structural components sufficient to handle transient loads induced by the most severe atmospheric "gusts" that might be encountered. The concern has resulted in a considerable body of high altitude gust acceleration data obtained with VGH recorders (airplane velocity, V, vertical acceleration, G, altitude, H) on high-flying airplanes like the U-2 (Ehernberger and Love, 1975). However, the propulsion system designer is less concerned with the accelerations of the airplane than he is with the airflow entering the system's inlet. When the airplane encounters atmospheric turbulence it responds with transient fluctuations in pitch, yaw, and roll angles. These transients, together with fluctuations in the free-stream temperature and pressure will disrupt the total pressure, temperature, Mach number and angularity of the inlet flow. For the mixed compression inlet, the result is a disturbed throat Mach number and/or shock position, and in extreme cases an inlet unstart can occur (cf. Section 2.1). Interest in the effects of inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, supersonic airplanes is not new. Results published by NASA in 1962 of wind tunnel studies of the problem were used in support of the United States Supersonic Transport program (SST) (White, at aI, 1963). Such studies continued into the late 1970's. However, in spite of such interest, there never was developed an atmospheric disturbance database for inlet unstart analysis to compare with that available for the structures load analysis. Missing were data for the free-stream temperature and pressure disturbances that also contribute to the unStart problem.

  10. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore be a useful marker of lightning activity. Observational evidence is considered to support this view. Thirdly, the chemical decomposition of HCN leads to the production of small amounts of CN and NCO. NCO can be photolyzed in the visible portion of the spectrum yielding N atoms. The production of N atoms is significant as it leads to the titration of nitrogen from the atmosphere via N+N→N2. Normally the only modelled source of N atoms is NO photolysis which happens largely in the UV Schumann-Runge bands. However, NCO photolysis occurs in the visible and so could be involved in titration of atmospheric nitrogen in the lower stratosphere and troposphere. HCN emission inventories are worthy of attention. The CN and NCO radicals have been termed pseudohalogens since the 1920s. They are strongly bound, univalent, radicals with an extensive and varied chemistry. The products of the atmospheric oxidation of HCN are NO, CO and O3. N+CH4 and N+CH3OH are found to be important sources of HCN. Including the pseudohalogen chemistry gives a small increase in ozone and total reactive nitrogen (NOy.

  11. Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; Bremer, J.; Emmert, J. T.; Jacobi, C.; Jarvis, M.J.; Nedoluha, G.; Portnyagin, Yu. I.; Ulich, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2008), s. 1255-1268. ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Atmospheric composition and structure * Thermosphere – composition and chemistry * Evolution of the atmosphere * Ionosphere * Ionosphere-atmosphere interactions Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.660, year: 2008 http://www.ann-geophys.net/26/1255/2008/

  12. On the abundances of carbon dioxide isotopologues in the atmospheres of mars and earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, G. M.

    2016-03-01

    The isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere from the measurements of Mars Science Laboratory have been used to estimate the relative abundances of CO2 isotopologues in the Martian atmosphere. Concurrently, this study has revealed long-standing errors in the amounts of some of low-abundance CO2 isotopologues in the Earth's atmosphere in the databases of spectroscopic parameters of gases (HITRAN, etc.).

  13. EUSO science

    OpenAIRE

    Berezinsky, V.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Bottai, S.; Dali, G.; Koang, D. H.; Mannheim, K.; Medina Tanco, G.; Plagnol, E.; Santangelo, A.; Scarsi, L.; Sigl, G.; Takahashi, Y.; Teshima, M.; Thea, A.

    2005-01-01

    EUSO is a mission to explore the extreme universe by the probe of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) and UHE neutrinos. EUSO monitors a gigantic volume of atmosphere from Space and measures showers induced by UHECRs and UHE neutrinos. Scientifically, it is important to measure the energy spectrum of UHECRs well beyond GZK energy with high statistics. EUSO ensures the observation of UHECRs up to 10$^{21}$eV even in the case of GZK mechanism working, and gives us a clear picture of the exis...

  14. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  15. Titan's surface and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alexander G.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Ádámkovics, Máté

    2016-05-01

    Since its arrival in late 2004, the NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn has revealed Titan to be a world that is both strange and familiar. Titan is the only extraterrestrial body known to support standing bodies of stable liquid on its surface and, along with Earth and early Mars, is one of three places in the Solar System known to have had an active hydrologic cycle. With atmospheric pressures of 1.5 bar and temperatures of 90-95 K at the surface, methane and ethane condense out of Titan's nitrogen-dominated atmosphere and flow as liquids on the surface. Despite vast differences in environmental conditions and materials from Earth, Titan's methane-based hydrologic cycle drives climatic and geologic processes which generate landforms that are strikingly similar to their terrestrial counterparts, including vast equatorial dunes, well-organized channel networks that route material through erosional and depositional landscapes, and lakes and seas of liquid hydrocarbons. These similarities make Titan a natural laboratory for studying the processes that shape terrestrial landscapes and drive climates, probing extreme conditions impossible to recreate in earthbound laboratories. Titan's exotic environment ensures that even rudimentary measurements of atmospheric/surface interactions, such as wind-wave generation or aeolian dune development, provide valuable data to anchor physical models.

  16. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  18. Revolutionizing Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century: Report and Recommendations from a 50-State Analysis of Earth Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martos; Barstow, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) commissioned TERC to complete a review of science education standards for all 50 states. The study analyzed K-12 Earth science standards to determine how well each state addresses key Earth-science content, concepts and skills. This report reveals that few states have thoroughly integrated…

  19. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  20. Moving the science data quality dialogue forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Erin; Meyer, Carol B.; Lenhardt, W. Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Federation of Earth Science Information Partners Summer 2011 Meeting; Santa Fe, New Mexico, 12-15 July 2011 Scientific data quality is important to scientists, archivists, decision makers, and the public. Uncertain quality costs valuable research dollars and has impacts beyond the initial science. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) is a consortium of Earth science data and technology professionals spanning the government (NASA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Science Foundation), academia, and private sectors (both commercial and nonprofit). The organization is dedicated to transforming research data and information into useful and usable data and information products for decision makers, policy makers, and the public.

  1. NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Realtime El Nino and La Nina data from the tropical Pacific Ocean is provided by the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean / Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network (TAO/TRITON) of...

  2. Planning a Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Presented are views, on planning science fairs and science fair projects, of a fair coordinator, a science teacher, and students. Also included are 25 questions which might result in science fair projects. (SL)

  3. Facilitating active learning through a thematic science curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Tak CHAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes students' learning of science in a context of a thematic science unit entitled "Clean Water" of the Hong Kong Junior Secondary Science Curriculum (JSSC. Through lesson observations, three curriculum features, namely, "relevancy to learners' life", "problem-solving and thinking skills", and the "science, technology and society (STS approach" were identified in the classes of the "Clean Water" unit of the JSSC. The findings also revealed that these three curriculum features could effectively facilitate active learning atmosphere in the classroom. This article further drew implications for classroom practices in the implementation of science curricula for students living in the 21st century.

  4. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER`s mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  5. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER's mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  6. A simple atmospheric electrical instrument for educational use

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, A J

    2007-01-01

    Electricity in the atmosphere provides an ideal topic for educational outreach in environmental science. To support this objective, a simple instrument to measure real atmospheric electrical parameters has been developed and its performance evaluated. This project compliments educational activities undertaken by the Coupling of Atmospheric Layers (CAL) European research collaboration. The new instrument is inexpensive to construct and simple to operate, readily allowing it to be used in schools as well as at the undergraduate University level. It is suited to students at a variety of different educational levels, as the results can be analysed with different levels of sophistication. Students can make measurements of the fair weather electric field and current density, thereby gaining an understanding of the electrical nature of the atmosphere. This work was stimulated by the centenary of the 1906 paper in which C.T.R. Wilson described a new apparatus to measure the electric field and conduction current densi...

  7. Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary Atmospheres - From Earth to Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has been an especially exciting time to study atmospheres, with a renaissance in fundamental studies of Earths general circulation and hydrological cycle, stimulated by questions about past climates and the urgency of projecting the future impacts of humankinds activities. Long-term spacecraft and Earth-based observation of solar system planets have now reinvigorated the study of comparative planetary climatology. The explosion in discoveries of planets outside our solar system has made atmospheric science integral to understanding the diversity of our solar system and the potential habitability of planets outside it. Thus, the AGU Chapman Conference Crossing the Boundaries in Planetary Atmospheres From Earth to Exoplanets, held in Annapolis, MD from June 24-27, 2013 gathered Earth, solar system, and exoplanet scientists to share experiences, insights, and challenges from their individual disciplines, and discuss areas in which thinking broadly might enhance our fundamental understanding of how atmospheres work.

  8. Thermal degradation of CR-39 polymer in an inert atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal degradation of CR-39 (allyl diglycol carbonate), a polymer widely used in nuclear science and technology, in an inert atmosphere has been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The results are compared with the thermal degradation data of the polymer in an air atmosphere. The present studies showed that the thermal degradation of the polymer proceeds in two steps in an argon atmosphere as compared to three steps in air atmosphere. The mass losses in air are higher than that in argon due to the oxidative decomposition of the residue. The kinetics of the different stages of degradation were also evaluated from the TG curves. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  9. Exoplanet Atmospheres and Giant Ground-Based Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, I J M

    2016-01-01

    The study of extrasolar planets has rapidly expanded to encompass the search for new planets, measurements of sizes and masses, models of planetary interiors, planetary demographics and occurrence frequencies, the characterization of planetary orbits and dynamics, and studies of these worlds' complex atmospheres. Our insights into exoplanets dramatically advance whenever improved tools and techniques become available, and surely the largest tools now being planned are the optical/infrared Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). Two themes summarize the advantages of atmospheric studies with the ELTs: high angular resolution when operating at the diffraction limit and high spectral resolution enabled by the unprecedented collecting area of these large telescopes. This brief review describes new opportunities afforded by the ELTs to study the composition, structure, dynamics, and evolution of these planets' atmospheres, while specifically focusing on some of the most compelling atmospheric science cases for four qua...

  10. The Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) on the New Horizons Mission

    OpenAIRE

    McNutt, JR; Livi, Stefano A.; Gurnee, Reid S.; Hill, Matthew E.; Cooper, Kim A.; Andrews, G. Bruce; Keath, Edwin P.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Mitchell, Donald G; Tossman, Barry; Bagenal, Fran; Boldt, John D.; Bradley, Walter; Devereux, William S.; Ho, George C.

    2007-01-01

    The Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) comprises the hardware and accompanying science investigation on the New Horizons spacecraft to measure pick-up ions from Pluto's outgassing atmosphere. To the extent that Pluto retains its characteristics similar to those of a "heavy comet" as detected in stellar occultations since the early 1980s, these measurements will characterize the neutral atmosphere of Pluto while providing a consistency check on the atmospheric...

  11. Team science for science communication

    OpenAIRE

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Strauss, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    Natural scientists from Climate Central and social scientists from Carnegie Mellon University collaborated to develop science communications aimed at presenting personalized coastal flood risk information to the public. We encountered four main challenges: agreeing on goals; balancing complexity and simplicity; relying on data, not intuition; and negotiating external pressures. Each challenge demanded its own approach. We navigated agreement on goals through intensive internal communication e...

  12. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Olkin, C. B.; Young, L. A.; Borncamp, D.; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B.; Assafin, M.; Bianco, F. B.; Buie, M. W.; Oliveira, A. Dias de; Gillon, M.; French, R. G.; Gomes Jr., A. Ramos; Jehin, E.; Morales, N.; Opitom, C.

    2013-01-01

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  13. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz Ocaña, Iván; Cano, Heidis

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...

  14. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; I. Díaz; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

  15. KAJIAN PUSTAKA MENGENAI RESTAURANT ATMOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    Adeline Agoes; Nami Fitricia Pasaribu

    2015-01-01

    Restaurant is one of the businesses that support tourism development. Restaurants nowadays dont only provide food, but also the service and atmosphere to their customers. The purpose of this study is to discover the aspects defining restaurant atmosphere and the implications of restaurant atmosphere to other particular aspects related to restaurant business. This article is written based on a study conducted through a literature review. Through the examination, it is found that the atmosphere...

  16. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel. Pt. II. Marine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results obtained in the MICAT project for mild steel specimens exposed for 1 to 4 years in 47 marine atmospheres in the Ibero-American region. All these atmospheres were characterized for climatology, pollution and corrosion rates according to ISO standards. Complementary morphological and chemical characterization of the steel corrosion product layers (SCPLs) formed in these atmospheres was carried out. The overall analysis of results contributes to understanding, in a systematic way, how atmospheric corrosivity categories can be correlated with corrosion mechanisms. Special aspects of the atmospheres, from pure to mixed marine, were considered. (orig.)

  17. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  18. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  19. Science Night

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Would it surprise you to know that you can measure the speed of light using chocolate and a microwave oven? If you're interested in this and in finding out much more, come along to the Museum of the History of Science on 3 and 4 July 2004, when dozens of companies, institutions, colleges and organizations will be running exhibits, shows, and displays on the theme of counting and measuring. CERN will be there with a display stand that includes two particle detectors. Full details are available from the Museum website at: http://www.lanuitdelascience.ch/

  20. Science blogging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Here is the essential how-to guide for communicating scientific research and discoveries online, ideal for journalists, researchers, and public information officers looking to reach a wide lay audience. Drawing on the cumulative experience of twenty-seven of the greatest minds in scientific communication, this invaluable handbook targets the specific questions and concerns of the scientific community, offering help in a wide range of digital areas, including blogging, creating podcasts, tweeting, and more. With step-by-step guidance and one-stop expertise, this is the book every scientist, science writer, and practitioner needs to approach the Wild West of the Web with knowledge and confidence.

  1. 2011 Joint Science Education Project: Research Experience in Polar Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, J.; Ader, V.

    2011-12-01

    The Joint Science Education Project (JSEP), sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is a two-part program that brings together students and teachers from the United States, Greenland, and Denmark, for a unique cross-cultural, first-hand experience of the realities of polar science field research in Greenland. During JSEP, students experienced research being conducted on and near the Greenland ice sheet by attending researcher presentations, visiting NSF-funded field sites (including Summit and NEEM field stations, both located on the Greenland ice sheet), and designing and conducting research projects in international teams. The results of two of these projects will be highlighted. The atmospheric project investigated the differences in CO2, UVA, UVB, temperature, and albedo in different Arctic microenvironments, while also examining the interaction between the atmosphere and water present in the given environments. It was found that the carbon dioxide levels varied: glacial environments having the lowest levels, with an average concentration of 272.500 ppm, and non-vegetated, terrestrial environments having the highest, with an average concentration of 395.143 ppm. Following up on these results, it is planned to further investigate the interaction of the water and atmosphere, including water's role in the uptake of carbon dioxide. The ecology project investigated the occurrence of unusual large blooms of Nostoc cyanobacteria in Kangerlussuaq area lakes. The water chemistry of the lakes which contained the cyanobacteria and the lakes that did not were compared. The only noticeable difference was of the lakes' acidity, lakes containing the blooms had an average pH value of 8.58, whereas lakes without the blooms had an average pH value of 6.60. Further investigation of these results is needed to determine whether or not this was a cause or effect of the cyanobacteria blooms. As a next step, it is planned to attempt to grow the blooms to monitor their effects on

  2. Nanomaterials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanometer regime covers the transition from condensed matter behavior to atomic and molecular properties and thus is a very rich but also very demanding area in materials science. Close to the condensed matter side, properties and functions might still very well be scalable, whereas close to the atomic and molecular side, the scalability is mostly lost. Properties and functions change qualitatively or quantitatively by orders of magnitude when the dimensions become smaller than a critical size in the nanometer range. Examples are the ballistic regime for electron or spin transport at dimensions below the mean free path, near-field effects in scanning near-field optical microscopy and quantum wells when the dimensions are below an appropriate wavelength, novel electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties when the number of bulk atoms becomes smaller than that of surface atoms, quantum conduction, and Coulomb blockade. Thus, by going below a certain size, an abundance of novel properties and functions are at one's disposal, or, in other words, we can functionalize materials simply by reducing their size to the nanoscale.The key to the future lies in the functions that we give to materials, not just in finding 'novel functional materials'. This catch expression in many materials science programs and initiatives of the past two decades sounds great, but it is not what really counts. All materials are functional in one way or another and, therefore, all new materials are 'novel functional materials'. Certainly, finding new materials is always an important part of progress, but we should also focus on the much larger domain of novel functions that we can give to existing or modified materials. A good example is semiconductors: they are fifty or more years old and their properties are very well known, but they were not of widespread interest and use until the transistor changed their destiny into being the central material in the information

  3. Discovering indigenous science: Implications for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Gloria; Corsiglia, John

    2001-01-01

    Indigenous science relates to both the science knowledge of long-resident, usually oral culture peoples, as well as the science knowledge of all peoples who as participants in culture are affected by the worldview and relativist interests of their home communities. This article explores aspects of multicultural science and pedagogy and describes a rich and well-documented branch of indigenous science known to biologists and ecologists as traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). Although TEK has been generally inaccessible, educators can now use a burgeoning science-based TEK literature that documents numerous examples of time-proven, ecologically relevant, and cost effective indigenous science. Disputes regarding the universality of the standard scientific account are of critical importance for science educators because the definition of science is a de facto gatekeeping device for determining what can be included in a school science curriculum and what cannot. When Western modern science (WMS) is defined as universal it does displace revelation-based knowledge (i.e., creation science); however, it also displaces pragmatic local indigenous knowledge that does not conform with formal aspects of the standard account. Thus, in most science classrooms around the globe, Western modern science has been taught at the expense of indigenous knowledge. However, because WMS has been implicated in many of the world's ecological disasters, and because the traditional wisdom component of TEK is particularly rich in time-tested approaches that foster sustainability and environmental integrity, it is possible that the universalist gatekeeper can be seen as increasingly problematic and even counter productive. This paper describes many examples from Canada and around the world of indigenous people's contributions to science, environmental understanding, and sustainability. The authors argue the view that Western or modern science is just one of many sciences that need to be

  4. Airborne experiment results for spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenyu; Yi, Weining; Du, Lili; Liu, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    The image quality of optical remote sensing satellite is affected by the atmosphere, thus the image needs to be corrected. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric conditions, correction by using synchronous atmospheric parameters can effectively improve the remote sensing image quality. For this reason, a small light spaceborne instrument, the atmospheric synchronous correction device (airborne prototype), is developed by AIOFM of CAS(Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics of Chinese Academy of Sciences). With this instrument, of which the detection mode is timing synchronization and spatial coverage, the atmospheric parameters consistent with the images to be corrected in time and space can be obtained, and then the correction is achieved by radiative transfer model. To verify the technical process and treatment effect of spaceborne atmospheric correction system, the first airborne experiment is designed and completed. The experiment is implemented by the "satellite-airborne-ground" synchronous measuring method. A high resolution(0.4 m) camera and the atmospheric correction device are equipped on the aircraft, which photograph the ground with the satellite observation over the top simultaneously. And aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) in the imagery area are also acquired, which are used for the atmospheric correction for satellite and aerial images. Experimental results show that using the AOD and CWV of imagery area retrieved by the data obtained by the device to correct aviation and satellite images, can improve image definition and contrast by more than 30%, and increase MTF by more than 1 time, which means atmospheric correction for satellite images by using the data of spaceborne atmospheric synchronous correction device is accurate and effective.

  5. Science as Entertainment and Entertainment Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, Richard

    2002-01-01

    For many, doing science is entertaining, and engaging in a science activity for its entertainment value is a credible rationale. Drawing parallels between science and various forms of entertainment from sports to opera, highlights the value of "infotainment". Also mentions the risks associated with entertaining the public with science. (DLH)

  6. Towards a Science of Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the search for evidence-based models of learning to improve science education. The author believes that modern teachers should look to the sciences of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to build a science of science teaching. Understanding the relationships between learning and the brain's structure and…

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  8. Atmospheric pseudohalogen chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lary, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    There are at least three reasons why hydrogen cyanide is likely to be significant for atmospheric chemistry. The first is well known, HCN is a product and marker of biomass burning. However, if a detailed ion chemistry of lightning is considered then it is almost certain than in addition to lightning producing NOx, it also produces HOx and HCN. Unlike NOx and HOx, HCN is long-lived and could therefore ...

  9. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R; Yao, J Q; Xu, D G; Wang, J L; Wang, P, E-mail: wangran19861014@163.com [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Institute of Laser and Opto-electronics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  10. Science Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2004-05-01

    The need for competent physical scientists in public policy is often overlooked. Science and technology play an ever-growing role in our lives, but the people setting the policies governing their use too often lack the skills and knowledge needed to make well-informed decisions. Making the transition from academia to public policy is not as difficult as one might imagine and can lead to a challenging, rewarding career. Dr. Tannenbaum recently completed a 2002-2003 AAAS Science and Technology Fellowship sponsored by the American Physical Society during which he worked in the office of U.S. Representative Edward J. Markey (D-MA) on nuclear nonproliferation issues. His work in Congressman Markey's office focused on issues including US nuclear weapons policy, missile defense, the nuclear program in Iran, prevention of the transfer of U.S. nuclear technology to North Korea, and the security of nuclear sites in Iraq. Dr. Tannenbaum will discuss this experience and observations concerning "underinformed and uninformed" decision-making in Congress and the role of scientists in that process. He will also discuss his current position at the Federation of American Scientists.

  11. 75 FR 10845 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology... Subcommittee on Forensic Science of the National Science and Technology Council's (NSTC's) Committee on Science..., Subcommittee on Forensic Science. BILLING CODE 4410-FY-P...

  12. Science kitsch and pop science: A reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Eduard

    2013-07-01

    Science kitsch? The combination of these two words rings like an oxymoron. Science - as the common saying has it - exposes, discovers, tells the truth; kitsch conceals, covers, lies. I think, this "shadow" of science deserves a specific scrutiny, not only because it reflects the altered place and role of science in contemporary "knowledge" society but also because it pinpoints the task of relocating science in the "multicultural" context of postmodernism, with its different epistemic claims. The genre of science kitsch may help to regain credit by working as a probe to detect false pretensions, explanatory exuberance and exaggerations in science. PMID:23833170

  13. Mysteries of the Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar atmosphere has been probed by various instruments since the Apollo program, and continues to be measured today by the instruments onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, LRO. But like Sisyphus' trek, the progress has not been linear. LAMP, The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project, onboard LRO, measured He in the lunar exosphere, confirming the Apollo 17 result from the Lunar Atmosphere Composition Experiment (LACE) (Hoffman et al., 1973), but LAMP did not observe Ar although the expected 0.1 R should have been detectable by their instrument (Gladstone et al., Science, 2010). A surfeit of O+ was reported in the lunar wake (Mall et al. 1998; Hilchenbach et al. 1992;1993), but the origin of those ions is unknown, since oxygen has not been seen. Water and OH were measured on the surface of the moon, but theory tells us that efficiencies of production of water by solar wind proton bombardment may be low (Burke et al., Icarus, 2011). Starukhina and Shukaratov (LPSC, abstract 1385, 2010) suggest that the observed diurnal variation in the 3 micron band at the moon is due to thermal emission and not to variation in OH. LAMP observed Hg vapor following the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater, but Hg atoms at 800 K (Wooden et al., LPSC abstract 2025, 2010) are too heavy to reach the altitudes where they would be exposed to sunlight, and thereby resonantly scatter photons, unless they are entrained in a gas with bulk velocity 3.5 km/s (Hurley et al., JGR, 2012). This bulk velocity is high for a 2 km/s impact. Another mystery from LCROSS is the H2 energy budget. Given the large amount of H2 observed after the LCROSS impact, and the high velocity required (a few km/s) to get in the field of view when it did, the kinetic energy associated with the H2 is too large of a fraction of the impactor energy. One possibility is that the H2 is produced by an exothermic reaction, which has implications for how it is stored in the regolith in permanently shadowed regions. The Na density is

  14. Network science landers for Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harri, A.M.; Marsal, O.; Lognonne, P.;

    1999-01-01

    spacecraft and targeted to their locations on the Martian surface several days prior to the spacecraft's arrival at Mars. The landing system employs parachutes and airbags. During the baseline mission of one Martian year, the network payloads will conduct simultaneous seismological, atmospheric, magnetic......The NetLander Mission will deploy four landers to the Martian surface. Each lander includes a network science payload with instrumentation for studying the interior of Mars, the atmosphere and the subsurface, as well as the ionospheric structure and geodesy. The NetLander Mission is the first...... FMI (the Finnish Meteorological Institute), DLR (the German Space Agency), and other research institutes. According to current plans, the NetLander Mission will be launched in 2005 by means of an Ariane V launch, together with the Mars Sample Return mission. The landers will be separated from the...

  15. Network science landers for Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harri, A.M.; Marsal, O.; Lognonne, P.;

    1999-01-01

    FMI (the Finnish Meteorological Institute), DLR (the German Space Agency), and other research institutes. According to current plans, the NetLander Mission will be launched in 2005 by means of an Ariane V launch, together with the Mars Sample Return mission. The landers will be separated from the......The NetLander Mission will deploy four landers to the Martian surface. Each lander includes a network science payload with instrumentation for studying the interior of Mars, the atmosphere and the subsurface, as well as the ionospheric structure and geodesy. The NetLander Mission is the first...... planetary mission focusing on investigations of the interior of the planet and the large-scale circulation of the atmosphere. A broad consortium of national space agencies and research laboratories will implement the mission. It is managed by CNES (the French Space Agency), with other major players being...

  16. Microbial biodiversity of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ann Maureen

    Microorganisms are critical to the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and may also play a role in the functioning of the atmosphere. However, little is known about the diversity and function of microorganisms in the atmosphere. To investigate the forces driving the assembly of bacterial microbial communities in the atmosphere, I measured temporal variation in bacterial diversity and composition over diurnal and inter-day time scales. Results suggest that bacterial communities in the atmosphere markedly vary over diurnal time scales and are likely structured by inputs from both local terrestrial and long-distance sources. To assess the potential functions of bacteria and fungi in the atmosphere, I characterized total and potentially active communities using both RNA- and DNA-based data. Results suggest there are metabolically active microorganisms in the atmosphere that may affect atmospheric functions including precipitation development and carbon cycling. This dissertation includes previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

  17. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) System Concept Applications at Solar System Bodies With an Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Greg; Polidan, Ronald; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Warwick, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Northrop Grumman and L’Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, semi-buoyant, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere.The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieves this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the heavy aeroshell allows significantly more payload to be accommodated by the platform for additional science collection and return.In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the mid-cloud layer of Venus’ atmosphere at night.Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low or medium altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface or high resolution surface imaging. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  18. Enacting science

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Anthony Leo

    My study examines the development of forms of knowing that arise when students engage in open-ended explorations involving self-directed design and building involving simple materials. It is grounded in an enactivist theoretical perspective on cognition which holds that the creation of action-thought processes for engaging the world is interwoven with the meanings that are constructed for these experiences. A dynamic conception of persons-acting-in-a-setting is fundamental to an enactivist view of cognition. How is understanding enacted in building activity? How does the shape of a problem emerge? How do students enact meaning and understanding when they experience a high degree of physical engagement in building things? What are some characteristics of an enactive learning/teaching environment? My research settings comprise a range of individual, group and classroom engagements of varying lengths over a three and one-half year period. The first research episode involved two grade eight students in an investigation of Paper Towels. The second four month engagement was in a grade nine science class that culminated in the building of a Solar House. The third grade ten episode involved a one month project to build a Mousetrap Powered Car. A fourth Invent a Machine project was conducted in two grade eight science classes taught by the teacher who participated in the Solar House project. Two students were present in three of the four projects. I interviewed one of these students upon completion of his high school physics courses. I found that building is a form of thinking which develops competency in managing complex practical tasks. A triadic relationship of exploration, planning and acting is present. Practical and procedural understandings emerge as students enter and re-enter self-directed problem settings. Thinking patterns depend on the kinds of materials chosen, the ways they are used, and on how students contextualize the problem. Classroom assessment

  19. Science Writer's Guide to Landsat 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), the centerpiece of NASA's Earth science program, is a suite of spacecraft and interdisciplinary science investigations dedicated to advancing our understanding of global change. The flagship EOS satellite, Terra (formerly EOS AM-1), scheduled for launch in July 1999, will provide key measurements of the physical and radiative properties of clouds; air-land and air-sea exchanges of energy, carbon, and water; trace gases; and volcanoes. Flying in formation with Terra, Landsat 7 will make global high spatial resolution measurements of land surface and surrounding coastal regions. Other upcoming EOS missions and instruments include QuikSCAT, to collect sea surface wind data; the Stratospheric Gas and Aerosol Experiment (SAGE III), to create global profiles of key atmospheric gases; and the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitors (ACRIM) to measure the energy output of the Sun. The second of the major, multi-instrument EOS platforms, PM-1, is scheduled for launch in 2000. Interdisciplinary research projects sponsored by EOS use specific Earth science data sets for a broader investigation into the function of Earth systems. Current EOS research spans a wide range of sciences, including atmospheric chemistry, hydrology, land use, and marine ecosystems. The EOS program has been managed since 1990 by the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., for NASA's Office of Earth Science in Washington, D. C. Additional information on the program can be found on the EOS Project Science Office Web site (http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  20. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    The nanometer regime covers the transition from condensed matter behavior to atomic and molecular properties and thus is a very rich but also very demanding area in materials science. Close to the condensed matter side, properties and functions might still very well be scalable, whereas close to the atomic and molecular side, the scalability is mostly lost. Properties and functions change qualitatively or quantitatively by orders of magnitude when the dimensions become smaller than a critical size in the nanometer range. Examples are the ballistic regime for electron or spin transport at dimensions below the mean free path, near-field effects in scanning near-field optical microscopy and quantum wells when the dimensions are below an appropriate wavelength, novel electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties when the number of bulk atoms becomes smaller than that of surface atoms, quantum conduction, and Coulomb blockade. Thus, by going below a certain size, an abundance of novel properties and functions are at one's disposal, or, in other words, we can functionalize materials simply by reducing their size to the nanoscale. The key to the future lies in the functions that we give to materials, not just in finding 'novel functional materials'. This catch expression in many materials science programs and initiatives of the past two decades sounds great, but it is not what really counts. All materials are functional in one way or another and, therefore, all new materials are 'novel functional materials'. Certainly, finding new materials is always an important part of progress, but we should also focus on the much larger domain of novel functions that we can give to existing or modified materials. A good example is semiconductors: they are fifty or more years old and their properties are very well known, but they were not of widespread interest and use until the transistor changed their destiny into being the central material in the information technology revolution

  1. Cassini atmospheric chemistry mapper. Volume 1. Investigation and technical plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William Hayden; Baines, Kevin Hays; Drossart, Pierre; Fegley, Bruce; Orton, Glenn; Noll, Keith; Reitsema, Harold; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    The Cassini Atmospheric Chemistry Mapper (ACM) enables a broad range of atmospheric science investigations for Saturn and Titan by providing high spectral and spatial resolution mapping and occultation capabilities at 3 and 5 microns. ACM can directly address the major atmospheric science objectives for Saturn and for Titan, as defined by the Announcement of Opportunity, with pivotal diagnostic measurements not accessible to any other proposed Cassini instrument. ACM determines mixing ratios for atmospheric molecules from spectral line profiles for an important and extensive volume of the atmosphere of Saturn (and Jupiter). Spatial and vertical profiles of disequilibrium species abundances define Saturn's deep atmosphere, its chemistry, and its vertical transport phenomena. ACM spectral maps provide a unique means to interpret atmospheric conditions in the deep (approximately 1000 bar) atmosphere of Saturn. Deep chemistry and vertical transport is inferred from the vertical and horizontal distribution of a series of disequilibrium species. Solar occultations provide a method to bridge the altitude range in Saturn's (and Titan's) atmosphere that is not accessible to radio science, thermal infrared, and UV spectroscopy with temperature measurements to plus or minus 2K from the analysis of molecular line ratios and to attain an high sensitivity for low-abundance chemical species in the very large column densities that may be achieved during occultations for Saturn. For Titan, ACM solar occultations yield very well resolved (1/6 scale height) vertical mixing ratios column abundances for atmospheric molecular constituents. Occultations also provide for detecting abundant species very high in the upper atmosphere, while at greater depths, detecting the isotopes of C and O, constraining the production mechanisms, and/or sources for the above species. ACM measures the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols via their opacity at 3 microns and, particularly, at 5

  2. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  3. Supercomputational science

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    1990-01-01

    In contemporary research, the supercomputer now ranks, along with radio telescopes, particle accelerators and the other apparatus of "big science", as an expensive resource, which is nevertheless essential for state of the art research. Supercomputers are usually provided as shar.ed central facilities. However, unlike, telescopes and accelerators, they are find a wide range of applications which extends across a broad spectrum of research activity. The difference in performance between a "good" and a "bad" computer program on a traditional serial computer may be a factor of two or three, but on a contemporary supercomputer it can easily be a factor of one hundred or even more! Furthermore, this factor is likely to increase with future generations of machines. In keeping with the large capital and recurrent costs of these machines, it is appropriate to devote effort to training and familiarization so that supercomputers are employed to best effect. This volume records the lectures delivered at a Summer School ...

  4. International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk; Skov, Henrik; Massling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    IASOA activities and partnerships were initiated as a part of the 2007-2009 International Polar Year (IPY) and are expected to continue for many decades as a legacy program. The IASOA focus is on coordinating intensive measurements of the Arctic atmosphere collected in the U.S., Canada, Russia......, Norway, Finland, and Greenland, to create synthesis science that leads to an understanding of why, and not just how the Arctic atmosphere is evolving. The IASOA premise is that there are limitations with Arctic modeling and satellite observations that can only be addressed with boots-on-the-ground, in...

  5. Greenhouse effect in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2016-04-01

    Average optical atmospheric parameters for the infrared spectrum range are evaluated on the basis of the Earth energetic balance and parameters of the standard atmosphere. The average optical thickness of the atmosphere is u ≈ 2.5 and this atmospheric emission is originated at altitudes below 10 km. Variations of atmospheric radiative fluxes towards the Earth and outward are calculated as a function of the concentration of \\text{CO}2 molecules for the regular model of molecular spectrum. As a result of doubling of the \\text{CO}2 concentration the change of the global Earth temperature is (0.4 +/- 0.2) \\text{K} if other atmospheric parameters are conserved compared to the value (3.0 +/- 1.5) \\text{K} under real atmospheric conditions with the variation of the amount of atmospheric water. An observed variation of the global Earth temperature during the last century (0.8 ^\\circ \\text{C}) follows from an increase of the mass of atmospheric water by 7% or by conversion of 1% of atmospheric water in aerosols.

  6. Juno at Jupiter: Mission and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Scott

    2016-07-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the atmosphere of Jupiter will be presented.

  7. The Development of New User Research Capabilities in Environmental Molecular Science: Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Baer, Donald R.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Gephart, Roy E.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2006-10-31

    On August 1, and 2, 2006, 104 scientists representing 40 institutions including 24 Universities and 5 National Laboratories gathered at the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a National scientific user facility, to outline important science challenges for the next decade and identify major capabilities needed to pursue advanced research in the environmental molecular sciences. EMSL’s four science themes served as the framework for the workshop. The four science themes are 1) Biological Interactions and Interfaces, 2) Geochemistry/Biogeochemistry and Surface Science, 3) Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, and 4) Science of Interfacial Phenomena.

  8. 13. Atmosphere and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reports on past and current trends in the major forms of atmospheric pollution and on the relative contributions of the countries of the world to these emissions. It also reports on emissions of carbon dioxide from industrial processes - principally the combustion of fossil fuels - which is the largest single source of greenhouse gases and an appropriate target for initial efforts to limit emissions. Discussions are presented on the following: urban air pollution - sources, trends and effects (particulates, sulfur dioxide, smog and its precursors, indoor air pollution, carbon monoxide, lead); regional air pollution - sources, trends and effects (acid deposition, ground-level ozone, regional responses and emission trends, acceleration of ozone depletion); solutions (cleaning up stationary sources, corporate responsibility movement, reducing vehicle pollution); global climate treaty talks proceed; greenhouse gas emissions; and targets for limiting emissions

  9. Halogens in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric halogen measurement data are presented for: (1) inorganic and organic gaseous compounds of chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine; and (2) chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodine in particulate form and in precipitation. The roles that these data and other, unavailable data play in the determination of the global cycles of the halogens are discussed. It is found that the speciation of the halogen gases in the troposphere is uncertain, with the only inorganic species detected by species-specific methods being HC1 and SF6. It is shown that heterogeneous reactions, both gas-to-particle and particle-to-gas processes, precipitation removal, and sea-salt aerosol generation and fractionation processes, need quantitative investigation to allow progress in estimating halogen sources and sinks. Where practical, quantitative comparisons are made between measured and predicted concentrations.

  10. International geophysics series theory of planetary atmospheres an introduction to their physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, John

    1978-01-01

    For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by m

  11. Short-wave solar radiation in the earths atmosphere calculation, observation, interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikova, Irina N

    2005-01-01

    Based on data from an experiment which ran for ten years, this book summarizes the results of the Atmospheric Physics Department of the St. Petersburg University and the Main Geophysical Observatory. The processed data now forms a rich dataset of spectral values of radiative characteristics under different atmospheric conditions. The analysis of this database clearly shows that the solar radiative absorption in a dusty and cloudy atmosphere is significantly higher than assumed to date. Both graduate students of atmospheric sciences as well as scientists and researchers in the field of meteorology and climatology will find a wealth of new data and information in this monograph.

  12. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  13. Environmental science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  14. Science Enhancements by the MAVEN Participating Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebowsky, J.; Fast, K.; Talaat, E.; Combi, M.; Crary, F.; England, S.; Ma, Y.; Mendillo, M.; Rosenblatt, P.; Seki, K.; Stevens, M.; Withers, P.

    2015-12-01

    NASA implemented a Participating Scientist Program and released a solicitation for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission (MAVEN) proposals on February 14, 2013. After a NASA peer review panel evaluated the proposals, NASA Headquarters selected nine on June 12, 2013. The program's intent is to enhance the science return from the mission by including new investigations that broaden and/or complement the baseline investigations, while still addressing key science goals. The selections cover a broad range of science investigations. Included are: a patching of a 3D exosphere model to an improved global ionosphere-thermosphere model to study the generation of the exosphere and calculate the escape rates; the addition of a focused study of upper atmosphere variability and waves; improvement of a multi-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model that will be adjusted according to MAVEN observations to enhance the understanding of the solar-wind plasma interaction; a global study of the state of the ionosphere; folding MAVEN measurements into the Mars International Reference Ionosphere under development; quantification of atmospheric loss by pick-up using ion cyclotron wave observations; the reconciliation of remote and in situ observations of the upper atmosphere; the application of precise orbit determination of the spacecraft to measure upper atmospheric density and in conjunction with other Mars missions improve the static gravity field model of Mars; and an integrated ion/neutral study of ionospheric flows and resultant heavy ion escape. Descriptions of each of these investigations are given showing how each adds to and fits seamlessly into MAVEN mission science design.

  15. Coherent structures in the Es layer and neutral middle atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mošna, Zbyšek; Koucká Knížová, Petra; Potužníková, Kateřina

    Sofia: Space Research and Technologies Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2015 - (Georgieva, K.; Kirov, B.; Danov, D.), s. 73-76 ISSN 2367-7570. [Workshop “Solar Influences on the Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Atmosphere” /7th/. Sunny Beach (BG), 01.06.2015-05.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13042; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24688S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : coherent structures * ionospheric Es layer * neutral middle atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://ws-sozopol.stil.bas.bg/2015Sunny/Proceedings2015.pdf

  16. Atmospheric dispersion modelling over complex terrain at small scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, Štěpán; Jaňour, Zbyněk; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára

    Kutná Hora: E D P Sciences, 2014 - (Vít, T.; Dančová, P.; Novotný, P.). (EPJ Web of Conferences. 67). ISBN 978-80-260-5375-0. ISSN 2101-6275. [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2013. Kutná Hora (CZ), 19.11.2013-22.11.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020428 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : wind-tunnel * atmospheric dispersion * coal dust * air pollution * complex terrain Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  17. Salvaging Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Noah

    2011-01-01

    There is little evidence that the prevailing strategies of science education have an impact on the use and interpretation of science in daily life. Most science educators and science education researchers nonetheless believe that science education is intrinsically useful for students who do not go on to scientific or technical careers. This essay…

  18. Atmospheric turbulence and diffusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (well known in the atmospheric dispersion community as the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, ATDL) is one of several field facilities of NOAAs Air Resources Laboratory, headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. The laboratory conducts research on matters of atmospheric diffusion and turbulent exchange, concerning air quality. ATDD focuses attention on the physics of the lower atmosphere, with special emphasis on the processes contributing to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and air-surface exchange, and on the development of predictive capabilities using the results of this research. Research is directed toward issues of national and global importance related to the missions of DOE, to DOE's Oak Ridge Field Office, and to NOAA. The program is divided into four major projects: plume transport and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer, complex topography, canopy micrometeorology, and air-surface exchange

  19. Atmospheric neutrinos and neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results on the composition of atmospheric neutrinos interacting in underground detectors and on the rate of atmospheric muon neutrino interactions in the earth surrounding the detectors are reviewed. So far, systematic errors on the neutrino flux and on the electrons and muons neutrino interaction identifications are not yet reliable enough to prove that atmospheric neutrinos oscillate before being detected. (author) 22 refs., 5 figs

  20. Exploring the atmosphere using smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Martín; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the inner layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, are determinant for the earth's life. In this experience we explore the first hundreds of meters using a smartphone mounted on a quadcopter. Both the altitude and the pressure are obtained using the smartphone's sensors. We complement these measures with data collected from the flight information system of an aircraft. The experimental results are compared with the International Standard Atmosphere and other simple approximations: isothermal and constant density atmospheres.

  1. Board on chemical sciences and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current and ongoing projects include: Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry; Committee on Nuclear Radiochemistry Workshop on Training Requirements for Chemists in Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Industry, and Related Areas; Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry Workshop on High-Temperature and Nuclear Chemical Processes in Severe Reactor Accidents; Committee on Chemical Engineering Frontiers Research Needs and Opportunities; Committee on Separation Science and Technology; Panel on Future Directions for Fundamental Science in Fossil Energy Research; Committee on Office of Naval Research Chemical Sciences Research Planning; Advisory Panels to the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences Directorate; US National Committee for Pure and Applied Chemistry; US National Committee for Biochemistry; US National Committee for Crystallography; and NAS Seminar on Interfaces and Thinfilms

  2. Teaching Science with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornostaeva, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    This is a short introduction about me, description of different teaching methods, which is used in my teaching practice of Geography, biology and GIS systems education. The main part is tell about practical lesson with lab Vernier. My name is Svetlana Gornostaeva. I am a geography, biology and GIS systems teacher in Tallinn Mustjõe Gymnasium (www.mjg.ee) and private school Garant (http://www.erakoolgarant.ee/). In my teaching practice I do all to show that science courses are very important, interesting, and do not difficult. I use differentiated instruction methods also consider individual needs. At lessons is used different active teaching methods such as individual work of various levels of difficulty, team works, creative tasks, interactive exercises, excursions, role-playing games, meeting with experts. On my lessons I use visual aids (maps, a collection of rocks and minerals, herbarium, posters, Vernier data logger). My favorite teaching methods are excursions, meeting with experts and practical lesson with lab Vernier. A small part of my job demonstrate my poster. In the next abstract I want to bring a one practical work with Vernier which I do with my students, when we teach a theme "Atmosphere and climate". OUTDOOR LEARNING. SUBJECT "ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE". WEATHER OBSERVATIONS WITH VERNIER DATA LOGGER. The aim: students teach to use Vernier data logger and measure climatic parameters such as: temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, ultraviolet light radiation, wind speed. In working process pupils also teach work together, observe natural processes, analyze. Children are working by small groups, 4-5 in each group. Every one should personally measure all parameters and put numbers into the table. After it group observe cloudiness, analyze table and give conclusion "Is at this moment dominates cyclone or anticyclone ?". Children really like this kind of job. Vernier data logger it is really fantastic tool. It is mobile lab. This

  3. KAJIAN PUSTAKA MENGENAI RESTAURANT ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Agoes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Restaurant is one of the businesses that support tourism development. Restaurants nowadays dont only provide food, but also the service and atmosphere to their customers. The purpose of this study is to discover the aspects defining restaurant atmosphere and the implications of restaurant atmosphere to other particular aspects related to restaurant business. This article is written based on a study conducted through a literature review. Through the examination, it is found that the atmosphere of a restaurant is one important aspect and can be considered as a competitive advantage as well as one of the determinants of customer satisfaction.

  4. FRAM: showers, comets, GRBs and popular science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebr, J.; Janeček, P.; Prouza, M.; Kubánek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Mašek, M.; Ebrová, I.; Černý, J.

    2014-12-01

    The FRAM telescope operated by the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic is located at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Its primary goal is to provide the atmospheric calibration by measuring the aerosol content and characteristics in the atmosphere above the Observatory. As this program takes only a small fraction of the available observing time, the telescope also follows a variety of astronomical targets, such as GRBs, comets, asteroids and variable stars. Within the GLORIA project we have developed an extensive outreach program, including frequent appearances of our results in general public media.

  5. Onboard Atmospheric Modeling and Prediction for Autonomous Aerobraking Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Robert H.; Prince, Jill L. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobraking has proven to be an effective means of increasing the science payload for planetary orbiting missions and/or for enabling the use of less expensive launch vehicles. Though aerobraking has numerous benefits, large operations cost have been required to maintain the aerobraking time line without violating aerodynamic heating or other constraints. Two operations functions have been performed on an orbit by orbit basis to estimate atmospheric properties relevant to aerobraking. The Navigation team typically solves for an atmospheric density scale factor using DSN tracking data and the atmospheric modeling team uses telemetric accelerometer data to recover atmospheric density profiles. After some effort, decisions are made about the need for orbit trim maneuvers to adjust periapsis altitude to stay within the aerobraking corridor. Autonomous aerobraking would reduce the need for many ground based tasks. To be successful, atmospheric modeling must be performed on the vehicle in near real time. This paper discusses the issues associated with estimating the planetary atmosphere onboard and evaluates a number of the options for Mars, Venus and Titan aerobraking missions.

  6. Applications of Nuclear Science for Stewardship Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewardship science is research important to national security interests that include stockpile stewardship science, homeland security, nuclear forensics, and non-proliferation. To help address challenges in stewardship science and workforce development, the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) was inaugurated ten years ago by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The goal was to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper presents an overview of recent research in low-energy nuclear science supported by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances and the applications of this research to stewardship science.

  7. Values in Science and in Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We call values that which founds a judgment (good or bad, important or not, right or wrong, true or false, beautiful or ugly, expensive or cheap, ...). After giving some definitions, this paper analyzes the values that are identifiable inside science, and then inside science education. The value of science comes from its economical and political importance, but science seeks the truth by observing important values: a scientist must be honest, modest, always critical, rejecting any dogmatism a...

  8. Atmospheric electricity and aerosol-cloud interactions in earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Hanna E.; Tammet, Hannes; Mäkelä, Antti; Haapalainen, Jussi; Mirme, Sander; Nieminen, Tuomo; Franchin, Alessandro; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Hõrrak, Urmas

    2013-05-01

    Firstly, atmospheric ions play an important role in the fair weather electricity in Earth's atmosphere. Small ions, or charged molecular clusters, carry electric currents in the atmosphere. These small ions are continuously present, and their lifetime in lower atmosphere is about one minute. It's essential to find out a connection between the production rate of cluster ions, ion-ion recombination, and ion-aerosol attachment, and their ambient concentrations, in order to understand electrical properties of air. Secondly, atmospheric ions are important for Earth's climate, due to their potential role in secondary aerosol formation, which can lead to increased number of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn can change the cloud properties. Our aim is to quantify the connections between these two important roles of air ions based on field observations.

  9. Properties of Daytime Tweek Atmospherics Observed in the Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolmašová, Ivana; Santolík, Ondřej; Lán, Radek; Uhlíř, Luděk

    Singapore : Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, 2015. AS08-A005. [AOGS Annual Meeting /12./ and APHW Conference /7./.. 02.08.2015–07.08.2015, Singapore] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : tweek atmospherics * ELF/VLF radio waves * ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.meetmatt-svr3.net/aogs/aogs2015/mars2/pubViewAbs.asp?sMode=session&sId=19&submit=Browse+Abstracts

  10. Computation of 2D stratified flows in atmospheric boundary layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tauer, M.; Šimonek, J.; Kozel, Karel; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i., 2009 - (Jonáš, P.; Uruba, V.), s. 47-48 ISBN 978-80-87012-21-5. [Colloquium Fluid Dynamics 2009. Praha (CZ), 21.10.2009-23.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : computation stratified flows * Navier-Stokes equations * atmospheric boundary layer Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  11. Lidar Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Weitkamp, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Written by leading experts in optical radar, or lidar, this book brings all the recent practices up-to-date and covers a multitude of applications, from atmospheric sciences to environmental protection. Its broad cross-disciplinary scope should appeal to both the experienced scientist and the novice in the field. The Foreword is by one of the early pioneers in the area, Herbert Walther.

  12. Trends in the Neutral and Ionized Upper Atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Solomon, S.C.; Qian, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 168, 1-4 (2012), s. 113-145. ISSN 0038-6308 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Global change * Long-term trends * Ionosphere * Upper atmosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 5.519, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/d4015w2q031q5048/fulltext.pdf

  13. Enhancing Job Scheduling of an Atmospheric Intensive Data Application

    OpenAIRE

    Terzo, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, e-Science applications involve great deal of data to have more accurate analysis. One of its application domains is the Radio Occultation which manages satellite data. Grid Processing Management is a physical infrastructure geographically distributed based on Grid Computing, that is implemented for the overall processing Radio Occultation analysis. After a brief description of algorithms adopted to characterize atmospheric profiles, the paper presents an improvement of job schedulin...

  14. Atmospheric Absorption Models for the Millimeter Wave Range

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with absorption models of water vapor, oxygen and nitrogen which are part of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer System, ARTS, which is a joint development of the Department of Radio and Space Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg and the Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen. ARTS is designed to be used in remotely sensed data analysis. Since the absorption models are embedded in the broader frame of the radiative transfer equation, the main...

  15. Applications of Molecular Dynamics in Atmospheric and Solution Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the applications of molecular dynamics simulation techniques in the fields of solution chemistry and atmospheric chemistry. The work behind the thesis takes account of the fast development of computer hardware, which has made computationally intensive simulations become more and more popular in disciplines like pharmacy, biology and materials science. In molecular dynamics simulations using classical force fields, the atoms are represented by mass points with partial ch...

  16. Science and Religion: Implications for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western…

  17. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics" categories; the most…

  18. ALMA science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Lars-Åke; Andreani, Paola; Hibbard, John; Okumura, Sachiko K.

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) project is an international collaboration between Europe, East Asia and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The ALMA Array Operations Site (AOS) is located at Chajnantor, a plateau at an altitude of 5000 m in the Atacama desert in Chile, and the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF) is located near the AOS at an altitude of 2900 m. ALMA will consist of an array of 66 antennas, with baselines up to 16 km and state-of-the-art receivers that cover all the atmospheric windows up to 1 THz. An important component of ALMA is the compact array of twelwe 7-m and four 12-m antennas (the Atacama Compact Array, ACA), which will greatly enhance ALMA's ability to image extended sources. Construction of ALMA started in 2003 and will be completed in 2013. Commissioning started in January 2010 and Early Science Operations is expected to start during the second half of 2011. ALMA science operations is provided by the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) in Chile, and the three ALMA Regional Centers (ARCs) located in each ALMA region - Europe, North America and East Asia. ALMA observations will take place 24h per day, interrupted by maintenance periods, and will be done in service observing mode with flexible (dynamic) scheduling. The observations are executed in the form of scheduling blocks (SBs), each of which contains all information necessary to schedule and execute the observations. The default output to the astronomer will be pipeline-reduced images calibrated according to the calibration plan. The JAO is responsible for the data product quality. All science and calibration raw data are captured and archived in the ALMA archive, a distributed system with nodes at the OSF, the Santiago central office and the ARCs. Observation preparation will follow a Phase 1/Phase 2 process. During Phase 1, observation proposals will be created using software tools provided by the JAO and submitted for scientific and

  19. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-29) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-29 launch time on March 13, 1989, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-29 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-29 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  20. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-43) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-43) launch time on August 2, 1991, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric profile, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-43 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-43 ascent atmospheric data profile was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consisted data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000-ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-43 vehicle.

  1. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-35) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is given of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-35 launch time on December 2, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-35 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-35 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000-ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-35 vehicle.

  2. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-37) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-37 launch time on 5 Apr. 1991 at KSC is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (clouds), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-37 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-37 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000 ft. altitude that was traversed by the STS-37 vehicle.

  3. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-41) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-41 launch time on October 6, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (clouds), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-41 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-41 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000 ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-41 vehicle.

  4. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-40) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-40) launch time on 5 Jun. 1991, at KSC is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observation (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-40 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-40 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by MSFC's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000-ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-40 vehicle.

  5. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-38) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-38 launch time on November 15, 1990, at Kennedy Space Center is presented. STS-38 carried a Department of Defense payload and the flight azimuth in this report will be denoted by a reference flight azimuth, since the actual flight azimuth is not known. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observation (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is presented. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-38 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-38 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in postflight performance assessments and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to the 400,000-ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-38 vehicle.

  6. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-27) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    Selected articles on atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-27 launch time on December 2, 1988, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. STS-27 carried a Department of Defense payload and the flight azimuth in this report will be denoted by reference flight azimuth, since the actual flight azimuth is not known. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-27 vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-27 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  7. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-30) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-30 launch time on May 4, 1989, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-30 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-30 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  8. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-41D) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Jasper, G.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-41D launch time on August 30, 1984, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given as well as wind and thermodynamic parameters representative of surface and aloft conditions in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final atmospheric tapes, which consist of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-41D vehicle ascent and SRB descent/impact were constructed. The STS-41D ascent meteorological data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Science Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  9. Atmospheric Environment for Space Shuttle (STS-28) Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-28 launch time on August 8, 1989. STS-28 carried a Department of Defense payload and the flight azimuth is denoted by a reference flight azimuth, since the actual flight azimuth is not known. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-28 vehicle ascent was constructed and represents the best estimate of the launch environment to 400,000 ft altitude that was traversed by the STS-28 vehicle. The STS-28 ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  10. Atmospheric Measurements by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, J. D.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Mahesh, A.; Welton, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System launched in early 2003 is the first satellite instrument in space to globally observe the distribution of clouds and aerosol through laser remote sensing. The instrument is a basic backscatter lidar that operates at two wavelengths, 532 and 1064 nm. The mission data products for atmospheric observations include the calibrated, observed, attenuated backscatter cross section for cloud and aerosol; height detection for multiple cloud layers; planetary boundary layer height; cirrus and aerosol optical depth and the height distribution of aerosol and cloud scattering cross section profiles. The data is expected to significantly enhance knowledge in several areas of atmospheric science, in particular the distribution, transport and influence of atmospheric aerosol. Measurements of the coverage and height of polar and cirrus cloud should be significantly more accurate than previous global measurement. Initial result from the first several months of operation will be presented.

  11. Effects on the atmosphere of a major nuclear exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several groups have published studies on the possible environmental and atmospheric consequence of a nuclear war. The major theory is that a nuclear war would produce a hemispherewide climatic disaster. This disaster, called nuclear winter, would arise as a result of changes in the earth's radiation balance due to a tremendous increase in smoke and dusts in the earth's atmosphere generated by numerous explosions and ensuing fires. This paper reviews a study ''The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange'' issued by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. The report is basically a very conservative document, but it gives credibility to the theory that a major nuclear war would result in a Nuclear Winter

  12. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System Modeling, Calibration, and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; VanNorman, John; Siemers, Paul M.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Munk, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI)/Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) project installed seven pressure ports through the MSL Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heatshield to measure heatshield surface pressures during entry. These measured surface pressures are used to generate estimates of atmospheric quantities based on modeled surface pressure distributions. In particular, the quantities to be estimated from the MEADS pressure measurements include the dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This report describes the calibration of the pressure transducers utilized to reconstruct the atmospheric data and associated uncertainty models, pressure modeling and uncertainty analysis, and system performance results. The results indicate that the MEADS pressure measurement system hardware meets the project requirements.

  13. Mentors, networks, and resources for early career female atmospheric scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Edwards, L. M.; Thiry, H.; Ascent

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT is a multi-faceted approach to retaining these junior scientists through the challenges in their research and teaching career paths. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory - Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. An external evaluation of the three workshop cohorts concludes that the workshops have been successful in establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  14. Modern Meteor Science An Interdisciplinary View

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Robert; Brown, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This volume represents a blend of leading edge research and authoritative reviews in meteor science. It provides a comprehensive view of meteoroid research including the dynamics, sources and distribution of these bodies, and their chemistry and physical processes in the interplanetary medium and the Earth’s atmosphere. Techniques for investigation of meteor phenomena in the book include conventional and large aperture radar systems, spacecraft detection, optical systems, spectral measurements, and laboratory based interplanetary dust particle studies. The book will be of interest to researchers and students in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmochemistry, space engineering and space science. Cover photograph was taken by Masayuki Toda.

  15. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  16. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  17. Robotic exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2006-10-01

    Venus, the “greenhouse planet,” is a scientifically fascinating place. The US National Academies of Sciences listed a Venus surface in situ explorer as one of the highest priority planetary science missions. A mission concept for a robotic mission to study the surface and atmosphere of Venus has been designed. The mission includes both surface robots, designed with an operational lifetime of 50 days on the surface of Venus, and also solar-powered airplanes to probe the middle atmosphere. At 450C, and with 90 atmospheres of pressure of carbon-dioxide atmosphere, the surface of Venus is a hostile place for operation of a probe. The mission design trade-off looked at three options for surface operation: developing technology to operate at Venus surface temperatures, using an active refrigeration system to lower the temperature inside a “cool electronics enclosure,” or developing a hybrid system, where the computer system and the most temperature-sensitive electronics are on an aerial platform at lower temperature, and less sophisticated surface electronics operate at the ambient surface temperature. This paper presents the mission objectives, discusses the technology options for materials, power systems, electronics, and instruments, and presents a short summary of the mission.

  18. Models of Pluto's upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best guesses as to the thermal structure and composition of Pluto's atmosphere have led to speculations of substantial loss rates (∼1028 s-1) of methane from the planet over cosmogonic time scales. Results from recent stellar occultation measurements, and using a Parker-type hydrodynamic calculation, show that the loss rates may actually be lower by as much as a factor ∼5, depending upon the efficiency of heating of the atmosphere via the absorption of solar EUV and upon the true atmospheric composition, if the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere is properly taken into account. The loss rate may even be less (by another factor ∼10) if there is minimal heating of the upper atmosphere

  19. Chemistry Of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2015-05-27

    Organic carbon (OC) accounts for a large fraction of atmospheric aerosol and has profound effects on air quality, atmospheric chemistry and climate forcing. Molecular composition of the OC and its evolution during common processes of atmospheric aging have been a subject of extensive research over the last decade (see reviews of Ervens et al.,1 Hallquist et al.,2 Herckes et al.,3 Carlton et al.,4 Kroll and Seinfeld,5 Rudich et al.,6 and Kanakidou et al.7). Even though many fundamental advances have been reported in these studies, our understanding of the climate-related properties of atmospheric OC is still incomplete and the specific ways in which OC impacts atmospheric environment and climate forcing are just beginning to be understood. This review covers one topic of particular interest in this area –environmental chemistry of light-absorbing aerosol OC and its impact on radiative forcing.

  20. Study of Atmospheric Forcing and Responses (SAFAR campaign: overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of Atmospheric Forcing and Responses (SAFAR is a five year (2009–2014 research programme specifically to address the responses of the earth's atmosphere to both natural and anthropogenic forcings using a host of collocated instruments operational at the National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India from a unified viewpoint of studying the vertical coupling between the forcings and responses from surface layer to the ionosphere. As a prelude to the main program a pilot campaign was conducted at Gadanki during May–November 2008 using collocated observations from the MST radar, Rayleigh lidar, GPS balloonsonde, and instruments measuring aerosol, radiation and precipitation, and supporting satellite data. We show the importance of the large radiative heating caused by absorption of solar radiation by soot particles in the lower atmosphere, the observed high vertical winds in the convective updrafts extending up to tropopause, and the difficulty in simulating the same with existing models, the upward traveling waves in the middle atmosphere coupling the lower atmosphere with the upper atmosphere, their manifestation in the mesospheric temperature structure and inversion layers, the mesopause height extending up to 100 km, and the electro-dynamical coupling between mesosphere and the ionosphere which causes irregularities in the ionospheric F-region. The purpose of this communication is not only to share the knowledge that we gained from the SAFAR pilot campaign, but also to inform the international atmospheric science community about the SAFAR program as well as to extend our invitation to join in our journey.

  1. Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    minimize atmospheric release, but rather only complies with either climate or air quality requirements. Nor do current narratives promote behavioral change for the overall reduction of emissions (e.g., you can drive your diesel SUV as long as it has a low fuel consumption). This divide and thinking has not only been manifested in policy and regulations and hence media coverage, but has also shaped the public's general perception of this issue. There is no public conceptual understanding regarding humanity's modification of the atmosphere through the continuously and simultaneously released substances by almost any kind of activity and resulting impacts. Here, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a new perspective on the coupled human-atmosphere-system. It makes tangible the inherent linkages between the socio-economic system, the atmospheric physico-chemical changes and impacts, and legal frameworks for sustainable transformations at all levels. To implement HAS-thinking in decision and policy making, both salient disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and comprehensive science-society interactions in the form of transdisciplinary research are necessary. Societal transformations for the sake of a healthy human-atmosphere relationship are highly context dependent and require discussions of normative and value-related issues, which can only be solved through co-designed solutions. We demonstrate the importance of HAS-thinking by examples of sustainable development in the Arctic and Himalayan countries.

  2. MARCS model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Plez, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    In this review presented at the Symposium A stellar journey in Uppsala, June 2008, I give my account of the historical development of the MARCS code from the first version published in 1975 and its premises to the 2008 grid. It is shown that the primary driver for the development team is the science that can be done with the models, and that they constantly strive to include the best possible physical data. A few preliminary comparisons of M star model spectra to spectrophotometric observations are presented. Particular results related to opacity effects are discussed. The size of errors in the spectral energy distribution (SED) and model thermal stratification are estimated for different densities of the wavelength sampling. The number of points used in the MARCS 2008 grid (108000) is large enough to ensure errors of only a few K in all models of the grid, except the optically very thin layers of metal-poor stars. Errors in SEDs may reach about 10% locally in the UV. The published sampled SEDs are thus appro...

  3. Science Journalism: Using Science Literacy to Teach Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, B. J.; Lochner, J. C.

    2010-08-01

    Science has many stories to tell. A carefully crafted series of stories can create a rich experience based in science literacy to teach fundamental science concepts. In particular, framing the stories as historic news articles illustrates the process of science and opens up opportunities for multidisciplinary lessons. NASA's Cosmic Times materials illustrate how we applied this model to tell the story of our understanding of the expanding universe over the past century. Cosmic Times is a series of curriculum support materials and classroom activities for grades 7-12. The series includes six posters, each resembling the front page of a newspaper from a particular time during the past 100 years with articles describing the discoveries. The articles trace astronomer's efforts to determine the size of the universe, the nature of supernovae, and the nature of the expansion of the universe. Each poster is accompanied by inquiry-based lessons that teach the science, the process of science, and skills for science literacy. In addition, these lessons include cross-curricular activities exploring the times and social circumstances of the discoveries. These materials serve as a springboard for a discussion on using science literacy and storytelling with other science topics, ranging from our modern understanding of the planets and planet formation to the development of the theory of evolution.

  4. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation. (author)

  5. Science Olympiad students' nature of science understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Cindy J.

    2007-12-01

    Recent reform efforts in science education focus on scientific literacy for all citizens. In order to be scientifically literate, an individual must have informed understandings of nature of science (NOS), scientific inquiry, and science content matter. This study specifically focused on Science Olympiad students' understanding of NOS as one piece of scientific literacy. Research consistently shows that science students do not have informed understandings of NOS (Abd-El-Khalick, 2002; Bell, Blair, Crawford, and Lederman, 2002; Kilcrease and Lucy, 2002; Schwartz, Lederman, and Thompson, 2001). However, McGhee-Brown, Martin, Monsaas and Stombler (2003) found that Science Olympiad students had in-depth understandings of science concepts, principles, processes, and techniques. Science Olympiad teams compete nationally and are found in rural, urban, and suburban schools. In an effort to learn from students who are generally considered high achieving students and who enjoy science, as opposed to the typical science student, the purpose of this study was to investigate Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS and the experiences that formed their understandings. An interpretive, qualitative, case study method was used to address the research questions. The participants were purposefully and conveniently selected from the Science Olympiad team at a suburban high school. Data collection consisted of the Views of Nature of Science -- High School Questionnaire (VNOS-HS) (Schwartz, Lederman, & Thompson, 2001), semi-structured individual interviews, and a focus group. The main findings of this study were similar to much of the previous research in that the participants had informed understandings of the tentative nature of science and the role of inferences in science, but they did not have informed understandings of the role of human imagination and creativity, the empirical nature of science, or theories and laws. High level science classes and participation in

  6. Nuclear analysis techniques and environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features, developing trends and some frontier topics of nuclear analysis techniques and their applications in environmental science were reviewed, including the study of chemical speciation and environmental toxicology, microanalysis and identification of atmospheric particle, nuclear analysis methodology with high accuracy and quality assurance of environmental monitoring, super-sensitive nuclear analysis method and addiction of toxicant with DNA, environmental specimen banking at nuclear analysis centre and biological environmental monitor, etc

  7. Web portal on environmental sciences "ATMOS''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Gordov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed under INTAS grant web portal ATMOS (http://atmos.iao.ru and http://atmos.scert.ru makes available to the international research community, environmental managers, and the interested public, a bilingual information source for the domain of Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry, and the related application domain of air quality assessment and management. It offers access to integrated thematic information, experimental data, analytical tools and models, case studies, and related information and educational resources compiled, structured, and edited by the partners into a coherent and consistent thematic information resource. While offering the usual components of a thematic site such as link collections, user group registration, discussion forum, news section etc., the site is distinguished by its scientific information services and tools: on-line models and analytical tools, and data collections and case studies together with tutorial material. The portal is organized as a set of interrelated scientific sites, which addressed basic branches of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Modeling as well as the applied domains of Air Quality Assessment and Management, Modeling, and Environmental Impact Assessment. Each scientific site is open for external access information-computational system realized by means of Internet technologies. The main basic science topics are devoted to Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Spectroscopy and Radiation, Atmospheric Aerosols, Atmospheric Dynamics and Atmospheric Models, including climate models. The portal ATMOS reflects current tendency of Environmental Sciences transformation into exact (quantitative sciences and is quite effective example of modern Information Technologies and Environmental Sciences integration. It makes the portal both an auxiliary instrument to support interdisciplinary projects of regional environment and extensive educational resource in this important domain.

  8. Global distribution of Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluto's volatile atmosphere currently extends essentially uniformly around the globe and has nearly uniform thickness, discounting topographic elevation differences and tidal effects. Although in equilibrium with the surface ice, the atmosphere does not noticeably freeze out on the night side, during eclipses of the Sun by Charon, or at the poles during Pluto's present season near perihelion. The bulk thermal tide is negligible. The rotational and tidal deformations of the atmosphere affect the atmospheric thickness of 0.6--2% for a pure CH4 atmosphere, depending on the unknown mass of Charon, and up to 15% for an atmosphere with high mean molecular weight. An important consequence of the global uniformity of Pluto's atmosphere and the observed CH4 column abundance of 27 +- 7 m--Am is that Pluto's surface is close to 58 K over the entire globe. This compares with the value approx.43 K expected on the basis of insolation and blackbody radiation. We suggest that the explanation for Pluto's elevated surface temperature is the low thermal emissivity of solid CH4, expected on the basis of the absence of a rotational spectrum in the gas. Solid CH4, which covers an appreciable portion of Pluto's surface, can absorb sunlight in the visible and near-infrared bands but lacks opacity at thermal wavelengths to radiate the absorbed energy efficiently

  9. Implementing Global Science Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    This book expands on the argument for a new type of science curriculum for secondary schools. Instead of being based on each of the major disciplines as are almost all current science curricula, it is suggested that curricula should be conceptually organized around the Earth system, including the science methodology of the system sciences, and…

  10. Science to the People

    CERN Document Server

    Doswaldbeck, L; Brancati, D; Colombo, U; Coyaud, S; De Semir, V; Dupuy, G; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Lecourt, D; Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert; Mettan, G; Montagnier, L; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Rampini, F; Ting, Samuel C C; Ugo, R; Widman, A; CERN. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Science & society : urgent topics Risk perception : Ringing the alarm bells Basic research : Understanding its relevance Science and Economics : Comparing puplic costs and puplic benefits Language(s) : Translating expert knowledge into common culture Science and ethics : Freedom of research and limits to its applications Science,Media & Society: A confrontation

  11. ExoMars entry, descent and landing science

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, F; Lewis, S R; Withers, P.; Aboudan, A.; Bettanini, C.; Colombatti, G.; Debei, S.; Golombek, M.; Harri, A. M.; Komatsu, G.; Leese, M. R.; T. Mäkinen; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Ori, G. G.; M. R. Patel

    2011-01-01

    The entry, descent and landing of ExoMars offer a rare (once-per-mission) opportunity to perform in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) measurements can provide essential data for atmospheric scientific investigations. We intend to perform atmospheric science measurements by exploiting data from EDLS engineering sensors and exploiting their readings beyond the expected engineering information.

  12. Atmospheric predictability revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie S. R. Froude

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the potential to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP by estimating upper and lower bounds on predictability by re-visiting the original study of Lorenz (1982 but applied to the most recent version of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF forecast system, for both the deterministic and ensemble prediction systems (EPS. These bounds are contrasted with an older version of the same NWP system to see how they have changed with improvements to the NWP system. The computations were performed for the earlier seasons of DJF 1985/1986 and JJA 1986 and the later seasons of DJF 2010/2011 and JJA 2011 using the 500-hPa geopotential height field. Results indicate that for this field, we may be approaching the limit of deterministic forecasting so that further improvements might only be obtained by improving the initial state. The results also show that predictability calculations with earlier versions of the model may overestimate potential forecast skill, which may be due to insufficient internal variability in the model and because recent versions of the model are more realistic in representing the true atmospheric evolution. The same methodology is applied to the EPS to calculate upper and lower bounds of predictability of the ensemble mean forecast in order to explore how ensemble forecasting could extend the limits of the deterministic forecast. The results show that there is a large potential to improve the ensemble predictions, but for the increased predictability of the ensemble mean, there will be a trade-off in information as the forecasts will become increasingly smoothed with time. From around the 10-d forecast time, the ensemble mean begins to converge towards climatology. Until this point, the ensemble mean is able to predict the main features of the large-scale flow accurately and with high consistency from one forecast cycle to the next. By the 15-d forecast time, the ensemble mean has lost

  13. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  14. The science of exoplanets and their systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Blanc, Michel; Benz, Willy; Fridlund, Malcolm; Foresto, Vincent Coudé du; Güdel, Manuel; Rauer, Heike; Udry, Stephane; Bonnet, Roger-Maurice; Falanga, Maurizio; Charbonneau, David; Helled, Ravit; Kley, Willy; Linsky, Jeffrey; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T; Alibert, Yann; Chassefière, Eric; Encrenaz, Therese; Hatzes, Artie P; Lin, Douglas; Liseau, Rene; Lorenzen, Winfried; Raymond, Sean N

    2013-09-01

    A scientific forum on "The Future Science of Exoplanets and Their Systems," sponsored by Europlanet and the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) and co-organized by the Center for Space and Habitability (CSH) of the University of Bern, was held during December 5 and 6, 2012, in Bern, Switzerland. It gathered 24 well-known specialists in exoplanetary, Solar System, and stellar science to discuss the future of the fast-expanding field of exoplanetary research, which now has nearly 1000 objects to analyze and compare and will develop even more quickly over the coming years. The forum discussions included a review of current observational knowledge, efforts for exoplanetary atmosphere characterization and their formation, water formation, atmospheric evolution, habitability aspects, and our understanding of how exoplanets interact with their stellar and galactic environment throughout their history. Several important and timely research areas of focus for further research efforts in the field were identified by the forum participants. These scientific topics are related to the origin and formation of water and its delivery to planetary bodies and the role of the disk in relation to planet formation, including constraints from observations as well as star-planet interaction processes and their consequences for atmosphere-magnetosphere environments, evolution, and habitability. The relevance of these research areas is outlined in this report, and possible themes for future ISSI workshops are identified that may be proposed by the international research community over the coming 2-3 years. PMID:24015759

  15. Scientific investigations of atmospheric processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Research was performed in atmospheric, dynamical, and thermodynamical processes and in other disciplines necessary to accomplish the following tasks: develop procedures for combining generalized radiative transfer codes with dynamic atmospheric model codes; perform diagnostic analysis of atmospheric processes to gain a better understanding of the evolution and development of mesoscale circulation systems and their precipitation structures; and to develop algorithms and software necessary to graphically display diagnostic sets on the MSFC McIDAS and EADS to facilitate scientific study and sensor capability evaluation. Research activities during this reporting period are detailed.

  16. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  17. Atmospheric effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of recent computer model studies of the global atmospheric consequences of nuclear war is presented. The studies predict that sub-freezing surface temperatures and semi-darkness beneath regional-scale smoke and dust clouds are the most serious long-term atmospheric repercussions following a nuclear exchange. These studies and the subsequent predictions of global ecological disaster by some biologists have aroused considerable contention amongst scientists from many disciplines. Despite this contention, the predictions of the models reviewed here remain unrefuted. However, from the models so far published the severity of the predicted atmospheric effects and their temporal evolution, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, cannot be accurately forecast

  18. Saturn: atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, Tamas I; Ingersoll, Andrew P

    2010-03-19

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since 30 June 2004, yielding a wealth of data about the Saturn system. This review focuses on the atmosphere and magnetosphere and briefly outlines the state of our knowledge after the Cassini prime mission. The mission has addressed a host of fundamental questions: What processes control the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the atmosphere? Where does the magnetospheric plasma come from? What are the physical processes coupling the ionosphere and magnetosphere? And, what are the rotation rates of Saturn's atmosphere and magnetosphere? PMID:20299587

  19. Science in Cinema. Teaching Science Fact through Science Fiction Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubeck, Leroy W.; And Others

    Many feel that secondary school graduates are not prepared to compete in a world of rapidly expanding technology. High school and college students in the United States often prefer fantasy to science. This book offers a strategy for overcoming student apathy toward the physical sciences by harnessing the power of the cinema. In it, ten popular…

  20. The sensitivity of Titan's current atmosphere to variations in solar EUV flux and implications for the evolution of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, K.; Bell, J. M.; Waite, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    K. E. Mandt, J. Bell, J. H. Waite, Jr. Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX Stable isotope ratios are an important tool for tracing the evolution of an atmosphere. By carefully evaluating processes that fractionate the isotopes (e.g. escape and photochemistry), the inventory of a constituent can be tracked over geological time scales. For Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, the 14N/15N in N2 and the 12C/13C in CH4 can be used to constrain the initial size of the atmosphere and the amount of time that has passed since the current inventory of methane began outgassing into the atmosphere (see Lunine et al. [1999] and Mandt et al. [2009]). Because the processes that fractionate the isotopes are directly tied to the amount of solar EUV/UV energy deposited in the upper atmosphere, it is important to understand the sensitivity of the atmosphere to varying solar EUV flux. On short time scales, the EUV flux can vary by as much as a factor of two during the eleven-year solar cycle. On geologic time scales, the solar EUV flux is believed to have been about 2.5 times greater than the current flux about 2.5 billion years ago, and 6 times the current flux 3.5 billion years ago [Ribas et al. 2005]. Using a 1D version of the 3D Titan Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (T-GITM), we will explore the impact of the eleven-year solar cycle variations on Titan’s upper atmosphere, focusing on the key fractionating processes of photochemistry and escape. We will then discuss the implications of these results for modeling the evolution of the atmosphere over geological time scales. Lunine, J. I., Y. L. Yung and R. D. Lorenz, 1999. On the volatile inventory of Titan from isotopic abundances in nitrogen and methane. Planetary and Space Science, 47, 1291-1303. Mandt, K. E., J. H. Waite, Jr., B. A. Magee, J. Bell, J. Lunine, O. Mousis, D. Cordier, 2009, Isotopic evolution of Titan’s main atmospheric constituents, Planetary and Space Science, 57, 1917-1930. Ribas, I., E. F. Guinan