WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric sciences exposure

  1. Special issue of Atmospheric Environment for Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure, and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, Ann; Turner, Jay; Solomon, Paul A.

    2004-10-01

    In response to epidemiological studies published over 20 years ago, at least three research communities have been intensively studying airborne particulate matter (PM). These efforts have been coordinated by approaching the source-atmospheric accumulation/receptor-exposure-dose-health effects paradigm (adopted from NRC, 2001) from different perspectives or along different parts of the paradigm. The atmospheric sciences communities consider the emissions of particles and precursors from sources, their transport and transformation in air to receptor locations, and finally removal from the atmosphere. The exposure communities' interest is to examine the pathways by which pollution or PM, in this case, approaches and enters the body, typically by trying to relate PM concentrations at a central location(s) to exposure and perhaps dose. Both the atmospheric sciences and exposure communities approach the paradigm from left to right. In contrast, the health effects communities have studied health outcomes, including hospital admissions, school absences, disease rates and deaths in human populations, and potential mechanisms of biological actions in laboratory settings. In general, the health effects communities' approach the paradigm from right to left attempting to correlate an observed adverse health effect with dose or exposure measures. For the most part, research results are reported in scientific publications and conferences for each community respectively. Over the years, there has been little effort to integrate information from these diverse groups in a substantive way. While a major attempt took place in 1998 at the Chapel Hill workshop (Albritton and Greenbaum, 1998), little has occurred since.

  2. Symmetries in atmospheric sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bihlo, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Selected applications of symmetry methods in the atmospheric sciences are reviewed briefly. In particular, focus is put on the utilisation of the classical Lie symmetry approach to derive classes of exact solutions from atmospheric models. This is illustrated with the barotropic vorticity equation. Moreover, the possibility for construction of partially-invariant solutions is discussed for this model. A further point is a discussion of using symmetries for relating different classes of differential equations. This is illustrated with the spherical and the potential vorticity equation. Finally, discrete symmetries are used to derive the minimal finite-mode version of the vorticity equation first discussed by E. Lorenz (1960) in a sound mathematical fashion.

  3. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  4. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  5. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  6. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  7. Exposure of lambs to atmospheric ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Lewis, J.M.; Hinds, F.C.; Simon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of chronic exposure to atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm on weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion by lambs. Lambs were weighed and then randomly allotted to four dynamic air-pollutant exposure chambers. Initial weights (mean +/- SE) of lambs were 22.1 +/- .46 kg and 27.5 +/- 1.54 kg for trials 1 and 2, respectively (n=12 in both trials). Lambs in two chambers (controls) were maintained in an atmosphere of filtered room air. Lambs in the other two chambers (NH/sub 3/ -exposed) were exposed to an atmosphere of filtered air plus atmospheric ammonia at a concentration of 75 ppm. Exposure period was 28 days in both trials. Feed and water were available at all times. Lamb weight gain and feed disappearance were determined weekly. Upon termination of each trial, one lamb was randomly selected from each chamber, sacrificed, and gross and histopathologic structural changes noted. Weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion data for the two trials were combined for statistical analysis. Control lambs gained on the average .09 kg/day (.28 vs .19) more (P<.01) and consumed on the average .68 kg of feed (4.53 vs 5.21) less per kilogram of weight gain (P<.10) than did NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs. Ammonia-exposed lambs in both trials showed profuse lacrimation, severe coughing and sneezing, and profuse nasal discharge, which was bloody in some instances. Gross and histopathologic findings appeared to be qualitatively similar between treatments, but more pronounced in NH/sub 3/-exposed lambs.

  8. Spatial Thinking in Atmospheric Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, P. M.; Petcovic, H. L.; Ellis, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric science is a STEM discipline that involves the visualization of three-dimensional processes from two-dimensional maps, interpretation of computer-generated graphics and hand plotting of isopleths. Thus, atmospheric science draws heavily upon spatial thinking. Research has shown that spatial thinking ability can be a predictor of early success in STEM disciplines and substantial evidence demonstrates that spatial thinking ability is improved through various interventions. Therefore, identification of the spatial thinking skills and cognitive processes used in atmospheric science is the first step toward development of instructional strategies that target these skills and scaffold the learning of students in atmospheric science courses. A pilot study of expert and novice meteorologists identified mental animation and disembedding as key spatial skills used in the interpretation of multiple weather charts and images. Using this as a starting point, we investigated how these spatial skills, together with expertise, domain specific knowledge, and working memory capacity affect the ability to produce an accurate forecast. Participants completed a meteorology concept inventory, experience questionnaire and psychometric tests of spatial thinking ability and working memory capacity prior to completing a forecasting task. A quantitative analysis of the collected data investigated the effect of the predictor variables on the outcome task. A think-aloud protocol with individual participants provided a qualitative look at processes such as task decomposition, rule-based reasoning and the formation of mental models in an attempt to understand how individuals process this complex data and describe outcomes of particular meteorological scenarios. With our preliminary results we aim to inform atmospheric science education from a cognitive science perspective. The results point to a need to collaborate with the atmospheric science community broadly, such that multiple

  9. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform Science Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidan, Ronald S.; Lee, Gregory; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Bolisay, Linden

    2015-11-01

    Over the past several years, we have explored a possible new approach to Venus upper atmosphere exploration by applying recent Northrop (non-NASA) development programs and have come up with a new class of exploration vehicle: an atmospheric rover. We will discuss a possible suite of instruments and measurements to study the current climate through detailed characterization of cloud level atmosphere and to understand the processes that control climate on Earth-like planets.Our Venus atmospheric rover concept, the Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP), is a hypersonic entry vehicle with an ultra-low ballistic coefficient that transitions to a semi-buoyant air vehicle (AV) after entering the Venus atmosphere. Prior to entry, the AV fully deploys to enable lifting entry and eliminates the need for an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the aeroshell allows VAMP to accommodate significantly more instruments compared to previous Venus in situ exploration missions. VAMP targets the global Venus atmosphere between 50-65 km altitudes and would be an ideal, stable platform for atmospheric and surface interaction measurements. We will present a straw man concept of VAMP, including its science instrument accommodation capability and platform’s physical characteristics (mass, power, wingspan, etc). We will discuss the various instrument options.VAMP’s subsonic flight regime starts at ~94 km and after performance of VAMP science.

  10. Where are the atmospheric sciences going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierly, Eugene W.

    The question of the direction of the atmospheric sciences is a difficult one, and it cannot be answered in a definitive way or with a high degree of certainty. I would like to try to give you my biased viewpoint on the situation in atmospheric sciences today, as far as the research aspect is concerned.The field of atmospheric sciences today is full to overflowing with top-notch scientific research programs. At the same time, funds for conducting this research are limited and much more difficult to obtain now than in previous years. To paraphrase the words of Charles Dickens in his Tale of Two Cities, “It is the best of times; it is the worst of times.”

  11. Atmospheric Science and the CFC Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Industry involvement with developing atmospheric science and subsequent regulations to protect ozone was unusual. Chlorofluorocarbon manufacturers were research-based businesses accustomed to understanding the science behind product-related issues. When Lovelock's measurements in 1971 implied most of the cumulative production of CFCs remained in the atmosphere, global CFC producers funded academic research to identify natural sinks for the materials. The Fluorocarbon Program Panel (FPP) began in 1972, but changed focus to atmospheric photochemistry following Rowland and Molina's work in 1974. Despite early vociferous opposition, especially by the CFC-using aerosol industry, to any regulations, leaders among the producers worked to build their scientific understanding, expanding FPP funding and launching internal work in modeling and ozone trend analysis. The key first question for industry was not how much depletion might occur, but whether it would occur at all. If so, regardless of the amount, regulations and a major transition would be required in CFC-using industries, and the response would need to be global and prompt. So long as that basic question was in doubt, some businesses and countries would resist the economic cost of action. In the meantime, the producing industry worked to identify potential alternatives and to communicate atmospheric science to the downstream industries. Although the industry science effort was often disparaged as an attack on "real" science, my only assignment when I joined DuPont's Central Research Department in 1979 was to understand and contribute to the science, keeping both the company and our customers informed. Our modeling results were published freely. FPP funding led to better knowledge of the ClO + O rate constant, significantly increasing depletion in model calculations; supported the development of the techniques used to measure in situ atmospheric ClO, so important in later strengthening the case for chlorine

  12. Renewable energy and the atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T. Y.; Takenaka, H.; Watanabe, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takamura, T.; Kurino, T.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for renewable energy in social energy systems has grown in recent years. In the atmospheric sciences, the energy balances and dynamics in the atmosphere are studied on both local and global scales, and thus estimation of renewable energy is an important practical application. For instance, shortwave solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface is an essential quantity for evaluating the photovoltaic (PV) power generation. Indeed, shortwave solar radiation can be calculated by a radiative transfer solver and an accurate electromagnetic wave scattering theory. A beneficial application of atmospheric sciences is obtaining of solar radiation on the basis of geostationary satellite measurements. Such satellites provide data covering most parts of the Earth every 30 min to 1 h. Geo-parameters such as cloud and aerosol properties are needed for calculating the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. Multispectral images acquired by geostationary satellites allow for such geo-parameters to be evaluated. Additionally, polar-orbiting Earth observation satellites are also needed for improving data analysis techniques. For instance, multispectral imagers (e.g., MODIS) and cloud radars (e.g., CloudSat) aboard polar-orbiting satellites can be used to reveal the relationship between multispectral imaging results and the vertical structure of clouds. The EarthCARE (JAXA, ESA, NICT) and the GCOM-C (JAXA) satellites that will be launched in the middle of 2010-era are also used for improving cloud and aerosol process. This paper presents a method using satellite data to evaluate the optical and microphysical parameters of clouds that affect solar radiation. Also presented is a method for evaluating solar radiation that reaches Earth's surface. A new research project in Japan, JST-CREST-EMS (Energy Management System)-TEEDDA (Terrestrial Energy Estimation by Diurnal Data Analyses), which was started in October 2012, is also introduced.

  13. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Applied Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007, the ISEA, predecessor to ISES, held a special roundtable to discuss lessons learned for exposure science during and following environmental disasters, especially the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. Since then, environmental agencies have been involved in responses to...

  14. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation for Weak Lensing in Short Exposure Imaging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C; Jernigan, J G; Peterson, J R; Kahn, S M; Gull, S F; AlSayyad, Y; Ahmad, Z; Bankert, J; Bard, D; Connolly, A; Gibson, R R; Gilmore, K; Grace, E; Hannel, M; Hodge, M A; Jones, L; Krughoff, S; Lorenz, S; Marshall, S; Meert, A; Nagarajan, S; Peng, E; Rasmussen, A P; Shmakova, M; Sylvestre, N; Todd, N; Young, M

    2012-01-01

    The synoptic imaging survey proposed for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will generate large numbers of short exposure ($\\simeq$15 seconds) images. A primary science driver for this project is to measure the cosmic shear signal from weak lensing to extreme accuracy. One difficulty, however, is that in these short exposure images, the spatial variation of the Point Spread Function (PSF) shapes may be dominated by the atmosphere, in addition to optics errors. In particular, the atmosphere generates stochastic structures on a wide range of angular scales. Since the PSF patterns in these images can only be inferred by interpolating the sparsely sampled stars in the field, these multi-scale, complex patterns from the atmosphere complicates the PSF interpolation problem. In this paper we present a new method, PSFent, for interpolating atmospheric PSF shape parameters, based on reconstructing underlying shape parameter maps with a multi-scale maximum entropy algorithm. We demonstrate, using images from th...

  15. Fast Temperature Sensor for use in Atmospheric Sciences Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes a novel sensor to measure atmospheric temperature at high frequency (10 Hz) and with high precision and accuracy (0.1 degrees C)....

  16. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  17. Atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel resulting from short term exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Cook, D.C.; Perez, T.; Reyes, J. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The study of corrosion products from short term atmospheric exposures of carbon steel, is very important to understand the processes that lead to corrosion of steels, and ultimately improve the performance of such steel in highly corrosive environments. Many regions along the Gulf of Mexico have extremely corrosive environments due to high mean annual temperature, humidity, time-of-wetness and every high atmospheric pollutants. The process the formation of corrosion products resulting from short term exposure of carbon steel, both as a function of environmental conditions and exposure time, has been investigated. Two sets of coupons were exposed at marine and marine locations, in Campeche, Mexico. Each set was exposed between 1 and 12 months to study the corrosion as a function of time. During the exposure periods, the relative humidity, rainfall, mean temperature, wind speed and wind direction were monitored along with the chloride and sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air. The corroded coupons were analyzed by Moessbauer, Raman, Infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction in order to completely identify the oxides and map their location in the corrosion coating. Scattering and transmission Moessbauer analysis showed some layering of the oxides with lepidocrocite and akaganeite closer to the surface. The fraction of akaganeite phase increased at sites with higher chloride concentrations. A detailed analysis on the development of the oxide phases as a function of exposure time and environmental conditions will be presented. (Author)

  18. Atmospheric Brown Clouds- from science towards policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyngararasan M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs and its interaction with climate change is an emerging environmental issue. Studies demonstrate that ABCs and its interaction with build-up of greenhouse gases significantly affect the regional climate, glacial melting, hydrological cycle, agriculture and public health. For the next decades, the regional aerosol effects will continue to play a major role in environmental management as long as current strong sources of air pollution remain. An integrated multi-pollutant multi-sectoral approach for addressing atmospheric issues will result in optimum environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Regional intergovernmental networks have been established to address air pollution issues in different parts of the globe. These intergovernmental networks could be empowered to promote integrated approach for addressing the atmospheric environmental issues.

  19. An Atmospheric Science Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard; Qu, Zheng; Bowman, Kevin; Eldering, Annmarie

    2010-01-01

    An atmospheric sounding mission starts with a wide range of concept designs involving measurement technologies, observing platforms, and observation scenarios. Observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) is a technical approach to evaluate the relative merits of mission and instrument concepts. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the OSSE team has developed an OSSE environment that allows atmospheric scientists to systematically explore a wide range of mission and instrument concepts and formulate a science traceability matrix with a quantitative science impact analysis. The OSSE environment virtually creates a multi-platform atmospheric sounding testbed (MAST) by integrating atmospheric phenomena models, forward modeling methods, and inverse modeling methods. The MAST performs OSSEs in four loosely coupled processes, observation scenario exploration, measurement quality exploration, measurement quality evaluation, and science impact analysis.

  20. Atmospheric science: Pacific trade wind intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The unprecedented recent intensification of the Pacific trade winds cannot simply be explained by natural variability alone. Now research finds that the more local influence of sulfate aerosols of human and volcanic origin play a significant role, in addition to the Pacific's coupling to the Atlantic Ocean via the 'atmospheric bridge'.

  1. Comparing Unique Title Coverage of Web of Science and Scopus in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…

  2. Comparing Unique Title Coverage of Web of Science and Scopus in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Philip; Lascar, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The current journal titles in earth and atmospheric sciences, that are unique to each of two databases, Web of Science and Scopus, were identified using different methods. Comparing by subject category shows that Scopus has hundreds of unique titles, and Web of Science just 16. The titles unique to each database have low SCImago Journal Rank…

  3. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  4. European Meteorological Society and education in atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2010-09-01

    EMS is supporting the exchange of information in the area of education in atmospheric sciences as one of its priority and organizing the educational sessions during EMS annual meetings as a good occasion for such an exchange. Brief thought will be given to the fate of the series of International Conferences on School and Popular Meteorological and Oceanographic Education - EWOC (Education in Weather, Ocean and Climate) and to the project oriented basis of further cooperation in education in atmospheric sciences across Europe. Another tool of EMS is the newly established and developed EDU portal of EMS. In most European countries the process of integration of education at university level was started after Bologna Declaration with the objective to have the system where students on some level could move to another school, or rather university. The goal is to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to have no objections for students when transferring between the European countries. From this point of view EMS is trying to provide the information about the possibility of education in meteorology and climatology in different countries in centralised form, with uniform shape and content, but validated on national level. In most European countries the necessity of education in Science and Mathematics to achieve higher standard and competitiveness in research and technology development has been formulated after the Lisboa meeting. The European Meteorological Society is trying to follow this process with implication to atmospheric sciences. One of the important task of the EMS is the activity to promote public understanding of meteorology (and sciences related to it), and the ability to make use of it, through schools and more generally. One of the elements of EMS activity is the analysis of the position of atmospheric science in framework of curricula in educational systems of European countries as well as in more general sense, the

  5. The 26th AFOSR chemical and atmospheric sciences program review FY81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, W. G.; Myers, L. E.; Stallings, S. A.

    1982-03-01

    A review is presented of research efforts sponsored by the Directorate of Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences which have completed their period of support. Illustrated accounts resulting from the basic research programs in the Atmospheric and Chemical Sciences are highlighted. The Atmospheric Sciences is concerned with meteorology and upper atmospheric structure and dynamics. The meteorology focuses on mesoscale meteorology, cloud physics, and atmospheric dynamics. The Chemical Sciences deal with Chemical Techniques, Chemical Structures, Surface Chemistry, Chemical Dynamics, and Synthesis and properties of Materials.

  6. Earth Observation for Land-Atmosphere Interaction Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconcini, M.; Fernandez-Prieto, D.; Reissell, A.; Ellis, M.; Blyth, E. M.; Burrows, J. P.; de Leeuw, G.; Gerard, F. F.; Houweling, S.; Kaminski, T.; Krol, M.; Muller, J.-P.; North, P. R. J.; Palmer, P.; Pinty, B.; Plummer, S.; Quegan, S.; Reichstein, M.; Remedios, J. J.; Roberts, G. J.; Shvidenko, A.; Scipal, K.; Sobrino, J. A.; Teuling, A. J.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2011-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Processes Study, i.e. the land-atmosphere core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme), and the European Geosciences Union (EGU) jointly organized the “Earth Observation for Land-Atmosphere Interaction Science” conference, which took place from 3rd to 5th November 2010 at the Italian premises of ESA in Frascati (Rome). The event represented an attempt to effectively draw together Earth-Observation (EO) and Earth-system scientists investigating land-atmosphere processes in order to better understand the current gaps in science and derive recommendations to advance in the use of EO technology in the context of this important topic. Around 200 people from more than 30 countries world- wide met and discussed for three intensive days. This paper reports key points and the main recommendations of the conference for each of the key themes addressed.

  7. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division Program Report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    In 1990, the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division begins its 17th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to decades and from local to global. Our modeling is now reaching out from its atmospheric focus to treat linkages with the oceans and the land. In this report, we describe the Division's goal and organizational structure. We also provide tables and appendices describing the Division's budget, personnel, models, and publications. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. European Meteorological Society and education in atmospheric sciences, EWOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2009-04-01

    In most European countries the necessity of education in Science and Mathematics to achieve higher standard and competitiveness in research and technology development has been formulated after the Lisboa meeting. The European Meteorological Society is trying to follow this process with implication to atmospheric sciences. One of the important task of the EMS is the activity to promote public understanding of meteorology (and sciences related to it), and the ability to make use of it, through schools and more generally. One of the elements of EMS activity is the analysis of the position of atmospheric science in framework of curricula in educational systems of European countries as well as in more general sense, the place of Science education in the system. In most European countries the process of integration of education at university level was started after Bologna Declaration with the objective to have the system where students on some level could move to another school, or rather university. The goal is to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to have no objections for students when transferring between the European countries. From this point of view EMS is trying to provide the information about the possibility of education in meteorology and climatology in different countries in centralised form, with uniform shape and content, but validated on national level. EMS is supporting the exchange of information in the area of education in atmospheric sciences, organizing the educational sessions during EMS annual meetings as well as participating in the series of International Conferences on School and Popular Meteorological and Oceanographic Education - EWOC (Education in Weather, Ocean and Climate).

  9. Establishing Exposure Science as a Distinct Scientific Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    As readers of this journal, we are likely in agreement that ‘‘Exposure science is the bedrock for protection of public health.’’,1 and despite some differing opinions as to what the exact definition of ‘‘exposure science’’ should be, a general consensus states that it ...

  10. Atmospheric sciences division. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynor, G. S. [ed.

    1981-12-01

    The research activities of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of the Department of Energy and Environment for FY 1981 are presented. Facilities and major items of equipment are described. Research programs are summarized in three categories, modeling, field and laboratory experiments and data management and analysis. Each program is also described individually with title, principal investigator, sponsor and funding levels for FY 1981 and FY 1982. Future plans are summarized. Publications for FY 1981 are listed with abstracts. A list of personnel is included.

  11. Professional development for graduate students in the atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.; Sloan, V.

    2015-12-01

    The field of atmospheric sciences is rapidly changing, and with it, the employment outlook for recent graduate students. Weather and climate applications for society and the private industry are in demand and have increased significantly over the last few years, creating new employment opportunities for atmospheric scientists. It is therefore more important than ever that our graduates are well prepared for the newly emerging careers. The Bureau's Occupational Outlook predicts that opportunities for atmospheric scientists will increase more rapidly in the private industry than in other sectors (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Employers in the private sector indicate that, while job applicants often bring the required scientific training, there is a gap between the technical and professional skills needed in those positions and those possessed by graduates. Job candidates were found to be most lacking in written and oral communication skills, adaptability, and project management (Chronicle for Higher Education, 2012). The geoscience community needs to come together to better prepare our graduate students. While some of this work can be done within academic institutions, partnerships with mentoring programs and the private industry are essential. In this paper we will present one approach taken by the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program to improve its students' skills in project management, collaborating, communication, problem solving, and essential leadership skills.

  12. Atmospheric Sciences Meet Astronomy: Mutual Benefits from two Different Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausch, Wolfgang; Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Kondrak, Matthias; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Przybilla, Norbert; Lakićević, Maša; Zeilinger, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Light from astronomical targets has to pass the Earth's atmosphere when being observed by ground-based telescope facilities. The signal detected by modern astronomical spectrographs is significantly influenced by molecular absorption and airglow emission. The first mainly arises from various species in the lower, thus denser atmosphere, whereas the latter is caused by chemiluminescence in the mesopause region and above. As ground-based astronomical spectrographs are optimised from the near-UV to the mid-infrared regime (0.3....25μm), a number of absorption features from numerous species are directly visible (e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4, O2, O3,...). The same is true for the airglow emission arising e.g. from the hydroxyl radical and oxygen. The high resolution provided by some spectrographs and their frequent usage allows a detailed investigation of atmospheric lines. Usually being a source of noise for astronomers, which needs to be corrected for, this influence can be used to precisely analyse the composition and the state of the Earth's atmosphere above an observatory. On the other hand, a good knowledge of this allows astronomers to better correct for this influence. Thus, both, atmospheric and astronomical sciences highly benefit from a good understanding of the atmospheric state above an observatory. During the past years we conducted several studies to link astronomical and atmospheric data. For this purpose we use data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) operated by the European Southern Observatory, and the Cerro Armazones Observatory (OCA, University of Bochum, Germany; Universidad Católica del Norte, Chile), both located in the Chilean Atacama desert. The three spectrographs used in our studies are X-Shooter@VLT (resolving power R˜3300...18000, wavelength range λ=0.3...2.5μm), UVES@VLT (R˜20.000....110.000, λ=0.3....1.1μm), and BESO@OCA (R=50000@Hα=0.656μm, λ=0.38 - 0.84μm). In addition, we use atmospheric data obtained with the satellites

  13. Enhancing climate literacy by melding the atmospheric and geospatial sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupigny-Giroux, L.; Toolin, R.; Morrissey, L.; Fortney, M. D.; Hogan, S.; Pontius, J.; Berryman, B.; Shafer, J.; Atkins, N.; Shepherd, M.; Mote, T. L.; Raphael, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Climate literacy involves an understanding of the interconnectedness of various components of the climate system over space and time, as well as the influence of humans on that system and the ability to use that understanding to "act accordingly". Understanding the climate system relies on techniques that include statistics, modelling, visualization and geospatial technologies such as remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS). The melding of these geospatial technologies with the atmospheric and climate sciences has become increasingly common and ubiquitous from the nightly weather presentations to the weekly U.S. Drought Monitor. This presentation will delve into the successes and ongoing challenges for a climate literate society that exist at the transdisciplinary border of the atmospheric and geospatial sciences. Two National Science Foundation (NSF) funded programs will be highlighted. The first is the Satellites, Weather and Climate (SWAC) professional development program for K-12 teachers and the second is the Diversity Climate Network (D-ClimNet) for high school to graduate students.

  14. Providing the Missing Link: the Exposure Science Ontology ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although knowledge-discovery tools are new to the exposure science community, these tools are critical for leveraging exposure information to design health studies and interpret results for improved public health decisions. Standardized ontologies define relationships, allow for automated reasoning, and facilitate meta-analyses. ExO will facilitate development of biologically relevant exposure metrics, design of in vitro toxicity tests, and incorporation of information on susceptibility and background exposures for risk assessment. In this approach, there are multiple levels of organization, from the global environment down through ecosystems, communities, indoor spaces, populations, organisms, tissues, and cells. We anticipate that the exposure science and environmental health community will adopt and contribute to this work, as wide acceptance is key to integration and federated searching of exposure data to support environmental and public health research. In particular, we anticipate acceptance of the concept that exposure science provides the spatial/temporal narrative about the intensity (concentration) of a stressor at the boundary between two systems: one functioning as an “environment” (stressor) and one functioning as a target (receptor). An agreed-upon exposure ontology with clear definitions and relationships should help to facilitate decision-making, study design and prioritization of research initiatives by enhancing the capacity for data colle

  15. A conceptual framework to support exposure science research ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    While knowledge of exposure is fundamental to assessing and mitigating risks, exposure information has been costly and difficult to generate. Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, computational tools, and a newly articulated vision for a greater impact in public health, the field of exposure science is undergoing a rapid transition that allows it to be more agile, predictive, and data- and knowledge-driven. A necessary element of this evolved paradigm is an organizational and predictive framework for exposure science that furthers the application of systems-based approaches. To enable such systems-based approaches, we proposed the Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) concept to organize data and information emerging from an invigorated and expanding field of exposure science. The AEP framework is a layered structure that describes the elements of an exposure pathway, as well as the relationship between those elements. The basic building blocks of an AEP adopt the naming conventions used for Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs): Key Events (KEs) to describe the measurable, obligate steps through the AEP; and Key Event Relationships (KERs) describe the linkages between KEs. Importantly, the AEP offers an intuitive approach to organize exposure information from sources to internal site of action, setting the stage for predicting stressor concentrations at an internal target site. These predicted concentrations can help inform the r

  16. Atmospheric Sciences Program summaries of research in FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Atmospheric Science Program of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history; the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date. Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used. This document has been indexed to aid the reader in locating research topics, participants, and research institutions in the text and the project descriptions. Comprehensive subject, principal investigator, and institution indexes are provided at the end of the text for this purpose. The comprehensive subject index includes keywords from the introduction and chapter texts in addition to those from the project descriptions.

  17. Atmospheric science experiments applicable to Space Shuttle Spacelab missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. S.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.; Vaughan, W. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Robertson, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The present lack of a lower atmosphere research satellite program for the 1980s has prompted consideration of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system as a means of flying sensor complements geared toward specific research problems, as well as continued instrument development. Three specific examples of possible science questions related to precipitation are discussed: (1) spatial structure of mesoscale cloud and precipitation systems, (2) lightning and storm development, and (3) cyclone intensification over oceanic regions. Examples of space sensors availab le to provide measurements needed in addressing these questions are also presented. Distinctive aspects of low-earth orbit experiments would be high resolution, multispectral sensing of atmospheric phenomena by complements of instruments, and more efficient sensor development through reflights of specific hardware packages.

  18. Atmospheric science experiments applicable to Space Shuttle Spacelab missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. S.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fichtl, G. H.; Vaughan, W. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Robertson, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The present lack of a lower atmosphere research satellite program for the 1980s has prompted consideration of the Space Shuttle/Spacelab system as a means of flying sensor complements geared toward specific research problems, as well as continued instrument development. Three specific examples of possible science questions related to precipitation are discussed: (1) spatial structure of mesoscale cloud and precipitation systems, (2) lightning and storm development, and (3) cyclone intensification over oceanic regions. Examples of space sensors availab le to provide measurements needed in addressing these questions are also presented. Distinctive aspects of low-earth orbit experiments would be high resolution, multispectral sensing of atmospheric phenomena by complements of instruments, and more efficient sensor development through reflights of specific hardware packages.

  19. SOARS: Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, T. L.; Hagan, M. E.

    2001-05-01

    SOARS, a model program, has developed a unique mutli-year mentoring and learning community to support, teach, and guide college students from diverse backgrounds. SOARS is dedicated to increasing the number of African American, American Indian, and Hispanic/Latino students enrolled in master's and doctoral degree programs in the atmospheric and related sciences with the goal of supporting the development of a diverse, internationally competitive and globally engaged workforce within the scientific community. Since its 1996 inception, 51 undergraduates have participated. All 51 completed or are on schedule to complete their undergraduate degrees with a major in an atmospheric or related science. Currently 17 protégés are in graduate programs. Eight have completed M.S. degrees; two are Ph.D. candidates. SOARS has a retention rate of 82 percent. The SOARS learning community provides multi-year programing for protégés that includes educational and research opportunities, mentoring, career counseling and guidance, and the possibility of financial support for a graduate level program. Protégés spend their summers at NCAR, participate in ongoing research projects, an eight week scientific writing and communication workshop, and scientific seminars. They benefit from long-term mentoring from respected scientists and professionals, learn about career opportunities, practice leadership and are encouraged to complete a graduate program in an atmospheric or related science. In this presentation we highlight the SOARS program structure and objectives with particular emphasis on the mentoring model that is fundamental to SOARS. We conclude with a summary of SOARS protégés' contributions to the broader scientific community which include oral and poster presentations at national and regional scientific conferences, as well as co-authorship of refereed journal articles.

  20. DORIS applications for solid earth and atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Jayles, Christian; Rolland, Lucie

    2007-12-01

    DORIS is a French precise orbit determination system. However, in the past four years, through the creation of the International DORIS Service, a larger international cooperation was involved. Furthermore, the precision of its scientific applications (geodesy, geophysics) gradually improved and expanded to new fields (atmospheric sciences), leading, for example, to the publication of a special issue of the Journal of Geodesy. The goal of this manuscript is to present and explain these changes and to put them in perspective with current results obtained with other space geodetic techniques, such as GPS or Satellite Laser Ranging.

  1. Using Case Studies as a Tool for Teaching Science Policy within the Atmospheric and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G.; Hooke, W.

    2006-12-01

    Earth system science is a field where policy, societal, & economic aspects are becoming increasingly important as our society becomes more dependent on activities and technologies that affect and are affected by the Earth system. It is important that present and future scientists are prepared to fully participate in the challenging opportunities that lie ahead, including communicating to policy makers, making public policy decisions, & communicating science to the public. One way of providing a better foundation is to integrate policy and science at universities. Therefore, the American Meteorological Society Policy Program (APP) is developing materials for university science policy curricula and the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium. In providing policy education activities and promoting policy research, the APP hopes to encourage more people to enter the field of science policy, contribute to and enhance the current policy dialogue, and create a clearinghouse for science policy case studies. Case studies are an excellent method to study policy issues in the atmospheric and space sciences for the following reasons: issues are too complex to be handled by any single factor (economic, social, or political science); purpose is to identify and analyze the impacts rather than test theoretical hypotheses; problems involve large number of participants (government at various levels, industries, and researchers); and study requires giving alternatives and consequence analysis for policy makers. Lessons learned will be presented on implementation of science policy case studies at the AMS Summer Policy Colloquium and George Mason University.

  2. Land-Atmosphere Feedback Experiment (LAFE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfmeyer, Volker [University of Hohenheim; Turner, David [NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory

    2016-07-01

    lower troposphere, including the interfacial layer of the CBL. The optimal azimuth is to the ENE of the SGP central facility, which takes advantage of both changes in the surface elevation and different crop types planted along that path. 3) The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center Portable Atmospheric Research Center (SPARC) and the University of Oklahoma Collaborative Lower Atmospheric Mobile Profiling System (CLAMPS) operating two vertically pointing atmospheric emitted radiance interferometers (AERIs) and two Doppler lidar (DL) systems scanning cross track to the central RHI for determining the surface friction velocity and the horizontal variability of temperature, moisture, and wind. Thus, both the variability of surface fluxes and CBL dynamics and thermodynamics over the SGP site will be studied for the first time. The combination of these three components will enable us to estimate both the divergence of the latent heat profile and the advection of moisture. Thus, the moisture budget in the SGP domain can be studied. Furthermore, the simultaneous measurements of surface and entrainment fluxes as well as the daily cycle of the CBL thermodynamic state will provide a unique data set for characterizing LSA interaction in dependence of large-scale and local conditions such as soil moisture and the state of the vegetation. The measurements will also be applied for the development of improved parameterizations of surface fluxes and turbulence in the CBL. The latter is possible because mean profiles, gradients, higher-order moments, and fluxes are measured simultaneously. The results will be used for the verification of simulations of LSA feedback in large-eddy simulation (LES) and mesoscale models, which are planned for the SGP site. Due to the strong connection between the pre-convective state of the CBL and the formation of clouds and precipitation, this new generation of experiments will strongly contribute to the improvement of their

  3. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division: Program report, FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    In 1988 the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division began its 15th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to years, and from kilometers to global, respectively. For this report, we have chosen to show a subset of results from several projects to illustrate the breadth, depth, and diversity of the modeling activities that are a major part of the Division's research, development, and application efforts. In addition, the recent reorganization of the Division, including the merger of another group with the Division, is described, and the budget, personnel, models, and publications are reviewed. 95 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Germination of fungal conidia after exposure to low concentration ozone atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The germinability of conidia of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium expansum, or Penicillium italicum was determined periodically during exposure for approximately 100 days to a humid atmosphere of air alone or air containing 150 ppb ozone ...

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  6. Rapid Development of Bespoke Unmanned Platforms for Atmospheric Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobester, A.; Johnston, S. J.; Scanlan, J. P.; Hart, E. E.; O'Brien, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The effective deployment of airborne atmospheric science instruments often hinges on the development cycle time of a suitable platform, one that is capable of delivering them to the desired altitude range for a specified amount of time, along a pre-determined trajectory. This could be driven by the need to respond rapidly to sudden, unexpected events (e.g., volcano eruptions, nuclear fallout, etc.) or simply to accommodate the iterative design and flight test cycle of the instrument developer. A shorter development cycle time would also afford us the ability to quickly adapt the hardware and control logic in response to unexpected results during an experimental campaign. We report on recent developments aimed at meeting this demand. As part of the Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft (ASTRA) initiative we have investigated the use of rapid prototyping technologies to this end, both on the 'airframe' of the platform itself and on the on-board systems. We show how fast multi-disciplinary design optimization techniques, coupled with computer-controlled additive manufacturing (3D printing) and laser cutting methods and electronic prototyping (using standard, modular, programmable building blocks) can lead to the delivery of a fully customized platform integrating a given instrument in a timescale of the order of ten days. Specific examples include the design and testing of a balloon-launched glider sensorcraft and a stratospheric balloon system. The 'vehicle' for the latter was built on a 3D printer using a copolymer thermoplastic material and fitted with a sacrificial protective 'cage' laser-cut from an open-cell foam. The data logging, tracking, sensor integration and communications services of the platform were constructed using the .net Gadgeteer open source hardware kit. The flight planning and eventual post-flight recovery of the system is enabled by a generic, stochastic trajectory simulation tool, also developed as part of the ASTRA initiative. This

  7. Integrating the Earth, Atmospheric, and Ocean Sciences at Millersville University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    For nearly 40 years, the Department of Earth Sciences at Millersville University (MU-DES) of Pennsylvania has been preparing students for careers in the earth, atmospheric, and ocean sciences by providing a rigorous and comprehensive curricula leading to B.S. degrees in geology, meteorology, and oceanography. Undergraduate research is a hallmark of these earth sciences programs with over 30 students participating in some form of meritorious research each year. These programs are rich in applied physics, couched in mathematics, and steeped in technical computing and computer languages. Our success is measured by the number of students that find meaningful careers or go on to earn graduate degrees in their respective fields, as well as the high quality of faculty that the department has retained over the years. Student retention rates in the major have steadily increased with the introduction of a formal learning community and peer mentoring initiatives, and the number of new incoming freshmen and transfer students stands at an all-time high. Yet until recently, the disciplines have remained largely disparate with only minor inroads made into integrating courses that seek to address the Earth as a system. This is soon to change as the MU-DES unveils a new program leading to a B.S. in Integrated Earth Systems. The B.S. in Integrated Earth Systems (ISS) is not a reorganization of existing courses to form a marketable program. Instead, it is a fully integrated program two years in development that borrows from the multi-disciplinary backgrounds and experiences of faculty, while bringing in resources that are tailored to visualizing and modeling the Earth system. The result is the creation of a cross-cutting curriculum designed to prepare the 21st century student for the challenges and opportunities attending the holistic study of the Earth as a system. MU-DES will continue to offer programs leading to degrees in geology, meteorology, and ocean science, but in addition

  8. European Meteorological Society and Education in Atmospheric Sciences, EWOC 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2008-12-01

    In most European countries the necessity of education in Science and Mathematics to achieve higher standard and competitiveness in research and technology development has been formulated after the Lisboa meeting. However, the reasonable development of position of these subjects in educational systems in individual countries across Europe is not so fast. The European Meteorological Society is trying to observe this process. Unfortunately the position of meteorology and climatology is not so well developed in framework of these subjects, there are some traces of our science in physics, but most of the small abundance of these topics are covered rather by geography. The low content is in contrary with the overall quite high interest in environmental issues in Europe. One of the important task of the EMS is the activity to promote public understanding of meteorology (and sciences related to it), and the ability to make use of it, through schools and more generally. EMS is performing this task through the Educational Committee which is trying to work under this EMS mission and objectives to help the process by means of its own activities and supporting some activities of EMS as a whole, e.g. organizing educational session of EMS Annual Meetings, cosponsoring other educational meeting etc. One of the elements of its own activity is the analysis of the position of atmospheric science in framework of curricula in educational systems of European countries as well as in more general sense, the place of Science education in the system. In most European countries the process of integration of education at university level was started after Bologna Declaration with the objective to have the system where students on some level could move to another school, or rather university. The goal is to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to have no objections for students when transferring between the European countries. From this point of view

  9. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation for Weak Lensing in Short Exposure Imaging Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Marshall, P.J.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Kahn, S.M.; Gull, S.F.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    A main science goal for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is to measure the cosmic shear signal from weak lensing to extreme accuracy. One difficulty, however, is that with the short exposure time ({approx_equal}15 seconds) proposed, the spatial variation of the Point Spread Function (PSF) shapes may be dominated by the atmosphere, in addition to optics errors. While optics errors mainly cause the PSF to vary on angular scales similar or larger than a single CCD sensor, the atmosphere generates stochastic structures on a wide range of angular scales. It thus becomes a challenge to infer the multi-scale, complex atmospheric PSF patterns by interpolating the sparsely sampled stars in the field. In this paper we present a new method, psfent, for interpolating the PSF shape parameters, based on reconstructing underlying shape parameter maps with a multi-scale maximum entropy algorithm. We demonstrate, using images from the LSST Photon Simulator, the performance of our approach relative to a 5th-order polynomial fit (representing the current standard) and a simple boxcar smoothing technique. Quantitatively, psfent predicts more accurate PSF models in all scenarios and the residual PSF errors are spatially less correlated. This improvement in PSF interpolation leads to a factor of 3.5 lower systematic errors in the shear power spectrum on scales smaller than {approx} 13, compared to polynomial fitting. We estimate that with psfent and for stellar densities greater than {approx_equal}1/arcmin{sup 2}, the spurious shear correlation from PSF interpolation, after combining a complete 10-year dataset from LSST, is lower than the corresponding statistical uncertainties on the cosmic shear power spectrum, even under a conservative scenario.

  10. Effects of chronic exposure to low-level pollutants in the environment. Prepared for the Subcommittee on the Environment and the Atmosphere of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session by the Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Serial 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    This report was prepared for the Subcommittee on the Environment and the Atmosphere of the US House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology. It describes the effects of low-level, persistent pollutants on human health, fish and wildlife, agriculture, and climate.

  11. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Exposure Devices for In Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of cells to atmospheric pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of attached cells submerged in liquid medium. However, there is still limited understanding of the ideal ALI device design features that permit reproducible a...

  12. Final Technical Report for earmark project "Atmospheric Science Program at the University of Louisville"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Timothy Edward [University of Louisville

    2014-02-11

    We have completed a 3-year project to enhance the atmospheric science program at the University of Louisville, KY (est. 2008). The goals were to complete an undergraduate atmospheric science laboratory (Year 1) and to hire and support an assistant professor (Years 2 and 3). Both these goals were met on schedule, and slightly under budget.

  13. Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; Simonich, Staci M.; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-05-03

    Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, and computational exposure assessment, and a newly articulated vision for a greater impact in public health, the field of exposure science is undergoing a rapid transition from a field of observation to a field of prediction. Deployment of an organizational and predictive framework for exposure science analogous to the computationally enabled “systems approaches” used in the biological sciences is a necessary step in this evolution. Here we propose the aggregate exposure pathway (AEP) concept as the natural and complementary companion in the exposure sciences to the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept in the toxicological sciences. The AEP framework offers an intuitive approach to successful organization of exposure science data within individual units of prediction common to the field, setting the stage for exposure forecasting. Looking farther ahead, we envision direct linkages between aggregate exposure pathway and adverse outcome pathways, completing the source to outcome continuum and setting the stage for more efficient integration of exposure science and toxicity testing information. Together these frameworks form and inform a decision making framework with the flexibility for risk-based, hazard-based or exposure-based decisions.

  14. Atmospheric Research -- Sensors and Science in the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, John E.; Armstrong, John C.; Larson, Shane L.

    2010-10-01

    HARBOR (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a program in which scientific payloads are designed, constructed, and flown by students using weather balloons to reach the edge of space. Ten flights have been completed involving over forty high school and college students. Students work together to build sensor and flight systems and to analyze the resulting data. Measurements include temperature, wind, turbulence, humidity, particulates, gas concentrations, balloon and flight dynamics, etc. The HARBOR program provides a mission oriented structure that is based on aerospace industry standards. As a result, a positive employment track record is becoming established with program graduates. Similar results are being observed in graduate school applications. HARBOR is now being expanded to include tethered and short duration flights. Tethered flights at elementary schools will allow us to do air quality measurements and involve primary students in science. A new collaboration will study atmospheric inversion layers using short flights with smaller payloads that will be jettisoned at lower altitudes and quickly recovered.

  15. Challenges and opportunities of cloud computing for atmospheric sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Montes, Diego A.; Añel, Juan A.; Pena, Tomás F.; Wallom, David C. H.

    2016-04-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging technological solution widely used in many fields. Initially developed as a flexible way of managing peak demand it has began to make its way in scientific research. One of the greatest advantages of cloud computing for scientific research is independence of having access to a large cyberinfrastructure to fund or perform a research project. Cloud computing can avoid maintenance expenses for large supercomputers and has the potential to 'democratize' the access to high-performance computing, giving flexibility to funding bodies for allocating budgets for the computational costs associated with a project. Two of the most challenging problems in atmospheric sciences are computational cost and uncertainty in meteorological forecasting and climate projections. Both problems are closely related. Usually uncertainty can be reduced with the availability of computational resources to better reproduce a phenomenon or to perform a larger number of experiments. Here we expose results of the application of cloud computing resources for climate modeling using cloud computing infrastructures of three major vendors and two climate models. We show how the cloud infrastructure compares in performance to traditional supercomputers and how it provides the capability to complete experiments in shorter periods of time. The monetary cost associated is also analyzed. Finally we discuss the future potential of this technology for meteorological and climatological applications, both from the point of view of operational use and research.

  16. Semantic Data Access Services at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffer, E.; Hertz, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    The corpus of Earth Science data products at the Atmospheric Science Data Center at NASA's Langley Research Center comprises a widely heterogeneous set of products, even among those whose subject matter is very similar. Two distinct data products may both contain data on the same parameter, for instance, solar irradiance; but the instruments used, and the circumstances under which the data were collected and processed, may differ significantly. Understanding the differences is critical to using the data effectively. Data distribution services must be able to provide prospective users with enough information to allow them to meaningfully compare and evaluate the data products offered. Semantic technologies - ontologies, triple stores, reasoners, linked data - offer functionality for addressing this issue. Ontologies can provide robust, high-fidelity domain models that serve as common schema for discovering, evaluating, comparing and integrating data from disparate products. Reasoning engines and triple stores can leverage ontologies to support intelligent search applications that allow users to discover, query, retrieve, and easily reformat data from a broad spectrum of sources. We argue that because of the extremely complex nature of scientific data, data distribution systems should wholeheartedly embrace semantic technologies in order to make their data accessible to a broad array of prospective end users, and to ensure that the data they provide will be clearly understood and used appropriately by consumers. Toward this end, we propose a distribution system in which formal ontological models that accurately and comprehensively represent the ASDC's data domain, and fully leverage the expressivity and inferential capabilities of first order logic, are used to generate graph-based representations of the relevant relationships among data sets, observational systems, metadata files, and geospatial, temporal and scientific parameters to help prospective data consumers

  17. Dessler, Jimenez, Klein, and Nenes Receive 2012 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Andrew E. Dessler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2013-11-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the four Ascent Awards to Professor Andrew E. Dessler of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University for fundamental contributions to the understanding of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange processes and the physics of ozone depletion and for attempts to unravel water vapor and cloud feedbacks in the climate system. In addition, he is commended for his ceaseless work in communicating the science of climate change to the public.

  18. 75 FR 38079 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico; (2) Grand Scientific Challenges: Results From the NOAA Science Workshop; (3) NOAA... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) AGENCY: Office of... of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Science Advisory Board (SAB)...

  19. Commentary on the contributions and future role of occupational exposure science in a vision and strategy for the discipline of exposure science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Weis, Christopher; Pleil, Joachim D; Blount, Benjamin C; Miller, Aubrey; Hoover, Mark D; Jahn, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Exposure science is a holistic concept without prejudice to exposure source. Traditionally, measurements aimed at mitigating environmental exposures have not included exposures in the workplace, instead considering such exposures to be an internal affair between workers and their employers. Similarly, occupational (or industrial) hygiene has not typically accounted for environmental contributions to poor health at work. Many persons spend a significant amount of their lifetime in the workplace, where they maybe exposed to more numerous chemicals at higher levels than elsewhere in their environment. In addition, workplace chemical exposures and other exogenous stressors may increase epigenetic and germline modifications that are passed on to future generations. We provide a brief history of the development of exposure science from its roots in the assessment of workplace exposures, including an appendix where we detail current resources for education and training in exposure science offered through occupational hygiene organizations. We describe existing successful collaborations between occupational and environmental practitioners in the field of exposure science, which may serve as a model for future interactions. Finally, we provide an integrated vision for the field of exposure science, emphasizing interagency collaboration, the need for complete exposure information in epidemiological studies, and the importance of integrating occupational, environmental, and residential assessments. Our goal is to encourage communication and spur additional collaboration between the fields of occupational and environmental exposure assessment. Providing a more comprehensive approach to exposure science is critical to the study of the "exposome", which conceptualizes the totality of exposures throughout a person's life, not only chemical, but also from diet, stress, drugs, infection, and so on, and the individual response.

  20. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  1. Atmospheric science: Ancient air caught by shooting stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Buick, Roger

    2016-05-01

    Ashes of ancient meteors recovered from a 2.7-billion-year-old lake bed imply that the upper atmosphere was rich in oxygen at a time when all other evidence implies that the atmosphere was oxygen-free. See Letter p.235

  2. Testimony presented to the Committee on Science and Technology's Subcommittee on Environment and the Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1976-03-01

    This report contains the basis for oral testimony to the House Committee on Science and Technology's Subcommittee on Environment and the Atmosphere in November 1975. The subject of the hearings was ''Effects and Costs of Long-term Exposure to Low Levels of Manmade Pollutants'' and the purpose of the hearings was to increase the awareness of low-level pollution and its impacts on human health, agriculture and climate. This report contains information related to impacts of low-level pollutants on human health. I have attempted to point out the major adverse health effects (e.g., carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic) that may result from chronic exposure to low-level pollutants. Also addressed are important questions such as what do we know about dose-response relations for chronic exposure to pollutants and how can we establish comparisons with knowledge obtained from exposure to ionizing radiations. The report also considers the wisdom of extrapolating from health effects data obtained from acute, high-level exposures to chronic, low-level exposure conditions. Lastly, a few examples of the societal costs related to low-level pollutant exposure are presented. (auth)

  3. ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS AND RADIOLOGICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY FOR USE IN TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIGSBY KM

    2011-04-07

    This report presents the atmospheric dispersion coefficients used in Tank Farms safety analysis. The basis equations for calculating radiological and toxicological exposures are also included. In this revision, the time averaging for toxicological consequence evaluations is clarified based on a review of DOE complex guidance and a review of tank farm chemicals.

  4. Electromagnetic scattering: applications to atmospheric sciences and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric particles (cloud droplets, ice crystals and aerosol particles) scatter and absorb solar radiation and thermal infrared emission, and play an important role in the radiation budget in the earth-atmosphere coupled system, and hence are essential to the earth's climate. In this talk I will briefly review electromagnetic scattering research with a focus on applications to atmospheric radiation parameterization and remote sensing. Specifically, I will review state-of-the-art modeling capabilities in computing the single-scattering properties of dielectric particles. Furthermore, I will illustrate some examples of relevant applications.

  5. Providing the Missing Link: the Exposure Science Ontology ExO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although knowledge-discovery tools are new to the exposure science community, these tools are critical for leveraging exposure information to design health studies and interpret results for improved public health decisions. Standardized ontologies define relationships, allow for ...

  6. Providing the Missing Link: the Exposure Science Ontology ExO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although knowledge-discovery tools are new to the exposure science community, these tools are critical for leveraging exposure information to design health studies and interpret results for improved public health decisions. Standardized ontologies define relationships, allow for ...

  7. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) Science Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Polidan, R.; Sokol, D.; Bolisay, L.; Barnes, N.

    2015-04-01

    We will update the VAMP design and discuss plans for future trade studies, analyses, and prototyping to advance the concept and we will discuss how VAMP will enable opportunities for novel long duration scientific studies of the Venus atmosphere.

  8. Morphological study of 16-year patinas formed on copper in a wide range of atmospheric exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, D. de la; Simancas, J. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda.Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morcillo, M. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda.Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: morcillo@cenim.csic.es

    2008-01-15

    Much information is available on the atmospheric corrosion of copper and patina formation mechanisms in the short, mid and even long term. However, studies of the structure and morphology of patina layers are less abundant and mostly deal with patinas formed in the atmosphere over a small number of years. The present study concentrates on the structure and morphology of corrosion product films formed on copper after long-term atmospheric exposure (13-16 years) in five Spanish atmospheres of different types: rural, urban, industrial and marine (mild and severe). Characterisation has been performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Long-term copper corrosion is higher in industrial and marine atmospheres and lower in rural and urban atmospheres. In all cases a decrease in the corrosion rate with exposure time is observed. The formation of antlerite [Cu{sub 3}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}] is seen in more acidic conditions and in specimen areas subject to a high time of wetness. The presence of nantokite (CuCl), which is not generally mentioned in field studies, has been detected under the cuprite layer very close to the base copper.

  9. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  10. Storms, floods, and the science of atmospheric rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, F.M.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Imagine a stream of water thousands of kilometers long and as wide as the distance between New York City and Washington, D. C., flowing toward you at 30 miles per hour. No, this is not some hypothetical physics problemit is a real river, carrying more water than 7-15 Mississippi Rivers combined. But it is not on land. It's a river of water vapor in the atmosphere. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow corridors of water vapor transport in the lower atmosphere that traverse long swaths of the Earth's surface as they bind together the atmospheric water cycle (Figure 1). The characteristic (indeed defining) dimensions of these ARs are (1) integrated water vapor (IWV) concentrations such that if all the vapor in the atmospheric column were condensed into liquid water, the result would be a layer 2 or more centimeters thick; (2) wind speeds of greater than 12.5 meters per second in the lowest 2 kilometers; and (3) a shape that is long and narrow, no more than 400-500 kilometers wide, and extending for thousands of kilometers, sometimes across entire ocean basins.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: Applications in Atmospheric Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Selvam, A M

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric flows, an example of turbulent fluid flows, exhibit fractal fluctuations of all space-time scales ranging from turbulence scale of mm - sec to climate scales of thousands of kilometers - years and may be visualized as a nested continuum of weather cycles or periodicities, the smaller cycles existing as intrinsic fine structure of the larger cycles. The power spectra of fractal fluctuations exhibit inverse power law form signifying long - range correlations identified as self - organized criticality and are ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature and is manifested as sensitive dependence on initial condition or 'deterministic chaos' in finite precision computer realizations of nonlinear mathematical models of real world dynamical systems such as atmospheric flows. Though the self-similar nature of atmospheric flows have been widely documented and discussed during the last three to four decades, the exact physical mechanism is not yet identified. There now exists an urgent need to develop and inco...

  12. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in

  13. Evaluation of the NOAA CAREERS Weather Camp's Effectiveness in Promoting Atmospheric Science amongst High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgin, J. G.; Fitzgerald, R. M.; Morris, V. R.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) sponsors the Channeling Atmospheric Research into Educational Experiences Reaching Students program (CAREERS); a program that manages a network of weather camps for students in secondary education with particular focus on increasing access for students from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds. Hosted by a college or university, the primary mission goals of the program are to engage students in discussions, lectures and interactive projects to better learn and comprehend a suite of atmospheric science disciplines (i.e. weather forecasting, environmental modeling, atmospheric data acquisition), and guide talented students towards higher education to pursue careers in atmospheric science primarily, or toward other STEM field professions. The need to evaluate and analyze the program's efficacy is crucial for continued growth and sustainability. Therefore a means to identify and measure the success of the program's initiatives will be addressed. Two Hispanic serving institutions, the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) and the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez (UPRM), both hosted the CAREER weather camps during the summers of 2012 and 2013, and provide the basis of this initial analysis. Participants performed entrance surveys of their knowledge of atmospheric science prior to the course. They were then re-evaluated through exit surveys over the topics covered during the weather camp. These data will be analyzed to correlate which program activities worked best in increasing participant awareness (i.e. geology tours of the local area, discussion on local climate variations, geophysical and geochemical demonstrations), and comprehension of atmospheric science. A comparison between the two universities on their uniqueness in program design and execution will also highlight those activities that best progressed CAREERS' program goals. Results from this analysis, along with possible new strategies for improved

  14. Improving SLCF Science in the Himalayan Region: ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, A. K.; Pradhan, B. B.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    What fraction of the black carbon arriving on Yala Glacier in Langtang, Nepal, is from cooking fires in the houses in the valley below? What fraction is from elsewhere in rural Nepal? What fraction is from industrial and transport sources in Kathmandu? What fraction is from northern India and beyond? What fraction is from the high altitude forest fires that take place during March or April? Effectively mitigating the impacts of black carbon and other short-lived climate forcers requires detailed understanding not just of emissions and impacts, but also of the atmospheric transport pathways that connect the two. In mountainous areas of the Hindu-Kush Himalaya detailed quantitative knowledge about emissions, atmospheric processes, and impacts is still largely missing. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental organization covering Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. ICIMOD's recently established Atmosphere Initiative not only assesses mitigation options and contributes to policy and capacity building in the region, but also works actively to promote collaboration among researchers in the region, while building up an in-house team whose research will address key questions about SLCF. In Spring 2013 ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative, in collaboration with the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) in Potsdam, Germany, carried out the largest field campaign to date in Nepal, hosting instruments belonging to dozens of institutions around the world, at nine field site within and upwind of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The dataset that has been collected gives unprecedented insights into the emissions and atmospheric processes taking place downwind of and within the largest urban agglomeration in the Himalaya region. Meanwhile, in collaboration with national partner institutions, ICIMOD is in the process of setting up one atmospheric observatory each in Bhutan and in

  15. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing [DST Space Science Initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ESKOM Slide 18 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za It is natural, when we request for funding Human Capital Development 2- Master degree students – 2007 & 2008 (3 months on internship from Addis Ababa University) 1- Ph.D degree student... to global change Climate change science and responses Important changes are taking place in the global climate, but there is still great uncertainty about how earth systems operate. Global climate change science with a focus on climate change – South...

  16. Development of a Novel Simulation Reactor for Chronic Exposure to Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianhuai; Salehi, Sepehr; North, Michelle L.; Portelli, Anjelica M.; Chow, Chung-Wai; Chan, Arthur W. H.

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution is associated with the morbidity and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases. Currently, limited experimental models are available to evaluate the physiological and cellular pathways activated by chronic multi-pollutant exposures. This manuscript describes an atmospheric simulation reactor (ASR) that was developed to investigate the health effects of air pollutants by permitting controlled chronic in vivo exposure of mice to combined particulate and gaseous pollutants. BALB/c mice were exposed for 1 hr/day for 3 consecutive days to secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a common particulate air pollutant) at 10–150 μg/m3, SOA (30 μg/m3) + ozone (65 ppb) or SOA + ozone (65 ppb) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2; 100 ppb). Daily exposure to SOA alone led to increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine with increasing SOA concentrations. Multi-pollutant exposure with ozone and/or NO2 in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of SOA resulted in additive effects on AHR to methacholine. Inflammatory cell recruitment to the airways was not observed in any of the exposure conditions. The ASR developed in this study allows us to evaluate the chronic health effects of relevant multi-pollutant exposures at ‘real-life’ levels under controlled conditions and permits repeated-exposure studies.

  17. Atmospheric Science Program. Summaries of research in FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report provides descriptions for all projects funded by ESD under annual contracts in FY 1994. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than one year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states it goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used.

  18. Atmospheric Science Program. Summaries of research in FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report provides descriptions for all projects funded by ESD under annual contracts in FY 1994. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than one year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states it goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used.

  19. Air exposure of coral is a significant source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances E.; Bell, Thomas G.; Yang, Mingxi; Suggett, David J.; Steinke, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMSgas) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments. Upon re-submersion, an additional rapid rise in DMSgas was observed, reflecting increased production by the coral and/or dissolution of DMS-rich mucus formed by the coral during air exposure. Depletion in DMS following re-submersion was likely due to biologically-driven conversion of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry showed downregulated photosynthesis during air exposure but rapid recovery upon re-submersion, suggesting that DMS enhances coral tolerance to oxidative stress during a process that can induce photoinhibition. We estimate that DMS emission from exposed coral reefs may be comparable in magnitude to emissions from other marine DMS hotspots. Coral DMS emission likely comprises a regular and significant source of sulfur to the tropical marine atmosphere, which is currently unrecognised in global DMS emission estimates and Earth System Models.

  20. Microwave absorptivity in the Saturn atmosphere from Cassini Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliore, A. J.; Marouf, E. A.; Flasar, F. M.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2005, the Cassini spacecraft has collected data from numerous radio occultations by the atmosphere of Saturn. These occultations probed a wide range of latitudes, ranging from equatorial to near-polar. The radio system of Cassini transmits three coherent downlinks to Earth at S-Band (13.04 cm), X-Band (3.56 cm), and Ka-Band (0.94 cm) wavelengths. With the Deep Space Net 70 m receiving stations, The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is approximately 48 dB at X-Band, and 38 dB at S-band. At Ka-band, 34 m DSN stations are used, resulting in an SNR of about 41 dB. These SNRs are quite adequate to follow the signals through the top of the microwave-absorbing regions before the noise-floor is reached. By subtracting the refractive defocusing attenuation in the atmosphere (derived from the phase data) from the total attenuation, one obtains the attenuation due to absorption (dB0, which can then be inverted to obtain vertical profiles of absorptivity (dB km-1 ) at each of the three wavelengths. Preliminary results show the expected large effect of wavelength on the absorptivity profiles, with the shorter wavelength signals being absorbed higher in the atmosphere. These profiles can be used to estimate the vertical density profiles of known microwave absorbers, such as NH3 and PH3, examples of which are presented .This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, San Jose State University, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with support from the Cassini program.

  1. Remote Sensing of Atmospheric and Ionospheric Disturbances using Radio Science Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. M.; Paik, M.; Oudrhiri, K.; Buccino, D.; Kahan, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheres and ionospheres can have significant impacts on radio frequency signal propagation such as Deep Space Network and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, including Global Position System (GPS)) measurements. Previous studies indicate that Earth's atmospheric, surface, and interior processes, such as seismic activities, tsunamis, meteor impacts, and volcanic eruptions, are able to trigger atmospheric acoustic and gravity waves (AGWs), which potentially induce traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) in the upper atmosphere. These perturbations are relatively small to the background of atmospheric and ionospheric profiles but detectable to radio frequency signals. In this research, we will demonstrate the ability of using ground- and space-based radio science techniques to detect and characterize atmospheric and ionospheric wave propagation from solid earth events including seismic activities and tsunamis. The detected wave trains with wave characteristics such as propagation speeds and wavelengths are classified through analysis of the line of sight (LOS) and radio occultation measurements made by different frequency radio waves. Dominant and different physical characteristics of AGW and TID propagations are found to be associated with specific surface wave propagations. In this research, we compare observations made by different frequency radio signals, corresponding model simulations, and other geophysical measurements of surface wave propagation such as seismometers, infrasound arrays and DART buoys. Results are shown to improve our understanding of the interactions between surface, atmosphere, and ionosphere. The better understanding of the coupling between planetary interior, surface, atmosphere, and ionosphere will benefit from innovative radio science techniques.

  2. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) Department of Marine Geosciences.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) Department of Marine Geosciences made a one-time contribution of data describing geological samples...

  3. NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Centers Near Real-Time Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, T.; Parker, L.; Rinsland, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center has archived and distributed a variety of satellite mission data sets. NASA's goal in Earth science is to observe, understand, and model the Earth system to discover how it is changing, to better predict change, and to understand the consequences for life on Earth. The ASDC has collaborated with Science Teams to accommodate emerging science users in the climate and modeling communities. The ASDC has expanded its original role to support operational usage by related Earth Science satellites, support land and ocean assimilations, support of field campaigns, outreach programs, and application projects for agriculture and energy industries to bridge the gap between Earth science research results and the adoption of data and prediction capabilities for reliable and sustained use in Decision Support Systems (DSS). For example; these products are being used by the community performing data assimilations to regulate aerosol mass in global transport models to improve model response and forecast accuracy, to assess the performance of components of a global coupled atmospheric-ocean climate model, improve atmospheric motion vector (winds) impact on numerical weather prediction models, and to provide internet-based access to parameters specifically tailored to assist in the design of solar and wind powered renewable energy systems. These more focused applications often require Near Real-Time (NRT) products. Generating NRT products pose their own unique set challenges for the ASDC and the Science Teams. Examples of ASDC NRT products and challenges will be discussed.

  4. Laboratory facility to create reference radon + thoron atmosphere under dynamic exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressyanov, D; Mitev, K; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Kolev, J

    2017-01-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) levels in the environment are typically subject to significant random and systematic variations. Creation in the laboratory of reproducible and controlled exposure conditions close to that in the real environment can be useful for testing (222)Rn and (220)Rn detectors and for research. In this report the design and performance of a novel laboratory facility with such functionality is presented. The facility allows the exposure of detectors under controlled dynamic as well as static activity concentrations of (222)Rn and (220)Rn (pure and mixed) and temperature. The temperature is measured and regulated within -15 °C ÷ +60 °C by a dedicated programmable thermostat. Different reference activity concentrations in the exposure vessel are made by regulating the flow-rate of the air that flushes (222)Rn/(220)Rn activity from the sources towards the exposure vessel. Reference atmospheres that contain (222)Rn, (220)Rn or a specified ratio of the two can be created. Pilot experiments that demonstrate the feasibility of the approach are presented. They include follow-up of a pre-defined temperature profile (in the range -5 °C ÷ +35 °C), test of the correspondence between planned and measured (222)Rn and (220)Rn activity concentrations, follow-up of a pre-defined dynamic profile of (220)Rn concentrations and test of the possibility to create mixed (220)Rn/(222)Rn atmospheres (experimentally checked for ratio of the activity concentrations from 0.27 to 4.5). The results from the experimental tests are in agreement with the values obtained by the developed theoretical model. The proposed approach can be used to plan and create stationary and dynamic reference exposure conditions that are close to the real exposure regimes in the environment.

  5. What the Cited and Citing Environments Reveal of_Advances in Atmospheric Sciences?

    CERN Document Server

    Aolan, Shie

    2010-01-01

    The networking ability of journals reflects their academic influence among peer journals. This paper analyzes the cited and citing environments of the journal--Advances in Atmospheric Sciences--using methods from social network analysis. The journal has been actively participating in the international journal environment, but one has a tendency to cite papers published in international journals. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences is intensely interrelated with international peer journals in terms of similar citing pattern. However, there is still room for an increase in its academic visibility given the comparatively smaller reception in terms of cited references.

  6. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G

    2010-05-01

    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  7. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  8. Light Emission Requires Exposure to the Atmosphere in Ex Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Inoue

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of organs bearing luciferase activity by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is often difficult, and ex vivo imaging of excised organs plays a complementary role. This study investigated the importance of exposure to the atmosphere in ex vivo BLI. Mice were inoculated with murine pro-B cell line Ba/F3 transduced with firefly luciferase and p190 BCR-ABL. They were killed following in vivo BLI, and whole-body imaging was done after death and then after intraperitoneal air injection. In addition, the right knee was exposed and imaged before and after the adjacent bones were cut. Extensive light signals were seen on in vivo imaging. The luminescence disappeared after the animal was killed, and air injection restored the light emission from the abdomen only, suggesting a critical role of atmospheric oxygen in luminescence after death. Although no substantial light signal at the right knee was seen before bone cutting, light emission was evident after cutting. In conclusion, in ex vivo BLI, light emission requires exposure to the atmosphere. Bone destruction is required to demonstrate luciferase activity in the bone marrow after death.

  9. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  10. SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA DOES NOT AFFECT LOW-TEMPERATURE HARDENING OF WINTER-WHEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CLEMENT, JMAM; VENEMA, JH; VANHASSELT, PR

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric NH3 on low-temperature hardening of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was investigated. Growth and photosynthesis were stimulated by ammonia exposure. After a 14 d exposure at moderate temperatures (day/night 18.5/16 degrees C) total nitrogen content was enhance

  11. In situ measurement of atmospheric krypton and xenon on Mars with Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, P. G.; Malespin, C. A.; Franz, H. B.; Pepin, R. O.; Trainer, M. G.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Atreya, S. K.; Freissinet, C.; Jones, J. H.; Manning, H.; Owen, T.; Pavlov, A. A.; Wiens, R. C.; Wong, M. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-11-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation has measured all of the stable isotopes of the heavy noble gases krypton and xenon in the martian atmosphere, in situ, from the Curiosity Rover at Gale Crater, Mars. Previous knowledge of martian atmospheric krypton and xenon isotope ratios has been based upon a combination of the Viking mission's krypton and xenon detections and measurements of noble gas isotope ratios in martian meteorites. However, the meteorite measurements reveal an impure mixture of atmospheric, mantle, and spallation contributions. The xenon and krypton isotopic measurements reported here include the complete set of stable isotopes, unmeasured by Viking. The new results generally agree with Mars meteorite measurements but also provide a unique opportunity to identify various non-atmospheric heavy noble gas components in the meteorites. Kr isotopic measurements define a solar-like atmospheric composition, but deviating from the solar wind pattern at 80Kr and 82Kr in a manner consistent with contributions originating from neutron capture in Br. The Xe measurements suggest an intriguing possibility that isotopes lighter than 132Xe have been enriched to varying degrees by spallation and neutron capture products degassed to the atmosphere from the regolith, and a model is constructed to explore this possibility. Such a spallation component, however, is not apparent in atmospheric Xe trapped in the glassy phases of martian meteorites.

  12. Advancing Exposure Science through Chemical Data Curation and Integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Cynthia J.; Davis, Allan Peter; Wiegers, Thomas C.; King, Benjamin L.; Wiegers, Jolene A.; Reif, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure science studies the interactions and outcomes between environmental stressors and human or ecological receptors. To augment its role in understanding human health and the exposome, we aimed to centralize and integrate exposure science data into the broader biological framework of the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD), a public resource that promotes understanding of environmental chemicals and their effects on human health. Objectives: We integrated exposure data within the CTD to provide a centralized, freely available resource that facilitates identification of connections between real-world exposures, chemicals, genes/proteins, diseases, biological processes, and molecular pathways. Methods: We developed a manual curation paradigm that captures exposure data from the scientific literature using controlled vocabularies and free text within the context of four primary exposure concepts: stressor, receptor, exposure event, and exposure outcome. Using data from the Agricultural Health Study, we have illustrated the benefits of both centralization and integration of exposure information with CTD core data. Results: We have described our curation process, demonstrated how exposure data can be accessed and analyzed in the CTD, and shown how this integration provides a broad biological context for exposure data to promote mechanistic understanding of environmental influences on human health. Conclusions: Curation and integration of exposure data within the CTD provides researchers with new opportunities to correlate exposures with human health outcomes, to identify underlying potential molecular mechanisms, and to improve understanding about the exposome. Citation: Grondin CJ, Davis AP, Wiegers TC, King BL, Wiegers JA, Reif DM, Hoppin JA, Mattingly CJ. 2016. Advancing exposure science through chemical data curation and integration in the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Environ Health Perspect 124:1592–1599; http://dx.doi.org/10

  13. [Particulate matter and atmospheric pollutants exposure for outdoor workers in the Muggia area (Trieste, Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Ranieri; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Cozzutto, Sergio; Barbieri, Gianpiero; Sist, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Urban air pollution originates from traffic, heating and industrial activities and it exposes several categories of workers to noxious chemicals; in recent years various surveys have been carried on taxi drivers, bus drivers, policemen, newspaper kiosks, fuel station workers and general population, for assessing exposure to main contaminants, benzene and PAHs in particular. defining a specific sampling strategy for collecting an experimental data base for the assessment of potential population exposure to atmospheric particulate matter in the Muggia area (Trieste, North-East Italy). A sample of 14 urban police officers working mainly on the roads and potentially subject to occupational exposure has been analyzed, as well as a sample of the municipal administrative personnel (13 people) working in indoor environments during the same sampling periods. Exposure has been monitored by personal samplers and high volume environmental samples; urinary levels of 1 OH-pyrene and creatinine were collected for each participant at the end of each sampling period. PAHs analyses provided diagnostic ratios for identification of the sources of pollution. In general experimental BaP values stay below the environmental target value, with satisfactory agreement between environmental and personal monitoring. Levels of urinary 1 OH-pyrene for administrative personnel was detected always below the background value (0.089 micromoles/mole creatinine), while they are above the background and below the attention value for most of urban police officers. Municipal police officers participating to the present study, while belonging to one of the categories of people most exposed to outdoor PM, do not show any worrying exposure to the considered chemicals associated to their occupational activity, in comparison to other factors, possibly associated to personal lifestyles.

  14. Evaluation of coral pathogen growth rates after exposure to atmospheric African dust samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Gray, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess if exposure to atmospheric African dust stimulates or inhibits the growth of four putative bacterial coral pathogens. Atmospheric dust was collected from a dust-source region (Mali, West Africa) and from Saharan Air Layer masses over downwind sites in the Caribbean [Trinidad and Tobago and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)]. Extracts of dust samples were used to dose laboratory-grown cultures of four putative coral pathogens: Aurantimonas coralicida (white plague type II), Serratia marcescens (white pox), Vibrio coralliilyticus, and V. shiloi (bacteria-induced bleaching). Growth of A. coralicida and V. shiloi was slightly stimulated by dust extracts from Mali and USVI, respectively, but unaffected by extracts from the other dust sources. Lag time to the start of log-growth phase was significantly shortened for A. coralicida when dosed with dust extracts from Mali and USVI. Growth of S. marcescens and V. coralliilyticus was neither stimulated nor inhibited by any of the dust extracts. This study demonstrates that constituents from atmospheric dust can alter growth of recognized coral disease pathogens under laboratory conditions.

  15. Atmospheric science facility pallet-only mode space transportation system payload (feasibility study), Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility is assessed of employing a pallet-only mode for conducting Atmospheric Magnetospheric Plasmas-in-Space experiments. A baseline design incorporating the experiment and instrument descriptions is developed. The prime instruments are packaged into four pallets in a physical and functional manner compatible with the Space Transportation System capabilities and/or constraints and an orbiter seven-day mission timeline. Operational compatibility is verified between the orbiter/payload and supporting facilities. The development status and the schedule requirements applicable to the Atmospheric Science Facility mission are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented and discussed.

  16. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications.

  17. Atmospheric properties reconstruction from the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein-Rathlou, Christina; Withers, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landed on August 5, 2012 in Gale Crater on Mars (4.5 S, 137.4 E) [1]. The MSL entry vehicle measured accelerations and angular velocity during its descent through the Martian atmosphere using accelerometers and gyroscopes in an inertial measurement unit. We have applied smoothing techniques previously developed for the NASA Phoenix Mars mission [2] to these acceleration data. Smoothed accelerations were used in conjunction with the vehicle’s aerodynamic database to reconstruct atmospheric density, pressure and temperature profiles to above 120 km altitude. The density profile was estimated using axial accelerations in the drag force equation. Corresponding pressure and temperature profiles were calculated using the hydrostatic equilibrium and ideal gas law, respectively. In contrast to previous missions, MSL used a guided entry that resulted in periods of near-horizontal flight at approximately 20 km altitude [3], during which pressure could not be determined from hydrostatic equilibrium. Instead, atmospheric pressures at low altitudes were determined independently by the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) [4]. These were used in conjunction with accelerometer-derived densities to extend the atmospheric temperature profile through the period of near-horizontal flight. Although the results present only a snapshot of the regional atmospheric conditions at the time of entry, descent and landing of MSL, they have excellent vertical resolution and vertical extent, thereby complementing orbital observations. We will present an overview of our atmospheric reconstruction process, the derived atmospheric profiles, and preliminary scientific interpretation of the atmospheric results. References: [1] Vasavada, A.R. et al (2014), JGR-Planets, 119, 6, 1134-1161 [2] Withers, P. (2013) Planet. & Space Sci., 79-80, 52-55, [3] Dutta, S. et al. (2013) 23rd AAS/AIAA Space Flight Mechanics Meeting, AAS 13-309, [4] Schoenenberger, M. et al

  18. In situ variation of cervical mucus pH during exposure to atmospheric air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa C.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if exposure of cervical mucus to air during specular examination could modify mucus pH. Detection of changes is justified because of their possible interference with sperm-mucus interaction, since an acidic pH is unfavorable to sperm penetration and is associated with infertility due to the cervical factor. Twenty women with good quality mucus were evaluated. pH measurements of ecto- and endocervical mucus were made in situ using a glass electrode after 0-, 5- and 10-min exposure to air. There was a progressive alkalinization of mucus pH. Mean values of ectocervical mucus pH were 6.91, 7.16 and 7.27, while mean values of endocervical mucus pH were 7.09, 7.34 and 7.46 at 0, 5 and 10 min, respectively. Significant differences were found between the mean values obtained at 0 and 5 min, and at 0 and 10 min (P<0.05, whereas the differences in mean values at 5 and 10 min were not significant at either site. We conclude that 5 to 10 min of exposure to atmospheric air affects cervical mucus pH in a significant way. Since tests used to evaluate sperm-mucus interaction generally have not considered this possibility, we suggest that they should be performed immediately after mucus collection in order to avoid misinterpretation of the results.

  19. Historical Research in the Atmospheric Sciences: The Value of Literature Reviews, Libraries, and Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David M.

    2004-07-01

    Based on a talk given at the sixth annual meeting of the Atmospheric Science Librarians International, this paper explores the author's experiences performing reviews of the scientific literature as a tool to advancing meteorology and studying the history of science. Three phases of performing literature searches with varying degrees of interaction with a research librarian are considered: do it yourself, librarian assisted, and librarian as collaborator. Examples are given for each phase: occluded fronts, conditional symmetric instability, and static instability terminology, respectively. Electronic availability of information is changing the relationship between scientists and librarians. Yet, despite these changes, books on library shelves and knowledgeable human librarians remain essential to the scientific enterprise.

  20. Science on Spacelab. [astronomy, high energy astrophysics, life sciences, and solar, atmospheric and space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab was developed by the European Space Agency for the conduction of scientific and technological experiments in space. Spacelab can be taken into earth orbit by the Space Shuttle and returned to earth after a period of 1-3 weeks. The Spacelab modular system of pallets, pressurized modules, and racks can contain large payloads with high power and telemetry requirements. A working group has defined the 'Atmospheres, Magnetospheres, and Plasmas-in-Space' project. The project objectives include the absolute measurement of solar flux in a number of carefully selected bands at the same time at which atmospheric measurements are made. NASA is committed to the concept that the scientist is to play a key role in its scientific programs.

  1. Extending radiative transfer models by use of Bayes rule. [in atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure that extends some existing radiative transfer modeling techniques to problems in atmospheric science where curvature and layering of the medium and dynamic range and angular resolution of the signal are important. Example problems include twilight and limb scan simulations. Techniques that are extended include successive orders of scattering, matrix operator, doubling, Gauss-Seidel iteration, discrete ordinates and spherical harmonics. The procedure for extending them is based on Bayes' rule from probability theory.

  2. SkyProbe: Real-Time Precision Monitoring in the Optical of the Absolute Atmospheric Absorption on the Telescope Science and Calibration Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, J.-C.; Magnier, E.; Sabin, D.; Mahoney, B.

    2016-05-01

    Mauna Kea is known for its pristine seeing conditions but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations since at least 25% of the observable (i.e. open dome) nights are not photometric, an effect mostly due to high-altitude cirrus. Since 2001, the original single channel SkyProbe mounted in parallel on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) has gathered one V-band exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera offering a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (40 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tycho catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). The measurement of the true atmospheric absorption is achieved within 2%, a key advantage over all-sky direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds. The absolute measurement of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds and particulates affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO) representing today all of the telescope time. Also, science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for a new observation at a later date at 1/10th of the original exposure time in photometric conditions to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. Photometric standards are observed only when conditions are reported as being perfectly stable by SkyProbe. The more recent dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will offer a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinnest cirrus (absorption down to 0.01 mag., or 1%).

  3. Accidental exposure to blood in medical interns of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Batoul; Shahidzadeh-Mahani, Ali; Oveysi, Turadj; Akhlaghi, Hengameh

    2007-07-01

    Healthcare workers and medical students are at risk of exposure to blood-borne viruses such as HBV, HCV HIV, etc. Here we report the results of a survey of the frequency and causes of cutaneous blood exposure accidents (CBEA) among medical students. Anonymous questionnaires were randomly distributed to 200 interns in their second year of internship in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. A definite exposure was defined as injury by a sharp object causing obvious bleeding, whereas a possible exposure was defined as subtle or superficial injury due to contact with a contaminated instrument or needle but without bleeding, or contamination of an existing wound with blood or other body fluids. One hundred eighty-four subjects (92% of the original sample) responded to the questionnaire. We recorded 121 definite exposures and 259 possible exposures over a mean time interval of 14 months. Needles were the most common objects (41% of exposure episodes) causing CBEAs, while phlebotomy and suturing were the hospital procedures that accounted for the highest percentage of exposure episodes (30 and 28 percent, respectively). Only a minority of students regularly observed basic safety measures (wearing gloves, not recapping used needles and proper disposal of sharp objects). Considering the high incidence of blood exposure in medical interns at Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the ensuing risk of blood-borne infections, the subjects are likely to develop such infections during their internship period.

  4. Atmosphere Kits: Hands-On Learning Activities with a Foundation in NASA Earth Science Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teige, V.; McCrea, S.; Damadeo, K.; Taylor, J.; Lewis, P. M., Jr.; Chambers, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Science Directorate (SD) at NASA Langley Research Center provides many opportunities to involve students, faculty, researchers, and the citizen science community in real world science. The SD Education Team collaborates with the education community to bring authentic Earth science practices and real-world data into the classroom, provide the public with unique NASA experiences, engaging activities, and advanced technology, and provide products developed and reviewed by science and education experts. Our goals include inspiring the next generation of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals and improving STEM literacy by providing innovative participation pathways for educators, students, and the public. The SD Education Team has developed Atmosphere activity kits featuring cloud and aerosol learning activities with a foundation in NASA Earth Science Missions, the Next Generation Science Standards, and The GLOBE Program's Elementary Storybooks. Through cloud kit activities, students will learn how to make estimates from observations and how to categorize and classify specific cloud properties, including cloud height, cloud cover, and basic cloud types. The purpose of the aerosol kit is to introduce students to aerosols and how they can affect the colors we see in the sky. Students will engage in active observation and reporting, explore properties of light, and model the effects of changing amounts/sizes or aerosols on sky color and visibility. Learning activity extensions include participation in ground data collection of environmental conditions and comparison and analysis to related NASA data sets, including but not limited to CERES, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and SAGE III on ISS. This presentation will provide an overview of multiple K-6 NASA Earth Science hands-on activities and free resources will be available.

  5. Global emission inventory and atmospheric transport of black carbon. Evaluation of the associated exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rong

    2015-06-01

    This thesis presents research focusing on the improvement of high-resolution global black carbon (BC) emission inventory and application in assessing the population exposure to ambient BC. A particular focus of the thesis is on the construction of a high-resolution (both spatial and sectorial) fuel consumption database, which is used to develop the emission inventory of black carbon. Above all, the author updates the global emission inventory of black carbon, a resource subsequently used to study the atmospheric transport of black carbon over Asia with the help of a high-resolution nested model. The thesis demonstrates that spatial bias in fuel consumption and BC emissions can be reduced by means of the sub-national disaggregation approach. Using the inventory and nested model, ambient BC concentrations can be better validated against observations. Lastly, it provides a complete uncertainty analysis of global black carbon emissions, and this uncertainty is taken into account in the atmospheric modeling, helping to better understand the role of black carbon in regional and global air pollution.

  6. The Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP): A conceptual framework for advancing exposure science research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, risk assessment has relied upon toxicological data to obtain hazard-based reference levels, which are subsequently compared to exposure estimates to determine whether an unacceptable risk to public health may exist. Recent advances in analytical methods, biomarker ...

  7. Earth Science Data and Applications for K-16 Education from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, C. S.; Chambers, L. H.; Alston, E. J.; Moore, S. W.; Oots, P. C.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate aims to stimulate public interest in Earth system science and to encourage young scholars to consider careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at Langley Research Center houses over 700 data sets related to Earth's radiation budget, clouds, aerosols and tropospheric chemistry that are being produced to increase academic understanding of the natural and anthropogenic perturbations that influence global climate change. However, barriers still exist in the use of these actual satellite observations by educators in the classroom to supplement the educational process. Thus, NASA is sponsoring the "Mentoring and inquirY using NASA Data on Atmospheric and earth science for Teachers and Amateurs" (MY NASA DATA) project to systematically support educational activities by reducing the ASDC data holdings to `microsets' that can be easily accessible and explored by the K-16 educators and students. The microsets are available via Web site (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov) with associated lesson plans, computer tools, data information pages, and a science glossary. A MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) has been populated with ASDC data such that users can create custom microsets online for desired time series, parameters and geographical regions. The LAS interface is suitable for novice to advanced users, teachers or students. The microsets may be visual representations of data or text output for spreadsheet analysis. Currently, over 148 parameters from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Surface Radiation Budget (SRB), Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are available and provide important information on clouds, fluxes and cycles in the Earth system. Additionally, a MY NASA DATA OPeNDAP server has been established to facilitate file transfer of

  8. An overview of organically bound tritium experiments in plants following a short atmospheric HTO exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Strack, S; Atarashi-Andoh, M; Kim, S B

    2013-04-01

    The need for a less conservative, but reliable risk assessment of accidental tritium releases is emphasized in the present debate on the nuclear energy future. The development of a standard conceptual model for accidental tritium releases must be based on the process level analysis and the appropriate experimental database. Tritium transfer from atmosphere to plants and the subsequent conversion into organically bound tritium (OBT) strongly depends on the plant characteristics, seasons, and meteorological conditions, which have a large variability. The present study presents an overview of the relevant experimental data for the short term exposure, including the unpublished information, also. Plenty of experimental data is provided for wheat, rice, and soybean and some for potato, bean, cherry tomato, radish, cabbage, and tangerine as well. Tritiated water (HTO) uptake by plants during the daytime and nighttime has an important role in further OBT synthesis. OBT formation in crops depends on the development stage, length, and condition of exposure. OBT translocation to the edible plant parts differs between the crops analyzed. OBT formation during the nighttime is comparable with that during the daytime. The present study is a preliminary step for the development of a robust model of crop contamination after an HTO accidental release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  10. Interpretation of biomonitoring data in clinical medicine and the exposure sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryan L; Barr, Dana B; Wright, J Michael; Buckley, Brian; Magsumbol, Melina S

    2008-11-15

    Biomonitoring has become a fundamental tool in both exposure science and clinical medicine. Despite significant analytical advances, the clinical use of environmental biomarkers remains in its infancy. Clinical use of environmental biomarkers poses some complex scientific and ethical challenges. The purpose of this paper is compare how the clinical and exposure sciences differ with respect to their interpretation and use of biological data. Additionally, the clinical use of environmental biomonitoring data is discussed. A case study is used to illustrate the complexities of conducting biomonitoring research on highly vulnerable populations in a clinical setting.

  11. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  12. Health effects from exposure to atmospheric mineral dust near Las Vegas, NV, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E. Keil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Desert areas are usually characterized by a continuous deposition of fine airborne particles. Over time, this process results in the accumulation of silt and clay on desert surfaces. We evaluated health effects associated with regional atmospheric dust, or geogenic dust, deposited on surfaces in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA in Clark County, Nevada, a popular off-road vehicle (ORV recreational site frequented daily by riders, families, and day campers. Because of atmospheric mixing and the mostly regional origin of the accumulated particles, the re-suspended airborne dust is composed of a complex mixture of minerals and metals including aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, arsenic, strontium, cesium, lead, uranium, and others. Geogenic dust with a median diameter of 4.1 μm was administered via oropharyngeal aspiration to female B6C3F1 mice at doses of 0.01 to 100 mg dust/kg body weight, four times, a week apart, for 28-days. Immuno- and neurotoxicological outcomes 24 h following the last exposure were evaluated. Antigen-specific IgM responses were dose-responsively suppressed at 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg/kg/day. Splenic and thymic lymphocytic subpopulations and natural killer cell activity also were significantly reduced. Antibodies against MBP, NF-68, and GFAP were not affected, while brain CD3+ T cells were decreased in number. A lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg/day and a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of 0.01 mg/kg/day were derived based on the antigen-specific IgM responses.

  13. A Personal Perspective on the Further Reform of the Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ First of all, I wish to thank the Advances in Atmospheric Sciences (AAS) Editorial Board for recommending the publication of this original letter, summarizing my personal perspective on the reform of AAS,that was distributed during its 19 December 2001 Board meeting. The letter has now been significantly improved by the incorporation of many helpful comments and suggestions from extensive email discussions conducted among over 60 foreign participants, including several board members of AAS, as well as from numerous personal communications (see the acknowledgements section).

  14. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental Exposures and Asthma Prevalence in Two Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two commun...

  15. An Analysis of Cloud Computing with Amazon Web Services for the Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. L.; Little, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    NASA science and engineering efforts rely heavily on compute and data handling systems. The nature of NASA science data is such that it is not restricted to NASA users, instead it is widely shared across a globally distributed user community including scientists, educators, policy decision makers, and the public. Therefore NASA science computing is a candidate use case for cloud computing where compute resources are outsourced to an external vendor. Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a commercial cloud computing service developed to use excess computing capacity at Amazon, and potentially provides an alternative to costly and potentially underutilized dedicated acquisitions whenever NASA scientists or engineers require additional data processing. AWS desires to provide a simplified avenue for NASA scientists and researchers to share large, complex data sets with external partners and the public. AWS has been extensively used by JPL for a wide range of computing needs and was previously tested on a NASA Agency basis during the Nebula testing program. Its ability to support the Langley Science Directorate needs to be evaluated by integrating it with real world operational needs across NASA and the associated maturity that would come with that. The strengths and weaknesses of this architecture and its ability to support general science and engineering applications has been demonstrated during the previous testing. The Langley Office of the Chief Information Officer in partnership with the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has established a pilot business interface to utilize AWS cloud computing resources on a organization and project level pay per use model. This poster discusses an effort to evaluate the feasibility of the pilot business interface from a project level perspective by specifically using a processing scenario involving the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project.

  16. Surface Energy in Nanocrystalline Carbon Thin Films: Effect of Size Dependence and Atmospheric Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Javid, Amjed; Han, Jeon Geon

    2017-03-14

    Surface energy (SE) is the most sensitive and fundamental parameter for governing the interfacial interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. However, on account of the complexities involved of hybridization states and surface bonds, achieved SE values are often less in comparison with their theoretical counterparts and strongly influenced by stability aspects. Here, an advanced facing-target pulsed dc unbalanced magnetron-sputtering process is presented for the synthesis of undoped and H/N-doped nanocrystalline carbon thin films. The time-dependent surface properties of the undoped and H/N-doped nanocrystalline carbon thin films are systematically studied. The advanced plasma process induced the dominant deposition of high-energy neutral carbon species, consequently controlling the intercolumnar spacing of nanodomain morphology and surface anisotropy of electron density. As a result, significantly higher SE values (maximum = 79.24 mJ/m(2)) are achieved, with a possible window of 79.24-66.5 mJ/m(2) by controlling the experimental conditions. The intrinsic (size effects and functionality) and extrinsic factors (atmospheric exposure) are resolved and explained on the basis of size-dependent cohesive energy model and long-range van der Waals interactions between hydrocarbon molecules and the carbon surface. The findings anticipate the enhanced functionality of nanocrystalline carbon thin films in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, and stability.

  17. In Vitro Exposures in Diesel Exhaust Atmospheres: Resuspension of PM from Filters Verses Direct Deposition of PM from Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtveld, Kim M.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Vizuete, William; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most widely used in vitro particulate matter (PM) exposures methods is the collection of PM on filters, followed by resuspension in a liquid medium, with subsequent addition onto a cell culture. To avoid disruption of equilibria between gases and PM, we have developed a direct in vitro sampling and exposure method (DSEM) capable of PM-only exposures. We hypothesize that the separation of phases and post-treatment of filter-collected PM significantly modifies the toxicity of the PM compared to direct deposition, resulting in a distorted view of the potential PM health effects. Controlled test environments were created in a chamber that combined diesel exhaust with an urban-like mixture. The complex mixture was analyzed using both the DSEM and concurrently-collected filter samples. The DSEM showed that PM from test atmospheres produced significant inflammatory response, while the resuspension exposures at the same exposure concentration did not. Increasing the concentration of resuspended PM sixteen times was required to yield measurable IL-8 expression. Chemical analysis of the resuspended PM indicated a total absence of carbonyl compounds compared to the test atmosphere during the direct-exposures. Therefore, collection and resuspension of PM into liquid modifies its toxicity and likely leads to underestimating toxicity. PMID:22834915

  18. GreenCube and RocketCube: Low-Resource Sensorcraft for Atmospheric and Ionospheric Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracikowski, P. J.; Lynch, K. A.; Slagle, A. K.; Fagin, M. H.; Currey, S. R.; Siddiqui, M. U.

    2009-12-01

    In situ atmospheric and ionospheric studies benefit greatly from the ability to separate variations in space from variations in time. Arrays of many probes are a method of doing this, but because of the technical character and expense of developing large arrays, so far probe arrays have been the domain of well-funded science missions. CubeSats and low-resource craft (``Picosats") are an avenue for bringing array-based studies of the atmosphere and ionosphere into the mainstream. The Lynch Rocket Lab at Dartmouth College is attempting to develop the instruments, experience, and heritage to implement arrays of many low-resource sensorcraft while doing worthwhile science in the development process. We are working on two CubeSat projects to reach this goal: GreenCube for atmospheric studies and RocketCube for ionospheric studies. GreenCube is an undergraduate student-directed high-altitude balloon-borne 3U CubeSat. GreenCube I was a bus, telemetry, and mechanical system development project. GreenCube I flew in the fall of 2008. The flight was successfully recovered and tracked over the 97km range and through the 29km altitude rise. GreenCube I carried six thermal housekeeping sensors, a GPS, a magnetometer, and a HAM radio telemetry system with a reporting rate of once every 30 seconds. The velocity profile obtained from the GPS data implies the presence of atmospheric gravity waves during the flight. GreenCube II flew in August 2009 with the science goal of detecting atmospheric gravity waves over the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Two balloons with identical payloads were released 90 seconds apart to make 2-point observations. Each payload carried a magnetometer, 5 thermistors for ambient temperature readings, a GPS, and an amateur radio telemetry system with a 7 second reporting cadence. A vertically oriented video camera on one payload and a horizontally oriented video camera on the other recorded the characteristics of gravity waves in the nearby clouds. We

  19. The InSight Mission's Martian Atmospheric Science Goals, Capabilities and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Banfield, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The InSight Mission to Mars will launch in March 2016 and land in September 2016, beginning at least 1 Mars year of observations from the surface of Mars. The primary scientific goal of the InSight mission is to characterize the interior of Mars (both deep and near-surface), but it is also equipped with very capable meteorological instrumentation, and consequently has atmospheric science goals as well. The instrumentation InSight carries includes a very sensitive and fast response pressure sensor, as well as a pair of wind and temperature sensors that are similar to those flown on MSL and will be on Mars2020. These sensors will operate essentially continuously at Mars, a first; enabling the production of a complete sampling of the Martian environment, including short-lived transients. InSight also carries cameras that can be used to survey not only the ground in the near environment, but also sky conditions. The pressure sensor responds to signals below 10Hz (~10X its predecessors) and has a noise level of about 10 mPa (better than 1/10 its predecessors). The pair of wind and temperature sensors have been carefully placed opposite one another on the deck to minimize lander interference as much as possible, leaving one sensor on the windward side of the lander at any time. These capabilities, combined with their continuous sampling enable us to pursue new atmospheric science questions at Mars, including quantifying thresholds for aeolian change, detailed dust devil characterization, bolide infrasonic detection and characterization, and quantifying secular trends in pressure. This is in addition to characterizing the normal meteorology at the InSight landing site, which while not completely new, will provide incremental and important constraints for Martian Atmospheric models. We also expect there to be unexpected discoveries, as well as more synergistic approaches to coordination among all the instruments on InSight that may result even more novel capabilities.

  20. Repository Profiles for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences: Capabilities and Trends in Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, C. Y.; Thompson, C. A.; Palmer, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    As digital research data proliferate and expectations for open access escalate, the landscape of data repositories is becoming more complex. For example, DataBib currently identifies 980 data repositories across the disciplines, with 117 categorized under Geosciences. In atmospheric and climate sciences, there are great expectations for the integration and reuse of data for advancing science. To realize this potential, resources are needed that explicate the range of repository options available for locating and depositing open data, their conditions of access and use, and the services and tools they provide. This study profiled 38 open digital repositories in the atmospheric and climate sciences, analyzing each on 55 criteria through content analysis of their websites. The results provide a systematic way to assess and compare capabilities, services, and institutional characteristics and identify trends across repositories. Selected results from the more detailed outcomes to be presented: Most repositories offer guidance on data format(s) for submission and dissemination. 42% offer authorization-free access. More than half use some type of data identification system such as DOIs. Nearly half offer some data processing, with a similar number providing software or tools. 78.9% request that users cite or acknowledge datasets used and the data center. Only 21.1% recommend specific metadata standards, such as ISO 19115 or Dublin Core, with more than half utilizing a customized metadata scheme. Information was rarely provided on repository certification and accreditation and uneven for transfer of rights and data security. Few provided policy information on preservation, migration, reappraisal, disposal, or long-term sustainability. As repository use increases, it will be important for institutions to make their procedures and policies explicit, to build trust with user communities and improve efficiencies in data sharing. Resources such as repository profiles will be

  1. The atmospheric neutrino flavor ratio from a 3.9 fiducial kiloton-year exposure of Soudan 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barr, G.; Barrett, W. L.; Bode, C.; Border, P. M.; Brooks, C. B.; Cobb, J. H.; Cotton, R. J.; Courant, H.; Demuth, D. M.; Fields, T. H.; Gallagher, H. R.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Goodman, M. C.; Gran, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Leeson, W.; Litchfield, P. J.; Longley, N. P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, W. H.; Mualem, L.; Napier, A.; Oliver, W. P.; Pearce, G. F.; Peterson, E. A.; Petyt, D. A.; Price, L. E.; Ruddick, K.; Sanchez, M.; Schneps, J.; Schub, M. H.; Seidlein, R.; Stassinakis, A.; Thron, J. L.; Vassiliev, V.; Villaume, G.; Wakely, S.; Wall, D.; West, N.; Wielgosz, U. M.

    1999-03-01

    We report a measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flavor ratio, R, using a sample of quasi-elastic neutrino interactions occurring in an iron medium. The flavor ratio (tracks/showers) of atmospheric neutrinos in a 3.9 fiducial kiloton-year exposure of Soudan 2 is 0.64+/-0.11(stat.)+/-0.06(syst.) of that expected. Important aspects of our main analysis have been checked by carrying out two independent, alternative analyses; one is based upon automated scanning, the other uses a multivariate approach for background subtraction. Similar results are found by all three approaches.

  2. Exposure science and the U.S. EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Hubal, Elaine A; Richard, Ann M; Shah, Imran; Gallagher, Jane; Kavlock, Robert; Blancato, Jerry; Edwards, Stephen W

    2010-05-01

    The emerging field of computational toxicology applies mathematical and computer models and molecular biological and chemical approaches to explore both qualitative and quantitative relationships between sources of environmental pollutant exposure and adverse health outcomes. The integration of modern computing with molecular biology and chemistry will allow scientists to better prioritize data, inform decision makers on chemical risk assessments and understand a chemical's progression from the environment to the target tissue within an organism and ultimately to the key steps that trigger an adverse health effect. In this paper, several of the major research activities being sponsored by Environmental Protection Agency's National Center for Computational Toxicology are highlighted. Potential links between research in computational toxicology and human exposure science are identified. As with the traditional approaches for toxicity testing and hazard assessment, exposure science is required to inform design and interpretation of high-throughput assays. In addition, common themes inherent throughout National Center for Computational Toxicology research activities are highlighted for emphasis as exposure science advances into the 21st century.

  3. The science of ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, G.; Drossart, P.; Eccleston, P.; Hartogh, P.; Heske, A.; Leconte, J.; Micela, G.; Ollivier, M.; Pilbratt, G.; Puig, L.; Turrini, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wolkenberg, P.; Pascale, E.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Güdel, M.; Min, M.; Rataj, M.; Ray, T.; Ribas, I.; Barstow, J.; Bowles, N.; Coustenis, A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, T.; Forget, F.; Friswell, M.; Griffin, M.; Lagage, P. O.; Malaguti, P.; Moneti, A.; Morales, J. C.; Pace, E.; Rocchetto, M.; Sarkar, S.; Selsis, F.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, J.; Venot, O.; Waldmann, I. P.; Wright, G.; Zingales, T.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL) is one of the three candidate missions selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) for its next medium-class science mission due for launch in 2026. The goal of the ARIEL mission is to investigate the atmospheres of several hundred planets orbiting distant stars in order to address the fundamental questions on how planetary systems form and evolve. During its four (with a potential extension to six) years mission ARIEL will observe 500+ exoplanets in the visible and the infrared with its meter-class telescope in L2. ARIEL targets will include gaseous and rocky planets down to the Earth-size around different types of stars. The main focus of the mission will be on hot and warm planets orbiting close to their star, as they represent a natural laboratory in which to study the chemistry and formation of exoplanets. The ARIEL mission concept has been developed by a consortium of more than 50 institutes from 12 countries, which include UK, France, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Ireland and Portugal. The analysis of the ARIEL spectra and photometric data in the 0.5-7.8 micron range will allow to extract the chemical fingerprints of gases and condensates in the planets' atmospheres, including the elemental composition for the most favorable targets. It will also enable the study of thermal and scattering properties of the atmosphere as the planet orbit around the star. ARIEL will have an open data policy, enabling rapid access by the general community to the high-quality exoplanet spectra that the core survey will deliver.

  4. CO2 absorption characteristics of a Li2TiO3 blanket material under atmospheric exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Yuichi; Yahata, Kyohei; Nakamori, Ryoma; Taniike, Akira; Samata, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Non-Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (NRBS) for the composition analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the crystallographic structure analysis have been applied to the blanket candidate material, Li2TiO3, which is known to absorb CO2 though chemically stable. It is found that the amount of CO2 absorbed by atmospheric exposure of the low- and medium-density samples is greater than or comparable to that by dry CO2 gas exposure. By varying the density of the Li2TiO3 and composition of the ambient gas, conditions to minimize the amount of CO2 absorbed are discussed.

  5. Thinking Through Computational Exposure as an Evolving Paradign Shift for Exposure Science: Development and Application of Predictive Models from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symposium Abstract: Exposure science has evolved from a time when the primary focus was on measurements of environmental and biological media and the development of enabling field and laboratory methods. The Total Exposure Assessment Method (TEAM) studies of the 1980s were class...

  6. Thinking Through Computational Exposure as an Evolving Paradign Shift for Exposure Science: Development and Application of Predictive Models from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symposium Abstract: Exposure science has evolved from a time when the primary focus was on measurements of environmental and biological media and the development of enabling field and laboratory methods. The Total Exposure Assessment Method (TEAM) studies of the 1980s were class...

  7. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out

  8. Attitude Controller for the Atmospheric Entry of the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul B.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Wong, Edward C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude controller for the atmospheric entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The controller will command 8 RCS thrusters to control the 3- axis attitude of the entry capsule. The Entry Controller is formulated as three independent channels in the control frame, which is nominally aligned with the stability frame. Each channel has a feedfoward and a feedback path. The feedforward path enables fast response to large bank commands. The feedback path stabilizes the vehicle angle of attack and sideslip around its trim position, and tracks bank commands. The feedback path has a PD/D control structure with deadbands that minimizes fuel usage. The performance of this design is demonstrated via computer simulations.

  9. New observational capabilities on atmospheric sciences of the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) Graciosa island ARM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Kim; Ortega, Paul; Azevedo, Eduardo; Miller, Mark

    2016-04-01

    with an extensive set of radiometric measurements and routine radiosonde soundings, a full three-dimensional view of the atmospheric phenomena, some of them poorly understood until now, are freely available to the research community. This presentation, besides showcasing the capabilities of this ARM Facility, aims to promote discussion about the potential for the facilities use in collaborative efforts in support of atmospheric and climatic sciences and in particular how they may relate to European research initiatives. The facility as a designated DOE user facility makes all of its data freely and publicly available. In addition, there may be opportunities for the facility to be used as a deployment platform with instrument accommodation and infrastructure available on request.

  10. Measuring the Success of Community Science: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Tovar, Jessica; Zota, Ami R.; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Environmental health research involving community participation has increased substantially since the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) environmental justice and community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships began in the mid-1990s. The goals of these partnerships are to inform and empower better decisions about exposures, foster trust, and generate scientific knowledge to reduce environmental health disparities in low-income, minority communi...

  11. Increasing Access to Atmospheric Science Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K. L.; LaPan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Science Directorate (SD) at NASA's Langley Research Center conducts cutting edge research in fundamental atmospheric science topics including radiation and climate, air quality, active remote sensing, and upper atmospheric composition. These topics matter to the public, as they improve our understanding of our home planet. Thus, we have had ongoing efforts to improve public access to the results of our research. These efforts have accelerated with the release of the February OSTP memo. Our efforts can be grouped in two main categories: 1. Visual presentation techniques to improve science understanding: For fundamental concepts such as the Earth's energy budget, we have worked to display information in a more "digestible" way for lay audiences with more pictures and fewer words. These audiences are iPad-lovers and TV-watchers with shorter attention spans than audiences of the past. They are also educators and students who need a basic understanding of a concept delivered briefly to fit into busy classroom schedules. We seek to reach them with a quick, visual message packed with important information. This presentation will share several examples of visual techniques, such as infographics (e.g., a history of lidar at Langley and a timeline of atmospheric research, ozone garden diagrams (http://science-edu.larc.nasa.gov/ozonegarden/ozone-cycle.php); history of lidar at LaRC; DISCOVER-AQ maps. It will also share examples of animations and interactive graphics (DISCOVER-AQ); and customized presentations (e.g., to explain the energy budget or to give a general overview of research). One of the challenges we face is a required culture shift between the way scientists traditionally share knowledge with each other and the way these public audiences ingest knowledge. A cross-disciplinary communications team in SD is crucial to bridge that gap. 2. Lay research summaries to make research more accessible: Peer-reviewed publications are a primary product of the SD, with more

  12. Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

  13. APPLICATIONS OF NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION METHOD TO NUMERICAL STUDIES OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wan-suo; MU Mu

    2005-01-01

    Linear singular vector and linear singular value can only describe the evolution of sufficiently small perturbations during the period in which the tangent linear model is valid.With this in mind, the applications of nonlinear optimization methods to the atmospheric and oceanic sciences are introduced, which include nonlinear singular vector (NSV) and nonlinear singular value (NSVA), conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP), and their applications to the studies of predictability in numerical weather and climate prediction.The results suggest that the nonlinear characteristics of the motions of atmosphere and oceans can be explored by NSV and CNOP. Also attentions are paid to the introduction of the classification of predictability problems, which are related to the maximum predictable time,the maximum prediction error, and the maximum allowing error of initial value and the parameters. All the information has the background of application to the evaluation of products of numerical weather and climate prediction. Furthermore the nonlinear optimization methods of the sensitivity analysis with numerical model are also introduced, which can give a quantitative assessment whether a numerical model is able to simulate the observations and find the initial field that yield the optimal simulation. Finally, the difficulties in the lack of ripe algorithms are also discussed, which leave future work to both computational mathematics and scientists in geophysics.

  14. Paleoclimate Modelling at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Paleoclimate modelling is one of the core topics in the Past Global Changes project under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and has received much attention worldwide in recent decades.Here we summarize the research on the Paleoclimate modeling, including the Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum, and pre-Quaternary climate intervals or events performed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS) for over one decade. As an attempt to review these academic activities, we emphasize that vegetation and ocean feedbacks can amplify East Asian climate response to the Earth's orbital parameters and atmospheric CO2 concentration at the mid-Holocene. At the Last Glacial Maximum, additional cooling in interior China is caused by the feedback effects of East Asian vegetation and the ice sheet over the Tibetan Plateau, and the regional climate model RegCM2 generally reduces data-model discrepancies in East Asia. The simulated mid-Pliocene climate is characterized by warmer and drier conditions as well as significantly weakened summer and winter monsoon systems in interior China. On a tectonic timescale, both the Tibetan Plateau uplift and the Paratethys Sea retreat play important roles in the formation of East Asian monsoon-dominant environmental pattern during the Cenozoic.

  15. Use of molecular beacons for the rapid analysis of DNA damage induced by exposure to an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Hirofumi, E-mail: kurita@ens.tut.ac.jp, E-mail: mizuno@ens.tut.ac.jp; Miyachika, Saki; Yasuda, Hachiro; Takashima, Kazunori; Mizuno, Akira, E-mail: kurita@ens.tut.ac.jp, E-mail: mizuno@ens.tut.ac.jp [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-12-28

    A rapid method for evaluating the damage caused to DNA molecules upon exposure to plasma is demonstrated. Here, we propose the use of a molecular beacon for rapid detection of DNA strand breaks induced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) irradiation. Scission of the molecular beacon by APPJ irradiation leads to separation of the fluorophore-quencher pair, resulting in an increase in fluorescence that directly correlates with the DNA strand breaks. The results show that the increase in fluorescence intensity is proportional to the exposure time and the rate of fluorescence increase is proportional to the discharge power. This simple and rapid method allows the estimation of DNA damage induced by exposure to a non-thermal plasma.

  16. Use of molecular beacons for the rapid analysis of DNA damage induced by exposure to an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Miyachika, Saki; Yasuda, Hachiro; Takashima, Kazunori; Mizuno, Akira

    2015-12-01

    A rapid method for evaluating the damage caused to DNA molecules upon exposure to plasma is demonstrated. Here, we propose the use of a molecular beacon for rapid detection of DNA strand breaks induced by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) irradiation. Scission of the molecular beacon by APPJ irradiation leads to separation of the fluorophore-quencher pair, resulting in an increase in fluorescence that directly correlates with the DNA strand breaks. The results show that the increase in fluorescence intensity is proportional to the exposure time and the rate of fluorescence increase is proportional to the discharge power. This simple and rapid method allows the estimation of DNA damage induced by exposure to a non-thermal plasma.

  17. Exploring the Sky: An Exploratory Study on the Effectiveness of Discourse in an Atmospheric Science Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, K.; Balgopal, M.; Birner, T.

    2015-12-01

    Educational outreach programs led by scientists or scientific organizations can introduce participants to science content, increase their interest in science, and help them understand the nature of science (NOS). Much of atmospheric science (AS) educational outreach to date has concentrated on teacher professional development programs, but there is still a need to study how students react to classroom programs led by scientists. The purpose of this research project is to examine student engagement with AS and NOS content when presented by a university atmospheric scientist or an Earth system science teacher. The guiding research question was: how do students interact with science experts in their classrooms compared to their teachers when learning about Earth science and NOS? The outreach program was developed by an AS faculty member and was implemented in a local 10th grade Earth Science class. The presenter used historical stories of discoveries to introduce concepts about the middle atmosphere and climate circulations, reinforcing the NOS in his interactive presentations. On a separate day the teacher implemented a lesson on plate tectonics grounded in NOS. A case study analysis is being conducted using videotaped presentations on Earth science and NOS by the teacher and the scientist, pre- and post- questionnaires, and teacher and scientist interviews in order to determine patterns in student-presenter discourse, the levels of presenters' inquiry-based questioning, and the depth of student responses around Earth science content and NOS. Preliminary results from video analysis indicate that the scientist used higher inquiry-based questioning strategies compared to the teacher; however the teacher was able to go into more depth on a topic with the lesson. Scientists must consider whether the trade-offs warrant focusing their outreach efforts on content professional development for teachers or content outreach for K-12 students.

  18. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE): Initial Science Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Salute, J. S.; Noble, S.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-01-01

    On September 6, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. LADEE arrived at the Moon on October 6, 2013, dur-ing the government shutdown. The spacecraft impact-ed the lunar surface on April 18, 2014, following a completely successful mission. LADEE's science objectives were twofold: (1) De-termine the composition and variability of the lunar atmosphere; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, and its variability. The LADEE science payload consisted of the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), which sensed dust impacts in situ, for parti-cles between 100 nm and 5 micrometers; a neutral mass spectrometer (NMS), which sampled lunar exo-spheric gases in situ, over the 2-150 Dalton mass range; an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer (UVS) ac-quired spectra of atmospheric emissions and scattered light from tenuous dust, spanning a 250-800 nm wave-length range. UVS also performed dust extinction measurements via a separate solar viewer optic. The following are preliminary results for the lunar exosphere: (1) The helium exosphere of the Moon, first observed during Apollo, is clearly dominated by the delivery of solar wind He++. (2) Neon 20 is clearly seen as an important constituent of the exosphere. (3) Argon 40, also observed during Apollo and arising from interior outgassing, exhibits variations related to surface temperature-driven condensation and release, and is also enhanced over specific selenographic longi-tudes. (4) The sodium abundance varies with both lu-nar phase and with meteoroid influx, implicating both solar wind sputtering and impact vaporization process-es. (5) Potassium was also routinely monitored and exhibits some of the same properties as sodium. (6) Other candidate species were seen by both NMS and UVS, and await confirmation. Dust measurements have revealed a persistent "shroud" of small dust particles

  19. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  20. State-of-the-science review: Does manganese exposure during welding pose a neurological risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Annette B; Cushing, Colleen A; Antonini, James M; Finley, Brent L; Mowat, Fionna S

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies report that exposure to manganese (Mn), an essential component of welding electrodes and some steels, results in neurotoxicity and/or Parkinson's disease (PD) in welders. This "state-of-the-science" review presents a critical analysis of the published studies that were conducted on a variety of Mn-exposed occupational cohorts during the last 100 yr, as well as the regulatory history of Mn and welding fumes. Welders often perform a variety of different tasks with varying degrees of duration and ventilation, and hence, to accurately assess Mn exposures that occurred in occupational settings, some specific information on the historical work patterns of welders is desirable. This review includes a discussion of the types of exposures that occur during the welding process--for which limited information relating airborne Mn levels with specific welding activities exists--and the human health studies evaluating neurological effects in welders and other Mn-exposed cohorts, including miners, millers, and battery workers. Findings and implications of studies specifically conducted to evaluate neurobehavioral effects and the prevalence of PD in welders are also discussed. Existing exposure data indicate that, in general, Mn exposures in welders are less than those associated with the reports of clinical neurotoxicity (e.g., "manganism") in miners and smelter workers. It was also found that although manganism was observed in highly exposed workers, the scant exposure-response data available for welders do not support a conclusion that welding is associated with clinical neurotoxicity. The available data might support the development of reasonable "worst-case" exposure estimates for most welding activities, and suggest that exposure simulation studies would significantly refine such estimates. Our review ends with a discussion of the data gaps and areas for future research.

  1. High Temperature, Controlled-Atmosphere Aerodynamic Levitation Experiments with Applications in Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, C. A.; Badro, J.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    The aerodynamic levitation laser apparatus is an instrument in which spherical samples are freely floated on top of a stream of gas while being heated with a CO2laser to temperatures up to about 3500 °C. Laser heated samples, ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.5 mm diameter, can be levitated in a variety of chemically active or inert atmospheres in a gas-mixing chamber (e.g., Hennet et al. 2006; Pack et al. 2010). This allows for containerless, controlled-atmosphere, high temperature experiments with potential for applications in earth and planetary science. A relatively new technique, aerodynamic levitation has been used mostly for studies of the physical properties of liquids at high temperatures (Kohara et al. 2011), crystallization behavior of silicates and oxides (Arai et al. 2004), and to prepare glasses from compositions known to crystallize upon quenching (Tangeman et al. 2001). More recently, however, aerodynamic levitation with laser heating has been used as an experimental technique to simulate planetary processes. Pack et al. (2010) used levitation and melting experiments to simulate chondrule formation by using Ar-H2 as the flow gas, thus imposing a reducing atmosphere, resulting in reduction of FeO, Fe2O3, and NiO to metal alloys. Macris et al. (2015) used laser heating with aerodynamic levitation to reproduce the textures and diffusion profiles of major and minor elements observed in impact ejecta from the Australasian strewn field, by melting a powdered natural tektite mixed with 60-100 μm quartz grains on a flow of pure Ar gas. These experiments resulted in quantitative modeling of Si and Al diffusion, which allowed for interpretations regarding the thermal histories of natural tektites and their interactions with the surrounding impact vapor plume. Future experiments will employ gas mixing (CO, CO2, H2, O, Ar) in a controlled atmosphere levitation chamber to explore the range of fO2applicable to melt-forming impacts on other rocky planetary bodies

  2. Enhanced solubility and ecological impact of atmospheric phosphorus deposition upon extended seawater exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Roberts, Kathryn; Lomas, Michael W; Saito, Mak A; Post, Anton F; Paytan, Adina

    2012-10-01

    Atmospheric P solubility affects the amount of P available for phytoplankton in the surface ocean, yet our understanding of the timing and extent of atmospheric P solubility is based on short-term leaching experiments where conditions may differ substantially from the surface ocean. We conducted longer- term dissolution experiments of atmospheric aerosols in filtered seawater, and found up to 9-fold greater dissolution of P after 72 h compared to instantaneous leaching. Samples rich in anthropogenic materials released dissolved inorganic P (DIP) faster than mineral dust. To gauge the effect of biota on the fate of atmospheric P, we conducted field incubations with aerosol samples collected in the Sargasso Sea and Red Sea. In the Sargasso Sea phytoplankton were not P limited, and biological activity enhanced DIP release from aerosols, and aerosols induced biological mineralization of dissolved organic P in seawater, leading to DIP accumulation. However, in the Red Sea where phytoplankton were colimited by P and N, soluble P was rapidly consumed by phytoplankton following aerosol enrichment. Our results suggest that atmospheric P dissolution could continue over multiple days once reaching the surface ocean, and that previous estimates of atmospheric P deposition may underestimate the contribution from this source.

  3. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  4. Data-driven Ontology Development: A Case Study at NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, J.; Huffer, E.; Kusterer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Well-founded ontologies are key to enabling transformative semantic technologies and accelerating scientific research. One example is semantically enabled search and discovery, making scientific data accessible and more understandable by accurately modeling a complex domain. The ontology creation process remains a challenge for many anxious to pursue semantic technologies. The key may be that the creation process -- whether formal, community-based, automated or semi-automated -- should encompass not only a foundational core and supplemental resources but also a focus on the purpose or mission the ontology is created to support. Are there tools or processes to de-mystify, assess or enhance the resulting ontology? We suggest that comparison and analysis of a domain-focused ontology can be made using text engineering tools for information extraction, tokenizers, named entity transducers and others. The results are analyzed to ensure the ontology reflects the core purpose of the domain's mission and that the ontology integrates and describes the supporting data in the language of the domain - how the science is analyzed and discussed among all users of the data. Commonalities and relationships among domain resources describing the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy (CERES) Bi-Directional Scan (BDS) datasets from NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center are compared. The domain resources include: a formal ontology created for CERES; scientific works such as papers, conference proceedings and notes; information extracted from the datasets (i.e., header metadata); and BDS scientific documentation (Algorithm Theoretical Basis Documents, collection guides, data quality summaries and others). These resources are analyzed using the open source software General Architecture for Text Engineering, a mature framework for computational tasks involving human language.

  5. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  6. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  7. Comparative study of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Kazunori; Katayama, Ryu; Sarinont, Thapanut; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Attri, Pankaj; Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Tanaka, Akiyo; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2016-09-01

    We are comparing several non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas for life science applications. Here we measured discharge period dependence of pH value and 750 nm absorbance of KI-starch solution of deionized water after plasma irradiation with two discharge devices; a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet device and a scalable DBD device. The pH and the absorbance of KI-starch solution are useful indicator of their oxidizability. We have obtained a map of the absorbance and proton concentration [H+] which is deduced from pH value. For the scalable DBD, the range of the absorbance is between 0.7 and 1.3 and that of [H+] is between 10-7 and 10-5 mol/L. For the DBD jet, the range of the absorbance and [H+] are 2.0-3.2 and 10-4-10-3 mol/L, respectively. Measured data for both devices shows same tendency in the map, while the range of values for the scalable DBD is smaller than that for the DBD jet. The results indicate the oxidazability for the scalable DBD is much weaker than that for the DBD jet.

  8. Improved conductivity of ZnO thin films by exposure to an atmospheric hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Kniknie, B.; Deelen, J. van; Steijvers, H.L.A.H.; Habets, D.; Simons, P.J.P.M.; Janssen, A.C.; Beckers, E.H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnOx:Al) films have been deposited on a moving glass substrate by a high throughput metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. Thin (< 250 nm) ZnOx:Al films have a poor crystalline quality, due to a small grain size and the presence of

  9. Structuro-functional changes in the placenta as a result of exposure to atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonashevskaia, T.I.; Lamentova, T.G.; Shmakov, G.S.; Nikolaeva, E.G.; Suslova, V.M.

    1985-02-01

    Under the influence of atmospheric pollutions certain structural-functional changes take place in placenta: terminal villi per stipulated square unite, villi with desquamated epithelium, with dilated vessels, with deposition of fibrinoid masses, with plasmodial buds increase in number; section area occupied by epithelial layer decreases; RNA concentration and histoenzymatic activity change in the latter.

  10. Planetary Entry Probes and Mass Spectroscopy: Tools and Science Results from In Situ Studies of Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hasso B.

    2007-01-01

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future missions will hopefully also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. 1 he success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and better data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. I'he pioneering and tireless work of Al Seiff and his collaborators at the NASA Ames Research Center had provided convincing evidence of the value of entry probe science and how to practically implement flight missions. Even in the most recent missions involving entry probes i.e. Galileo and Cassini/Huygens A1 contributed uniquely to the science results on atmospheric structure, turbulence and temperature on Jupiter and Titan.

  11. Variation in response of Arabidopsis thaliana lines to atmospheric SO2 exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kooij, T.A W.; De Kok, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen lines of Arabidopsis thaliana L. of world-wide origin were exposed to 0.65 mul l(-1) SO2 for 11 days. Shoot growth of most lines was hardly affected. Growth of one line, originating from Tadjikistan, was negatively affected upon SO2 exposure and this line developed acute injury symptoms as

  12. Variation in response of Arabidopsis thaliana lines to atmospheric SO2 exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kooij, T.A W.; De Kok, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen lines of Arabidopsis thaliana L. of world-wide origin were exposed to 0.65 mul l(-1) SO2 for 11 days. Shoot growth of most lines was hardly affected. Growth of one line, originating from Tadjikistan, was negatively affected upon SO2 exposure and this line developed acute injury symptoms as

  13. New Ideas for REUs - some Strategies from SOARS (Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R. E.; Kennedy, M.

    2009-12-01

    Research shows that even talented and academically well-prepared students encounter significant challenges when applying to and entering graduate school, and that these challenges may be especially discouraging for students from historically under-represented groups. SOARS, a multi-year undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program designed to broaden participation in the atmospheric and related sciences, prepares its students for these challenges with year-round training, mentoring and support. Our presentation will describe particular SOARS elements that help students prepare for graduate school, including authentic summer research experience at NCAR and partnering labs, strong mentoring that extends over several years, and a supportive community of peers. We will also discuss our leadership training, comprehensive psychological support, graduate school seminars, GRE courses, school funding and the advice we provide on applying to and choosing a graduate program. Drawing from our ongoing program evaluation, we will highlight those strategies that students describe as most useful. Studies suggest that many students from under-represented communities choose not to pursue graduate school in STEM in part because STEM offers less opportunity to serve their community than careers like medicine or law. To address this, SOARS has created opportunities for interested students to do educational projects or participate in research with clear societal relevance. In 2009, several students organized and offered hands-on science outreach to low-income immigrant families in Colorado. In addition, many students have also spent time doing research in partnership with local communities - including working with indigenous communities in the United States. All these approaches have helped, as shown by the SOARS protégés who will present at the 2009 AGU fall meeting. Since SOARS’ founding, 129 students have participated in the program. Of those participants, 18 are still enrolled as

  14. GALVANIC CORROSION AND PROTECTION OF GECM/LY12CZ COUPLES UNDER DIFFERENT ATMOSPHERIC EXPOSURE CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Lu; Q.P. Zhong; C.X. Cao

    2003-01-01

    Galvanic compatibility between graphite epoxy composite materials (GECM) andLY12CZ aluminum alloy was evaluated in different atmospheric corrosion environ-ments and by laboratory electrochemical measurements. Open circuit potential elec-trochemical measurements showed a relatively large potential difference about 1 voltbetween the GECM and LY12CZ aluminum alloy, and this difference provided thedriving force for galvanic corrosion of the LY12CZ aluminum alloy as an anode.Having been exposed for 1, 3 or 5 years in Beijing, Tuandao and Wanning station,GECM/L Y12CZ couples showed significant losses of strength and elongation. Protec-tive coatings and non-conductive barriers breaking the galvanic corrosion circuit wereevaluated under the same atmospheric corrosive conditions. Epoxy primer paint, glasscloth barriers and LY12CZ anodizing were effective in galvanic corrosion control forGECM/L Y12CZ couples.

  15. GALVANIC CORROSION AND PROTECTION OF GECM/LY12CZ COUPLES UNDER DIFFERENT ATMOSPHERIC EXPOSURE CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Lu; Q.P.Zhong; 等

    2003-01-01

    Galvanic compatibility between graphite epoxy composite materials (GECM) and LY12CZ aluminum alloy was evaluated in different atmospheric corrosion environ-ments and by laboratory electrochemical measurements.Open circuit potential elec-trochemical measurements showed a relatively large potemtial difference about 1 volt between the GECM and LY12CZ aluminum alloy,and this difference provided the driving force for galvanic corrosion of the LY12CZ aluminum alloy as an anode. Having been exposed for 1,3or 5years in Beijing,Tuandao and Wanning station,GECM/LY12CZ couples showed significant losses of strength and elongation.Protec-tive coatings and non-conductive barriers breaking the galvanic corrosion circuit were evaluated under the same atmospheric corrosive conditions.Epoxy primer paint,glass cloth barriers and LY12CZ anodizing were effective in glvanic corrosion control for GECM/LY12CZ couples.

  16. Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter enhances Th17 polarization through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael van Voorhis

    Full Text Available Lung diseases, including asthma, COPD, and other autoimmune lung pathologies are aggravated by exposure to particulate matter (PM found in air pollution. IL-17 has been shown to exacerbate airway disease in animal models. As PM is known to contain aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR ligands and the AHR has recently been shown to play a role in differentiation of Th17 T cells, the aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to PM could impact Th17 polarization in an AHR-dependent manner. This study used both cell culture techniques and in vivo exposure in mice to examine the response of T cells to PM. Initially experiments were conducted with urban dust particles from a standard reference material, and ultimately repeated with freshly collected samples of diesel exhaust and cigarette smoke. The readout for the assays was increased T cell differentiation as indicated by increased generation of IL-17A in culture, and increased populations of IL-17 producing cells by intracellular flow cytometry. The data illustrate that Th17 polarization was significantly enhanced by addition of urban dust in a dose dependent fashion in cultures of wild-type but not AHR(-/- mice. The data further suggest that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons played a primary role in this enhancement. There was both an increase of Th17 cell differentiation, and also an increase in the amount of IL-17 secreted by the cells. In summary, this paper identifies a novel mechanism whereby PM can directly act on the AHR in T cells, leading to enhanced Th17 differentiation. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathologic Th17 differentiation and autoimmunity seen after exposure to pollution will allow direct targeting of proteins involved in AHR activation and function for treatment of PM exposures.

  17. Forecasting Space Weather in the Upper Atmosphere: From Science to Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Meng, X.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Tsurutani, B.; Wang, C.; Rosen, G.; Sharma, S.

    2016-12-01

    An objective of the original National Space Weather Program Strategic Plan (1999) was to foster science that has applications for the benefit of society. It was envisaged that scientific knowledge would lead to predictability of impactful space weather phenomena, similarly to what has occurred with numerical prediction of tropospheric weather. The link between scientific knowledge and predictability of natural phenomena is not a straightforward one, however, as the tropospheric community learned when trying to forecast weather systems several days ahead - the limitations of which led to the discovery of "chaos". In the thermosphere-ionosphere domain of space weather, the global behavior of the system is strongly dependent on driving from above and below, creating challenges to accurate prediction. We will describe our effort, part of the NASA/NSF Partnership For Collaborative Space Weather Modeling, to develop methods of improving predictive skill as scientific knowledge increases. Our approach is meant to succeed despite varying degrees of scientific understanding, and despite environmental factors that are often poorly constrained. Rather than focusing exclusively on increasing the complexity of, or coupling between models, we are developing forecasting tools that help understand what limits predictability in different situations. We will describe our algorithms for "forecast variables" (FVs) that are quantities derived from model outputs and observations. FVs are designed to provide insight into what limits predictive skill under geomagnetic storm conditions. We will present assessments of simulated "forecasts" for several upper atmosphere storms initiated by high-speed solar wind streams and coronal mass ejections, using the first principles-based Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM). We will describe our approaches to data-driven and statistical forecasting, which serve as benchmarks that physics-based forecasts should improve upon.

  18. Atmospheric correction at AERONET locations: A new science and validation data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Lyapustin, A.I.; Privette, J.L.; Morisette, J.T.; Holben, B.

    2009-01-01

    , normalized BRF (computed for a standard viewing geometry, VZA = 0, SZA = 45??), and instantaneous BRF (or one-angle BRF value derived from the last day of MODIS measurement for specific viewing geometry) for the MODIS 500-m bands 17. The results are produced daily at a resolution of 1 km in gridded format. We also provide a cloud mask, a quality flag, and a browse bitmap image. The ASRVN data set, including 6 years of MODIS TERRA and 1.5 years of MODIS AQUA data, is available now as a standard MODIS product (MODASRVN) which can be accessed through the Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System website ( http://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/data/search.html). It can be used for a wide range of applications including validation analysis and science research. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  19. Preliminary Interpretations of Atmospheric Stable Isotopes and Argon from Mars Science Laboratory (SAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Niles, P. B.; Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Christensen, L. E.; Leshin, L. A.; Franz, H.; Wong, M.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Manning, H.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Owen, T.; Pepin, B.; Stern, J. C.; Trainer, M.; Schwenzer, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Given the broad agreement between C, H, and O isotopic ratios in the modern atmosphere and the ALH 84001 meteorite, it is possible that these reservoirs were established after early atmospheric loss prior to 4 Ga. The preservation of these signals over this long period of history can be explained in several slightly different ways: 1) C, O, and H have remained static in the atmosphere and have not exchanged with the surface over the past 4 Ga; 2) C, O, and H in the atmosphere have potentially varied widely over history but have been continually buffered by larger reservoirs in the crust which have remained unchanged over the past 4 Ga. This second possibility allows for potentially large variations in atmospheric pressure to occur as CO2 is recycled back into the atmosphere from crustal reservoirs or degassed from the mantle.

  20. Measurement of cardiopulmonary performance during acute exposure to a 2440-m equivalent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, B. M.; Bungo, M. W.

    1982-01-01

    Each of 20 subjects (ranging in age from 18 to 38 years, 15 being male, five female) was given two Bruce Protocol symptom-limited maximum treadmill stress tests, breathing sea-level compressed air (20.9% O2) for one test and a 2440-m equivalent (15.5% O2) for the other. A significant difference was found to exist between measured VO2 max (p less than 0.0002) and exercise time (p less than 0.0004) for the two conditions. No significant differences were observed in heart rate or the recovery time to a respiratory quotient of less than 1. Hemoglobin saturation, as measured by an ear oximeter, averaged 95% for sea-level and 91% for the 2440-m equivalent gases. These results support a 2440-m equivalent contingency atmosphere in the Space Shuttle prior to donning a low-pressure suit for the purpose reducing nitrogen washout times.

  1. Short-term exposure of low-alloyed steels in Qinghai Salt Lake atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI QiaoXia; WANG ZhenYao; HAN Wei; YU GuoCai; HAN EnHou

    2009-01-01

    The rusts formed on carbon steel and weathering steel exposed in Oinghai Salt Lake atmosphere for 6 months were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared transmission spectroscopy (IRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) and electrochemical polarization techniques. The two kinds of steels showed the similar corrosion rate, corrosion product composition and electrochemical polarization behavior. Their rusts were mainly composed of β-FeOOH, Fe_8(O,OH)_(16)Cl_(1.3) and a little γ-FeOOH. Cl~- played an important role during the corrosion process of low-alloyed steels. The alloyed elements Cr, Ni and Cu in weathering steel were detected in the rusts; however, they showed no remarkable protective ability.

  2. Developing the Science and Technology for the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Juergen; Biewer, Theodore; Bigelow, Timothy; Caughman, John; Goulding, Richard; Lumsdaine, Arnold; MPEX Team Team

    2016-10-01

    The Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) is a device planned to address scientific and technological gaps for the development of viable plasma facing components for fusion reactor conditions (FNSF, DEMO). MPEX is designed to deliver those plasma conditions with a novel Radio Frequency plasma source able to produce high density plasmas and heat electron and ions separately with Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) heating and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) with a total installed power of 800 kW. The science and technology for this source system is currently being tested on Proto-MPEX. This is a linear device utilizing 12 water-cooled copper coils able to achieve peak magnetic fields of 1.6T. The currently total installed heating power (for helicon, EBW and ICRH) is 330kW. An overview of the status of this development program is given with an outlook to the next steps.

  3. Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Cliff S.; Breviere, Emilie; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Garcon, Veronique; Guieu, Cecile; Kieber, David J.; Kontradowitz, Stefan; Paulmier, Aurelien; Quinn, Patricia K.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Stefels, Jacqueline; von Glasow, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on critical issues in ocean-atmosphere exchange that will be addressed by new research strategies developed by the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) research community. Eastern boundary upwelling systems are important sites for CO2 and trace gas emission

  4. Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, F.; Rietjens, J.H.H.; Apituley, A.; Volten, H.; Mijling, B.; Di Noia, A.; Heikamp, S.; Heinsbroek, R.C.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Smit. , J.M.; Vonk, J.; Stam, D.M.; van Harten, G.; de Boer, J.; Keller, C.U.; iSPEX citizen scientists; Stuut, J.B.W.; Wernand, M.R.; Philippart, C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on health, climate, and air traffic, aerosol properties must be measured with fine spatial and temporal sampling. This can be achieved by actively involving citizens and the technology they own to form an atmospheric measurement network. We establish this

  5. Mapping atmospheric aerosols with a citizen science network of smartphone spectropolarimeters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, F.; Rietjens, J.H.H.; Apituley, A.; Volten, H.; Mijling, B.; Di Noia, A.; Heikamp, S.; Heinsbroek, R.C.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Smit, J.M.; Vonk, J.; Stam, D.M.; Van Harten, G.; De Boer, J.; Keller, C.U.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on health, climate, and air traffic, aerosol properties must be measured with fine spatial and temporal sampling. This can be achieved by actively involving citizens and the technology they own to form an atmospheric measurement network. We establish this

  6. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental Exposures and Asthma Prevalence in Two Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Eiffert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. Most residents (76% were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35% had significantly (P<0.05 higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6. The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes’ ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.01–1.25; two-tailed P=0.04. Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the study findings.

  7. Optical monitoring of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films upon atmospheric exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Kiran; Zhao, Dewei; Cimaroli, Alex; Ke, Weijun; Yan, Yanfa; Podraza, Nikolas J.

    2016-10-01

    CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films of interest for photovoltaic (PV) devices have been prepared by (i) vapor deposition and (ii) solution processing. Complex dielectric function (ε  =  ε 1  +  iε 2) spectra and structural parameters of the films have been extracted using near infrared to ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry. In situ real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) over a 48 h period has been performed on vapor deposited CH3NH3PbI3 after the deposition in normal atmospheric laboratory ambient conditions. Analysis of RTSE data for vapor deposited CH3NH3PbI3 film prepared under un-optimized conditions identifies phase segregated PbI2 and CH3NH3I at the substrate/film interface and unreacted PbI2 and CH3NH3I on the film surface. This analysis also provides the time dependence of the effective thicknesses of perovskite film, unreacted components, and phase segregated layers to track CH3NH3PbI3 decomposition.

  8. Libraries and Information Science: the Profession. Alternative Career Opportunities for Atmospheric, Earth, and Geo-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Many graduate students, researchers and scientists may not be aware that there are other career opportunities available to them as scientists besides the traditional academic, government, industrial and private sector tracks. Subject specialists with science backgrounds are in great demand. Knowledge management and information services affiliated with science and research is an exciting and creative profession. Contributing to, finding and delivering the range of information now emerging from new and established disciplines in all formats defines Information Science and Librarianship with a multitude of opportunities. This poster will offer information to encourage students and researchers with these skills and backgrounds to consider Information and Library Science as an exciting career path.

  9. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  10. An overview of the use of Open Source in the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center Archive Next Generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, R. A.; Perez, J.; Piatko, P. J.; Coogan, S. P.; Parker, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center is responsible for the archive and distribution of Earth science data in the areas of radiation budget, clouds, aerosols, and tropospheric chemistry. Over the past several years the ASDC has developed and implemented the Archive Next Generation (ANGe) system, a state-of-the-art data ingest, archival, and distribution system to serve the atmospheric sciences data provider and user communities. ANGe employs Open Source technologies including the JBoss Application Server, a PostGIS-enabled PostgreSQL database system to store geospatial metadata, modules from the GeoTools Open Source Java GIS Toolkit including the Java Topology Suite (JTS) and GeoAPI libraries, and other libraries such as the Spring framework. ANGe was developed using a suite of several Open Source tools comprised of Eclipse, Ant, Subversion and Jenkins. ANGe is also deployed into an operational environment that leverages Open Source technologies from the Linux Operating system to tools such as Ganglia for monitoring. This presentation provides an overview of ANGe with a focus on the Open Source technologies employed in the implementation and deployment of the system. The ASDC is part of Langley's Science Directorate. The Data Center was established in 1991 to support NASA's Earth Observing System and the U.S. Global Change Research Program. It is unique among NASA data centers in the size of its archive, cutting edge computing technology, and full range of data services. For more information regarding ASDC data holdings, documentation, tools and services, visit http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov.

  11. Measuring the success of community science: the northern California Household Exposure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Tovar, Jessica; Zota, Ami R; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2012-03-01

    Environmental health research involving community participation has increased substantially since the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) environmental justice and community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships began in the mid-1990s. The goals of these partnerships are to inform and empower better decisions about exposures, foster trust, and generate scientific knowledge to reduce environmental health disparities in low-income, minority communities. Peer-reviewed publication and clinical health outcomes alone are inadequate criteria to judge the success of projects in meeting these goals; therefore, new strategies for evaluating success are needed. We reviewed the methods used to evaluate our project, "Linking Breast Cancer Advocacy and Environmental Justice," to help identify successful CBPR methods and to assist other teams in documenting effectiveness. Although our project precedes the development of the NIEHS Evaluation Metrics Manual, a schema to evaluate the success of projects funded through the Partnerships in Environmental Public Health (PEPH), our work reported here illustrates the record keeping and self-reflection anticipated in NIEHS's PEPH. Evaluation strategies should assess how CBPR partnerships meet the goals of all partners. Our partnership, which included two strong community-based organizations, produced a team that helped all partners gain organizational capacity. Environmental sampling in homes and reporting the results of that effort had community education and constituency-building benefits. Scientific results contributed to a court decision that required cumulative impact assessment for an oil refinery and to new policies for chemicals used in consumer products. All partners leveraged additional funding to extend their work. An appropriate evaluation strategy can demonstrate how CBPR projects can advance science, support community empowerment, increase environmental health literacy, and generate

  12. The role of computational chemistry in the science and measurements of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The role of computational chemistry in determining the stability, photochemistry, spectroscopic parameters, and parameters for estimating reaction rates of atmospheric constituents is discussed. Examples dealing with the photolysis cross sections of HOCl and (1 Delta g) O2 and with the stability of gaseous NH4Cl and asymmetric ClO3 are presented. It is concluded that computational chemistry can play an important role in the study of atmospheric constituents, particularly reactive and short-lived species which are difficult to investigate experimentally.

  13. The Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP): A conceptual framework for advancing exposure science research and transforming risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in analytical methods, biomarker discovery, cell-based assay development, computational tools, sensor/monitor, and omics technology have enabled new streams of exposure and toxicity data to be generated at higher volumes and speed. These new data offer the opport...

  14. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was

  15. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, G [University of Colorado, Boulder/CIRES; Argrow, B [University of Colorado; Bland, G [NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center - Wallops Flight Facility; Elston, J [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lawrence, D [University of Colorado; Maslanik, J [University of Colorado; Palo, S [University of Colorado; Tschudi, M [NCAR

    2015-12-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is becoming increasingly popular for a variety of applications. One way in which these systems can provide revolutionary scientific information is through routine measurement of atmospheric conditions, particularly properties related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation. Improved understanding of these topics at high latitudes, in particular, has become very relevant because of observed decreases in ice and snow in polar regions.

  16. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues.

  17. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (28th).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Potential of Corona John A. Bicknell Discharges From Aircraft Flying Institute of Science & Technology In Precipitation P.O. Box 88 AFOSR-83-0083...transformation-toughened zirconia , as well as whisker-, particle- and fiber-reinforced glass and polycrystalline ceramic matrices, * and chemically

  18. Atmospheric constituents and surface-level UVB: Implications for a paleoaltimetry proxy and attempts to reconstruct UV exposure during volcanic episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian C.; Goracke, Byron D.; Dalton, Sean M.

    2016-11-01

    Chemical and morphological features of spores and pollens have been linked to changes in solar ultraviolet radiation (specifically UVB, 280-315 nm) at Earth's surface. Variation in UVB exposure as inferred from these features has been suggested as a proxy for paleoaltitude; such proxies are important in understanding the uplift history of high altitude plateaus, which in turn is important for testing models of the tectonic processes responsible for such uplift. While UVB irradiance does increase with altitude above sea level, a number of other factors affect the irradiance at any given place and time. In this modeling study we use the TUV atmospheric radiative transfer model to investigate dependence of surface-level UVB irradiance and relative biological impact on a number of constituents in Earth's atmosphere that are variable over long and short time periods. We consider changes in O3 column density, and SO2 and sulfate aerosols due to periods of volcanic activity, including that associated with the formation of the Siberian Traps. We find that UVB irradiance may be highly variable under volcanic conditions and variations in several of these atmospheric constituents can easily mimic or overwhelm changes in UVB irradiance due to changes in altitude. On the other hand, we find that relative change with altitude is not very sensitive to different sets of atmospheric conditions. Any paleoaltitude proxy based on UVB exposure requires confidence that the samples under comparison were located at roughly the same latitude, under very similar O3 and SO2 columns, with similar atmospheric aerosol conditions. In general, accurate estimates of the surface-level UVB exposure at any time and location require detailed radiative transfer modeling taking into account a number of atmospheric factors; this result is important for paleoaltitude proxies as well as attempts to reconstruct the UV environment through geologic time and to tie extinctions, such as the end-Permian mass

  19. Probing the sky with radio waves from wireless technology to the development of atmospheric science

    CERN Document Server

    Yeang, Chen-Pang

    2013-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century, engineers and experimental scientists generally knew how radio waves behaved, and by 1901 scientists were able to manipulate them to transmit messages across long distances. What no one could understand, however, was why radio waves followed the curvature of the Earth. Theorists puzzled over this for nearly twenty years before physicists confirmed the zig-zag theory, a solution that led to the discovery of a layer in the Earth's upper atmosphere that bounces radio waves earthward-the ionosphere. In Probing the Sky with Radio Waves,

  20. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) science data processing center implementation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Ellen L.; Taylor, K. David

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Goddard is responsible for the development of a ground system for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) observatory, whose launch is scheduled for 1991. This ground system encompasses a dedicated Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF); attention is presently given to the management of software systems design and implementation phases for CDHF by the UARS organization. Also noted are integration and testing activities performed following software deliveries to the CDHF. The UARS project has an obvious requirement for a powerful and flexible data base management system; an off-the-shelf commercial system has been incorporated.

  1. AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research) Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review (29th).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    August 1952 as a Research Administrator. He brought with him a varied teaching and industrial experience, interrupted by 3 years as an Officer in the...34 and was selected Outstanding Senior by Sigma Delta Phi. After graduation he spent the next five years teaching science and coaching in Ohio high schools...63,900, FY 83 SENIOR RESEARCH PERSONNEL: Dr. K. I. Lazaar PUBLICATIONS: "Intramolecular Unsymmetrical OHO Bonds. Thermochemistry ," K. I. Lazaar and S

  2. Atmospheric protein chemistry influenced by anthropogenic air pollutants: nitration and oligomerization upon exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fobang; Lakey, Pascale S J; Berkemeier, Thomas; Tong, Haijie; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Meusel, Hannah; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Lai, Senchao; Weller, Michael G; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kampf, Christopher J

    2017-08-24

    The allergenic potential of airborne proteins may be enhanced via post-translational modification induced by air pollutants like ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The molecular mechanisms and kinetics of the chemical modifications that enhance the allergenicity of proteins, however, are still not fully understood. Here, protein tyrosine nitration and oligomerization upon simultaneous exposure of O3 and NO2 were studied in coated-wall flow-tube and bulk solution experiments under varying atmospherically relevant conditions (5-200 ppb O3, 5-200 ppb NO2, 45-96% RH), using bovine serum albumin as a model protein. Generally, more tyrosine residues were found to react via the nitration pathway than via the oligomerization pathway. Depending on reaction conditions, oligomer mass fractions and nitration degrees were in the ranges of 2.5-25% and 0.5-7%, respectively. The experimental results were well reproduced by the kinetic multilayer model of aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB). The extent of nitration and oligomerization strongly depends on relative humidity (RH) due to moisture-induced phase transition of proteins, highlighting the importance of cloud processing conditions for accelerated protein chemistry. Dimeric and nitrated species were major products in the liquid phase, while protein oligomerization was observed to a greater extent for the solid and semi-solid phase states of proteins. Our results show that the rate of both processes was sensitive towards ambient ozone concentration, but rather insensitive towards different NO2 levels. An increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations in the Anthropocene may thus promote pro-allergic protein modifications and contribute to the observed increase of allergies over the past decades.

  3. Achievements in atmospheric science from Spacelab: The mesosphere/lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) are adjacent regions of the upper atmosphere that cannot be easily accessed (except by rockets) by in situ measurement. For this reason, the MLT l essentially represents the last unexplored region of the planet. The advent of the shuttle and remote sensing technology over the last decade and a half have changed this situation significantly. Spacelab 1 carried the first payload of instruments capable of acquiring a comprehensive database on the MLT region, and much was learned on that mission that was subsequently used to have greatly improve the measurement capability. The ATLAS 1 payload was probably the most comprehensive ever launched to study upper atmosphere, and the mission was reported as being one of the most successful of NASA's endeavor's to date. The database acquired on ATLAS 1 will provide a reference that will be used for many years to come. It will also provide the means to gaining the first quantitative understanding of the photochemistry of the lower thermosphere and mesosphere.

  4. Integration of atmospheric sciences and hydrology for the development of decision support systems in sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstmann, Harald; Jung, Gerlinde; Wagner, Sven; Clottey, H.

    Sustainable decisions in water resources management require scientifically sound information on water availability. Central support in hydrological decision making arises from hydrological modelling which in turn depends on meteorological input. This work intends to show how integration of atmospheric science and hydrology, particularly the joint modelling of atmospheric and terrestrial water cycle, allows to provide decision support for two fundamental problems in sustainable water management: (1) the impact of global climate change on water availability, and (2) the near-real time estimation of recent resources and fluxes. The performance of joint atmospheric-hydrological simulations and its application for decision support is demonstrated for the Volta Basin of West Africa. First, the impact of global warming on water availability in the Volta Basin is assessed by joint regional climate-hydrology simulations. Time slices of ECHAM4 global climate scenario IS92a are dynamically downscaled to a resolution of 9 × 9 km 2 with the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 and the terrestrial water balance is subsequently calculated by the distributed hydrological model WaSiM. Results indicate a slight increase in total annual precipitation by 5%, but also a significant decrease of precipitation in April (in total 20%, for specific regions up to 70%), at the beginning of the rainy season. Terrestrial water balance variables react highly nonlinear to changes in precipitation and temperature. Second, the performance of joint atmospheric-hydrological simulations as a tool for near-real-time, model based water monitoring system for the White Volta subcatchment is assessed. Operational available GFS (Global Forecasting System) global analyses are dynamically downscaled to 9 × 9 km 2 resolution and meteorological fields subsequently applied for calculating the terrestrial water balance. Albeit a bias in precipitation simulations can be observed when comparing to point

  5. Evaporative deposition patterns of bacteria from a sessile drop: effect of changes in surface wettability due to exposure to a laboratory atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Kyle F; Maier, Raina M; Norris, Theresa A; Beam, Brooke M; Mudalige, Anoma; Pemberton, Jeanne E; Curry, Joan E

    2010-05-18

    Evaporative deposition from a sessile drop is a simple and appealing way to deposit materials on a surface. In this work, we deposit living, motile colloidal particles (bacteria) on mica from drops of aqueous solution. We show for the first time that it is possible to produce a continuous variation in the deposition pattern from ring deposits to cellular pattern deposits by incremental changes in surface wettability which we achieve by timed exposure of the mica surface to the atmosphere. We show that it is possible to change the contact angle of the drop from less than 5 degrees to near 20 degrees by choice of atmospheric exposure time. This controls the extent of drop spreading, which in turn determines the architecture of the deposition pattern.

  6. External costs of atmospheric lead emissions from a waste-to-energy plant: a follow-up assessment of indirect exposure via topsoil ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Møller, Flemming; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-05-30

    In this study the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) was used to calculate the external costs associated with indirect exposure, via topsoil ingestion, to atmospheric emissions of lead (Pb) from a waste-to-energy plant in Denmark. Three metal-specific models were combined to quantify the atmospheric dispersion of lead, its deposition and accumulation in topsoil, and the increase in blood lead concentration for children resulting from lead intake via topsoil ingestion. The neurotoxic impact of lead on children was estimated using a lead-specific concentration-response function that measures impaired cognitive development in terms of IQ points lost per each incremental μg/dl of lead in blood. Since IQ loss during childhood can be associated with a percent decrease in expected lifetime earnings, the monetary value of such an impact can be quantified and the external costs per kg of lead emitted from the plant were then calculated. The costs of indirect exposure calculated over a time horizon of 100 years, for the sub-population of children of 0-3 years, and discounted at 3%, were in the range of 15-30 €/kg. Despite the continued accumulation of lead in topsoil resulting in increasing future indirect exposure, the results indicate that costs associated with this exposure pathway are of the same order of magnitude as costs associated with direct exposure via inhalation, calculated at 45-91 €/kg. Moreover, when the monetary value of future impacts is discounted to the present, the differences between the two exposure pathways are diminished. Finally, setting a short time horizon reduces the uncertainties but excludes part of the costs of indirect exposure from the assessment.

  7. Exposing Underrepresented Groups to Climate Change and Atmospheric Science Through Service Learning and Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, D.

    2016-12-01

    Tennessee State University (TSU) is among seven partner institutions in the NASA-funded project "Mission Earth: Fusing Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) with NASA Assets to Build Systemic Innovation in STEM Education." The primary objective at the TSU site is to expose high school students from racial and ethnic groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM to atmospheric science and physical systems associated with climate change. Currently, undergraduate students enrolled in TSU's urban and physical courses develop lessons for high school students focused upon the analysis of global warming phenomena and related extreme weather events. The GLOBE Atmosphere Protocols are emphasized in exercises focused upon the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and air quality measurements. Pre-service teachers at TSU, and in-service teachers at four local high schools are being certified in the Atmosphere Protocols. Precipitation, ambient air temperature, surface temperature and other data are collected at the schools through a collaborative learning effort among the high school students, TSU undergraduates, and high school teachers. Data collected and recorded manually in the field are compared to each school's automated Weatherbug station measurements. Students and teachers engage in analysis of NASA imagery as part of the GLOBE Surface Temperature Protocol. At off-campus locations, US Clean Air Act (CAA) criteria air pollutant and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) air pollutant sampling is being conducted in community-based participatory research (CBPR) format. Students partner with non-profit environmental organizations. Data collected using low-cost air sampling devices is being compared with readings from government air monitors. The GLOBE Aerosols Protocol is used in comparative assessments with air sampling results. Project deliverables include four new GLOBE schools, the enrollment of which is nearly entirely comprised of students

  8. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) and Related Compounds: Science Advisory Board (External Review Draft) (2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioxin Reassessment, SAB Review Draft The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) is progressing toward completion of its comprehensive reassessment of dioxin science entitled, "Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibe...

  9. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) and Related Compounds: Science Advisory Board (External Review Draft) (2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioxin Reassessment, SAB Review Draft The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) is progressing toward completion of its comprehensive reassessment of dioxin science entitled, "Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibe...

  10. Assessment of exposure to atmospheric particles: contribution of individual measurements; Evaluation de l'exposition aux particules atmospheriques: apport des mesures individuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosqueron, L.; Momas, I. [Universite Rene Descartes, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Lab. d' Hygiene et de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France); Le Moullec, Y. [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Momas, I. [Direction de l' Action Sociale, de l' Enfance et de la Sante, Cellule Epidemiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    There are few studies of individual exposure to atmospheric particles, because of the relatively bulky and noisy sampling devices. These personalized measurements, generally associated with micro-environmental measurements, are aimed at studying the distribution of individual exposure and identifying its main determinants. Methods: A synopsis of the methods implemented in such studies (populations studied, measurements strategies, questionnaires on time-activity patterns, residences and work place) was detailed. The major results are presented and discussed from an epidemiological point of view. Results: The individual exposure measured with portable devices generally were generally found to be higher than the estimations made by combining micro-environmental (outdoor and indoor) measurements and data from time-activity diaries. The difference between results of these two approaches, known as 'personal cloud', remains poorly understood. Correlations between individual measurements and outdoor concentrations are weak; nevertheless, day to day variations of these two series of measurements are better related. The main determinants of individual exposure to particles are identified but a quantification of their contribution remains difficult, except for passive smoking. Conclusion: Personal measurements cannot be used to estimate particle exposure in large scale epidemiological studies. This exposure needs to be modeled. (authors)

  11. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite: From Coffee Table Art to Quantitative Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) has provided an unprecedented set of observations of constituents of the stratosphere. When used in combination with data from other sources and appropriate modeling tools, these observations are useful for quantitative evaluation of stratospheric photochemical processes. This is illustrated by comparing ozone observations from airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL), from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM), from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and from the Halogen occultation Experiment (HALOE) with ozone fields generated with a three dimensional model. For 1995-96, at polar latitudes, observations from DIAL flights on December 9 and January 30, and POAM and MLS between late December and late January are compared with ozone fields from the GSFC 3D chemistry and transport model. Data from the three platforms consistently show that the observed ozone has a negative trend relative to the modeled ozone, and that the trend is uniform in time between early and mid winter, with no obvious dependence on proximity to the vortex edge. The importance of chlorine catalyzed photochemistry to this ozone loss is explored by comparing observations from MLS and HALOE with simulations for other northern winters, particularly 1997-98.

  12. Retrieval of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration above Clouds and Cloud Top Pressure from Airborne Lidar Measurements during ASCENDS Science Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Rodriguez, M.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Kawa, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    NASA Goddard is developing an integrated-path, differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission. The approach uses pulsed lasers to measure both CO2 and O2 absorption simultaneously in the vertical path to the surface at a number of wavelengths across a CO2 line at 1572.335 nm and an O2 line doublet near 764.7 nm. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere allow the technique to estimate column CO2 and O2 number density and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground. This allows retrievals of CO2 column above clouds and cloud top pressure, and all-sky measurement capability from space. This additional information can be used to evaluate atmospheric transport processes and other remote sensing carbon data in the free atmosphere, improve carbon data assimilation in models and help global and regional carbon flux estimates. We show some preliminary results of this capability using airborne lidar measurements from the summers of 2011 and 2014 ASCENDS science campaigns. These show simultaneous retrievals of CO2 and O2 column densities for laser returns from low-level marine stratus clouds in the west coast of California. This demonstrates the supplemental capability of the future space carbon mission to measure CO2 above clouds, which is valuable particularly for the areas with persistent cloud covers, e.g, tropical ITCZ, west coasts of continents with marine layered clouds and southern ocean with highest occurrence of low-level clouds, where underneath carbon cycles are active but passive remote sensing techniques using the reflected short wave sunlight are unable to measure accurately due to cloud scattering effect. We exercise cloud top pressure retrieval from O2 absorption measurements during the flights over the low-level marine stratus cloud decks, which is one of

  13. Engaging students and teachers in meteorology and atmospheric sciences: the LaMMA activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Valentina; Bartolini, Giorgio; Benedetti, Riccardo; Betti, Giulio; Capecchi, Valerio; Gozzini, Bernardo; Magno, Ramona; Orlandi, Andrea; Rovai, Luca; Tei, Claudio; Torrigiani, Tommaso; Zabini, Federica

    2017-05-01

    Scientific institutes contribute to increase scientific awareness in local communities. They also provide students and teachers with learning opportunities outside the classroom. This is especially true when science centers create opportunities to visit laboratories or design activities based on learning by doing. LaMMA, a public consortium set up by Italian National Research Council and Tuscany Region (Italy), is the official weather service for Tuscany. In recent years LaMMA developed several educational modules on meteorology for different school grades. Activities are performed during a two-hour visit at the LaMMA laboratory. Since 2011 every year more than 1200 students come to visit LaMMA to follow one of the proposed modules on meteorology. Students are engaged in different activities and have the opportunity to visit the LaMMA weather operations room and meet the forecasters. In the last two years, an educational module on climate change based on a participatory approach was proposed to teachers of all school levels. More than 500 teachers and environmental educators from all over Tuscany participated and many of them developed a follow up project in the classroom.

  14. Multiple signal propagation at the tropopause of the Venusian atmosphere: new insights from the Radio Science Experiment (VeRa) onboard Venus Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Maren; Oschlisniok, Janusz; Remus, Stefan; Tellmann, Silvia; Häusler, Bernd; Pätzold, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The rapid change of the refractive index over a short altitude range in a planetary atmosphere can lead to multi-path effects when sounding the atmosphere with radio waves. The Radio Science Experiment (VeRa) [1,2] onboard Venus Express sounded the Venusian atmosphere from 90 km downward to 40 km altitude[3,4]. More than 800 profiles of temperature, pressure and neutral number density could be retrieved which cover almost all local times and latitudes. A specially developed analysis method based on the VeRa open loop receiving technique deciphers the multi-path effect and identifies an inversion layer near the tropopause at an altitude of about 60km. This layer is of particular interest - it separates the stratified troposphere from the highly variable mesosphere and can be a likely location for the formation of gravity waves [5]. The new retrieval method shows an inversion layer up to 15 K colder than commonly thought. Local time and latitude dependence including the influence of the spacecraft trajectory on this effect will be discussed. These results will contribute to a consistent picture of the Venus' thermal atmosphere structure and therefore help to improve atmospheric models.[1] Häusler, B. et al: 'Radio science investigations by VeRa onboard the Venus Express spacecraft' Planetary and Space Science 54, 2006[2] Häusler, B. et al, 'Venus Atmospheric, Ionospheric, Surface and Interplanetery Radio-Wave Propagation Studies with the VeRa Radio Science experiment' Eur. Space Agencys, Spec. Publ., ESA SP 1295, 2007[3] Pätzold, M. et al: 'The structure of Venus' middle atmosphere and ionosphere', Nature 450, 2007[4] Tellmann, S. et al : 'Structure of the Venus neutral atmosphere as observed by the Radio Science experiment VeRa on Venus Express', Journal of Geophysical Research 114, 2009[5] Tellmann, S. et al: 'Small-scale temperature fluctuations seen by the VeRa Radio Science Experiment on Venus Express' Icarus 221, 2012.

  15. Exposure Science and the US EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerging field of computational toxicology applies mathematical and computer models and molecular biological and chemical approaches to explore both qualitative and quantitative relationships between sources of environmental pollutant exposure and adverse health outcomes. The...

  16. Innovative optical spectrometers for ice core sciences and atmospheric monitoring at polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Roberto; Alemany, Olivier; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Desbois, Thibault; Faïn, Xavier; Kassi, Samir; Kerstel, Erik; Legrand, Michel; Marrocco, Nicola; Méjean, Guillaume; Preunkert, Suzanne; Romanini, Daniele; Triest, Jack; Ventrillard, Irene

    2015-04-01

    In this talk recent developments accomplished from a collaboration between the Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPhy) and the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) both in Grenoble (France), are discussed, covering atmospheric chemistry of high reactive species in polar regions and employing optical spectrometers for both in situ and laboratory measurements of glacial archives. In the framework of an ANR project, a transportable spectrometer based on the injection of a broadband frequency comb laser into a high-finesse optical cavity for the detection of IO, BrO, NO2 and H2CO has been realized.[1] The robust spectrometer provides shot-noise limited measurements for as long as 10 minutes, reaching detection limits of 0.04, 2, 10 and 200 ppt (2σ) for the four species, respectively. During the austral summer of 2011/12 the instrument has been used for monitoring, for the first time, NO2, IO and BrO at Dumont d'Urville Station at East of Antarctica. The measurements highlighted a different chemistry between East and West coast, with the halogen chemistry being promoted to the West and the OH and NOx chemistry on the East.[2] In the framework of a SUBGLACIOR project, an innovative drilling probe has been realized. The instrument is capable of retrieving in situ real-time vertical profiles of CH4 and δD of H2O trapped inside the ice sheet down to more than 3 km of depth within a single Antarctic season. The drilling probe containing an embedded OFCEAS (optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy) spectrometer will be extremely useful for (i) identify potential sites for investigating the oldest ice (aiming 1.5 Myrs BP records for resolving a major climate reorganization called the Mid-Pleistocene transition occurred around 1 Myrs ago) and (ii) providing direct access to past temperatures and climate cycles thanks to the vertical distribution of two key climatic signatures.[3] The spectrometer provides detection

  17. Enhancing graphical literacy skills in the high school science classroom via authentic, intensive data collection and graphical representation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Anthony

    This research project was developed to provide extensive practice and exposure to data collection and data representation in a high school science classroom. The student population engaged in this study included 40 high school sophomores enrolled in two microbiology classes. Laboratory investigations and activities were deliberately designed to include quantitative data collection that necessitated organization and graphical representation. These activities were embedded into the curriculum and conducted in conjunction with the normal and expected course content, rather than as a separate entity. It was expected that routine practice with graph construction and interpretation would result in improved competency when graphing data and proficiency in analyzing graphs. To objectively test the effectiveness in achieving this goal, a pre-test and post-test that included graph construction, interpretation, interpolation, extrapolation, and analysis was administered. Based on the results of a paired T-Test, graphical literacy was significantly enhanced by extensive practice and exposure to data representation.

  18. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E

    2013-11-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child's body, alterations that may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people.

  19. Nigerian Pre-service Science Teachers' Self-Perceptions of Acquired Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills after Teaching Practice Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Okanlawon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to investigate the teaching competencies acquired and those not acquired by science teachers-in-training after exposure to teaching practice. The investigator used a fifty-six item questionnaire, labeled as Perception of the Acquired Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills Scale (PAPS, to elicit information from two hundred and ten pre-service science teachers in south-west geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A panel of five science educators determined the content validity of the questionnaire. The sample of science education undergraduates were drawn from three randomly selected universities using stratified random sampling technique. The pre-service teachers were required to rate their performance level on each teaching competence on a five-point Likert scale ranging from - high performance level - to - no performance level - with - average performance level - as the pivotal point of the scale. Following that, the mean of each competence item were computed. Any competence statement that had a mean rating of less than 3.00 was considered to be of low performance cadre, since the mean value of the scale was 3.00. The findings of the study indicate that most of the teaching competencies that teachers-in-training have not acquired fall under theme 1 (planning instruction, theme 2(implementing instruction, theme 3 (evaluating instruction, and theme 7 (integrating technology and media in the classroom. The study also revealed that pre-service science teachers demonstrated proficiency in reinforcing learning, managing classroom, building professional links with colleagues and understanding learners' development. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the principle of collaborative approaches for teacher learning should be incorporated into the teacher training program and that regular follow-up workshops aiming at developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK of pre-service science teachers should be

  20. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Juarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

  1. Post effect of repetitive exposures to pressure nitrogen-induced narcosis on the dopaminergic activity at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoute, C; Weiss, M; Sainty, J M; Risso, J J; Rostain, J C

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen at pressure produces a neurological syndrome called nitrogen narcosis. Neurochemical experiments indicated that a single exposure to 3 MPa of nitrogen reduced the concentration of dopamine by 20% in the striatum, a structure involved in the control of extrapyramidal motor activity. This effect of nitrogen was explained by enhanced GABAergic neurotransmission through GABAA receptors and, to a lesser extent, by a decreased glutamatergic input to DA cells through NMDA receptors. The aim of this study was to study, under normobaric conditions, possible alterations of NMDA receptor activity in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) induced by repetitive exposures to nitrogen pressure. Under general anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted in the striatum with multifiber carbon dopamine-sensitive electrodes and in the SNc with guide cannulae for drug injections. After recovery from surgery, the striatal dopamine level was recorded by voltammetry in freely-moving rats, in normobaric conditions, before and after 5 repetitive exposures to 1MPa of nitrogen (threshold of nitrogen narcosis occurrence in rat). The effect of NMDA receptor activity on DA concentration was investigated using agonist (NMDA) and specific antagonist (AP7) SNc administration. Following repetitive nitrogen exposures, the ability of NMDA to elevate DA concentrations was enhanced. In contrast, after nitrogen exposure AP7 produced a paradoxical increase in DA concentration compared to its inhibitory effect before any exposure. Similar responses were obtained after a single exposure to 3MPa nitrogen. Thus, repetitive exposures to nitrogen narcosis produced a sensitization of postsynaptic NMDA receptors on DA cells, related to a decreased glutamatergic input in SNc. Consequently, successive nitrogen narcosis exposures disrupted ion-channel receptor activity revealing a persistent nitrogen-induced neurochemical change underlying the pathologic process.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the DOE (Department of Energy) Office of Energy Research - Part 3: Atmospheric Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This 1989 Annual Report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the US Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, safety, and health conducted during fiscal year 1989. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. This volume contains research in the atmospheric sciences. Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at PNL are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, continental, and global scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. The redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. Eventually, large-scale experiments on cloud processing and redistribution of contaminants will be integrated into the national program on global change, investigating how energy pollutants affect aerosols and clouds and the transfer of radiant energy through them. As the significance of this effect becomes clear, its global impact on climate will be studied through experimental and modeling research. The description of ongoing atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: atmospheric studies in complex terrain, large-scale atmospheric transport and processing of emissions, and climate change. This report describes the progress in FY 1989 in each of these areas. A divider page summarizes the goals of each area and lists project titles that support research activities. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Political science. Exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshy, Eytan; Messing, Solomon; Adamic, Lada A

    2015-06-05

    Exposure to news, opinion, and civic information increasingly occurs through social media. How do these online networks influence exposure to perspectives that cut across ideological lines? Using deidentified data, we examined how 10.1 million U.S. Facebook users interact with socially shared news. We directly measured ideological homophily in friend networks and examined the extent to which heterogeneous friends could potentially expose individuals to cross-cutting content. We then quantified the extent to which individuals encounter comparatively more or less diverse content while interacting via Facebook's algorithmically ranked News Feed and further studied users' choices to click through to ideologically discordant content. Compared with algorithmic ranking, individuals' choices played a stronger role in limiting exposure to cross-cutting content.

  4. Exposure Science for Terrorist Attacks and Theaters of Military Conflict: Minimizing Contact with Toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The strategies for protecting our deployed U.S. Forces are outlined in National Research Council documents published in 1999–2000. This article summarizes experiences and information gathered and interpreted regarding population and rescue workers’ exposures in the aftermath of the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, with the aim to provide insights on issues related to military deployment to locations with hazardous agents. Issues coveted include phases of exposure, materials of concern, detection equipment, and personal protection equipment. The focus is on human exposure issues, which are primarily associated with strategies 1 through 3 of the National Research Council’s report entitled “Protecting Those Who Serve: Strategies to Protect the Health of Deployed U.S. Forces”. Contact and duration of contact with hazardous substances are critical areas of concern, which require prevention and intervention procedures and protocols to reduce the incidence of acute and long-term health outcomes. PMID:21916334

  5. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Cell Exposure Systems for in Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared various in vitro exposure systems for their ability to expose cells to particles and gases. The systems tested use different mechanisms to deliver multi-pollutants to the cells: diffusion, sedimentation, thermophoresis (THP) and electrostatic precipitation (ESP). Vari...

  6. Hurricane Sandy science plan: impacts of environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskie, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: • Coastal topography and bathymetry

  7. Revolutionising incoherent scatter science with EISCAT_3D: A European three-dimensional imaging radar for atmospheric and geospace research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Esa; McCrea, Ian; Kosch, Mike

    2010-05-01

    from the active site respectively, on baselines running East and South from the active core, is enivisaged. This provides an optimal geometry for calculation of vector velocities in the middle and upper atmosphere. The gain of the EISCAT_3D antennas and the large size of the active site arrays will deliver an enormous increase in the figure-of-merit relative to any of EISCAT's existing radars. An active site of 5,000 elements would already exceed the performance of the current EISCAT VHF system, while an active site comprising 16,000 elements, as suggested in the Design Study carried out from 2005 to 2009, will exceed the sensitivity of the present VHF radar by an order of magnitude. Each transmitter unit will have its own signal generator, allowing the generation and transmission of arbitrary waveforms, limited only by the available transmission bandwidth and spectrum allocation by the frequency management authorities. This unique innovation allows the implementation of all currently used and envisaged modulation schemes and antenna codings (such as polyphase alternating codes, array tapering, orbital angular momentum beams) and also provides the possibility to adopt any kind of future code. In addition, it will allow advanced clutter mitigation strategies such as adaptive null steering and null shaping. In this talk the upper atmosphere and geospace science case for EISCAT_3D is reviewed. Studies of the atmospheric energy budget, space plasma physics with both small-scale structures and large-scale processes, as well as geospace environment monitoring and possible service applications are reviewed, showing recent highlights from the current EISCAT incoherent scatter radars for comparison.

  8. Exposure to Science Is Not Enough: The Influence of Classroom Experiences on Belief in Paranormal Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Lou; Hilperts, Keri; Hindley, Lauren; Marco, Christina; Santana, Amanda; Hawk, Michelle Vosburgh

    2010-01-01

    Beliefs in scientifically unsubstantiated ideas were investigated with a study that contrasted college students' attitudes toward paranormal phenomena before and after exposure to skeptical arguments concerning these events. Specifically, students enrolled in 2 sections of a psychological statistics course were exposed to illustrations of…

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1982 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1983-02-01

    This report is organized in terms of generic studies: theoretical studies of atmospheric processes; pollutant characterizations and transformation; boundary layer meteorology; and dispersion, deposition and resuspension of atmospheric pollutants.

  10. The Relationship between Students' Exposure to Technology and Their Achievement in Science and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delen, Erhan; Bulut, Okan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of information and communication technologies (ICT) on students' math and science achievement. Recently, ICT has been widely used in classrooms for teaching and learning purposes. Therefore, it is important to investigate how these technological developments affect students' performance at…

  11. An 11-year global gridded aerosol optical thickness reanalysis (v1.0) for atmospheric and climate sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peng; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Hogan, Timothy F.; Hyer, Edward J.; Curtis, Cynthia A.; Hegg, Dean A.; Shi, Yingxi; Campbell, James R.; Rubin, Juli I.; Sessions, Walter R.; Turk, F. Joseph; Walker, Annette L.

    2016-04-01

    While stand alone satellite and model aerosol products see wide utilization, there is a significant need in numerous atmospheric and climate applications for a fused product on a regular grid. Aerosol data assimilation is an operational reality at numerous centers, and like meteorological reanalyses, aerosol reanalyses will see significant use in the near future. Here we present a standardized 2003-2013 global 1 × 1° and 6-hourly modal aerosol optical thickness (AOT) reanalysis product. This data set can be applied to basic and applied Earth system science studies of significant aerosol events, aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction, and electro-optical propagation and sensor performance, among other uses. This paper describes the science of how to develop and score an aerosol reanalysis product. This reanalysis utilizes a modified Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) at its core and assimilates quality controlled retrievals of AOT from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on Terra. The aerosol source functions, including dust and smoke, were regionally tuned to obtain the best match between the model fine- and coarse-mode AOTs and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOTs. Other model processes, including deposition, were tuned to minimize the AOT difference between the model and satellite AOT. Aerosol wet deposition in the tropics is driven with satellite-retrieved precipitation, rather than the model field. The final reanalyzed fine- and coarse-mode AOT at 550 nm is shown to have good agreement with AERONET observations, with global mean root mean square error around 0.1 for both fine- and coarse-mode AOTs. This paper includes a discussion of issues particular to aerosol reanalyses that make them distinct from standard meteorological reanalyses, considerations for extending such a reanalysis outside of the NASA A-Train era, and examples of how

  12. Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education: Activities in Support of Earth, Oceans and Atmospheric Sciences Faculty, and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Singer, J.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF offers funding programs that support geoscience education spanning atmospheric, oceans, and Earth sciences, as well as environmental science, climate change and sustainability, and research on learning. The 'Resources to Transform Undergraduate Geoscience Education' (RTUGeoEd) is an NSF Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM (TUES) Type 2 special project aimed at supporting college-level geoscience faculty at all types of institutions. The project's goals are to carry out activities and create digital resources that encourage the geoscience community to submit proposals that impact their courses and classroom infrastructure through innovative changes in instructional practice, and contribute to making transformative changes that impact student learning outcomes and lead to other educational benefits. In the past year information sessions were held during several national and regional professional meetings, including the GSA Southeastern and South-Central Section meetings. A three-day proposal-writing workshop for faculty planning to apply to the TUES program was held at the University of South Florida - Tampa. During the workshop, faculty learned about the program and key elements of a proposal, including: the need to demonstrate awareness of prior efforts within and outside the geosciences and how the proposed project builds upon this knowledge base; need to fully justify budget and role of members of the project team; project evaluation and what matters in selecting a project evaluator; and effective dissemination practices. Participants also spent time developing their proposal benefitting from advice and feedback from workshop facilitators. Survey data gathered from workshop participants point to a consistent set of challenges in seeking grant support for a desired educational innovation, including poor understanding of the educational literature, of available funding programs, and of learning assessment and project evaluation. Many also noted

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1985, this research has examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain, summarized the field studies and analyses of dry deposition and resuspension conducted in past years, and begun participation in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain; Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants; and Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation (PRECP).

  14. SAVEnergy Action Plan: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Richman, E.E.; Sandusky, W.F. III; Dittmer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a SAVEnergy Audit of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, Washington. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of all energy-consuming equipment in the facility, to estimate energy consumption and demand by end-use and to recommend energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs) to reduce costs . This section describes the facility and the systems encountered during the visit by the audit team. It also presents a summary of energy conservation measures. Section 2 shows energy consumption and costs for electricity, natural gas and water. A breakdown of energy consumed by end-use is also presented. Recommended energy conservation measures are presented in Section 3. Section 4 contains a discussion of operations and maintenance issues and other energy measures that can be implemented on a replace-on-failure basis rather than replacing immediately. Appendix A contains a three-year history of consumption, demand and cost for electric, natural gas and water utilities. Appendix B contains information on local weather data correlated to utility billing periods. A brief summary on Federal life-cycle costing is located in Appendix C along with the life-cycle cost analyses summaries for the energy and water conservation measures detailed in this report. Information on the rebate program sponsored by Seattle City Light, the electric utility, is located in Appendix D. Sample information for water-efficient equipment is located in Appendix E. Appendix F contains submittal forms to the Federal Energy Efficiency Fund for the energy conservation measures recommended in Section 3 of this report. A glossary of terms and abbreviations used in this report is located in Appendix G.

  15. Correlation between atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and urinary hydroxyl metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in elderly population in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓蕾

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify suitable hydroxyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(OH-PAHs) for co-evaluation of internal exposure level of PAHs by simultaneous determination of a variety of OH-PAHs in urine. Methods The 24-h individual particulate matter and morning urine

  16. Atmospheric constituents and surface-level UVB: implications for a paleoaltimetry proxy and attempts to reconstruct UV exposure during volcanic episodes

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C; Dalton, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    Chemical and morphological features of spores and pollens have been linked to changes in solar ultraviolet radiation (specifically UVB, 280-315 nm) at Earth's surface. Variation in UVB exposure as inferred from these features has been suggested as a proxy for paleoaltitude. While UVB irradiance does increase with altitude above sea level, a number of other factors affect the irradiance at any given place and time. In this modeling study we use the TUV atmospheric radiative transfer model to investigate dependence of surface-level UVB irradiance and relative biological impact on a number of constituents in Earth's atmosphere that are variable over long and short time periods. We consider changes in O3 column density, and SO2 and sulfate aerosols due to periods of volcanic activity, including that associated with the formation of the Siberian Traps. We find that UVB irradiance may be highly variable under volcanic conditions and variations in several of these atmospheric constituents can easily mimic or overwhe...

  17. Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences physical retrieval system for remote determination of weather and climate parameter from HIRS2 and MSU observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, J.

    1984-01-01

    At the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) a physically based satellite temperature sounding retrieval system, involving the simultaneous analysis of HIRS2 and MSU sounding data, was developed for determining atmospheric and surface conditions which are consistent with the observed radiances. In addition to determining accurate atmospheric temperature profiles even in the presence of cloud contamination, the system provides global estimates of day and night sea or land surface temperatures, snow and ice cover, and parameters related to cloud cover. Details of the system are described elsewhere. A brief overview of the system is presented, as well as recent improvements and previously unpublished results, relating to the sea-surface intercomparison workshop, the diurnal variation of ground temperatures, and forecast impact tests.

  18. Mirador - Atmospheric Composition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Atmospheric Composition is focused on the composition of Earth's atmosphere in relation to climate prediction, solar effects,...

  19. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1984-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional energy resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy resources. The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of generic studies including Contaminant Characterizations and Transformation; Boundary Layer Meteorology; and Dispersion, Deposition and Resupension of Atmospheric Contaminants.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  1. Study of spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric mercury and its human exposure around an integrated steel plant, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, S.; Koshle, A.; Pervez, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Mercury release by coal combustion has been significantly increased in India. Mercury content in coal has been analyzed to 0.272 ppm by Central Pollution Control Board. Toxicological effects of elemental Hg (Hg0) exposure include respiratory and renal failures, cardiac arrest, and cerebral oedema, while subclinical exposure may induce kidney, behavioral, and cognitive dysfunctions. The present work is focused on dispersion pattern and inter-phase exchange phenomena of ambient mercury between air-particulate matter evaluations of alongwith dominance of various major routes of human exposure-dose response using regression analysis around an integrated steel plant in central India. Source-downwind type stratified random sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted for ambient monitoring of total mercury, while representative sampling plant has been adopted for persona exposure-dose response study In space-time framework. Control sites and subjects have been chosen from uncontaminated area (100 km away from any industrial activities). 06 ambient air monitoring stations and 17 subjects from workers, non-workers but local residents' categories and from controlled sites have been chosen for the study. Samples of mercury biomarkers (blood, breast milk and urine) have also been collected from same subjects in each month during sampling period. The sampling period was March 2005 to February 2006 . Samples of 30% acidified KMnO4 for air-Hg absorption, PM10, RPM and biological samples were analyzed for total mercury by ICP-AES using standard methods. Local soils and ground water were also monitored for total mercury content during the sampling period. Results have shown that mercury concentration is very high compared to prescribed limits in all receptors. Results of exchange phenomenon have shown the higher transfer of mercury from air to particulate during combustion in steel plant environment due to presence of huge amount of iron particles, in contrast to

  2. NTP Toxicity Study Report on the atmospheric characterization, particle size, chemical composition, and workplace exposure assessment of cellulose insulation (CELLULOSEINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel L

    2006-08-01

    Cellulose insulation (CI) is a type of thermal insulation produced primarily from recycled newspapers. The newspapers are shredded, milled, and treated with fire-retardant chemicals. The blowing process for installing CI generates a significant quantity of airborne material that presents a potential inhalation hazard to workers. CI was selected for study based upon the high production volume, the potential for widespread human exposure, and a lack of toxicity data; insufficient information was available to determine whether inhalation studies in laboratory animals were technically feasible or necessary. Studies were conducted to characterize the chemical and physical properties of CI aerosols, to evaluate the potential acute pulmonary toxicity of CI, and to assess occupational exposure of CI installers. Workplace exposure assessments were conducted in collaboration with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, 2001). Chemical analyses were performed on samples of bulk CI from four major United States manufacturers. All samples of the bulk CI were found to contain primarily amorphous cellulose (60% to 65%) with a smaller crystalline component (35% to 40%). The crystalline phase was primarily native cellulose (75% to 85%) with a minor amount of cellulose nitrate (15% to 25%). Elemental analyses of acid digests of CI materials indicated that the major components (>0.1% by weight) included aluminum, boron, calcium, sodium, and sulfur. An acid-insoluble residue present in all four materials (3% to 5% of original sample weight) was found to consist primarily of aluminum silicate hydroxide (kaolinite; approximately 85%) with minor amounts (talc), potassium aluminum silicate hydroxide (muscovite), and titanium oxide (rutile). Solvent extracts of the bulk materials were analyzed for organic components by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Analyses revealed a mass of poorly resolved peaks. Because of the very low concentrations

  3. In vitro exposure of Ostrya carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus pollen to atmospheric levels of CO, O3 and SO 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuinica, Lázaro G; Abreu, Ilda; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2014-02-01

    Ostrya spp. and Carpinus spp. pollen was in vitro exposed to three atmospheric pollutants: CO, O3 and SO2. Two levels of each pollutant were used, and the first level corresponds to a concentration about the atmospheric hour-limit value acceptable for human health protection in Europe and the second level to about the triple of the first level. Experiments were done under artificial solar light with temperature and relative humidity controlled. The viability of the exposed pollen samples showed a significant decrease. Also, the germination percentage showed a significant decrease in both exposed pollens, and the effect was most pronounced for SO2, followed by O3 and CO. A general decreasing trend in the total soluble protein content of the exposed pollen samples when compared with the control was observed, but it was only statistically significant for the Ostrya spp pollen. The results showed marked effects were observed on the Ostrya spp. and Carpinus spp. pollen when exposed to air pollutant levels that can be considered safe for human health protection.

  4. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: Gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Taicheng, E-mail: antc99@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Delin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Guiying; Mai Bixian; Fu Jiamo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m{sup 3} and 27-2975 ng/m{sup 3} at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major {Sigma}PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured {phi} values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD. - Highlights: > On- and off-site atmospheric PBDEs was monitored in e-waste dismantling workshops in south China. > The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for some samples. > Exposure assessment revealed that workers in I-EDWD were the highest exposure population. - The findings of this study may serve as a valuable reference for future risk assessment and environmental management in Guiyu, South China.

  5. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1987-06-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1987-06-01

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1986, atmospheric research examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain and participated in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, during 1986, a special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity occurred after the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual projects.

  8. Beyond "getting drugs into bodies": social science perspectives on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith D; Hoppe, Trevor A

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have much to contribute to the analysis of the real and potential contribution of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to HIV prevention around the world. Beyond just a matter of clinical efficacy and getting pills into people's mouths, PrEP raises a number of important social-psychological questions that must be attended to in order to translate biomedical and clinical findings into uptake of PrEP among enough people at risk of HIV infection to produce population-level effectiveness. PrEP is a dynamic phenomenon with "dialectical" attributes that invite both optimism and cynicism as a desirable and effective HIV prevention strategy. PrEP disrupts traditional notions of "safe" and "unsafe" sex; it confers on its users a level of agency and control not generally achieved with condoms; and it affects sexual practices and sexual cultures in meaningful ways. As these dynamics play out in different contexts, and as new modes of PrEP administration emerge, it will be important for social scientists to be engaged in assessing their impact on PrEP implementation and effectiveness.

  9. Study of the Durability of Doped Lanthanum Manganite and Cobaltite Cathode Materials under ''Real World'' Air Exposure Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Prabhakar [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Mahapatra, Manoj [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Ramprasad, Rampi [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Minh, Nguyen [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Misture, Scott [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2014-11-30

    The overall objective of the program is to develop and validate mechanisms responsible for the overall structural and chemical degradation of lanthanum manganite as well as lanthanum ferrite cobaltite based cathode when exposed to “real world” air atmosphere exposure conditions during SOFC systems operation. Of particular interest are the evaluation and analysis of degradation phenomena related to and responsible for (a) products formation and interactions with air contaminants, (b) dopant segregation and oxide exolution at free surfaces, (c) cation interdiffusion and reaction products formation at the buried interfaces, (d) interface morphology changes, lattice transformation and the development of interfacial porosity and (e) micro-cracking and delamination from the stack repeat units. Reaction processes have been studied using electrochemical and high temperature materials compatibility tests followed by structural and chemical characterization. Degradation hypothesis has been proposed and validated through further experimentation and computational simulation.

  10. Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Justin G; Grande, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history. Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning. Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients' social and emotional challenges. Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course.

  11. Patient exposure in the basic science classroom enhances differential diagnosis formation and clinical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G. Peacock

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The authors proposed that introducing real patients into a pathology classroom early in medical education would help integrate fundamental principles and disease pathology with clinical presentation and medical history.Methods. Three patients with different pathologies described their history and presentation without revealing their diagnosis. Students were required to submit a differential diagnosis in writing, and then were able to ask questions to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Students were surveyed on the efficacy of patient-based learning.Results. Average student scores on the differential diagnosis assignments significantly improved 32% during the course. From the survey, 72% of students felt that patient encounters should be included in the pathology course next year. Seventy-four percent felt that the differential diagnosis assignments helped them develop clinical decision-making skills. Seventy-three percent felt that the experience helped them know what questions to ask patients. Eighty-six percent felt that they obtained a better understanding of patients’ social and emotional challenges.Discussion. Having students work through the process of differential diagnosis formulation when encountering a real patient and their clinical presentation improved clinical decision-making skills and integrated fundamental concepts with disease pathology during a basic science pathology course.

  12. Potential use of the PRI and active fluorescence for the diagnosis of the physiological state of plants under ozone exposure and high atmospheric vapor pressure deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlier, Elodie; Hmimina, Gabriel; Bagard, Matthieu; Dufrêne, Eric; Soudani, Kamel

    2017-08-09

    Assessing photosynthesis rates with remote sensing is important for tracking the physiological state of plants. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is a good estimator of short-term light-use efficiency (LUE) at the leaf scale but its responses to environmental factors are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed changes in the responses of the PRI to ozone exposure and to an increase in atmospheric drought (separately and combined) in oak (Quercus robur) and holm oak (Quercus ilex) that were planted in climatic cells under controlled conditions. The aim was to evaluate the ability of the PRI as a relevant indicator to assess the impact of abiotic factors on photosynthesis. Leaf-scale measurements of biochemical, physiological and spectral properties, including the PRI in dim light on dark-adapted leaves (PRI0), kinetics of PRI responses to PAR variations (photosynthetically active radiation), and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were performed. The results show that PRI0 is a good proxy of the leaf chlorophyll content, and is correlated to chlorophyll fluorescence parameters on dark adapted leaves (Fo, Fm). The correction of the PRI from the leaf chlorophyll content variations (PRIc) significantly improves correlations between the PRI and NPQ (non-photochemical quenching). The variability of PARsat (estimated PAR value at PRI saturation using PRI vs. PAR relationships) depends on ozone exposure and on the increase in atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. For Quercus robur, results highlight that PARsat is linked to abiotic stress indicating that the PRI may be used as a relevant indicator of abiotic factors limiting the photosynthesis. Quercus ilex did not show significant variability in PRI0 and PARsat, which suggest that it is a more drought resistant species than Q. robur.

  13. Measurement of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables to improve human exposure assessments: field study of soil-plant-atmosphere transfers in urban areas, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, TianTian; Dumat, Camille; Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Kang, Yuan; Li, Ning; Bertoni, Georges; Laplanche, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    The quality of cultivated consumed vegetables in relation to environmental pollution is a crucial issue for urban and peri-urban areas, which host the majority of people at the global scale. In order to evaluate the fate of metals in urban soil-plant-atmosphere systems and their consequences on human exposure, a field study was conducted at two different sites near a waste incinerator (site A) and a highway (site B). Metal concentrations were measured in the soil, settled atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and vegetables. A risk assessment was performed using both total and bioaccessible metal concentrations in vegetables. Total metal concentrations in PM were (mg kg(-1)): (site A) 417 Cr, 354 Cu, 931 Zn, 6.3 Cd and 168 Pb; (site B) 145 Cr, 444 Cu, 3289 Zn, 2.9 Cd and 396 Pb. Several total soil Cd and Pb concentrations exceeded China's Environmental Quality Standards. At both sites, there was significant metal enrichment from the atmosphere to the leafy vegetables (correlation between Pb concentrations in PM and leaves: r = 0.52, p plant species. Total Cr, Cd and Pb concentrations in vegetables were therefore above or just under the maximum limit levels for foodstuffs according to Chinese and European Commission regulations. High metal bioaccessibility in the vegetables (60-79 %, with maximum value for Cd) was also observed. The bioaccessible hazard index was only above 1 for site B, due to moderate Pb and Cd pollution from the highway. In contrast, site A was considered as relatively safe for urban agriculture.

  14. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1981-02-01

    Separate absracts were prepared for the 15 sections of this progress report which is a description of atmospheric research at PNL organized in terms of the following energy technologies: coal, gas and oil; fission and fusion; and oil shale. (KRM)

  15. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.A.; Combs, A.; Kent, R.; Stanley, L. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Biology; Myers, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tissue, D.T. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Western Sydney Univ., Richmond, NSW (Australia). Centre for Plant and Food Science

    2009-06-15

    This study investigated the biological adaptation of loblolly pine following long-term seasonal exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) partial pressures (pCO{sub 2}). Exposure to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) usually results in significant stimulation in light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. Plants are protected against photoinhibition by biochemical processes known as photoprotection, including energy dissipation, which converts excess absorbed light energy into heat. This study was conducted in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO{sub 2} at the Duke FACE site. The effect of elevated pCO{sub 2} on electron transport and energy dissipation in the pine trees was examined by coupling the analyses of the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen (O{sub 2}) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and photosynthetic pigment composition with measurements of net photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation (Asat). During the summer growing season, Asat was 50 per cent higher in current-year needles and 24 per cent higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO{sub 2} in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO{sub 2}. Thus, older needles exhibited greater photosynthetic down-regulation than younger needles in elevated pCO{sub 2}. In the winter, Asat was not significantly affected by growth pCO{sub 2}. Asat was lower in winter than in summer. Growth at elevated pCO{sub 2} had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photosystem 2 efficiencies, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age. There was no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO{sub 2} on Calvin cycle activity. 73 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the DOE Office of Energy Research: Part 3, Atmospheric sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1988-08-01

    Currently, the broad goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales in the air, in clouds, and on the surface. For several years, studies of transport and diffusion have been extended to mesoscale areas of complex terrain. Atmospheric cleansing research has expanded to a regional scale, multilaboratory investigation of precipitation scavenging processes involving the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' In addition, the redistribution and long-range transport of transformed contaminants passing through clouds is recognized as a necessary extension of our research to even larger scales in the future. A few long-range tracer experiments conducted in recent years and the special opportunity for measuring the transport and removal of radioactivity following the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986 offer important initial data bases for studying atmospheric processes at these super-regional scales.

  17. Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) Upgrade to Full Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry Capability for Airborne Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S. E.; Flynn, C. J.; Johnson, R. R.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument has been developed at NASA Ames in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and NASA Goddard, supported substantially since 2009 by NASA's Radiation Science Program and Earth Science Technology Office. It combines grating spectrometers with fiber optic links to a tracking, scanning head to enable sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith viewing. 4STAR builds on the long and productive heritage of the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers (AATS-6 and -14), which have yielded more than 100 peer-reviewed publications and extensive archived data sets in many NASA Airborne Science campaigns from 1986 to the present. The baseline 4STAR instrument has provided extensive data supporting the TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013), SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys, 2013), and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment, 2014), field campaigns.This poster presents plans and progress for an upgrade to the 4STAR instrument to achieve full science capability, including (1) direct-beam sun tracking measurements to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (2) sky radiance measurements to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index and mode-resolved size distribution), (3) cloud properties via zenith radiance, and (4) trace gas spectrometry. Technical progress in context with the governing physics is reported on several upgrades directed at improved light collection and usage, particularly as related to spectrally and radiometrically stable propagation through the collection light path. In addition, improvements to field calibration and verification, and flight operability and reliability are addressed.

  18. The multimedia models for the evaluation of exposure bond to the atmospheric emissions of classified installations; Les modeles multimedia pour l'evaluation des expositions liees aux emissions atmospheriques des installations classees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnard, R

    2001-12-15

    Risk assessment and environmental impacts studies are realized to preserve the public health. Today one of the most used approach is the use of an atmospheric dispersion model to assess the risks. The data are then injected in a calculation software of exposure bond to polluted soils, to evaluate the risks of non direct exposure. This report details and evaluates the models corresponding to the need: the methodology for assessing Health Risks associated with multiple pathways of exposure to combustor, human health risk assessment proto col for hazardous waste combustion facilities, EUSES, CALTOX, MEPAS, MEND-TOX, RESRAD, MMSOILS, FRAMES-HWIR, PC-GEMS and TRIM. (A.L.B.)

  19. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of un

  20. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  1. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  2. Evaluation of the effect of early clinical exposure on professional attitude of dental students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aghili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Learning dentistry could have many tension and anxieties like encountering to a strange clinical environment. Early clinical exposure (ECE is supposed to control these stresses. ECE program is an increasingly widespread component of educational curriculum. This study aims to determine the effect of early clinical exposure on the attitude of dental students’ towards dental education and profession. Methods: An analytic study was performed on all 72 dental students studying basic science at Faculty of Dentistry of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences consisted of a short term course of introduction to clinical environment in academic year of 2011-2012. Every 12 students attended in an one day ECE course from 8 AM to 1 PM. Students ' attitude towards dental profession and education were assessed by a questionnaire included 25 items before and after the course .For data analysis descriptive paired-t-test was used. Results: All students completed the questionnaires. Students' attitude towards dental education and profession was evaluated. Mean score of students' attitude before and after exposure to clinical environment were 94.6 and 100.5 respectively .Significant differences were found in the students' attitude before and after the course (P=0.001 Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, we found a positive effect of early clinical exposure on attitudes of first and second year dental students. Demographic variations had an effect on the students' attitude .Therefore we suggest that early clinical exposure should be added to educational curriculum of dental students.

  3. Notes on the exposure of several species of fish to sudden changes in the hydrogen-ion concentration of the water and to an atmosphere of pure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, A.H.

    1931-01-01

    Several species of fish have been subjected to higher concentrations of dissolved oxygen when an atmosphere of pure oxygen was maintained over the surface of the water and also with a super-stratum of pure oxygen under pressure. Several species of fish have been subjected to sudden transfers from low O/sub 2/ to high O/sub 2/ and the reverse. (5.6 p.p.M. to 40.33 p.p.M. and from 41.0 to 7.3 p.p.M.) The results show (a) that different sizes of several species of fish tolerate large and sudden changes in the concentration of O/sub 2/ in either direction, (b) that these fish can live in water containing a large excess of dissolved oxygen with a super-stratum of pure oxygen over the surface (c) that several species of fish can stand pressure of 10 to 13 lbs. for a period of 24 hours and pressures from 15 to 19 lbs for shorter periods. The increase in dissolved oxygen is followed by a slowing down of the respiratory movements. No instances of exophthalmus, opaqueness of the lens, and of the accumulation of gas bubbles were observed. No fish were observed to lose their equilibrium except in the pressure experiment where depression occurred too rapidly. That exposure to a high concentration of dissolved oxygen with a super-stratum of pure oxygen at atmospheric pressures and under small pressure is not harmful is inferred from the small number of fish lost and from the length of time they survived the experiment. The data presented here suggest that they may by applicable to the problem of handling fish in transportation.

  4. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  5. A conceptual framework to support exposure science research and complete the source-to-outcome continuum for risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    While knowledge of exposure is fundamental to assessing and mitigating risks, exposure information has been costly and difficult to generate. Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, computational tools, and a newly articulated vision for a great...

  6. Upgrade of the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) to its Full Science Capability of Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry in Airborne Science Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P.; Dunagan, S.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Flynn, C.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this task in the AITT (Airborne Instrument Technology Transition) Program are to (1) upgrade the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument to its full science capability of measuring (a) direct-beam sun transmission to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (b) sky radiance vs scattering angle to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index spectra, shape, and mode-resolved size distribution), (c) zenith radiance for cloud properties, and (d) hyperspectral signals for trace gas retrievals, and (2) demonstrate its suitability for deployment in challenging NASA airborne multiinstrument campaigns. 4STAR combines airborne sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith pointing with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air pollution, radiant energy budgets (hence climate), and remote measurements of Earth's surfaces. Direct beam hyperspectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements are intended to tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. 4STAR test flights, as well as science flights in the 2012-13 TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) and 2013 SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) have demonstrated that the following are essential for 4STAR to achieve its full science potential: (1) Calibration stability for both direct-beam irradiance and sky radiance, (2) Improved light collection and usage, and (3) Improved flight operability and reliability. A particular challenge

  7. The role of atmospheric diagnosis and Big Data science in improving hydroclimatic extreme prediction and the merits of climate informed prediction for future water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Lall, Upmanu

    2017-04-01

    The threats that hydroclimatic extremes pose to sustainable development, safety and operation of infrastructure are both severe and growing. Recent heavy precipitation triggered flood events in many regions and increasing frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation suggested by various climate projections highlight the importance of understanding the associated hydrometeorological patterns and space-time variability of such extreme events, and developing a new approach to improve predictability with a better estimation of uncertainty. This clear objective requires the optimal utility of Big Data analytics on multi-source datasets to extract informative predictors from the complex ocean-atmosphere coupled system and develop a statistical and physical based framework. The proposed presentation includes the essence of our selected works in the past two years, as part of our Global Floods Initiatives. Our approach for an improved extreme prediction begins with a better understanding of the associated atmospheric circulation patterns, under the influence and regulation of slowly changing oceanic boundary conditions [Lu et al., 2013, 2016a; Lu and Lall, 2016]. The study of the associated atmospheric circulation pattern and the regulation of teleconnected climate signals adopted data science techniques and statistical modeling recognizing the nonstationarity and nonlinearity of the system, as the underlying statistical assumptions of the classical extreme value frequency analysis are challenged in hydroclimatic studies. There are two main factors that are considered important for understanding how future flood risk will change. One is the consideration of moisture holding capacity as a function of temperature, as suggested by Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The other is the strength of the convergence or convection associated with extreme precipitation. As convergence or convection gets stronger, rain rates can be expected to increase if the moisture is available. For

  8. Transient atmospheric effects of the landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover: The emission and dissipation of dust and carbazic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, John E.; Schieber, Juergen; Kling, Alexandre M.; Haberle, Robert M.; Moore, Casey A.; Anderson, Mark S.; Katz, Ira; Yavrouian, Andre; Malin, Michael C.; Olson, Timothy; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Comeaux, Keith; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-09-01

    Imaging during and after the landing of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover in 2012 provides a means to examine two transitory phenomena for the first time: the settling of the plume of material raised by the powered terminal descent, and the possible dispersal of 140 kg of hydrazine into the atmosphere as fine-grained solid carbazic acid. The peri-landing images, acquired by the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) and the rover hazard cameras (Hazcams), allow the first comparison of post-landing geological assessment of surface deflation with the plume itself. Examination of the Hazcam images acquired over a period of 4011 s shows that only a small fraction (350-1000 kg) of the total mass of fine-grained surface material displaced by the landing (4000 kg) remained in the atmosphere for this duration. Furthermore, a large component of this dust occurs as particles for which the characteristic optical radius is 20-60 μm, preventing them from being substantially mixed with the atmospheric column by eddy diffusion. Examination of the MARDI record over 225 s post-landing reveals a rapidly settling component that comprised approximately 1800-2400 kg and had a larger particle size with an optical radius of 360-470 μm. The possible release of hydrazine by the sky crane stage also may have created particles of carbazic acid that would, analogous to the dust, spread through eddy diffusivity and settle to the ground. Peri-landing Hazcam images of the plume created during sky crane destruction constrains the particle radius to be either less than 23 μm or greater than 400 μm. When combined with a Lagrangian model of the atmosphere, such particle sizes suggest that the carbazic acid was either deposited very near the sky crane crash site, or was widely dispersed as small particles which would have been quickly photodissociated to volatile ammonia and carbon dioxide. Surfaces visited by the MSL rover, Curiosity, would have received at most <0.2 ppb of carbazic acid and levels

  9. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M

    2008-01-01

    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  10. History of knowledge and evolution of occupational health and regulatory aspects of asbestos exposure science: 1900-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christy A; Sahmel, Jennifer; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Henshaw, John L

    2017-04-01

    The understanding by industrial hygienists of the hazards of asbestos and appropriate ways to characterize and control exposure has evolved over the years. Here, a detailed analysis of the evolution of industrial hygiene practices regarding asbestos and its health risks, from the early 1900s until the advent of the national occupational health and safety regulatory structure currently in place in the US (early-to-mid 1970s) is presented. While industrial hygienists recognized in the early 1900s that chronic and high-level exposures to airborne concentrations of asbestos could pose a serious health hazard, it was not until the mid-1950s that the carcinogenic nature of asbestos began to be characterized and widespread concern followed. With the introduction of the membrane filter sampling method in the late 1960s and early 1970s, asbestos sampling and exposure assessment capabilities advanced to a degree which allowed industrial hygienists to more precisely characterize the exposure-response relationship. The ability of industrial hygienists, analytical chemists, toxicologists, and physicians to more accurately define this relationship was instrumental to the scientific community's ability to establish Occupational Exposure Levels (OELs) for asbestos. These early developments set the stage for decades of additional study on asbestos exposure potential and risk of disease. This was followed by the application of engineering controls and improved respiratory protection which, over the years, saved thousands of lives. This paper represents a state-of-the-art review of the knowledge of asbestos within the industrial hygiene community from about 1900 to 1975.

  11. Chronological trends of emission, environmental level and human exposure of POPs over the last 10 years (1999-2010) in Korea: implication to science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Yoon, Junheon

    2014-02-01

    Despite the first comprehensive reviewing on POPs status in Korea, a previous review chapter (Departments in Environmental Science, Volume 7, Chapter 2) could not discuss and evaluate the temporal trends and the effect of the efforts and policies invested in POPs control and management, since most data were based on individual research results of academic groups in which POPs could not be systematically monitored in terms of time and space. Recently, we have collected monitoring data long enough in time (over 10 years) and wide enough in space (covering various land-use patterns and the Korean peninsula), which were produced at national monitoring stations under the governmental programs. This study aimed to elucidate the temporal trends of POPs emissions, concentrations in multiple compartments (air, water, soil, sediment, organisms, and marine products), and human exposure. The chronological data available for all the subjects investigated were present only for PCDDs/DFs and coPCBs. Their emission reduction with half-lives of ~2 years was followed by contemporaneous decrease of contamination levels in inland compartments, while a considerably slow or slight reduction occurred in human exposure and its related compartments (fishes and shellfishes as foodstuffs consumed, and marine compartments). The findings prove that a lag-time is present for the efforts of emission reduction to be so much effective as to be reflected directly in human exposure, and such a lag-time can be related with the fates connecting inland and marine environments. PCBs showed faster reduction in human exposure than dioxin-like compounds. As for other POPs, chronological trends and half-lives could not be determined owing to low detection frequencies of PCBs and OCPs in environmental compartments, the absence of monitoring data for OCPs in human exposure, and data limitation for emerging POPs present in recent a few years. Monitoring strategies are also recommended based on this meta-analysis.

  12. Evolution of environmental exposure science: Using breath-borne biomarkers for “discovery” of the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent research, 70-90% of long-term latency and chronic human disease incidence is attributable to environmental (human exposome) factors through the gene x environment interaction. Environmental exposures are complex and involve many thousands of chemicals, a mult...

  13. Evolution of environmental exposure science: Using breath-borne biomarkers for “discovery” of the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent research, 70-90% of long-term latency and chronic human disease incidence is attributable to environmental (human exposome) factors through the gene x environment interaction. Environmental exposures are complex and involve many thousands of chemicals, a mult...

  14. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  15. High Data Rates for AubieSat-2 A & B, Two CubeSats Performing High Energy Science in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss a proposed CubeSat size (3 Units / 6 Units) telemetry system concept being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in cooperation with Auburn University. The telemetry system incorporates efficient, high-bandwidth communications by developing flight-ready, low-cost, PROTOFLIGHT software defined radio (SDR) payload for use on CubeSats. The current telemetry system is slightly larger in dimension of footprint than required to fit within a 0.75 Unit CubeSat volume. Extensible and modular communications for CubeSat technologies will provide high data rates for science experiments performed by two CubeSats flying in formation in Low Earth Orbit. The project is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Auburn University to study high energy phenomena in the upper atmosphere. Higher bandwidth capacity will enable high-volume, low error-rate data transfer to and from the CubeSats, while also providing additional bandwidth and error correction margin to accommodate more complex encryption algorithms and higher user volume.

  16. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  17. Fate models for chemical substances in exposure and risk assessment. Focused on estimation of atmospheric concentration; Bakuro{center_dot}risuku hyoka ni okeru kagaku busshitsu unmei yosoku moderu. Taikichu nodo suitei wo chushin toshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, H. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-09-20

    A fate model is one of the most effective tools in exposure and risk assessment of chemical substances. Two different type models are available for estimating the atmospheric concentration. One is unit box and multi compartment type model, the other is atmospheric dispersion model. These models should be used in different suitable situations because each model has both advantage and disadvantage. Estimation of the long-term average concentration in a comparatively wide region into which substances are continuously discharged should be required in the environmental assessment of chemical substances. We developed the model with which to estimate long-term average atmospheric concentrations of chemicals. The model validation was conducted for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene concentrations in the atmosphere by comparing calculated values and observed values. Good agreement with the measured values was obtained for the monthly average concentration. The model is capable of estimating the long-term (such as monthly) average distribution of concentration of chemicals in a wide flat area such as the Kanto plain. (author)

  18. The Chinese polar atmospheric sciences observation engineering system%中国极地大气科学观测工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙骅; 卞林根

    2012-01-01

    The polar regions are located in the north and south ends on the earth, which are the key areas of global change research. To understand global change, especially the global climate change, it is needed to research on polar atmosphere. Chinese Arctic and Antarctic of scientific investigation started in 80s and 90s of last century. As a national action, by the end of 2011 , 28 times Antarctic expeditions and 8 times Antarctic inland expeditions, and 4 time Arctic expeditions were organized. 3 Antarctic bases (Great Wall, Zhongshan and Kunlun) and 1 Arctic base ( Yellow River) and 6 automatic weather stations were established. Formed by the manual weather station, automatic weather station and weather observation on the "Xuelong" icebreaker vessel as the main platform of the polar expedition of hardware support system. Chinese polar atmospheric science observation system is gradually formed including the meteorological operational observation and short-term investigation study. Chinese polar meteorological expedition and research work has made great progress by the efforts near 30 years.%极地位于地球南北两端,是全球变化研究的关键地区,要了解全球变化,特别是全球气候变化,必须对极地有所研究.我国的南极和北极实地科学考察研究,分别始于20世纪80年代和90年代.作为国家行为,到2011年年底,组织了28次南极考察、4次北冰洋考察和8次北极陆地考察;在南北极建立了4个科学考察站,6个自动气象站;形成了以有人考察站、无人自动气象站和“雪龙”号破冰科学考察船为主体的极地科学考察研究硬件支撑体系.在此过程中初步建成了包括常规气象业务、准业务和短期考察在内的中国极地大气科学观测工程体系;该技术系统所获科学数据已在我国极地科学研究中广泛应用,并在国内外产生了重大影响.

  19. Bridging the Divide Between Climate and Global Change Science and Education of Public and K-12 Visitors at the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Carbone, L.; Munoz, R.; Eastburn, T.; Ammann, C.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A.; Committee, S.

    2004-12-01

    The study of climate and global change is an important on-going focus for scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Programs overseen by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach (UCAR-EO) help to translate NCAR's scientific programs, methodologies, and technologies and their societal benefits to over 80,000 visitors to the NCAR Mesa Laboratory each year, including about 10,000 K-12 students. This is currently accomplished through the implementation of an increasingly integrated system of exhibits, guided tours, an audiotour, programs for school groups, and a teachers' guide to the exhibits, which is currently in development. The Climate Discovery Exhibit unveiled in July 2003 and expanded in 2004 offers visitors visually engaging and informative text panels, graphics, artifacts, and interactives describing Sun-Earth connections, dynamic processes that contribute to and mediate climate change, and the Earth's climate history. The exhibit seeks to help visitors to understand why scientists model the global climate system and how information about past and current climate is used to validate models and build scenarios for Earth's future climate. Exhibit-viewers are challenged to ask questions and reflect upon decision making challenges while considering the roles various natural and human-induced factors play in shaping these predictions. With support from NASA and NCAR, a K-12 Teacher's Guide has been developed corresponding the Climate Discovery exhibit's sections addressing the Sun-Earth connection and past climates (the Little Ice Age, in particular). This presentation will review efforts to identify the challenges of communicating with the public and school groups about climate change, while also describing several successful strategies for utilizing visitor questionnaires and interviews to learn how to develop and refine educational resources that will target their interests, bolster their

  20. Effect of flue gas composition on deposit induced high temperature corrosion under laboratory conditions mimicking biomass firing. Part I: Exposures in oxidizing and chlorinating atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Kiamehr, Saeed; Montgomery, Melanie;

    2016-01-01

    bothoxidizing and oxidizing-chlorinating atmospheres, and the resulting corrosionproducts were comprehensively studied with scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD)techniques. The results show that deposit-free samples suffer grain boundaryattack...... only in an oxidizing-chlorinating atmosphere, otherwise corrosionresults in formation of a duplex oxide. Corrosion attack on deposit-coatedsamples was higher than on deposit-free samples irrespective of the gaseousatmosphere. Specifically, severe volatilization of alloying elements occurred ondeposit...

  1. Beyond “getting drugs into bodies”: social science perspectives on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Judith D.; Hoppe, Trevor A.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have much to contribute to the analysis of the real and potential contribution of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to HIV prevention around the world. Beyond just a matter of clinical efficacy and getting pills into people's mouths, PrEP raises a number of important social-psychological questions that must be attended to in order to translate biomedical and clinical findings into uptake of PrEP among enough people at risk of HIV infection to produce population-level effective...

  2. Advancing the science of environmental exposures during pregnancy and the gene-environment through the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Victoria; Souders, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide nurses with information on the importance of studying environmental exposures during fetal, infant, and childhood development in the National Children's Study. Nurses should be aware of this study to aid in mitigating the complex health problems that arise from environment-health interactions. Nurses may help to educate the public, patients, and caregivers and are in an ideal position to be strong advocates for policy change and regulatory monitoring and enforcement. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Soil respiration, root biomass, and root turnover following long-term exposure of northern forests to elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; Andrew J. Burton; John S. King; Donald R. Zak

    2008-01-01

    The Rhinelander free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment is designed to understand ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (+CO2) and elevated tropospheric ozone (+O3). The objectives of this study were: to understand how soil respiration responded to the experimental treatments; to...

  4. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  5. #2 - An Empirical Assessment of Exposure Measurement Error ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background• Differing degrees of exposure error acrosspollutants• Previous focus on quantifying and accounting forexposure error in single-pollutant models• Examine exposure errors for multiple pollutantsand provide insights on the potential for bias andattenuation of effect estimates in single and bipollutantepidemiological models The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  6. Responses of fungal root colonization, plant cover and leaf nutrients to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 and warming in a subarctic birch forest understory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Carlsson, Bengt Å.; Svensson, Brita M.

    2010-01-01

    Responses of the mycorrhizal fungal community in terrestrial ecosystems to global change factors are not well understood. However, virtually all land plants form symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi, with approximately 20% of the plants' net primary production transported down....... To place the belowground results into an ecosystem context we also investigated how plant cover and nutrient concentrations in leaves responded to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and warming. The ErM colonization in ericaceous dwarf shrubs increased under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations......, but did not respond to warming following 6 years of treatment. This suggests that the higher ErM colonization under elevated CO2 might be due to increased transport of carbon belowground to acquire limiting resources such as N, which was diluted in leaves of ericaceous plants under enhanced CO2...

  7. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  8. Beyond “getting drugs into bodies”: social science perspectives on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith D Auerbach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists have much to contribute to the analysis of the real and potential contribution of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP to HIV prevention around the world. Beyond just a matter of clinical efficacy and getting pills into people's mouths, PrEP raises a number of important social-psychological questions that must be attended to in order to translate biomedical and clinical findings into uptake of PrEP among enough people at risk of HIV infection to produce population-level effectiveness. PrEP is a dynamic phenomenon with “dialectical” attributes that invite both optimism and cynicism as a desirable and effective HIV prevention strategy. PrEP disrupts traditional notions of “safe” and “unsafe” sex; it confers on its users a level of agency and control not generally achieved with condoms; and it affects sexual practices and sexual cultures in meaningful ways. As these dynamics play out in different contexts, and as new modes of PrEP administration emerge, it will be important for social scientists to be engaged in assessing their impact on PrEP implementation and effectiveness.

  9. Risk assessment of arsenic and other metals via atmospheric particles, and effects of atmospheric exposure and other demographic factors on their accumulations in human scalp hair in urban area of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Shao, Dingding; Zhao, Yinge; Wang, Wei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-04-01

    Eighty-eight scalp hair samples were collected from Guangzhou (GZ) urban population (15-65 years) to investigate the accumulation of As and other metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg and Pb). Demographic information, including body weight, height, age, gender, habits of smoking and drinking, types of drinking water, duration of stay in GZ, days of stay in GZ per year (days/year), and hours spent in indoor environment per day (h/day), were also recorded during hair sampling to refine the uncertainty of risk assessment derived from exposures to elements via dust and airborne particles. No significant non-carcinogenic risk was found. However, the cancer risks of Cr and As for both ingestion and inhalation exceeded the most tolerable regulated level (1.0×10(-6)). The environmental exposures to urban dust and airborne particles were observed significantly correlated to accumulations of Cd (R=0.306, p=0.005) and Ni (R=0.333, p=0.002) in scalp hair. Furthermore, the hair burden of elements was also significantly (pfactor influencing As speciation in human scalp hair. However, habits of smoking and alcohol drinking as well as types of drinking water were not identified as the significant influencing factors on any element (p>0.05).

  10. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: Does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouidir, Marion; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Lyon-Caen, Sarah; Morelli, Xavier; Cracowski, Claire; Pontet, Sabrina; Pin, Isabelle; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Slama, Rémy

    2015-11-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=-0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=-0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them.

  11. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  12. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the "KiKK Study") of cancer in young children, diagnosed nuclear power stations in western Germany. The study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both (3)H and (14)C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to (3)H and (14)C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children risk of leukaemia in young children following the peak of above-ground nuclear weapons testing, or that incidence rates are

  13. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Oregon State University (OSU) College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS) Marine Geology Repository (MGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon State University Marine Geology Repository (OSU-MGR) is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS) database, contributing...

  14. On-site and off-site atmospheric PBDEs in an electronic dismantling workshop in south China: gas-particle partitioning and human exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Taicheng; Zhang, Delin; Li, Guiying; Mai, Bixian; Fu, Jiamo

    2011-12-01

    Gas samples and total suspended particle during work and off work time were investigated on-site and off-site electronic waste dismantling workshop (I- and O-EWDW), then compared with plastic recycling workshop (PRW) and waste incineration plant (WIP). TSP concentrations and total PBDE were 0.36-2.21 mg/m(3) and 27-2975 ng/m(3) at different workshops, respectively. BDE-47, -99, and -209 were major ∑PBDE congeners at I-EWDW and WIP, while BDE-209 was only dominant congener in PRW and control sites during work time and all sites during off work time. The gas-particle partitioning result was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure for all samples, except for WIP and I-EDWD, at park during work time, and residential area during off work time. The predicted urban curve fitted well with measured φ values at O-DEWD during work time, whereas it was slightly overestimated or underestimated for others. Exposure assessment revealed the highest exposure site was I-EDWD.

  15. Chloride ingress in concrete as measured by field exposure tests in the atmospheric, tidal and submerged zones of a tropical marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.K. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). School of Building and Estate Management); Chye, Liam Kok (Matcor Technology and Services (Singapore)); Northwood, D.O. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical and Production Engineering Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Engineering Materials Group)

    1993-11-01

    Five grades of concrete were exposed in the atmosphere, tidal and submerged zones of a tropical marine environment for times up to 80 weeks and the chloride ion ingress profiles determined. The measured chloride profiles were compared with profiles calculated on the basis of diffusion theory and the agreement was found to be reasonably good for all 3 zones. Diffusion coefficients, D, for the chloride ion calculated from the measured ingress profiles agreed well with previous data from laboratory tests and from surveys of marine structures. D was found to be mainly dependent on the water/cement (W/C) ratio and changed little with the addition of superplasticizers. The use of data for the diffusion coefficient, D, and equilibrium surface chloride level, Ce, obtained from the chloride ingress profiles, to the calculation of the time-to-initiation for corrosion of the steel reinforcement is briefly discussed.

  16. Atmospheric Physics Background – Methods – Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), this book presents more than 50 chapters highlighting results of the institute’s research. The book provides an up-to-date, in-depth survey across the entire field of atmospheric science, including atmospheric dynamics, radiation, cloud physics, chemistry, climate, numerical simulation, remote sensing, instruments and measurements, as well as atmospheric acoustics. The authors have provided a readily comprehensible and self-contained presentation of the complex field of atmospheric science. The topics are of direct relevance for aerospace science and technology. Future research challenges are identified.

  17. Co-ordination in morphological leaf traits of early diverging angiosperms is maintained following exposure to experimental palaeo-atmospheric conditions of sub-ambient O2 and elevated CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Evans-Fitz.Gerald

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to be successful in a given environment a plant should invest in a vein network and stomatal distribution that ensures balance between both water supply and demand. Vein density (Dv and stomatal density (SD have been shown to be strongly positively correlated in response to a range of environmental variables in more recently evolved plant species, but the extent of this relationship has not been confirmed in earlier diverging plant lineages. In order to examine the effect of a changing atmosphere on the relationship between Dv and SD, five early-diverging plant species representing two different reproductive plant grades were grown for seven months in a palaeo-treatment comprising an O2:CO2 ratio that has occurred multiple times throughout plant evolutionary history. Results show a range of species-specific Dv and SD responses to the palaeo-treatment, however we show that the strong relationship between Dv and SD under modern ambient atmospheric composition is maintained following exposure to the palaeo-treatment. This suggests strong inter-specific co-ordination between vein and stomatal traits for our study species even under relatively extreme environmental change. This co-ordination supports existing plant function proxies that use the distance between vein endings and stomata (Dm to infer plant palaeo-physiology.

  18. Repercussões clínicas da exposição à poluição atmosférica Clinical repercussions of exposure to atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Delfini Cançado

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A poluição atmosférica é um assunto exaustivamente discutido mundialmente. As repercussões clínicas decorrentes das exposições aos principais poluentes atmosféricos são apresentadas resumidamente. Os padrões de qualidade do ar para esses agentes, segundo a Agência de Proteção Ambiental Americana, estão descritos em relação aos seus valores primários e tempo médio. Os efeitos respiratórios conseqüentes à queima de combustíveis fósseis e de biomassa são apresentados de forma sucinta visando, essencialmente, a alertar os profissionais da saúde para o aumento da morbidade relacionada com a poluição ambiental.Atmospheric pollution is a topic of extensive discussion the world over. The clinical repercussions of exposure to the principal atmospheric pollutants are summarized herein. According to the American Environmental Protection Agency, air quality standards for these agents are set based on their primary and half-life values. The respiratory effects of the burning of fossil fuels and biomass are succinctly presented, with a special focus on alerting health care professionals of the increased morbidity related to environmental pollution.

  19. Co-ordination in Morphological Leaf Traits of Early Diverging Angiosperms Is Maintained Following Exposure to Experimental Palaeo-atmospheric Conditions of Sub-ambient O2 and Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Fitz.Gerald, Christiana; Porter, Amanda S.; Yiotis, Charilaos; Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to be successful in a given environment a plant should invest in a vein network and stomatal distribution that ensures balance between both water supply and demand. Vein density (Dv) and stomatal density (SD) have been shown to be strongly positively correlated in response to a range of environmental variables in more recently evolved plant species, but the extent of this relationship has not been confirmed in earlier diverging plant lineages. In order to examine the effect of a changing atmosphere on the relationship between Dv and SD, five early-diverging plant species representing two different reproductive plant grades were grown for 7 months in a palaeo-treatment comprising an O2:CO2 ratio that has occurred multiple times throughout plant evolutionary history. Results show a range of species-specific Dv and SD responses to the palaeo-treatment, however, we show that the strong relationship between Dv and SD under modern ambient atmospheric composition is maintained following exposure to the palaeo-treatment. This suggests strong inter-specific co-ordination between vein and stomatal traits for our study species even under relatively extreme environmental change. This co-ordination supports existing plant function proxies that use the distance between vein endings and stomata (Dm) to infer plant palaeo-physiology. PMID:27695464

  20. Geophysical Plasmas and Atmospheric Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    will be submitted to the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 32 - .- I. LIMITATIONS ON STRATOSPHERIC DYNAMICS We have performed an investigation of...Amplitudes" which will be submitted to the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 1i 33 A& J. GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL STUDIES Comparison computer runs...In tis case, as clearly shov.i by Petvia-mensona. I ths cseas ceary sou byPetia- cavities requires a local theory going beyond the limitshvilli,’ the

  1. Alveolar macrophage-epithelial cell interaction following exposure to atmospheric particles induces the release of mediators involved in monocyte mobilization and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukae Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies from our laboratory have shown that human alveolar macrophages (AM and bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC exposed to ambient particles (PM10 in vitro increase their production of inflammatory mediators and that supernatants from PM10-exposed cells shorten the transit time of monocytes through the bone marrow and promote their release into the circulation. Methods The present study concerns co-culture of AM and HBEC exposed to PM10 (EHC-93 and the production of mediators involved in monocyte kinetics measured at both the mRNA and protein levels. The experiments were also designed to determine the role of the adhesive interaction between these cells via the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 in the production of these mediators. Results AM/HBEC co-cultures exposed to 100 μg/ml of PM10 for 2 or 24 h increased their levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, M-CSF, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6 and ICAM-1 mRNA, compared to exposed AM or HBEC mono-cultures, or control non-exposed co-cultures. The levels of GM-CSF, M-CSF, MIP-1β and IL-6 increased in co-cultured supernatants collected after 24 h exposure compared to control cells (p 10-induced increase in co-culture mRNA expression. Conclusion We conclude that an ICAM-1 independent interaction between AM and HBEC, lung cells that process inhaled particles, increases the production and release of mediators that enhance bone marrow turnover of monocytes and their recruitment into tissues. We speculate that this interaction amplifies PM10-induced lung inflammation and contributes to both the pulmonary and systemic morbidity associated with exposure to air pollution.

  2. Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission's Red Planet program: Bridging the gap in elementary school science through climate studies of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    Although reading, writing, and math examinations are often conducted early in elementary school, science is not typically tested until 4th or 5th grade. The result is a refocus on the tested topics at the expense of the untested ones, despite that standards exist for each topic at all grades. On a national level, science instruction is relegated to a matter of a few hours per week. A 2007 Education Policy study states that elementary school students spend an average of 178 minutes a week on science while spending 500 minutes on literacy. A recent NSTA report in July of 2011 of elementary and middle school teachers confirms that teachers feel pressured to teach math and literacy at the expense of other programs. In our interaction with elementary teachers, it is also apparent that many are uncomfortable with science concepts. In order for us to successfully address the Next Generation Science Standards, teachers must be able to reconcile all of the different requirements placed on them in a given school day and in a given school environment. A unique way to combat the lack of science instruction at elementary grades is to combine literacy into an integrated science program, thereby increasing the number of science contact hours. The Red Planet: Read, Write, Explore program, developed for the MAVEN mission, is a science, art, and literacy program designed to easily fit into a typical 3rd-5th grade instructional day. Red Planet tackles climate change through Mars' geologic history and makes Mars-Earth comparisons, while encouraging students to reflect on the environmental requirements needed to keep a biological organisms (including humans) happy, healthy, and alive. The Red Planet program is currently being pilot tested at Acres Green Elementary School in Colorado.

  3. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Describes activities, games, experiments, demonstrations, and computer-oriented exercises in all science areas. Topics include energy flow through a marine ecosystem, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyethanoic acid to demonstrate translocation in plants, use of the dichotomous key, use of leaf yeasts to monitor atmospheric pollution, and others. (JN)

  4. 北京地区大气细颗粒物的个体暴露水平%Personal exposure levels to atmospheric fine particulate matters in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫伟奇; 张潇尹; 郎凤玲; 曹军

    2014-01-01

    From December, 2012to April, 2013, measurements of personal exposure levels to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing were conducted using laser dust monitor (Model LD6S) with the method of daily tracking for single participant, and the different participants’ time-activity journals were also collected to calculate the daily averaged exposure levels and merge application. During the monitoring period, the ambient PM2.5 concentrations issued by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Centre were recorded synchronously. The local mean concentrations of PM2.5 in winter and in spring were 127µg/m3and 69 µg/m3, respectively, and the former was much higher than the latter. The median value of personal daily exposure level was 54µg/m3and the averaged ratio to the ambient PM2.5 concentration was 0.60. The averaged indoor exposure fraction reached 80%of the total exposure, and the outdoor exposure and the traffic exposure separately accounted for about 10%. There was no significant difference between the exposure levels of different populations and different seasons. As the ambient PM2.5 concentration exceeded 75µg/m3, a significant correlation existed between the ambient PM2.5 concentration and the PM2.5 concentrations in different microenvironments, including residential house, office, restaurant, bus and street.%于2012年12月至2013年4月采用LD6S型微电脑激光粉尘仪在北京地区采取单人逐日跟踪的方式记录了多名个体对大气细颗粒物(PM 2.5)的暴露水平,同时收集研究对象的时间-活动日志,计算日平均暴露水平,再进行多人多日合并处理.并于研究时段内同步记录北京市环境保护监测中心发布的空气质量监测数据.结果表明,研究期间北京地区冬季与春季PM 2.5的平均浓度分别为127,69µg/m3.个体日均暴露水平中值为54µg/m3,与大气质量浓度的平均比值为0.60.个体室内暴露分量均值达到总暴露量的80%,

  5. Radiation exposure due to cosmic rays and solar X-ray photons at various atmospheric heights in aviation range over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2016-07-01

    In this presentation we present our work on the continuous monitoring of radiation exposure in terms of effective dose rates, due to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar X-rays at various altitudes within aviation range over India. As India belongs to equatorial region, there is negligible contribution from solar energetic particles (SEP). The calculation of cosmic ray counts as well as the solar X-ray photons are performed on the basis of the observation of various Dignity series balloon experiments on cosmic ray and solar high energy radiation studies, conducted by ICSP and Monte Carlo simulations performed with GEANT4 detector simulation software. The information on solar activity level from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES) are employed in the calculations. A program, which is done entirely in MATLAB is employed to update regularly in a website, where we show images of dose rate (μSv) distribution over India at four different heights within the aviation range (updating at an interval of 30 minutes) and the approximate dose rates thats should be experienced by a pilot in an entire flight time between pairs of stations distributed all over India.

  6. First radon measurements and occupational exposure assessments in underground geodynamic laboratory the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ Castle (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the results of the first radon activity concentration measurements conducted continuously between 17(th) May 2014 and 16(th) May 2015 in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ. The data were registered with the use of three Polish semiconductor SRDN-3 detectors located the closest (SRDN-3 No. 6) to and the furthest (SRDN-3 No. 3) from the facility entrance, and in the fault zone (SRDN-3 No. 4). The study was conducted to characterize the radon behaviour and check it possibility to use with reference to long- and short-term variations of radon activity concentration observed in sedimentary rocks strongly fractured and intersected by systems of multiple faults, for integrated comparative assessments of changes in local orogen kinetics. The values of radon activity concentration in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) Space Research Centre in Książ undergo changes of a distinctly seasonal character. The highest values of radon activity concentration are recorded from late spring (May/June) to early autumn (October), and the lowest - from November to April. Radon activity concentrations varied depending on the location of measurement points. Between late spring and autumn they ranged from 800 Bq·m(-3) to 1200 Bq·m(-3), and even 3200 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. Between November and April, values of radon activity concentration are lower, ranging from 500 Bq·m(-3) to 1000 Bq·m(-3) and 2700 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. The values of radon activity concentration recorded in the studied facility did not undergo short-term changes in either the whole annual measuring cycle or any of its months. Effective doses received by people staying in the underground laboratory range from 0.001 mSv/h to 0.012 mSv/h. The mean annual effective dose, depending on the measurement site, equals 1 or is slightly higher than 10 mSv/year, while the maximum

  7. Seasonal response of photosynthetic electron transport and energy dissipation in the eighth year of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 (FACE) in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Barry A; Combs, Andrew; Myers, Kalisa; Kent, Rose; Stanley, Lela; Tissue, David T

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effect of growth under elevated CO(2) partial pressures (pCO(2)) on photosynthetic electron transport and photoprotective energy dissipation, we examined light-saturated net photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A(sat)), the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and the pigment composition of upper-canopy loblolly pine needles in the eighth year of exposure to elevated pCO(2) (20 Pa above ambient) at the free-air CO(2) enrichment facility in the Duke Forest. During the summer growing season, A(sat) was 50% higher in current-year needles and 24% higher in year-old needles in elevated pCO(2) in comparison with needles of the same age cohort in ambient pCO(2). Thus, photosynthetic down-regulation at elevated pCO(2) was observed in the summer in year-old needles. In the winter, A(sat) was not significantly affected by growth pCO(2). Reductions in A(sat), the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency in the light-acclimated and fully-oxidized states were observed in the winter when compared to summer. Growth at elevated pCO(2) had no significant effect on the capacity for photosynthetic O(2) evolution, PSII efficiencies in the light-acclimated and fully-oxidized states, chlorophyll content or the size and conversion state of the xanthophyll cycle, regardless of season or needle age cohort. Therefore, we observed no evidence that photosynthetic electron transport or photoprotective energy dissipation responded to compensate for the effects of elevated pCO(2) on Calvin cycle activity.

  8. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Alvarez, David A.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrationspresent in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  9. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Alvarez, David A; Taylor, Julia A; vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E

    2015-08-15

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrations present in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  10. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  11. #2) Sensor Technology-State of the Science | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establish market surveys of commercially-available air quality sensorsConduct an extensive literature survey describing the state of sensor technologiesInvestigate emerging technologies and their potential to meet future air quality monitoring needs for the Agency as well as other partners/stakeholders Develop sensor user guidesEducate sensor developers/sensors users on the state of low cost censorsFacilitate knowledge transfer to Federal/Regional/State air quality associatesWork directly with sensor developers to dramatically speed up the development of next generation air monitoring Support ORD’s Sensor Roadmap by focusing on areas of highest priority (NAAQS, Air Toxics, Citizen Science)Establish highly integrated research efforts across ORD and its partners (internal/external) to ensure consistent The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose.

  12. Glacial atmospheric phosphorus deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus in the atmosphere is poorly studied and thus not much is known about atmospheric phosphorus and phosphate transport and deposition changes over time, though it is well known that phosphorus can be a source of long-range nutrient transport, e.g. Saharan dust transported to the tropical forests of Brazil. In glacial times it has been speculated that transport of phosphorus from exposed shelves would increase the ocean productivity by wash out. However whether the exposed shelf would also increase the atmospheric load to more remote places has not been investigated. Polar ice cores offer a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric transport of aerosols on various timescales, from glacial-interglacial periods to recent anthropogenic influences. We have for the first time determined the atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic by means of ice core analysis. Both total and dissolved reactive phosphorus were measured to investigate current and past atmospheric transport of phosphorus to the Arctic. Results show that glacial cold stadials had increased atmospheric total phosphorus mass loads of 70 times higher than in the past century, while DRP was only increased by a factor of 14. In the recent period we find evidence of a phosphorus increase over the past 50 yrs in ice cores close to human occupation likely correlated to forest fires. References: Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores." Environmental science & technology 47.21 (2013): 12325-12332. Kjær, Helle Astrid, et al. "Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres120.20 (2015).

  13. Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S

    2010-01-01

    At the dawn of the first discovery of exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars in the mid-1990s, few believed that observations of exoplanet atmospheres would ever be possible. After the 2002 Hubble Space Telescope detection of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere, many skeptics discounted it as a one-object, one-method success. Nevertheless, the field is now firmly established, with over two dozen exoplanet atmospheres observed today. Hot Jupiters are the type of exoplanet currently most amenable to study. Highlights include: detection of molecular spectral features; observation of day-night temperature gradients; and constraints on vertical atmospheric structure. Atmospheres of giant planets far from their host stars are also being studied with direct imaging. The ultimate exoplanet goal is to answer the enigmatic and ancient question, "Are we alone?" via detection of atmospheric biosignatures. Two exciting prospects are the immediate focus on transiting super Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs, and u...

  14. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  15. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Kajita

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses...

  16. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  17. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  18. Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindzen, Richard A.

    2005-08-01

    Motion is manifest in the atmosphere in an almost infinite variety of ways. In Dynamics in Atmospheric Physics, Dr. Richard Lindzen describes the nature of motion in the atmosphere, develops fluid dynamics relevant to the atmosphere, and explores the role of motion in determining the climate and atmospheric composition. The author presents the material in a lecture note style, and the emphasis throughout is on describing phenomena that are at the frontiers of current research, but due attention is given to the methodology of research and to the historical background of these topics. The author's treatment and choice of topics is didactic. Problems at the end of each chapter will help students assimilate the material. In general the discussions emphasize physical concepts, and throughout Dr. Lindzen makes a concerted effort to avoid the notion that dynamic meteorology is simply the derivation of equations and their subsequent solution. His desire is that interested students will delve further into solution details. The book is intended as a text for first year graduate students in the atmospheric sciences. Although the material in the book is self contained, a familiarity with differential equations is assumed; some background in fluid mechanics is helpful.

  19. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  20. Study of atmospheric tritium transfers in lettuce: kinetic study, equilibrium and organic incorporation during a continuous atmospheric exposure; Etude des transferts du tritium atmospherique chez la laitue: Etude cinetique, etat d'equilibre et integration du tritum sous forme organique lors d'une exposition atmospherique continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.

    2009-11-30

    This thesis has explored the mechanisms of tritium 'absorption and incorporation in a human-consumed plant, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), due to atmospheric exposure. Foliar uptake appears to play a key role in absorption of tritium as tissue free water tritium. Whatever the development stage and the light conditions, the specific activity in tissue free water reaches that of water vapour in air in several hours. The specific activity ratio is then about 0, 4. The time to reach equilibrium in soil is over 24 hours in most cases: the specific activity ratio ranges then 0, 01 to 0, 26. Incorporation rate of tissue free water tritium as organically-bound tritium has been estimated to 0, 13 to 0, 16 % h-l in average over the growing period of the plant, but marked variations are observed during growth. In particular, a significant increase appeared at the exponential growth stage. Deposition and diffusion of tritium in soil lead to significant OBT activities in soil. Results globally indicate equilibrium between the different environmental compartments (air, soil, plant). However, some experiments have revealed high OBT concentrations regarding atmospheric level exposure and ask for a possible phenomenon of local tritium accumulation in OBT for particular conditions of exposure. (author) [French] Ce travail de these a concerne l'etude des phenomenes d'absorption et d'incorporation sous forme organique du tritium dans un vegetal de consommation courante, la laitue (Lactuca sativa L.), en reponse a une exposition atmospherique. Il apparait que la voie foliaire joue un role primordial dans l'absorption du tritium au sein de l'eau tissulaire des plants. Quels que soient le stade de developpement des plants et les conditions d'eclairement, le temps necessaire pour atteindre l'equilibre des concentrations dans l'eau libre et dans la vapeur d'eau de l'air est de plusieurs heures; le rapport des concentrations est alors de

  1. Step Right Up To the Science Carnival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Doug

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science carnival where children and adults share in the excitement of the carnival atmosphere and participate in doing science together. Discusses creating a carnival, gathering ideas, traditional booth redesign, and science topic booths. (JRH)

  2. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Division's goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various Laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  3. Atmospheric sciences transfer between research advances and energy-policy assessments (ASTRAEA). Final report, 1 April 1996--31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1997-12-10

    Consistent with the prime goal of the ASTRAEA project, as given in its peer-reviewed proposal, this final report is an informal report to DOE managers about a perceived DOE management problem, specifically, lack of vision in DOE`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). After presenting a review of relevant, current literature, the author suggests a framework for conceiving new visions for ACP, namely, multidisciplinary research for energy policy, tackling tough (e.g., nonlinear) problems as a team, ahead of political curves. Two example visions for ACP are then described, called herein the CITIES Project (the Comprehensive Inventory of Trace Inhalants from Energy Sources Project) and the OCEAN Project (the Ocean-Circulation Energy-Aerosol Nonlinearities Project). Finally, the author suggests methods for DOE to provide ACP with needed vision.

  4. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  5. Atmospheric composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    The earth's atmosphere is made up of a number of gases in different relative amounts. Near sea level and up to about 90 km, the amount of these atmospheric gases in clean, relatively dry air is practically constant. Four of these gases, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, make up 99.99 percent by volume of the atmosphere. Two gases, ozone and water vapor, change in relative amounts, but the total amount of these two is very small compared to the amount of the other gases. The atmospheric composition shown in a table can be considered valid up to 90 km geometric altitude. Above 90 km, mainly because of molecular dissociation and diffusive separation, the composition changes.

  6. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    , the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...... as a spatial phenomenon, exploring a multiplicity of conditions that constitute their resonant origins – i.e. the production sites from and within they have emerged. The intention is also to argue that despite the fact that atmosphere as an aesthetic category has crystallised over the last few decades...... contextualisation – provides a platform for revealing productive entanglements between heterogeneous elements, disciplines and processes. It also allows rendering atmosphere as a site of co-production open to contingencies and affective interplay on multiples levels: at the moment of its conceptualisation...

  7. Atmospheric Laser Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer(, Kenneth W.; Witiw, Michael R.; Baars+, Jeffrey A.; Oke, T. R.

    2004-05-01

    Atmospheric laser communication, often referred to as free-space optics (FSO) or free-space laser (FSL) communication, is similar to fiber optic cable in terms of carrier wavelength and bandwidth capability, but data are transmitted directly through the atmosphere via laser beams over paths from a few meters to 4 km or longer. FSL uses lasers in the near-infrared spectrum, typically at wavelengths of 850 or 1550 nm. Given these wavelengths, atmospheric attenuation must be considered, and an adequate margin of optical power (dB) must exist to support high system availability (the percentage of time that an FSL link is in operation, typically 99.9%). A visual range of 100 m can attenuate a laser beam at a rate of nearly 130 dB km-1. For short links (rain, and snow frequently become issues. To address these issues, long-term climate data are analyzed to determine the frequency of occurrence of low visibilities and low-cloud ceilings. To estimate availability at a site of interest, adjustments to airport climate data are made to accommodate differences in altitude, geography, and the effects of the urban heat island. In sum, communication via FSL is a feasible alternative to fiber optic cable when atmospheric conditions are considered and properly analyzed.(Current affiliation: The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington+Current affiliation: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

  8. Reaching out in new Ways: Bridging the gap Between Science and Media Through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Ocean Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorell, F. R.; Martinez, C.

    2006-12-01

    NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (OE) was created in response to the recommendations of the President's Panel on Ocean Exploration in 2000. With the establishment of OE, NOAA developed a great opportunity to reach out to teachers, students, and the general public to share the excitement of discovery. As exciting expeditions are the core of our NOAA program, outreach efforts are focused around these cruises. Through various initiatives, OE works with the science community to share the excitement of ocean science and discovery with a wide variety of audiences. Initiatives include media events held during port calls, media conference calls arranged with scientists at sea, journalists' participation in expeditions, and select interviews with scientist-explorers. NOAA OE is now poised to initiate a major ongoing satellite-based education and public outreach program from its new dedicated research vessel, the Okeanos Explorer that will become operational in 2008. Through telepresence technology designed by the Institute for Exploration (IFE) in Mystic, CT, expeditions can be managed `virtually' by scientists working from Science Command Centers on land, live education broadcasts can be produced in real-time, and media events can be held through shore-based consoles connected to scientists at sea. Three pilot programs were successfully completed in the past few years demonstrating the potential for this new technology to allow for unlimited access to data, including video, from expeditions, sharing in real-time the excitement of discovery through multiple virtual pathways. News media provide a powerful means to inform and educate the public. In some cases, scientists may believe that interaction with media representatives poses risks unmatched by rewards. While it is important to serve the public's right to know, scientist-explorers on NOAA-sponsored ocean expeditions have a recognized interest in protecting certain data, including images, for a number of legitimate

  9. Design and Evaluation of ExO: An Ontology for Exposure Science: Document Published in Nature Precedings: Pre-publication research and preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made in collecting and improving access to genomic, toxicology, and health data. These information resources lack exposure data required to translate molecular insights, elucidate environmental contributions to diseases, assess human health risks at ...

  10. Design and Evaluation of ExO: An Ontology for Exposure Science: Document Published in Nature Precedings: Pre-publication research and preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made in collecting and improving access to genomic, toxicology, and health data. These information resources lack exposure data required to translate molecular insights, elucidate environmental contributions to diseases, assess human health risks at ...

  11. Long-term Academic and Career Impacts of Undergraduate Research: Diverse Pathways to Geoscience Careers Following a Summer Atmospheric Science Research Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, C. D.; Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Boyd, K.; Bowker, C.

    2015-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to support the success of STEM undergraduates through improving their research skills, ability to synthesize knowledge, and personal and professional development, all while socializing them into the nature of science. REUs are further intended to support STEM career choice and professional advancement, and have thus played a key role in diversity efforts. Recruiting and retaining diverse students in STEM through REUs is of particular importance in the geosciences, where women and ethnic minorities continue to be significantly underrepresented. However, few studies have examined the long-term impacts of these REUs on students' academic and career trajectories. Further, those that do exist primarily study the experiences of current graduate students, scientists, and faculty members—that is, those who have already persisted—which overlooks the multiple academic and career paths REU students might follow and may preclude a thorough examination of REUs' diversity impacts. In this long-term retrospective study of the academic and career impacts of a REU program at a large Western U.S. research university, we interviewed 17 former REU participants on their expectations prior to their REU participation, their experiences during the REU, the immediate outcomes from the experience, and its long-term impacts on their academic and career choices. To address gaps in the existing literature on REU impacts, we purposively sampled students who have taken a variety of educational and career paths, including those not engaged in science research. Despite varied trajectories, the majority of the students we interviewed have persisted in the geosciences and attest to the REU's profound impact on their career-related opportunities and choices. This presentation describes students' diverse STEM pathways and discusses how students' REU expectations, experiences, and immediate outcomes continued to make an impact long-term.

  12. Progress in Space Weather Modeling and Observations Needed to Improve the Operational NAIRAS Model Aircraft Radiation Exposure Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Tobiska, W.; Xu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. Addressing these science questions require improvements in both space weather modeling and observations. The focus of this talk is to present these science questions, the proposed methodologies for addressing these science questions, and the anticipated improvements to the operational predictions of atmospheric radiation exposure. The overarching goal of this work is to provide a decision support tool for the aviation industry that will enable an optimal balance to be achieved between minimizing health risks to passengers and aircrew while simultaneously minimizing costs to the airline companies.

  13. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidan, R.; Lee, G.; Sokol, D.; Griffin, K.; Bolisay, L.; Barnes, N.

    2014-04-01

    Over the past years we have explored a possible new approach to Venus upper atmosphere exploration by applying recent Northrop Grumman (non-NASA) development programs to the challenges associated with Venus upper atmosphere science missions. Our concept is a low ballistic coefficient (aircraft that deploys prior to entering the Venus atmosphere, enters the Venus atmosphere without an aeroshell, and provides a long-lived (months to years), maneuverable vehicle capable of carrying science payloads to explore the Venus upper atmosphere. VAMP targets the global Venus atmosphere between 55 and 70 km altitude and would be a platform to address VEXAG goals I.A, I.B, and I.C. We will discuss the overall mission architecture and concept of operations from launch through Venus arrival, orbit, entry, and atmospheric science operations. We will present a strawman concept of VAMP, including ballistic coefficient, planform area, percent buoyancy, inflation gas, wing span, vehicle mass, power supply, propulsion, materials considerations, structural elements, subsystems, and packaging. The interaction between the VAMP vehicle and the supporting orbiter will also be discussed. In this context, we will specifically focus upon four key factors impacting the design and performance of VAMP: 1. Science payload accommodation, constraints, and opportunities 2. Characteristics of flight operations and performance in the Venus atmosphere: altitude range, latitude and longitude access, day/night performance, aircraft performance, performance sensitivity to payload weight 3. Feasibility of and options for the deployment of the vehicle in space 4. Entry into the Venus atmosphere, including descent profile, heat rate, total heat load, stagnation temperature, control, and entry into level flight We will discuss interdependencies of the above factors and the manner in which the VAMP strawman's characteristics affect the CONOPs and the science objectives. We will show how the these factors provide

  14. Progress and Status on the Development of NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Blattnig, S. R.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.; Murray, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program recently selected a project for funding through the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) solicitation. The project objective is to develop a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time radiation dose predictions of biologically harmful radiation at commercial airline altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP reanalysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. In this paper we discuss the concept and design of the NAIRAS model, and present recent progress in the implementation and give examples of the model results. Specifically, we show predictions of representative annual background exposure levels and radiation exposure levels for selected SEP events during solar cycle 23, with emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure. We discuss the key uncertainties and areas that need improvement in both model and data, the timeline for project completion, and access to model results.

  15. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : interpretive overview by the science advisory panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, T.; Nielsen, O.; Berhane, K.; Cohen, B.S.; Hunter, B.; Lasley, B.; Martin, W.; Ribble, C.; Thorne, P.; Tollerud, D.; Witschi, H. [Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association, Calgary, AB (Canada). Science Advisory Panel

    2006-05-15

    The results of a study to determine if chronic exposure to emissions from the oil and gas industry influence the health and reproductive performance of cattle and wildlife in western Canada was presented. Individual cows in herds from Alberta, Saskatchewan and northeastern British Columbia were monitored in pens and pastures to determine their exposure status. Data on other known risk factors such as the cow's age, breed and body condition were collected. The study measured concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}); hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S); and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured as benzene and toluene. Passive air monitors were located on all occupied pastures and wintering areas for each herd. Information on the location of over 39,000 animals from 205 herds on 3355 different parcels of land was recorded at 2 week intervals. Each animal's exposure was then averaged to create cumulative exposure values for biologically relevant risk periods for each outcome. Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured a total of 365 times near the calving area for 32 herds. Five primary health outcomes were studied: (1) nonpregnancy; (2) length of breeding-to-calving interval; (3) abortion; (4) stillbirth; and (5) calf mortality. No associations were found among any of the exposure measures and the risk of nonpregnancy, abortion or stillbirth. Sulphur-containing exposures showed no associations with secondary outcome measures in the respiratory, immune and nervous systems. An association was found between exposure to SO{sub 2} and the increased risk of calf mortality. Findings also suggested that there was a greater risk of lesions in the calf skeletal or cardiac muscle with increased prenatal exposure to SO{sub 2}. Increased exposure to VOCs contributed to a greater risk of calf respiratory and thyroid lesions, and a lower count of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes in calves. The results of a concurrent study on

  16. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  17. Atmospheric mercury dispersion modelling from two nearest hypothetical point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Razi, Khandakar Md Habib; Hiroshi, Moritomi; Shinji, Kambara [Environmental and Renewable Energy System (ERES), Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido, Gifu City, 501-1193 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The Japan coastal areas are still environmentally friendly, though there are multiple air emission sources originating as a consequence of several developmental activities such as automobile industries, operation of thermal power plants, and mobile-source pollution. Mercury is known to be a potential air pollutant in the region apart from SOX, NOX, CO and Ozone. Mercury contamination in water bodies and other ecosystems due to deposition of atmospheric mercury is considered a serious environmental concern. Identification of sources contributing to the high atmospheric mercury levels will be useful for formulating pollution control and mitigation strategies in the region. In Japan, mercury and its compounds were categorized as hazardous air pollutants in 1996 and are on the list of 'Substances Requiring Priority Action' published by the Central Environmental Council of Japan. The Air Quality Management Division of the Environmental Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Japan, selected the current annual mean environmental air quality standard for mercury and its compounds of 0.04 ?g/m3. Long-term exposure to mercury and its compounds can have a carcinogenic effect, inducing eg, Minamata disease. This study evaluates the impact of mercury emissions on air quality in the coastal area of Japan. Average yearly emission of mercury from an elevated point source in this area with background concentration and one-year meteorological data were used to predict the ground level concentration of mercury. To estimate the concentration of mercury and its compounds in air of the local area, two different simulation models have been used. The first is the National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Exposure and Risk Assessment (AIST-ADMER) that estimates regional atmospheric concentration and distribution. The second is the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) that estimates the atmospheric

  18. Atmospheric mercury dispersion modelling from two nearest hypothetical point sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Md Habib Al Razi, Moritomi Hiroshi, Kambara Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Japan coastal areas are still environmentally friendly, though there are multiple air emission sources originating as a consequence of several developmental activities such as automobile industries, operation of thermal power plants, and mobile-source pollution. Mercury is known to be a potential air pollutant in the region apart from SOX, NOX, CO and Ozone. Mercury contamination in water bodies and other ecosystems due to deposition of atmospheric mercury is considered a serious environmental concern. Identification of sources contributing to the high atmospheric mercury levels will be useful for formulating pollution control and mitigation strategies in the region. In Japan, mercury and its compounds were categorized as hazardous air pollutants in 1996 and are on the list of "Substances Requiring Priority Action" published by the Central Environmental Council of Japan. The Air Quality Management Division of the Environmental Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Japan, selected the current annual mean environmental air quality standard for mercury and its compounds of 0.04 μg/m3. Long-term exposure to mercury and its compounds can have a carcinogenic effect, inducing eg, Minamata disease. This study evaluates the impact of mercury emissions on air quality in the coastal area of Japan. Average yearly emission of mercury from an elevated point source in this area with background concentration and one-year meteorological data were used to predict the ground level concentration of mercury. To estimate the concentration of mercury and its compounds in air of the local area, two different simulation models have been used. The first is the National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Exposure and Risk Assessment (AIST-ADMER that estimates regional atmospheric concentration and distribution. The second is the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated trajectory Model (HYSPLIT that estimates the

  19. Olympic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Veerabhadran Ramanathan, James Schauer, Hung Nguyen and colleagues found the Beijing Olympics to be conducive to international collaboration in science, as well as sport, as they attempted to assess the effect of emission restrictions on climate forcing.

  20. Carnegie Institution Atmospheric-Electricity and Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institute of Science conducted observations of atmospheric electricity and magnetic storms. In addition to...

  1. CSEO - the Cigarette Smoke Exposure Ontology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Younesi, Erfan; Ansari, Sam; Guendel, Michaela; Ahmadi, Shiva; Coggins, Chris; Hoeng, Julia; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-01-01

    ...) is composed of 20091 concepts. The ontology in its current form is able to capture a wide range of cigarette smoke exposure concepts within the knowledge domain of exposure science with a reasonable sensitivity and specificity...

  2. Atmospheric Measurements for Flight Test at NASAs Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Edward H.

    2016-01-01

    Information enclosed is to be shared with students of Atmospheric Sciences, Engineering and High School STEM programs. Information will show the relationship between atmospheric Sciences and aeronautical flight testing.

  3. Daylight Science and Daylighting Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kittler, Richard; Darula, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight profoundly influences the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. Nature fuels the evolution of all living things, their visual systems, and the manner in which they adapt, accommodate, and habituate. Sun luminance measurements serve as data to calculate typical changes in the daily, monthly, and annual variability characteristics of daylight. Climate-based sky luminance patterns are used as models in predicting daylighting calculation and computer programs applied in architecture and building design. Historically, daylight science and daylighting technology has prioritized photometric methods of measurements, calculation, and graphical tools aimed at predicting or evaluating the daylighting of architectural design alternatives. However, due to a heightened awareness of general health and well-being, sunlight exposure and freedom from visual discomfort while undertaking visual tasks are now equally prioritized. Therefore, in order to assure optimal environmental quality, daylighting technology must be base...

  4. Exoplanet atmosphere highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Muñoz, A.

    2017-03-01

    In only two decades since the first identification of a planet outside the Solar System,and about one since the pioneering detection of an atmosphere, exoplanet science has established itself as a mature field of astrophysics. As the search of as-of-yet undiscovered planets goes on, the field is steadily expanding its focus from detection only to detection and characterization. The information to be grasped from exoplanet atmospheres provides valuable insight into the formation and evolution of the planets and, in turn, into how unique our Solar System is. Ultimately, a dedicated search for life in these distant worlds will have to deal with the information encoded in their atmospheres. In recent years there has been rapid progress on both the theoretical and observational fronts in the investigation of exoplanet atmospheres. Theorists are predicting the prevailing conditions (temperature, chemical composition, cloud occurrence, energy transport) in these objects' envelopes, and are building the frameworks with which to approach the interpretation of observables. In parallel, observers have consolidated the remote sensing techniques that were utilized during the early years, and are now venturing into techniques that hold great promise for the future. With a number of space missions soon to fly and ground-based telescopes and instruments to be commissioned, all of them conceived during the exoplanet era, the field is set to experience unprecedented progress.

  5. Atmospheric Research 2016 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Divisions goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  6. Monitoring Atmospheric Transmission with FLAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Zirzow, D. C.; Koppa, M.; Buttler-Pena, K.

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of ground-based observations in the optical and near-infrared requires precise and accurate understanding of atmospheric transmission, at least as precise and accurate as that required for the spectral energy distributions of science targets. Traditionally this has used the Langley extrapolation method, observing targets and calibrators over a range of airmass and extrapolating to zero airmass by assuming a plane-parallel homogeneous atmosphere. The technique we present uses direct measurements of the atmosphere to derive the transmission along the line of sight to science targets at a few well-chosen wavelengths. The Facility Lidar Atmospheric Monitor of Extinction (FLAME) is a 0.5m diameter three Nd:YAG wavelength (355nm, 532nm & 1064nm) elastic backscatter lidar system. Laser pulses are transmitted into the atmosphere in the direction of the science target. Photons scattered back toward the receiver by molecules, aerosols and clouds are collected and time-gated so that the backscatter intensity is measured as a function of range to the scattering volume. The system is housed in a mobile calibration lab, which also contains auxiliary instrumentation to provide a NIST traceable calibration of the transmitted laser power and receiver efficiency. FLAME was designed to create a million photons per minute signal from the middle stratosphere, where the atmosphere is relatively calm and dominated by molecules of the well-mixed atmosphere (O2 & N2). Routine radiosonde measurements of the density at these altitudes constrain the scattering efficiency in this region and, combined with calibration of the transmitter and receiver, the only remaining unknown quantity is the two-way transmission to the stratosphere. These measurements can inform atmospheric transmission models to better understand the complex and ever-changing observatory radiative transfer environment. FLAME is currently under active development and we present some of our ongoing measurements.

  7. Atmospheric Refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calculations of atmospheric refraction are generally based on a simplified model of atmospheric density in the troposphere which assumes that the temperature decreases at a constant lapse rate from sea level up to a height equal to eleven km, and that afterwards it remains constant. In this model, the temperature divided by the lapse rate determines the length scale in the calculations for altitudes less than this height. But daily balloon measurements across the U.S.A. reveal that in some cases the air temperature actually increases from sea level up to a height of about one km, and only after reaching a plateau, it decreases at an approximately constant lapse rate. Moreover, in three examples considered here, the temperature does not remain constant at eleven km , but continues to decreases to a minimum at about sixteen kilometers , and then increases at higher altitudes at a lower rate. Calculations of atmospheric refraction based on this atmospheric data is compared with the results of simplified models.

  8. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  9. Investigation on Atmospheric Corrosiveness in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    According to the results of four-year exposure tests for carbon steel samples in Hainan province, the influences of meteorological factors and Cl- on atmospheric corrosion were investigated. The feature of atmospheric corrosion in this area was summarized. A corrosive map for the area was drawn. The corrosion products on carbon steel at some typical places were analyzed by XRD and XPS.

  10. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  11. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  12. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaisser, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    In view of the observation by IceCube of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, it is important to quantify the uncertainty in the background of atmospheric neutrinos. There are two sources of uncertainty, the imperfect knowledge of the spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic rays that produce the neutrinos and the limited understanding of hadron production, including charm, at high energy. This paper is an overview of both aspects.

  13. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids in a Department of Oral Sciences: Results of a Thirteen-Year Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. A. Gatto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Aim of this analysis was to identify trends that will aid in the prevention of injury. Methods. Our data were collected from 1999 to 2011 during a surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a Dental School by using a standard coded protocol. Results. 63 exposures were reported. 56/63 (89% percutaneous and 7/63 (11% mucosal, involving a splash to the eye of the dental care workers (DCW. 25/63 (40% involved students, 23/63 (36% DCW attending masters and doctorate, 13/63 (21% DCW attending as tutors and 2/63 (3% staff. 45/63 (71% and 18/63 (29% occurred respectively during and after the use of the device; of last ones, 1/18 (0.05% were related to instrument clean-up and 1/18 (0.05% to laboratory activity, 12/18 (67% occurred when a DCW collided with a sharp object during the setting, and 4/18 (22% during other activities. The instrument and the body part most likely involved were needle and finger respectively. The overall exposure rate was 4.78 per 10,000 patient visits. Conclusions Our results may serve as benchmark that Dental Schools can employ to assess their frequency of injury.

  14. The bibliometrics of atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M.

    Bibliometric analysis is an important tool in the management of a journal. SCOPUS output is used to assess the increase in the quantity of material in Atmospheric Environment and stylistic changes in the way authors choose words and punctuation in titles and assemble their reference lists. Citation analysis is used to consider the impact factor of the journal, but perhaps more importantly the way in which it reflects the importance authors give to papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The impact factor of Atmospheric Environment (2.549 for 2007) from the Journal Citation Reports suggests it performs well within the atmospheric sciences, but it conceals the long term value authors place on papers appearing in the journal. Reference lists show that a fifth come through citing papers more than a decade old.

  15. Science Enrichment Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Erica M.; Destino, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Discusses one approach to addressing lack of exposure to science for African American students, the Saturday Academy of Clark Atlanta University. Areas of interest are laboratory activities, hands-on science, and social engagement. Presents a review of related literature and a study of the program. Contains 16 references. (LZ)

  16. Bulky PAH-DNA induced by exposure of a co-culture model of human alveolar macrophages and embryonic epithelial cells to atmospheric particulate pollution; Adduits encombrants a l'ADN dans des cocultures de cellules pulmonaires humaines exposees a une pollution atmospherique particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Imane; Garcon, Guillaume; Billet, Sylvain; Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France - Lille (France); Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant, MREI, Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, Dunkerque (France); Andre, Veronique; Le Goff, Jeremie; Sichel, Francois [GRECAN, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie et centre Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Roy Saint-Georges, Francoise; Mulliez, Philippe [Service de Pneumologie, Hopital Saint-Philibert, GHICL, Lille (France)

    2012-01-15

    Because of their deep penetration in human lungs, fine airborne particulate matter were described as mainly responsible for the deleterious effects of exposure to air pollution on health. Organic constituents are adsorbed on particles surface and, after inhalation, some (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) can be activated into reactive metabolites and can bind to DNA. The formation of bulky DNA adducts has been researched after exposure of mono-and co-cultures of alveolar macrophages (AM) and human embryonic human lung epithelial (L132), to fine air pollution particulate matter Air samples have been collected with cascade impactor and characterized: size distribution (92.15% < 2.5{mu}.m), specific surface area (1 m{sup 2}/g), inorganic (Fe, AI, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic compounds (PAHs, etc.). {sup 32}P post-labeling method was applied to detect bulky DNA adducts in AM and L132, in mono-and co-cultures, 72 h after their exposure to atmospheric particles at their Lethals and Effects concentrations or (LC or CE) to 50% (i.e. MA: EC{sub 50} = 74.63 {mu}g/mL and L132: LC-5-0 = 75.36 {mu}g/mL). Exposure to desorbed particles (MA: C1= 61.11 {mu}g/mL and L132 : C2 = 61.71 {mu}g/mL) and B[a]P (1 {mu}M) were included. Bulky PAH-DNA adducts were detected in AM in mono-culture after exposure to total particles (Pt), to B[a]P and desorbed particles (Pd). Whatever the exposure, no DNA adduct was detected in L132 in mono-culture. These results are coherent with the enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450 l Al in AM and L132. Exposure of co-culture to Pt, or Pd induced bulky adducts to DNA in AM but not in L132. Exposure to B[a]P alone has altered the DNA of AM and L132, in co-culture. Exposure to Pt is closer to the environmental conditions, but conferred an exposure to amounts of genotoxic agents compared to studies using organic extracts. The formation of bulky DNA adducts was nevertheless observed in AM exposed to Pt, in mono- or co-culture, indicating that

  17. Atmospheric Smell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslund, Anette

    their attention away from smell – as skilled inattentive noses – in order to focus on their more important work. Intruding body odours breaching the uniform ‘scentless silence’ of the environment, however, provoked explicit handlings to avoid discomfort observed in the interaction between nurses and patients...... revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell...

  18. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    . As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the rhythms......, a familiar relationship with the alarming sounds in the ward, enabling her to focus later more on the visit with the relative. The article discusses the proposed design strategy behind this solution and the potentiality for its use in hospital environments in general....

  19. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...... of the body and the environment in conjunction with our internalised perception of the habituated background. By actively controlling the sounds built into Kidkit, the child can habituate them through a process of synchronising them with her own bodily rhythms. Hereby the child can establish, in advance...

  20. Applications of theoretical methods in atmospheric science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Goodsite, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical chemistry involves explaining chemical phenomenon using natural laws. The primary tool of theoretical chemistry is quantum chemistry, and the field may be divided into electronic structure calculations, reaction dynamics and statistical mechanics. These three all play a role in addres...

  1. Atmospheric corrosion sensor based on strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Naoya; Hiroki, Masatoshi; Yamada, Toshirou; Kihira, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Kazumi; Kuriyama, Yukihisa; Okazaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an in situ atmospheric corrosion sensor based on strain measurement is discussed. The theoretical background for measuring the reduction in thickness of low carbon steel is also presented. Based on the theoretical considerations, a test piece and apparatus for an atmospheric corrosion sensor were designed. Furthermore, in a dry–wet cyclic accelerated exposure experiment, the measured strain indicated thinning of the test piece, although the corrosion product generated on the surface of the test piece affected the results. The atmospheric corrosion sensor would be effective for evaluating atmospheric corrosion of many types of infrastructure.

  2. The MAVEN mission to Mars: Communicating science through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.

    2012-12-01

    While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low.There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of science education and communications professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introduce science to the public and to give scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars and the social media outlets we have incorporated into our Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program in order to introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. We'll examine several evaluation tools that are used to provide ongoing, immediate feedback regarding our strategies and to guide long-term efforts. MAVEN educators and scientists are capitalizing on the recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure and create pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts. We are using social media tools to build a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important scientific discoveries.

  3. Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on to any children you have after the exposure. A lot of radiation over a short period, ... skin burns and reduced organ function. If the exposure is large enough, it can cause premature aging ...

  4. Titan's atmosphere from DISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    This abstract distills information about Titan's atmosphere described in detail in a paper by M. G. Tomasko, L. Doose, S. Engel, L. E. Dafoe, R. West, M. Lemmon, E. Karkoschka and C. See, ‘A model of Titan's aerosols based on measurements made inside the atmosphere', Planetary and Space Sciences, in press, 2008. The Descent Imager Spectral Radiometer (DISR) observed Titan's sky and surface during the descent of the Huygens Probe in January, 2005. Measurements were made over the altitude range 160 Km to the surface near latitude -10 degrees. The DISR instrument package included several components to measure the radiation state as a function of altitude. These include upward and downward-looking visible and near-infrared spectrometers covering the wavelength range 450 to 1600 nm, an ultraviolet photometer, a solar aureole camera with polarizers, and a sun sensor. Measurements were made at a variety of azimuthal angles relative to the sun azimuth. Due to unanticipated behavior of the probe (reverse spin and high-amplitude, chaotic tip and tilt) the retrieval process has required more effort than was planned and the total science return is less than expected. Nevertheless the data yielded unsurpassed and unique information which constrain the optical and physical properties of the photochemical haze aerosols and condensate particles. The principal findings are (1) between 80 Km and 160 Km the photochemical haze is well mixed with the gas with a scale height of about 65 Km, (2) between 80 Km and the surface the particle optical depth is a linear function of altitude with a break in slope near 30 Km altitude, (3) optical properties of the haze do not depend much on altitude above 80 Km although more recent work by Tomasko and colleagues suggest a gradient in the stratosphere; below 80 Km there are changes in optical behavior which suggest that condensation plays a role, (4) the data confirm previous results which proposed a particle structure of aggregates of small

  5. The effects of duration of exposure to the REAPS model in developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusaini, Abdulnasser Alashaal F.

    The Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was developed in 2004 by C. June Maker and colleagues as an intervention for gifted students to develop creative problem solving ability through the use of real-world problems. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the REAPS model on developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science with two durations as independent variables. The long duration of the REAPS model implementation lasted five academic quarters or approximately 10 months; the short duration lasted two quarters or approximately four months. The dependent variables were students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science. The second purpose of the study was to explore which aspects of creative problem solving (i.e., generating ideas, generating different types of ideas, generating original ideas, adding details to ideas, generating ideas with social impact, finding problems, generating and elaborating on solutions, and classifying elements) were most affected by the long duration of the intervention. The REAPS model in conjunction with Amabile's (1983; 1996) model of creative performance provided the theoretical framework for this study. The study was conducted using data from the Project of Differentiation for Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms (i.e., the Australian Project) in which one public elementary school in the eastern region of Australia cooperated with the DISCOVER research team at the University of Arizona. All students in the school from first to sixth grade participated in the study. The total sample was 360 students, of which 115 were exposed to a long duration and 245 to a short duration of the REAPS model. The principal investigators used a quasi-experimental research design in which all students in the school received the treatment for different durations. Students in both groups completed pre- and posttests using the Test of Creative Thinking

  6. 2009-2011年科学城疾病预防控制中心门诊狂犬病暴露病例调查%Rabies Exposure Cases at Vaccination Clinic of Science City CDC, 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青; 刘咏洁; 张红利; 何准辉; 杨春光

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析2009-2011年在四川省科学城疾控中心接种门诊就诊的狂犬病暴露病例的流行病学因素,探讨狂犬病防治对策.方法 对监测资料进行回顾性分析,包括狂犬病暴露病例的性别、年龄、就诊时间、暴露级别、疫苗接种、Ⅲ级暴露病例狂犬病免疫球蛋白的使用以及伤人动物情况等.结果 2009-2011年科学城疾控中心接种门诊共接诊狂犬病暴露病例327例.被犬致伤的患者最多,占86.54%;95.41%的患者在暴露后24h内就诊;伤人动物中有免疫接种史占39.45%,无免疫史的占16.51%,免疫史不详的高达44.04%;暴露病例中Ⅲ级暴露119例,占36.39%,Ⅲ级暴露病例同时接种狂犬病疫苗和狂犬病免疫球蛋白的仅占21.85%.结论 科学城疾控中心门诊狂犬病暴露人群狂犬病疫苗接种率较高,但狂犬病免疫球蛋白的使用率还有待进一步提高;伤人动物免疫史不高,应普及狂犬病预防知识;加强犬只管理.%Objective To explore the rabies prevention measures based on analysis of the epidemiological factors at vaccination clinic of Science City from 2009 to 2011. Methods According to monitoring data, analysis were conducted concerning following variables: gender, age, treatment time, exposure degree, vaccinating, rabies immune globulin (RIG) on the person with grade DI exposure and situations of wounding animals. Results A total of 327 rabies exposure cases were treated from 2009 to 2011. Patients wounded by dogs accounted for 86. 5% , 95.4% of which took treatment after the exposure within 24 h. Proportion of dogs never taking vaccination reached 16. 51% and those vaccinated accounted only for 39.45% ; the proportion of those with unclear vaccination history was as high as 44. 04%. The grade HI exposure cases were 119, accounted for 36. 39% , among which only 21. 85% vaccinated both the rabies vaccine and RIG. Conclusion Rabies vaccination rate is relatively high among

  7. The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): using social science to inform prep interventions among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson Bazzi, Angela M; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-09-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub- Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular "re-medicalization" of the HIV epidemic to that of a "reintegration" of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV.

  8. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  9. 45 BEACON: 2007 SCIENCE FAIRS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles R Holliday

    2007-01-01

      CHARLES R. HOLLIDAY 2007 SCIENCE FAIRS The AMS awards Certificates of Outstanding Achievement to student exhibitors for creative scientific endeavor in the areas of atmospheric and related oceanic...

  10. Climate Change Science Program Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Collection consists of publications and other resources produced between 2007 and 2009 by the CCSP with the intention of...

  11. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  12. Impact of Ozone Exposure on OPV Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palankar, Aneeket Jaisukhlal

    Organic solar cells are a considerable promise for alternate energy sources owing to their plentiful, easily accessible and renewable source of power. Degradation on organic film and anode layer are the major factors that determine device reliability and ozone can induce damage to these materials due to its strong oxidizing property. This study measured the sustainability of a type of organic photovoltaic (OPV) film (P3HT:PC71BM) and its anodes (Al and MoO3) to different levels of ozone environment and investigated the impact of ozone exposure on OPV film and anodes efficiency. The devices were fabricated in a Glove Box under controlled N2 atmosphere using Spin Coating and Physical Vapor Deposition and exposed to varied ozone concentrations, followed by J-V measurements to determine the Power Conversion Efficiency and Fill Factor. The effects of ozone exposure on the films were compared vs. the effects of exposure on complete devices with anodes (Al and MoO 3). The results show that the devices decay from normal efficiency (4%) to 0% in 12 hours under 300 ppb (+/-10%) ozone concentration and decay to 0% in 6 hours when the ozone concentration was 600 ppb (+/-10%), when only the polymer thin films are exposed. This established an inverse linear relationship between the decay rate and ozone exposure at high concentrations on the OPV films. Furthermore, the effect of exposure to ambient ozone concentration on the polymer films, which is 70 ppb (+/-15%), was also investigated and the devices were found to decay to 0% in 28 hours, which is much faster than expected. The decay resistance of complete devices when the polymer films are coated with thermally evaporated anodes (Al and MoO3) before exposure to 400 ppb ozone concentration was investigated. The average efficiency of the complete device after 2, 6, 10, 15, 28 and 42 hours exposure in 400 ppb ozone environment was 4.16% with a standard deviation of 0.12%. The test findings for the complete device with coated

  13. ZAP: Zurich Atmosphere Purge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Kurt T.; Lilly, Simon J.; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Conseil, Simon

    2016-02-01

    ZAP (Zurich Atmosphere Purge) provides sky subtraction for integral field spectroscopy; its approach is based on principal component analysis (PCA) developed for the Multi Unit Spectrographic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. ZAP employs filtering and data segmentation to enhance the inherent capabilities of PCA for sky subtraction. ZAP reduces sky emission residuals while robustly preserving the flux and line shapes of astronomical sources; this method works in a variety of observational situations from sparse fields with a low density of sources to filled fields in which the target source fills the field of view. With the inclusion of both of these situations the method is generally applicable to many different science cases and should also be useful for other instrumentation.

  14. A brief introduction to the Nonlinear Atmospheric Dynamics Research Group in the State Key Laboratory of LASG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@Nonlinear atmospheric dynamics is an interdisciplinary branch of atmospheric sciences,geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear sciences.As a basis for numerical weather prediction and short-term climate predication,it is a frontier of rapidly developing atmospheric sciences in recent years.

  15. Interactions between atmospheric and pedospheric sulfur nutrition : Impact of short-term H2S exposure on the uptake and distribution of S-35-sulfate in roots and shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonisch, A; Weidner, W; Tausz, M; Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Grill, D

    2005-01-01

    Curlykale (Brassica oleracea L., Brassicaceae) was exposed to 0 and 400 nl l(-1) H2S and simultaneously transferred to a 25% Hoagland nutrient solution containing S-35-sulfate for 24 h. H2S exposure hardly affected the contents of the different sulfur pools, but resulted in a decrease in the level o

  16. Interactions between atmospheric and pedospheric sulfur nutrition : Impact of short-term H2S exposure on the uptake and distribution of S-35-sulfate in roots and shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonisch, A; Weidner, W; Tausz, M; Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Grill, D

    2005-01-01

    Curlykale (Brassica oleracea L., Brassicaceae) was exposed to 0 and 400 nl l(-1) H2S and simultaneously transferred to a 25% Hoagland nutrient solution containing S-35-sulfate for 24 h. H2S exposure hardly affected the contents of the different sulfur pools, but resulted in a decrease in the level

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  18. Introducing the Atmospheric Visualization Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, C. M.; Andrew, K.; Mace, G. G.; McCollum, T.; Gobble, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Visualization Collection is a digital library collection, a section in the NSF's National Science Digital Library. The collection has two essential components. The first is an archive of images based on data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The second is a collection of educational material based on atmospheric science concepts that use these data images. The data image archive focuses on the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which has the largest collection of ground-based remote-sensing atmospheric instruments. Our visualization tools are automated to create the data images for both archival and real-time uses. ARM instrument mentors and ARM scientist as well as other scientists involved in campaigns at the ARM SGP site review our visualization work for scientific quality. While the archive of weather images was initially created for scientists, collaboration with teachers has identified many of the barriers to educational use. This revealed the need for more educationally friendly interfaces into our weather images and the need for greater documentation. One of the results is our geophysical focus area interface, allowing teachers and students to access these data images. The visualization tools used to produce these data images are available through an open source repository. Testing with undergraduate students has demonstrated the usability of these tools with data from the ARM Archive for class projects. While the task of reviewing and improving user interfaces continues, we have reached a stage where educators and students can easily access our atmospheric data images. An initial set of peer reviewed lesson plans based on these data images has been the basis for workshops to introduce teachers to the AVC. To further involve these teachers a Lesson Plan Sandbox. The Lesson Plan Sandbox allows teachers to submit their lesson plans to share with others, to review lesson plans submitted by other teachers, and to add

  19. Science in Computational Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson Cerrosen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing theory in relation to science presents the physics as an ideal, although many sciences not approach the same, so that the current philosophy of science-Theory of Science- is not much help when it comes to analyze the computer science, an emerging field of knowledge that aims investigation of computers, which are included in the materialization of the ideas that try to structure the knowledge and information about the world. Computer Science is based on logic and mathematics, but both theoretical research methods and experimental follow patterns of classical scientific fields. Modeling and computer simulation, as a method, are specific to the discipline and will be further developed in the near future, not only applied to computers but also to other scientific fields. In this article it is analyze the aspects of science in computer science, is presenting an approach to the definition of science and the scientific method in general and describes the relationships between science, research, development and technology.

  20. Temporal and Spatial Simulation of Atmospheric Pollutant PM2.5 Changes and Risk Assessment of Population Exposure to Pollution Using Optimization Algorithms of the Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Network Model and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Hong, Bo; He, Liang; Cheng, Fei; Zhao, Peng; Wei, Cailiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-09-29

    PM2.5 pollution has become of increasing public concern because of its relative importance and sensitivity to population health risks. Accurate predictions of PM2.5 pollution and population exposure risks are crucial to developing effective air pollution control strategies. We simulated and predicted the temporal and spatial changes of PM2.5 concentration and population exposure risks, by coupling optimization algorithms of the Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) model and a geographical information system (GIS) in Xi'an, China, for 2013, 2020, and 2025. Results indicated that PM2.5 concentration was positively correlated with GDP, SO₂, and NO₂, while it was negatively correlated with population density, average temperature, precipitation, and wind speed. Principal component analysis of the PM2.5 concentration and its influencing factors' variables extracted four components that accounted for 86.39% of the total variance. Correlation coefficients of the Levenberg-Marquardt (trainlm) and elastic (trainrp) algorithms were more than 0.8, the index of agreement (IA) ranged from 0.541 to 0.863 and from 0.502 to 0.803 by trainrp and trainlm algorithms, respectively; mean bias error (MBE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) indicated that the predicted values were very close to the observed values, and the accuracy of trainlm algorithm was better than the trainrp. Compared to 2013, temporal and spatial variation of PM2.5 concentration and risk of population exposure to pollution decreased in 2020 and 2025. The high-risk areas of population exposure to PM2.5 were mainly distributed in the northern region, where there is downtown traffic, abundant commercial activity, and more exhaust emissions. A moderate risk zone was located in the southern region associated with some industrial pollution sources, and there were mainly low-risk areas in the western and eastern regions, which are predominantly residential and educational areas.

  1. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers m...... be critiqued. Which conception of critique can be involved? Third, critiquing atmospheric powers can generate political conflict. How does atmospheric disputes relate to conceptions of politics and the political?...

  2. Evolutionary differences in Δ13C detected between spore and seed bearing plants following exposure to a range of atmospheric O2:CO2 ratios; implications for paleoatmosphere reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Amanda S.; Yiotis, Charilaos; Montañez, Isabel P.; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2017-09-01

    The stable carbon isotopes of fossil plants are a reflection of the atmosphere and environment in which they grew. Fossil plant remains have thus stored information about the isotopic composition and concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) and possibly pO2 through time. Studies to date, utilizing extant plants, have linked changes in plant stable carbon isotopes (δ13Cp) or carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) to changes in pCO2 and/or pO2. These studies have relied heavily on angiosperm representatives, a phylogenetic group only present in the fossil record post-Early Cretaceous (∼140 million years ago (mya)), whereas gymnosperms, monilophytes and lycophytes dominated terrestrial ecosystems prior to this time. The aim of this study was to expand our understanding of carbon isotope discrimination in all vascular plant groups of C3 plants including lycophytes, monilophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms, under elevated CO2 and sub-ambient O2 to explore their utility as paleo-atmospheric proxies. To achieve this goal, plants were grown in controlled environment chambers under a range of O2:CO2 ratio treatments. Results reveal a strong phylogenetic dependency on Δ13C, where spore-bearing (lycophytes and monilophytes) have significantly higher 13C discrimination than seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) by ∼5‰. We attribute this strong phylogenetic signal to differences in Ci/Ca likely mediated by fundamental differences in how spore and seed bearing plants control stomatal aperture. Decreasing O2:CO2 ratio in general resulted in increased carbon isotope discrimination in all plant groups. Notably, while all plant groups respond unidirectionally to elevated atmospheric CO2 (1900 ppm and ambient O2), they do not respond equally to sub-ambient O2 (16%). We conclude that (1) Δ13C has a strong phylogenetic or 'reproductive grade' bias, whereby Δ13C of spore reproducing plants is significantly different to seed reproducing taxa. (2) Δ13C increases

  3. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the GERDA as part of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) project from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957 (NODC Accession 7000057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the GERDA from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957. Data were collected as part of the Rosenstiel...

  4. Cassini science planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

    2004-01-01

    The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

  5. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  6. Air Sensor Guidebook | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Air Sensor Guidebook has been developed by the U.S. EPA to assist those interested in potentially using lower cost air quality sensor technologies for air quality measurements. Its development was in direct response to a request for such a document following a recent scientific conference (Apps and Sensors for Air Pollution-2012). Low cost air quality sensors ($100-$2500) are now commercially available in a wide variety of designs and capabilities. This is an emerging technology area and one that is quickly evolving. Even so, their availability has resulted in questions from many as to how they might be used appropriately. This document attempts to provide useful information concerning some of those questions. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD’s research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA’s strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and pol

  7. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µm

  8. Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

  9. Exoplanetary Atmospheres - Chemistry, Formation Conditions, and Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Moses, Julianne I; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the atmospheres of extrasolar planets is the new frontier in exoplanetary science. The last two decades of exoplanet discoveries have revealed that exoplanets are very common and extremely diverse in their orbital and bulk properties. We now enter a new era as we begin to investigate the chemical diversity of exoplanets, their atmospheric and interior processes, and their formation conditions. Recent developments in the field have led to unprecedented advancements in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets and the implications for their formation conditions. We review these developments in the present work. We review in detail the theory of atmospheric chemistry in all classes of exoplanets discovered to date, from highly irradiated gas giants, ice giants, and super-Earths, to directly imaged giant planets at large orbital separations. We then review the observational detections of chemical species in exoplanetary atmospheres of these various types using different methods, incl...

  10. Military Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Military Exposures Veterans may have been exposed to a range of chemical, physical, and environmental hazards during military service. Reports on Veterans’ Health Care Use What ...

  11. Corrosion of steel reinforced concrete in the tropical coastal atmosphere of Havana City, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of chloride deposition rate on concrete using an atmospheric corrosion approach is rarely studied in the literature. Seven exposure sites were selected in Havana City, Cuba, for exposure of reinforced concrete samples. Two significantly different atmospheric corrosivity levels with respect to corrosion of steel reinforced concrete were observed after two years of exposure depending on atmospheric chloride deposition and w/c ratio of the concrete. Changes in corrosion current are related to changes in chloride penetration and chloride atmospheric deposition. The influence of sulphur compound deposition could also be a parameter to consider in atmospheric corrosion of steel reinforced concrete.

  12. Reactive Hydrocarbons in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Roger

    The emissions of reactive volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere from biogenic and anthropogenic sources and the subsequent interaction of these organic compounds with oxides of nitrogen in the presence of sunlight lead to the formation of photochemical air pollution, now recognized to affect much of Europe, the United States, and many regions and urban areas elsewhere around the world. The past decade has seen the realization that emissions of organic compounds from biogenic sources (principally from vegetation) may be comparable to, or even dominate over, emissions of organic compounds from anthropogenic sources. Biogenic organics therefore play an important role in the chemistry of the troposphere and influence control strategies aimed at reducing the exposure of human populations to ozone and other manifestations of photochemical air pollution. Organic compounds also are involved in the formation of secondary organic aerosol, the formation of acids in the atmosphere, the potential for global warming, and, for chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds, stratospheric ozone depletion.

  13. Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    De Vries, W H; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1 / sqrt(N)). We also verify that the measured ellipticity ...

  14. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  15. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  16. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; Gonzaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  17. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary T. Zaleski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment.

  18. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Rosemary T; Egeghy, Peter P; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2016-07-22

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children's toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment.

  19. Atmospheric Neutrinos in Soudan 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.; Soudan 2 Collaboration

    2001-08-01

    Neutrino interactions recorded in a 5.1 fiducial kiloton-year exposure of the Soudan-2 iron tracking calorimeter are analyzed for effects of neutrino oscillations. Using contained single track and single shower events, we update our measurement of the atmospheric / ratio-of-ratios and find . Assuming this anomalously low R-value is the result of flavor disappearance viat o oscillation, we select samples of charged current events which offer good resolution, event-by-event, for Ä reconstruction. Oscillation-weighted Monte Carlo events are fitted to these data events using a ¾ function summed over bins of log´Ä µ. The region allowed in the (× Ò¾ ¾ , ¡Ñ¾) plane at 90% CL is obtained using the Feldman-Cousins procedure: 1 DETECTOR; DATA EXPOSURE The Soudan-2 experiment will soon (July 2001) be completing the taking of data using its fine-grained iron tracking calorimeter of total mass 963 tons. This detector images nonrelativistic as well as relativistic charged particles produced in atmospheric neutrino reactions. It has operated underground at a depth of 2100 meters-water-equivalent on level 27 of the Soudan Mine State Park in northern Minnesota. The calorimeter's modular design enabled data-taking to commence in April 1989 when the detector was one quarter of its full size; assembly of the detector was completed during 1993. Data-taking continued with 85% live time, even though dynamite blasting has been underway nearby for the MINOS cavern excavation since Summer 1999. The total data exposure will be 5.8fiducial kiloton-years (kTy). Results presented here are based upon a 5.1 kTy exposure. The tracking calorimeter operates as a slow-drift (0.6 cm/ s) time projection chamber. Its tracking elements are meterlong plastic drift tubes which are placed into the corruga-

  20. High Performance Nitrous Oxide Analyzer for Atmospheric Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project targets the development of a highly sensitive gas sensor to monitor atmospheric nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is an important species in Earth science...

  1. Lidar: range-resolved optical remote sensing of the atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weitkamp, Claus; Walther, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    "Written by leading experts in optical radar, or lidar, this book brings all the recent practices up-to-date and covers a multitude of applications, from atmospheric sciences to environmental protection...

  2. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2007 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  3. 40 CFR 79.61 - Vehicle emissions inhalation exposure guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used to avoid concurrent exposure by the dermal or oral routes, i.e., grooming, is not recommended... hours plus the time necessary to build the chamber atmosphere to 90 percent of the target exposure... analysis, to ensure that exposure levels are at the target values or within stated limits during the...

  4. The MAVEN Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wolfe, A. W.; Harter, B.; Kokkonen, K.; Staley, B.; Christofferson, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars Atmospheric and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission has been collecting data at Mars since September 2014. MAVEN's science data is hosted at the Science Data Center at the Laboratory for Atmospheric & Space Physics (LASP), where we use many different technologies to provide the science community with access to the data. Our website contains applications built with Highcharts, AngularJS, D3.js, and PostgreSQL to access and visualize data and metadata, allowing visitors to the site to preview the science data, see variations in data volume over the mission, search a timeline of mission events and perform complex queries to discover science data. This presentation will summarize the current data available, the data access mechanisms we provide, the benefits of the various technologies we've chosen and the lessons we've learned along the way.

  5. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems-Atmosphere interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, K.; Sutton, M.A.; Ambus, P.; Raivonen, M.; Duyzer, J.; Simpson, D.; Fagerli, H.; Fuzzi, S.; Schjoerring, J.K.; Granier, C.; Neftel, A.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Laj, P.; Maione, M.; Monks, P.S.; Burkhardt, J.; Daemmgen, U.; Neirynck, J.; Personne, E.; Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Flechard, C.; Tuovinen, J.P.; Coyle, M.; Gerosa, G.; Loubet, B.; Altimir, N.; Gruenhage, L.; Ammann, C.; Cieslik, S.; Paoletti, E.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Cellier, P.; Cape, J.N.; Horvath, L.; Loreto, F.; Niinemets, U.; Palmer, P.I.; Rinne, J.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Nilsson, D.; Pryor, S.; Gallagher, M.W.; Vesala, T.; Skiba, U.; Brueggemann, N.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Williams, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Facchini, M.C.; Leeuw, de G.; Flossman, A.; Chaumerliac, N.; Erisman, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems and the atmosphere: This review describes the state of understanding the processes involved in the exchange of trace gases and aerosols between the earth's surface and the atmosphere. The gases covered include NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, NH3, SO2, DMS, Biogenic VOC, O-3, CH4, N2O and particles i

  6. The global atmospheric environment for the next generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentener, F.; Stevenson, D.; Ellingsen, K.; Noije, van T.; Schultz, M.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.; Bell, N.; Bergmann, D.; Bey, I.; Bouwman, L.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, B.; Drevet, J.; Doherty, R.; Eickhout, B.; Eskes, H.; Fiore, A.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Josse, B.; Lawrence, M.; Krol, M.C.; Lamarque, J.F.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.F.; Peuch, V.H.; Pitari, G.; Pyle, J.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Sanderson, M.; Savage, N.H.; Shindell, D.; Strahan, S.; Szopa, S.; Sudo, K.; Dingenen, van R.; Wild, O.; Zeng, G.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using 26 state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (

  7. The Significance of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R.

    2002-05-01

    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  8. Evolution of an Early Titan Atmosphere: Comment

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Robert E; Volkov, Alexey N

    2015-01-01

    Escape of an early atmosphere from Titan, during which time NH3 could be converted by photolysis into the present N2 dominated atmosphere, is an important problem in planetary science. Recently Gilliam and Lerman (2014) estimated escape driven by the surface temperature and pressure, which we show gave loss rates that are orders of magnitude too large. Their model, related to Jeans escape from an isothermal atmosphere, was used to show that escape driven only by surface heating would deplete the atmospheric inventory of N for a suggested Titan accretion temperature of ~355 K. Therefore, they concluded that the accretion temperature must be lower in order to retain the present Titan atmosphere. Here we show that the near surface atmospheric temperature is essentially irrelevant for determining the atmospheric loss rate from Titan and that escape is predominantly driven by solar heating of the upper atmosphere. We also give a rough estimate of the escape rate in the early solar system (~10^4 kg/s) consistent wi...

  9. Climate Change and the Science of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; Hack

    2011-01-01

    <正>1.Endeavors for constructing a comprehensive science of human settlements A new science of human settlements is emerging as a result of the threats we all face as a result of excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,

  10. Atmospheric Corrosivity at Australian and Overseas Airbases and Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    protective coating systems and corrosion inhibitor treatments deteriorate and become less effective. The CLIMAT environmental corrosion test has...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Atmospheric Corrosivity at Australian and Overseas Airbases and Airports J C Bitcon Maritime...Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-TN-1320 ABSTRACT Atmospheric corrosivity at 25 airbases and airports in Australia

  11. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Antolini, R; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkauoi, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Esposito, L; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Mengucci, A; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2005-01-01

    The latest results from the Soudan 2, MACRO and SuperKamiokande experiments on atmospheric neutrino oscillations are summarised and discussed. In particular a discussion is made on the Monte Carlo simulations used for the atmospheric neutrino flux.

  12. Planetary atmosphere processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenkov, N.S.

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume focus on various atmospheric processes, including zonal circulation of the atmosphere, the quasi-biennial cycle, blocking processes, monsoon circulation, and the response of the atmosphere to solar corpuscular fluxes. Other topics discussed include climatic characteristics of atmospheric circulation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, seasonal changes of the geopotential in the tropical stratosphere, and characteristics of the Southern Oscillation-El Nino phenomenon.

  13. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2008 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report. The Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 613) is part of the Earth Sciences Division (Code 610), formerly the Earth Sun Exploration Division, under the Sciences and Exploration Directorate (Code 600) based at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In line with NASA s Exploration Initiative, the Laboratory executes a comprehensive research and technology development program dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. The research program is aimed at understanding the influence of solar variability on the Earth s climate; predicting the weather and climate of Earth; understanding the structure, dynamics, and radiative properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; understanding atmospheric chemistry, especially the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and advancing our understanding of physical properties of Earth s atmosphere. The research program identifies problems and requirements for atmospheric observations via satellite missions. Laboratory scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Laboratory members conduct field measurements for satellite data calibration and validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud-resolving models, and development of next-generation Earth system models. Interdisciplinary research is carried

  14. Atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoichiro [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida-City, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    Results from the atmospheric neutrino measurements are presented. Evidence for the {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in the atmospheric neutrino events was shown by statistical methods. The long baseline oscillation experiment using man-made neutrinos has confirmed the atmospheric neutrino oscillation. The future accelerator experiments are briefly discussed.

  15. Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    MAS is a remote sensing instrument for passive sounding (limb sounding) of the earth's atmosphere from the Space Shuttle. The main objective of the MAS is to study the composition and dynamic structure of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere in the height range 20 to 100 km, the region known as the middle atmosphere. The MAS will be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission scheduled for late 1990. The Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder will provide, for the first time, information obtained simultaneously on the temperature and on ozone concentrations in the 20 to 90 km altitude region. The information will cover a large area of the globe, will have high accuracy and high vertical resolution, and will cover both day and night times. Additionally, data on the two important molecules, H2O and ClO, will also be provided.

  16. Estimate Total Number of the Earth Atmospheric Particle with Standard Atmosphere Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong-Yi

    2001-01-01

    The total number of atmospheric particle (AP) is an important datum for planetary science and geoscience.Estimating entire AP number is also a familiar question in general physics.With standard atmosphere model,considering the number difference of AP caused by rough and uneven in the earth surface below,the sum of dry clean atmosphere particle is 1.06962 × 1044.So the whole number of AP including water vapor is 1.0740 × 1044.The rough estimation for the total number of AP on other planets (or satellites) in condensed state is also discussed on the base of it.

  17. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Intrieri; Boer, G.; Shupe, M. D.; J. R. Spackman; J. Wang; P. J. Neiman; Wick, G. A.; T. F. Hock; R. E. Hood

    2014-01-01

    In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1) mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2) evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3) demonstrate operational and research applic...

  18. Atmospheric Modeling Using Accelerometer Data During Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Robert H.; Lugo, Rafael A.; Baird, Darren T.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Bougher, Stephen W.; Zurek, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft is a NASA orbiter designed to explore the Mars upper atmosphere, typically from 140 to 160 km altitude. In addition to the nominal science mission, MAVEN has performed several Deep Dip campaigns in which the orbit's closest point of approach, also called periapsis, was lowered to an altitude range of 115 to 135 km. MAVEN accelerometer data were used during mission operations to estimate atmospheric parameters such as density, scale height, along-track gradients, and wave structures. Density and scale height estimates were compared against those obtained from the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model and used to aid the MAVEN navigation team in planning maneuvers to raise and lower periapsis during Deep Dip operations. This paper describes the processes used to reconstruct atmosphere parameters from accelerometers data and presents the results of their comparison to model and navigation-derived values.

  19. A Unique Approach for Studying Venus’s Atmosphere: Technology Development for the Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuele, Rocco; Lee, Greg; Sokol, Daniel; Polidan, Ron; Griffin, Kristen; Bolisay, Linden; Michi, Yuki; Barnes, Nathan

    2014-11-01

    We are investigating a novel, reduced-risk approach to long-duration upper atmosphere exploration of Venus. The Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) concept is a semi-buoyant plane with a science payload that can perform in situ measurements of Venus’s atmosphere. VAMP is also capable of revisiting scientifically interesting locations. Designed with a low ballistic coefficient, VAMP deploys in space and enters Venus’s atmosphere without an aeroshell. Once in the atmosphere, it can engage in a variety of science campaigns while varying its altitude between 50 and 68 km as it circumnavigates Venus. During daytime, VAMP will be able to make continuous science measurements at a range of latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes, while at night the vehicle will descend to a fully-buoyant, lower-power state, capable of performing modest science measurements at the float altitude. Near the end of VAMP’s mission life, the vehicle may attempt an end-of-life trajectory into higher latitudes or descend to lower altitudes. This presentation focuses on the technology roadmap that will allow the vehicle to accomplish these science measurements. The roadmap is driven by high priority science measurements and the technology needed to implement VAMP’s main mission phases: deployment, entry into Venus’s atmosphere, and the transition to flight and science flight performance. The roadmap includes materials tests, planform aerodynamic characterization, various subscale and full-scale packaging and deployment tests, and a full-scale suborbital flight and is being produced with extensive science community interaction to define the science measurements that would be uniquely possible with this new science platform.

  20. Nonisothermal Pluto atmosphere models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W.B.; Yelle, R.V.; Lunine, J.I. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The present thermal profile calculation for a Pluto atmosphere model characterized by a high number fraction of CH4 molecules encompasses atmospheric heating by solar UV flux absorption and conductive transport cooling to the surface of Pluto. The stellar occultation curve predicted for an atmosphere of several-microbar surface pressures (which entail the existence of a substantial temperature gradient close to the surface) agrees with observations and implies that the normal and tangential optical depth of the atmosphere is almost negligible. The minimum period for atmospheric methane depletion is calculated to be 30 years. 29 refs.

  1. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  2. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I.; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-02-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, whose 4.5-5.2 μm spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 109 cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  3. [Regional atmospheric environment risk source identification and assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shui-Fen; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Identification and assessment for atmospheric environment risk source plays an important role in regional atmospheric risk assessment and regional atmospheric pollution prevention and control. The likelihood exposure and consequence assessment method (LEC method) and the Delphi method were employed to build a fast and effective method for identification and assessment of regional atmospheric environment risk sources. This method was applied to the case study of a large coal transportation port in North China. The assessment results showed that the risk characteristics and the harm degree of regional atmospheric environment risk source were in line with the actual situation. Fast and effective identification and assessment of risk source has laid an important foundation for the regional atmospheric environmental risk assessment and regional atmospheric pollution prevention and control.

  4. Science With A Vengeance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devorkin, David H.

    The exploration of the upper atmosphere was given a jump start in the United States by German V-2 rockets - Hitler's "vengeance weapon" - captured at the end of World War II. The science performed with these missiles was largely determined by the missile itself, such as learning more about the medium through which a ballistic missile travels. Groups rapidly formed within the military and military-funded university laboratories to build instruments to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere, the nature of cosmic radiation, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun. Few, if any, members of these research groups had prior experience or demonstrated interests in atmospheric, cosmic-ray, or solar physics. Although scientific agendas were at first centered on what could be done with missiles and how to make ballistic missile systems work, reports on techniques and results were widely publicized as the research groups and their patrons sought scientific legitimacy and learned how to make their science an integral part of the national security state. The process by which these groups gained scientific and institutional authority was far from straightforward and offers useful insight both for the historian and for the scientist concerned with how specialties born within the military services became part of post-war American science.

  5. Cyberinfrastructure for Atmospheric Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmson, R.; Moore, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    Each year across the United States, floods, tornadoes, hail, strong winds, lightning, hurricanes, and winter storms cause hundreds of deaths, routinely disrupt transportation and commerce, and result in billions of dollars in annual economic losses . MEAD and LEAD are two recent efforts aimed at developing the cyberinfrastructure for studying and forecasting these events through collection, integration, and analysis of observational data coupled with numerical simulation, data mining, and visualization. MEAD (Modeling Environment for Atmospheric Discovery) has been funded for two years as an NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Alliance Expedition. The goal of this expedition has been the development/adaptation of cyberinfrastructure that will enable research simulations, datamining, machine learning and visualization of hurricanes and storms utilizing the high performance computing environments including the TeraGrid. Portal grid and web infrastructure are being tested that will enable launching of hundreds of individual WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) simulations. In a similar way, multiple Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) or WRF/ROMS simulations can be carried out. Metadata and the resulting large volumes of data will then be made available for further study and for educational purposes using analysis, mining, and visualization services. Initial coupling of the ROMS and WRF codes has been completed and parallel I/O is being implemented for these models. Management of these activities (services) are being enabled through Grid workflow technologies (e.g. OGCE). LEAD (Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery) is a recently funded 5-year, large NSF ITR grant that involves 9 institutions who are developing a comprehensive national cyberinfrastructure in mesoscale meteorology, particularly one that can interoperate with others being developed. LEAD is addressing the fundamental information technology (IT) research challenges needed

  6. MARCS model atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plez, B [GRAAL, CNRS, UMR5024, Universite Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: bertrand.plez@graal.univ-montp2.fr

    2008-12-15

    In this review presented at the Symposium A Stellar Journey in Uppsala, June 2008, I give an account of the historical development of the MARCS code, and its premises from the first version published in 1975 to the 2008 grid. The primary driver for the development team who constantly strive to include the best possible physical data, is the science that can be done with the models. A few preliminary comparisons of M star model spectra to spectrophotometric observations are presented. Particular results related to opacity effects are discussed. The size of errors in spectral energy distribution (SED) and model thermal stratification is estimated for different densities of wavelength sampling. The number of points used in the MARCS 2008 grid (108 000) is large enough to ensure errors of only a few K in all models of the grid, except the optically very thin layers of metal-poor stars. Errors in SEDs may reach about 10% locally in the UV. The published sampled SEDs are thus adequate to compute synthetic broadband photometry, but higher resolution spectra will be computed in the near future and published as well on the MARCS site (marcs.astro.uu.se). Test model calculations with TiO line opacity accounted for in scattering show significant cooling of the upper atmospheric layers of red giants. Rough estimates of radiative and collisional time scales for electronic transitions of TiO indicate that scattering may well be the dominant mechanism in these lines. However, models constructed with this hypothesis are incompatible with optical observations of TiO (Arcturus) or IR observations of OH (Betelgeuse), although they may succeed in explaining H{sub 2}O line observations. More work is needed in that direction.

  7. Ocean Sciences and Remote Sensing Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: A 52,000 ft 2 state-of-the-art buildig designed to house NRL's Oceanography Division, part of the Ocean and Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate....

  8. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  9. The atmosphere of Pluto as observed by New Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G Randall; Stern, S Alan; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B; Weaver, Harold A; Young, Leslie A; Summers, Michael E; Strobel, Darrell F; Hinson, David P; Kammer, Joshua A; Parker, Alex H; Steffl, Andrew J; Linscott, Ivan R; Parker, Joel Wm; Cheng, Andrew F; Slater, David C; Versteeg, Maarten H; Greathouse, Thomas K; Retherford, Kurt D; Throop, Henry; Cunningham, Nathaniel J; Woods, William W; Singer, Kelsi N; Tsang, Constantine C C; Schindhelm, Eric; Lisse, Carey M; Wong, Michael L; Yung, Yuk L; Zhu, Xun; Curdt, Werner; Lavvas, Panayotis; Young, Eliot F; Tyler, G Leonard

    2016-03-18

    Observations made during the New Horizons flyby provide a detailed snapshot of the current state of Pluto's atmosphere. Whereas the lower atmosphere (at altitudes of less than 200 kilometers) is consistent with ground-based stellar occultations, the upper atmosphere is much colder and more compact than indicated by pre-encounter models. Molecular nitrogen (N2) dominates the atmosphere (at altitudes of less than 1800 kilometers or so), whereas methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), and ethane (C2H6) are abundant minor species and likely feed the production of an extensive haze that encompasses Pluto. The cold upper atmosphere shuts off the anticipated enhanced-Jeans, hydrodynamic-like escape of Pluto's atmosphere to space. It is unclear whether the current state of Pluto's atmosphere is representative of its average state--over seasonal or geologic time scales. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. The Lowest Atmosphere: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Including Atmospheric Surface Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    of motion of the atmosphere— "second order closure"—to such applications as the SCIPUFF -PC code for tracer dispersion (see Sykes, 1994). Now, for...Turbulence, Methuen, London, 2nd Ed., 1955. Sykes, R.I., "The SCIPUFF -PC Code," ARAP Draft Report, 1994. Tennekes, H., "The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

  11. Pyrgeometer Calibration for DOE-Atmospheric System Research Program Using NREL Method (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2010-03-15

    Presented at the DOE-Atmospheric System Research Program, Science Team Meeting, 15-19 March 2010, Bethesda, Maryland. The presentation: Pyrgeometer Calibration for DOE-Atmospheric System Research program using NREL Method - was presented by Ibrahim Reda and Tom Stoffel on March 15, 2010 at the 2010 ASR Science Team Meeting. March 15-19, 2010, Bethesda, Maryland.

  12. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ARL-TR-7602 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound...Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures by Sarah Wagner Science and Engineering Apprentice...Program (SEAP), George Washington University Adrienne Raglin and John Noble Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  13. Kinetics, Mechanism and Product Yields in the Atmospheric Oxidation of Dimethylsulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science University of Miami 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami, Florida 33149-1098 ahynes...decomposition and reaction, b) direct confirmation of production, and quantitative product yields of potential reaction products and intermediates...School of Marine and Atmospheric Science ,4600 Rickenbacker Causeway,Miami,FL,33149 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  14. A First Course in Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, Phillip

    2009-08-01

    It is not uncommon to find textbooks that have been written with the intention of catering to a broad spectrum of readers. Often, though not always, the result is a book appropriate for neither advanced nor beginning students. However, Grant Petty had a very specific target audience in mind when he wrote A First Course in Atmospheric Thermodynamics. The book is clearly gauged for atmospheric science and meteorology students who have had introductory courses in physics and calculus but who have not necessarily established a firm foundation in analytic problem solving.

  15. SOHO Mission Science Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  16. Measurement of the Atmospheric $\

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Boser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glusenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klas, J; Klein, S R; Kohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Kopke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meszaros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Perez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Radel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schoneberg, S; Schonherr, L; Schonwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoss, A; Strahler, E A; Strom, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos of all flavors. Using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension, a sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data. The number of observed cascades is $N_{\\rm cascade} = 496 \\pm 66 (stat.) \\pm 88(syst.)$ and the rest of the sample consists of residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is determined in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV and is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos.

  17. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric d...

  18. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Jack S; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. We illustrate this idea using the object WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, which is a cool, free-floating brown dwarf. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Ba...

  19. Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics An Introductory Text

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, John

    1961-01-01

    For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making i

  20. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-51D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near the space shuttle STS-51D launch time on April 12, 1985, at Kennedy Space Center Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51D vehicle ascent is constructed. The STS-51D ascent atmospheric data tape is compiled by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  1. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-51L) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Alexander, M.; Fichtl, G. H.; Batts, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-51L launch time on January 28, 1986, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51L vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-51L ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  2. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-51B) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-51B launch time on April 29, 1985, at Kennedy Space Center Florida is presented. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-51B vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-51B ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  3. The MAVEN mission to Mars: Creating pathways for connecting to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.; Wood, E. L.; Christofferson, R.

    2011-12-01

    While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low. There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of EPO professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introducing the public to science and giving scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars to highlight the many avenues through which we introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. Through the use of social media outlets, crowdsourcing activities, public lectures, and interactive question and answer and video sessions, MAVEN scientists are capitalizing on recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure for the mission, while minimizing time and effort. In doing so, we are creating pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts and building a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important discoveries.

  4. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  5. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  6. Free from the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    An artificial, laser-fed star now shines regularly over the sky of Paranal, home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, one of the world's most advanced large ground-based telescopes. This system provides assistance for the adaptive optics instruments on the VLT and so allows astronomers to obtain images free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere, regardless of the brightness and the location on the sky of the observed target. Now that it is routinely offered by the observatory, the skies seem much sharper to astronomers. In order to counteract the blurring effect of Earth's atmosphere, astronomers use the adaptive optics technique. This requires, however, a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed. To surmount this limitation, astronomers now use at Paranal a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. Two of the Adaptive Optics (AO) science instruments at the Paranal observatory, NACO and SINFONI, have been upgraded to work with the recently installed Laser Guide Star (LGS; see ESO 07/06) and have delivered their first scientific results. This achievement opens astronomers' access to a wealth of new targets to be studied under the sharp eyes of AO. "These unique results underline the advantage of using a Laser Guide Star with Adaptive Optics instruments, since they could not be obtained with Natural Guide Stars," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics group at ESO. "This is also a crucial milestone towards the multi-laser systems ESO is designing for the VLT and the future E-ELT" (see e.g. ESO 19/07). ESO PR Photo 27a/07 ESO PR Photo 27a/07 An Ultra Luminous Merger (NACO-LGS/VLT) The Laser Guide Star System installed at Paranal uses the PARSEC dye laser developed by MPE-Garching and MPIA-Heidelberg, while the launch telescope and the laser laboratory was developed by ESO. "It is great to see the whole system working so well together," emphasises Richard

  7. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  8. Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. J.; Batluck, G. R.; Durbin, P. B.; Gerard, R.; Larko, D. E.; Martin, A.; Tilmes, C. A.

    2007-05-01

    This poster provides an overview of the computer system that provides community access to atmosphere measurements derived from backscatter ultraviolet sources. It is funded by NASA's Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS), and is devoted to Measurements of Atmospheric Composition in the Ultraviolet. The purpose is to provide "one-stop shopping" for data and information of interested to the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) community. It is built from the well-used, highly successful Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) web site, and is being evolved into a broader focus for the BUV community. This effort supports NASA's evolutionary step toward science measurement processing and analysis systems, and enables the BUV community to easily access information and expertise from multiple sources over a nearly 30 year history of space-based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It facilitates finding algorithms and scientific results from different parts of the BUV science community as well as from different instruments and missions. It provides the means to access the products of the Ozone Community Oriented Measurement-based Processing System (ComPS). The system contains components that store and manage data, manage user access to that data, provide multi-dimensional views of the data and other information, serve data based on user criteria, and facilitate on-line collaboration. The web site hosts Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents, quality assessment of data products, published papers, instrument descriptions, access to mission information, reports and assessments of events and issues, problem reporting and tracking, a moderated forum, and a user collaboration area. Visitors to the web site fall into several categories: the general public; students, educators, and researchers outside the BUV community; members of the BUV community who validate the measurements; members of the community who develop algorithms and software. Access to

  9. Minority Students in Science: Perspectives from the 1981-1982 National Assessment in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the science attitudes and achievement of minority students and compared them with White students at three age groups -- 9, 13, and 17 years old. Found that minority students with the greatest exposure to science had the least positive attitudes toward it, which raises questions regarding the nature of science instruction. (GC)

  10. Looking Back on Contributions in the Field of Atmospheric Corrosion Offered by the MICAT Ibero-American Testing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morcillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ibero-American Map of Atmospheric Corrosiveness (MICAT project was set up in 1988 sponsored by the International Ibero-American programme “Science and Technology for Development (CYTED” and ended in 1994 after six years of activities. Fourteen countries were involved in this project: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Spain, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Research was conducted both at laboratories and in a network of 75 atmospheric exposure test sites throughout the Ibero-American region, thus considering a broad spectrum of climatological and pollution conditions. Although with its own peculiarities, the project basically followed the outline of the ISOCORRAG and ICP/UNECE projects, with the aim of a desirable link between the three projects. This paper summarizes the results obtained in the MICAT project for mild steel, zinc, copper, and aluminum specimens exposed for one year in different rural, urban, and marine atmospheres in the Ibero-American region. Complementary morphological and chemical studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR techniques, in order to correlate climatic and atmospheric conditions and properties of the corrosion products.

  11. GeoHealth: A Transdisciplinary Science Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, C.

    2016-12-01

    GeoHealth is a transdisciplinary research discipline that connects Earth and environmental sciences with ecosystem and human health sciences. Geohealth research advances both basic and solutions focused research to address global societal challenges in ecosystem and human health. Some of the areas being addressed by geohealth include toxic substances in water, atmosphere, and soil and their effect on human health and environmental health. Geohealth research has been underway for several decades; several examples of recent prominent research findings include identifying complex exposures to dust in the aftermath of the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center and a better understanding of toxic exposures from the Gulf oil spill and their health effects on humans and other species both on land and in water. Over the past decade, GeoHealth research output has grown significantly as evidenced by research output in both the volume of meeting abstracts and journal articles and by significant funding commitments by governmental funding agencies around the world. This presentation will provide an overview of scientific research areas encompassed in geohealth, data that demonstrate a nearly 50% increase in geohealth research output between 2010 and 2015, the double digit growth of geohealth research output in AGU meetings and journals, and which countries are currently leading in geohealth research output. An overview of government funding sources for geohealth research both within and outside the United States along with new AGU geohealth initiatives will also be presented.

  12. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R; Brown, Phil

    2015-11-01

    Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science-environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social science collaboration with environmental health. Environ Health

  13. Effects of Maternal Exposure to Atmospheric Particulates during Pregnancy and Lactation Period on Central Nervous System of Filial Generation among Rats%妊娠期和哺乳期暴露于大气颗粒物对仔鼠中枢神经系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李久存; 魏永杰; 陈田; 钱琴; 郭建; 宋艳双; 胡洁琼; 贾光

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects on learning and memory ability and the content changes of monoamine neurotransmitter in hippocampus of filial generation when maternal rats exposed to atmospheric particulates during pregnancy and lactation period. Methods During Dec. 28th, 2009 to Feb. 7th, 2010, the experimental group was exposed to actual atmosphere in some area of Beijing in pregnancy and lactation period, while the control group exposed to atmosphere filtered without particulates. For the three weeks old young rats, the learning and memory ability were examined by using Morris water maze, while the content changes of monoamine neurotransmitter in hippocampus of neonatal mice were determined. Results In the place navigation period, the potential time finding flat incubation for offsprings in exposed group was significantly longer than that in the control group; in the spatial probe test period, the time of crossing the quadrant with flat and the traversing time decreased in exposed group. The contents of norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) in hippocampos of exposed rats were significantly increased, while dopamine (DA) was decreased but only with statistical significance in male rats.Conclusion Exposure to ambient atmospheric particulates in pregnancy and lactation periods can affect the central nervous system function of filial generation rats.%目的 研究母鼠在孕期及子代哺乳期暴露于大气颗粒物对仔鼠学习记忆能力以及海马单胺类神经递质含量的影响.方法 选择健康成年妊娠0d(见栓当天)SD大鼠,于2009年12月28日-2010年2月7日,采用平行的两个暴露箱,将妊娠期和哺乳期的暴露组孕鼠暴露于室外大气,对照组孕鼠暴露于经过滤装置滤除颗粒物后的大气;对其3周龄仔鼠用Morris水迷宫检测学习记忆能力,并检测仔鼠海马组织单胺类神经递质含量.结果 暴露组仔鼠寻找平台潜伏期时间长于对照组(P<0.001).暴露组仔鼠海马

  14. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Brown Carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  15. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS or methylglyoxal (MGAS are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  16. Photochemical processing of aqueous atmospheric brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Huang, L.; Li, X.; Yang, F.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) is a collective term for light absorbing organic compounds in the atmosphere. While the identification of BrC and its formation mechanisms is currently a central effort in the community, little is known about the atmospheric removal processes of aerosol BrC. As a result, we report on a series of laboratory studies of photochemical processing of BrC in the aqueous phase, by direct photolysis and OH oxidation. Solutions of ammonium sulfate mixed with glyoxal (GLYAS) or methylglyoxal (MGAS) are used as surrogates for a class of secondary BrC mediated by imine intermediates. Three nitrophenol species, namely 4-nitrophenol, 5-nitroguaiacol and 4-nitrocatechol, were investigated as a class of water-soluble BrC originating from biomass burning. Photochemical processing induced significant changes in the absorptive properties of BrC. The imine-mediated BrC solutions exhibited rapid photo-bleaching with both direct photolysis and OH oxidation, with atmospheric half-lives of minutes to a few hours. The nitrophenol species exhibited photo-enhancement in the visible range during direct photolysis and the onset of OH oxidation, but rapid photo-bleaching was induced by further OH exposure on an atmospheric timescale of an hour or less. To illustrate the atmospheric relevance of this work, we also performed direct photolysis experiments on water-soluble organic carbon extracted from biofuel combustion samples and observed rapid changes in the optical properties of these samples as well. Overall, these experiments indicate that atmospheric models need to incorporate representations of atmospheric processing of BrC species to accurately model their radiative impacts.

  17. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    What are clouds? The answer to that question is both obvious and subtle. In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice crystals suspended in the air. In the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Saturn's moon Titan, Uranus, Neptune, and possibly Pluto, they are composed of several other substances including sulfuric acid, ammonia, hydroge...

  18. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sandra E

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in particular, the respiratory system. We performed a review of articles from the PubMed and Web of Science databases that were published in English within the past 5 years, particularly those related to birth cohorts that began in pregnancy with follow-up until the first years of life. The largest reported effects are associated with prenatal exposure to particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and tobacco smoke. The primary effects affect birth weight and other parameters of fetal biometry. There is strong evidence regarding the impact of pollutants on morbidity secondary to respiratory problems. Growing evidence links maternal smoking to childhood asthma and wheezing. The role of passive maternal smoking is less clear. Great heterogeneity exists among studies. There is a need for additional studies on birth cohorts to monitor the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to pollutants and their children's progress during the first years of life.

  19. Atmospheric cloud physics thermal systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Engineering analyses performed on the Atmospheric Cloud Physics (ACPL) Science Simulator expansion chamber and associated thermal control/conditioning system are reported. Analyses were made to develop a verified thermal model and to perform parametric thermal investigations to evaluate systems performance characteristics. Thermal network representations of solid components and the complete fluid conditioning system were solved simultaneously using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) computer program.

  20. Interdisciplinary science with large aperture detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiencke Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Large aperture detector systems to measure high energy cosmic rays also offer unique opportunities in other areas of science. Disciplines include geophysics such as seismic and volcanic activity, and atmospheric science ranging from clouds to lightning to aerosols to optical transients. This paper will discuss potential opportunities based on the ongoing experience of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. 76 FR 2672 - Science Advisory Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Office of Oceanic... Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the NOAA Science Advisory Board. The members will discuss and...

  2. 76 FR 35410 - Science Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Oceanic... Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Science Advisory Board (SAB) was established... meeting will be held Wednesday, July 20, 2011, from 9:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. and Thursday, July 21,...

  3. 78 FR 60851 - Science Advisory Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Office of Oceanic... Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The NOAA Science Advisory Board (SAB) was... meeting will be held Tuesday, November 19, 2013 from 10:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. and Wednesday, November...

  4. 77 FR 38273 - Science Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Office of Oceanic... Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Science Advisory Board (SAB) was established... meeting will be held Monday, July 16, 2012 from 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. and Tuesday, July 17, 2012 from 8:30...

  5. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its...... are ‘compressed’ by the spatial morphologies of urban space. In this perspective atmospheres are to be understood as an emergent property that develops when the spatial morphological compression of urban life passes a certain threshold, that is, when the affective rhythm of the urban assemblages becomes...... understanding of atmospheres as aesthetically ‘radiating’ from the surfaces of space, thinks physiognomically, the article argues for a spatial morphological perspective on atmospheres. Thus, post-phenomeno¬logically, it is argued that the atmospheric given is given by the density of pedestrians, which...

  6. Chemistry of Atmospheric Aerosols at Pacifichem 2015 Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizkorodov, Sergey [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-12-28

    This grant was used to provide participant support for a symposium entitled “Chemistry of Atmospheric Aerosols” at the 2015 International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies (Pacifichem) that took place in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, on December 15-20, 2015. The objective was to help attract both distinguished scientists as well as more junior researchers, including graduate students, to this international symposium by reducing the financial barrier for its attendance. It was the second time a symposium devoted to Atmospheric Aerosols was part of the Pacifichem program. This symposium provided a unique opportunity for the scientists from different countries to gather in one place and discuss the cutting edge advances in the cross-disciplinary areas of aerosol research. To achieve the highest possible impact, the PI and the symposium co-organizers actively advertised the symposium by e-mail and by announcements at other conferences. A number of people responded, and the end result was a very busy program with about 100 oral and poster presentation described in the attached PDF file. Presentations by invited speakers occupied approximately 30% of time in each of the sessions. In addition to the invited speakers, each session also had contributed presentations, including those by graduate students and postdoctoral researchers. This symposium gathered established aerosol chemists from a number of countries including United States, Canada, China, Japan, Korea, Australia, Brazil, Hongkong, Switzerland, France, and Germany. There were plenty of time for the attendees to discuss new ideas and potential collaborations both during the oral sessions and at the poster sessions of the symposium. The symposium was very beneficial to graduate student researchers, postdoctoral fellows, and junior researchers whose prior exposure to international aerosol chemistry science had been limited. The symposium provided junior researchers with a much broader perspective of aerosol

  7. Occultations for probing atmosphere and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Steiner, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite­ crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi­ fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a...

  8. Using exposure bands for rapid decision making in the RISK21 tiered exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarco, M; Zaleski, R; Gaborek, B J; Qian, H; Bellin, C A; Egeghy, P; Heard, N; Jolliet, O; Lander, D R; Sunger, N; Stylianou, K S; Tanir, J Y

    2017-04-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Risk Assessment in the Twenty-first Century (RISK21) project was initiated to address and catalyze improvements in human health risk assessment. RISK21 is a problem formulation-based conceptual roadmap and risk matrix visualization tool, facilitating transparent evaluation of both hazard and exposure components. The RISK21 roadmap is exposure-driven, that is, exposure is used as the second step (after problem formulation) to define and focus the assessment. This paper describes the exposure tiers of the RISK21 matrix and the approaches to adapt readily available information to more quickly inform exposure at a screening level. In particular, exposure look-up tables were developed from available exposure tools (European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Targeted Risk Assessment (TRA) for worker exposure, ECETOC TRA, European Solvents Industry Group (ESIG) Generic Exposure Scenario (GES) Risk and Exposure Tool (EGRET) for consumer exposure, and USEtox(®) for indirect exposure to humans via the environment) and were tested in a hypothetical mosquito bed netting case study. A detailed WHO risk assessment for a similar mosquito net use served as a benchmark for the performance of the RISK21 approach. The case study demonstrated that the screening methodologies provided suitable conservative exposure estimates for risk assessment. The results of this effort showed that the RISK21 approach is useful for defining future assessment efforts, focusing assessment activities and visualizing results.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the global base of marine science. ..... Gössling S (2003) The political ecology of tourism in Zan-.

  10. Mercury exposure: are we at risk?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is considered one of the major contributors to global Hg emissions into the atmosphere mainly due to coal-based power generation. Exposure to Hg occurs through the inhalation of Hg vapours, or ingestion of Hg-contaminated food or water...

  11. The interactions of atmospheric cosmogenic radionuclides with spacecraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.; Fishman, G. J.; Harmon, A.; Parnell, T. A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Jull, A. J. T.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of the cosmogenic radionuclide Be-7 on the front surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has opened new opportunities to study several unexplored regions of space science. The experiments have shown that the Be-7 found was concentrated in a thin surface layer of spacecraft material. The only reasonable source of the isotope is the atmosphere through which the spacecraft passed. It is expected that the uptake of Be in such circumstances will depend on the chemical form of the Be and the chemical nature of the substrate. It was found that the observed concentration of Be-7 does differ between metal surfaces and organic surfaces such as PTFE (Teflon). It is noted however, that (1) organic surfaces are etched by the atomic oxygen found under these orbital conditions, and (2) the relative velocity of the species is 8 km/s relative to the surface and the interaction chemistry and physics may differ from the norm. Be-7 is formed by disintegration of O and N nuclei under cosmic ray proton bombardment. Many other isotopes are produced by cosmic ray reactions, and some of these are suited to measurement by the extremely sensitive methods of accelerator mass spectrometry.

  12. Estudo dos níveis de exposição e efeitos à saúde por mercúrio metálico em uma população urbana de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil Study of exposure to and health effects of atmospheric metallic mercury pollution in an urban population of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volney de M. Câmara

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os níveis de exposição e dos efeitos causados por emissões na atmosfera de mercúrio metálico proveniente de casas compradoras de ouro na população do Município de Poconé, Estado de Mato Grosso. O projeto foi desenvolvido através da comparação da morbidade referida, dos exames clínicos e da análise dos teores de mercúrio na urina de três grupos populacionais. As análises dos teores de mercúrio na urina mostraram diferenças altamente significativas entre os grupos centro e periferia em comparação ao grupo-controle. Entrevistas com as pessoas que apresentavam teores elevados evidenciaram que a exposição no centro da cidade poderia ser proveniente das casas compradoras de ouro e, no caso da periferia, poderia ter ocorrido exposição através da queima de amálgamas no interior das residências. Os dados de morbidade referida apresentaram proporções maiores de queixas entre os moradores do centro em comparação aos outros grupos e também maior número de alterações no exame clínico. Conclui-se que há maiores exposição e efeitos à saúde devido ao mercúrio metálico entre pessoas pertencentes aos primeiros dois grupos.This paper evaluates the levels of exposure to and health effects of metallic mercury emissions into the atmosphere by gold dealers in the town of Poconé, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The project was based on the comparison of referred morbidity, clinical examination, and metallic mercury urinary concentrations in three population groups. The first group consisted of downtown residents who were exposed to metallic mercury emissions. The second group resided on the outskirts of the town and the third in an agricultural area. Urinary concentrations of metallic mercury showed highly significant differences between groups from downtown and the outskirts as compared to the control group. Investigation of individuals with high concentrations showed that exposure in the downtown area might

  13. Russian investigations in the field of atmospheric radiation in 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Yu. M.; Shul'gina, E. M.

    2016-09-01

    A short survey prepared by the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation contains the most significant results of work in the field of atmospheric-radiation studies performed in 2011-2014. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences prepared for the International Association on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS)1. During this period, the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation, jointly with the concerned departments and organizations, organized two International Symposiums on Radiation and Dynamics (ISARD-2011 and ISARD-2013). At these conferences, the central problems in modern atmospheric physics were discussed: radiative transfer (RT) and atmospheric optics; greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols; remote methods of measurements; and new measurement data. This survey presents six directions covering the whole spectrum of investigations performed in the field of atmospheric radiation.

  14. Sound Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  15. Sound Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  16. Atmospheric composition change: Ecosystems–Atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, D.; Pilegaard, Kim; Sutton, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    and techniques in micrometeorology. For some of the compounds there have been paradigm shifts in approach and application of both techniques and assessment. These include flux measurements over marine surfaces and urban areas using micrometeorological methods and the up-scaling of flux measurements using...... in the size range 1 nm–10 μm including organic and inorganic chemical species. The main focus of the review is on the exchange between terrestrial ecosystems, both managed and natural and the atmosphere, although some new developments in ocean–atmosphere exchange are included. The material presented is biased...... towards the last decade, but includes earlier work, where more recent developments are limited or absent. New methodologies and instrumentation have enabled, if not driven technical advances in measurement. These developments have advanced the process understanding and upscaling of fluxes, especially...

  17. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai

    2017-08-01

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  18. Atmosphere beyond Poetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    . In doing so, analysing the Crystal Palace – recognised as the epitome of controlled immersive experience as well as of atmospheric engineering (Sloterdijk 2008 (2005) – in parallel with other examples and theoretical explorations, will provide a canvas for discerning the means of creation of atmosphere...... Physical Presence in Space.” Oase #91, Building Atmosphere, 21-33 Sloterdijk, Peter. (2005) 2008. “The Crystal Palace.” Translated by Michael Darroch. Public 37: Public?, 12-15. Originally published in Peter Sloterdijk. Im Weltinnenraum des Kapitals: Für eine philoso-phische Theorie der Globalisierung, 265...

  19. Alternative pathway for atmospheric particles growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Maria Eugenia; Rosenørn, Thomas; Favez, Olivier; Müller, Markus; Adler, Gabriela; Abo Riziq, Ali; Rudich, Yinon; Herrmann, Hartmut; George, Christian; D'Anna, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Credible climate change predictions require reliable fundamental scientific knowledge of the underlying processes. Despite extensive observational data accumulated to date, atmospheric aerosols still pose key uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's radiative balance due to direct interaction with radiation and because they modify clouds' properties. Specifically, major gaps exist in the understanding of the physicochemical pathways that lead to aerosol growth in the atmosphere and to changes in their properties while in the atmosphere. Traditionally, the driving forces for particle growth are attributed to condensation of low vapor pressure species following atmospheric oxidation of volatile compounds by gaseous oxidants. The current study presents experimental evidence of an unaccounted-for new photoinduced pathway for particle growth. We show that heterogeneous reactions activated by light can lead to fast uptake of noncondensable Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) at the surface of particles when only traces of a photosensitizer are present in the seed aerosol. Under such conditions, size and mass increase; changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol are also observed upon exposure to volatile organic compounds such as terpenes and near-UV irradiation. Experimentally determined growth rate values match field observations, suggesting that this photochemical process can provide a new, unaccounted-for pathway for atmospheric particle growth and should be considered by models.

  20. Science Teaching in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  1. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...... the 15 min air corona treatment. A significant reduction in anodic and cathodic reactivities was observed starting from 1 min exposure, which further decreased with prolonged exposure (15 min) and after delayed testing (after 30 days). The reduction in surface reactivity is due to the formation...

  2. The Atmosphere of Pluto as Observed by New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Randy

    2016-07-01

    A major goal of the New Horizons (NH) mission was to explore and characterize the structure and composition of Pluto's atmosphere. Several instruments onboard NH contributed to these goals, primarily: 1) the REX instrument, through uplink X-band radio occultations, 2) the Alice instrument, through extreme- and far-ultraviolet solar occultations, and 3) the LORRI panchromatic and MVIC color imagers, through high-resolution imaging. The associated datasets were obtained near closest approach of NH to Pluto at 11:48 UT on 14 July 2015. Pressure and temperature profiles of the lower atmosphere are derived from the REX radio occultation data, the composition and structure of the extended atmosphere are derived from the Alice solar occultation data, and the distribution and properties of Pluto's hazes are derived from the LORRI and MVIC imaging data. The observations made during the NH flyby provide a detailed snapshot of the current state of Pluto's atmosphere. While the lower atmosphere (at altitudes less than 200 km) is largely consistent with ground-based stellar occultations, the upper atmosphere is much colder and more compact than indicated by pre-encounter models. Molecular nitrogen dominates the atmosphere (at altitudes less than 1800 km or so), while methane, acetylene, ethylene, and ethane are important minor species, and likely help produce the haze which surrounds Pluto. The cold upper atmosphere considerably reduces the magnitude of the hydrodynamic escape of Pluto's atmosphere to space. In this talk an overview of the atmosphere science results will be presented.

  3. Carbon neutron star atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V F; Pavlov, G G; Werner, K

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, atmospheres of thermally - emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in CasA, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho & Heinke (2009). To test such a composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed such a grid using the standard LTE approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10^8 G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra.

  4. The invention of atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The word "atmosphere" was a neologism Willebrord Snellius created for his Latin translation of Simon Stevin's cosmographical writings. Astronomers and mathematical practitioners, such as Snellius and Christoph Scheiner, applying the techniques of Ibn Mu'ādh and Witelo, were the first to use the term in their calculations of the height of vapors that cause twilight. Their understandings of the atmosphere diverged from Aristotelian divisions of the aerial region. From the early years of the seventeenth century, the term was often associated with atomism or corpuscular matter theory. The concept of the atmosphere changed dramatically with the advent of pneumatic experiments in the middle of the seventeenth century. Pierre Gassendi, Walter Charleton, and Robert Boyle transformed the atmosphere of the mathematicians giving it the characteristics of weight, specific gravity, and fluidity, while disputes about its extent and border remained unresolved.

  5. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Lipponen, Antti; Arola, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Publications in atmospheric sciences typically neglect biases caused by regression dilution (bias of the ordinary least squares line fitting) and regression to the mean (RTM) in comparisons of uncertain data. We use synthetic observations mimicking real atmospheric data to demonstrate how the biases arise from random data uncertainties of measurements, model output, or satellite retrieval products. Further, we provide examples of typical methods of data comparisons that have a tendency to pronounce the biases. The results show, that data uncertainties can significantly bias data comparisons due to regression dilution and RTM, a fact that is known in statistics but disregarded in atmospheric sciences. Thus, we argue that often these biases are widely regarded as measurement or modeling errors, for instance, while they in fact are artificial. It is essential that atmospheric and geoscience communities become aware of and consider these features in research.

  6. Atmospheric muons: experimental aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, S.; Spurio, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a review of atmospheric muon flux and energy spectrum measurements over almost six decades of muon momentum. Sea-level and underground/water/ice experiments are considered. Possible sources of systematic errors in the measurements are examinated. The characteristics of underground/water muons (muons in bundle, lateral distribution, energy spectrum) are discussed. The connection between the atmospheric muon and neutrino measurements are also reported.

  7. Atmospheric muons: experimental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cecchini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of atmospheric muon flux and energy spectrum measurements over almost six decades of muon momentum. Sea level and underground/water/ice experiments are considered. Possible sources of systematic errors in the measurements are examined. The characteristics of underground/water muons (muons in bundle, lateral distribution, energy spectrum are discussed. The connection between the atmospheric muon and neutrino measurements are also reported.

  8. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  9. Regularization for Atmospheric Temperature Retrieval Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Galarza-Galarza, Ruben

    1997-01-01

    Passive remote sensing of the atmosphere is used to determine the atmospheric state. A radiometer measures microwave emissions from earth's atmosphere and surface. The radiance measured by the radiometer is proportional to the brightness temperature. This brightness temperature can be used to estimate atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water vapor content. These quantities are of primary importance for different applications in meteorology, oceanography, and geophysical sciences. Depending on the range in the electromagnetic spectrum being measured by the radiometer and the atmospheric quantities to be estimated, the retrieval or inverse problem of determining atmospheric parameters from brightness temperature might be linear or nonlinear. In most applications, the retrieval problem requires the inversion of a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind making this an ill-posed problem. The numerical solution of the retrieval problem requires the transformation of the continuous problem into a discrete problem. The ill-posedness of the continuous problem translates into ill-conditioning or ill-posedness of the discrete problem. Regularization methods are used to convert the ill-posed problem into a well-posed one. In this paper, we present some results of our work in applying different regularization techniques to atmospheric temperature retrievals using brightness temperatures measured with the SSM/T-1 sensor. Simulation results are presented which show the potential of these techniques to improve temperature retrievals. In particular, no statistical assumptions are needed and the algorithms were capable of correctly estimating the temperature profile corner at the tropopause independent of the initial guess.

  10. Tanpopo: Astrobiology Exposure and Micrometeoroid Capture Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Yano, Hajime; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Hideyuki; Mita, Hajime; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Tabata, Makoto; Yabuta, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude (1). Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments (1). It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. Tanpopo, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) (2). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. In this presentation, we will present the recent results related to the microbiological analyses. The results suggested that the bleaching speeds and the spectra of fluorescence are different between different origins of the fluorescence: whether it is emitted from microbe or not. It is also shown that PCR analysis of the microbe can be used to determine the species. References 1)Yang, Y., Yokobori, S. and Yamagishi, A.: Assessing panspermia hypothesis by microorganisms collected from the high altitude atmosphere. Biol. Sci. Space, 23 (2009), pp. 151-163. 2) Yamagishi, A., H. Yano, K. Kobayashi, K. Kobayashi, S. Yokobori, M. Tabata, H. Kawai, M. Yamashita, H. Hashimoto, H. Naraoka, & H. Mita (2008) TANPOPO: astrobiology exposure and micrometeoroid capture

  11. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  12. The CREp program, a fully parameterizable program to compute exposure ages (3He, 10Be)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L.; Blard, P. H.; Lave, J.; Delunel, R.; Balco, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decades, cosmogenic exposure dating permitted major advances in Earth surface sciences, and particularly in paleoclimatology. Yet, exposure age calculation is a dense procedure. It requires numerous choices of parameterization and the use of an appropriate production rate. Nowadays, Earth surface scientists may either calculate exposure ages on their own or use the available programs. However, these programs do not offer the possibility to include all the most recent advances in Cosmic Ray Exposure (CRE) dating. Notably, they do not propose the most recent production rate datasets and they only offer few possibilities to test the impact of the atmosphere model and the geomagnetic model on the computed ages. We present the CREp program, a Matlab © code that computes CRE ages for 3He and 10Be over the last 2 million years. The CREp program includes the scaling models of Lal-Stone in the "Lal modified" version (Balco et al., 2008; Lal, 1991; Stone, 2000) and the LSD model (Lifton et al., 2014). For any of these models, CREP allows choosing between the ERA-40 atmosphere model (Uppala et al., 2005) and the standard atmosphere (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1976). Regarding the geomagnetic database, users can opt for one of the three proposed datasets: Muscheler et al. 2005, GLOPIS-75 (Laj et al. 2004) and the geomagnetic framework proposed in the LSD model (Lifton et al., 2014). They may also import their own geomagnetic database. Importantly, the reference production rate can be chosen among a large variety of possibilities. We made an effort to propose a wide and homogenous calibration database in order to promote the use of local calibration rates: CREp includes all the calibration data published until July 2015 and will be able to access an updated online database including all the newly published production rates. This is crucial for improving the ages accuracy. Users may also choose a global production rate or use their own data

  13. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  14. Computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Edward K

    2011-01-01

    Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It focuses on the deeper aspects of the two recognized subdivisions of Computer Science, Software and Hardware. These subdivisions are shown to be closely interrelated as a result of the stored-program concept. Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It includes certain classical theoretical computer science topics such as Unsolvability (e.g. the halting problem) and Undecidability (e.g. Godel's incompleteness theorem) that treat problems that exist under the Church-Turing thesis of computation. These problem topics explain in

  15. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  16. The tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, ChunMin; Zhu, HuaChun; Zhao, Baochang

    2011-05-09

    A space-based tempo-spatially modulated polarization atmosphere Michelson interferometer (TSMPAMI) is described. It uses the relative movement between the TSMPAMI and the measured target to change optical path difference. The acquisition method of interferogram is presented. The atmospheric temperatures and horizontal winds can be derived from the optical observations. The measurement errors of the winds and temperatures are discussed through simulations. In the presence of small-scale structures of the atmospheric fields, the errors are found to be significantly influenced by the mismatch of the scenes observed by the adjacent CCD sub-areas aligned along the orbiter's track during successive measurements due to the orbital velocity and the exposure time. For most realistic conditions of the orbit and atmosphere, however, the instrument is proven suitable for measuring the atmospheric parameters.

  17. Physical Science Rocks! Outreach for Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Students at Copiah-Lincoln Community College (Co-Lin) have been hesitant to take courses in the physical sciences, mostly because of a lack of exposure to them in K-12 or a bad experience in this area. The college is addressing this need by exposing students to the physical sciences early on in their education. The science division at Co-Lin has…

  18. Climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an abstract for a presentations at the Annual Conference of the International Society on Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. This presentation will serve as an introduction to the symposium.

  19. Media evolution and public understanding of climate science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann E

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs public opinion data from a nationally representative probability sample to examine how information encounters and exposure to different media sources relate to individuals' beliefs about global warming. The analyses indicate that media source exposure (i.e., exposure to news and information about science presented through different media outlets), intentional information exposure (i.e., deliberate exposure to global warming news coverage), and inadvertent information exposure (i.e., unplanned exposure to news and information about science that is encountered online while searching for other forms of information) relate to beliefs about global warming, in significant and meaningful ways. Namely, the findings show that both intentional information exposure and inadvertent online information exposure associate with disbelief in human-made causes, catalysts, and consequences of global warming. Theoretical and social implications of the findings are discussed and contextualized in light of the rapidly evolving media environment.

  20. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Geoffrey [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) with miniature sensor systems for atmospheric research is an important capability to develop. The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) project, lead by Dr. Gijs de Boer of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES- a partnership of NOAA and CU-Boulder), is a significant milestone in realizing this new potential. This project has clearly demonstrated that the concept of sUAS utilization is valid, and miniature instrumentation can be used to further our understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer in the arctic.

  1. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-26) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, G. L.; Johnson, D. L.; Batts, G. W.

    1989-01-01

    A summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-26 launch time on September 29, 1988, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida is given. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of pre-launch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-26 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-26 ascent atmospheric data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Earth Science and Applications Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post-flight performance assessments.

  2. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2006-11-01

    Computational Science is an integral component of Brookhaven's multi science mission, and is a reflection of the increased role of computation across all of science. Brookhaven currently has major efforts in data storage and analysis for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the ATLAS detector at CERN, and in quantum chromodynamics. The Laboratory is host for the QCDOC machines (quantum chromodynamics on a chip), 10 teraflop/s computers which boast 12,288 processors each. There are two here, one for the Riken/BNL Research Center and the other supported by DOE for the US Lattice Gauge Community and other scientific users. A 100 teraflop/s supercomputer will be installed at Brookhaven in the coming year, managed jointly by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, and funded by a grant from New York State. This machine will be used for computational science across Brookhaven's entire research program, and also by researchers at Stony Brook and across New York State. With Stony Brook, Brookhaven has formed the New York Center for Computational Science (NYCCS) as a focal point for interdisciplinary computational science, which is closely linked to Brookhaven's Computational Science Center (CSC). The CSC has established a strong program in computational science, with an emphasis on nanoscale electronic structure and molecular dynamics, accelerator design, computational fluid dynamics, medical imaging, parallel computing and numerical algorithms. We have been an active participant in DOES SciDAC program (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing). We are also planning a major expansion in computational biology in keeping with Laboratory initiatives. Additional laboratory initiatives with a dependence on a high level of computation include the development of hydrodynamics models for the interpretation of RHIC data, computational models for the atmospheric transport of aerosols, and models for combustion and for energy utilization. The CSC was formed to

  3. The Essential Role for Laboratory Studies in Atmospheric Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, James B; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Barnes, Ian; Roberts, James M; Melamed, Megan L; Ammann, Markus; Bertram, Allan K; Cappa, Christopher D; Carlton, Annmarie G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Crowley, John N; Dubowski, Yael; George, Christian; Heard, Dwayne E; Herrmann, Hartmut; Keutsch, Frank N; Kroll, Jesse H; McNeill, V Faye; Ng, Nga Lee; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Orlando, John J; Percival, Carl J; Picquet-Varrault, Bénédicte; Rudich, Yinon; Seakins, Paul W; Surratt, Jason D; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Thornton, Joel A; Tong, Zhu; Tyndall, Geoffrey S; Wahner, Andreas; Weschler, Charles J; Wilson, Kevin R; Ziemann, Paul J

    2017-03-07

    Laboratory studies of atmospheric chemistry characterize the nature of atmospherically relevant processes down to the molecular level, providing fundamental information used to assess how human activities drive environmental phenomena such as climate change, urban air pollution, ecosystem health, indoor air quality, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Laboratory studies have a central role in addressing the incomplete fundamental knowledge of atmospheric chemistry. This article highlights the evolving science needs for this community and emphasizes how our knowledge is far from complete, hindering our ability to predict the future state of our atmosphere and to respond to emerging global environmental change issues. Laboratory studies provide rich opportunities to expand our understanding of the atmosphere via collaborative research with the modeling and field measurement communities, and with neighboring disciplines.

  4. The Essential Role for Laboratory Studies in Atmospheric Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, James B. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Abbatt, Jonathan P. D. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Barnes, Ian [Univ. of Wuppertal (Germany); Roberts, James M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Melamed, Megan L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ammann, Markus [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Bertram, Allan K. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Cappa, Christopher D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Carlton, Annmarie G. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Carpenter, Lucy J. [Univ. of York (United Kingdom); Crowley, John N. [Max Planck Inst. of Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Dubowski, Yael [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel); George, Christian [Univ. of Lyon (France); Heard, Dwayne E. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Herrmann, Hartmut [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Keutsch, Frank N. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Kroll, Jesse H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Ng, Nga Lee [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nizkorodov, Sergey A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Orlando, John J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Percival, Carl J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Picquet-Varrault, Bénédicte [Inst. Pierre-Simon Laplace, Creteil (France); Rudich, Yinon [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Seakins, Paul W. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Surratt, Jason D. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tanimoto, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Thornton, Joel A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tong, Zhu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Tyndall, Geoffrey S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wahner, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Julich (Germany); Weschler, Charles J. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Wilson, Kevin R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ziemann, Paul J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Laboratory studies of atmospheric chemistry characterize the nature of atmospherically relevant processes down to the molecular level, providing fundamental information used to assess how human activities drive environmental phenomena such as climate change, urban air pollution, ecosystem health, indoor air quality, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Laboratory studies have a central role in addressing the incomplete fundamental knowledge of atmospheric chemistry. This paper highlights the evolving science needs for this community and emphasizes how our knowledge is far from complete, hindering our ability to predict the future state of our atmosphere and to respond to emerging global environmental change issues. Finally, laboratory studies provide rich opportunities to expand our understanding of the atmosphere via collaborative research with the modeling and field measurement communities, and with neighboring disciplines.

  5. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-41G) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Jasper, G.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions that were observed near Space Shuttle STS-41G launch time on October 5, 1984 at Kennedy Space Center in Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual obsrvations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere-measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final atmospheric tape consisting of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude for STS-41G vehicle ascent was constructed. The STS-41G ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed. The STS-41G ascent atmospheric data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Atmospheric Sciences Division to provide an internally consistent data set for use in post flight performance assessments.

  6. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  7. Soundsational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Scott, Catherine Marie; Hall, Debra T.

    2012-01-01

    The science of sound helps students learn that sound is energy traveling in waves as vibrations transfer the energy through various media: solids, liquids, and gases. In addition to learning about the physical science of sound, students can learn about the sounds of different animal species: how sounds contribute to animals' survival, and how…

  8. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  9. Deconstructing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  10. Dramatic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about…

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, ... Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... in the region are some of the poorest in the world,.

  12. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  13. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  14. Observations of Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, Ian J M

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of an extrasolar planet's atmosphere provides the best hope for distinguishing the makeup of its outer layers, and the only hope for understanding the interplay between initial composition, chemistry, dynamics & circulation, and disequilibrium processes. In recent years, some areas have seen rapid progress while developments in others have come more slowly and/or have been hotly contested. This article gives an observer's perspective on the current understanding of extrasolar planet atmospheres prior to the considerable advances expected from the next generation of observing facilities. Atmospheric processes of both transiting and directly-imaged planets are discussed, including molecular and atomic abundances, cloud properties, thermal structure, and planetary energy budgets. In the future we can expect a continuing and accelerating stream of new discoveries, which will fuel the ongoing exoplanet revolution for many years to come.

  15. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  17. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Radiative transfer retrievals have become the standard in modelling of exoplanetary transmission and emission spectra. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain.To address these issues, we have developed the Tau-REx (tau-retrieval of exoplanets) retrieval and the RobERt spectral recognition algorithms. Tau-REx is a bayesian atmospheric retrieval framework using Nested Sampling and cluster computing to fully map these large correlated parameter spaces. Nonetheless, data volumes can become prohibitively large and we must often select a subset of potential molecular/atomic absorbers in an atmosphere.In the era of open-source, automated and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, such manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is build to address these issues. RobERt is a deep belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognise molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles and compositions. Using these deep neural networks, we work towards retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.In this talk I will discuss how neural networks and Bayesian Nested Sampling can be used to solve highly degenerate spectral retrieval problems and what 'dreaming' neural networks can tell us about atmospheric characteristics.

  18. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    As the protection of crew health is a primary focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) is vigilant in setting potable water limits for spaceflight that are health protective. Additional it is important that exposure limits not be set so stringently that water purification systems are unnecessarily over designed. With these considerations in mind, NASA has partnered with the National Research Council on Toxicology (NRCCOT) to develop spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) for application in spaceflight systems. Based on documented guidance (NRC, 2000) NASA has established 28 SWEGs for chemical components that are particularly relevant to water systems on the International Space Station, the Shuttle and looking forward to Constellation.

  19. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introdu

  20. International Conference on Environment Science (ICES 2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Advances in Computational Environment Science

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Environment Science and 2012 International Conference on Computer Science (ICES 2012/ICCS 2012) will be held in Australia, Melbourne, 15‐16 March, 2012.Volume 1 contains some new results in computational environment science. There are 47 papers were selected as the regular paper in this volume. It contains the latest developments and reflects the experience of many researchers working in different environments (universities, research centers or even industries), publishing new theories and solving new technological problems on computational environment science.   The purpose of volume 1 is interconnection of diverse scientific fields, the cultivation of every possible scientific collaboration, the exchange of views and the promotion of new research targets as well as the further dissemination, the dispersion, the diffusion of the environment science, including but not limited to Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Soil Science, Geology, Atmospheric Science and Geography �...