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Sample records for atmospheric release advisory

  1. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  2. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  3. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC): update 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is a service to facilities requiring a means of realtime prediction of the extent of health hazards that may result from a release of radionuclides or other toxic materials. The ARAC system, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE), consists of a network of serviced facilities and a central facility at the University of California, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). Since 1973, when the concept was initiated, a joint feasibility study of the ARAC system has been conducted by LLL and the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and research and development was initiated to implement this service for DOE nuclear facilities. The present system of three sites (LLL, Savannah River Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant) is now being tested and evaluated with the Mound Laboratory scheduled to join the network in the fall of 1977. Plans are presently being formulated to implement the ARAC service for additional DOE sites during the next several years. This article briefly describes the ARAC concept, discusses progress to date and outlines future plans for completing the system's development and operating the service

  4. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Capabilities for Homeland Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J; Baskett, R; Simpson, M

    2010-03-08

    The Department of Energy's National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provides critical information during hazardous airborne releases as part of an integrated national preparedness and response strategy. Located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC provides 24/7 tools and expert services to map the spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. NARAC graphical products show affected areas and populations, potential casualties, and health effect or protective action guideline levels. LLNL experts produce quality-assured analyses based on field data to assist decision makers and responders. NARAC staff and collaborators conduct research and development into new science, tools, capabilities, and technologies in strategically important areas related to airborne transport and fate modeling and emergency response. This paper provides a brief overview of some of NARAC's activities, capabilities, and research and development.

  5. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) model development and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes model development and evaluation efforts of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). NARAC is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) operational system, which provides detailed predictions of the consequences of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials for real-time emergency response, preplanning, and post-incident assessments. Automated predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by increasingly refined, quality-assured analyses performed by NARAC's 24 x 7 on-duty / on-call operational staff as additional information and/or data become available. NARAC provides an all-hazards modeling system for assessments of chemical, biological, radiological/nuclear, and natural airborne hazards. The system employs a hierarchy of simulation tools, appropriate for different release types, distance and time scales, and/or response times. Source terms models are available for fires, explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, and momentum and buoyancy driven sources. The NARAC models are supported by extensive geographical, material, and health effects databases, as well as real-time access to worldwide meteorological observations and forecasts provided via redundant communications links to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force. (orig.)

  6. Study of applying the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each utility licensee for a nuclear power reactor is required to minimize the adverse effects from an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. In the past the ability to forecast quantitatively the extent of the hazard from such a release has been limited. Now powerful atmospheric modeling techniques are available to assist nuclear reactor site officials with greatly improved assessments. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has developed a prototype system called the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) which is designed to integrate the modeling with advanced sensors, data handling techniques, and weather data in order to provide timely, usable advisories to the site officials. The purpose of this project is to examine the ways and means of adapting ARAC for application to many nuclear power reactors widely dispersed across the nation. The project will emphasize the management aspects, including government-industry relationships, technology transfer, organizational structure, staffing, implementing procedures, and costs. Benefits and costs for several alternative systems will be compared. The results will be reviewed and evaluated by the management and staff of the ARAC project at LLL and also by selected staff members of the sponsoring government agency

  7. The current status of ARAC (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) and its application to the Chernobyl event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.; Harvey, T.F.

    1986-10-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project, developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provides real-time dose assessments and estimates of the extent of surface contamination that may result from an atmospheric release of radioactivity. It utilizes advanced computer-based data communication and processing systems to acquire the meteorological and source term information needed by the three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to derive the consequence assessments. The ARAC responded to the recent Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union by estimating the source term and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. This analysis revealed that approximately 50% of the estimated core inventories of I-131 and Cs-137 were released. The estimated committed effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of radioactivty during cloud passage is of the order of 10 mrem within parts of Scandinavia and eastern Europe, while most of the populations within central Europe were exposed to levels ranging from 1 to 10 mrem. The amount of Cs-137 released by the Chernobyl accident far exceeds that released by previous reactor accidents, but is only about 6% of the Cs-137 produced by the atmospheric weapon testing programs. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Study of applying the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to nuclear power plants. [Use of ARAC to forecast hazards of accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphan, R.C.

    1978-06-01

    Each utility licensee for a nuclear power reactor is required to minimize the adverse effects from an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. In the past the ability to forecast quantitatively the extent of the hazard from such a release has been limited. Now powerful atmospheric modeling techniques are available to assist nuclear reactor site officials with greatly improved assessments. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has developed a prototype system called the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) which is designed to integrate the modeling with advanced sensors, data handling techniques, and weather data in order to provide timely, usable advisories to the site officials. The purpose of this project is to examine the ways and means of adapting ARAC for application to many nuclear power reactors widely dispersed across the nation. The project will emphasize the management aspects, including government-industry relationships, technology transfer, organizational structure, staffing, implementing procedures, and costs. Benefits and costs for several alternative systems will be compared. The results will be reviewed and evaluated by the management and staff of the ARAC project at LLL and also by selected staff members of the sponsoring government agency.

  9. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's urban research and development activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, J K; Sugiyama, G A; Nasstrom, J

    2007-09-05

    This presentation describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates on radiological dispersion source terms and effects models with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NARAC was designated the interim provider of capabilities for the Department of Homeland Security's Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center by the Homeland Security Council in April 2004. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and

  10. Overview of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center's urban research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates on radiological dispersion source terms and effects models with Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NARAC was designated the interim provider of capabilities for the Department of Homeland Security's Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center by the Homeland Security Council in April 2004. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric

  11. National atmospheric release advisory center (NARAC) tools and services for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper describes recent scientific and technological advances in the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) that aid emergency management. The U.S. Department of Energy's NARAC system provides tools and services that help map the probable spread of hazardous material accidentally or intentionally released into the atmosphere. Located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NARAC is a national support and resource center for planning, real-time assessment and detailed studies of incidents involving a wide variety of hazards, including nuclear, radiological, chemical, or biological emissions. In recent years, the DOE National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) Office of Emergency Response and Chemical and Biological National Security Program (CBNP) have supported major upgrades and modernization of NARAC that have advanced the accuracy and utility of NARAC products for emergency planning and management. A new NARAC central modeling system, which became operational in the year 2000, has provided a higher-resolution suite of diagnostic and prognostic meteorological models, and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, for producing predictions of air concentration, ground deposition, and dose. The 3-D meteorological data assimilation model, ADAPT, and Lagrangian particle dispersion model, LODI, allow the simulation of mean wind advection, turbulent diffusion, radioactive decay and production, bio-agent degradation, first-order chemical reactions, wet deposition, gravitational settling, dry deposition, and buoyant/momentum plume rise. The functions performed by this system have been fully automated to minimized response time for emergencies. An in-house version of the Naval Research Laboratory's COAMPS numerical weather prediction model is used to provide mesoscale forecasts. The final plume predictions are plotted with key geographical information (including estimates of the counts of affected population), and with applicable U

  12. The atmospheric release advisory capability (ARAC): A federal emergency response capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Release Capability (ARAC) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored emergency-response service set up to provide real-time prediction of the dose levels and the extent of surface contamination resulting from a broad range of possible occurrences (accidents, spills, extortion threats involving nuclear material, reentry of nuclear-powered satellites, and atmospheric nuclear tests) that could involve the release of airborne radioactive material. During the past decade, ARAC has responded to more than 150 real-time situations, including exercises. The most notable responses include the Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania, the Titan II missile accident in Arkansas, the reentry of the USSR's COSMOS-954 into the atmosphere over Canada, the accidental release of uranium hexafluoride from the Sequoyah Facility accident in Oklahoma, and, most recently, the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union. ARAC currently supports the emergency-preparedness plans at 50 Department of Defense (DOD) and DOE sites within the US and also responds to accidents that happen elsewhere. Our ARAC center serves as the focal point for data acquisition, data analysis and assessments during a response, using a computer-based communication network to acquire real-time weather data from the accident site and the surrounding region, as well as pertinent accident information. Its three-dimensional computer models for atmospheric dispersion, MATHEW and ADPIC, digest all this information and produce the predictions used in accident assessment. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Atmospheric release advisory capability pilot project at two nuclear power plants and associated state offices of emergency preparedness. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) limited service with commercial nuclear power plants and their associated state offices of emergency preparedness is discussed. Preliminary planning, installation and testing of the ARAC site facilities at Indian Point Nucler Power Station, New York State; at New York State Office of Emergency Preparedness, Albany, New York; at Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, California; and at the State of California Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento, California, are summarized. ARAC participation in the Robert E. Ginna nuclear generating plant accident in New York on January 25, 1982, is discussed. The ARAC system is evaluated with emphasis on communications, the suite of models contained within the ARAC system, and the staff. The implications of this project in designing the next-generation ARAC system to service federal and state needs are assessed

  14. Utilization of the atmospheric release advisory capability (ARAC) services during and after the Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 0820 PST on 28 March 1979, the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center advised the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) that the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had experienced an accident some four hours earlier, resulting in the atmospheric release of xenon-133 and krypton-88. This report describes ARAC's response to the Three Mile Island accident, including the role ARAC played throughout the 20 days that real-time assessments were made available to the Department of Energy on-scene commander. It also describes the follow-up population-dose calculations performed for the President's Commission on Three Mile Island. At the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a questionnaire addressing the usefulness of ARAC products during the accident was sent to ARAC-product users. A summary of the findings from this questionnaire, along with recommendations for improving ARAC service, is also presented. The accident at Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, is discussed in the context of a well-planned emergency response by local and Federal officials

  15. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) Modeling and Decision Support System for Radiological and Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Baskett, R; Larsen, S; Bradley, M

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the tools and services provided by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for modeling the impacts of airborne hazardous materials. NARAC provides atmospheric plume modeling tools and services for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear airborne hazards. NARAC can simulate downwind effects from a variety of scenarios, including fires, industrial and transportation accidents, radiation dispersal device explosions, hazardous material spills, sprayers, nuclear power plant accidents, and nuclear detonations. NARAC collaborates with several government agencies and laboratories in order to accomplish its mission. The NARAC suite of software tools include simple stand-alone, local-scale plume modeling tools for end-user's computers, and Web- and Internet-based software to access advanced modeling tools and expert analyses from the national center at LLNL. Initial automated, 3-D predictions of plume exposure limits and protective action guidelines for emergency responders and managers are available from the center in 5-10 minutes. These can be followed immediately by quality-assured, refined analyses by 24 x 7 on-duty or on-call NARAC staff. NARAC continues to refine calculations using updated on-scene information, including measurements, until all airborne releases have stopped and the hazardous threats are mapped and impacts assessed. Model predictions include the 3-D spatial and time-varying effects of weather, land use, and terrain, on scales from the local to regional to global. Real-time meteorological data and forecasts are provided by redundant communications links to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Navy, and U.S. Air Force, as well as an in-house mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. NARAC provides an easy-to-use Geographical Information System (GIS) for display of plume predictions with affected population counts and

  16. Atmospheric release advisory capability: year 2000 documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H

    1999-06-01

    This checklist provides the minimum requirements to be met for the IV and V of Y2K compliance for each mission-critical system. However, please note that other important items specific to your Program, Field or Site Offices, or Laboratory may not be adequately addressed by this checklist. Consequently, it is the responsibility of each Local Y2K Project Coordinator to ensure that due diligence has been conducted, whereby every reasonable effort has been made to assure Y2K compliance, and these efforts have been documented. Additional requirements should be jointly reviewed and agreed to by the System Owner and the IV and V agent prior to its execution. The IV and V agent should undertake the activities necessary to address all items as thoroughly as possible. The System Owner should identify and be ready to provide access to any documents that will help in the IV and V process, such as requirement definition documents, test plans, test results, etc.

  17. Manual of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities are potential sources of release of radionuclides to atmosphere. The release may be a routine one as a part of gaseous radioactive effluents or unintentional one as due to accidential situations. These releases, however, result into radiological doses to the population arising out of passage of and submersion into radioactive cloud, inhalation of radionuclides, and contaminated food chain. This manual has been prepared to serve as a reference book for computation and evaluation of doses from atmospheric releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The various steps in the dose evaluation and the scheme of computation of external gamma dose, immersion beta-dose and inhalation dose are described. Plume gamma doses are compiled using the actual conical shape of the plume and Pasquill-Gifford dispersion model. Utility tables are given for unit release and unit wind speed. The tables are divided into two categories: those giving gamma-dose from the plume and those involving the ground level concentration. The doses and concentration have been given for 21 distances varying from 0.1 to 100 kms, 10 heights ranging from 0.0 to 200 meters and ten gamma energies ranging from 0.150 to 3 MeV. The concentration distribution and external gamma-dose in a short term plume due to short term releases and those due to continuous releases, hence giving rise to long term concentrations, are given in a separate set of tables. For computation of doses through inhalation route, through immersion route and ingestion route via ground contramination, data from ICRP-30 for a few radionuclides are tabulated. The effect of site topography is introduced as correction factors. Sampling time correction factors are also introduced. (M.G.B.)

  18. Charter for the ARM Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advisory Group, ARM Atmospheric Modeling

    2016-05-01

    The Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is guided by the following: 1. The group will provide feedback on the overall project plan including input on how to address priorities and trade-offs in the modeling and analysis workflow, making sure the modeling follows general best practices, and reviewing the recommendations provided to ARM for the workflow implementation. 2. The group will consist of approximately 6 members plus the PI and co-PI of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) pilot project. The ARM Technical Director, or his designee, serves as an ex-officio member. This size is chosen based on the ability to efficiently conduct teleconferences and to span the general needs for input to the LASSO pilot project.

  19. Dynamic Data-Driven Event Reconstruction for Atmospheric Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosovic, B; Belles, R; Chow, F K; Monache, L D; Dyer, K; Glascoe, L; Hanley, W; Johannesson, G; Larsen, S; Loosmore, G; Lundquist, J K; Mirin, A; Neuman, S; Nitao, J; Serban, R; Sugiyama, G; Aines, R

    2007-02-22

    developed a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) stochastic methodology and demonstrated its effectiveness by reconstructing a wide range of release scenarios, using synthetic as well as real-world data. Data for evaluation of our event reconstruction capability were drawn from the short-range Prairie Grass, Copenhagen, and Joint Urban 2003 field experiments and a continental-scale real-world accidental release in Algeciras, Spain. The method was tested using a variety of forward models, including a Gaussian puff dispersion model INPUFF, the regional-to-continental scale Lagrangian dispersion model LODI (the work-horse real-time operational dispersion model used by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center), the empirical urban model UDM, and the building-scale computational computational fluid dynamics code FEM3MP. The robustness of the Bayesian methodology was demonstrated via the use of subsets of the available concentration data and by introducing error into some of the measurements. These tests showed that the Bayesian approach is capable of providing reliable estimates of source characteristics even in cases of limited or significantly corrupted data. For more effective treatment of strongly time-dependent problems, we developed a Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) approach. To achieve the best performance under a wide range of conditions we combined SMC and MCMC sampling into a hybrid methodology. We compared the effectiveness and advantages of this approach relative to MCMC using a set of synthetic data examples. Our dynamic data-driven event reconstruction capability seamlessly integrates observational data streams with predictive models, in order to provide the best possible estimates of unknown source term parameters, as well as optimal and timely situation analyses consistent with both models and data.

  20. Manual of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of dose evaluation from atmospheric releases is reduced to simple arithmetic by giving tables of concentrations and time integrated concentrations for instantaneous plumes and long time (1 year), sector averaged plumes for distances upto 10 km, effective release heights of upto 200 m and the six Pasquill stability classes. Correction factors for decay, depletion due to deposition and rainout are also given. Inhalation doses, immersion doses and contamination levels can be obtained from these by using multiplicative factors tabulated for various isotopes of significance. Tables of external gamma doses from plume are given separately for various gamma energies. Tables are also given to evaluate external beta and gamma dose rates from contaminated surfaces. The manual also discusses the basic diffusion model relevant to the problem. (author)

  1. Real-time modelling of complex atmospheric releases in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a nuclear installation in or near an urban area has a venting, fire, or explosion, airborne radioactivity becomes the major concern. Dispersion models are the immediate tool for estimating the dose and contamination. Responses in urban areas depend on knowledge of the amount of the release, representative meteorological data, and the ability of the dispersion model to simulate the complex flows as modified by terrain or local wind conditions. A centralised dispersion modelling system can produce realistic assessments of radiological accidents anywhere in a country within several minutes if it is computer-automated. The system requires source-term, terrain, mapping and dose-factor databases, real-time meteorological data acquisition, three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, and experienced staff. Experience with past responses in urban areas by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory illustrate the challenges for three-dimensional dispersion models. (author)

  2. Real-time modeling of complex atmospheric releases in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a nuclear installation in or near an urban area has a venting, fire, or explosion, airborne radioactivity becomes the major concern. Dispersion models are the immediate tool for estimating the dose and contamination. Responses in urban areas depend on knowledge of the amount of the release, representative meteorological data, and the ability of the dispersion model to simulate the complex flows as modified by terrain or local wind conditions. A centralized dispersion modeling system can produce realistic assessments of radiological accidents anywhere in a country within several minutes if it is computer-automated. The system requires source-term, terrain, mapping and dose-factor databases, real-time meteorological data acquisition, three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, and experienced staff. Experience with past responses in urban areas by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory illustrate the challenges for three-dimensional dispersion models

  3. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release

  4. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of the February 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Piggott, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lobaugh, Megan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tai, Lydia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, Kristen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    This report presents the results of a simulation of the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radioactivity released from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in New Mexico in February 2014. These simulations were made by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and supersede NARAC simulation results published in a previous WIPP report (WIPP, 2014). The results presented in this report use additional, more detailed data from WIPP on the specific radionuclides released, radioactivity release amounts and release times. Compared to the previous NARAC simulations, the new simulation results in this report are based on more detailed modeling of the winds, turbulence, and particle dry deposition. In addition, the initial plume rise from the exhaust vent was considered in the new simulations, but not in the previous NARAC simulations. The new model results show some small differences compared to previous results, but do not change the conclusions in the WIPP (2014) report. Presented are the data and assumptions used in these model simulations, as well as the model-predicted dose and deposition on and near the WIPP site. A comparison of predicted and measured radionuclide-specific air concentrations is also presented.

  5. Atmospheric and liquid releases by hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, weekly, 250 nuclear medicine departments receive an average of 6560 GBq of unsealed sources of radionuclides. In vivo and in vitro uses result in few releases when radiopharmaceuticals are prepared, radioactive wastes and, for most administered activities, in dispersal by the patient into his environment. There are practically no direct gaseous effluents into the environment and liquid releases are very limited and occur after decay in storage vessels and regulatory control at the time of drainage. Constraints linked to the management and collection of long-lived radionuclides by ANDRA are subject to well established procedures. Most releases originate from patients, i.e. over 80% of the activities used in vivo for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Most radionuclides have short half-lives and belong to the low-toxicity class (99mTc: 6 h, 133Xe: 5.4 d, 201T1: 3.4 d). Iodine 131 widely used for therapeutic purposes has a high radiotoxicity (class 2) and must be considered separately; when high activities are delivered - about 3.7 GBq - the patient is maintained in controlled area, mainly for urine collection, but he remains a source of releases after his exit. (authors). 8 refs., 7 tabs

  6. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected are valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential, individual off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04% of the natural background radiation dose to the population in the path of the release

  7. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected is valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential, individual off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04% of the natural background radiation dose to the population in the path of the release

  8. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  9. A simplified method to estimate gamma dose from atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computation of gamma dose due to atmospheric releases is a tedious and time consuming process needing a large and fast computer. A simple approximate procedure is evolved which circumvents the need of a large body of precalculated data. Error analysis of the method is also presented. (author)

  10. Distributed emergency response system to model dispersion and deposition of atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aging hardware and software and increasing commitments by the Departments of Energy and Defense have led us to develop a new, expanded system to replace the existing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system. This distributed, computer-based, emergency response system is used by state and federal agencies to assess the environmental health hazards resulting from an accidental release of radioactive material into the atmosphere. Like its predecessor, the expanded system uses local meteorology (e.g., wind speed and wind direction), as well as terrain information, to simulate the transport and dispersion of the airborne material. The system also calculates deposition and dose and displays them graphically over base maps of the local geography for use by on-site authorities. This paper discusses the limitations of the existing ARAC system. It also discusses the components and functionality of the new system, the technical difficulties encountered and resolved in its design and implementation, and the software methodologies and tools employed in its development

  11. Improved Meteorological Input for Atmospheric Release Decision support Systems and an Integrated LES Modeling System for Atmospheric Dispersion of Toxic Agents: Homeland Security Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, E; Simpson, M; Larsen, S; Gash, J; Aluzzi, F; Lundquist, J; Sugiyama, G

    2010-04-26

    When hazardous material is accidently or intentionally released into the atmosphere, emergency response organizations look to decision support systems (DSSs) to translate contaminant information provided by atmospheric models into effective decisions to protect the public and emergency responders and to mitigate subsequent consequences. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)-led Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC) is one of the primary DSSs utilized by emergency management organizations. IMAAC is responsible for providing 'a single piont for the coordination and dissemination of Federal dispersion modeling and hazard prediction products that represent the Federal position' during actual or potential incidents under the National Response Plan. The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), locatec at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), serves as the primary operations center of the IMAAC. A key component of atmospheric release decision support systems is meteorological information - models and data of winds, turbulence, and other atmospheric boundary-layer parameters. The accuracy of contaminant predictions is strongly dependent on the quality of this information. Therefore, the effectiveness of DSSs can be enhanced by improving the meteorological options available to drive atmospheric transport and fate models. The overall goal of this project was to develop and evaluate new meteorological modeling capabilities for DSSs based on the use of NASA Earth-science data sets in order to enhance the atmospheric-hazard information provided to emergency managers and responders. The final report describes the LLNL contributions to this multi-institutional effort. LLNL developed an approach to utilize NCAR meteorological predictions using NASA MODIS data for the New York City (NYC) region and demonstrated the potential impact of the use of different data sources and data

  12. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  13. Isotopic signature of atmospheric xenon released from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The isotopic activity ratios of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe are of interest for distinguishing nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of light water reactor (LWR) fuel burn-up through three operational reactor power cycles are conducted to explore the possible xenon isotopic signature of nuclear reactor releases under different operational conditions. It is studied how ratio changes are related to various parameters including the neutron flux, uranium enrichment and fuel burn-up. Further, the impact of diffusion and mixing on the isotopic activity ratio variability are explored. The simulations are validated with reported reactor emissions. In addition, activity ratios are calculated for xenon isotopes released from nuclear explosions and these are compared to the reactor ratios in order to determine whether the discrimination of explosion releases from reactor effluents is possible based on isotopic activity ratios

  14. CRRIS: a computerized system to assess atmospheric radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) consists of six integrated computer codes that stand alone or are run as a system to calculate environmental transport, doses, and risks from atmospheric radionuclide releases. PRIMUS output provides to other CRRIS codes the capability to handle radionuclide decay chains. ANEMOS and RETADD-II calculate atmospheric dispersion for local (less than or equal to 80 km) and regional (> 80 km) distances, respectively, and output annual-average air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Multiple ANEMOS Runs for sources within a small area are combined on a master grid by SUMIT. TERRA calculates food-chain transport, and ANDROS calculates individual or population exposures, doses, and risks. Integral to CRRIS are computerized upper-air wind, climatological, agricultural, land use, demographic, decay, and dosimetric data bases. It is expected that CRRIS may be used by the Environmental Protection Agency in determining compliance with the Clean Air Act for radionuclides released from Department of Energy facilities and facilities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  15. Real-time global mutual aid for atmospheric releases of radioactivity is possible today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) has developed and evolved a computer-based, real-time, radiological-dose-assessment service for the United States Departments of Energy and Defense. This service is built on the integrated components of real-time computer-acquired meteorological data, extensive computer databases, numeric atmospheric-dispersion models, graphical displays, and operational-assessment-staff expertise. The focus of ARAC is the off-site problem for which regional meteorology and topography are dominant influence on transport and dispersion. Through application to numerous radiological accidents/releases on scale from small accidental ventings to the Chernobyl reactor disaster, ARAC has developed methods to provide emergency dose assessments from the local to the hemispheric scale. With the improved computer size power and performance cost ratios, ARAC has expanded its service and reduced the response time from hours to minutes for an accident within the United State. Quality of the assessments has improved as more advanced models have been developed and incorporated into the ARAC system. Over the past six years, the number of directly connected facilities has increased from 6 to 73. All major US Federal agencies have access to ARAC as specified in the US Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, assuring consistency and experience. Real-time skills are maintained by participation in approximately 150 exercises per year; modeling systems are validated by application to all available tracer experiments and data sets. The most recent major application to a real accident event was the Chernobyl disaster, and ARAC was well prepared for the potential COSMOS 1900 reactor burn up. Preparation for events such as these provides the impulse for further improvement in data acquisition, databases, mapping, and models. 17 refs., 2 figs

  16. Radiation doses from Hanford site releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation doses to individuals were estimated for the years 1944-1992. The dose estimates were based on the radioactive-releases from the Hanford Site in south central Washington. Conceptual models and computer codes were used to reconstruct doses through the early 1970s. The published Hanford Site annual environmental data were used to complete the does history through 1992. The most significant exposure pathway was found to be the consumption of cow's milk containing iodine-131. For the atmospheric pathway, median cumulative dose estimates to the thyroid of children ranged from < 0.1 to 235 rad throughout the area studied. The geographic distribution of the dose levels was directly related to the pattern of iodine-131 deposition and was affected by the distribution of commercial milk and leafy vegetables. For the atmospheric pathway, the-highest estimated cumulative-effective-dose-equivalent (EDE) to an adult was estimated to be 1 rem at Ringold, Washington for the period 1944-1992. For the Columbia River pathway, cumulative EDE estimates ranged from <0.5 to l.5 rem cumulative dose to maximally exposed adults downriver from the Hanford Site for the years 1944-1992. The most significant river exposure pathway was consumption of resident fish containing phosphorus-32 and zinc-65

  17. CRUNCH, Dispersion Model for Continuous Dense Vapour Release in Atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ambient atmospheric turbulence, and to follow the dispersion processes down to low concentrations, especially important for toxic gases, a virtual source passive dispersion model is fitted to the slumping plume. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Acceleration of the plume to the wind velocity is not considered, since an analysis of inertial effects has shown that the time for which these are important is short, compared to the dispersion time. Additionally, wind shear effects on cloud structure are not included; for a puff release producing a cloud of finite extent, this may not be valid but for a plume, extending to large downwind distances, they can be argued to have only a minor influence at the advancing front

  18. ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM HARD CHROMIUM PLATING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Central Florida Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering is investigating methods for improved estimation of chemical releases which require reporting under provisions of SARA Title III (Toxic Release Inventory, Form R). This paper describes results fr...

  19. Characterisation of prompt and delayed atmospheric radioactivity releases from underground nuclear tests at Nevada as a function of release time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A database with information on about 500 cases of atmospheric radioactivity releases from underground nuclear tests is analysed. The data are statistically evaluated and systematically aggregated in order to characterise prompt uncontrolled as well as delayed operational releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. Conclusions are drawn on the main features of releases that can be expected from underground nuclear tests as a function of release time. These findings are relevant for developing and validating methods to be applied in global monitoring of atmospheric radioactivity to verify compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). The Nevada data are consistent with full in-growth from the precursors prior to release irrespective of the release time. As a conclusion, there is no significant fractionation between the xenon isotopes and the precursors on any of the relevant pathways of operational releases. Though less data are available for uncontrolled releases, the same conclusion appears likely. The spread over many orders of magnitude observed for xenon isotopic ratios can mainly be related to the activity change with time. Accordingly, the isotopic ratios are a reliable parameter to facilitate source discrimination and assessment of the event time.

  20. A model for long range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released over a short period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fourth in a series which gives practical guidance on the estimation of the dispersion of radioactive material released to the atmosphere. It represents the conclusions of a Working Group established to review recent developments in atmospheric dispersion modelling and to propose models for use within the UK. This report describes a model considered suitable for calculating dispersion at long range from releases of short duration. (author)

  1. Tracking of atmospheric release of pollution using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2013), s. 425-436. ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013018 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Data assimilation * Atmospheric dispersion model * Sequential Monte Carlo * Sensor positioning Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/smidl-0385368.pdf

  2. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF TRITIUM FROM NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okula, K

    2007-01-17

    Tritium source term analysis and the subsequent dispersion and consequence analyses supporting the safety documentation of Department of Energy nuclear facilities are especially sensitive to the applied software analysis methodology, input data and user assumptions. Three sequential areas in tritium accident analysis are examined in this study to illustrate where the analyst should exercise caution. Included are: (1) the development of a tritium oxide source term; (2) use of a full tritium dispersion model based on site-specific information to determine an appropriate deposition scaling factor for use in more simplified, broader modeling, and (3) derivation of a special tritium compound (STC) dose conversion factor for consequence analysis, consistent with the nature of the originating source material. It is recommended that unless supporting, defensible evidence is available to the contrary, the tritium release analyses should assume tritium oxide as the species released (or chemically transformed under accident's environment). Important exceptions include STC situations and laboratory-scale releases of hydrogen gas. In the modeling of the environmental transport, a full phenomenology model suggests that a deposition velocity of 0.5 cm/s is an appropriate value for environmental features of the Savannah River Site. This value is bounding for certain situations but non-conservative compared to the full model in others. Care should be exercised in choosing other factors such as the exposure time and the resuspension factor.

  3. Atmospheric dispersion models for application in relation to radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document, a state-of-art review of dispersion models relevant to local, regional and global scales and applicable to radionuclide discharges of a continuous and discontinuous nature is presented. The theoretical basis of the models is described in chapter 2, while the uncertainty inherent in model predictions is considered in chapter 6. Chapters 3 to 5 of this report describe a number of models for calculating atmospheric dispersion on local, regional and global scales respectively

  4. Pulsating aurora induced by upper atmospheric barium releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deehr, C.; Romick, G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports the apparent generation of pulsating aurora by explosive releases of barium vapor near 250 km altitude. This effect occurred only when the explosions were in the path of precipitating electrons associated with the visible aurora. Each explosive charge was a standard 1.5 kg thermite mixture of Ba and CuO with an excess of Ba metal which was vaporized and dispersed by the thermite explosion. Traces of Sr, Na, and Li were added to some of the charges, and monitoring was achieved by ground-based spectrophotometric observations. On March 28, 1976, an increase in emission at 5577 A and at 4278 A was observed in association with the first two bursts, these emissions pulsating with roughly a 10 sec period for approximately 60 to 100 sec after the burst.

  5. A study on mesoscale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive particles released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three dimensional sea-land breeze model and lagrangian particle dispersion model have been employed for the study on the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released from Wolsung NPPs. In this study, atmospheric dispersion simulations are carried out under two synoptic weather conditions: the geostrophic flow is a weak northerly wind (CASE 1) and a strong northerly wind (CASE 2) on a clear day in spring. The results show that atmospheric dispersion is affected by sea-land breeze and the recirculation of particles by the change of wind direction between sea breeze and land breeze plays an important role in atmospheric concentration distribution of radioactive materials

  6. MAXINE: An improved methodology for estimating maximum individual dose from chronic atmospheric radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An EXCEL reg-sign spreadsheet has been developed that, when combined with the PC version of XOQDOQ, will generate estimates of maximum individual dose from routine atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The spreadsheet, MAXINE, utilizes a variety of atmospheric dispersion factors to calculate radiation dose as recommended by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Regulatory Guide 1.109 [USNRC 1977a]. The methodology suggested herein includes use of both the MAXINE spreadsheet and the PC version of XOQDOQ

  7. Sequential Monte-Carlo Framework for Dynamic Data-Driven Event Reconstruction for Atmospheric Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, G; Dyer, K; Hanley, W; Kosovic, B; Larsen, S; Loosmore, G; Lundquist, J; Mirin, A

    2006-07-17

    The release of hazardous materials into the atmosphere can have a tremendous impact on dense populations. We propose an atmospheric event reconstruction framework that couples observed data and predictive computer-intensive dispersion models via Bayesian methodology. Due to the complexity of the model framework, a sampling-based approach is taken for posterior inference that combines Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) strategies.

  8. Introduction to CRRIS: a computerized radiological risk investigation system for assessing atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRRIS is a Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System consisting of eight fully integrated computer codes which calculate environmental transport of atmospheric releases of radionuclides and resulting doses and health risks to individuals or populations. Each code may also be used alone for various assessment applications. Radionuclides are handled by the CRRIS either in terms of the released radionuclides or the exposure radionuclides which consist of both the released nuclides and decay products that grow in during environmental transport. The CRRIS is not designed to simulate short-term effects. 51 refs

  9. Radioactive materials in the atmosphere released by the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive radioactive materials were released into the atmosphere after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) caused by the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and transported and deposited to the land surface in a regional scale. A large amount of dataset has been opened such as the routine monitoring of radiation dose, fall-out, and the regional map of radionuclides deposited to the surface soils by an intensive field measurement and aircraft monitoring by MEXT. In contract, continual field measurements for atmospheric radioactivity were made only at seven stations in the Kanto area, while they are necessary to evaluate the initial radiation exposure, to validate results of atmospheric transport models, and to estimate the emission inventory of radionuclides. In this review, the following five points are introduced. (1) Summary of release rate estimation from the FD1NPP by the combination of WSPEEDI-II with atmospheric radioactivity of 131I and 137Cs and radiation dose. (2) The possible mechanisms of many peaks of radiation dose during 11-16 March 2011 which were measured at the monitoring posts near the FD1NPP. (3) Possible mechanism of regional transport and the surface deposition of radionuclides. (4) Summary of atmospheric 131I in aero-sols and gases, and 131I/137Cs in the atmospheric radioactivity. (5) An intensive one-year field measurement of atmospheric radioactivity of 137Cs at Fukushima and Koriyama since May 2011. (author)

  10. Decreased atmospheric sulfur deposition across the southeastern U.S.: when will watersheds release stored sulfate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Scanlon, Todd S.; Lynch, Jason A.; Cosby, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere lead to atmospheric deposition of sulfate (SO42-), which is the dominant strong acid anion causing acidification of surface waters and soils in the eastern United States (U.S.). Since passage of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments, atmospheric deposition of SO2 in this region has declined by over 80%, but few corresponding decreases in stream-water SO42- concentrations have been observed in unglaciated watersheds. We calculated SO42- mass balances for 27 forested, unglaciated watersheds from Pennsylvania to Georgia, by using total atmospheric deposition (wet plus dry) as input. Many of these watersheds still retain SO42-, unlike their counterparts in the northeastern U.S. and southern Canada. Our analysis showed that many of these watersheds should convert from retaining to releasing SO42- over the next two decades. The specific years when the watersheds crossover from retaining to releasing SO42- correspond to a general geographical pattern of later net watershed release from north to south. The single most important variable that explained the crossover year was the runoff ratio, defined as the ratio of annual mean stream discharge to precipitation. Percent clay content and mean soil depth were secondary factors in predicting crossover year. The conversion of watersheds from net SO42- retention to release anticipates more widespread reductions in stream-water SO42- concentrations in this region.

  11. ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES FROM STANDARDIZED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A WIND TUNNEL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate radiopollutant effluents released to the atmosphere from two standard design nuclear power plants. The main objective of the study was to compare the dispersion in the wake of the standardized nuclear power plants with that in a s...

  12. Real-Time Flavor Release from French Fries Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using both assessors (in vivo) and a mouth model system (in vitro). Several volatiles measured with APCI were identified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time, salt addition, and a

  13. Methodology for evaluation of possible consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of hazardous matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sites exist with high levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases. These releases can be hazardous nuclear, chemical, and biological matter. Such accidents may occur during transport of waste, or they may be due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts or various operations at high risk. Considering the operation of lifting and transport of the sunken Kursk nuclear submarine as an example, a methodology for risk assessment is described. This methodology includes two approaches: (1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport pathways using trajectory modelling, and (2) evaluation of possible contamination and consequences using real-time operational atmospheric dispersion modelling. The first approach can be applied in advance of an operation during the preparation stage, the second in real time during the operation stage. For the cases considered in this study, the results of trajectory modelling are supported by the operational dispersion modelling, i.e., the westerly flow is dominant during fall occurring 79% of the time. Hence, September-October 2001 was more appropriate for the lifting and transport of the Kursk nuclear submarine in comparison with summer months, when atmospheric transport toward the populated regions of the Kola and Scandinavian Peninsulas was dominant. The suggested methodology may be applied to any potentially dangerous object involving a risk of atmospheric release of hazardous material of nuclear, chemical or biological nature. (author)

  14. 75 FR 22790 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Candidates for EPA's Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...; economic modeling; air quality modeling; atmospheric science and engineering; ecology and ecological risk... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Candidates for EPA's Advisory...) and EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  15. Environmental consequences of uranium atmospheric releases from fuel cycle facility: II. The atmospheric deposition of uranium and thorium on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcelot, L; Masson, O; Renaud, P; Cagnat, X; Boulet, B; Cariou, N; De Vismes-Ott, A

    2015-03-01

    Uranium and thorium isotopes were measured in cypress leaves, wheat grains and lettuce taken in the surroundings of the uranium conversion facility of Malvési (South of France). The comparison of activity levels and activity ratios (namely (238)U/(232)Th and (230)Th/(232)Th) in plants with those in aerosols taken at this site and plants taken far from it shows that aerosols emitted by the nuclear site (uranium releases in the atmosphere by stacks and (230)Th-rich particles emitted from artificial ponds collecting radioactive waste mud) accounts for the high activities recorded in the plant samples close to the site. The atmospheric deposition process onto the plants appears to be the dominant process in plant contamination. Dry deposition velocities of airborne uranium and thorium were measured as 4.6 × 10(-3) and 5.0 × 10(-3) m s(-1), respectively. PMID:25500060

  16. Offsite consequence modelling of atmospheric releases: present practice at the CEA/Nuclear Safety Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticipated assessment of offsite consequences resulting from an accidental release of radioactivity into the atmosphere is commonly made, for the 1-50 km range, by application of statistical treatments, based on meteorological records, to a set of dose-distance relationships previously calculated by means of the ALICE computer code for various weather conditions, release durations and exposure modes. Input data comprise population distribution around the site and weather data, the latter consisting of mean frequencies per angular sector for short release duration problems or of actual records to account for weather variability in the case of prolonged releases. Consequences are currently expressed in terms of complementary cumulative distribution functions for various dose levels. An application to a reference site is presented

  17. Development of atmospheric dispersion module and its integration with diagnostic system for radioactivity release evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of development of diagnostic system for accident management in nuclear power plants (NPPs), an atmospheric dispersion module for radioactivity release evaluations using Kalman filter technique has been developed for emergency preparedness. In addition to the accident management, during normal reactor operations, it is desirable to monitor for any aerial releases of radionuclides. These radionuclides incur doses to the surrounding areas when they get carried away by the wind and dispersed in the air due to the turbulence. Normally, the releases from the NPP are in a controlled manner and monitored continuously. However, in case of an accidental release, the quantities may be very uncertain and correct estimation of the release is very important for emergency preparedness and planning in post accident scenarios. In this connection, a Kalman filter technique has been used to estimate the radioactivity release using environmental radiation monitoring data obtained close to the release point. The Kalman filter is a recursive predictor-corrector type estimator. It is based on a state space model in which the state variables, in the current setting, are the parameters of the Gaussian plume model.The plume model parameters, which are collected in the state vector consist of the source term, wind velocity and plume height. The observables consist of simultaneous gamma dose measurements (dose rate) and meteorological data (wind speed) at different times. In this analysis time evolution of the state is represented by the system equation and the measurements are linked to the state variables through the measurement equation. This model has been validated using the data obtained from radiation data acquisition system of a typical Indian nuclear power plant under normal operating conditions. The graphical user interface for atmospheric dispersion calculations has been developed and integrated with the diagnostic system on the high speed computing setup. This module

  18. Radiological impact assessment of routine atmospheric releases of MAAMORA Nuclear Research Center (MNRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNESTEN is the main national operator of nuclear facilities within the MAAMORA Nuclear Research Center (MNRC) in Morocco. MNRC is presently holding a radioisotopes production facility, radioactive waste treatment and storage facilities and several laboratories using nuclear techniques and radioactive sources. The construction of a TRIGA Mark II research reactor is still on going. In compliance with national regulations with regard of the licensing process, CNESTEN has performed a radiological impact assessment for the routine atmospheric releases of Maamora Nuclear Research Center facilities in order to obtain the first licence for environmental discharge. The objective of the study is to propose to the national nuclear safety authority the atmospheric release limits and conduct the assessment of radiological consequences to the population reference groups which will be compared to the 1 mSv regulatory annual limit to the public. A conservative estimation has been developed for: the source term of the annual atmospheric releases, the release conditions at the stacks, the local meteorological data, exposure pathways scenarios of population reference groups. The dose assessment has been performed using two different calculation codes: GASCON (France/Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and CAP88 (USA/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Under the conditions and the assumptions related to the routine radioactive atmospheric releases of MNRC, both of the calculation codes had given comparable estimations of individual and collective effective doses to the members of the public. The highest individual effective dose is estimated to 6.80 x 10-4 mSv per year which represents 0.07% of the 1 mSv regulatory annual limit to the public. (author)

  19. Modeling of mesoscale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model combining a three dimensional prognostic sea-land breeze model has been developed and applied to the analysis of mesoscale atmospheric dispersion of radiological releases from the nuclear power plants in mountainous coastal regions. The basic formula in the sea-land breeze model was hydrostatic primitive equations in the terrain-following coordinate. In the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion model a Markov chain process and a kernel density estimator were adopted. In this study, the mesoscale atmospheric circulation and particle dispersion simulations around the Wolsung nuclear power site located near east coastline of Korea were carried out by using the developed models under two synoptic weather conditions on a clear day in summer. The results showed that atmospheric dispersions were affected by wind directions of sea breeze and land breeze according to synoptic weather conditions. In the case of the northerly synoptic wind condition, the radioactive particles released during the day were transported northwestward by sea breezes (southeasterly) and recirculated southeastward to the Wolsung site by land breezes (Northwesterly) at night. In the case of the weak southerly synoptic wind condition, however, the recirculation of particles by wind direction change by sea breeze and land breeze were not induced since sea breeze and land breeze all were southerly flows. In further study, mesoscale atmospheric dispersions according to all synoptic weather condition classified by wind direction, wind speed and could coverage will be calculated by using the developed model. Eventually, the off-site public dose around the Wolsung site will be evaluated in consideration of local atmospheric circulations. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Mesoscale atmospheric modeling of the July 12, 1992 tritium release from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August of 1991, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) began the development of an advanced Emergency Response (ER) system based upon the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This model simulates the three-dimensional, time-dependent, flow field and thermodynamic structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). A companion Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) simulates contaminant transport based on the flow and turbulence fields generated by RAMS. This paper describes the performance of the advanced ER system in predicting transport and diffusion near the SRS when compared to meteorological and sampling data taken during the July 12, 1992 tritium release. Since PUFF/PLUME and 2DPUF are two Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System atmospheric models that were used to predict the transport and diffusion of the plume at the time of the release, the results from the advanced ER system are also compared to those produced by PUFF/PLUME and 2DPUF

  1. LOW-FREQUENCY RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF PICOFLARE CATEGORY ENERGY RELEASES IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report low-frequency (80 MHz) radio observations of circularly polarized non-thermal type I radio bursts (noise storms) in the solar corona whose estimated energy is ∼1021 erg. These are the weakest energy release events reported to date in the solar atmosphere. The plot of the distribution of the number of bursts (dN) versus their corresponding peak flux density in the range S to S+dS shows a power-law behavior, i.e., dN ∝ S γ dS. The power-law index γ is in the range –2.2 to –2.7 for the events reported in the present work. The present results provide independent observational evidence for the existence of picoflare category energy releases in the solar atmosphere which are yet to be explored.

  2. Model parameters and validation for tritium transfer in plants from atmospheric release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model parameters and validation for tritium transfer in plants from atmospheric release are examined in different effluent modes. In most cases, tritium uptake by plants can be explained using simple models based on the flux of transpiration and/or vapor diffusion. But, concerning the organically bound tritium in plants, the production rate of it differed with different plant species and plant parts. So, the modeling of the production rate of OBT in target plants and parts still needs experimental results and theoretical consideration. For the release of atmospheric tritiated organic material, the mechanism of tritium incorporation into plant should be known. Tritium was detected in the plant leaves which were exposed to tritiated methane, not only in the water soluble form but also in the organically bound tritium form. The mechanism of this tritium accumulation in plant leaves is still uncertain. (author)

  3. 78 FR 4132 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC433 National Climate Assessment and Development... of the National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC) to announce the... public, commenters' identities will not be shared with the authors. When the report is released in...

  4. Dynamics of the cloud produced by release of energy in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithm for calculation of space variations of particles dimension distribution function, mass density and dimensions of the cloud produced by an instantaneous release of energy in the atmosphere has been developed. Dynamics of the hot air bubble has been treated independently from the particles because their mass is much smaller. The velocity of the particles is determined by their fall velocity and the air velocity. The fall velocity has been calculated by Hedman's formula. (author)

  5. TRADOS - an air trajectory dose model for long range transport of radioactive release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for estimating radiation doses resulting from long range atmospheric transport of released radionuclides in accidents is precented. The model (TRADOS) is able to treat changing diffusion conditions. For example the plume can be exposed to temporary rain, changes in turbulence and mixing depth. This can result in considerable changes in individual doses. The method is applied to an example trajectory and the doses caused by a serious reactor accident are calculated

  6. MAXDOSE-SR: A routine release atmospheric dose model used at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2000-02-09

    MAXDOSE-SR is a PC version of the dosimetry code MAXIGASP, which was used to calculate doses to the maximally exposed offsite individual for routine atmospheric releases of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Complete code description, verification of models, and user's manual have been included in this report. Minimal input is required to run the program, and site specific parameters are used when possible.

  7. Environmental consequences of uranium atmospheric releases from fuel cycle facility: II. The atmospheric deposition of uranium and thorium on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and thorium isotopes were measured in cypress leaves, wheat grains and lettuce taken in the surroundings of the uranium conversion facility of Malvési (South of France). The comparison of activity levels and activity ratios (namely 238U/232Th and 230Th/232Th) in plants with those in aerosols taken at this site and plants taken far from it shows that aerosols emitted by the nuclear site (uranium releases in the atmosphere by stacks and 230Th-rich particles emitted from artificial ponds collecting radioactive waste mud) accounts for the high activities recorded in the plant samples close to the site. The atmospheric deposition process onto the plants appears to be the dominant process in plant contamination. Dry deposition velocities of airborne uranium and thorium were measured as 4.6 × 10−3 and 5.0 × 10−3 m s−1, respectively. - Highlights: • Uranium and thorium were measured in plants near the uranium conversion facility. • Activity ratios show that emissions account for the high activities recorded in the plants. • The atmospheric deposition process appears to dominate in plant contamination. • Dry deposition velocities of airborne uranium and thorium were determined

  8. Screening models for releases of radionuclides to atmosphere, surface water, and ground -- Work sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three levels of screening for the atmospheric transport pathways and two levels for surface water are presented. The ground has only one screening level. Level 1 is the simplest approach and incorporates a high degree of conservatism. The estimate of the effective dose for this level assumes a concentration based upon the radionuclide concentration at the point of emission to the environment, i.e., at the stack for atmospheric emissions, at the end of the effluent pipe for liquid effluent releases, and at a well because of the buried radioactive material. Levels 2 and 3 are presented for atmospheric releases, and Level 2 for surface water releases only and are more detailed and correspondingly less conservative. Level 2 screening accounts for dispersion in the atmosphere and in surface waters and combines all recognized pathways into the screening factor. For the atmospheric pathway, Level 3 screening includes more definitive pathways analysis. Should the user be found in compliance on the basis of Level 1 screening, no further calculations are required. If the user fails Level 1, the user proceeds to the next level and checks for compliance. This process is repeated until the user passes screening (is in compliance) or no further screening levels exist. If the user fails the final level, professional assistance should be obtained in environmental radiological assessment. Work sheets are designed to lead the user through screening in a step-by-step manner until compliance is demonstrated or it is determined that more sophisticated methods or expertise are needed. Flow diagrams are provided as a guide to identify key steps in the screening process

  9. IPSN model for the simplified calculation of atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases, the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) has developed a so called gaussian plume model. It derives from tri-gaussian puffs, characterized by standard deviations parametrized with respect to the transfer time (for only two classes of vertical atmospheric stability). The analytic form of this model makes it possible to take into account the most important phenomena which change the content of the plume during transfer: reflections, radioactive decay, daughter products, dry and wet deposition. Limitations to the use of this plume model are examined. Its field of application is reduced in the case of weak winds, the more so when the release height is great. A limited number of reference meteorological conditions and standard values for dry deposition velocity (iodine and particles) and the washing rate by rain are proposed, and examples of results are given. This model predicts the order of magnitude of the consequences of accidental atmospheric releases over distances from several hundred meters up to several tens of kilometers

  10. Massive impact-induced release of carbon and sulfur gases in the early Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, S.; Black, B. A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Bottke, W. F.

    2016-09-01

    Recent revisions to our understanding of the collisional history of the Hadean and early-Archean Earth indicate that large collisions may have been an important geophysical process. In this work we show that the early bombardment flux of large impactors (>100 km) facilitated the atmospheric release of greenhouse gases (particularly CO2) from Earth's mantle. Depending on the timescale for the drawdown of atmospheric CO2, the Earth's surface could have been subject to prolonged clement surface conditions or multiple freeze-thaw cycles. The bombardment also delivered and redistributed to the surface large quantities of sulfur, one of the most important elements for life. The stochastic occurrence of large collisions could provide insights on why the Earth and Venus, considered Earth's twin planet, exhibit radically different atmospheres.

  11. Risk assessment of radionuclide releases during extreme low-wind atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with radiological consequence assessment of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities at low-wind speed (calm) atmospheric conditions. The developed technique anticipates evolution of situation taking into account possible cumulation of conditions in the most adverse way. Such information has great importance for decision support of nuclear emergency management, even if the occurrence of such extreme situations is less probable. The calm situations can be formed when wind speed drops below a threshold about 0.5 m/s. Wind direction becomes undefined and the plume of admixtures can fluctuate anywhere or the puffs are diffused and grown at the point of release without being advected. The latter scenario can be especially hazardous and can lead to the highest peak ground level concentrations of radionuclides. The paper comes out from literature review of atmospheric dispersion modelling of passive admixtures at low-wind speed conditions and its application in risk assessment. Proper techniques of mathematical modelling are resumed and recommended modifications of common models (namely Gaussian solution) are accepted in order to avoid possible pitfalls of their direct unqualified application. Two simple numerical approaches are adopted and applied to the hypothetical scenario of radioactive releases. The first one is based on step-wise release of partial 3-D Gaussian puffs and superposition of results in all steps of release. The second approach modifies semiempirical formulas of the common Gaussian plume model (for dispersion coefficients and plume rise) according to the recommendations for low-wind speed conditions. A certain low wind speed is chosen in this case and periodic multiple plume travel over the point of release is modelled using segmented plume approximation. (orig.)

  12. Atmospheric plume progression as a function of time and distance from the release point for radioactive isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.

    2015-10-01

    The International Monitoring System contains up to 80 stations around the world that have aerosol and xenon monitoring systems designed to detect releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere from nuclear tests. A rule of thumb description of plume concentration and duration versus time and distance from the release point is useful when designing and deploying new sample collection systems. This paper uses plume development from atmospheric transport modeling to provide a power-law rule describing atmospheric dilution factors as a function of distance from the release point.

  13. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition of iodine-131 released from the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 2.6x104 TBq (700,000 curies) of iodine-131 were released to the air from reactor fuel processing plants on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State from December 1944 through December 1949. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project developed a suite of codes to estimate the doses that might have resulted from these releases. The Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET) computer code is part of this suite. The RATCHET code implements a Lagrangian-trajectory, Gaussian-puff dispersion model that uses hourly meteorological and release rate data to estimate daily time-integrated air concentrations and surface contamination for use in dose estimates. In this model, iodine is treated as a mixture of three species (nominally, inorganic gases, organic gases, and particles). Model deposition parameters are functions of the mixture and meteorological conditions. A resistance model is used to calculate dry deposition velocities. Equilibrium between concentrations in the precipitation and the air near the ground is assumed in calculating wet deposition of gases, and irreversible washout of the particles is assumed. RATCHET explicitly treats the uncertainties in model parameters and meteorological conditions. Uncertainties in iodine-131 release rates and partitioning among the nominal species are treated by varying model input. The results of 100 model runs for December 1944 through December 1949 indicate that monthly average air concentrations and deposition have uncertainties ranging from a factor of two near the center of the time-integrated plume to more than an order of magnitude near the edge. These results indicate that -10% of the iodine-131 released to the atmosphere decayed during transit in the study area, -56% was deposited within the study area, and the remaining 34% was transported out of the study area while still in the air

  14. Controls on the Time Scale of Carbonate Neutralization of Carbon Dioxide Released to the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Cao, L.

    2007-12-01

    Once released to the atmosphere, carbon dioxide is removed on a range of time scales. On the time scale of years to centuries, carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere is dominated by transport processes within the ocean. On the time scale of hundreds of thousands of years, carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere is dominated by processes related to the weathering of silicate rocks on land. Between these time scales, carbon dioxide removal is dominated by interactions involving carbonate minerals both on land and in the sea. Net dissolution of carbonate minerals (on land or in the sea) increases ocean alkalinity to an extent that exceeds the amount of carbon addition; the result is a transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean and moderation of the effects of added carbon on ocean chemical parameters such as pH and carbonate mineral saturation. There has been some controversy over how fast equilibration with carbonate minerals can neutralize carbon acidity, with claims ranging from the extreme and untenable claim that this process is essentially instantaneous to more plausible claims that the equilibration time scale may approach 10 kyr. Even within the domain of informed discourse, estimates of the carbonate neutralization timescale can vary by an order-of-magnitude. Here, in an effort to understand the sources of the lack of consensus on this issue, we examine how various processes (e.g., ocean transport, sediment pore water diffusion, carbonate-mineral dissolution, and carbonate weathering on land) influence the time scale for carbonate neutralization of carbon dioxide releases to the atmosphere.

  15. A model for short and medium range dispersion of radionuclides released to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Working Group was established to give practical guidance on the estimation of the dispersion of radioactive releases to the atmosphere. The dispersion is estimated in the short and medium range, that is from about 100 m to a few tens of kilometres from the source, and is based upon a Gaussian plume model. A scheme is presented for categorising atmospheric conditions and values of the associated dispersion parameters are given. Typical results are presented for releases in specific meteorological conditions and a scheme is included to allow for durations of release of up to 24 hours. Consideration has also been given to predicting longer term average concentrations, typically annual averages, and results are presented which facilitate site specific calculations. The results of the models are extended to 100 km from the source, but the increasing uncertainty with which results may be predicted beyond a few tens of kilometres from the source is emphasised. Three technical appendices provide some of the rationale behind the decisions made in adopting the various models in the proposed dispersion scheme. (author)

  16. An analytical model for radioactive pollutant release simulation in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weymar, Guilherme J.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J., E-mail: guicefetrs@gmail.com, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com, E-mail: bejbodmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Buske, Daniela; Quadros, Regis, E-mail: danielabuske@gmail.com, E-mail: quadros99@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica

    2013-07-01

    Simulations of emission of radioactive substances in the atmosphere from the Brazilian nuclear power plant Angra 1 are a necessary tool for control and elaboration of emergency plans as a preventive action for possible accidents. In the present work we present an analytical solution for radioactive pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere, solving the time-dependent three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The experiment here used as a reference in the simulations consisted of the controlled releases of radioactive tritiated water vapor from the meteorological tower close to the power plant at Itaorna Beach. The wind profile was determined using experimental meteorological data and the micrometeorological parameters were calculated from empirical equations obtained in the literature. We report on a novel analytical formulation for the concentration of products of a radioactive chain released in the atmospheric boundary layer and solve the set of coupled equations for each chain radionuclide by the GILTT solution, assuming the decay of all progenitors radionuclide for each equation as source term. Further we report on numerical simulations, as an explicit but fictitious example and consider three radionuclides in the radioactive chain of Uranium 235. (author)

  17. Atmospheric dispersion modeling for an accidental release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a postulated accidental airborne radionuclide release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) appropriate to a power upgrade to 10 MW. Estimates of releases for various radionuclide groups are based upon US-NRC regulatory guide 1.183. Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were calculated using a health physics computer code 'HotSpot' developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, USA. The doses were calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, viz., Pasquill categories A-F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The meteorological data on atmospheric stability conditions, mean wind speed and the frequency distribution of wind direction based on data collected near the reactor site have also been analyzed and are presented here. The results indicate that a person located within a downwind distance of about 500 m from the reactor would receive more than the permissible CED under the analyzed severe accident scenario. Analysis of one typical year of wind data indicates that the predominant wind direction is East-North East (ENE), which occurs at the site for more than 15% of the time

  18. Atmospheric dispersion modeling for an accidental release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S. Shoaib [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: ssraza@msn.com; Iqbal, M. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2005-07-15

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations have been performed for a postulated accidental airborne radionuclide release from the Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) appropriate to a power upgrade to 10 MW. Estimates of releases for various radionuclide groups are based upon US-NRC regulatory guide 1.183. Committed Effective Doses (CEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were calculated using a health physics computer code 'HotSpot' developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, USA. The doses were calculated for various atmospheric stability classes, viz., Pasquill categories A-F with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The meteorological data on atmospheric stability conditions, mean wind speed and the frequency distribution of wind direction based on data collected near the reactor site have also been analyzed and are presented here. The results indicate that a person located within a downwind distance of about 500 m from the reactor would receive more than the permissible CED under the analyzed severe accident scenario. Analysis of one typical year of wind data indicates that the predominant wind direction is East-North East (ENE), which occurs at the site for more than 15% of the time.

  19. Calculation of atmospheric dispersion factor for accident release from coastal nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of calculating the probabilistic atmospheric dispersion factor for accident release from nuclear power plant (NPP), in which the effect of internal bound layer was taken into account and proposed. The final accident probabilistic dispersion factor used to evaluate dose, the dose for each pathway and the individual effective dose at the bound of a coastal NPP (0.5 km from the coastline) were estimated. The measured parameters from field atmosphere dispersion experiment on site of a NPP were applied. The result showed that not only the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor but also the value of individual effective dose predicted were 5.9 times higher than those derived by a traditional model. Hence, the effect of internal bound layer on the accident dispersion factor and dose must be taken into account for coastal NPP when the frequency occurring internal bound layer is too high to be neglected

  20. The Risoe model for calculating the consequences of the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of the model used at Risoe for calculating the consequences of releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere. The model is based on the Gaussian plume model, and it provides possibilities for calculation of: doses to individuals, collective doses, contamination of the ground, probability distribution of doses, and the consequences of doses for give dose-risk relationships. The model is implemented as a computer program PLUCON2, written in ALGOL for the Burroughs B6700 computer at Risoe. A short description of PLUCON2 is given. (author)

  1. Impact of atmospheric release in stable night meteorological conditions; can emergency models predict dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric dispersion of pollutant or radionuclides in stratified meteorological condition, i.e. especially when weather conditions are very stable, mainly at night, is still poorly understood and not well apprehended by the operational atmospheric dispersion models. However, correctly predicting the dispersion of a radioactive plume, and estimating the radiological consequences for the population, following an unplanned atmospheric release of radionuclides are crucial steps in an emergency response. To better understand dispersion in these special weather conditions, IRSN performed a series of 22 air sampling campaigns between 2010 and 2013 in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (AREVA - NC, France), at distances between 200 m and 3000 m from the facility. Krypton-85 (85Kr), a b-and g-emitting radionuclide, released during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel was used as a non-reactive tracer of radioactive plumes. Experimental campaigns were realized in stability class stable or very stable (E or F according to Pasquill classification) 18 times, and in neutral conditions (D according to Pasquill classification) 4 times. During each campaign, Krypton-85 real time measurement were made to find the plume around the plant, and then integrated samples (30 min) were collected in bag perpendicularly to the assumed wind direction axis. After measurement by gamma spectrometry, we have, when it was possible, estimate the point of impact and the width of the plume. The objective was to estimate the horizontal dispersion (width) of the plume at ground level in function of the distance and be able to calculate atmospheric transfer coefficients. In a second step, objective was to conclude on the use of common model and on their uncertainties. The results will be presented in terms of impact on the near-field. They will be compared with data obtained in previous years in neutral atmospheric conditions, and finally the results will be confronted with those

  2. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and 133Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of 133Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 x 1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 x 1016 to 2.4 x 1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 x 1013 to 3.7 x 1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases

  3. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  4. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed

  5. Dose rate and risk distribution in Pakistan following arbitrary atmospheric release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project involves the determination of physical consequences of release of radioactivity to the atmosphere anywhere in Pakistan. The consequences are in terms of dose rate, biological hazards and casualties. Besides the distribution of dose rate, casualties and risks to the population in any district of Pakistan have been estimated. In order to perform the above mentioned task a computer code has been developed with database for Pakistan involving the regional distribution of population. The code is written in Fortran-77. Depending upon the available meteorological data, the code has an option to use either a sophisticated model or a simplified model (if detailed meteorological information is not available) for dose calculation purposes. Along with the main program the RDC code is equipped with a comprehensive data library. It consists of physical and biological properties of radio nuclides, latitudes and longitudes of more than 5000 points in Pakistan and age wise population distribution of all districts. (author)

  6. Forecasting the consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides in the atmosphere from ensemble dispersion modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RTMOD system is presented as a tool for the intercomparison of long-range dispersion models as well as a system for support of decision making. RTMOD is an internet-based procedure that collects the results of more than 20 models used around the world to predict the transport and deposition of radioactive releases in the atmosphere. It allows the real-time acquisition of model results and their intercomparison. Taking advantage of the availability of several model results, the system can also be used as a tool to support decision making in case of emergency. The new concept of ensemble dispersion modelling is introduced which is the basis for the decision-making application of RTMOD. New statistical parameters are presented that allow gathering the results of several models to produce a single dispersion forecast. The devised parameters are presented and tested on the results of RTMOD exercises

  7. Estimation of radionuclide releases in atmosphere from Cernavoda NPP based on continuous gaseous effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of gaseous effluents from Cernavoda NPP is performed to assess the environmental impact of the plant operation. The results of the monitoring program are used to evaluate the population doses in order to ensure that the emissions of radionuclides in air are below regulatory limits and radiation doses are maintained ALARA. It complements, but is independent from the Operational Environmental Monitoring Program for Cernavoda NPP. Gaseous effluent monitors provide continuous indication of the radioactivity content in atmospheric emissions. Except for noble gases, these monitors also collect samples for later detailed analysis in the station Health Physics Laboratory. This paper presents the main equipment and the results of the gaseous effluents monitoring program in order to assess the impact of Cernavoda NPP operation and to predict the future releases as function of radionuclides concentrations in CANDU systems, based on the identified trends.(author)

  8. Radiological impact from atmospheric releases of 238U and 226Ra from phosphate rock processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate rocks are used extensively, mainly as a source of phosphorus for fertilizers and secondly for phosphoric acid and gypsum (phosphogypsum). Phosphates are, therefore one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to man from natural radionuclides (TENR). Emissions from phosphate rocks processing plants in gaseous and particulate form contain radioisotopes, such as 238U and 226Ra, which are discharged into the environment causing radiation exposures to the population. About 10 MBq of 238U and 226Ra, respectively, are discharged to the environment each year from a phosphate rocks processing plant in Thessaloniki area, Northern Greece. The collective dose commitment to lung tissue resulting from atmospheric release was estimated to be ∼2x10-9 man Gy t-1 for 238U and ∼0.1x10-9 Plan Gy t-1 for 226Ra, i.e. about 2 times higher than that reported in UNSCEAR 1992 Report. (author)

  9. Atmospheric Transport Modelling Activities at CTBTO in the Aftermath of the Fukushima Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysta, M.; Coyne, J.; Nikkinen, M.; Gheddou, A.; Stöhlker, U.

    2012-04-01

    For an accidental radioactive release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant, a spatial location of the source term was known and some reasonable hypotheses were made concerning the time of the emission. Consequently, tests of the performance of an atmospheric transport model operational at CTBTO, FLEXPART, were made. Initially, FLEXPART was run daily in an analysis-forecast mode using NCEP meteorological fields to predict the dates when detections of the radioactive material at the IMS radionuclide stations should be expected. In parallel, ECMWF meteorological analyses were used to drive FLEXPART in a purely diagnostic mode to check for possible better matches between model outputs and radionuclide measurements than those forecast by the NCEP-driven runs. Secondly, once the operational forecasting period at CTBTO came to an end, the ATM activities have been re-focused on the problem of inferring source location from the radionuclide measurements. In addition to radionuclide measurements, a source location algorithm needs outputs of FLEXPART backtracking calculations, Source Receptor Sensitivity (SRS) fields. The SRS fields allow to make a link between radionuclide stations and possible source locations and are computed at CTBTO for each IMS radionuclide station on a daily basis. Various subsets of detections made in the aftermath of the Fukushima release were used to test source location algorithm implemented in our visualisation and analysis software, WEB-Grape. Finally, similar analyses were performed replacing CTBTO SRS fields with the SRS fields provided by the co-operating Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) of WMO. In fact, the RSMCs support abnormal detections of radionuclides within the IMS network with the SRS calculations performed using their own atmospheric transport models fed with their own meteorological fields. The added value of the SRS fields provided by the RSMCs shall be illustrated.

  10. 77 FR 58356 - Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... the meeting date. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Science Advisory Board (SAB) was established by a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Oceanic...

  11. 77 FR 476 - Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... be reviewed prior to the meeting date. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Science Advisory Board (SAB... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Oceanic...

  12. AIRWAY: a fortran computer program to estimate radiation dose commitments to man from the atmospheric release of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rider, J.L.

    1979-06-01

    The AIRWAY computer program was developed to estimate the radiation dose commitments accured by all the people affected by the atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear facility. This computer program provides dose commitment estimates for people on the boundary of the facility, in the immediate vicinity (i.e., within 80 to 100 km) and in the portios of the world beyond the immediate vicinity which are affected by the release. The AIRWAY program considers dose commitments resulting from immersion in the atmosphere containing the released radionuclides, ingestion of contaminated food, inhalation of gaseous and suspended radioactivity, and exposure to ground deposits. The dose commitments for each of these pathways is explicitly calculated for each radionuclide released into the atmosphere and for each daughter of each released radionuclide. This is accomplished by calculating the air and ground concentrations of each daughter in each of the regions of interest using the release rate of the parent radionuclide. The AIRWAY computer program is considered to be a significant improvement over other programs in which the effect of daughter radionuclides must be approximated by separate releases.

  13. Modeling accidental releases to the atmosphere of a dense reactive chemical (Uranium hexafluoride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Chang, Joseph C.; Zhang, Xiaoming J.

    In order to model the atmospheric transport and dispersion of dense reactive chemicals such as uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), it is necessary to include algorithms that account for heat exchanges due to chemical reactions and phase changes. UF 6 may be released accidentally at uranium-enrichment plants as a warm gas from a pipeline rupture, or as a flashing liquid from a pressurized tank or line break. The resulting plume is initially very dense due to the large molecular weight of UF 6, but may become lighter-than-air as the UF 6 reacts with water vapor to form HF, which has a molecular weight less than that of air, and which may cause an increase in plume temperature due to the exothermic reaction. The major chemical and thermodynamic processes related to UF 6 have been incorporated in a modified version of an existing dense gas model, HGSYSTEM. The same general approach could be used to include other reactive chemicals in the modeling system. New modules that are applicable to any type of chemical release have also been added to HGSYSTEM to account for building downwash, lift-off of warm plumes from the ground, and deposition. The revised HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model has been evaluated with field data from UF 6 tests. The sensitivities of the model predictions to variations in input parameters have been assessed.

  14. Observational Investigation of Energy Release in the Lower Solar Atmosphere of a Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Sharykin, I N; Kosovichev, A G; Vargas-Dominguez, S; Zimovets, I V

    2016-01-01

    We study flare processes in the lower solar atmosphere using observational data for a M1-class flare of June 12, 2014, obtained by New Solar Telescope (NST/BBSO) and Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI/SDO). The main goal is to understand triggers and manifestations of the flare energy release in the lower layers of the solar atmosphere (the photosphere and chromosphere) using high-resolution optical observations and magnetic field measurements. We analyze optical images, HMI Dopplergrams and vector magnetograms, and use Non-Linear Force-Free Field (NLFFF) extrapolations for reconstruction of the magnetic topology. The NLFFF modelling reveals interaction of oppositely directed magnetic flux-tubes in the PIL. These two interacting magnetic flux tubes are observed as a compact sheared arcade along the PIL in the high-resolution broad-band continuum images from NST. In the vicinity of the PIL, the NST H alpha observations reveal formation of a thin three-ribbon structure corresponding to the small-scale photospher...

  15. Chamber experiments to investigate the release of fungal IN into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Anna Theresa; Krüger, Mira; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Helleis, Frank; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Biological aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Several types of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and lichen have been identified as sources of biological ice nuclei (IN). They are a potentially strong source of atmospheric IN, as some of them are able to catalyze ice formation at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures. Common plant-associated bacteria are the best-known biological IN but recently ice nucleation activity in a variety of fungal species such as Mortierella alpina, Isaria farinosa, Acremonium implicatum was found. These fungal species are widely spread throughout the world and are present in soil and air. Their IN seem to be proteins, which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. To which extent these small, cell-free IN are emitted directly into the atmosphere remains unexplored just as other processes, which probably indirectly release fungal IN e.g. absorbed onto soil dust particles. To analyze the release of fungal IN into the air, we designed a chamber, whose main principle is based on the emission of particles into a closed gas compartment and the subsequent collection of these particles in water. The concentration of the collected IN in the water is determined by droplet freezing assays. For a proof of principles, fungal washing water containing cell-free IN was atomized by an aerosol generator and the produced gas stream was lead through a water trap filled with pure water. Preliminary results show a successful proof of principles. The chamber design is capable of collecting aerosolic IN produced by an aerosol generator with fungal washing water. In ongoing experiments, alive or dead fungal cultures are placed into the chamber and a gentle, particle free air stream is directed over the fungi surface. This gas stream is also lead through water to collect particles, which might be emitted either actively or passively by the fungi. Further experiments will be e.g. conducted under different relative humidities. Results

  16. Generalized uniform formulae for atmospheric dispersion of activities released from a ventilation stack or from a leaky reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relations are given for the calculation of the atmospheric transport and dispersion of industrial gaseous wastes released from the stacks of factories, power plants and nuclear power plants. Modified formulae are derived for stack disposal from a small stack, also applicable in calculating the gaseous waste release from a leaky reactor. Uniform generalized formulae are presented serving the calculation of both high and short stack disposals as well as of reactor building leakages. (L.O.)

  17. Detailed source term estimation of the atmospheric release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident by coupling simulations of an atmospheric dispersion model with an improved deposition scheme and oceanic dispersion model

    OpenAIRE

    G. Katata; Chino, M; T. Kobayashi; Terada, H.; Ota, M; Nagai, H.; M. Kajino; Draxler, R; M. C. Hort; Malo, A.; Torii, T.; Y. Sanada

    2015-01-01

    Temporal variations in the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1) accident and their atmospheric and marine dispersion are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. In this paper, we estimate the detailed atmospheric releases during the accident using a reverse estimation method which calculates the release rates of radionuclides by comparing measure...

  18. Detailed source term estimation of the atmospheric release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident by coupling simulations of atmospheric dispersion model with improved deposition scheme and oceanic dispersion model

    OpenAIRE

    G. Katata; Chino, M; T. Kobayashi; Terada, H.; Ota, M; Nagai, H.; M. Kajino; Draxler, R; M. C. Hort; Malo, A.; Torii, T.; Y. Sanada

    2014-01-01

    Temporal variations in the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1) accident and their atmospheric and marine dispersion are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. In this paper, we estimate a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data with atmospheric model simulations from WSP...

  19. Evaluation of Gamma Fluence Rate Predictions for 41-argon Releases to the Atmosphere at a Nuclear Research Reactor Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Palma, Carlos; Aage, Helle Karina; Astrup, Poul; Bargholz, Kim; Drews, Martin; Jørgensen, Hans E.; Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, Torben; Thykier-Nielsen, Søren; van Ammel, Raf

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry was...

  20. Evaluation of Gamma Fluence Rate Predictions for 41-argon Releases to the Atmosphere at a Nuclear Research Reactor Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Palma, Carlos; Aage, Helle Karina; Astrup, Poul;

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry wa...

  1. Probabilistic siting analysis of nuclear power plants emphasizing atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases and radiation-induced health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A presentation is made of probabilistic evaluation schemes for nuclear power plant siting. Effects on health attributable to ionizing radiation are reviewed, for the purpose of assessment of the numbers of the most important health effect cases in light-water reactor accidents. The atmospheric dispersion of radioactive releases from nuclear power plants is discussed, and there is presented an environmental consequence assessment model in which the radioactive releases and atmospheric dispersion of the releases are treated by the application of probabilistic methods. In the model, the environmental effects arising from exposure to radiation are expressed as cumulative probability distributions and expectation values. The probabilistic environmental consequence assessment model has been applied to nuclear power plant site evaluation, including risk-benefit and cost-benefit analyses, and the comparison of various alternative sites. (author)

  2. Radiological impact from atmospheric releases of 226Ra from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignite contains naturally occurring radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series and also 40K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to man from natural radionuclides. Emissions from thermal power stations in gaseous and particulate form contain radioisotopes, such as 226Ra, which are discharged to the environment causing radiation exposures to the population. About 11672 Mbq of 226Ra per year are discharged to the environment from four coal-fired power plants, totalling 3.62 GW electrical energy, at the Valley of Ptolemais, Northern Greece, in which the combustion of 1.1 x 1010 kg lignite is required to produce an electrical energy of 1 GW year. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment to lung tissue per unit power generated resulting from atmospheric releases of 226Ra was estimated to be 1.1 x 10-2 manSv (GW year)-1, i.e. more than 15 times higher than that corresponding to a modern-type coal-fired power plant according to the UNSCEAR (1988) data. (author)

  3. Graphic displays on PCs of gaseous diffusion models of radionuclide releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well-known MESOI program has been modified and improved to adapt it to a PC/AT with VGA colour monitor. Far from losing any of its powerful characteristics to calculate the transport, diffusion, deposition and decay of gaseous radioactive effluents discharged to the atmosphere, it has been enhanced to allow graphic viewing of concentrations, wind speed and direction and puff locations in colour, all on a background map of the site. The background covers a 75 x 75 km square and has a graphic grid density of 421 x 421 pixels. This means that effluent concentration is represented approximately every 170 metres in the 'clouded-area'. Among the modifications and enhancements made, the following are of particular interest: 1. A new subroutine called NUBE has been added, which calculates the distribution of effluent concentration of activity in a grid of 421 x 421 pixels. 2. Several subroutines have been added to obtain graphic displays and printouts of the cloud, wind field and puff locations. 3. Graphic display of the geographic plane of the area surrounding the effluent release point. 4. Off-line preparation of meteorological and topographical data files necessary for program execution. (author)

  4. The legacy of Cf-252 operations at Savannah River Technology Center: Continuous releases of radioiodine to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iodine isotopes I-132, 1-133, I-134, and I-135, which have half-lives ranging from 53 minutes to 21 hours, are measured in the atmospheric effluent from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRS is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The isotopes' release rates range from 10 to 300 microcuries per week compared to the rate. The resulting annual dose from all iodine isotopes is minor; it comprises 0.01 percent of the total offsite dose due to atmospheric releases from SRS in 1990. Circumstantial evidence indicates the radioiodine originates from traces of unencapsulated Cf-252. The determination that spontaneous fission of Cf-252 is the source of the radioiodine has several ramifications. Radioactive fission-product isotopes of the noble gas elements krypton and xenon must also be released. Noble gases are more volatile and mobile than iodine. Also, the released iodine isotopes decay to xenon isotopes. The noble gases decay to non-gaseous elements that are transported along with radioiodine to the terrestrial environment by deposition from the SRTC plume. Only Sr-89 is believed to accumulate sufficiently in the environment to approach detectable levels. Given similar conditions in earlier years, releases of short-lived radioiodine have occurred undetected in routine monitoring since the early 1970s. Release rates 20 years ago would have been 200 times greater than current release rates. This report documents preliminary experiments conducted by SRTC and Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS) scientists. The release process and the environmental impact of fission products from Cf-252 should be thoroughly researched

  5. The influence of season of the year on the predicted agricultural consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe, because of the seasonal nature of agricultural practices, the consequences for agriculture of an accidental release of radioactive materials to atmosphere are likely to vary depending upon the time of year when the release occurs. The quantification of this variation is complicated by the need to take into account the introduction of countermeasures to restrict the radiation exposure from ingestion of contaminated foods, and by the presence in accidental releases of radionuclides which persist over several seasons. In this study, the effect on agricultural consequences of accidental releases occurring at different times of the year is examined. The consequences are expressed in terms of the amount of produce affected by restrictions on food supplies and the collective radiation dose from ingestion of food. The investigation has been carried out for three hypothetical releases representing a range of releases postulated for pressurised water reactors (PWRs). The effect of season of the year was determined for accidental releases occurring both in a single, defined set of meteorological conditions and for a range of possible meteorological conditions. For the main part of the study, consideration was limited to agricultural production in the UK only, but the effect of extending the analysis beyond the UK boundary was also considered. The results of the study show that considerable variation can occur in agricultural consequences following an accidental release at different times of the year. For the larger releases considered, this variation is reduced due to the effect of the introduction of countermeasures, particularly when consideration is limited to the UK only. Seasonal variation tends to be greater for the results of a deterministic analysis, which uses a single set of constant meteorological conditions, than for the results of a full probabilistic assessment. From the results presented here it is also seen that for many applications of

  6. 75 FR 65304 - Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES); Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES... Commerce. ACTION: Notice requesting nominations for the Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES). SUMMARY: The Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES) was established to...

  7. Characteristic of coal combustion in oxygen/carbon dioxide atmosphere and nitric oxide release during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combustion characteristic of a bituminous coal and an anthracite coal in oxygen/carbon dioxide (O2/CO2) atmosphere is investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The characteristic parameters, which are deduced from the TG-DTG (differential thermogravimetric) curves, show that the coal combustion process is basically kept consistent in O2/CO2 and O2/N2 atmosphere at the O2 concentration of 20%. The Coats-Redfern method with the reaction order of 1.25 could perfectly describe the combustion process in these two different atmospheres through the calculation of the kinetic parameters for the two coals. Nitric oxide (NO) release is concentrated in a narrower time period in O2/CO2 atmosphere compared with the one in O2/N2 atmosphere during the coal combustion process. Though the high value of the NO release rate peak, the total conversion of the fuel-N to NO is strongly depressed in O2/CO2 atmosphere, and at 1473 K, the conversion is reduced by 28.99% for the bituminous coal and 22.54% for the anthracite coal, respectively. When O2 concentration is increased from 20% to 40% in O2/CO2 atmosphere, the coal combustion property is obviously improved with the shift of the whole process into the lower temperature zone and the more intensive of the reaction occurrence in a narrower temperature range. However, the total fuel-N to NO conversion is increased accordingly. For bituminous coal the increase is 17.22% at 1073 K and 20.51% at 1173 K, and for anthracite coal the increase is 15.73% at 1073 K and 16.19% at 1173 K.

  8. Plutonium in the environment: key factors related to impact assessment in case of an accidental atmospheric release

    OpenAIRE

    Guétat, Philippe; Moulin, V. M.; Reiller, Pascal E.; Vercouter, T.; Bion, L.,; Fritsch, P; Monfort, M.; Flury-Herard, A.; Comte, A.; Ménétrier, F.; Ansoborlo, Eric; Jourdain, F.; Boucher, L; Vandorpe, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with plutonium and key factors related to impact assessment. It is based on recent work performed by CEA which summarize the main features of plutonium behaviour from sources inside installations to the environment and man, and to report current knowledge on the different parameters used in models for environmental and radiological impact assessment. These key factors are illustrated through a case study based on an accidental atmospheric release of Pu in a nuclear facility.

  9. Atmospheric stability effects on potential radiological releases at a nuclear research facility in Romania: Characterising the atmospheric mixing state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott D; Galeriu, Dan; Williams, Alastair G; Melintescu, Anca; Griffiths, Alan D; Crawford, Jagoda; Dyer, Leisa; Duma, Marin; Zorila, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    A radon-based nocturnal stability classification scheme is developed for a flat inland site near Bucharest, Romania, characterised by significant local surface roughness heterogeneity, and compared with traditional meteorologically-based techniques. Eight months of hourly meteorological and atmospheric radon observations from a 60 m tower at the IFIN-HH nuclear research facility are analysed. Heterogeneous surface roughness conditions in the 1 km radius exclusion zone around the site hinder accurate characterisation of nocturnal atmospheric mixing conditions using conventional meteorological techniques, so a radon-based scheme is trialled. When the nocturnal boundary layer is very stable, the Pasquill-Gifford "radiation" scheme overestimates the atmosphere's capacity to dilute pollutants with near-surface sources (such as tritiated water vapour) by 20% compared to the radon-based scheme. Under these conditions, near-surface wind speeds drop well below 1 m s(-1) and nocturnal mixing depths vary from ∼ 25 m to less than 10 m above ground level (a.g.l.). Combining nocturnal radon with daytime ceilometer data, we were able to reconstruct the full diurnal cycle of mixing depths. Average daytime mixing depths at this flat inland site range from 1200 to 1800 m a.g.l. in summer, and 500-900 m a.g.l. in winter. Using tower observations to constrain the nocturnal radon-derived effective mixing depth, we were able to estimate the seasonal range in the Bucharest regional radon flux as: 12 mBq m(-2) s(-1) in winter to 14 mBq m(-2) s(-1) in summer. PMID:26854556

  10. Potential Impact of Atmospheric Releases at Russian Far East Nuclear Submarine Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F.; Mahura, A.; Compton, K.; Brown, K.; Takano, M.; Novikov, V.; Soerensen, J. H.; Baklanov, A.

    2003-02-25

    An ''Assessment of the Impact of Russian Nuclear Fleet Operations on Far Eastern Coastal Regions'' is being performed as part of the Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Project (RAD) of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) of Laxenburg, Austria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive unclassified analysis of the potential impact of accidents at the Russian Far East nuclear submarine sites near Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk. We have defined the situation there based upon available information and studies commissioned by RAD in collaboration with Russian research institutes including Russian Research Center-''Kurchatov Institute'', Institute of Northern Environmental Problems and Lazurit Central Design Bureau. Further, in our original work, some in collaboration with the staff of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and members of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, we have calculated the nuclide trajectories from these sites in the atmospheric boundary layer, less than 1.5 kilometers high, and determined their probability of crossing any of the nearby countries as well as Asiatic Russia. We have further determined the concentrations in each of these crossings as well as the total, dry and wet depositions of nuclides on these areas. Finally, we have calculated the doses to the Japanese Island population from typical winter airflow patterns (those most likely to cross the Islands in the minimum times), strong north winds, weak north winds and cyclonic winds for conditions similar to the Chazhma Bay criticality accident (fresh fuel) and for a criticality accident for the same type of reactor with fuel being withdrawn (spent fuel). The maximum individual committed dosages were less than 2 x 10-7 and 2 x 10-3 mSv, respectively. The long-term external doses by radionuclides deposited on the ground and the internal doses by consumption of foods were not evaluated as it is

  11. Radionuclide releases to the atmosphere from Hanford Operations, 1944--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. The first step in determining dose is to estimate the amount and timing of radionuclide releases to air and water. This report provides the air release information

  12. 76 FR 22395 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Internet rules (available at http://www.fcc.gov/Daily_Releases/Daily_Business/2010/db1223/FCC-10-201A1.pdf... COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications... ``Open Internet Advisory Committee'' (hereinafter ``the Committee''), is being established. FOR...

  13. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Seibert, P.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold, D.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Tapia, C.; Vargas, A.; Yasunari, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will show the results of a paper currently under review in ACPD and some additional new results, including more data and with an independent box modeling approach to support some of the findings of the ACPD paper. On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP) developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe) and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs), which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4-20.0) EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started early, before active venting was performed. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1-3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3-50.1) PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14-15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they

  14. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FD-NPP developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs, which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined the first guess with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 16.7 (uncertainty range 13.4–20.0 EBq, which is the largest radioactive noble gas release in history not associated with nuclear bomb testing. There is strong evidence that the first strong 133Xe release started very early, possibly immediately after the earthquake and the emergency shutdown on 11 March at 06:00 UTC. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1–3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. For 137Cs, the inversion results give a total emission of 35.8 (23.3–50.1 PBq, or about 42% of the estimated Chernobyl emission. Our results indicate that 137Cs emissions peaked on 14–15 March but were generally high from 12 until 19 March, when they suddenly dropped by orders of magnitude exactly when spraying of

  15. Methodology for prediction and estimation of consequences of possible atmospheric releases of hazardous matter: 'Kursk' submarine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There are objects with some periods of higher than normal levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases (nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.. Such accidents or events may occur due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts, and during transportation of waste or various operations at high risk. A methodology for risk assessment is suggested and it includes two approaches: 1 probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport patterns using long-term trajectory and dispersion modelling, and 2 forecast and evaluation of possible contamination and consequences for the environment and population using operational dispersion modelling. The first approach could be applied during the preparation stage, and the second - during the operation stage. The suggested methodology is applied on an example of the most important phases (lifting, transportation, and decommissioning of the ``Kursk" nuclear submarine operation. It is found that the temporal variability of several probabilistic indicators (fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance, maximum possible impact zone, and average integral concentration of 137Cs showed that the fall of 2001 was the most appropriate time for the beginning of the operation. These indicators allowed to identify the hypothetically impacted geographical regions and territories. In cases of atmospheric transport toward the most populated areas, the forecasts of possible consequences during phases of the high and medium potential risk levels based on a unit hypothetical release (e.g. 1 Bq are performed. The analysis showed that the possible deposition fractions of 10-11 (Bq/m2 over the Kola Peninsula, and 10-12 - 10-13 (Bq/m2 for the remote areas of the Scandinavia and Northwest Russia could be observed. The suggested methodology may be used successfully for any potentially dangerous object involving risk of atmospheric release of hazardous materials of nuclear, chemical or biological nature.

  16. Ruthenium release modelling in air and steam atmospheres under severe accident conditions using the MAAP4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We developed a new modelling of fuel oxidation and ruthenium release in the EDF version of the MAAP4 code. ► We validated this model against some VERCORS experiments. ► Ruthenium release prediction quantitatively and qualitatively well reproduced under air and steam atmospheres. - Abstract: In a nuclear power plant (NPP), a severe accident is a low probability sequence that can lead to core fusion and fission product (FP) release to the environment (source term). For instance during a loss-of-coolant accident, water vaporization and core uncovery can occur due to decay heat. These phenomena enhance core degradation and, subsequently, molten materials can relocate to the lower head of the vessel. Heat exchange between the debris and the vessel may cause its rupture and air ingress. After lower head failure, steam and air entering in the vessel can lead to degradation and oxidation of materials that are still intact in the core. Indeed, Zircaloy-4 cladding oxidation is very exothermic and fuel interaction with the cladding material can decrease its melting temperature by several hundred of Kelvin. FP release can thus be increased, noticeably that of ruthenium under oxidizing conditions. Ruthenium is of particular interest because of its high radio-toxicity due to 103Ru and 106Ru isotopes and its ability to form highly volatile compounds, even at room temperature, such as gaseous ruthenium tetra-oxide (RuO4). It is consequently of great need to understand phenomena governing steam and air oxidation of the fuel and ruthenium release as prerequisites for the source term issues. A review of existing data on these phenomena shows relatively good understanding. In terms of oxygen affinity, the fuel is oxidized before ruthenium, from UO2 to UO2+x. Its oxidation is a rate-controlling surface exchange reaction with the atmosphere, so that the stoichiometric deviation and oxygen partial pressure increase. High temperatures combined with the presence of

  17. Atmospheric PM and volatile organic compounds released from Mediterranean shrubland wildfires

    OpenAIRE

    García Hurtado, Elisa; Pey, Jorge; Borrás, Esther; Sánchez, Pilar; Vera, Teresa; Carratalá, Adoración; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Vallejo, V. Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires produce a significant release of gases and particles affecting climate and air quality. In the Mediterranean region, shrublands significantly contribute to burned areas and may show specific emission profiles. Our objective was to depict and quantify the primary-derived aerosols and precursors of secondary particulate species released during shrubland experimental fires, in which fire-line intensity values were equivalent to those of moderate shrubland wildfires, by using a number o...

  18. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 3. Routine Releases, 1973 - 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Annual mean concentrations of tritium in air moisture, calculated from data obtained from an air tritium sampler near the LLNL Discovery Center, were compared with annual mean air moisture concentrations predicted from atmospheric releases of tritium for the years 1973 through 2005. The 95% confidence intervals on the predictions and observations usually overlapped. When the distributions of predictions and observations were different, predictions were higher. Using both the observed and predicted air concentrations as input to the tritium dose model, DCART, annual doses to a hypothetical adult, child (age 10) and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) assumed to be living at LLNL's Discovery Center were calculated. Although the doses based on predicted air concentrations tended to be higher, they were nevertheless indistinguishable from doses based on observed air concentrations when uncertainties were taken into account. Annual doses, calculated by DCART and based on observed and predicted air concentrations, were compared with historical tritium doses reported annually by LLNL. Although the historical doses were calculated using various assumptions over the years, their agreement with the DCART predictions is remarkable. The Discovery Center was not the location of the site-wide maximally exposed individual (SWMEI) from 1974 through 1978. However, doses at the location of the SW-MEI for those years were indistinguishable from those at the Discovery Center when uncertainties were taken into account. The upper confidence limits for all doses were always well below the current regulatory limit for dose to a member of the public (100 {micro}Sv or 10 mrem per year) from atmospheric releases (40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H). Based on observed air concentrations, the 97.5% confidence limit on the cumulative dose to the hypothetical person born in 1973 and living through 2005 at the Discovery Center was 150 {micro}Sv (15 mrem), while that of the hypothetical adult who spent

  19. Detailed source term estimation of atmospheric release during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, Genki; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Ota, Masakazu; Nagai, Haruyasu; Kajino, Mizuo

    2014-05-01

    Temporal variations of release amounts of radionuclides during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident and their dispersion process are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. Here, we estimated a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data and coupling atmospheric and oceanic dispersion simulations by WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN developed by the authors. New schemes for wet, dry, and fog depositions of radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (I-131, Te-132, Cs-137, and Cs-134) were incorporated into WSPEEDI-II. The deposition calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data of ocean dispersion calculations by SEA-GEARN. The reverse estimation method based on the simulation by both models assuming unit release rate (1 Bq h-1) was adopted to estimate the source term at the FNPP1 using air dose rate, and air sea surface concentrations. The results suggested that the major release of radionuclides from the FNPP1 occurred in the following periods during March 2011: afternoon on the 12th when the venting and hydrogen explosion occurred at Unit 1, morning on the 13th after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight on the 14th when several openings of SRV (steam relief valve) were conducted at Unit 2, morning and night on the 15th, and morning on the 16th. The modified WSPEEDI-II using the newly estimated source term well reproduced local and regional patterns of air dose rate and surface deposition of I-131 and Cs-137 obtained by airborne observations. Our dispersion simulations also revealed that the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPP1 were created from 15th to 16th March by complicated interactions among rainfall (wet deposition), plume movements, and phase properties (gas or particle) of I-131 and release rates

  20. Xenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011, an earthquake occurred about 130 km off the Pacific coast of Japan's main island Honshu, followed by a large tsunami. The resulting loss of electric power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant developed into a disaster causing massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. In this study, we determine the emissions into the atmosphere of two isotopes, the noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe and the aerosol-bound caesium-137 (137Cs, which have very different release characteristics as well as behavior in the atmosphere. To determine radionuclide emissions as a function of height and time until 20 April, we made a first guess of release rates based on fuel inventories and documented accident events at the site. This first guess was subsequently improved by inverse modeling, which combined it with the results of an atmospheric transport model, FLEXPART, and measurement data from several dozen stations in Japan, North America and other regions. We used both atmospheric activity concentration measurements as well as, for 137Cs, measurements of bulk deposition. Regarding 133Xe, we find a total release of 15.3 (uncertainty range 12.2–18.3 EBq, which is more than twice as high as the total release from Chernobyl and likely the largest radioactive noble gas release in history. The entire noble gas inventory of reactor units 1–3 was set free into the atmosphere between 11 and 15 March 2011. In fact, our release estimate is higher than the entire estimated 133Xe inventory of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, which we explain with the decay of iodine-133 (half-life of 20.8 h into 133Xe. There is strong evidence that the 133Xe release started before the first active venting was made, possibly indicating structural damage to reactor components and/or leaks due to overpressure which would have allowed early release of noble gases. For 137

  1. Atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides released after the Fukushima Dai-chi accident and resulting effective dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Giuseppe A.

    2014-09-01

    On 11 March 2011 an earthquake off the Pacific coast of the Fukushima prefecture generated a tsunami that hit Fukushima Dai-ichi and Fukushima Da-ini Nuclear Power Plants. From 12 March a significant amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere and dispersed worldwide. Among the most abundant radioactive species released were iodine and cesium isotopes. By means of an atmospheric dispersion Lagrangian code and publicly available meteorological data, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs have been simulated for three months after the event with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° globally. The simulation has been validated by comparison to publicly available measurements collected in 206 locations worldwide. Sensitivity analysis shows that release height of the radionuclides, wet deposition velocity, and source term are the parameters with the most impact on the simulation results. The simulation shows that the radioactive plume, consisting of about 200 PBq by adding contributions from 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, has been transported over the entire northern hemisphere depositing up to 1.2 MBq m-2 nearby the NPPs to less than 20 Bq m-2 in Europe. The consequent effective dose to the population over a 50-year period, calculated by considering both external and internal pathways of exposure, is found to be about 40 mSv in the surroundings of Fukushima Dai-ichi, while other countries in the northern hemisphere experienced doses several orders of magnitude lower suggesting a small impact on the population health elsewhere.

  2. Reservoir water level drawdown as a novel, substantial, and manageable control on methane release to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J.; Deemer, B. R.; Birchfield, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs constitute a globally important source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Although it is reasonably well-established that hydrostatic and barometric pressure can influence rates of CH4 release from lake and tidal sediments, the relationship between water-level manipulation and CH4 release from man-made impoundments has not been quantified or characterized. Furthermore, cross-system controls on CH4 production and release to the atmosphere have not been established. We collected CH4 emission (diffusion and ebullition) data for 8 reservoirs in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that are subject to a range of trophic conditions and water level management regimes. Our aim was to: (1) characterize CH4 emissions from these systems, and (2) quantify effects of water level management and eutrophication on CH4 fluxes. Results indicate very high fluxes, in some cases the highest reported reservoir emission rates, and a strong correspondence between lake level reduction and CH4 emissions, including quantitatively important bursts of CH4 bubbling. In one reservoir, drawdown-associated CH4 fluxes accounted for over 25% of annual CH4 emissions in a period of just 16 days (4% of the year). Average CH4 ebullition rates in a reservoir managed for hydropower peaking were nearly three-fold higher than in a paired upstream reservoir managed to maintain a constant water level (528 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and 187 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 respectively). Highest gas fluxes were observed during the water level drawdown component of the hydropower peaking cycle (14.3 g CH4 m-2 d-1). In addition we observe a strong, positive relationship between eutrophication (as indicated by surface Chl a concentrations) and CH4 production (r2 = 0.88; Pcontrolling nutrient loading may reduce greenhouse gas fluxes from surface waters to the atmosphere.

  3. ACCI38 XL 2: a useful tool for dose assessment in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of its assignments in the field of nuclear risks, the French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) develops tools to assess the impact of nuclear facilities on their environment and surrounding populations. The code ACCI38 XL 2 is a tool dedicated to the assessment of integrated concentrations in the environment and of dosimetric consequences on man, in case of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides (up to 170 radionuclides). This code is widely used by IRSN for studies on accidents, mainly for the analysis of regulatory documents from nuclear operators. The aim of this communication is to present the main features of the model used in the code ACCI38 XL 2, and to give details about the code. After a general presentation of the model, a detailed description of atmospheric dispersion, transfer in the environment and radiological impact is given. Then, some information on parameters and limitations of the model and the code are presented

  4. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks caused by radioactive fallout released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, radionuclide like 137Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and Chernobyl disaster has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137Cs and the related health risks to Japanese caused by chronic global radioactive food contamination from 1945 to 2010 were evaluated by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The results of this evaluation can show a background situation before Fukushima disaster and give important information for the risk assessment of this disaster. (author)

  5. Development of a model of atmospheric oxygen variations to estimate terrestrial carbon storage and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Raymond G.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Erickson, David J., III

    1995-01-01

    Two years of work has been completed towards the development of a model of atmospheric oxygen variations on seasonal to decadal timescales. During the first year we (1) constructed a preliminary monthly-mean climatology of surface ocean oxygen anomalies, (2) began modeling studies to assess the importance of short term variability on the monthly-mean oxygen flux, and (3) conducted preliminary simulations of the annual mean cycle of oxygen in the atmosphere. Most of the second year was devoted to improving the monthly mean climatology of oxygen in the surface ocean.

  6. Dose calculation for atmospheric releases from a nuclear accident using RAMS/HYPACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the investigation of uncertainties in the structure of the atmospheric dispersion/deposition model used in the probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR. To investigate these uncertainties, we have introduced the more sophisticated computer codes, RAMS and HYPACT, which were widely used in the research field of atmospheric phenomena. In this work, the capabilities of the HYPACT model were extended for use in accident consequence assessments. The preliminary comparison between the predictions by OSCAAR and those by RAMS/HYPACT were conducted for both individual and collective consequences in terms of probabilistic results. (author)

  7. MISTRAL V1.1.1: assessing doses from atmospheric releases in normal and off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting the environment and the public from radioactive and chemical hazards has always been a top priority for all companies operating in the nuclear domain. In this scope, SGN provides all the services the nuclear industry needs in environmental studies especially in relation to the impact assessment in normal operating conditions and risk assessment in off-normal conditions. In order to quantify dose impact on members of the public due to atmospheric releases, COGEMA and SGN developed MISTRAL V1.1.1 code. Dose impact depends strongly on dispersion of radionuclides in atmosphere. The main parameters involved in dispersion characterization are wind velocity and direction, rain, diffusion conditions, coordinates of the point of observation and stack elevation. MISTRAL code implements DOURY and PASQUILL Gaussian plume models which are widely used in the scientific community. These models, applicable for distances of transfer ranging from 100 m up to 30 km, are used to calculate atmospheric concentration and deposit at different distances from the point of release. MISTRAL allows the use of different dose regulations or dose coefficient databases such as: - ICRP30 and ICPR71 for internal doses (inhalation, ingestion) - Despres/Kocher database or US-EPA Federal Guidance no.12 (ICPR72 for noble gases) for external exposure (from plume or ground). The initial instant of the release can be considered as the origin of time or a date format can be specified (could be useful in a crisis context). While the context is specified, the user define the meteorological conditions of the release. In normal operating mode (routine releases), the user gives the annual meteorological scheme. The data can be recorded in the MISTRAL meteorological database. In off-normal conditions mode, MISTRAL V1.1 allows the use of successive release stages for which the user gives the duration, the meteorological conditions, that is to say stability class, wind speed and direction and rainfall

  8. MISTRAL V1.1.1: assessing doses from atmospheric releases in normal and off-normal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kerouanton [AREVA/SGN/DMI/ECR (France); Patrick Devin [AREVA/COGEMA/D3S/IG (France); Malvina Rennesson [AREVA/COGEMA/BUT/DQSSE (France)

    2006-07-01

    Protecting the environment and the public from radioactive and chemical hazards has always been a top priority for all companies operating in the nuclear domain. In this scope, SGN provides all the services the nuclear industry needs in environmental studies especially in relation to the impact assessment in normal operating conditions and risk assessment in off-normal conditions. In order to quantify dose impact on members of the public due to atmospheric releases, COGEMA and SGN developed MISTRAL V1.1.1 code. Dose impact depends strongly on dispersion of radionuclides in atmosphere. The main parameters involved in dispersion characterization are wind velocity and direction, rain, diffusion conditions, coordinates of the point of observation and stack elevation. MISTRAL code implements DOURY and PASQUILL Gaussian plume models which are widely used in the scientific community. These models, applicable for distances of transfer ranging from 100 m up to 30 km, are used to calculate atmospheric concentration and deposit at different distances from the point of release. MISTRAL allows the use of different dose regulations or dose coefficient databases such as: - ICRP30 and ICPR71 for internal doses (inhalation, ingestion) - Despres/Kocher database or US-EPA Federal Guidance no.12 (ICPR72 for noble gases) for external exposure (from plume or ground). The initial instant of the release can be considered as the origin of time or a date format can be specified (could be useful in a crisis context). While the context is specified, the user define the meteorological conditions of the release. In normal operating mode (routine releases), the user gives the annual meteorological scheme. The data can be recorded in the MISTRAL meteorological database. In off-normal conditions mode, MISTRAL V1.1 allows the use of successive release stages for which the user gives the duration, the meteorological conditions, that is to say stability class, wind speed and direction and rainfall

  9. Investigation and calculation on the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides release from Ninh Thuan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric dispersion model can be applied to forecast and evaluate the distribution of pollutant concentrations in ambient air by one or more fixed sources causing in the surrounding area. Besides, to obtain the transport parameters in air environment, we have collected aerosols and fallout samples in Phan Rang meteorological stations in the period from 7/2010 to 5/2011. From the data on the concentration and density of deposition of radioactive isotopes obtained in Phan Rang, wet/dry deposition velocities and washout ratio were calculated to provide input data for dispersion models. The regional meteorological, topography data and technological parameters of the plant emissions along with the transport parameters of radioactive isotopes is the key input data for dispersion models. Atmospheric dispersion modeling with various atmospheric stability classes, viz., Pasquill categories A-F, and ORION-WIN and CALPUFF computer codes have been investigated and applied to take part in resolving the environmental pollution problem. The artificial radionuclide concentration data of the air parcel at the ground were calculated surrounding Ninh Thuan nuclear power plant (1000 MW power, 150 m stack height) at the prevailing wind directions in both dry and rainy seasons. The obtained results show that the distance in which the radionuclide concentrations of the air parcel at the ground reached maximum were estimated by using the atmospheric dispersion modeling to be about 1.5-1.8 km from the plant stack. (author)

  10. Atmospheric Rawinsonde and Pigeon Release Data Implicate Infrasound as the Long- Range Map Cue in Avian Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J. T.

    2007-12-01

    Pigeons ( Columba livia) and other birds released from distant familiar and unfamiliar sites generally head in the homeward (loft) direction, but often vanish from view or radio contact consistently off the exact homeward bearing. At some sites the deviation can be a significant and stable amount, while at other sites birds can appear to become completely lost and depart in random directions. These deviations or biases can change from hour to hour, day to day, and year to year, but have not, over the last ~50 years of intensive research, been related to any atmospheric factor. They are, however, still considered to reflect significant irregularities in the pigeons' "map" function. Celestial and geomagnetic "compasses" have been shown to orient avian flight, but how pigeons determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing remains controversial. At present the debate is primarily between workers advocating an olfactory "map" and those advocating variations in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field as map functions. Alternatively, infrasonic cues can travel 1000s of km in the atmosphere with little attenuation, and can be detected in the laboratory by pigeons at frequencies down to 0.05 Hz. Although infrasound has been considered as a navigational tool for homing and migratory birds, little supporting evidence of its use has been found. Infrasonic ray paths in the atmosphere are controlled primarily by temperature and secondarily by wind. Assuming birds use infrasonic cues, atmospheric conditions could cause the perplexing changes (both geographic and temporal) observed in the mean vanishing bearings (MVBs) of pigeons released from experimental sites. To test for correlations between MVBs and tropospheric conditions, release data collected by the late W.T. Keeton between 1968 and 1980 from around the Cornell University lofts in upstate NY are compared to rawinsonde data from stations near Buffalo and Albany. For example, birds

  11. Screening models for releases of radionuclides to atmosphere, surface water, and ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report is intended to meet the need identified in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements'(NCRP) Report No. 76, Radiological Assessment: Predicting the Transport, Bioaccumulation, and Uptake by Man of Radionuclides Released to the Environment, for simple, authoritative, screening techniques to address releases of radioactive materials to the environment. ''Screening models,'' as originally envisioned and documented in NCRP Report No. 76, are defined as models requiring a few simple multiplicative calculations and a minimum of site-specific data and decisions by the user. This technique can be used to demonstrate compliance with environmental dose limits or other administratively-set reference levels. Screening models consolidate many steps in environmental transport and dosimetry, and apply assumptions and model parameters that attempt to deliberately overestimate the dose to people. Thus, if compliance can be demonstrated with these techniques, it is generally understood that no further complex calculations are needed

  12. Determination of radiation doses caused by release into the atmosphere by nuclear power plants, based on measurement of emission and immission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation impact of nuclear facilities, and the nuclear power plants as well, can be determined by using two methods. The first one calculates the dose of critical group of population based on the release, meteorological and hydrological parameters. The second method gives an estimate of the additional dose caused by the nuclear facility from the radiological measurements in the environment. This article compares this two methods for the release in the atmosphere, and gives an estimate of the relative error. The comparison can be applied for cases when the atmospheric pollution is released from a point type source, so for the conventional power plants as well. (author)

  13. Integrated Codes for Estimating Environmental Accumulation and Individual Dose from Past Hanford Atmospheric Releases: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikenberry, T. A.; Burnett, R. A.; Napier, B. A.; Reitz, N. A.; Shipler, D. B.

    1992-02-01

    Preliminary radiation doses were estimated and reported during Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. As the project has progressed, additional information regarding the magnitude and timing of past radioactive releases has been developed, and the general scope of the required calculations has been enhanced. The overall HEDR computational model for computing doses attributable to atmospheric releases from Hanford Site operations is called HEDRIC (Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes). It consists of four interrelated models: source term, atmospheric transport, environmental accumulation, and individual dose. The source term and atmospheric transport models are documented elsewhere. This report describes the initial implementation of the design specifications for the environmental accumulation model and computer code, called DESCARTES (Dynamic EStimates of Concentrations and Accumulated Radionuclides in Terrestrial Environments), and the individual dose model and computer code, called CIDER (Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides). The computations required of these models and the design specifications for their codes were documented in Napier et al. (1992). Revisions to the original specifications and the basis for modeling decisions are explained. This report is not the final code documentation but gives the status of the model and code development to date. Final code documentation is scheduled to be completed in FY 1994 following additional code upgrades and refinements. The user's guide included in this report describes the operation of the environmental accumulation and individual dose codes and associated pre- and post-processor programs. A programmer's guide describes the logical structure of the programs and their input and output files.

  14. Atmospheric PM and volatile organic compounds released from Mediterranean shrubland wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hurtado, Elisa; Pey, Jorge; Borrás, Esther; Sánchez, Pilar; Vera, Teresa; Carratalá, Adoración; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Vallejo, V. Ramon

    2014-06-01

    Wildfires produce a significant release of gases and particles affecting climate and air quality. In the Mediterranean region, shrublands significantly contribute to burned areas and may show specific emission profiles. Our objective was to depict and quantify the primary-derived aerosols and precursors of secondary particulate species released during shrubland experimental fires, in which fire-line intensity values were equivalent to those of moderate shrubland wildfires, by using a number of different methodologies for the characterization of organic and inorganic compounds in both gas-phase and particulate-phase. Emissions of PM mass, particle number concentrations and organic and inorganic PMx components during flaming and smouldering phases were characterized in a field shrubland fire experiment. Our results revealed a clear prevalence of K+ and SO42- as inorganic ions released during the flaming-smouldering processes, accounting for 68-80% of the inorganic soluble fraction. During the residual-smouldering phases, in addition to K+ and SO42-, Ca2+ was found in significant amounts probably due the predominance of re-suspension processes (ashes and soil dust) over other emission sources during this stage. Concerning organic markers, the chromatograms were dominated by phenols, n-alkanals and n-alkanones, as well as by alcohol biomarkers in all the PMx fractions investigated. Levoglucosan was the most abundant degradation compound with maximum emission factors between 182 and 261 mg kg-1 in PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. However, levoglucosan was also observed in significant amounts in the gas-phase. The most representative organic volatile constituents in the smoke samples were alcohols, carbonyls, acids, monocyclic and bicyclic arenes, isoprenoids and alkanes compounds. The emission factors obtained in this study may contribute to the validation and improvement of national and international emission inventories of this intricate and diffuse emission source.

  15. Radiological consequences of atmospheric releases from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the individual and collective doses resulting from radioactive materials contained in the stack releases of coal-fired power plants. A critical analysis of relevant calculations in literature is given. The different reports analyzed show a very wide range in calculated doses. To a great extent these differences may be explained by the wide range in the assumptions adopted. There is also disagreement on what exposure pathways are the most important, and what nuclides contribute most to calculated doses. A most probable value of 0.5 mrem/year for the maximum individual effective dose equivalent commitment, is indicated in the report

  16. Tritium surface loading due to contamination of rainwater from atmospheric release at NAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual tritium (HTO) surface loading has been measured and calculated for the year 1998-99 within 0.8 km distance from 145m high stack of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) at eight locations in different directions. The technique for measured values consists of the summation of product of tritium concentration (Bq/l) in daily rainfall samples and daily rainfall (mm) whereas that for calculated values having the use of prevailing meteorological conditions and average tritium release rate during a year. The ratios of measured and calculated values of tritium surface loading during the years 1998-99 are found to be in the range of 0.18 to 6.97. Tritium surface loading studies at NAPS reveal that a fraction 1.7E-03 of total annual tritium released through stack gets deposited on the surface due to washout / rainout of plume within 0.8 km radial distance from stack. The range of deposition velocity, V w (m.s-1) i.e the ratio of annual tritium surface loading W(Bq.m-2.s-1) and annual mean tritium concentration in air, χo(Bq.m-3) at three locations for the years 1998-99 is found to be 5.59E-04 to 5.99E-03 ms-1. The average value for wet deposition velocity V barw for NAPS site is estimated as 2.92E-03 m.s-1. (author)

  17. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Water in the Martian Atmosphere and Released from Rocknest Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshin, L. A.; Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Flesh, G. J.; Christensen, L. E.; Stern, J. C.; Franz, H. B.; McAdam, A. C.; Niles, P. B.; Archer, P. B., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Jones, J. H.; Ming, D. W.; Atreya, S. K.; Owen, T. C.; Conrad, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover sampled the aeolian bedform called Rocknest as its first solid samples to be analyzed by the analytical instruments CheMin and SAM. The instruments ingested aliquots from a sieved sample of less than 150 micrometer grains. As discussed in other reports at this conference [e.g., 1], CheMin discovered many crystalline phases, almost all of which are igneous minerals, plus some 10s of percent of x-ray amorphous material. The SAM instrument is focused on understanding volatiles and possible organics in the fines, performing evolved gas analysis (EGA) with the SAM quadrapole mass spectrometer (QMS), isotope measurements using both the QMS and the tunable laser spectrometer (TLS), which is sensitive to CO2, water and methane, and organics with the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). As discussed in the abstract by Franz et al. [2] and others, EGA of Rocknest fines revealed the presence of significant amounts of H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing materials. SAM has also tasted the martian atmosphere several times, analyzing the volatiles in both the TLS and QMS [e.g., 3,4]. This abstract will focus on presentation of initial hydrogen isotopic data from the TLS for Rocknest soils and the atmosphere, and their interpretation. Data for CO2 isotopes and O isotopes in water are still being reduced, but should be available by at the conference.

  18. Towards the operational estimation of a radiological plume using data assimilation after a radiological accidental atmospheric release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarek, Victor; Vira, Julius; Bocquet, Marc; Sofiev, Mikhail; Saunier, Olivier

    2011-06-01

    In the event of an accidental atmospheric release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, accurate real-time forecasting of the activity concentrations of radionuclides is required by the decision makers for the preparation of adequate countermeasures. The accuracy of the forecast plume is highly dependent on the source term estimation. On several academic test cases, including real data, inverse modelling and data assimilation techniques were proven to help in the assessment of the source term. In this paper, a semi-automatic method is proposed for the sequential reconstruction of the plume, by implementing a sequential data assimilation algorithm based on inverse modelling, with a care to develop realistic methods for operational risk agencies. The performance of the assimilation scheme has been assessed through the intercomparison between French and Finnish frameworks. Two dispersion models have been used: Polair3D and Silam developed in two different research centres. Different release locations, as well as different meteorological situations are tested. The existing and newly planned surveillance networks are used and realistically large multiplicative observational errors are assumed. The inverse modelling scheme accounts for strong error bias encountered with such errors. The efficiency of the data assimilation system is tested via statistical indicators. For France and Finland, the average performance of the data assimilation system is strong. However there are outlying situations where the inversion fails because of a too poor observability. In addition, in the case where the power plant responsible for the accidental release is not known, robust statistical tools are developed and tested to discriminate candidate release sites.

  19. OBT/HTO ratio in agricultural produce subject to routine atmospheric releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mean expected value of the OBT/HTO ratio (i.e. generic ratio) is derived in this study on the joint basis of a long-term study conducted at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), model simulations targeted at filling gaps in a yet incomplete timeline of CRL measurements and a reference dataset comprised of numerous experiments reported in the literature. Cultivar variability and disparity in site-specific settings are covered by the reference dataset. Dynamical variability caused by meteorology has been a specific target of the long-term experimental campaign at CRL, where the former two types of variability were eliminated. The distribution of OBT/HTO ratios observed at CRL appears to be a fairly good match to the distribution of OBT/HTO ratios from the literature. This implies that dynamical variability appears important in both cases. Dynamics of atmospheric HTO at CRL is comprised of a sequence of episodes of atmospheric HTO uptake and re-emission of plant HTO. The OBT/HTO ratio appears sensitive to the proportion of the duration of these two episodes: the lesser the frequency (and duration) of plume arrivals, the higher the expected mean OBT/HTO ratio. With the plume arrival frequency defined by the typical wind rose, one would encounter a mean OBT/HTO ratio close to 2. It is important to note that this number is seen both in the reference dataset, and in the continuous timeline of HTO and OBT reconstructed from CRL observations by dynamical interpolation (modelling). Many datasets (including that of CRL) targeted at the OBT/HTO ratio are biased high compared to the suggested number. This could be explained by scarce measurements of the low OBT/HTO ratios in the short phase of uptake of atmospheric HTO by the plant. - Highlights: • Observed OBT/HTO is similarly distributed in reference dataset and CRL dataset. • Modeled OBT/HTO provided auxiliary data used in derivation of generic ratio. • Generic OBT/HTO ratio

  20. Dutch distribution zones of stable iodine tablets based on atmospheric dispersion modelling of accidental releases from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid administration of stable iodine is essential for the saturation and subsequent protection of the thyroid gland against the potential harm caused by radio-iodines. This paper proposes the Dutch risk analysis that uses an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate the size of the zones around nuclear power plants where radiological thyroid doses for children might be sufficiently high to warrant iodine administration. Dose calculations for possible releases from the nuclear power plants of Borssele (The Netherlands), Doel (Belgium) and Emsland (Germany) are based on two scenarios in combination with a 1-y set of authentic, high-resolution meteorological data. The dimensions of the circular zones were defined for each nuclear power plant. In these zones, with a radius up to 50 km, distribution of stable iodine tablets is advised. (authors)

  1. Models for the evaluation of ingestion doses from the consumption of terrestrial foods following an atmospheric radioactive release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods are described which have been incorporated in the FOODWEB module of the CEGB's NECTAR environmental code and are currently being used within CEGB to assess ingestion doses from consumption of terrestrial foods following an atmospheric radioactive release. Four foodchain models which have been developed within CEGB are fully described and results of typical calculations presented. Also given are the results of a validation of the dynamic model against measured 90Sr and 137Cs levels in milk in the U.K. resulting from weapons fallout. Methods are also described for calculating individual and population doses from ingestion using the results of the model calculations. The population dose calculations utilise a data base describing the spatial distribution of production of a wide range of agricultural products. The development of such a data base for Great Britain is described, based on the 1972 land use and livestock census, and maps are presented for each agricultural product. (U.K.)

  2. International comparison of computer codes for modelling the dispersion and transfer of tritium released to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer codes for modelling the dispersion and transfer of tritium released to the atmosphere were compared. The codes originated from Canada, the United States, Sweden and Japan. The comparisons include acute and chronic emissions of tritiated water vapour or elemental tritium from a hypothetical nuclear facility. Individual and collective doses to the population within 100 km of the site were calculated. The discrepancies among the code predictions were about one order of magnitude for the HTO emissions but were significantly more varied for the HT emissions. Codes that did not account for HT to HTO conversion and cycling of tritium in the environment predicted doses that were several orders of magnitude less than codes that incorporate this feature into the model

  3. Tritium surface loading due to contamination of rainwater from atmospheric release at NAPS (2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual tritium (HTO) surface loading has been measured and calculated for the year 2011 within 0.8 km distance from 145 m high stack of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) at eight locations in different directions. The technique for measured values consists of the summation of product of tritium concentration (Bq/l) in daily rainfall samples and daily rainfall (mm). Tritium surface loading studies at NAPS reveal that a fraction 1.01E-03 of total annual tritium released through stack gets deposited on the surface due to washout/rainout of plume within 0.8 km radial distance from stack. The range of deposition velocity, Vw (m.s-1) i.e., the ratio of annual tritium surface loading W (Bq. m-2.s-1) and annual mean tritium concentration in air, c0(Bq.m-3) at three locations for the years 2011 is found to be 6.12E-04 to 2.89E-03. The average value for wet deposition velocity Vw for NAPS site is estimated as 3.17E-03 m.s-1. (author)

  4. Modeled concentrations in rice and ingestion doses from chronic atmospheric releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expansion of nuclear power programs in Asia has stimulated interest in the improved modeling of concentrations of tritium in rice, a staple crop grown throughout the far east. Normally, the specific activity model is used to calculate concentrations of tritium in the tissue water of edible plants to assess ingestion dose from chronic releases. However, because rice, like other grains, has much lower water content than most crops, the calculation must also account for organically bound tritium. This paper reviews ways to calculate steady-state concentrations of tritium in rice, including the methods of Canadian and US regulatory models, and the assumptions behind them. Concentrations in rice and resulting ingestion doses are compared for the various methods, and equations for calculating concentrations are recommended. The regulatory models underestimate doses received from ingestion of rice contaminated with tritium since they do not account explicitly for organically bound tritium. The importance of including organically bound tritium is illustrated in a comparison of doses from rice, leafy vegetables and milk for an Asian diet. Dose factors from tritium for these foods are estimated to be 135, 47, and 20 nSv y-1/(Bq m-3), respectively. Assuming known air concentrations, tritium concentrations in rice, calculated with the recommended equations, are uncertain by less than a factor 2 when tritium concentrations in the rice paddy water are known, and by less than a factor of 2.3 when concentrations in paddy water are unknown

  5. HARAD: a computer code for calculating daughter concentrations in air following the atmospheric release of a parent radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HARAD computer code, written in FORTRAN IV, calculates concentrations of radioactive daughters in air following the atmospheric release of a parent radionuclide under a variety of meteorological conditions. It can be applied most profitably to the assessment of doses to man from the noble gases such as 222Rn, 220Rn, and Xe and Kr isotopes. These gases can produce significant quantities of short-lived particulate daughters in an airborne plume, which are the major contributors to dose from these chains with gaseous parent radionuclides. The simultaneous processes of radioactive decay, buildup, and environmental losses through wet and dry deposition on ground surfaces are calculated for a daughter chain in an airborne plume as it is dispersed downwind from a point of release of a parent. The code employs exact solutions of the differential equations describing the above processes over successive discrete segments of downwind distance. Average values for the dry deposition coefficients of the chain members over each of these distance segments were treated as constants in the equations. The advantage of HARAD is its short computing time

  6. Numerical simulation of atmospheric dispersion and high radiological dose zone due to accidental releases from Fukushima Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric dispersion calculations are made for the accidental releases of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) using a weather model coupled Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-WRF in a 30 km range to understand the formation of high radiation impact zone on the land region near to the FDNPP. The period during 11-17 March 2011 is considered for the study with the available source term estimates for 137Cs, 134Cs and 113I released during the accident. Simulated high resolution (1km) flow field with nested WRF model was largely westerly from 11 to 14 March. It has been found that the flow changed to northeasterly, easterly and southeasterly on 15 March under the influence of a low pressure and precipitation occurred on 15 March. Dispersion simulations showed the plume moved in a clockwise direction from Pacific Ocean to the land region to the northwest sector of Fukushima resulting in large activity depositions in that sector. The simulations show depositions of 106 to 108 Bq/m2 for 131I and 134Cs; and air dose rates of 10 μSv/h to 100 μSv/h in a distance range of 20 km in the northwest sector of Fukushima prefecture. The model could simulate the observed spike in the instantaneous air dose and its time variation at off-site monitoring stations around the reactor in reasonable agreement with highest doses at Fukushima, Litate located in the northwest sector followed by other sectors. (author)

  7. Novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen: reduction of microbial-contaminants and OH radicals in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen has been developed. This device has specific properties such as (1) deactivation of airborne microbial-contaminants, (2) neutralization of indoor OH radicals and (3) being harmless to the human body. It consists of a ceramic plate as a positive ion generation electrode and a needle-shaped electrode as an electron emission electrode. Release of atomic hydrogen from the device has been investigated by the spectroscopic method. Optical emission of atomic hydrogen probably due to recombination of positive ions, H+(H2O)n, generated from the ceramic plate electrode and electrons emitted from the needle-shaped electrode have been clearly observed in the He gas (including water vapour) environment. The efficacy of the device to reduce airborne concentrations of influenza virus, bacteria, mould fungi and allergens has been evaluated. 99.6% of airborne influenza virus has been deactivated with the operation of the device compared with the control test in a 1 m3 chamber after 60 min. The neutralization of the OH radical has been investigated by spectroscopic and biological methods. A remarkable reduction of the OH radical in the air by operation of the device has been observed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The cell protection effects of the device against OH radicals in the air have been observed. Furthermore, the side effects have been checked by animal experiments. The harmlessness of the device has been confirmed

  8. Development of a dose assessment module in case of modeling of long range atmospheric transport of accidental releases from NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) is in operation in the Bulgarian National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology with Bulgarian Academy of sciences (NIMH-BAS) since 1995. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast and numerical long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, chemical and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The previous versions of this system were used and successfully tested during the ETEX experiments and a number of international and national exercises. In the present paper the further development of the system for calculation of a mixture of 31 radioactive gaseous and aerosol radioactive nuclides is described. The basic module of this system - the numerical dispersion model EMAP is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields for the essential radionuclides from the calculated by EMAP concentration and deposition fields. Testing of the system is performed simulating hypothetical accidental atmospheric releases with real meteorology in real time from real NPPs situated in Europe based on emission scenarios created for the basic reactor types being into operation in Europe. The effective doses from external irradiation, from air submersion and ground shinning, effective dose from inhalation and absorbed thyroid dose formed by the different radionuclides, significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident, are calculated as dose fields in the different case studies. The presented study is an important step in the development of the BERS by producing decision-ready output directed to enhancing the Bulgarian emergency preparedness in case of accidental releases. (author)

  9. Novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen: reduction of microbial-contaminants and OH radicals in the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Hideo; Park, Rae-Eun; Kwon, Jun-Hyoun; Suh, Inseon; Jeon, Junsang; Ha, Eunju; On, Hyeon-Ki; Kim, Hye-Ryung; Choi, Kyoung Hui; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Seong, Baik-Lin; Jung, Hoon; Kang, Shin Jung; Namba, Shinichi; Takiyama, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A novel atmospheric pressure plasma device releasing atomic hydrogen has been developed. This device has specific properties such as (1) deactivation of airborne microbial-contaminants, (2) neutralization of indoor OH radicals and (3) being harmless to the human body. It consists of a ceramic plate as a positive ion generation electrode and a needle-shaped electrode as an electron emission electrode. Release of atomic hydrogen from the device has been investigated by the spectroscopic method. Optical emission of atomic hydrogen probably due to recombination of positive ions, H+(H2O)n, generated from the ceramic plate electrode and electrons emitted from the needle-shaped electrode have been clearly observed in the He gas (including water vapour) environment. The efficacy of the device to reduce airborne concentrations of influenza virus, bacteria, mould fungi and allergens has been evaluated. 99.6% of airborne influenza virus has been deactivated with the operation of the device compared with the control test in a 1 m3 chamber after 60 min. The neutralization of the OH radical has been investigated by spectroscopic and biological methods. A remarkable reduction of the OH radical in the air by operation of the device has been observed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The cell protection effects of the device against OH radicals in the air have been observed. Furthermore, the side effects have been checked by animal experiments. The harmlessness of the device has been confirmed.

  10. Development of a code to simulate dispersion of atmospheric released tritium gas in the environmental media and to evaluate doses. TRIDOSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code (TRIDOSE) was developed to assess the environmental impact of atmospheric released tritium gas (T2) from nuclear fusion related facilities. The TRIDOSE simulates dispersion of T2 and resultant HTO in the atmosphere, land, plant, water and foods in the environment, and evaluates contamination concentrations in the media and exposure doses. A part of the mathematical models in TRIDOSE were verified by comparison of the calculation with the results of the short range (400 m) dispersion experiment of HT gas performed in Canada postulating a short-time (30 minutes) accidental release. (author)

  11. Development of a code to simulate dispersion of atmospheric released tritium gas in the environmental media and to evaluate doses. TRIDOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Mikio [Nuclear Engineering Co., Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Sumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-11-01

    A computer code (TRIDOSE) was developed to assess the environmental impact of atmospheric released tritium gas (T{sub 2}) from nuclear fusion related facilities. The TRIDOSE simulates dispersion of T{sub 2} and resultant HTO in the atmosphere, land, plant, water and foods in the environment, and evaluates contamination concentrations in the media and exposure doses. A part of the mathematical models in TRIDOSE were verified by comparison of the calculation with the results of the short range (400 m) dispersion experiment of HT gas performed in Canada postulating a short-time (30 minutes) accidental release. (author)

  12. An Experimental Field Dataset with Buoyant, Neutral, and Dense Gas Atmospheric Releases and Model Comparisons in Low-Wind Speed (Diffusion) Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronica E. Wannberg, Gustavious Williams, Patrick Sawyer, and Richard Venedam

    2010-09-01

    Aunique field dataset from a series of low–wind speed experiments, modeling efforts using three commonly used models to replicate these releases, and statistical analysis of how well these models were able to predict the plume concentrations is presented. The experiment was designed to generate a dataset to describe the behavior of gaseous plumes under low-wind conditions and the ability of current, commonly used models to predict these movements. The dataset documents the release and transport of three gases: ammonia (buoyant), ethylene (neutral), and propylene (dense) in low–wind speed (diffusion) conditions. Release rates ranged from 1 to 20 kg h21. Ammonia and ethylene had five 5-min releases each to represent puff releases and five 20-min releases each to represent plume releases. Propylene had five 5-min puffs, six 20-min plumes, and a single 30-min plume. Thirty-two separate releases ranging from 6 to 47 min were conducted, of which only 30 releases generated useful data. The data collected included release rates, atmospheric concentrations to 100 m from the release point, and local meteorological conditions. The diagnostics included nine meteorological stations on 100-m centers and 36 photoionization detectors in a radial pattern. Three current stateof- the-practice models, Aerial locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Emergency Prediction Information code (EPIcode), and Second-Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF), were used to try to duplicate the measured field results. Low wind speeds are difficult to model, and all of the models had difficulty replicating the field measurements. However, the work does show that these models, if used correctly, are conservative (overpredict concentrations) and can be used for safety and emergency planning.

  13. Description of the SAFRAN Model for Evaluation of Public Exposure Resulting from Accidental Release of Airborne Radioactive Materials into the Atmosphere and User’s Guide. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the method used in the SAFRAN tool for calculation of exposure arising from accidental release of airborne radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Model can be used for evaluation of public exposure to allow comparison with the relevant dose limiting criteria. The model is based on the public exposure evaluation concept as described in IAEA reports. While both these reports in primary addresses impacts arising from routine (e.g. long time permanent) releases, the concept employed can be adapted for assessment of impacts arising from accidental (e.g. short time) releases. Another source which has also been extensively used is the German Incident calculation bases

  14. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  15. Right Whale Sightings Advisory System (RWSAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Right Whale Sighting Advisory System (RWSAS) is a NOAA Fisheries program which was designed to reduce collisions between ships and the critically endangered...

  16. Experimental evaluation of gamma fluence-rate predictions from Argon-41 releases to the atmosphere over a nuclear research reactor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Palma, C.; Aage, H.K.; Astrup, P.;

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry wa...

  17. Inhibition of mercury release from forest soil by high atmospheric deposition of Ca²⁺ and SO₄²⁻.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yao; Duan, Lei; Xu, Guangyi; Hao, Jiming

    2015-09-01

    As one of the most important natural mercury (Hg) sources, soil release (emission to the atmosphere or leaching to soil water) depends on various factors, some of which can be affected by atmospheric deposition. We studied the effect of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) addition on soil Hg release in a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest in southwestern China. FGDG addition simulated atmospheric deposition of Ca(2+), SO4(2-) and Hg, which are commonly high in China. Results showed that Hg concentration in soil water decreased with the gypsum treatment, suggesting that the mobility of Hg in mineral soil was reduced. Moreover, the application of gypsum also seems to have decreased Hg emission from the soil, shown by the lower Hg contents in leaf tissues of ground vegetation in the treated plots than in the reference. Both Hg mobility in the soil and Hg emission to the atmosphere were decreased despite the additional Hg input from FGDG. The decreased DOC concentration in soil water and the elevated organic sulfur content in the soil Oe & Oa horizons were speculated to result in an enhanced capacity of surface soil to bind Hg, and thus to reduce Hg release from the soil. However, with the increasingly stringent control of particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, the deposition of Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) is expected to decrease, and their ability to inhibit soil Hg release is likely to decline in the future. PMID:25935601

  18. Correlation between hydrogen release and degradation of limestone concrete exposed to hot liquid sodium in inert atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Concrete is used as a structural material in a Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) plant for the construction of its foundation, containment, radiation shield and equipment support structures. An accidental leakage of hot sodium on these civil structures can bring about thermo-chemical reactions, with concrete producing hydrogen gas and causing structural degradation. The concrete damage and hydrogen generation take place concurrently due to conduction of heat from sodium into the concrete and migration of steam / moisture in counter current direction towards sodium. In a series of experiments conducted with limestone concrete for two different types of design corresponding to composition and geometry, were exposed to liquid sodium (∼2 kg) at initial temperatures varying from 180 deg. C to 500 deg. C in an inerted test vessel (Capacity = 203 L). Immersion heater was employed to heat the sodium pool on the concrete cavity during the test period in some test runs. On-line continuous measurement of pressure, temperature, hydrogen gas and oxygen gas was carried out. Pre- and post- test nondestructive testing such as colour photography, spatial profiling of ultrasonic pulse velocity and measurement of dimensions were also conducted. Solid samples were collected from sodium debris by manual core drilling machine and from concrete block by hand held electric drilling machine. These samples were subjected to chemical analysis for the determination of free and bound water along with unburnt and burnt sodium. The hydrogen generation parameters such as average and peak release rate as well as release efficiency are derived from measured test variables. These test variables include temperature, pressure and hydrogen concentration in the argon atmosphere contained in the test vessel. The concrete degradation parameters encompass percentage reduction in ultrasonic pulse velocity, depth of physical and chemical dehydration and sodium penetration. These

  19. Derived emergency reference levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the early and intermediate phases of accidental releases to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an unplanned release of radioactive material to atmosphere is identified or suspected, environmental survey teams under the direction of the operator of the nuclear installation are sent into the anticipated path of the plume of activity to make measurements and take samples. In the case of external dose, measurements can be easily related to projected doses to individual members of the public. However, the radiological interpretation of measurements of airborne activity concentrations, of activity levels on soil, pasture grass and crops, and of radionuclide levels in milk and drinking water requires the use of quantities which relate the appropriate environmental concentration to an implied dose. The derivation of these quantities is not a simple procedure, particularly when they are to be generally applicable. It involves interpretation of the primary dose criteria which have been established for planning the introduction of countermeasures, making assumptions about the habits of the group of people who could receive the highest doses, and using mathematical models to obtain a relationship between dose and activity concentrations in environmental materials. The paper describes recent work by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) to provide guidance on derived quantities for use in the United Kingdom (UK). While some of the numerical values obtained are specific to UK conditions, the methods and models are more generally applicable. (author)

  20. The utilization of real time models as a decision aid following a large release of radionuclides into the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, following the Chernobyl accident, the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) recommended, in Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-1, inter alia (recommendation B.2(10)), that ''the IAEA should develop technical guidance on the use of real-time models able to accept actual meteorological and radiological monitoring system data in predicting the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident for persons and the environment and in determining what protective measures are necessary''. 24 refs, 21 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn;

    2003-01-01

    that of the flavor detection threshold. An application study on the release of menthone and menthol from chewing gum by a group of six test persons was performed. Flavored chewing gum was used as a model matrix because of the long chewing periods and the simplicity of the system. It is concluded that...... the interface and the method can be used to measure breath from the nose. A mathematical model of the data was developed to give a quantitative method for description and characterization of the release of flavor compounds. The release profiles consisted of two sequences, one for a chewing period, and...

  2. 76 FR 11427 - National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee; Request for Nominations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Committee; Request for Nominations and Notice of Meeting AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Development and Advisory Committee; Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice requests nominations of qualified individuals for the National Climate Assessment Development and Advisory Committee (NCADAC)...

  3. 76 FR 66042 - Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES); Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... pay. Each nomination that is submitted should include the proposed committee member's name and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advisory Committee on Commercial Remote Sensing (ACCRES); Request for Nominations ACTION: Notice requesting nominations for the Advisory Committee on...

  4. Diffusion-type model of the global carbon cycle for the estimation of dose to the world population from releases of carbon-14 to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the exchange of carbon among the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, and ocean is described and applied to estimating the radiation dose to the world's population from the release of 14C to the atmosphere from the nuclear power industry. A computer implementation of the model, written in the IBM Continuous System Modeling Program III (CSMP III) simulation language, is presented. The model treats the ocean as a diffusive medium with respect to vertical transport of carbon, and the nonlinear variation of CO2 partial pressure with the total inorganic carbon concentration in surface waters is taken into account in calculating the transfer rate from ocean to atmosphere. Transfers between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere are represented by nonlinear equations which consider CO2 fertilization and impose a constraint on the ultimate total carbon mass in the biosphere

  5. Assessment of impact of a severe accident at nuclear power plant of Angra dos Reis with release of radionuclides to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study had as purpose the assess the impact of a severe accident, and also analyze the dispersion of 131I in the atmosphere, so that, through concentrating and inhaling dose of the plume, were possible to verify if the results are in accordance with the indicated data by the Plan of Emergency of the CNAAA regarding the Impact Zone and Control. This exercise was performed with the aid of an atmospheric model and a dispersion where to atmospheric modeling we used the data coupling WRF / CALMET and of dispersion, CALPUFF. The suggested accident consists of a Station Blackout at Nuclear Power of Angra (Unit 1), where through the total core involvement, will release 100% of the 131I to the atmosphere. The value of the total activity in the nucleus to this radionuclide is 7.44 x 1017 Bq, that is relative on the sixth day of burning. This activity will be released through the chimney at a rate in Bq/s in the scenario of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of release. Applying the model in the proposed scenario, it is verified that the plume has concentrations of the order of 1020 Bq/m³ and dose of about 108 Sv whose value is beyond of the presented by Eletronuclear in your current emergency plan. (author)

  6. Two standards - CSA-N288.1 and USNRC regulatory guides 1.109, 1.111 for chronic atmospheric releases from nuclear facilities - compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Canadian Standards Association's 'Guidelines for Calculating Derived Release Limits for Radioactive Material in Airborne and Liquid Effluents for Normal Operation of Nuclear Facilities', CSA-N288.1-M87 (CSA 1987) can be used to license CANDU (CANadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors sold off-shore, in practice purchasers may wish to use the United States Regulatory Guides (RG) 1.109 (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1977a) and 1.111 (USNRC 1977b) to calculate doses from routine atmospheric releases to members of a critical group. When differences in dose predictions are found between the two standards, CSA-N288.1 comes under attack. This paper explains the differences between the two models. The two atmospheric dispersion models were compared for a ground level release and an elevated release such as from CANDU 6. For a ground level release, CSA's dilution factors were slightly more than half of RG's. For the elevated release, following recommendations in each guide, CSA's dilution coefficient is higher than RG's within 1000 m of the stack and only slightly lower farther away. All differences can be accounted for by different mathematical formulations and assumptions about height at which wind speed is measured. Ingestion, inhalation, immersion and external doses predicted by the two models were compared for unit release (Bq s-1) and for realistic source terms of a suite of 33 radionuclides commonly released from both CANDUs and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). To demonstrate real differences in the models, ingestion doses for the two models were compared using the CSA diet in both models and CSA predictions were recalculated to account for decay which occurs between harvest and ingestion in RG. Once all assumptions are equalized, there is very little difference in dose predictions of the two models that cannot be explained by different parameter values. Both models have outdated dose conversion factors, and the use of improved numbers will

  7. Detailed source term estimation of the atmospheric release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident by coupling simulations of an atmospheric dispersion model with an improved deposition scheme and oceanic dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, G.; Chino, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Terada, H.; Ota, M.; Nagai, H.; Kajino, M.; Draxler, R.; Hort, M. C.; Malo, A.; Torii, T.; Sanada, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal variations in the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1) accident and their atmospheric and marine dispersion are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. In this paper, we estimate the detailed atmospheric releases during the accident using a reverse estimation method which calculates the release rates of radionuclides by comparing measurements of air concentration of a radionuclide or its dose rate in the environment with the ones calculated by atmospheric and oceanic transport, dispersion and deposition models. The atmospheric and oceanic models used are WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN-FDM (Finite difference oceanic dispersion model), both developed by the authors. A sophisticated deposition scheme, which deals with dry and fog-water depositions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation, and subsequent wet scavenging due to mixed-phase cloud microphysics (in-cloud scavenging) for radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (CsI, Cs, and Te), was incorporated into WSPEEDI-II to improve the surface deposition calculations. The results revealed that the major releases of radionuclides due to the FNPS1 accident occurred in the following periods during March 2011: the afternoon of 12 March due to the wet venting and hydrogen explosion at Unit 1, midnight of 14 March when the SRV (safety relief valve) was opened three times at Unit 2, the morning and night of 15 March, and the morning of 16 March. According to the simulation results, the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPS1 were created from 15 to 16 March by complicated interactions among rainfall, plume movements, and the temporal variation of release rates. The simulation by WSPEEDI-II using the new source term reproduced the local and regional patterns of cumulative

  8. Comparison of the COMRADEX-IV and AIRDOS-EPA methodologies for estimating the radiation dose to man from radionuclide releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a comparison between two computerized methodologies for estimating the radiation dose to man from radionuclide releases to the atmosphere. The COMRADEX-IV code was designed to provide a means of assessing potential radiological consequences from postulated power reactor accidents. The AIRDOS-EPA code was developed primarily to assess routine radionuclide releases from nuclear facilities. Although a number of different calculations are performed by these codes, three calculations are in common - atmospheric dispersion, estimation of internal dose from inhalation, and estimation of external dose from immersion in air containing gamma emitting radionuclides. The models used in these calculations were examined and found, in general, to be the same. Most differences in the doses calculated by the two codes are due to differences in values chosen for input parameters and not due to model differences. A sample problem is presented for illustration

  9. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity to the choice of atmospheric dispersion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR were assessed in a study published in 1977 (NRPB - R53). In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. The present study is concerned with the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to the choice of atmospheric dispersion models. A comparison is made of the air concentrations predicted by a number of atmospheric models (which have found broad application) for releases of activity in selected meteorological conditions. The implications, in terms of the radiological consequences of particular releases, of differences in the air concentrations predicted by the respective models are assessed semi-quantitatively. In general the radiological consequences are shown to be relatively insensitive to the choice of atmospheric dispersion model. This is particularly so for the incidence of late biological effects; for early biological effects the sensitivity is more pronounced although of the models considered, that adopted in the initial study would yield results at the upper end of the predicted range. (author)

  10. Implementation of a model of atmospheric dispersion and dose calculation in the release of radioactive effluents in the Nuclear Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis, the software DERA (Dispersion of Radioactive Effluents into the Atmosphere) was developed in order to calculate the equivalent dose, external and internal, associated with the release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere from a nuclear facility. The software describes such emissions in normal operation, and not considering the exceptional situations such as accidents. Several tools were integrated for describing the dispersion of radioactive effluents using site meteorological information (average speed and wind direction and the stability profile). Starting with the calculation of the concentration of the effluent as a function of position, DERA estimates equivalent doses using a set of EPA s and ICRP s coefficients. The software contains a module that integrates a database with these coefficients for a set of 825 different radioisotopes and uses the Gaussian method to calculate the effluents dispersion. This work analyzes how adequate is the Gaussian model to describe emissions type -puff-. Chapter 4 concludes, on the basis of a comparison of the recommended correlations of emissions type -puff-, that under certain conditions (in particular with intermittent emissions) it is possible to perform an adequate description using the Gaussian model. The dispersion coefficients (σy and σz), that using the Gaussian model, were obtained from different correlations given in the literature. Also in Chapter 5 is presented the construction of a particular correlation using Lagrange polynomials, which takes information from the Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves (PGT). This work also contains a state of the art about the coefficients that relate the concentration with the equivalent dose. This topic is discussed in Chapter 6, including a brief description of the biological-compartmental models developed by the ICRP. The software s development was performed using the programming language Python 2.7, for the Windows operating system (the XP version

  11. Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This chapter of "The Best of the Best of ERIC," Volume 2, contains 14 summaries of documents and journal articles on citizen advisory committees, all of which are indexed in either "Resources in Education" or "Current Index to Journals in Education." The materials included deal with various aspects of this topic, such as the role of the school…

  12. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Routine Releases from LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R

    2006-09-27

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95% confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Groups of the International Atomic Energy Agency's programs, Biosphere Modeling and Assessment and Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  13. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an

  14. Atmospheric dispersion modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vogt, Phil [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In this research, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident including: daily Japanese weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions to inform planning for field monitoring operations and to provide U.S. government agencies with ongoing situational awareness of meteorological conditions; estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases to support protective action planning for U.S. citizens; predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations; and source estimation and plume model refinement based on atmospheric dispersion modeling and available monitoring data.

  15. Assessment of atmospheric contamination over United States due to radionuclides' release from Japanese Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Reactor during March, 2011 using HYSPLIT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is an assessment of continental-scale contamination of radionuclides release from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan during 12-31 March 2011 affecting the United States of America, a part of North American continent. HYSPLIT model, driven by daily NCEP global meteorological data was used to produce forward trajectories to estimate the transport time for the Fukushima plant releases to reach the west coast of USA and to estimate the concentration deposition of the radionuclides at select locations over the west coast of USA. The model estimates were compared with respective monitored values for validation. This study brings out the transport time to reach US west coast from the Japanese plant site to be about 6-7 days indicating a speedy movement under favourable atmospheric flow patterns (wind). (author)

  16. Atmospheric corrosion of brass in outdoor applications: patina evolution, metal release and aesthetic appearance at urban exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goidanich, S; Brunk, J; Herting, G; Arenas, M A; Odnevall Wallinder, I

    2011-12-15

    Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincification in relation to detailed bulk and surface characteristics prior to exposure. This has been accomplished by using a multitude of surface and bulk analytical tools, chemical analysis and colorimetric investigations. Small differences in surface finish and local variations in nobility observed for the non-exposed brass alloys resulted in slight differences in corrosion initiation. Despite different kinetic behaviour and relative surface distributions of zinc- and copper-rich patina constituents, similar phases were identified with copper-rich phases rapidly dominating the outermost patina layer in Milan, compared to Madrid and Stockholm showing both copper- and zinc-rich phases. As a consequence of differences in surface coverage of copper- and zinc-rich corrosion products at the different sites, the release ratios of copper to zinc varied concordantly. The released amount of zinc to copper (Zn/Cu) was for both alloys and test sites always higher compared to the bulk composition showing a preferential release of zinc. The amount of released copper from the brass alloys was on an average 30-40% lower compared to copper sheet at all test sites investigated. Significantly lower annual total release rates of copper and zinc compared with annual corrosion rates were evident for both brass alloys at all sites. PMID:22051551

  17. 76 FR 4299 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... provide sufficient time for Board review. Written comments received after January 31, 2011, will be... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: National... sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the Sea Grant Advisory...

  18. 75 FR 59697 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Designated Federal Officer by October 8, 2010 to provide sufficient time for Board review. Written comments... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National Oceanic... forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the Sea Grant Advisory Board...

  19. 78 FR 55683 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Designated Federal Officer by Monday, September 16, 2013 to provide sufficient time for the Board review... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National Oceanic... National Sea Grant Advisory Board members and notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice responds...

  20. 77 FR 41171 - National Sea Grant Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... sufficient time for Board review. Written comments received after July 30, 2012, will be distributed to the... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Sea Grant Advisory Board AGENCY: National Oceanic... forth the schedule and proposed agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the National Sea Grant Advisory...

  1. 78 FR 2255 - Nominations to the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... appointment by the Secretary of Commerce to fill one vacancy on the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC or Committee) beginning in the spring of 2013. MAFAC is the only Federal advisory committee with...

  2. 76 FR 40887 - Nominations to the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Committee AGENCY: Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine... appointment by the Secretary of Commerce to serve on the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC or Committee) beginning in January 2012. MAFAC is the only Federal advisory committee with the...

  3. 75 FR 70906 - Nominations to the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... the Secretary of Commerce to serve on the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC or Committee) beginning in January 2011. MAFAC is the only Federal advisory committee with the responsibility to...

  4. 2007 year - annual impacts of effluents in routine releases to the atmosphere and to the hydrosphere from NPP Bohunice V-2 evaluated by the code ESTE AI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual impacts of Bohunice V -2 operation caused by effluents in routine releases during the year 2007 were calculated and evaluated first time with the help of completely new program - ESTE AI. Program is approved by the 'Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic' and since January 2008 is used as legal instrument by Slovenske elektrarne a.s., NPP Bohunice. In this poster presented are annual effluents to the atmosphere and to the hydrosphere from Bohunice V-2 NPP. Presented, analyzed and discussed are main results of 2007 impacts evaluation. (authors)

  5. A computer code TERFOC-N to calculate doses to the public due to atmospheric releases of radionuclides in normal operations of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code TERFOC-N has been developed to calculate doses to the public due to atmospheric releases of radionuclides in normal operations of nuclear facilities. This code calculates the highest individual dose and the collective dose from 4 exposure pathway; internal doses from ingestion and inhalation, external doses from cloudshine and groundshine. Foodchain models, which are originally referred to the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.109, have been improved to apply not only LWRs but also to other nuclear facilities. This report describes the employed models and the computer code, and gives a sample run performed by this code. (author)

  6. A simple and cheap method to release large volume of short-lived radioactive gases into the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximum permissible concentration of gazeous radionuclides released in air are stated in legal regulations. For short-lived radionuclides, it is possible to reach these low concentrations by increasing the transit time, before release, by passage through barrels connected in series. The set-up was assessed at a flow rate of 20 m3/h of air contaminated with the 124 s oxygen 15. An attenuation factor of 104 is obtained with sixty 200 l barrels. This factor is 3.108 at a flow rate of 10 m3/h

  7. Atmospheric dispersion of an elevated release in a rural environment: Comparison between field SF 6 tracer measurements and computations of Briggs and ADMS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O.; Leroy, C.; Derkx, F.; Maro, D.; Hébert, D.; Roupsard, P.; Rozet, M.

    2011-12-01

    The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), in collaboration with VEOLIA (French environmental services company), conducted experimental campaigns to study atmospheric dispersion around an Energy Recycling Unit (EUR). The objectives were to study dispersion for an elevated release in a rural environment and to compare results with those of models. The atmospheric dispersion was studied by SF 6 tracer injection into a 40 m high stack. Maximum values of experimental Atmospheric Transfer Coefficients (ATC max) and horizontal dispersion standard deviations ( σh) were compared to predictions from a first generation Briggs gaussian model as well as results from the latest generation ADMS 4.1 gaussian model. In neutral atmospheric conditions, the Briggs and ADMS models are in good agreement with experimental data in terms of ATC and σh. In unstable condition, for σh, both ADMS and Briggs models slightly overestimate the data for winter and summer conditions. In unstable conditions, ADMS and Briggs models overestimated ATC max. The statistical evaluation of the models versus experimental data shows neither models ever meets all of the criteria for good performance. However, statistical evaluation indicates that the ADMS model is more suitable for neutral condition, and that the Briggs model is more reliable for summer unstable conditions.

  8. Summary of atmospheric measurements and transport pathways of radioactive materials released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident, a continual monitoring of atmospheric radionuclides was independently carried out at several stations by different research institutions in the Kanto area south of Fukushima prefecture. No such measurements were made in the Fukushima area. Although the sampling methodology varied from one station to the next, the following results were found by the analysis of these data during March 13-31, 2011. High concentrations of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in the atmosphere were observed in the first period (March 15-16, 2011) and the second period (March 20-23, 2011). According to a numerical simulation by an atmospheric transport model, these radionuclides were directly transported to the stations from the FD1NPP. The ratio of 131I to 137Cs in the atmosphere was around 10 in the first period and on March 20-21, while the ratio in the periods outside the first period and the March 20-21 was around 100. According to the measurements of gaseous 131I (131I(g)) and particulate 131I (131I(a)) which were performed separately at two stations, at least half of the total 131I (the sum of 131I(g) and 131I(a)) sampled was particulate 131I in the first and second periods, although 131I(a) was 20-40% of the total 131I in the periods outside the first and second periods. (author)

  9. Advantages of numerical atmospheric dispersion calculations for estimating dispersal and combination effects of stack releases from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An estimation of environmental pollution calculated using the idealized Gaussian distribution model to describe processes of atmospheric diffusion suffers from restrictions in the model, i.e. it assumes stationary homogeneous conditions in the atmosphere, a parallel mean wind flow with no (or at most linear) velocity shear, and constant turbulence characteristics within the plume. These assumptions are oversimplifications: for instance topographic effects, wind shear, time-dependent wind variations and the case of strong local interactions of the pollutant with other components in the atmosphere (e.g. fog, smog, rain, or other pollutant plumes) are ignored. Previous attempts to overcome the disadvantages using a purely numerical evaluation of the differential equations describing the transport, diffusion and any reactions of the pollutants in the atmosphere were unsuccessful, since 'artificial diffusion' effects were observed that led to unacceptable errors when great distances or long times were considered. At present, the best method of solving this problem appears to be the use of a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian numerical approach, called the particle-in-cell method, which was developed in the USA. The method has been tested successfully by making comparisons with typical Gaussian calculations over long time intervals or large distances: it was also applied to several actual transport problems involving complex topographies with wind variations in time, and to the effects of chemical reactions and local rainfall. This method, avoiding the undue simplification of the Gaussian calculation and the inherent fictitious diffusion patterns of the purely numerical evaluation seems to be particularly suited to solving atmospheric pollution transport problems under complex conditions that may occur in the neighbourhood of large nuclear power stations. (author)

  10. SUMIT: a computer code to interpolate and sum single release atmospheric model results onto a master grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.; DeBliek, N.J.; Holdeman, J.T. Jr.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Miller, C.W.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes a computer code for the Systematic Unification of Multiple Input Tables of data (SUMIT). This code is designed to be an integral part of the Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) for assessing the health impacts of airborne releases of radioactive pollutants. SUMIT reads radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates for different release points and combines them over a specified master grid. The resulting SUMIT grid may be circular, rectangular, or consist of irregularly spaced points. SUMIT can apply a different scaling factor to all data from each source. This program is designed to sum data written by the CRRIS code ANEMOS. Of course, SUMIT could read any data organized in the same manner at ANEMOS output. Descriptions of the necessary user input and data files are provided along with a complete listing of the SUMIT code. 10 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  11. SUMIT: a computer code to interpolate and sum single release atmospheric model results onto a master grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a computer code for the Systematic Unification of Multiple Input Tables of data (SUMIT). This code is designed to be an integral part of the Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) for assessing the health impacts of airborne releases of radioactive pollutants. SUMIT reads radionuclide air concentrations and ground deposition rates for different release points and combines them over a specified master grid. The resulting SUMIT grid may be circular, rectangular, or consist of irregularly spaced points. SUMIT can apply a different scaling factor to all data from each source. This program is designed to sum data written by the CRRIS code ANEMOS. Of course, SUMIT could read any data organized in the same manner at ANEMOS output. Descriptions of the necessary user input and data files are provided along with a complete listing of the SUMIT code. 10 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  12. Comparison of the atmospheric dispersion calculation with the measurement of γ-radiation levels from Ar-41 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to check the accuracy of a simple gaussian atmospheric diffusion model for a complex terrain condition in Germany. In the frame of the existing surveillance system, the annual γ doses due to 41Ar emission from a research reactor have been measured in the environment, mainly with sensitive G-M detectors. The computer code AIREM was used to calculate the atmospheric dispersion. This code is based on a simple sector averaged gaussian diffusion equation for long-term average calculation. For the calculation of cloud-dose rates, the finite extent model (Computer Code EGAD) was used. The results showed that at fairly flat locations the ratios of calculated to measured doses vary between 1.8 to 3.4 Measurements were mainly made with sensitive G-M detectors. (U.K.)

  13. The meteorological system and the basic parameters required for predicting the transfer of radionuclides released into the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meteorological measuring system, operating at the site of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, and the present working programme of the Environmental Meteorology Department of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described in this report. The main aspects of meteorology and radioecology during normal operation and possible accidents arising from nuclear facilities, and natural sources of radioactivity are presented. Besides, different methods of dividing the atmosphere into stability classes and of determining the dispersion parameters are indicated. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of radioactive cesium impact from atmospheric deposition and direct release fluxes into the North Pacific from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; Bryan, Frank O.; Hirose, Katsumi; Aoyama, Michio

    2016-09-01

    The North Pacific distribution of 134Cs released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (F1NPP) has been investigated using an eddy-resolving model. We conducted simulations based on two scenarios: (1) an input flux that was a combination of atmospheric deposition and direct release from the F1NPP (combination-flux scenario) and (2) an input flux that took account only of the direct release of 134Cs (single-flux scenario). The combination-flux scenario simulation successfully reproduced the distribution of 134Cs activity observed in the surface layer from April 2011 to January 2014. The results indicate that 134Cs deposited via atmospheric deposition into the Kuroshio-Oyashio Interfrontal Zone and 134Cs directly released from F1NPP were both transported to south of the Subarctic Front around 42°N in June of 2012. The combination-flux scenario suggests that the 134Cs activities observed in the area north of 42°N in 2012 originated from atmospheric deposition and that the 134Cs activity was subducted in Central Mode Water during the winters of 2011 and 2012. We directly compared simulated and observed 134Cs activities in the surface layer at 179 points across a wide area to the east of 155°E from 2011 to 2013 to evaluate the accuracy of the two scenarios. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient, R, were 7.3 Bq m-3 and 0.86, respectively, for the combination-flux scenario and 13.8 Bq m-3 and 0.46, respectively, for the single-flux scenario, confirming that reproduction of the 134Cs activity in the North Pacific after the F1NPP accident requires taking both fluxes into consideration. Based on a linear least-squares regression between simulated and observed 134Cs activity, the total 134Cs flux into the North Pacific was estimated at 16.1±1.4 PBq.

  15. 76 FR 21349 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Candidates to the EPA's Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... following disciplines: Environmental economics; economic modeling; air quality modeling; atmospheric science... modeling; environmental economics; environmental engineering; environmental medicine; pediatrics; public... yeow.aaron@epa.gov . The SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee (EEAC) provides advice...

  16. Evaluation of radiological impact of habitual atmospheric releases in the surroundings of the Juragua nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The considerations and fundamental data used to evaluate the individual doses to the population living within an area of 40 km in the surroundings of Juragua nuclear power plant are presented. Recognized dispersion models (Pasquill modified) and models of dose calculations due to continuous habitual air releases composed of gases and aerosols (47 radionuclides) are used for the calculations.The following ways are taken into account for evaluation: a)irradiation of the cloud, b)irradiation of contaminated ground, c)inhalation, d) ingestion of agro-products. The iso line maps of concentrations and fundamental doses for the site are shown

  17. Non-conservative behavior of bromide in surface waters and brines of Central Andes : a release into the atmosphere ?

    OpenAIRE

    Risacher, François; Fritz, B; Alonso, H.

    2006-01-01

    The transfer of reactive bromine into the atmosphere was recently observed by Honninger et al. [Honninger, G., Bobrowski, N., Palenque, E.R., Torrez, R., Platt, U., 2004. Reactive bromine and sulfur emission at salar de Uyuni, Bolivia. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, doi:10.1029/2003GL018818] in a large salt pan of the Bolivian Altiplano: the salar de Uyuni. However, bromide is considered to be an excellent conservative tracer, which leads to the questioning of its actual conservation in surficial ge...

  18. Detailed source term estimation of the atmospheric release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident by coupling simulations of atmospheric dispersion model with improved deposition scheme and oceanic dispersion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Katata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variations in the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1 accident and their atmospheric and marine dispersion are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. In this paper, we estimate a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data with atmospheric model simulations from WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information, and simulations from the oceanic dispersion model SEA-GEARN-FDM, both developed by the authors. A sophisticated deposition scheme, which deals with dry and fogwater depositions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activation and subsequent wet scavenging due to mixed-phase cloud microphysics (in-cloud scavenging for radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I and other particles (CsI, Cs, and Te, was incorporated into WSPEEDI-II to improve the surface deposition calculations. The fallout to the ocean surface calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data for the SEA-GEARN-FDM calculations. Reverse and inverse source-term estimation methods based on coupling the simulations from both models was adopted using air dose rates and concentrations, and sea surface concentrations. The results revealed that the major releases of radionuclides due to FNPS1 accident occurred in the following periods during March 2011: the afternoon of 12 March due to the wet venting and hydrogen explosion at Unit 1, the morning of 13 March after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight of 14 March when the SRV (Safely Relief Valve at Unit 2 was opened three times, the morning and night of 15 March, and the morning of 16 March. According to the simulation results, the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPS1 were created from 15 to 16 March by complicated interactions among rainfall, plume movements, and the temporal

  19. Detailed source term estimation of the atmospheric release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident by coupling simulations of atmospheric dispersion model with improved deposition scheme and oceanic dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katata, G.; Chino, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Terada, H.; Ota, M.; Nagai, H.; Kajino, M.; Draxler, R.; Hort, M. C.; Malo, A.; Torii, T.; Sanada, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Temporal variations in the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1) accident and their atmospheric and marine dispersion are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. In this paper, we estimate a detailed time trend of atmospheric releases during the accident by combining environmental monitoring data with atmospheric model simulations from WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information), and simulations from the oceanic dispersion model SEA-GEARN-FDM, both developed by the authors. A sophisticated deposition scheme, which deals with dry and fogwater depositions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation and subsequent wet scavenging due to mixed-phase cloud microphysics (in-cloud scavenging) for radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (CsI, Cs, and Te), was incorporated into WSPEEDI-II to improve the surface deposition calculations. The fallout to the ocean surface calculated by WSPEEDI-II was used as input data for the SEA-GEARN-FDM calculations. Reverse and inverse source-term estimation methods based on coupling the simulations from both models was adopted using air dose rates and concentrations, and sea surface concentrations. The results revealed that the major releases of radionuclides due to FNPS1 accident occurred in the following periods during March 2011: the afternoon of 12 March due to the wet venting and hydrogen explosion at Unit 1, the morning of 13 March after the venting event at Unit 3, midnight of 14 March when the SRV (Safely Relief Valve) at Unit 2 was opened three times, the morning and night of 15 March, and the morning of 16 March. According to the simulation results, the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPS1 were created from 15 to 16 March by complicated interactions among rainfall, plume movements, and the temporal variation of

  20. Using the model release ARTM associated with resources for simulation geoprocessing radiological environmental impact of atmospheric emissions from a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of the dispersion of radionuclides emissions into the atmosphere arising from a nuclear reactor, in normal operation, is an important step in the process of the nuclear and environmental assessment study. These processes require an assessment study of the radiological environmental impact. However, to estimate this impact a simulation of the transport mechanisms and deposition of pollutants released into the atmosphere is required. The present study aimed at the application of the dispersion model ARTM (Atmospheric Radionuclide Transport Model), together with the powerful tools of the GIS (Geographic Information System) for the environmental impact assessment of a radiological nuclear reactor under typically routine and conditions. Therefore some important information from the national project for a research reactor known as Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) was considered. The information of the atmospheric emissions of the reactor, needed for the simulation of this project, was based on data of the Open Pool Australian Light Water (OPAL).Other important data that had to be collected and analyzed were the source term, the topography, the meteorology and the environmental data. The radionuclides analyzed as pollutants were 41Ar; 140Ba; 51Cr; 137Cs; 131I; 133I; 85m Kr; 87Kr; 88Kr; 140La; 133Xe; 135Xe; 3H; 90Sr. The model was run for two chronological scenarios according to their meteorological data for the years 2009 and 2010, respectively. The adoption of GIS techniques was relevant in planning, data preprocessing and in the post-processing of results as well. After pre-processing, the input data were processed by the ARTM dispersion model. Maps, charts, and tables were then produced and evaluated. According to the simulated and evaluated scenarios it could be concluded that exposure pathways that mostly contributed to the dose for individual public were 41Ar, for immersion in the plume, and 133I, for inhalation. Nevertheless, even these pathways

  1. Program report: FY 1976, Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division, Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its central facility located at LLL, is meeting the long-term need for rapid and accurate regional dose-to-man estimates of nuclear material released as a result of accidents, operations, or terrorism acts. During the past two years, ARAC has been used in four potential WARMSPOT events and for one accidental release. Continuing research, in terms of new modeling techniques, simulation of regional tracer experiments, and other verification activities, support this capability. Emergency response is currently being upgraded to evaluate the consequences of atmospheric releases at selected nuclear facilities and for potential acts of nuclear terrorism anywhere in the Northern Hemisphere. Regional modeling was also applied in monitoring SO2-sulfate concentrations in the northeastern USA

  2. Atmospheric radionuclides detected at Fukuoka, Japan released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex following the nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear accident were detected at Fukuoka, Japan, 1000 km distance westerly from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. The first arrival of 131I was confirmed on March 17, 2011 within 3 days after the release, indicating the 131I was probably transported to Fukuoka dispersively due to local meteorological condition, not a global air circulation. A maximum concentration, as much as 5.07 mBq m-3 for 131I, 4.04 mBq m-3 for 134Cs, 4.12 mBq m-3 for 137Cs was recorded in particles collected on April 6, 2011; however the level decreased below the detection limit after April 23, 2011. Gaseous 131I occupied 30% to 67% of the total 131I. The increase in internal dose by inhalation was negligible at Fukuoka. (author)

  3. Parameter uncertainty and estimated radiological dose to man from atmospheric 131I releases: a Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the implications of parameter uncertainty on the output of a mathematical model describing the atmospheric dispersion of 131I, transport through the food chain into milk and the subsequent dose to the thyroid gland of infants resulting from milk ingestion. The approach used was a Monte-Carlo procedure which calculates the dose to the thyroid based on parameters whose values were randomly selected from a normal distribution about their means, stores the results and then repeats the process for other randomly selected parameter values. Predicted doses to the thyroid are log-normally distributed, with the mode strongly shifting to the left and a long tail extending to higher doses. Given parameter uncertainties, the present model predicts that it is possible to receive a dose that is an order of magnitude higher than the prediction obtained by inserting the mean value for each parameter into the model, i.e. the deterministic prediction. (U.K.)

  4. Calculation of radiation doses due to release of 137Cs and 131I using atmospheric dispersion and dose calculation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: With the growing need of energy all over the world there is no doubt that nuclear energy will be an important alternative. Nuclear energy is not only a good alternative energy source but also is getting more safe. In contrary to fossil fuels nuclear energy does not produce green house gases. With all adventages of nuclear energy, the safety of nuclear power plants must be taken into care. From the radiological point of view the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and radiation dose calculations in case of a reactor accident is important. This study investigates the deposition and air concentration of 137Cs and 131I radionuclides and the radiation doses exposed to people living in different cities in Turkey after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. WRF results and HYSPLIT results were compared with observation data and the 'Atlas on the cesium deposition across Europe' that published by European Commission respectively. Both WRF and HYSPLIT results were consistent with reference data. (author)

  5. 76 FR 45570 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... and released January 11, 2011, as published at 76 FR 3633, January 20, 2011, the Commission announced...--Rick Chessen National Consumer Law Center--Olivia Wein National Consumers League--Debra Berlyn... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  6. ESTE AI (Annual Impacts) - the program for calculation of radiation doses caused by effluents in routine releases to the atmosphere and to the hydrosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESTE AI is a program for calculation of radiation doses caused by effluents in routine releases to the atmosphere and to the hydrosphere. Doses to the members of critical groups of inhabitants in the vicinity of NPP are calculated and as a result, critical group is determined. The program enables to calculate collective doses as well. Collective doses to the inhabitants living in the vicinity of the NPP are calculated. ESTE AI calculates doses to the whole population of Slovakia from the effluents of the specific plant. In this calculation, global nuclides are included and assumed, as well. The program enables to calculate and to document beyond-border radiological impacts of effluents caused by routine operation of NPP. ESTE AI was approved by the 'Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic' and is used as legal instrument by Slovenske elektrarne a.s., NPP Bohunice. (authors)

  7. 78 FR 38297 - Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Science Advisory Board (SAB) AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and... dial in to this meeting. Status: The meeting will be open to public participation with a 10...

  8. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications.

  9. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications

  10. Representative Doses to Members of the Public from Atmospheric Releases of 131I at the Mayak Production Association Facilities from 1948 through 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Napier, Bruce A.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.

    2014-04-03

    Scoping epidemiologic studies performed by researchers from the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute revealed an excess prevalence of thyroid nodules and an increased incidence of thyroid cancer among residents of Ozersk, Russia, who were born in the early 1950s. Ozersk is located about 5 km from the facilities where the Mayak Production Association produced nuclear materials for the Russian weapons program. Reactor operations began in June 1948 and chemical separation of plutonium from irradiated fuel began in February 1949. The U.S.–Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research conducted a series of projects over a 10-year period to assess the radiation risks in the Southern Urals. This paper uses data collected under Committee projects to reconstruct individual time-dependent thyroid doses to reference individuals living in Ozersk from 131I released to the atmosphere. Between 3.22×1016 and 4.31×1016 Bq of 131I released may have been released during the 1948–1972 time period, and a best estimate is 3.76×1016 Bq. A child born in 1947 is estimated to have received a cumulative thyroid dose of 2.3 Gy for 1948–1972, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.51–7.3 Gy. Annual doses were the highest in 1949 and a child who was 5 years old in 1949 is estimated to have a received an annual thyroid dose of 0.93 Gy with a 95% confidence interval of 0.19–3.5 Gy.

  11. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. - Highlights: • We measured tritium in soils and plants near four nuclear facilities in Canada. • OBT/HTO ratios in plants are higher than default value in environmental models. • OBT/HTO ratios in background soils reflect historically higher atmospheric tritium. • Implications for environmental transfer models are discussed

  12. Nitrous oxide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent marine area: Riverine input, sediment release and atmospheric fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-L. Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O was measured in the waters of the Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent marine area during five surveys covering the period of 2002–2006. Dissolved N2O concentrations ranged from 6.04 to 21.3 nM, and indicate great temporal and spatial variations. Distribution of N2O in the Changjiang Estuary was influenced by multiple factors and the key factor varied between cruises. Dissolved riverine N2O was observed monthly at station Xuliujing of the Changjiang, and ranged from 12.4 to 33.3 nM with an average of 19.4 ± 7.3 nM. N2O concentrations in the river waters showed obvious seasonal variations with higher values occurring in both summer and winter. Annual input of N2O from the Changjiang to the estuary was estimated to be 15.0 × 106 mol/yr. N2O emission rates from the sediments of the Changjiang Estuary in spring ranged from −1.88 to 2.02 μmol m−2 d−1, which suggests that sediment can act as either a source or a sink of N2O in the Changjiang Estuary. Average annual sea-to-air N2O fluxes from the studied area were estimated to be 7.7 ± 5.5, 15.1 ± 10.8 and 17.0 ± 12.6 μmol m−2d−1 using LM86, W92 and RC01 relationships, respectively. Hence the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent marine area are a net source of atmospheric N2O.

  13. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of airborne radioactivity over Europe, Japan, and the United States indicated that the release from the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986 contained a wide spectrum of fission up to heights of 7 km or more within a few days after the initial explosion. This high-altitude presence of radioactivity would in part be attributable to atmospheric dynamics factors other than the thermal energy released in the initial explosion. Indications were that two types of releases had taken place -- an initial powerful explosion followed by days of a less energetic reactor fire. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilized three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models to determine the characteristics of the source term (release) and the evolution of the spatial distributions of the airborne radioactivity as it was transported over Europe and subsequently over the northern hemisphere. This paper describes the ARAC involvement and the results of the hemispheric model calculations which graphically depict the extensive dispersal of radioactivity. 1 fig

  14. NARAC: An Emergency Response Resource for Predicting the Atmospheric Dispersion and Assessing the Consequences of Airborne Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M M

    2005-08-23

    Hazardous radioactive materials can be released into the atmosphere by accidents at nuclear power plants, fuel processing facilities, and other facilities, and by transportation accidents involving nuclear materials. In addition, the post-cold-war proliferation of nuclear material has increased the potential for terrorism scenarios involving radiological dispersal devices, improvised nuclear devices, and inadequately secured military nuclear weapons. To mitigate these risks, the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) serves as a national resource for the United States, providing tools and services to quickly predict the environmental contamination and health effects caused by airborne radionuclides, and to provide scientifically based guidance to emergency managers for the protection of human life. NARAC's expert staff uses computer models, supporting databases, software systems, and communications systems to predict the plume paths and consequences of radiological, chemical, and biological atmospheric releases.

  15. Observation of atmospheric 210Pb and 212Pb originating from the 2004 eruptive activity of Asama volcano, Japan, and relevant 222Rn releasing from the erupting magma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a study of observation of atmospheric 210Pb and 212Pb possibly from the volcano (36 deg N, 138 deg E) activity in the title and of measurement of 222Rn releasing efficiency with the ash-fall deposit collected around the period. The aerosol sample was collected from Sep. 1, an eruption day, on a building terrace (10 m high) of Meiji University at Kawasaki, located at 140 km SE of the volcano, every 24 hr on the glass fiber filter using a high volume air sampler. The filter was cut out to 4 disks, which were packed into acrylic canisters with a window of a thin Mylar film for non-destructive γ-ray measurement. 210Pb and 212Pb radioactivities were determined by the 46.5- and 238.6-keV γ-rays with an LEPS (low energy photon spectrometer) and an HPGe spectrometer, respectively. The ash-fall sample from the eruption Sep. 14, was collected at Kanrakumachi, Gunma Pref., 40 km SE of the volcano, and measurement for the growth curve of 222Rn from the fall started 1 week after the eruption. A well-type HPGe spectrometer was used for determination of the 351.9-keV γ-ray of 222Rn from 214Pb in equilibrium, which was normalized by the 911.1-keV 228Ac γ-ray. 210Pb and 212Pb emitted into the atmosphere were suggested to have been transported 140 km within the time of a few times of the 212Pb half life (10.6 hr) on the northerly wind. 210Pb and 212Pb, and 222Rn were suggested to be a possibly useful tool of monitoring magmatic activities. (S.I.)

  16. Emergency procedures for nuclear installations: on the simulation and interpretation of offsite air sampling measurements during the early phase of an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the early stages of an accidental release of radioactive material to the atmosphere, the immediate aims of the offsite Emergency management scheme are twofold: firstly, to determine the extent of any contamination occurring close to the site (i.e. out to a few km) for purposes of protecting the local public; secondly, to provide early estimates of source term and hence permit consequences farther afield to be assessed. In practice, these objectives would be largely reliant upon the sampling measurements made by mobile offsite survey teams and the ability with which they may be interpreted in terms of an atmospheric dispersion model. This paper investigates the methodology and effectiveness of these tasks for the rapid provision of advice to decision makers. SF6 tracer experiments which simulate the offsite plume sampling procedure are described. These provide realistic demonstrations of data quality with respect to variability and sparsity, and provide practical insight into the cause of these effects as well as guidance to improve the effectiveness of the sampling strategy. A statistical scheme is described which may be used in conjunction with a plume dispersion model to analyse such data and to provide hourly averaged estimates of source strength and plume concentration/dose. Worked examples using SF6 simulation data sets for a single sampling vehicle and a 2-dimensional gaussian plume model are presented and used to assess the accuracy and limitations of the averall approach. Although the results are encouraging, performance is found to fairly sensitive to the quality and quantity of the data

  17. The choice of individual dose criterion at which to restrict agricultural produce following an unplanned release of radioactive material to atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Dionian, J

    1985-01-01

    In the event of an accidental release of radioactive material to atmosphere, the introduction of emergency countermeasures will be based on the need to limit the risk to individuals. However, it has been suggested that a form of cost-benefit analysis may be used as an input to decisions on the withdrawal of countermeasures, although it is recognised that these decisions may be influenced by factors other than those directly related to radiological protection. In this study, a method based on cost-benefit analysis is illustrated for assessing the optimum level of individual dose at which restrictions on agricultural production may be considered. This requires monetary values to be assigned to both the lost food production and to the health detriment, expressed as the collective effective dose equivalent commitment. It has been assumed in this analysis that food-supply restrictions are both introduced and withdrawn at the same projected level of annual individual dose. The effect on the optimum dose level of th...

  18. Methane release from sediment seeps to the atmosphere is counteracted by highly active Methylococcaceae in the water column of deep oligotrophic Lake Constance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Maren; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Tichy, Lucas; Deutzmann, Jörg; Schink, Bernhard; Pester, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Methane emissions from freshwater environments contribute substantially to global warming but are under strong control of aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria. Recently discovered methane seeps (pockmarks) in freshwater lake sediments have the potential to bypass this control by their strong outgassing activity. Whether this is counteracted by pelagic methanotrophs is not well understood yet. We used a (3)H-CH4-radiotracer technique and pmoA-based molecular approaches to assess the activity, abundance and community structure of pelagic methanotrophs above active pockmarks in deep oligotrophic Lake Constance. Above profundal pockmarks, methane oxidation rates (up to 458 nmol CH4 l(-1) d(-1)) exceeded those of the surrounding water column by two orders of magnitude and coincided with maximum methanotroph abundances of 0.6% of the microbial community. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a dominance of members of the Methylococcaceae in the water column of both, pockmark and reference sites, with most of the retrieved sequences being associated with a water-column specific clade. Communities at pockmark and reference locations also differed in parts, which was likely caused by entrainment of sediment-hosted methanotrophs at pockmark sites. Our results show that the release of seep-derived methane to the atmosphere is counteracted by a distinct methanotrophic community with a pronounced activity throughout bottom waters. PMID:27267930

  19. Atmospheric science and emergency preparedness: the DOE/OHER perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950s, Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) funded pioneering research on precipitation scavenging and dry deposition as processes removing radioactive particles and gases from the atmosphere. In the early 1970s, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) was conceived. This is a system combining knowledge of atmospheric transport and diffusion with hihg-speed computing and modern communications systems. It provides real-time advice on the movement and spread of a radioactive or chemical release to the atmosphere. ARAC has been activated in a variety of threatening situations. Through the lessons learned from real-world accident responses, ARAC has evolved an extensive set of emergency response services. ARAC is now supported by operational groups in the Departments of Defense and Energy. In 1989 there are 73 sites and facilities in the U.S. being served by the ARAC system. In the 1980s, two major programs were launched. The first was a tracer experiment, CAPTEX (Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment), which used perfluorocarbons and explored transport and diffusion over distances greater than 1000km. The second is a continuing field and modeling activity, ASCOT (Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain), studying the meteorology of transport and dispersion over the rugged terrain that dominates the western energy-rich regions of the U.S. ASCOT is currently focusing its research activities on fundamental meteorological forecasting problems that have generic value to the emergency preparedness planning at key DOE facilities

  20. Citizens Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    1968-01-01

    This document contains the results of a national survey designed to determine the composition and location of permanent citizens advisory committees operating within the nation's school districts. The 52 district-wide, continuing citizens advisory bodies identified by 290 responding school systems are listed alphabetically by State. The following…

  1. Evacuation of the population as a means of mitigating the radiological effects following an accidental atmospheric release of radioactivity from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evacuation of the population in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant following an accidental release of radioactivity into the atmosphere, is one of the protective means which might reduce the radiation doses and radiological effects caused to the population. An evacuation simulation model - RECLEAR - was developed in order to investigate the dependency of the evacuation efficiency on various parameters. It was found that the efficiency is dependent on many factors - meteorological, demographic and transportation parameters. RECLEAR was developed by coupling two computer codes: a) CLEAR (Mo82) a simulation model which calculates the time required to evacuate the population from a given area - Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) and b) REMAND (St85) - a radiological consequence model which evaluates the radiation doses and radiological effects caused to (a stationary) population, following an accident in a nuclear power plant. RECLEAR is a simulation code which calculates the evacuation duration as well as the radiation doses to the population, received while evacuating. The code describes the progress of individual vehicles along the site's specific road network (composed of road segments), using the relationships between traffic flow rates, travel velocity and road capacity in each road segment. The code also simulates traffic jams and intersections. Preliminary results reveal two main factors that might effect the efficiency of evacuation: 1) The traffic density during evacuation and 2) The delay of the population before onset of movement. It should be emphasized that the results presented in this study are of a preliminary nature, however, the model and the results received so far might constitute a basis for further work on the subject and it can also be used as a tool in non-radiological emergency planning and, with some adaptions, as a means of a real-time hazards evaluation

  2. 76 FR 75874 - Technology Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... COMMISSION Technology Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC''). ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Technology Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Technology Advisory Committee will hold..., attention: Office of the Secretary. Please use the title ``Technology Advisory Committee'' in any...

  3. 76 FR 8715 - Technology Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Technology Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC''). ACTION: Notice of meeting of Technology Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Technology Advisory Committee will hold...: Office of the Secretary. Please use the title ``Technology Advisory Committee'' in any written...

  4. 75 FR 2875 - Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... another compound in structure) of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). The proposed indication (use... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee... in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy (a condition in...

  5. 75 FR 13597 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY... and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA... following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update. --Kepler Data Release Policy. It is imperative that...

  6. Dose assessment for releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere performed in the frame of two fusion related studies: ITER-EDA and SEAFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the SEAFP and ITER studies dose calculations have been performed for tritium and activation products. Unit release rates as well as preliminary activation product source terms have been investigated. The individual dose values at the fence of the site together with the collective dose to the public have been obtained. Worst case and typical release conditions have been investigated. Additionally, various release durations under accidental conditions, ranging from 1 hour up to 7 days, have been considered. (orig.)

  7. Dose assessment for releases of tritium and activation products into the atmosphere performed in the frame of two fusion related studies: ITER-EDA and SEAFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskob, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Abt. INR (Germany)]|[D.T.I. Dr. Trippe Ingenieurgesellschaft, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Within the SEAFP and ITER studies dose calculations have been performed for tritium and activation products. Unit release rates as well as preliminary activation product source terms have been investigated. The individual dose values at the fence of the site together with the collective dose to the public have been obtained. Worst case and typical release conditions have been investigated. Additionally, various release durations under accidental conditions, ranging from 1 hour up to 7 days, have been considered. (orig.).

  8. NOAA Science Advisory Board, Review of National Center for Environmental Prediction Ocean Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrafesa, L. J.; Blaskovich, D.; Blumberg, A.F.; A. J. Busalacchi; McClean, J.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Rogers, D.P.; Weisberg, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    In response to a request from the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service, an Ocean Model Review Panel (ORMP) was commissioned by the NOAA Science Advisory Board (SAB), to address the following two-part Charge:

  9. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  10. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R

    2005-03-07

    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  11. Algae Bloom Advisories 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Only a fraction of all water bodies in Oregon are monitored due to limited physical and monetary resources. A water body with no advisory is not an indication that...

  12. The Plagiarism Advisory Service

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism in education has existed for many years, however, advances in technology resulting in easy access to a multitude of information sources has reduced the effort required to incorporate the work of others into an essay or report. A Plagiarism Advisory Service has been established to provide advice and guidance on all aspects of plagiarism prevention and detection. This article presents the background to the Advisory Service and the associated electronic Plagiarism Detecti...

  13. 75 FR 30002 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY... the charter for the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as the Committee). FOR... Acquisition, Technology and Logistics and the Director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency on the...

  14. 75 FR 60430 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of... announces a meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as ``the Committee..., October 21, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Heritage...

  15. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Relesed to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Chronic Releases from LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2004-06-30

    DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95th percentile confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Biosphere Modeling and Assessment Programme. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

  16. 78 FR 16254 - (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) AGENCY: Office of.... Members of the public will not be able to dial in to this meeting. Status: The meeting will be open...

  17. 77 FR 38065 - The President's Management Advisory Board (PMAB); Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... management, IT vendor performance management, Senior Executive Service (SES) leadership development and SES... ADMINISTRATION The President's Management Advisory Board (PMAB); Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting.... SUMMARY: The President's Management Advisory Board (PMAB), a Federal Advisory Committee established...

  18. 76 FR 53901 - The President's Management Advisory Board (PMAB); Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... management, SES leadership development, and SES performance appraisal systems. The meeting minutes will be... ADMINISTRATION The President's Management Advisory Board (PMAB); Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting.... SUMMARY: The President's Management Advisory Board (PMAB), a Federal Advisory Committee established...

  19. Aerosol material releases from a zircaloy-4 clad UO2 pellet at temperatures up to 2000 degrees Celsius in a flowing argon atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During some postulated loss of coolant and loss of emergency coolant injection accidents, vapours of fission products and structural (fuel and cladding) materials may be released into steam-hydrogen mixtures flowing in a CANDU fuel channel. These vapours will condense into aerosol particles in the cooler parts of the primary heat transport system. As part of an on-going program to study aerosol formation, transport, deposition and associated fission product retention in the PHTS, experiments were conducted to measure aerosol mass release rates from a Zircaloy-4 clad UO2 pellet inductively heated to temperatures up to 2000 degrees C, in a forced-flow argon environment. A description of these experiments and the obtained results, including fractional mass release rates of structural materials, are presented in this paper

  20. Current status of development of the HARP software tool serving to estimate radiological impacts of accidental atmospheric radioactivity releases on the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current state of development of the HARP (HAzardous Radioactivity Propagation) software tool serving to estimate radiological burden on the population arising from accidental radioactivity leaks into the air is described with focus on the deterministic HAVAR-DET approach. The deterministic root of the HARP system estimates atmospheric propagation of radioactivity and its subsequent infiltration into the human body. (orig.)

  1. Numerical modelling and parametric study of the atmospheric dispersion after radionuclide releases: the Chernobyl accident and the Algeciras incident. Comparison with observation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The attempts of modelling the release following upon the Chernobyl accident and the Algeciras incident are reported. Computing power and observation database are used for sensitivity and parametric studies. The meteorological mesoscale model MM5 is nudged with the ERA-40 reanalysis to simulate the meteorological conditions used by the dispersion model, POLAIR3D. In case of the Chernobyl accident the points of interest are many: the representativity of the meteorological simulations is evaluated using observations with a special focus on precipitation events. The radionuclide dispersion, the dry deposition and scavenging simulated by POLAIR3D are compared with European measurements of activities and depositions. Results of the sensitivity studies are done to evaluate the impact of the deposition parameterizations and source-term characteristics (height of release, quantities). The time dynamic of the contaminated cloud is also investigated with regard to the arrival time on different countries. Similarly, for the Algeciras release, sensitivity to the meteorological fields, source term and depletion processes are analyzed. For the available activity concentrations in the air, data-model comparisons are performed. (author)

  2. Citizen Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leann R.

    This guide, describing community involvement through citizen advisory committees, is a summary of the literature on such committees. Its main concern is district committees created by school boards. Citations in the bibliography contain all points of view on committees and present many alternatives on most of the topics covered in the guide.…

  3. 77 FR 36250 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Forest Service Recreation Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Call for nominations for the Pacific Northwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture has established the Pacific Northwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee (Recreation...

  4. 78 FR 50040 - Technology Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Technology Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Technology Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) announces that on September 12, 2013, the CFTC's Technology Advisory Committee (TAC) will hold a...

  5. 76 FR 776 - Technology Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Technology Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC''). ACTION: Notice of meeting of Technology Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Technology Advisory Committee will hold...., Washington, DC 20581, attention: Office of the Secretary. Please use the title ``Technology...

  6. 75 FR 58367 - Technology Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Technology Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC''). ACTION: Notice of meeting of Technology Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Technology Advisory Committee...., Washington, DC 20581, attention: Office of the Secretary. Please use the title ``Technology...

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  8. Comparison of gridded versus observation data to initialize ARAC dispersion models for the Algeciras, Spain steel mill CS-137 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 30, 1998 scrap metal containing radioactive Cesium-137 (Cs-137) was accidentally melted in a furnace at the Acerinox steel mill in Algeciras, Spain. Cs-137 was released from the mill's smokestack, and spread across the western Mediterranean Sea to France and Italy and beyond. The first indication of the release was radiation levels up to 1000 times background reported by Swiss, French, and Italian authorities during the following two weeks. Initially no elevated radiation levels were detected over Spain. A release of hazardous material to the atmosphere is the type of situation the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) emergency response organization was designed to address. The amount and exact time of the release were unknown, though the incident was thought to have taken place during the last week in May. Using air concentration measurements supplied by colleagues of ARAC in Spain, France, Switzerland, Italy, Sweden, Russia and the European Union, ARAC meteorologists estimated the magnitude and timing of the release (Vogt, 1999). Correctly locating the downwind footprint is the most important goal of emergency response modeling. In this study, we compare predicted results for the Algeciras event based on four wind data sources: (1) US Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) data alone, (2) surface and upper air observations alone, (3) NOGAPS data together with surface and upper air observations, and (4) forecasts from ARAC's in-house execution of the U.S. Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System (NORAPS) (without surface or upper air observations). We compare the resulting dispersion predictions from ARAC's diagnostic dispersion modeling system to the measurements supplied by our European colleagues to determine which data source produced the best results

  9. Sorption-desorption processes of radioisotopes with solid materials from liquid releases and atmosphere deposits. The distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)), its uses, limitations, and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various sorption-desorption processes of radionuclides with environmental materials are presented. The parameters governing the distribution coefficient are reviewed in the light of various examples. The factors affecting equilibria between the different phases are: reaction time, concentration of the solid phase, water quality, salinity, competition between ions, concentration of radioisotopes or stable isotopes, pH of the mobile phase, particle diameter, chemical form of the radioisotopes, nature of the solid phase, temperature. The effects of the biological parameters on the distribution coefficient are discussed. Biological processes affect the main chemical transformations: mineralization, insolubilization, oxidation-reduction, complexation, ... The importance of these processes is demonstrated by a number of examples in various media. Finally, the practical use of Ksub(d) in the assessment of the environmental impact of radioactive releases is developed, with special emphasis on the limits of its use in siting studies and its essential interest in specifying pathways and capacity of a river system

  10. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. RECONSTRUCTION OF EXTERNAL DOSES TO OZYORSK RESIDENTS DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF INERT RADIOACTIVE GASES FROM THE STACKS OF THE “MAYAK” PA REACTOR PLANT FROM 1948 TO 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Beregich, D. A.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Ivanov, I. A.; Alexakhin, A. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    The article provides the results of reconstruction of external doses to population due to atmospheric releases of inert radioactive gases of activation (41Ar) and fission origin (xenon and krypton isotopes) from the stacks of the “Mayak” PA industrial reactors from 1948 to 1989. Calculation of surface volumetric activities was performed using the RATCHET code. Dose estimate was obtained in a semi-infinite cloud approximation. It is demonstrated that more than 90% of external dose was accumulated from 1948 to 1956. It is established that, generally, the calculation results are in good agreement with archive instrument monitoring data on exposure dose rate and thermoluminescence dosimetry data. External effective doses to the residents of Ozyorsk obtained for different age groups of population with consideration of shielding properties of buildings and duration of time spent outdoors were estimated in the range from 16 to 23 mSv.

  13. Evaluation of radiation doses to man due to consumption of milk and leafy vegetables after the accidental atmospheric releases of 131I and 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the evaluation of doses to man due to the consumption of milk and leafy vegetables after accidental environmental releases of 131I, and 137Cs. In this study air to plant transfer factors have been experimentally determined using a specially designed exposure chamber. The experimentally obtained mass interception factors for spinach and fenugreek are 0.18 and 0.14 m2 kg-1 (wet weight basis) respectively. The average yearly consumption of leafy vegetable and milk by an adult Indian is 28 kg and 39 liter as per the UNSCEAR-2000. The large milching animals in India on an average, consume about 8.1 kg/day of dry grass. Washing of these plants, brings down the level of contamination and hence radiation doses to man by 20-30%. The dose received by a member of public by consuming milk and leafy vegetable works out to about 409 and 170 nSv per day with 1 kBq m-2 ground deposition, each of 131I and 137Cs. (author)

  14. 78 FR 77443 - Electricity Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Department of... Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770.../oe/services/electricity-advisory-committee-eac . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew...

  15. 76 FR 34088 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will... message. Fax: (202) 282-9207. Mail: Homeland Security Advisory Council, Department of Homeland...

  16. 76 FR 55079 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will... subject line of the message. Fax: (202) 282-9207. Mail: Homeland Security Advisory Council, Department...

  17. 77 FR 26774 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of partially closed federal advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will... number in the subject line of the message. Fax: (202) 282-9207. Mail: Homeland Security Advisory...

  18. 76 FR 58813 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference Federal Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will... message. Fax: (202) 282-9207 Mail: Homeland Security Advisory Council, Department of Homeland...

  19. 77 FR 59627 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of open teleconference federal advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will... line of the message. Fax: (202) 282-9207. Mail: Homeland Security Advisory Council, Department...

  20. 75 FR 26782 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will... (Homeland Security) Review Advisory Committee. DATE: The HSAC conference call will take place from 4 p.m....

  1. 76 FR 81516 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Closed Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will meet on January 9... Homeland Security Advisory Council is being published in the Federal Register on December 27, 2011, 14...

  2. 75 FR 2880 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Committee management; Notice of partially closed federal advisory committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory.... E-mail: HSAC@dhs.gov . Fax: 202-282-9207. Mail: Homeland Security Advisory Council, 1100...

  3. 75 FR 53707 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will...: Homeland Security Advisory Council, Department of Homeland Security, Mailstop 0850, 245 Murray Lane,...

  4. 75 FR 59278 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Closed Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will meet on... message. Fax: (202) 282-9207. Mail: Homeland Security Advisory Council, Department of Homeland...

  5. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting (via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to...

  6. 12 CFR 1291.4 - Advisory Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.4 Advisory Councils. (a) Appointment. (1) Each Bank's board of directors... responses. (3) The Bank's board of directors shall appoint Advisory Council members from a diverse range of... Advisory Council members. Pursuant to policies adopted by the Bank's board of directors, Advisory...

  7. 77 FR 6113 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC's) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  8. 78 FR 39289 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  9. 78 FR 21354 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  10. 75 FR 20844 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  11. 76 FR 64348 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  12. 75 FR 70004 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  13. 75 FR 60458 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  14. 75 FR 6031 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  15. 77 FR 57085 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  16. 75 FR 53694 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  17. 77 FR 2277 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed... discussions of classified information relating to DIA's intelligence operations including its support to... Advisory Board to discuss DIA operations and capabilities in support of current intelligence...

  18. 78 FR 295 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed... discussions of classified information relating to DIA's intelligence operations including its support to... the Advisory Board to discuss DIA operations and capabilities in support of current...

  19. 77 FR 62222 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed... discussions of classified information relating to DIA's intelligence operations including its support to... the Advisory Board to discuss DIA operations and capabilities in support of current...

  20. 76 FR 70425 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board... discussions of classified information relating to DIA's intelligence operations including its support to... Advisory Board to discuss DIA operations and capabilities in support of current intelligence...

  1. Radionuclides in an arctic terrestrial ecosystem affected by atmospheric release from the Kraton-3 accidental underground nuclear explosion. 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current distributions of artificial radionuclides (ARN) were studied in the main compartments of a larch-tree forest lethally affected by a radioactive release from the Kraton-3 peaceful underground nuclear explosion (65.9 deg N, 112.3 deg E; Yakutia, Russia; 1978). Samples of soil, fungi, lichens, mosses, grasses, shrubs and trees were obtained at points belonging to four zones categorised by the severity of the ecosystem damage. Sampling was supplemented by dose rate measurements in air and mapping. The area of forest characterised by 100% lethality to adult larches (Larix gmelinii) and with partial, visually-detectable damage of other more radio-resistance species (e.g. lichens, mosses) covers a territory of approximately 1.2 km2. Elevated levels of long-lived ARN were found at all sampling sites. Maximum registered levels of the ground contamination with radionuclides of Cs, Sr and Pu were three orders of magnitude higher than those expected from global fallout. The ratios of 137Cs to some other significant radionuclides in the ground contamination were as follows [mean (range)]: 90Sr - 0.57(0.02-0.93); 239,240Pu 44(25-72); 60Co 470(220-760). Twenty-three years after a discrete contamination event, 90-95% of the total deposited radiocesium and plutonium has still remained in the lichen-moss on-ground cover and in the top 5 cm organic soil layer. At the same time, vertical and horizontal migrations of 90Sr in soil were more pronounced. Strong surface contamination with 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium was detected at the twigs and bark of the dead larches. The young larches that grew at the contaminated area following the initial destruction of the forest demonstrated a substantial ability to accumulate 137Cs, 90Sr and plutonium via roots, while the bushes selectively accumulated mainly radiostrontium. In contrast, some fungi concentrated mostly radiocesium. The levels of gamma dose rate in air and the environmental contamination with 137Cs were found to correspond

  2. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  3. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  4. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Poul Frandsen concerning his assimilation into the new career structure. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 13 to 24 January 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  5. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  6. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  7. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  9. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  10. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  11. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  12. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  13. Verification of computer system PROLOG - software tool for rapid assessments of consequences of short-term radioactive releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of nuclear and radiation accidents emergency response authorities require a tool for rapid assessments of possible consequences. One of the most significant problems is lack of data on initial state of an accident. The lack can be especially critical in case the accident occurred in a location that was not thoroughly studied beforehand (during transportation of radioactive materials for example). One of possible solutions is the hybrid method when a model that enables rapid assessments with the use of reasonable minimum of input data is used conjointly with an observed data that can be collected shortly after accidents. The model is used to estimate parameters of the source and uncertain meteorological parameters on the base of some observed data. For example, field of fallout density can be observed and measured within hours after an accident. After that the same model with the use of estimated parameters is used to assess doses and necessity of recommended and mandatory countermeasures. The computer system PROLOG was designed to solve the problem. It is based on the widely used Gaussian model. The standard Gaussian model is supplemented with several sub-models that allow to take into account: polydisperse aerosols, aerodynamic shade from buildings in the vicinity of the place of accident, terrain orography, initial size of the radioactive cloud, effective height of the release, influence of countermeasures on the doses of radioactive exposure of humans. It uses modern GIS technologies and can use web map services. To verify ability of PROLOG to solve the problem it is necessary to test its ability to assess necessary parameters of real accidents in the past. Verification of the computer system on the data of Chazhma Bay accident (Russian Far East, 1985) was published previously. In this work verification was implemented on the base of observed contamination from the Kyshtym disaster (PA Mayak, 1957) and the Tomsk accident (1993). Observations of Sr-90

  14. 78 FR 28237 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... Telecommunications Advisory Committee, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland...

  15. 76 FR 7551 - Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance: Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance: Hearing AGENCY: Advisory Committee on Student Financial... Student Financial Assistance (the Advisory Committee). This notice also describes the functions of the.... Alison Bane, Associate Director of Government Relations, Advisory Committee on Student...

  16. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  17. Technical subsidies for the operation of IRD/CNEN emergency vehicles in the case of a nuclear accident at the Angra Nuclear Power Plant with associated radioactive releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical support is provided for the operation of an emergency vehicle of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the event of uncontrolled release of radioactivity from the Angra Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) to the atmosphere. It is based on internationally adopted emergency decision process philosophy, the concept of 'Protective Action Guide' (PAG), the exposure pathways relevant to nuclear accidents, the measuring systems to be used in obtaining the exposure rate in the effluent 'plume', the methods utilized to predict dose to the population, radioiodine suppression measures, the monitoring instrumentation available to the emergency group, some post-accident considerations and finally, the monitoring that may be carried out from an aircraft. Information is given about the NPP operator's responsabilities with respect to the prediction of the consequences of an accident, as well as methods for thyroid and whole body dose estimation based on exposure to the radioiodine and noble gases present in the effluent plume. The example of the Three Mile Island's incident is used to formulate some observations regarding collective dose to the public estimates derived from measurements made from a helicopter. (Author)

  18. 78 FR 30305 - The President's Management Advisory Board (PMAB); Public Advisory Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... work and focus for 2013 which include Management Innovation and Optimizing Federal Real Estate. In... ADMINISTRATION The President's Management Advisory Board (PMAB); Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: Office of... Management Advisory Board (PMAB), a Federal Advisory Committee established in accordance with the...

  19. 78 FR 60863 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (``the Committee''). DATES...: Mr. William Hostyn, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/J2/5/8R-ACP, 8725 John J. Kingman Road,...

  20. 78 FR 77663 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (``the Committee''). This... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. William Hostyn, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/J2/5/8R-AC, 8725 John J....

  1. 78 FR 29334 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (``the Committee''). DATES: Wednesday... Hostyn, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/J2/5/8R-ACP, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201,...

  2. A Real-Time Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new 3-D multi-scale atmospheric dispersion modeling system and its on-going evaluation. This system is being developed for both real-time operational applications and detailed assessments of events involving atmospheric releases of hazardous material. It is part of a new, modernized Department of Energy (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) emergency response computer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system contains coupled meteorological data assimilation and dispersion models, initial versions of which were described by Sugiyama and Chan (1998) and Leone et al. (1997). Section 2 describes the current versions of these models, emphasizing new features. This modeling system supports cases involving both simple and complex terrain, and multiple space and time scales from the microscale to mesoscale. Therefore, several levels of verification and evaluation are required. The meteorological data assimilation and interpolation algorithms have been previously evaluated by comparison to observational data (Sugiyama and Chan, 1998). The non-divergence adjustment algorithm was tested against potential flow solutions and wind tunnel data (Chan and Sugiyama, 1997). Initial dispersion model results for a field experiment case study were shown by Leone et al. (1997). A study in which an early, prototype version of the new modeling system was evaluated and compared to the current NARAC operational models showed that the new system provides improved results (Foster et al., 1999). In Section 3, we show example results from the current versions of the models, including verification using analytic solutions to the advection-diffusion equation as well as on-going evaluation using microscale and mesoscale dispersion field experiments

  3. 75 FR 19608 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Recreation Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Call for nominations for the Pacific Northwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committees. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture has established the Pacific Northwest Recreation Resource...

  4. 77 FR 5801 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee... within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate the participation of all consumers...

  5. 75 FR 9898 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee (``Committee''). The purpose of the ] Committee is to make recommendations to the Commission regarding...

  6. 75 FR 4819 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee (``Committee''). The purpose of the Committee is to make recommendations to the Commission regarding...

  7. 76 FR 3633 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document announces the rechartering of the Consumer Advisory Committee (hereinafter ``the... ``Commission'') regarding consumer issues within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate...

  8. 78 FR 20918 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... representative is as follows (* indicates new appointment): AARP--Chris Baker American Consumer Institute... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Consumer Advisory Committee (Committee). The Commission further announces the Committee's next meeting...

  9. NIH MedlinePlus Advisory Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nihadvisory.html National Institutes of Health MedlinePlus Advisory Group To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The NIH MedlinePlus Advisory Group fosters collaboration between Institutes to guide the general ...

  10. 75 FR 67351 - Environmental Management Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Environmental Management Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces a teleconference of the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB). The... is to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with advice...

  11. 75 FR 51026 - Environmental Management Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Environmental Management Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB). The Federal... Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with advice and recommendations on corporate...

  12. 76 FR 67717 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public notice of these meetings be announced in the Federal...

  13. 77 FR 26274 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ...This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. Law 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public notice of these meetings be announced in the Federal...

  14. 77 FR 66847 - Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices... the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... releasing external pressure during systole to reduce left ventricular workload. On March 9, 1979 (44...

  15. 76 FR 43658 - Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee... participants can dial in to the calls. Participants who choose to use the web conferencing feature in...

  16. 78 FR 21598 - National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee (NCADAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory..., Suite 250, 1717 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20006. The public will not be able to dial...

  17. 78 FR 4120 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Recreation Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to re-establish the Recreation Resource Advisory Committees... Recreation Resource Advisory Committees (Recreation RACs) pursuant to Section 4 of the Federal...

  18. 76 FR 10577 - Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability... reestablished Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat... of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal Building,...

  19. 77 FR 10486 - Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability... Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, 86 Stat. 770... INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew Rosenbaum, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, U.S....

  20. 75 FR 61454 - Electricity Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy...-established DOE Electricity Advisory Committee. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...: David Meyer, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability,...

  1. 78 FR 9038 - Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability... Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew Rosenbaum, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability,...

  2. 77 FR 4238 - Advisory Committee Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Part 8 RIN 1400-AC64 Advisory Committee Management AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final rule... establish uniform administrative guidelines and management controls for advisory committees established by... of Subjects in 22 CFR Part 8 Advisory Committee Management. Accordingly, under the authority of 22...

  3. 75 FR 20371 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Open Teleconference Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will... . Include docket number in the subject line of the message. Fax: (202) 282-9207 Mail: Homeland...

  4. 76 FR 4123 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... SECURITY Homeland Security Advisory Council AGENCY: The Office of Policy, DHS. ACTION: Notice of partially closed Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will... . Include docket number in the subject line of the message. Fax: (202) 282-9207 Mail: Homeland...

  5. 77 FR 40032 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is...

  6. 77 FR 53920 - NASA Federal Advisory Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Management Division Web site noted below. For any questions, please contact Ms. Susan Burch, Advisory... found at the NASA Advisory Committee Management Division's Web site at http://oiir.hq.nasa.gov/acmd.html... Administrator may request. National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Advisory...

  7. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  8. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  9. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those.... Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday, March 7, 2013 through Friday, March...

  10. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  11. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  12. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  13. 42 CFR 51.23 - Advisory council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 51.8. (b) Members of the council shall include attorneys, mental health professionals, individuals... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advisory council. 51.23 Section 51.23 Public Health... § 51.23 Advisory council. (a) Each P&A system shall establish an advisory council to: (1)...

  14. 75 FR 38086 - Technology Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Technology Advisory Committee Meeting The Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (``Commission'') Technology Advisory Committee will conduct a meeting on Wednesday, July 14, 2010, beginning at 1 p.m. The...://www.cftc.gov . This will be the first meeting of the reestablished Technology Advisory...

  15. 77 FR 15737 - Technology Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... COMMISSION Technology Advisory Committee AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC''). ACTION: Notice of meeting of Technology Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The CFTC announces that on March 29, 2012, the CFTC's Technology Advisory Committee (``TAC'') will hold a public meeting at the CFTC's...

  16. 77 FR 15091 - Environmental Management Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Environmental Management Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Solicitation of Nominations for Appointment as a member of the Environmental Management Advisory Board. SUMMARY: In accordance... soliciting nominations for candidates to fill vacancies on the Environmental Management Advisory Board...

  17. 76 FR 21877 - Environmental Management Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Environmental Management Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of call for nominations for appointment to the Environmental Management Advisory Board. SUMMARY: This notice constitutes an open call to the public to submit nominations for membership on the Environmental Management Advisory Board....

  18. Assessment of impact of a severe accident at nuclear power plant of Angra dos Reis with release of radionuclides to the atmosphere; Avaliacao do impacto de um acidente severo na usina de Angra dos Reis com liberacao de radionuclideos para a atmosfera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de

    2015-07-01

    This study had as purpose the assess the impact of a severe accident, and also analyze the dispersion of {sup 131}I in the atmosphere, so that, through concentrating and inhaling dose of the plume, were possible to verify if the results are in accordance with the indicated data by the Plan of Emergency of the CNAAA regarding the Impact Zone and Control. This exercise was performed with the aid of an atmospheric model and a dispersion where to atmospheric modeling we used the data coupling WRF / CALMET and of dispersion, CALPUFF. The suggested accident consists of a Station Blackout at Nuclear Power of Angra (Unit 1), where through the total core involvement, will release 100% of the {sup 131}I to the atmosphere. The value of the total activity in the nucleus to this radionuclide is 7.44 x 1017 Bq, that is relative on the sixth day of burning. This activity will be released through the chimney at a rate in Bq/s in the scenario of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of release. Applying the model in the proposed scenario, it is verified that the plume has concentrations of the order of 1020 Bq/m³ and dose of about 108 Sv whose value is beyond of the presented by Eletronuclear in your current emergency plan. (author)

  19. INGDOS: a conversational computer code to implement US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109 models for estimation of annual doses from ingestion of atmospherically released radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INGDOS is a conversational FORTRAN IV program which utilizes models described in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109 for calculating: (1) concentrations of airborne radionuclides in foods; and (2) annual doses to various organs of man from ingestion of foods contaminated by radionuclides released to the atmosphere. An exception to the implementation of models described in the Regulatory Guide is the adoption of other previously described models for estimation of doses for 3H and 14C. An on-line data base provides default values for most of the parameters required in the calculation of these quantities. In most cases the program allows the user to change any of these values for a particular run. With the exception of 3H and 14C, the calculation of nuclide concentrations in and on vegetation at a given location is based on the rate of deposition of the nuclide at the given location, which is the product of the ground-level air concentration and the deposition velocity of the nuclide. The last two quantities must be supplied by the user of the code for each nuclide other than 3H or 14C involved in the run. As output from INGDOS, the user may have any (or all) of 11 tables printed which specify nuclide concentrations and annual organ doses via various pathways as well as certain ratios involving these quantities. The models for calculating nuclide concentrations and organ doses are discussed, and information is provided concerning the use of the code and its data base

  20. 78 FR 69991 - Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... established on April 24, 1984 (49 FR 20809; May 17, 1984). The purpose of the Committee was to review and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine...

  1. 78 FR 74102 - Solicitation of Nominations for Members of the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... the USDA Grain Inspection Advisory Committee (Advisory Committee). The Advisory Committee meets...). Recommendations by the Advisory Committee help GIPSA better meet the needs of its customers who operate in...

  2. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  3. Is bioexsiccation releasing dioxins?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfenati, E.; Mariani, G.; Lodi, M.; Reitano, G.; Fanelli, R. [' ' Mario Negri' ' Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Bioexsiccation is a relatively new process to treat urban solid wastes. We studied the possible release of dioxins from this process, measuring dioxin concentration in the emissions from a bioexsiccation plant. As a comparison, we measured atmospheric levels nearby the plant. The biofilter treating gaseous emissions was also evaluated to assess its efficiency. Dioxin concentrations in the biofilter effluent were lower than both those before the biofilter and the nearby atmosphere. In the last years the management and treatment of solid urban wastes produced some improved processes, in a general attempt to cope with the problem of the huge amount of wastes produced by the modern society. Bio-exsiccation of waste aims at affording a much more biologically inert and manageable material compared to the original waste. In this process the urban solid waste is kept under an air stream for about two weeks. The waste undergoes biological transformation, due to fermentation, which produces an increase of the temperature up to 60-70 C. At the end of the process the weight waste is typically reduced by one third, due to the loss of water and to the degradation of putrescible compounds. Since this is a relatively new industrial process, we studied the possible release of dioxins in the atmospheric emissions of the bioexsiccation plant.

  4. ITER management advisory committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC) Meeting was held on 23 February in Garching, Germany. The main topics were: the consideration of the report by the Director on the ITER EDA Status, the review of the Work Programme, the review of the Joint Fund, the review of a schedule of ITER meetings, and the arrangements for termination and wind-up of the EDA

  5. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  6. Writing Reviews for Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Reviews are an important resource for readers' advisory and collection development. They are also a helpful promotional tool, introducing patrons to what is new on the shelf. This resource includes: (1) Tips for writing strong, relevant reviews; (2) Different ways reviews can be used to promote your library; and (3) A chapter by Joyce Saricks…

  7. ITER management advisory committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC) Meeting was held in Vienna on 16 July 2001. It was the last MAC Meeting and the main topics were consideration of the report by the Director on the ITER EDA status, review of the Work Programme, review of the Joint Fund and arrangements for termination and wind-up of the EDA

  8. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special...

  9. 76 FR 28443 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... emergency preparedness (NS/EP) telecommunications policy. Agenda: The committee will meet in open session...

  10. 75 FR 3913 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee...: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will be meeting by... telecommunications policy. Notice of this meeting is given under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA),...

  11. 75 FR 29781 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will be... preparedness telecommunications policy. Notice of this meeting is given under the Federal Advisory...

  12. 77 FR 24728 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... telecommunications policy. Agenda: The committee will meet in open session to receive a briefing on the...

  13. 76 FR 19952 - Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting, Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In accordance.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Davy Crockett National Forest Resource Advisory Committee...

  14. 12 CFR 7.2004 - Honorary directors or advisory boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appoint honorary or advisory members of a board of directors to act in advisory capacities without voting... or advisory directors must distinguish between them and the bank's board of directors or...

  15. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 31 nonfederal invasive species experts...

  16. 76 FR 24505 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Great Lakes pilot registration, operating requirements, training policies, and pilotage rates and...

  17. 78 FR 58521 - National Construction Safety Team Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Construction Safety Team Advisory Committee Meeting... meeting. SUMMARY: The National Construction Safety Team (NCST) Advisory Committee (Committee) will meet on... to the National Construction Safety Team Advisory Committee, National Institute of Standards...

  18. 77 FR 68103 - National Construction Safety Team Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Construction Safety Team Advisory Committee Meeting... meeting. SUMMARY: The National Construction Safety Team (NCST) Advisory Committee (Committee) will meet on... to submit written statements to the National Construction Safety Team Advisory Committee,...

  19. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  20. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  1. 78 FR 11142 - The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Economic Development Administration The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship AGENCY: U.S. Department of... Innovation and Entrepreneurship (NACIE) has cancelled its open meeting, originally planned for...

  2. 77 FR 55863 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied... Subcommittee reports to the Earth Science Subcommittee Committee of the NASA Advisory Council. The Meeting will... --Earth Science Data Latency Study Preliminary Update --Capacity Building Assessment Report and...

  3. 76 FR 64892 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee and the Agricultural Technical Advisory Committees for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee and the Agricultural Technical... States Trade Representative (USTR), renewed the charters of the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee... that reason, nominations will be accepted on an ongoing basis. ADDRESSES: All nomination...

  4. Renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located...

  5. 78 FR 64941 - Government-Wide Travel Advisory Committee (GTAC); Public Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... GTAC November 7, 2013 meeting originally published in the Federal Register at 78 FR 56231 on September... ADMINISTRATION Government-Wide Travel Advisory Committee (GTAC); Public Advisory Committee Meetings AGENCY..., Designated Federal Officer (DFO), Government-wide Travel ] Advisory Committee (GTAC), Office of...

  6. 75 FR 22560 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (hereafter referred to... an intermittent basis to work specific Board-related efforts, and shall have no voting rights....

  7. 75 FR 60484 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied... Advisory Group. This Subcommittee reports to the Earth Science Subcommittee Committee of the NASA Advisory.... --Report from Earth Science Subcommittee Meeting. It is imperative that the meeting be held on these...

  8. 76 FR 52319 - Federal Advisory Committee Meeting Notice; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Advisory Committee Meeting Notice; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Under... Department of Defense announces the following Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction..., Lorton, VA 22079. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. William Hostyn, Defense Threat Reduction...

  9. 77 FR 2710 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as ``the Committee''). DATES..., DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201, Fort Belvoir,...

  10. 77 FR 19006 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as ``the Committee''). DATES: Tuesday... Threat Reduction Agency/SP-ACP, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201....

  11. 77 FR 50088 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as ``the Committee.... William Hostyn, GS-15, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/J2/5/8R, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS...

  12. 77 FR 69807 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (hereafter referred to as ``the Committee... Hostyn, DoD, Defense Threat Reduction Agency/J2/5/8R-ACP, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201,...

  13. 75 FR 26317 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC); Notice of... Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC); Notice of Federal Advisory Committee... the first meeting of the FAAC which will be held in the Metropolitan Washington, DC area. This...

  14. 77 FR 18797 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed... discussions of classified information relating to DIA's intelligence operations including its support to... intelligence operations. Agenda May 2, 2012 S 8:30 a.m Convene Advisory Board Meeting Mr. William...

  15. 75 FR 43493 - Office of the Secretary; Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of the Secretary; Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DOD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of... that Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board will meet on September 1 and 2, 2010. The meeting...

  16. 75 FR 81245 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the... Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board and two of its subcommittees will meet on January 26 and...

  17. 76 FR 41220 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of... that Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board and two of its subcommittees will meet on August 4...

  18. 75 FR 24926 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under the provisions of... that Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board, and its subcommittees, will meet on June 15 and...

  19. 76 FR 53671 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board; Closed Meeting AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Meeting notice... Department of Defense announces that Defense Intelligence Agency Advisory Board and two of its...

  20. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man

  1. 75 FR 9416 - Advisory Committee Information Hotline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... 3014512532 Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee 3014512533 Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs... Pathology Devices Panel 3014512515 Immunology Devices Panel 3014512516 Medical Devices Dispute...

  2. Afghanistan; Joint Staff Advisory Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Joint Staff Advisory Note discusses Afghanistan’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper's annual progress report. Afghanistan has experienced a number of extraordinary challenges that delayed its implementation. The security situation deteriorated markedly and has been dominated by the cross-border Taliban insurgency. Growth started to recover from a devastating drought. In May 2008, food and fuel prices peaked, leading to high inflation and pressure on the budget for additional fuel and fo...

  3. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  4. Review of specific effects in atmospheric dispersion calculations. The impact of source-term characteristics -and the processes that modify them post release- on dry and wet deposition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first half of the work the source-term characteristics potentially influencing behaviour were identified and examined. It was concluded that a number of source characteristics, in addition to those conventionally provided for consequence assessment, could significantly influence deposition behaviour. Linking with this, a review was undertaken of past reactor-accident risk assessment and more recent source-term studies to pick out information, if any, on the parameters of interest. The second half of the study resulted in a list of processes capable of transforming the released material vis-a-vis deposition characteristics, including processes occurring in the near field associated with the initial release transient and also those occurring over a longer time span as the plume travels downwind. Scoping calculations were performed for some of the processes in the context of idealized accident scenarios, leading to the conclusions that in some circumstances post-release mechanisms could have an important impact on the deposition behaviour of released material. Statistical theory was used to describe the behaviour of a plume both before and after detachment, and the limitations of the theory were discussed. A review of the lateral wind velocity spectra was undertaken so that simplified spectra could be constructed and used to predict the plume behaviour as a function of travel time, stability category and release duration. It was found that commonly used methods of allowing for release duration overpredicted the dependence, in general, upon release duration. For example the adoption of a stability-independent meandering term would lead to the underprediction of threshold effects such as early death and land/crop interdiction. In addition, theory indicated that the 'Y' curves for different stability categories would converge gradually with increasing travel time

  5. IMPACT: Virginia Potato Disease Advisory Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, D. Ames (David Ames), 1949-; Long, Theresa; Deitch, Ursula T.; Laub, Curtis A., 1955-; Rideout, Steven Lewis; Moore, David; Tucker, Lindy; Archibald, Tom

    2014-01-01

    To help potato growers more efficiently manage disease problems, Virginia Cooperative Extension initiated the Virginia Potato Disease Advisory to provide growers with weather-based disease forecast information. Advisories not only alert growers to periods of risk, they also assist growers in making management decisions, such as when protective fungicide applications are needed.

  6. 76 FR 34750 - Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... for the Enrollment of Actuaries gives notice of a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Actuarial.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that the Advisory Committee on Actuarial Examinations will... Joint Board examinations in actuarial mathematics and methodology referred to in 29 U.S.C....

  7. 77 FR 67809 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  8. 78 FR 61348 - Electricity Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Cancellation of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: On September 11, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-22119, on pages 55692- 55693, the Department of Energy... Advisory Committee (78 FR 55692). This notice announces the cancellation of this meeting. FOR...

  9. 77 FR 49441 - Electricity Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Department of... that the Electricity Advisory ] Committee's (EAC) charter has been renewed for a two-year period... Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability on programs to modernize the Nation's...

  10. 76 FR 6134 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3633), announcing the rechartering of its Consumer Advisory Committee (hereinafter ``the... incorrect and/or omitted dates. Correction In the Federal Register of January 20, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-1170... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice;...

  11. 77 FR 50460 - Cherokee Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Forest Service Cherokee Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Cherokee Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Knoxville, Tennessee. The... Coordinator, Cherokee National Forest, 423-476-9729, twmcdonald@fs.fed.us . Individuals who...

  12. 78 FR 37536 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane... meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. The Federal... of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential applications of...

  13. 76 FR 59667 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane... Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. Federal... of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice...

  14. 78 FR 26337 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane... Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. The Federal... of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential applications of...

  15. 75 FR 9886 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane... meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. Federal... Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential applications of methane hydrate...

  16. 78 FR 70987 - Proxy Advisory Firm Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...The Securities and Exchange Commission will host a roundtable about proxy advisory firms. The panel will be asked to discuss topics including the current state of proxy advisory firm use by investment advisers and institutional investors and potential changes that have been suggested by market participants. Panelists will also be invited to discuss any new ideas. The roundtable discussion will......

  17. 77 FR 74661 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Internet at http://www.fcc.gov/events/open-internet-advisory-committee . Federal Communications Commission... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet...

  18. 77 FR 62621 - Advisory Committee Charter Renewals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... NW., Washington, DC 20420; telephone (202) 461-7028; or email at vivian.drake@va.gov . To view a copy of a VA Federal advisory committee charter, visit http://www.va.gov/advisory . Dated: October 9, 2012... mission of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and renewing their charters would be in the...

  19. 77 FR 4556 - Environmental Management Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Environmental Management Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Environmental Management, Department of Energy. ACTION... hereby given that the Environmental Management Advisory Board will be renewed for a two-year period... Environmental Management (EM) on a broad range of corporate issues affecting the EM program. These...

  20. 76 FR 3677 - Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks..., discussion, evaluation, and recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the...

  1. 78 FR 59978 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  2. 78 FR 28244 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  3. 76 FR 23845 - Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks..., evaluation, and recommendations on financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and...

  4. 78 FR 64026 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the... of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks...

  5. 77 FR 13154 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice--meeting. Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, notice is hereby given that a meeting of the...

  6. 77 FR 61643 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  7. 78 FR 21978 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  8. 77 FR 22613 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  9. 77 FR 75672 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  10. 78 FR 42982 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks...

  11. 76 FR 63664 - Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... thirteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy... approximate): Arts Education (application review): November 1-4, 2011 in Room 716. This meeting, from 9...

  12. 75 FR 56146 - Arts Advisory Panel; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel; Meetings Pursuant to... given that four meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at... are approximate): Arts Education (application review): October 4-5, 2010 in Room 716. A portion...

  13. 76 FR 50499 - Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks... financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as...

  14. 78 FR 76660 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  15. 77 FR 35067 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  16. 78 FR 26399 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by teleconference...

  17. 77 FR 49026 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  18. 75 FR 27825 - Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy Hanks... financial assistance under the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, as...

  19. 77 FR 27803 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  20. 78 FR 50451 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  1. 77 FR 67836 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  2. 77 FR 13367 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by teleconference at...

  3. 77 FR 41808 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  4. 78 FR 68099 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of...- one meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the...

  5. 78 FR 38410 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  6. 78 FR 17942 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  7. 78 FR 5213 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meeting of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held at the Nancy...

  8. 77 FR 56875 - Arts Advisory Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Arts Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: National Endowment for the Arts, National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of... meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the National Council on the Arts will be held by teleconference...

  9. Impact of Technology and Innovation Advisory Services

    OpenAIRE

    Shapira P., & Youtie J.

    2014-01-01

    This report identifies and reviews literature that evaluates the impacts of technology and innovation advisory services. These services provide information, technical assistance, consulting, mentoring, and other services to support enterprises in adopting and deploying new technologies and in commercialising innovations. Examples include the: Manufacturing Advisory Service (UK), the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (USA), and the Industrial Research Assistance Program (Canada). Technology ...

  10. 78 FR 48334 - Advisory Committees (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... advisory committees. See 33 FR 466. Among its major provisions, part 95 set forth regulations governing the... circumstances.\\1\\ \\1\\ 33 FR 6913 (May 8, 1968) (amending 49 CFR 95.11 to provide authority for the Secretary of... 1977 transferred advisory committee functions from OMB to GSA. \\8\\ 66 FR 37728 (July 19,...

  11. 75 FR 13269 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  12. 78 FR 70932 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  13. 78 FR 76599 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... that the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC) will be renewed for a two-year period beginning...

  14. 75 FR 67351 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  15. 78 FR 29125 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC)....

  16. A Look at Citizen Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald E.; Ostertag, Bruce A.

    This overview of citizens advisory committees examines their history in public schools and school systems, different types of committees, their roles and functions, and the problems that accompany them. The history of advisory committees is covered from the 1940s on, with an emphasis on their expansion in the 1960s under the impetus of the civil…

  17. 49 CFR 95.7 - Industry advisory committees: Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industry advisory committees: Membership. 95.7 Section 95.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.7 Industry advisory committees: Membership. Each industry advisory committee must be reasonably representative of...

  18. 77 FR 42490 - Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance: Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance: Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Committee on Student Financial... Student Financial Assistance. This notice also describes the functions of the Advisory Committee. Notice...: Office of the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, Capitol Place, 80 F Street NW.,...

  19. 78 FR 48152 - Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance; Meeting AGENCY: Advisory Committee on Student Financial... Student Financial Assistance. This notice also describes the functions of the Advisory Committee. Notice... the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, Capitol Place, 80 F Street NW., Room...

  20. 76 FR 65750 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the Federal Advisory... of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with...

  1. 78 FR 11950 - Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Research and Innovative Technology Administration Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics; Meeting....C. app. 2), a meeting of the Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics (ACTS). The meeting will... Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C.,...

  2. 78 FR 70954 - Risk Communications Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... the free Webcast. Visit the Risk Communication Advisory Committee Web site at http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/RiskCommunicationAdvisoryCommittee/default.htm . The link... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Risk Communications Advisory Committee; Notice of...

  3. Working with Advisory Committees . . . Promising Practices. Operations Notebook 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, James L.

    This publication is intended to aid school-level educational administrators in working with citizen advisory committees. After a brief discussion of the rationale for advisory committees, it focuses in turn on 1) functions of advisory committees, 2) ways to determine philosophical positions of agreement and disagreement among advisory committee…

  4. Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S

    2010-01-01

    At the dawn of the first discovery of exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars in the mid-1990s, few believed that observations of exoplanet atmospheres would ever be possible. After the 2002 Hubble Space Telescope detection of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere, many skeptics discounted it as a one-object, one-method success. Nevertheless, the field is now firmly established, with over two dozen exoplanet atmospheres observed today. Hot Jupiters are the type of exoplanet currently most amenable to study. Highlights include: detection of molecular spectral features; observation of day-night temperature gradients; and constraints on vertical atmospheric structure. Atmospheres of giant planets far from their host stars are also being studied with direct imaging. The ultimate exoplanet goal is to answer the enigmatic and ancient question, "Are we alone?" via detection of atmospheric biosignatures. Two exciting prospects are the immediate focus on transiting super Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs, and u...

  5. Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references

  6. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  7. Input of the US Advisory Panel on Federal International Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, JoAnn M.

    2006-01-01

    In November 2005, the U.S. President's Advisory Panel on Federal Tax Reform released a comprehensive Report titled “Simple, Fair, and Pro-Growth: Proposals to Fix America's Tax System.†The Report addressed all aspects of the federal income tax treatment of households and businesses under both domestic and international rules. This paper focuses on the proposals dealing with international elements of federal tax reform that affect multinational businesses. The report presents two broad Pla...

  8. Health consequences of using smokeless tobacco: summary of the Advisory Committee's report to the Surgeon General.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, J W; Blot, W; Henningfield, J.; Boyd, G; Mecklenburg, R; Massey, M M

    1986-01-01

    On March 25, 1986, the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service released a report that detailed the results of the first comprehensive, indepth review of the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and health. This review, prepared under the auspices of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on the Health Consequences of Using Smokeless Tobacco, is summarized in this article. In the United States, smokeless tobacco is used predominantly in the forms of chewing tobacco and snuff. Duri...

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry...

  10. Methods for conduct of atmospheric tracer studies at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been developed to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. This report discusses the tracer release, sampling and analysis methods

  11. 75 FR 80048 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee... Environmental Economics Advisory Committee (EEAC) Augmented for Mortality Risk Valuation will hold a public... Advisory Board's Environmental Economics Advisory Committee (EEAC) on the appropriateness of this...

  12. 76 FR 52016 - NASA Federal Advisory Committees; Nominations and Self-Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... NASA Federal Advisory Committees. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act... of the specific NASA Federal advisory committee of interest for consideration. Such letters must be... all letters and accompanying information to: Ms. Susan Burch, Advisory Committee Management...

  13. 75 FR 70215 - Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC), Request for... membership on the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). SUMMARY: The Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC) was established under the Federal Advisory Committee Act,...

  14. 78 FR 71631 - Committee Name: Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... SECURITY Committee Name: Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC) AGENCY... Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Homeland Security Information Network... Homeland Security Information Network Advisory Committee (HSINAC) is an advisory body to the...

  15. Testing of environmental transfer models using data from the atmospheric release of Iodine-131 from the Hanford site, USA, in 1963. Report of the Dose Reconstruction Working Group of the Biosphere Modelling and Assessment (BIOMASS) Programme, Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Programme on BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment (BIOMASS) was launched in Vienna in October 1996. The programme was concerned with developing and improving capabilities to predict the transfer of radionuclides in the environment. The programme had three themes: Theme 1: Radioactive Waste Disposal. The objective was to develop the concept of a standard or reference biosphere for application to the assessment of the long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. Theme 2: Environmental Releases. BIOMASS provided an international forum for activities aimed at increasing the confidence in methods and models for the assessment of radiation exposure related to environmental releases. Two Working Groups addressed issues concerned with the reconstruction of radiation doses received by people from past releases of radionuclides to the environment and the evaluation of the efficacy of remedial measures. Theme 3: Biosphere Processes. The aim of this Theme was to improve capabilities for modelling the transfer of radionuclides in particular parts of the biosphere identified as being of potential radiological significance and where there were gaps in modelling approaches. This topic was explored using a range of methods including reviews of the literature, model inter-comparison exercises and, where possible, model testing against independent sources of data. Three Working Groups were established to examine the modelling of: (1) long term tritium dispersion in the environment; (2) radionuclide uptake by fruits; and (3) radionuclide migration and accumulation in forest ecosystems. This report describes results of the studies undertaken by the Dose Reconstruction Working Group under Theme 2

  16. EPRI root cause advisory workstation 'ERCAWS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPRI and its contractor FPI International are developing Personal Computer (PC), Microsoft Windows based software to assist power plant engineers and maintenance personnel to diagnose and correct root causes of power plant equipment failures. The EPRI Root Cause Advisory Workstation (ERCAWS) is easy to use and able to handle knowledge bases and diagnostic tools for an unlimited number of equipment types. Knowledge base data is based on power industry experience and root cause analysis from many sources - Utilities, EPRI, US government, FPI, and International sources. The approach used in the knowledge base handling portion of the software is case-study oriented with the engineer selecting the equipment type and symptom identification using a combination of text, photographs, and animation, displaying dynamic physical phenomena involved. Root causes, means for confirmation, and corrective actions are then suggested in a simple, user friendly format. The first knowledge base being released with ERCAWS is the Valve Diagnostic Advisor module; covering six common valve types and some motor operator and air operator items. More modules are under development with Heat Exchanger, Bolt, and Piping modules currently in the beta testing stage. A wide variety of diagnostic tools are easily incorporated into ERCAWS and accessed through the main screen interface. ERCAWS is designed to fulfill the industry need for user-friendly tools to perform power plant equipment failure root cause analysis, and training for engineering, operations and maintenance personnel on how components can fail and how to reduce failure rates or prevent failure from occurring. In addition, ERCAWS serves as a vehicle to capture lessons learned from industry wide experience. (author)

  17. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience....

  18. Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan; Barman, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The study of exoplanetary atmospheres is one of the most exciting and dynamic frontiers in astronomy. Over the past two decades ongoing surveys have revealed an astonishing diversity in the planetary masses, radii, temperatures, orbital parameters, and host stellar properties of exoplanetary systems. We are now moving into an era where we can begin to address fundamental questions concerning the diversity of exoplanetary compositions, atmospheric and interior processes, and formation histories, just as have been pursued for solar system planets over the past century. Exoplanetary atmospheres provide a direct means to address these questions via their observable spectral signatures. In the last decade, and particularly in the last five years, tremendous progress has been made in detecting atmospheric signatures of exoplanets through photometric and spectroscopic methods using a variety of space-borne and/or ground-based observational facilities. These observations are beginning to provide important constraints...

  19. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    . Nevertheless, people’s experience of the environment is sought manipulated in a variety of contexts, often without offering a less ‘true’ experience of a situation than if it had not been manipulated by people. In fact, orchestrations of space are often central to sociality, politics and aesthetics. This...... introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  20. ATLAS-1 Video News Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Allen Kenitzer, from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), narrates this NASA Kennedy Space Center video presenting a MSFC-Television news release describing the overall scientific objectives of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications in Science-1 (ATLAS-1) Spacelab mission. Byron Lichtenberg (NASA Science Astronaut) and Anthony O'Neil (ATLAS-1 Mission Manager) explain that the 13 sophisticated and complementary instruments carried in shuttle Atlantis' payload bay are designed to identify the chemical species in our atmosphere, to measure the Sun's energy falling on and entering the atmosphere, to study the behavior of charged particles in the electric and magnetic fields surrounding the earth, and to gather ultraviolet light from stars and galaxies. ATLAS-1 is the first Spacelab flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mission to Planet Earth.

  1. 77 FR 55218 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...The Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) will meet in person and members of the public may participate by conference call on September 25, 2012. The two-day meeting will be partially closed to the...

  2. 77 FR 16894 - Financial Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... recognized experts in the fields of economics, financial institutions and markets, statistical analysis, financial markets analysis, econometrics, applied sciences, risk management, data, information standards... Financial Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Financial Research, Treasury. ACTION: Notice...

  3. 77 FR 35063 - Whistleblower Protection Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Whistleblower Protection Advisory Committee AGENCY: Occupational..., Director, Office of the Whistleblower Protection Program, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U... INFORMATION: The Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health (Assistant......

  4. 76 FR 78252 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, App. 2, and Section 102-3.65(a), Title 41, Code of Federal Regulations, and following consultation with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee will be renewed for a two-year period. The Committee will provide advice to the......

  5. 78 FR 17993 - Request for Nominations for the General Advisory Committee and the Scientific Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... investigation, scientific reports, and scientific recommendations of the Commission. Members of the Subcommittee..., 2008 (73 FR 77865) or prior, should resubmit their applications pursuant to this notice. David A... for Nominations for the General Advisory Committee and the Scientific Advisory Subcommittee to...

  6. 76 FR 5160 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... in the Digital Age (``Diversity Committee''). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at...

  7. 75 FR 9184 - Federal Advisory Committee; Advisory Council on Dependents' Education; Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Advisory Council on Dependents' Education; Open Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA). ACTION: Open meeting notice. SUMMARY: Under...

  8. 75 FR 25212 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Audit Advisory Committee (DAAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Balance sheet property valuation 4:35 Internal Audit Role 4:55 Closing Remarks Accessibility to the... include financial reporting processes, systems of internal controls, audit processes, and processes for... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Audit Advisory Committee (DAAC) AGENCY:...

  9. 76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal... imposed on NASA by law. The renewed Charter is for a one-year period ending September 30, 2012. It...

  10. 77 FR 72322 - The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Economic Development Administration The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship AGENCY: U.S. Department of... Entrepreneurship will hold a meeting on Tuesday, December 11, 2012. The open meeting will be held from 10:00...

  11. 78 FR 5772 - The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Economic Development Administration The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship AGENCY: U.S. Department of... Entrepreneurship will hold a meeting on Tuesday, February 19, 2013. The open meeting will be held from 10:00...

  12. 75 FR 64711 - Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Correction AGENCY... closed meeting; correction. SUMMARY: On September 30, 2010 (75 FR 60430) the Department of Defense published a notice in the Federal Register announcing an October 21, 2010, meeting of the Threat...

  13. 77 FR 56192 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed... discussions of classified information relating to DIA's intelligence operations including its support to... intelligence operations. Agenda September 26, 2012: ] 8:30 a.m Call to Order........ Ms. Ellen M....

  14. 77 FR 38041 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) Advisory Board; Closed... discussions of classified information relating to DIA's intelligence operations including its support to... intelligence operations. Agenda July 23, 2012 1 p.m.--Call to Order Mr. William Caniano, Designated...

  15. ITER technical advisory committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 17th Meeting of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee (TAC-17) was held on February 19-22, the ITER Garching Work Site in Germany. The objective of the meeting was to review the Draft Final Design Report of ITER-FEAT and assess the ability of the self-consistent overall design both to satisfy the technical objectives previously defined and to meet the cost limitations. TAC-17 was also organized to confirm that the design and critical elements, with emphasis on the key recommendations made at previous TAC meetings, are such as to extend the confidence in starting ITER construction. It was also intended to provide the ITER Council, scheduled to meet on 27 and 28 February in Toronto, with a technical assessment and key recommendations of the above mentioned report

  16. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  17. Atmospheric transport modelling for the CTBT radionuclide network in routine operation and after the Fukushima releases; Atmosphaerische Transportmodellierung fuer das Radionuklidmessnetz zur Ueberwachung des Kernwaffenteststoppvertrages im Regelbetrieb und nach den Freisetzungen in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.O.; Ceranna, L.; Boennemann, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). B4.3; Schlosser, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Freiburg (Germany). SW2.5

    2014-01-20

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all types of nuclear explosions. For verification of compliance with Treaty the International Monitoring System (IMS) is being built up by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the CTBT-Organisation in Vienna. The IMS observes waveform signals (seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic) of explosions and traces of radionuclides in the atmosphere to proof the nuclear character of an event. The International Data Centre (IDC) provides analysis products for the IMS data such as various event bulletins, radionuclide reports, and atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) results confining the possible source region of detected radionuclides. The judgment on the character of a suspicious event remains with the member states. The German National Data Centre for verification of CTBT is hosted by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) in Hannover. The BGR operates four IMS stations (IS26, IS27, PS19, and AS35) and cooperates closely with the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) who operates the radionuclide station RN33 at mount Schauinsland and supports the NDC with radionuclide expertise. In response to the Fukushima accident caused by the large magnitude 9.0 Tohuku Earthquake and Tsunami the HSYSPLIT model driven by 0.5 degree NCEP data was used at the German NDC to simulate the primary transport pathways of potentially emitted radioisotopes. The analysis focuses on arrival times and dilution ratios at the radionuclide stations of the IMS. The arrival times were predicted correctly at most stations for ten days after the accident. Traces of the Fukushima emissions were detected at all IMS radionuclide stations on the Northern Hemisphere end of March. In April also some stations on the Southern Hemisphere detected some traces which passed the ITCZ. In respect to the CTBT context the influence of the Tohoku earthquake and the Fukushima emissions on the network capability to detect a

  18. Atmospheric Smell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslund, Anette

    awareness. Subsequently, visitor interviews revealed how a museum-staged hospital atmosphere of an art installation was directly addressed owing to its smell. Curiously, this observation speaks against prevailing literature portraying smell as the ‘mute sense’, and what is more, the museum display did not...... alter smell curatorially. Rather, smell was gestured through non-olfactory effects and it was put in words metonymically, gesturing a reversibly synaesthetic atmosphere of a hospital. Visitor conversations revealed how smell could be poignantly picked up in situ, yet not until frequenting the museum...

  19. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC) will hold a meeting to hear....S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review subcommittee reports on...

  20. 78 FR 16357 - Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Research, Engineering and Development Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal... Research, Engineering and Development (R,E&D) Advisory Committee. Name: Research, Engineering & Development... in the areas of air traffic services, airports, aircraft safety, human factors and environment...

  1. 78 FR 49752 - National Environmental Education Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... AGENCY National Environmental Education Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... series of teleconference meetings of the National Environmental Education Advisory Council (NEEAC). The... EPA under the National Environmental Education Act (the Act). The purpose of these...

  2. 78 FR 12056 - National Environmental Education Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... AGENCY National Environmental Education Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... series of teleconference meetings of the National Environmental Education Advisory Council (NEEAC). The... EPA under the National Environmental Education Act (the Act). The purpose of these...

  3. 78 FR 29321 - Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Forest Service Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Rocky Mountain Region, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory... National Forest. Proposals, updates, and other information can be found on the Colorado Recreation...

  4. 76 FR 4281 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees Charter Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Forest Service Recreation Resource Advisory Committees Charter Reestablishment AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to reestablish the Recreation Resource Advisory Committees. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture intends to reestablish the charter for 5 Forest Service Recreation...

  5. 78 FR 14401 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). DATES:...

  6. 76 FR 82031 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... teleconference of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) Risk Management Working...

  7. 76 FR 78329 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The teleconference will take place on...

  8. 77 FR 35102 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group (OWG) of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC)....

  9. 78 FR 63232 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC... related to national security and emergency preparedness (NS/EP) telecommunications policy. During...

  10. 78 FR 45255 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... preparedness (NS/EP) telecommunications policy. Agenda: The NSTAC members will deliberate and vote on the...

  11. 77 FR 44641 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... security and emergency preparedness telecommunications policy. Agenda: The NSTAC members will receive...

  12. 76 FR 72427 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC...) telecommunications policy. During the meeting, NSTAC members will receive feedback from the Department of...

  13. 77 FR 75182 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... telecommunications policy. Agenda: The NSTAC members will receive an update on progress made to date by the...

  14. 77 FR 6813 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... and emergency preparedness telecommunications policy. During the conference call, the NSTAC...

  15. 76 FR 17424 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC... preparedness telecommunications policy. The NSTAC Chair, Mr. James Crowe, will call the meeting to order...

  16. 75 FR 16159 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee...: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will hold its annual... and emergency preparedness telecommunications policy. Notice of this meeting is given under...

  17. 76 FR 52672 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... telecommunications policy. During the conference call, the NSTAC members will receive an update regarding...

  18. 77 FR 65393 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... national security and emergency preparedness (NS/EP) telecommunications policy. Agenda: The NSTAC...

  19. 78 FR 50052 - Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY... the forthcoming meeting. Name of Committee: Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (EAB... the Chief of Engineers on environmental policy, identification and resolution of environmental...

  20. 77 FR 24760 - Safety Advisory 2012-02; Restricted Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2012-02; Restricted Speed AGENCY: Federal Railroad... speed. This safety advisory contains a preliminary discussion of recent train accidents involving a failure to operate at restricted speed and makes recommendations to railroads to ensure...