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Sample records for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted

  1. 大气压基质辅助激光解析离子源高分辨飞行时间质谱仪的研制%The Study of Atmospheric Pressure Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization and High Mass Resolution Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粘慧青; 黄正旭; 郭长娟; 高伟; 周振

    2007-01-01

    本文介绍了实验室自制的大气压基质辅助激光解析离子源(Atmospheric Pressure Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization,AP-MALDI)高分辨飞行时间质谱仪(Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer,TOFMS)的原理、结构以及初步的实验结果.通过对多肽样品gramicidin S的分析,国内首次实现在自制AP-MALDI-TOFMS上得到生物大分子谱图.结果表明,AP-MALDI高分辨TOFMS可以实现大气压下大通量的大分子精确质量检测.仪器分辨率优于8000(Full Width at Half Maximum,FWHM),最低检测限可达25fmol.

  2. Microwave-assisted atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Toshiki; Hidaka, Hiroki; Muguruma, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-assisted atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization is presented. A system with a re-entrant microwave cavity realizes simple matching, stable plasma, and free space under the orifice of plasma steam. Hexamethyldisiloxane is employed as a monomer, while argon is used as a carrier gas. The effective area of the hydrophobic coating film used corresponds to a circle of 20 mm diameter and the deposition rate considered is 5 nm/min. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy shows that the coating film has a large molecular weight (>200 kDa), suggesting that a high-crosslinking and three-dimensional polymer matrix is formed and microwave-assisted atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization is fulfilled.

  3. Microplasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nitrogen microplasma jet operated at atmospheric pressure was developed for treating thermally sensitive materials. For example, the plasma sources in treatment of vulnerable biological materials must operate near the room temperature at the atmospheric pressure, without any risk of arcing or electrical shock. The microplasma jet device operated by an electrical power less than 10 W exhibited a long plasma jet of about 6.5 cm with temperature near 300 K, not causing any harm to human skin. Optical emission measured at the wide range of 280-800 nm indicated various reactive species produced by the plasma jet

  4. Corona discharge secondary ionization of laser desorbed neutral molecules from a liquid matrix at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, Kevin [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Harrison, W.W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)]. E-mail: harrison@chem.ufl.edu

    2006-06-15

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is studied at atmospheric pressure using liquid sampling methods. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer couples to an open sample stage accessed by a UV laser for desorption and ionization. Also coupled to the sampling state is a corona discharge for auxiliary ionization of desorbed neutral molecules. The interaction of the laser desorption and corona ionization is studied for a range of desorption conditions, showing enhanced analyte ionization, but the effect is analytically advantageous only at low desorption rates. The effect of corona discharge voltage was also explored. The decoupling of neutral molecule formation and subsequent ionization provides an opportunity to study each process separately.

  5. Domestic atmospheric pressure thermal deaerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, P. V.; Gimmelberg, A. S.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Baeva, A. N.; Chuprakov, M. V.; Grigoriev, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    Based on many years of experience and proven technical solutions, modern atmospheric pressure deaerators of the capacity of 0.4 to 800 t/h were designed and developed. The construction of such deaerators is based on known and explored technical solutions. A two-stage deaeration scheme is applied where the first stage is a jet dripping level (in a column) and the second one is a bubble level (in a tank). In the design of deaeration columns, low-pressure hydraulic nozzles (Δ p TPP at heating and industrial-heating plants. The atmospheric pressure thermal deaerators developed at NPO TsKTI with consideration of the current requirements are recommended for the use in water preparation schemes of various power facilities.

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Selwyn, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O2/H2O) which flows between two concentric cylindrical electrodes: an outer grounded electrode and an inner electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, ionized or dissociated by electron impact. The fast-flowing effluent consists of ions and electrons, which are rapidly lost by recombination, highly reactive radicals (e.g., O, OH), and metastable species (e.g., O2). The metastable O2, which is reactive to hydrocarbon and other organic species, has been observed through optical emission spectroscopy to decrease by a factor of 2 from the APPJ nozzle exit to a distance of 10 cm. Unreacted metastable O2, and that which does not impinge on a surface, will then decay back to ordinary ground state O2, resulting in a completely dry, environmentally-benign form of surface cleaning. Applications such as removal of photoresist, oxide films and organic residues from wafers for the electronics industry, decontamination of civilian and military areas and personnel exposed to chemical or biological warfare agents, and paint (e.g., graffiti) removal are being considered.

  7. Diagnostics of plasma-biological surface interactions in low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of plasma-surface interaction are required to understand in order to control the reactions precisely. Recent progress in atmospheric pressure plasma provides to apply as a tool of sterilization of contaminated foodstuffs. To use the plasma with safety and optimization, the real time in situ detection of free radicals - in particular dangling bonds by using the electron-spin-resonance (ESR) technique has been developed because the free radical plays important roles for dominantly biological reactions. First, the kinetic analysis of free radicals on biological specimens such as fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with atomic oxygen generated plasma electric discharge. We have obtained information that the in situ real time ESR signal from the spores was observed and assignable to semiquinone radical with a g-value of around 2.004 and a line width of approximately 5G. The decay of the signal was correlated with a link to the inactivation of the fungal spore. Second, we have studied to detect chemical modification of edible meat after the irradiation. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS) and ESR, signals give qualification results for chemical changes on edible liver meat. The in situ real-time measurements have proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens.

  8. Natural products in Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) rhizome imaged at the cellular level by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Janfelt, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    .02 Da. With a mass resolving power of 140 000 and a bin width of 5 ppm in the image processing, the two compounds were well resolved in full-scan mode, and appeared with different distributions in the tissue sections. The identities of the compounds and their distributions were validated in a subsequent...... saponins in legume species, combing the spatially resolved chemical information with morphological details at the microscopic level. Furthermore, the technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in plant tissues....

  9. Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sterilization Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, R. P.; Beeler, D.; Meyyappan, M.; Khare, B. N.

    2012-10-01

    Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sterilization shower to address both forward and backward biological contamination issues is presented. The molecular effects of plasma exposure required to sterilize microorganisms is also analysed.

  10. Improving the Sensitivity of Matrix-Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry Using Ammonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubatyi, Nicholas D; McEwen, Charles N

    2015-10-01

    In matrix-assisted ionization (MAI), analyte incorporated in a small molecule matrix is introduced into an aperture linking atmospheric pressure with the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Gas-phase analyte ions are spontaneously produced without use of a laser or high voltage. Here we investigate analyte and background ion abundances upon addition of ammonium salts to various MAI matrix/analyte solutions. Regardless of the ammonium salt or matrix used, chemical background ions are suppressed and/or analyte ion abundance improved for basic small molecules, peptides, and proteins. Background ion abundances increase with increasing inlet temperature, but are suppressed with addition of any of a variety of ammonium salts without much effect on the total ion abundances of the analyte ions. However, at lower inlet temperature using the matrices 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, 1,2-dicyanobenzene, and 3-nitrobenzonitrile (3-NBN), analyte ion abundance increases and any chemical background decreases upon addition of ammonium salt. The improvement in sensitivity using 3-NBN with ammonium salt allows full acquisition mass spectra consuming as little as 1 fmol of ubiquitin. More complete peptide coverage for 100 fmol of a BSA tryptic digest, and increased sensitivity of drugs spiked in urine and saliva were observed after ammonium salt addition to the 3-NBN matrix. PMID:26122522

  11. 337 nm matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of single aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Murray, K K

    1999-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectra were obtained from single particles injected directly into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Aerosol particles were generated at atmospheric pressure using a piezoelectric single-particle generator or a pneumatic nebulizer and introduced into the mass spectrometer through a series of narrow-bore tubes. Particles were detected by light scattering that was used to trigger a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser and the ions produced by laser desorption were mass separated in a two-stage reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. MALDI mass spectra of single particles containing bradykinin, angiotensin II, gramicidin S, vitamin B(12) or gramicidin D were obtained at mass resolutions greater than 400 FWHM. For the piezoelectric particle generator, the efficiency of particle delivery was estimated to be approximately 0.02%, and 50 pmol of sample were consumed for each mass spectrum. For the pneumatic nebulizer, mass spectra could be obtained from single particles containing less than 100 amol of analyte, although the sample consumption for a typical mass spectrum was over 400 pmol. PMID:10491586

  12. Computational investigations of atmospheric pressure discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Muhammad Munawar

    2010-01-01

    This research work presents the numerical simulations of multispecies multi-dimensional fluid model of atmospheric pressure discharge. The semi-implicit sequential iterative scheme is used to solve the coupled system of plasma fluid model equations with a proper set of boundary conditions. A one- dimensional self consistent drift-diffusion fluid model is developed to investigate the characteristics of atmospheric pressure discharge in pure helium and He-N2 gases. The uniform atmos...

  13. Runaway electron beam in atmospheric pressure discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    A numerical simulation was performed to study the formation of a runaway electron (RAE) beam from an individual emission zone in atmospheric pressure air discharges with a highly overvolted interelectrode gap. It is shown that the formation of a RAE beam in discharges at high overvoltages is much contributed by avalanche processes.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma research activity in korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma is generated by electrical discharge. Most plasma generation has been carried out at low-pressure gas typically less than one millionth of atmospheric pressure. Plasmas are in general generated from impact ionizations of neutral gas molecules by accelerated electrons. The energy gain of electrons accelerated in an electrical field is proportional to the mean free path. Electrons gain more energy at low-pressure gas and generate plasma easily by the ionization of neutrals, because the mean free path is longer. For this reason conventional plasma generation is carried out at low pressures. However, many practical applications require plasmas at high-pressure. In order to avoid the requirement for vacuum pump, researchers in Korea start to develop plasmas in high-pressure chambers where the pressure is 1 atmosphere or greater. Material processing, environmental protection/restoration and improved energy production efficiency using plasma are only possible for inexpensive bulk plasmas. We thus generate plasmas by new methods and plan to set foundations for new plasma technologies for 21st century industries. This technological research will play a central role in material processing, environmental and energy production industries

  15. Quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Mark W.; Roder, Heinrich; Hunsucker, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the essential characteristics of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS), especially as they relate to its applications in quantitative analysis. Approaches to quantification by MALDI-TOF MS are presented and published applications are critically reviewed.

  16. Response of cyanobacteria to low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Yu, Qingni; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Ren, Jin; Guo, Shuangsheng

    2014-10-01

    Maintaining a low pressure environment in a controlled ecological life support system would reduce the technological complexity and resupply cost in the course of the construction of a future manned lunar base. To estimate the effect of a hypobaric environment in a lunar base on biological components, such as higher plants, microbes, and algae, cyanobacteria was used as the model by determining their response of growth, morphology, and physiology when exposed to half of standard atmospheric pressure for 16 days (brought back to standard atmospheric pressure 30 minutes every two days for sampling). The results indicated that the decrease of atmospheric pressure from 100 kPa to 50 kPa reduced the growth rates of Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia sp., Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Anabaena flos-aquae. The ratio of carotenoid to chlorophyll a content in the four tested strains increased under low pressure conditions compared to ambient conditions, resulting from the decrease of chlorophyll a and the increase of carotenoid in the cells. Moreover, low pressure induced the reduction of the phycocyanin content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Anabaena flos-aquae. The result from the ultrastructure observed using SEM indicated that low pressure promoted the production of more extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) compared to ambient conditions. The results implied that the low pressure environment of 50 kPa in a future lunar base would induce different effects on biological components in a CELSS, which must be considered during the course of designing a future lunar base. The results will be a reference for exploring the response of other biological components, such as plants, microbes, and animals, living in the life support system of a lunar base.

  17. Diagnostics of atmospheric pressure air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) owing to fast interspecies collisional exchanges at high pressure. As will be seen here, this assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Large velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from chemical and thermal equilibrium. Diagnostic techniques based on optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) have been developed and applied at Stanford University to the investigation of atmospheric pressure plasmas under conditions ranging from thermal and chemical equilibrium to thermochemical nonequilibrium. This article presents a review of selected temperature and species concentration measurement techniques useful for the study of air and nitrogen plasmas

  18. Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang

    2013-08-01

    The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

  19. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing for Polymer Adhesion: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing has attracted significant interests over decades due to its usefulness and a variety of applications. Adhesion improvement of polymer surfaces is among the most important applications of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Reflecting recent significant de...

  1. Formation Mechanism of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Nan; Cao, Zexian

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet can protrude some 5.0 cm into air. It holds promise for multivarious innovative applications, but its formation mechanism remains unsettled. We show that the plasma jet is essentially a streamer corona totally independent of, but obscured by, dielectric barrier discharge. Consequently, the jets can be equally successfully generated even with one single bare metal electrode attached to the tube orifice, both downstream and upstream simultaneously, and at a significantly reduced voltage. These results will help understand the underlying physics and facilitate a safer and more flexible implementation of this marvelous plasma source.

  2. Response of cyanobacteria to low atmosphere pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Tang, Yongkang; Yu, Qingni; Shen, Yunze; Ren, Jin

    Maintaining a low pressure environment would reduce the technological complexity and constructed cost of future lunar base. To estimate the effect of hypobaric of controlled ecological life support system in lunar base on terrestrial life, cyanobacteria was used as the model to exam the response of growth, morphology, physiology to it. The decrease of atmosphere pressure from 100 KPa to 50 KPa reducing the growth rates of Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena Hos-aquae, the chlorophyll a content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp, Anabaena Hos-aquae, the carotenoid content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the phycocyanin content in Microcystis aeruginosa. This study explored the biological characteristics of the cyanobacteria under low pressure condition, which aimed at understanding the response of the earth's life to environment for the future moon base, the results enrich the research contents of the lunar biology and may be referred for the research of other terrestrial life, such as human, plant, microbe and animal living in life support system of lunar base.

  3. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronne, Antonio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Bloisi, Francesco, E-mail: bloisi@na.infn.it [SPIN – CNR, Naples (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria [Istituto Motori – CNR, Naples (Italy); Depero, Laura E. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Fanelli, Esther [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); Federici, Stefania [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Massoli, Patrizio [Istituto Motori – CNR, Naples (Italy); Vicari, Luciano R.M. [SPIN – CNR, Naples (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • A lipase film was deposited with Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique. • FTIR spectra show that laser irradiation do not damage lipase molecule. • Laser fluence controls the characteristics of complex structure generated by MAPLE. - Abstract: Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  4. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A lipase film was deposited with Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique. • FTIR spectra show that laser irradiation do not damage lipase molecule. • Laser fluence controls the characteristics of complex structure generated by MAPLE. - Abstract: Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence

  5. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of

  6. Atmospheric pressure variations and abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) presents with increased frequency in the winter and spring months. Seasonal changes in atmospheric pressure mirrors this pattern. AIM: To establish if there was a seasonal variation in the occurrence of RAAA and to determine if there was any association with atmospheric pressure changes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort-based study was performed. Daily atmospheric pressure readings for the region were obtained. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant monthly variation in RAAA presentation with 107 cases (52.5%) occurring from November to March. The monthly number of RAAA and the mean atmospheric pressure in the previous month were inversely related (r = -0.752, r (2) = 0.566, P = 0.03), and there was significantly greater daily atmospheric pressure variability on days when patients with RAAA were admitted. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a relationship between atmospheric pressure and RAAA.

  7. Desorption/ionization of biomolecules from aqueous solutions at atmospheric pressure using an infrared laser at 3 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiko, Victor V; Taranenko, Nelli I; Berkout, Vadym D; Yakshin, Mikhail A; Prasad, Coorg R; Lee, H Sang; Doroshenko, Vladimir M

    2002-04-01

    A new atmospheric pressure (AP) infrared (IR) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion source was developed and interfaced with a Thermo Finnigan LCQ ion trap mass spectrometer. The source utilized a miniature all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator (OPO)-based IR laser system tunable in the lambda = 1.5-4 microm spectral range and a nitrogen ultraviolet (UV) laser (lambda = 337 nm) for use in comparative studies. The system demonstrated comparable performance at 3 microm and 337 nm wavelengths if UV matrices were used. However, AP IR-MALDI using a 3 microm wavelength showed good performance with a much broader choice of matrices including glycerol and liquid water. AP IR-MALDI mass spectra of peptides in the mass range up to 2000 Da were obtained directly from aqueous solutions at atmospheric conditions for the first time. A potential use of the new AP IR-MALDI ion source includes direct MS analysis of biological cells and tissues in a normal atmospheric environment as well as on-line coupling of mass spectrometers with liquid separation techniques. PMID:11951973

  8. Requirements for plasma synthesis of nanocrystals at atmospheric pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While well-defined high quality semiconductor nanocrystals have been synthesized successfully in low pressure nonthermal plasmas, moving the field of plasma nanoparticle synthesis to atmospheric pressures is important for lowering its cost and making the process attractive for some industrial applications. Here we present a heating and charging model for silicon nanoparticles during their synthesis in plasmas maintained over a wide range of pressures (10 − 105 Pa). We consider three collisionality regimes and determine the dominant contribution of each regime to heating and charging of nanoparticles under various plasma conditions. For plasmas maintained at atmospheric pressures we find that the ion current is mainly due to the collisional hydrodynamic contribution. Based on the model, we predict that the formation of nanocrystals at atmospheric pressure requires significantly higher plasma densities than those at low pressures. Strong nanoparticle cooling at atmospheric pressures necessitates high ion densities to reach temperatures required for crystallization of nanoparticles. Using experimentally determined plasma properties from the literature we estimate the nanoparticle temperature that can be achieved during synthesis at atmospheric pressures and predict that temperatures well above those required for crystallization can be achieved. Based on these results we suggest design principles for nanocrystal synthesis at atmospheric pressures. (paper)

  9. Lipase biofilm deposited by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, Antonio; Bloisi, Francesco; Calabria, Raffaela; Califano, Valeria; Depero, Laura E.; Fanelli, Esther; Federici, Stefania; Massoli, Patrizio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lipase is an enzyme that finds application in biodiesel production and for detection of esters and triglycerides in biosensors. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for deposition of undamaged biomolecules or polymers, is characterized by the use of a frozen target obtained from a solution/suspension of the guest material (to be deposited) in a volatile matrix (solvent). The presence of the solvent avoids or at least reduces the potential damage of guest molecules by laser radiation but only the guest material reaches the substrate in an essentially solvent-free deposition. MAPLE can be used for enzymes immobilization, essential for industrial application, allowing the development of continuous processes, an easier separation of products, the reuse of the catalyst and, in some cases, enhancing enzyme properties (pH, temperature stability, etc.) and catalytic activity in non-aqueous media. Here we show that MAPLE technique can be used to deposit undamaged lipase and that the complex structure (due to droplets generated during extraction from target) of the deposited material can be controlled by changing the laser beam fluence.

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma for surface modification

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Rory A

    2012-01-01

    This Book's focus and intent is to impart an understanding of the practical application of atmospheric plasma for the advancement of a wide range of current and emerging technologies. The primary key feature of this book is the introduction of over thirteen years of practical experimental evidence of successful surface modifications by atmospheric plasma methods. It offers a handbook-based approach for leveraging and optimizing atmospheric plasma technologies which are currently in commercial use. It also offers a complete treatment of both basic plasma physics and industrial plasma process

  11. Perspectives on atmospheric-pressure plasmas for nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-pressure, low-temperature plasmas are widely used for materials applications in industries ranging from electronics to medicine. To avoid the high costs associated with vacuum equipment, there has always been a strong motivation to operate plasmas at higher pressures, up to atmospheric. However, high-pressure operation of plasmas often leads to instabilities and gas heating, conditions that are unsuitable for materials applications. The recent development of microscale plasmas (i.e. microplasmas) has helped realize the sustainment of stable, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure and enable low-cost materials applications. There has also been an unexpected benefit of atmospheric-pressure operation: the potential to fabricate nanoscale materials which is not possible by more conventional, low-pressure plasmas. For example, in a high-pressure environment, nanoparticles can be nucleated in the gas phase from vapour (or solid metal) precursors. Alternatively, non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure plasmas can be coupled with liquids such as water or ethanol to nucleate and modify solution-phase nanoparticles. In this perspective paper, we review some of these recent efforts and provide an outlook for the rapidly emerging field of atmospheric-pressure plasmas for nanofabrication.

  12. Nanostructured polymer stable glasses via matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kimberly B.

    Amorphous materials, or glasses, which lack a crystalline structure, are technologically ubiquitous with applications including structural components, pharmaceuticals, and electronic devices. Glasses are traditionally formed by rapid cooling from the melt state, where molecules become kinetically trapped into a non-equilibrium configuration. The temperature at which the material transforms from supercooled liquid to glass is the glass transition temperature. The glass transition temperature is the most important property of amorphous materials, as it determines the range of temperatures where they are fabricated, used and stored. Recent technological developments in which glasses are formed by alternative routes, such as physical vapor deposition and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), enable tunability of Tg and related physical properties. High-Tg glasses formed by these techniques are termed "stable glasses" and exhibit a wide range of exceptional properties. This work focuses on the formation and characterization of stable polymer glasses fabricated via MAPLE. Bulk films (>1 microm thick) of glassy polymers fabricated by MAPLE at slow growth rates (polymer glasses. Building on molecular dynamics simulations from the literature on the MAPLE process, we experimentally study the origin of nanostructure in our MAPLE-deposited films. We measure the time-of-flight of MAPLE-deposited material, confirming that the velocity is sufficiently low for intact deposition of polymer nanoglobules. The size distribution of polymer nanoglobules fabricated in short MAPLE depositions provides insight into how nanostructured MAPLE films form. Using our atomic force microscopy-based nanoscale dilatometry technique, we directly probe the nanoscale thermal behavior of individual polymer nanoglobules. We confirm that bulk and nanoscale glasses share many of the same physical behavior: enhanced stability above the glass transition temperature, and ~40% excess volume. We

  13. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J.; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-04-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M+. decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques.

  14. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  15. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  16. Quantitative millimetre wavelength spectrometry at pressures approaching atmospheric II. Determination of oxygen at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A millimetre wavelength (MMW) Fabry-Perot cavity spectrometer described in earlier work has been applied to the measurement of oxygen absorption at 60 GHz and atmospheric pressure in a gas matrix of nitrogen. The spectrometer has also been modified such that the MMW source is stabilised by a sub-harmonic microwave signal transmitted by an infrared carrier on a single mode telecommunications fibre optic. This is a step towards developing an instrument comprising minimal electronic components that can perform MMW spectrometry remotely. Oxygen determinations were achieved by monitoring the change in the quality factor (Q) of a resonant Fabry-Perot cavity due to the presence of an absorbing sample. The MMW absorption of the sample was determined by incrementing the frequency modulation (FM) deviation of the source frequency scanning the cavity resonance profile. The response curve of absorption signal versus fraction of oxygen in nitrogen was found to be linear throughout the working range of 1-100% O2 (v/v) in N2 with a slope of (1.407±0.007)x10-4 m-1 (% O2)-1. The detection limit (3x standard deviation of the background) was found to be ∼0.8% (v/v). The MMW technique employed is advantageous since, unlike common MMW techniques, there is no vacuum requirement. Application of this method, to the monitoring of oxygen in gas mixtures of practical importance, is proposed. Values of the oxygen spectral absorption coefficients of lines between 55 and 60 GHz were measured at reduced pressure and found to be within ±2% of previous literature values. A pressure correction coefficient for O2 absorption at 60 GHz in the 45-121 kPa range was obtained and found to be (1.354±0.014)x10-4 m-1 kPa-1

  17. A Spectacular Experiment Exhibiting Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Noxaïc, Armand

    2014-01-01

    The experiment described here is fairly easy to reproduce and dramatically shows the magnitude of ambient air pressure. Two circular plates of aluminum are applied one against the other. How do you make their separation very difficult? With only the help of an elastic band! You don't have to use a vacuum pump for this experiment.

  18. Temperature field simulation of gob influenced by atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 罗海珠; 梁运涛; 王继仁

    2015-01-01

    The current temperature field model of mine gob does not take the boundary conditions of the atmospheric pressure into account, while the actual atmospheric pressure is influenced by weather, so as to produce differences between ventilation negative pressure of the working face and the negative pressure of gas drainage in gob, thus interfering the calculated results of gob temperature field. According to the characteristics of the actual air flow and temperature change in gob, a two-dimensional temperature field model of the gob was built, and the relational model between the air pressure of intake and outlet of the gob and the atmospheric pressure was established, which was introduced into the boundary conditions of temperature field to conduct calculation. By means of analysis on the simulation example, and comparison with the traditional model, the results indicate that atmospheric pressure change had notable impact on the distribution of gob temperature field. The laboratory test system of gob temperature field was constructed, and the relative error between simulated and measured value was no greater than 9.6%, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed model. This work offers theoretical basis for accurate calculation of temperature and prediction of ignition source in mine gob, and has important implications on preventing spontaneous combustion of coal.

  19. Application of Relationship Between Groundwater Level and Atmospheric Pressure Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    Change in atmospheric pressure affects ground water levels. Barometric efficiency, which is an indicator for different exposure to the atmospheric pressure of observation well and adjacent ground cover, can be used as an effective tool for estimating some groundwater properties. If the top of an observation well is sealed and contact with the atmosphere is blocked, there would be no pressure difference between the well and adjacent ground cover. As a result, the difference between barometric efficiency values of sealed and unsealed well of identical condition can indicates the effect of atmospheric pressure changes on the groundwater level. One month observation data of hydraulic head and atmospheric pressure at Wonju-si in Gangwon-do, Korea are used. Two different methods, Clark's method and graphical method, are adopted to estimate the barometric efficiency. Because the efficiency has implication on the properties of aquifer covering condition, mapping of this efficiency might be used for estimating groundwater vulnerability of contamination from surface-loaded sources.

  20. Characteristics of RF Cold Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Liang; MENG Yuedong; SHU Xingsheng

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of a stable discharge at atmospheric pressure is investigated.The plasma source consisted of two closely spaced parallel-plated perforated electrodes,driven by a radio frequency power to generate a uniform cold plasma in Helium at atmospheric pressure.Both alpha and gamma modes were clearly observed.The hollow cathode effects were found in the discharge.The influence of the dielectric barrier on the discharge was also investigated by utilizing a surface-anodized aluminium electrode as the anode.

  1. A simplified nitrogen laser setup operated at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangsri, Artit; Wungmool, Piyachat; Tesana, Siripong; Suwanatus, Suchat; Hormwantha, Tongchai; Chiangga, Surasak; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2015-07-01

    A transversely excited atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (TEA N2 Laser) is a molecular pulse gas laser, operated at atmospheric pressure, which generates an electromagnetic wave in ultraviolet wavelength of 337.1 nm. It can operate without an optical resonator. We present a TEA N2 laser setup excited by an electronic discharge circuit known as the Blumlein circuit. Our setup is composed of simple components commonly found in everyday life. The setup can be utilized in classroom to demonstrate the dependence of the laser intensity on the flow rate of nitrogen gas.

  2. A comparative study on the analytical utility of atmospheric and low-pressure MALDI sources for the mass spectrometric characterization of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovets, Eugene; Misharin, Alexander; Laiko, Viktor; Doroshenko, Vladimir

    2016-07-15

    A comparative MS study was conducted on the analytical performance of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) sources that operated at either low pressure (∼1Torr) or at atmospheric pressure. In both cases, the MALDI sources were attached to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a two-stage ion funnel. The obtained results indicate that the limits of detection, in the analysis of identical peptide samples, were much lower with the source that was operated slightly below the 1-Torr pressure. In the low-pressure (LP) MALDI source, ion signals were observed at a laser fluence that was considerably lower than the one determining the appearance of ion signals in the atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI source. When the near-threshold laser fluences were used to record MALDI MS spectra at 1-Torr and 750-Torr pressures, the level of chemical noise at the 1-Torr pressure was much lower compared to that at AP. The dependency of the analyte ion signals on the accelerating field which dragged the ions from the MALDI plate to the MS analyzer are presented for the LP and AP MALDI sources. The study indicates that the laser fluence, background gas pressure, and field accelerating the ions away from a MALDI plate were the main parameters which determined the ion yield, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, the fragmentation of the analyte ions, and adduct formation in the LP and AP MALDI MS methods. The presented results can be helpful for a deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for the ion formation in MALDI. PMID:26899429

  3. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  4. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, A., E-mail: alexandre.giuliani@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jamme, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Rouam, V.; Wien, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laprevote, O. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, ICSN-CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire de Chimie-Toxicologie Analytique et cellulaire, IFR 71, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Refregiers, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with a vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) beamline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The set up allows photoionization up to 20 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared to classical atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), our set up offers spectral purity and tunability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allows photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile and hard to vaporize molecules. - Abstract: We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4-20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  5. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glassy carbon for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Stenum, Bjarne; Goutianos, Stergios; Mitra, Susanta; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Kingshott, Peter; Sørensen, Bent F.; Bindslev, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Glassy carbon plates were treated with an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). He gas, gas mixtures of He and reactive gases such as O2, CO2 and NH3, Ar gas and Ar/NH3 gas mixture were used as treatment gases. The oxygen and nitrogen contents on the surface as well as defect...

  7. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  8. Electrolytic synthesis of ammonia in molten salts under atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-15

    Ammonia was successfully synthesized by using a new electrochemical reaction with high current efficiency at atmospheric pressure and at lower temperatures than the Haber-Bosch process. In this method, nitride ion (N3-), which is produced by the reduction from nitrogen gas at the cathode, is anodically oxidized and reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia at the anode. PMID:12517136

  9. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Clément, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  10. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  11. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Matrali, S. H. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Gazeli, K. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Clement, F. [IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Antimisiaris, S. G. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICES)-FORTH, Rion 26504 (Greece)

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption fourier transform mass spectrometry for biological compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettich, R.; Buchanan, M.

    1990-01-01

    The recent development of matrix-assisted UV laser desorption (LD) mass spectrometry has made possible the ionization and detection of extremely large molecules (with molecular weights exceeding 100,000 Daltons). This technique has generated enormous interest in the biological community for the direct examination of large peptides and oligonucleotides. Although this matrix-assisted ionization method has been developed and used almost exclusively with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers, research is currently in progress to demonstrate this technique with trapped ion mass spectrometers, such as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTMS). The potential capabilities of FTMS for wide mass range, high resolution measurement, and ion trapping experiments suggest that this instrumental technique should be useful for the detailed structural characterization of large ions generated by the matrix-assisted technique. We have recently demonstrated that matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption can be successfully used with FTMS for the ionization of small peptides. The objective of this report is to summarize the application and current limitations of matrix-assisted laser desorption FTMS for the characterization of peptides and oligonucleotides at the isomeric level. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Model of a stationary microwave argon discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The many applications of microwave gas discharges at atmospheric pressure in various fields of science, technology and medicine require an adequate model of these discharges. Such a model is based on the electromagnetic wave's propagation properties and on the elementary processes in the discharge bulk. In contrast to the microwave discharges at low-gas pressures, where many elementary processes might be ignored because of their negligible contribution to the electron and heavy particle's balance equations, for such discharges at atmospheric pressure the consideration of a large number of collisional processes is mandatory. For the build of a successful discharge-column model one needs three important quantities, notably the power θ necessary for sustaining an electron - ion pair, electron - neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer ven, and gas temperature Tg. The first two key parameters are obtained by a collisional-radiative model of the argon at atmospheric pressure, while the microwave frequency ω/2π = 2.45 GHz, plasma column radius R, gas pressure p and gas temperature Tg are fixed external parameters determined by the experimental conditions. Here, we present a model of a capillary argon microwave plasma column with a length L ≅ 14 cm, sustained by wave power of 110 W - the model yields the longitudinal distributions of the plasma density, expended wave power, wave electric field magnitude, and complex wave number

  14. Model of a stationary microwave argon discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.

    2008-03-01

    The many applications of microwave gas discharges at atmospheric pressure in various fields of science, technology and medicine require an adequate model of these discharges. Such a model is based on the electromagnetic wave's propagation properties and on the elementary processes in the discharge bulk. In contrast to the microwave discharges at low-gas pressures, where many elementary processes might be ignored because of their negligible contribution to the electron and heavy particle's balance equations, for such discharges at atmospheric pressure the consideration of a large number of collisional processes is mandatory. For the build of a successful discharge-column model one needs three important quantities, notably the power θ necessary for sustaining an electron—ion pair, electron—neutral collision frequency for momentum transfer ven, and gas temperature Tg. The first two key parameters are obtained by a collisional-radiative model of the argon at atmospheric pressure, while the microwave frequency ω/2π = 2.45 GHz, plasma column radius R, gas pressure p and gas temperature Tg are fixed external parameters determined by the experimental conditions. Here, we present a model of a capillary argon microwave plasma column with a length L ≈ 14 cm, sustained by wave power of 110 W—the model yields the longitudinal distributions of the plasma density, expended wave power, wave electric field magnitude, and complex wave number.

  15. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

  16. Ir/thz Double Resonance Signatures at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dane J.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Everitt, Henry O.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; Neese, Christopher F.; Holt, Jennifer; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2010-06-01

    IR/THz double resonance (DR) spectroscopy, historically used to investigate molecular collision dynamics and THz molecular lasers at low pressures (remote sensing at atmospheric pressure. Molecular specificity is obtained through the rare coincidence(s) between molecule-specific ro-vibrational energy levels and CO2 laser lines. The resulting molecule-specific, DR-induced, THz spectroscopic signatures strongly depend on the type of ro-vibrational transition involved (P, Q, or R), the type of vibrational level excited (stretching or bending), and the molecular mass. To illustrate these sensitivities, calculated DR spectra of prototypical molecules such as methyl fluoride, methyl chloride, and methyl cyanide will be discussed. Although atmospheric pressure broadening obfuscates pure rotational spectra, we show how it can enhance the DR signature in two ways: by relaxing the pump coincidence requirement and by adding the DR signatures of multiple nearby transitions. We will present estimates of this enhancement, including cases where the coincidences that produce the strongest DR signatures at atmospheric pressure do not exist at low pressures.

  17. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges for surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the last decades, plasma technology has been established in a series of surface treatment applications, e.g. for semiconductor processing or optical coatings. The majority of plasma assisted technologies is based on low pressure processes. In recent years, however, non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges have attracted considerable interest because of their simplified technical devices for industrial applications as compared to low pressure processes which require vacuum equipment. Hence, batch processing can be avoided, thus facilitating the implementation of plasma process steps into production lines. Investment costs are cut down significantly. The use of atmospheric pressure plasmas for technical applications dates back to the ozone production with dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) by Siemens in 1857. Lately, the application of atmospheric pressure plasmas for surface treatment has been reported, e.g. for the treatment of foils to improve printability, for surface cleaning and protective coatings. The DBD is known as a strongly inhomogeneous, filamentary discharge. A non filamentary, homogeneous DBD was observed in He, N2, other gases, and mixtures. An example of this discharge type and its application for the deposition of thin films by plasma polymerization is discussed in more detail. The standard planar electrode geometry of the DBD is characterized by a narrow inter-electrode gap in the mm-Region. Hence, surface treatment has been restricted to thin, flat substrates. Attempts to overcome these limitations involve micro discharge arrays and jet geometries, which are evoked by an enhanced gas flow, partly in combination with the electric field. Jets are created out of several plasma types, among them corona discharge, DBD, microwave discharge and RF discharge. With these plasma sources, substrate geometries displaying 3-dimensional features can be treated, too. Critical parameters for the comparison of atmospheric pressure surface

  18. A Micromachined Pressure Sensor with Integrated Resonator Operating at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Ren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel resonant pressure sensor with an improved micromechanical double-ended tuning fork resonator packaged in dry air at atmospheric pressure is presented. The resonator is electrostatically driven and capacitively detected, and the sensor is designed to realize a low cost resonant pressure sensor with medium accuracy. Various damping mechanisms in a resonator that is vibrating at atmospheric pressure are analyzed in detail, and a formula is developed to predict the overall quality factor. A trade-off has been reached between the quality factor, stress sensitivity and drive capability of the resonator. Furthermore, differential sense elements and the method of electromechanical amplitude modulation are used for capacitive detection to obtain a large signal-to-noise ratio. The prototype sensor chip is successfully fabricated using a micromachining process based on a commercially available silicon-on-insulator wafer and is hermetically encapsulated in a custom 16-pin Kovar package. Preliminary measurements show that the fundamental frequency of the resonant pressure sensor is approximately 34.55 kHz with a pressure sensitivity of 20.77 Hz/kPa. Over the full scale pressure range of 100–400 kPa and the whole temperature range of −20–60 °C, high quality factors from 1,146 to 1,772 are obtained. The characterization of the prototype sensor reveals the feasibility of a resonant pressure sensor packaged at atmospheric pressure.

  19. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  20. Propagation of atmospheric pressure fronts in long vacuum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental work was undertaken during the development of a system using fast acting valves to protect the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) vacuum chamber at CERN against damage from the implosion of thin wall vacuum chambers. A 30 m cylindrical tube with a diameter of 130 mm and similar to that used on the ISR, was evacuated to 10-2 torr. Following the sudden entry of atmospheric pressure at one end the pressure versus time diagram was observed a several points along the tube. These diagrams show a characteristic 'staircase' function which permits the determination of the propagation velocity. There is an initial weak pressure front of a few torr, propagated at 950 m s-1, which presents little mechanical danger, even to delicate components such as ionisation gauges. After a formation time of 0.1 s, one or more large amplitude (several tens of torr) and potentially dangerous pressure fronts are propagated with a velocity of 770 m s-1

  1. Reduced atmospheric pressure in Radish: Alteration of NCER and transpiration at decreased oxygen partial pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Stasiak, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike

    Fundamental to the future of space exploration is the development of advanced life support systems capable of maintaining crews for significant periods without re-supply from Earth. Significant research is focused on the development of bioregenerative life support systems to be used in conjunction with the current physico-chemical methods. These bioregenerative life support systems harness natural ecosystem processes and employ plant photosynthesis and transpiration to produce food, oxygen and regenerate water while consuming carbon dioxide. The forthcoming exploration of the Moon and Mars has prompted interest into the effects of hypobaria on plant development. Reduced atmospheric pressures will lessen the pressure gradient between the structure and the local environment thereby decreasing gas leakage and possibly the structural mass of the plant growth facility. In order to establish the optimal specifications for reduced pressure plant growth structures it is essential to determine the atmospheric pressure limits required for conventional plant development and growth. Due to its physiological importance, oxygen will compose a significant portion of these minimal environments. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced atmospheric pressure and decreased oxygen partial pressures had no effect on radish productivity. Radishes (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) were grown from seed in the University of Guelph's Hypobaric Plant Growth Chambers for a period of 21 days. Treatments included total pressures of 10, 33, 66 and 96 kPa and oxygen partial pressures of 2, 7, 14 and 20 kPa. Experiments demonstrated that reduced partial pressures of oxygen had a greater effect on radish growth than hypobaria. Results showed a reduction in net carbon exchange rate and transpiration with decreasing oxygen partial pressures leading to diminished productivity. Keywords: hypobaric, radish, oxygen partial pressure, variable pressure chamber

  2. Optimizing a remote sensing instrument to measure atmospheric surface pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, G. E.; Gatley, C.; Flower, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric surface pressure can be remotely sensed from a satellite by an active instrument which measures return echoes from the ocean at frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. The instrument is optimized by selecting its frequencies of operation, transmitter powers and antenna size through a new procedure baesd on numerical simulation which maximizes the retrieval accuracy. The predicted standard deviation error in the retrieved surface pressure is 1 mb. In addition the measurements can be used to retrieve water vapor, cloud liquid water and sea state, which is related to wind speed.

  3. The main properties of microwave argon plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma torch sustained by surface wave at atmospheric pressure is theoretically studied by means of 1D model. A steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge is numerically solved together with Maxwell's equations for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave. The axial dependences of the electrons, excited atoms, atomic and molecular ions densities as well as the electron temperature, the mean power per electron and the effective electron-neutral collision frequency are determined. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

  4. The main properties of microwave argon plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, E.; Pencheva, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma torch sustained by surface wave at atmospheric pressure is theoretically studied by means of 1D model. A steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge is numerically solved together with Maxwell's equations for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave. The axial dependences of the electrons, excited atoms, atomic and molecular ions densities as well as the electron temperature, the mean power per electron and the effective electron-neutral collision frequency are determined. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

  5. The main properties of microwave argon plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benova, E; Pencheva, M, E-mail: benova_phys@deo.uni-sofia.b [Department for Language Teaching and International Students, University of Sofia, 27 Kosta Loulchev Street, BG-1111 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-01-01

    Plasma torch sustained by surface wave at atmospheric pressure is theoretically studied by means of 1D model. A steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge is numerically solved together with Maxwell's equations for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave. The axial dependences of the electrons, excited atoms, atomic and molecular ions densities as well as the electron temperature, the mean power per electron and the effective electron-neutral collision frequency are determined. A strong dependence of the plasma properties on the discharge conditions and the gas temperature is obtained.

  6. Dynamics behavior of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Gu, Biao; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Dezhen; Peng, Xuwen

    2009-07-01

    An experimental study on the dynamics behavior of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge (HDBD) at atmospheric pressure is described in this paper. Two kinds of discharge mode, glow and Townsend discharge modes, can be easily identified according to the differential conductivity of current-voltage relationship in the ascent stage of discharge current for the atmospheric HDBD. A (three-dimensional) 3D phase space made by discharge current, gas gap voltage, and charge density of dielectric-plate surface was utilized in the study. By projecting the discharge evolution trajectory in the 3D space, the 3D trajectory of multiple current peaks discharge in atmospheric helium shows a limited cycle with convolutions and undergoes a series of bifurcation process; however, the 3D trajectory of atmospheric N2 HDBD is a limited cycle without any convolution and bifurcation process. In addition, the first ionization coefficient of working gas plays a key role to determine the discharge mode of atmospheric HDBD, the transition of discharge mode and the dynamics stability of atmospheric HDBD.

  7. Thermally induced atmospheric pressure gas discharges using pyroelectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a heated pyroelectric crystal, an atmospheric pressure gas discharge was generated through the input of heat. When put through a change in temperature, the polarization of a pyroelectric can change significantly, creating a substantial electric potential at its surface. When configured with a grounded sharp counter electrode, a large inhomogeneous electric field forms in the interstitial gas to initiate a corona-like discharge. Under constant heating conditions, gaseous ions drifting to the pyroelectric accumulate and screen the electric field, extinguishing the discharge. By thermally cycling the pyroelectric, negative and positive discharges are generated during heating and cooling, respectively, with peak currents on the order of 80 nA. Time-integrated visualization confirmed the generation of both a corona-like discharge and a surface discharge on the pyroelectric. Parametric studies identified that thermal cycling conditions significantly influence discharge formation for this new atmospheric pressure discharge approach. (paper)

  8. Atmospheric-pressure plasma sources for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APPs) have attracted great interest and have been widely applied in biomedical applications, as due to their non-thermal and reactive properties, they interact with living tissues, cells and bacteria. Various types of plasma sources generated at atmospheric pressure have been developed to achieve better performance in specific applications. This article presents an overview of the general characteristics of APPs and a brief summary of their biomedical applications, and reviews a wide range of these sources developed for biomedical applications. The plasma sources are classified according to their power sources and cover a wide frequency spectrum from dc to microwaves. The configurations and characteristics of plasma sources are outlined and their biomedical applications are presented. (invited review)

  9. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  10. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells

  11. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangil; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Sik Yang, Sang; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  12. Bacteria Inactivation Using DBD Plasma Jet in Atmospheric Pressure Argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coaxial dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet was designed, which can be operated in atmospheric pressure argon under an intermediate frequency sinusoidal resonant power supply, and an atmospheric pressure glow-like discharge was achieved. Two kinds of typical bacteria, i.e., the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coil (E. coil), were employed to study the bacterial inactivation mechanism by means of the non-thermal plasma. The killing log value (KLV) of S. aureus reached up to 5.38 with a treatment time of 90 s and that of E. coil up to 5.36 with 60 s, respectively. According to the argon emission spectra of the plasma jet and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the two bacteria before and after the plasma treatment, it is concluded that the reactive species in the argon plasma played a major role in the bacterial inactivation, while the heat, electric field and UV photons had little effect. (plasma technology)

  13. The first experiments on dielectric barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain uniform and stable discharge plasma in atmospheric pressure, dielectric barrier discharge experiments were carried out. Main purpose is to examine the applicability of dielectric barrier discharge to production processes of semi-conductors. LSIs and flat display panels. In the experiments, at first, quite stable and uniform discharge was obtained at atmospheric pressure. Effects of applied voltage and frequency on plasma uniformity were studied. Improvement of discharge uniformity by introducing gas flow of helium or nitrogen between the discharge gap was observed. Finally, surface cleaning effect of the present plasma was confirmed by observing contact angle of liquid droplet. At least for cleaning process, possibility of application as process plasma was suggested

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet for liquid spray treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, S.; Philipps, J.; Hofmann, D.

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets have been intensively studied in recent years due to growing interest in their use for biomedical applications and surface treatments. Either surfaces can be treated by a plasma jet afterglow for cleaning or activation or a material can be deposited by a reactive gas component activated by plasma. Effects of plasma on liquid have been reported several times where the electron spin trapping method was used for radical detection. Here we propose another method of liquid treatment using the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. In the device presented here, liquid was sprayed in droplets from an inner electrode directly into a plasma jet where it was treated and sprayed out by gas flow. Optical end electrical measurements were done for diagnostics of the plasma while electron paramagnetic resonance measurements were used for detection of radicals (\\text{OH},\\text{OOH},\\text{CH} ) produced by plasma treatment of liquids.

  15. Simulation of low temperature atmospheric pressure corona discharge in helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekasov, Vladimir; Kirsanov, Gennady; Eliseev, Stepan; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Sisoev, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of this work was to construct a numerical model of corona discharge in helium at atmospheric pressure. The calculation was based on the two-dimensional hybrid model. Two different plasma-chemical models were considered. Models were built for RF corona and negative DC corona discharge. The system of equations is solved by the finite element method in the COMSOL Multiphysics. Main parameters of the discharge (the density of charged and excited particles, the electron temperature) and their dependence on the input parameters of the model (geometry, electrode voltage, power) were calculated. The calculations showed that the shape of the electron distribution near the electrode depends on the discharge power. The neutral gas heating data obtained will allow predicting the temperature of the gases at the designing of atmospheric pressure helium plasma sources.

  16. Laser ablation of zirconium in gas atmospheres at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed nitrogen laser induced ablation of solid zirconium targets was monitored using laser induced fluorescence. Starting from 'new' surfaces, the density evolution under the influence of different gas atmospheres (oxygen, helium, hydrogen and nitrogen) with pressures up to 10-3 mbar has been studied. It was observed that even small amounts of gas lead to a large increase in the velocity and the density of the ablated atomic cloud. (author)

  17. Electrical, Optical and acoustic diagnostics of atmospheric pressure gas discharges

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Niall

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents original diagnostic investigations of atmospheric pressure gaseous discharges, operating in owing helium and helium with low concentrations (0.1 - 1 %) of gas admixtures, together with novel biomedical surface functionalisations. The initial body of this work focuses on comprehensive electrical and optical diagnostics of the operation of an industrial scale dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), maintained in a 10 l/min w of both helium and helium with 1% admixed ...

  18. Temperature profiles in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Jidenko, N; Bourgeois, E; Borra, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The physico-chemical properties of atmospheric pressure filamentary Dielectric Barrier Discharge (f-DBD) depend on its electrical characteristics and thermal profile. In this paper, a method for separating thermal and electrical effects is developed. Therefore, thermal profiles of f-DBD are studied for well defined electrical characteristics of filaments: all filaments are quasi identical with a controlled spatio-temporal density. The temperatures of gas, dielectric surface and pl...

  19. BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGES

    OpenAIRE

    Dodet, Bénédicte; Odic, Emmanuel; Salamitou, Sylvie; Goldman, Alice; Goldman, Max

    2006-01-01

    A reduction of more than 4 orders of magnitude of survivors was obtained by exposing a Bacillus Stearothermophilus spores - contaminated surface to an atmospheric pressure DBD post-discharge for 20 minutes. Decontamination mechanisms are investigated assuming that (i) inactivation is obtained when the bacteria DNA is fragmented, (ii) the protein coats are the main protection of the cell core DNA in the case of bacteria spores. The degradation of DNA (plasmid) and protein (RNAse A) samples sub...

  20. Atmospheric pressure plasmas for aerosols processes in materials and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Borra, J.P.; Jidenko, N; Bourgeois, E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The paper highlights applications of some atmospheric pressure plasmas (dc-corona, streamer and spark and ac-Dielectric Barrier Discharges) to aerosol processes for Materials and Environment (filtration, diagnostics). The production of vapor i.e. condensable gaseous species, leads to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation in these AP plasmas: (i) when dc streamer and spark filamentary discharges as well as ac filamenta...

  1. Plasma deposition of thiophene derivatives under atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    DAMS, Roel; VANGENEUGDEN, Dirk; Vanderzande, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Plasma deposition of conjugated polymer films under atmospheric pressure is described. Three thiophene derivatives (thiophene, 3-methylthiophene, and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) are used as monomers. The plasma depositions with the various precursors are compared using analytical techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and resistance measurements. Good results are obtained with pulsed plasma depositions of...

  2. Assessment of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Implant Osseointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Danna, Natalie R.; Beutel, Bryan G.; Nick Tovar; Lukasz Witek; Charles Marin; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Rodrigo Granato; Marcelo Suzuki; Coelho, Paulo G

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the osseointegrative effects of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) surface treatment for implants in a canine model. Control surfaces were untreated textured titanium (Ti) and calcium phosphate (CaP). Experimental surfaces were their 80-second air-based APP-treated counterparts. Physicochemical characterization was performed to assess topography, surface energy, and chemical composition. One implant from each control and experimental group (four in total) was placed in one ...

  3. Thin film deposition on powder surfaces using atmospheric pressure discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of SiOx containing films on NaCl and KBr particles in dielectric barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure was investigated. As precursor hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in argon-oxygen gas mixtures were used. The deposited layers were studied by means of light microscopy, SEM and XPS investigations. The particles could be completely covered by SiOx. With increasing oxygen content in the coating the carbon content decreases

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractional number density measurements for a rf plasma 'needle' operating at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes an automated beam-to-background measurement facility in the form of a software-controlled chopper mechanism. The automation of the beam modulation allows the neutral components in the plasma to be rapidly and accurately measured using the mass spectrometer by threshold ionization techniques. Data are reported for plasma generated by a needle plasma source operated using a helium/air mixture. In particular, data for the conversion of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen into nitric oxide are discussed with reference to its significance for medical applications such as disinfecting wounds and dental cavities and for microsurgery

  5. Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastuta, Andrei Vasile; Topala, Ionut; Pohoata, Valentin; Popa, Gheorghe [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Bd. Carol No. 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Grigoras, Constantin, E-mail: andrei.nastuta@uaic.ro [Physiopathology Department, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania)

    2011-03-16

    New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

  6. Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

  7. Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile Nastuta, Andrei; Topala, Ionut; Grigoras, Constantin; Pohoata, Valentin; Popa, Gheorghe

    2011-03-01

    New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

  8. Miniaturizing sample spots for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Tingting; Gross, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The trend of miniaturization in bioanalytical chemistry is shifting from technical development to practical application. In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), progress in miniaturizing sample spots has been driven by the needs to increase sensitivity and speed, to interface with other analytical microtechnologies, and to develop miniaturized instrumentation.

  9. Identification of Bacteria Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedney, Mollie G.; Strunk, Kevin B.; Giaquinto, Lisa M.; Wagner, Jennifer A.; Pollack, Sidney; Patton, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS or simply MALDI) has become ubiquitous in the identification and analysis of biomacromolecules. As a technique that allows for the molecular weight determination of otherwise nonvolatile molecules, MALDI has had a profound impact in the molecular…

  10. Processing of C60 thin films by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of fullerenes (C60) were deposited onto silicon using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The deposition was carried out from a frozen homogeneous dilute solution of C60 in anisole (0.67 wt%), and over a broad range of laser fluences, from 0.15 J/cm2 up to 3.9 J/cm2. MAPL...

  11. Highly physical penumbra solar radiation pressure modeling with atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert; Flury, Jakob; Bandikova, Tamara; Schilling, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    We present a new method for highly physical solar radiation pressure (SRP) modeling in Earth's penumbra. The fundamental geometry and approach mirrors past work, where the solar radiation field is modeled using a number of light rays, rather than treating the Sun as a single point source. However, we aim to clarify this approach, simplify its implementation, and model previously overlooked factors. The complex geometries involved in modeling penumbra solar radiation fields are described in a more intuitive and complete way to simplify implementation. Atmospheric effects are tabulated to significantly reduce computational cost. We present new, more efficient and accurate approaches to modeling atmospheric effects which allow us to consider the high spatial and temporal variability in lower atmospheric conditions. Modeled penumbra SRP accelerations for the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites are compared to the sub-nm/s2 precision GRACE accelerometer data. Comparisons to accelerometer data and a traditional penumbra SRP model illustrate the improved accuracy which our methods provide. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the significance of various atmospheric parameters and modeled effects on penumbra SRP. While this model is more complex than a traditional penumbra SRP model, we demonstrate its utility and propose that a highly physical model which considers atmospheric effects should be the basis for any simplified approach to penumbra SRP modeling.

  12. The updated bottom up solution applied to atmospheric pressure photoionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Updated Bottom Up Solution (UBUS) was recently applied to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) of triacylglycerols (TAGs). This report demonstrates that the UBUS applies equally well to atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS and to electrospray ionizatio...

  13. Surface analysis of polymers treated by remote atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eleazar; Hicks, Robert F

    2010-03-01

    The surfaces of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and polyethersulfone (PES) were treated with a low-temperature, atmospheric pressure oxygen and helium plasma. The polymers were exposed to the downstream afterglow of the plasma, which contained primarily oxygen atoms and metastable oxygen molecules ((1)Delta(g) O(2)), and no ions or electrons. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of HDPE revealed that 20% of the carbon atoms were converted into oxidized functional groups, with about half of these being carboxylic acids. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of all three polymers was obtained in order to determine the types of functional groups formed by atmospheric plasma exposure. It was found that the polymers were rapidly oxidized with addition of alcohols, ketones, and carboxylic acids to the carbon backbone. Chain scission occurred on HDPE and PMMA, while on PES the aromatic groups underwent ring-opening and insertion of carboxylic acid. PMID:19950952

  14. Decomposition of benzene in a corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Kohki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Centre of Environmental Science and Disaster Mitigation for Advanced Research, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Matsuzawa, Toshiharu; Itoh, Hidenori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the decomposition characteristics of benzene in a positive DC corona discharge between multineedle and plane electrodes with a background gas of nitrogen-oxygen mixture at atmospheric pressure. We obtained C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, HCOOH, CO and CO{sub 2} as benzene fragments and by-products, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and HCN as minor intermediate products. Benzene was primarily converted into CO{sub 2} via CO at low oxygen concentrations (0.2%) and via CO and HCOOH at the atmospheric oxygen concentration (20%). Further, 57% and 24% of carbon atoms were deposited on the plane electrode and the discharge chamber at oxygen concentrations of 0.2% and 20%, respectively.

  15. Excitation dynamics of micro-structured atmospheric pressure plasma arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Boettner, H; Waskoenig, J.; Connell, D O '; Winter, J; Schulz-von der Gathen, V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The spatial dynamics of the optical emission from an array of 50 times 50 individual micro cavity plasma devices are investigated. The array is operated in argon and argon-neon mixtures close to atmospheric pressure with an AC voltage. The optical emission is analysed with phase and space resolution. It has been found that the emission is not continuous over the entire AC period, but occurs once per half period. Each of the observed emission phases shows a self-pulsing of the disc...

  16. Heat transport of nitrogen in helium atmospheric pressure microplasma

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Shaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Stable DC atmospheric pressure normal glow discharges in ambient air were produced between the water surface and the metallic capillary coupled with influx of helium gas. Multiple independent repeated trials indicated that vibrational temperature of nitrogen rises from 3200 to 4622 K, and rotational temperature of nitrogen decreases from 1270 to 570 K as gas flux increasing from 20 to 80 sccm and discharge current decreasing from 11 to 3 mA. Furthermore, it was found that the vibrational degree of the nitrogen molecule has priority to gain energy than the rotational degree of nitrogen molecule in nonequilibrium helium microplasma.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glassy carbon for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Stenum, Bjarne;

    2007-01-01

    density increased with the plasma treatments. Adhesion test of the treated glassy carbon covered with cured epoxy showed cohesive failure, indicating strong bonding after the treatments. This is in contrast to the adhesion tests of untreated samples where the epoxy readily peeled off the glassy carbon.......Glassy carbon plates were treated with an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). He gas, gas mixtures of He and reactive gases such as O2, CO2 and NH3, Ar gas and Ar/NH3 gas mixture were used as treatment gases. The oxygen and nitrogen contents on the surface as well as defect...

  18. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes

  19. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max Karasik

    1999-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.

  20. Electrical characterization of atmospheric pressure DBD in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air was generated between two rectangular copper electrodes covering the lower electrode with a dielectric (glass or polycarbonate -PC) using low frequency (line frequency-50Hz) high voltage power supply. The discharge was studied for inter-electrode gap spacing in the range of 2 mm – 5 mm and their influence on breakdown voltage. Voltage-current characteristics and the analysis of the distribution of current pulses per half cycle of the current waveform indicated that the discharge is more uniform in 3 mm inter-electrode gap spacing with PC as a dielectric rather than glass. (author)

  1. Microwave generation of stable atmospheric-pressure fireballs in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of stable buoyant fireballs in a microwave cavity in air at atmospheric pressure without the use of vaporized solids is described. These fireballs have some of the characteristics of ball lightning and resemble those reported by Dikhtyar and Jerby [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 045002 (2006)], although of a different color, and do not require the presence of molten or vaporized material. Mechanisms of microwave plasma formation and fluid dynamics can account for the observed behavior of the fireballs, which do not appear to meet the accepted definition of dusty plasmas in this case. Relevance to models of ball lightning and industrial applications are discussed

  2. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  3. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  4. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma in Polymer and Composite Adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hang

    2015-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure helium and oxygen plasma was used to investigate surface activation and bonding in polymer composites. This device was operated by passing 1.0-3.0 vol% of oxygen in helium through a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes powered by 13.56 or 27.12 MHz radio frequency power. The gases were partially ionized between the capacitors where plasma was generated. The reactive species in the plasma were carried downstream by the gas flow to treat the substrate surface. The...

  5. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet interactions with plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a cold (<40 deg. C) radio frequency-driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet on plasmid DNA has been investigated. Gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the DNA forms post-treatment. The experimental data are fitted to a rate equation model that allows for quantitative determination of the rates of single and double strand break formation. The formation of double strand breaks correlates well with the atomic oxygen density. Taken with other measurements, this indicates that neutral components in the jet are effective in inducing double strand breaks.

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of carbon fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Michelsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibres are continuously treated with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure in various gas conditions for adhesion improvement in mind. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that oxygen is effectively introduced onto the carbon fibre surfaces by He, He...... temperature for a month the O/C ratio at the plasma treated surfaces decreased to 0.151, which is close to that of the untreated ones. It can be attributed to the adsorption of hydrocarbon contamination at the plasma treated surfaces....

  7. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion;

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma....... The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently enhanced the treatment efficiency. The principal effect of ultrasonic irradiation can be attributed to enhancing surface oxidation during plasma treatment. In addition, ultrasonic irradiation can suppress arcing, and the uniformity of...... and the material surface, and thus, many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before they are inactivated and can be efficiently utilised for surface modification. In the present work, glass fibre reinforced polyester plates were treated using a dielectric barrier discharge...

  8. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion;

    Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... air are separated using a polyethylene film. The gliding arc was extended by a high speed air flow into ambient air, directed the polyester surface at an angle of approximately 30o. The ultrasonic waves were introduced vertically to the surface. After the plasma treatment using each plasma source...... without ultrasonic irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma...

  9. The major influence of the atmosphere on intracranial pressure: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbowski, Leszek

    2016-06-01

    The impact of the atmosphere on human physiology has been studied widely within the last years. In practice, intracranial pressure is a pressure difference between intracranial compartments and the surrounding atmosphere. This means that gauge intracranial pressure uses atmospheric pressure as its zero point, and therefore, this method of pressure measurement excludes the effects of barometric pressure's fluctuation. The comparison of these two physical quantities can only take place through their absolute value relationship. The aim of this study is to investigate the direct effect of barometric pressure on the absolute intracranial pressure homeostasis. A prospective observational cross-sectional open study was conducted in Szczecin, Poland. In 28 neurosurgical patients with suspected normal-pressure hydrocephalus, intracranial intraventricular pressure was monitored in a sitting position. A total of 168 intracranial pressure and atmospheric pressure measurements were performed. Absolute atmospheric pressure was recorded directly. All values of intracranial gauge pressure were converted to absolute pressure (the sum of gauge intracranial pressure and local absolute atmospheric pressure). The average absolute mean intracranial pressure in the patients is 1006.6 hPa (95 % CI 1004.5 to 1008.8 hPa, SEM 1.1), and the mean absolute atmospheric pressure is 1007.9 hPa (95 % CI 1006.3 to 1009.6 hPa, SEM 0.8). The observed association between atmospheric and intracranial pressure is strongly significant (Spearman correlation r = 0.87, p Altman coefficient is 4.8 %). It appears from this study that changes in absolute intracranial pressure are related to seasonal variation. Absolute intracranial pressure is shown to be impacted positively by atmospheric pressure.

  10. A dc non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct current (dc), non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet is generated with helium/oxygen gas mixture as working gas. The electrical property is characterized as a function of the oxygen concentration and show distinctive regions of operation. Side-on images of the jet were taken to analyze the mode of operation as well as the jet length. A self-pulsed mode is observed before the transition of the discharge to normal glow mode. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed from both end-on and side-on along the jet to analyze the reactive species generated in the plasma. Line emissions from atomic oxygen (at 777.4 nm) and helium (at 706.5 nm) were studied with respect to the oxygen volume percentage in the working gas, flow rate and discharge current. Optical emission intensities of Cu and OH are found to depend heavily on the oxygen concentration in the working gas. Ozone concentration measured in a semi-confined zone in front of the plasma jet is found to be from tens to ∼120 ppm. The results presented here demonstrate potential pathways for the adjustment and tuning of various plasma parameters such as reactive species selectivity and quantities or even ultraviolet emission intensities manipulation in an atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma source. The possibilities of fine tuning these plasma species allows for enhanced applications in health and medical related areas. (paper)

  11. Compact atmospheric pressure plasma self-resonant drive circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, V. J.; Anghel, S. D.

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports on compact solid-state self-resonant drive circuits that are specifically designed to drive an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge of small volume (0.5 cm3). The atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) device can be operated with helium, argon or a mixture of both. Equivalent electrical models of the self-resonant drive circuits and discharge are developed and used to estimate the plasma impedance, plasma power density, current density or electron number density of three APP devices. These parameters and the kinetic gas temperature are dependent on the self-resonant frequency of the APP device. For a fixed switching frequency and APP device geometry, the plasma parameters are controlled by adjusting the dc voltage at the primary coil and the gas flow rate. The resonant frequency is controlled by the selection of the switching power transistor and means of step-up voltage transformation (ferrite core, flyback transformer, or Tesla coil). The flyback transformer operates in the tens of kHz, the ferrite core in the hundreds of kHz and Tesla coil in the MHz range. Embedded within this work is the principle of frequency pulling which is exemplified in the flyback transformer circuit that utilizes a pickup coil for feedback control of the switching frequency.

  12. Charging of aerosol and nucleation in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borra, J P [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et Plasmas, CNRS-Univ. Paris-Sud, F-91405, SUPELEC, 3 Rue Joliot Curie, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91192 (France)], E-mail: jp.borra@pgp.u-psud.fr

    2008-12-15

    The paper focuses on applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas (dc corona, streamer, spark and ac dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs)) in aerosol processes for materials and environment. Since aerosol kinematics depends mainly on electric forces acting on charged particles, the two mechanisms of aerosol charging by the collection of ions are presented in corona, post-corona and DBDs. In such defined charging conditions, field and diffusion charging laws are depicted, with respect to applications of controlled kinematics of charged aerosol. Then key parameters controlling the formation by nucleation and the growth by coagulation of particles in plasmas are presented. Sources of vapor leading to nucleated nanoparticles are depicted in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: (i) when filamentary dc streamer and spark as well as ac-DBDs interact with metal or dielectric surfaces and (ii) when discharges induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The composition, size and structure of primary nanoparticles as well as the final size of agglomerates are related to plasma parameters (energy, number per unit surface and time and thermal gradients around each filament as well as the transit time)

  13. Characterization of a steam plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric steam plasma jet generated by an original dc water plasma torch is investigated using electrical and spectroscopic techniques. Because it directly uses the water used for cooling electrodes as the plasma-forming gas, the water plasma torch has high thermal efficiency and a compact structure. The operational features of the water plasma torch and the generation of the steam plasma jet are analyzed based on the temporal evolution of voltage, current and steam pressure in the arc chamber. The influence of the output characteristics of the power source, the fluctuation of the arc and current intensity on the unsteadiness of the steam plasma jet is studied. The restrike mode is identified as the fluctuation characteristic of the steam arc, which contributes significantly to the instabilities of the steam plasma jet. In addition, the emission spectroscopic technique is employed to diagnose the steam plasma. The axial distributions of plasma parameters in the steam plasma jet, such as gas temperature, excitation temperature and electron number density, are determined by the diatomic molecule OH fitting method, Boltzmann slope method and Hβ Stark broadening, respectively. The steam plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is found to be close to the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state by comparing the measured electron density with the threshold value of electron density for the LTE state. Moreover, based on the assumption of LTE, the axial distributions of reactive species in the steam plasma jet are estimated, which indicates that the steam plasma has high chemical activity.

  14. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

    2003-12-15

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

  15. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas

  16. Etching process of silicon dioxide with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrahigh etch rate (14 μm/min) of SiO2 and a high selectivity of SiO2/Si over 200 were achieved using a microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma source employing He, NF3, and H2O gases, which have been developed for application to microelectromechanical systems and other bionanotechnology fields. In order to clarify the etching mechanism, two diagnostic methods have been performed: (1) imaging of plasma emission with an intensified charge-coupled device camera, and (2) absorption measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The etching characteristics are discussed in relation to the spatial distributions of the species involved. The etch rate depended considerably on the distance between the plasma and the substrate. Some radicals generated from the feed gases reached the substrate directly, while other radicals recombined into different species, which reached the substrate. An abundance of HF molecules were produced through a reaction between radicals generated by the atmospheric pressure discharge of NF3 and H2O. From these measurements, it has been found that the HF molecules generated played a role in producing the high etch rate of SiO2 and high etch selectivity of SiO2/Si

  17. Nonlinear lumped circuit modeling of an atmospheric pressure rf discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapke, M.; Ziegler, D.; Mussenbrock, T.; Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.

    2006-10-01

    The subject of our modeling approach is a specifically modified version of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ, originally proposed by Selwyn and coworkers^1) with reduced discharge volume, the micro atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ). The μ-APPJ is a homogeneous nonequilibrium discharge operated with Argon or Helium as the feedstock gas and a percentage volume admixture of a molecular gas (O2, H2, N2). The efficiency of the discharge is mainly due to the dissociated and activated molecules in the effluent that can be selected depending on the application. A variety of applications in surface treatment have already been demonstrated, e.g., in semiconductor technology, restoration and bio-medicine. In this contribution we present and analyze a nonlinear lumped circuit model of the μ-APPJ. We apply a two-scale formalism. The bulk is modeled by a generalized Ohm's law, whereas the sheath is described on a considerably higher level of mathematical sophistication. The main focus lies on the spectrum of the discharge current in order to support the characterization of the discharge via model-based diagnostics, i.e., the estimation of the spatially averaged electron density from the frequency of certain self-excitated collective resonance modes. J. Park et al., Appl. Phy. Lett. 76, 288 (2000)

  18. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet for treatment of polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wolter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polymers are commonly used as packing materials as well as for optical and microelectronic applications. For these purposes different requirements like impermeability for different gases, scratching firmness and electrical conductivity are demanded. Since, polymers usually do not exhibit these attributes a surface modification is necessary.Design/methodology/approach: This paper describes possibilities for coating of polymers with a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ. Due to the rather low temperature of the process the plasma jet is suitable for the treatment of temperature-sensitive materials with melting points below 150°C. For coating of polymers the organic precursor Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO has been used to deposit silicon oxide layers on surface.Findings: Spatial distributions of reactive species have been measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES in the range between 280 and 1100 nm during the plasma process. The energy influx to the substrate was determined by thermal probe measurements. For the affirmation of the chemical composition of the surface X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS has been performed.Practical implications: It could be confirmed that SiOx thin film deposition on polymeric substrate using commercially available APPJ with no internal precursor feeding is possible.Originality/value: The examinations of atmospheric pressure plasma jet for treatment of polymers.

  19. Hazardous gas treatment using atmospheric pressure microwave discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasinski, Mariusz; Zakrzewski, Zenon [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk (Poland)

    2005-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing non-thermal plasmas for control of gaseous pollutants are described in this paper. The main part of the paper is concerned with microwave torch discharges (MTDs). Results of laboratory experiments on plasma abatement of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their mixtures with either synthetic air or nitrogen in low ({approx}100 W) and moderate (200-400 W) microwave torch plasmas at atmospheric pressure are presented. Three types of MTD generators, i.e. low-power coaxial-line-based MTDs, moderate-power waveguide-based coaxial-line MTDs and moderate-power waveguide-based MTDs were used. The gas flow rate and microwave (2.45 GHz) power delivered to the discharge were in the range of 1-3 litre min{sup -1} and 100-400 W, respectively. The concentrations of the processed gaseous pollutants were from several to several tens of per cent. The results showed that the MTD plasmas fully decomposed the VOCs at a relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of decomposition of several gaseous pollutants reached 1000 g (kW-h){sup -1}. This suggests that MTD plasmas can be useful tools for decomposition of highly concentrated VOCs.

  20. Compact atmospheric pressure plasma self-resonant drive circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on compact solid-state self-resonant drive circuits that are specifically designed to drive an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge of small volume (0.5 cm3). The atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) device can be operated with helium, argon or a mixture of both. Equivalent electrical models of the self-resonant drive circuits and discharge are developed and used to estimate the plasma impedance, plasma power density, current density or electron number density of three APP devices. These parameters and the kinetic gas temperature are dependent on the self-resonant frequency of the APP device. For a fixed switching frequency and APP device geometry, the plasma parameters are controlled by adjusting the dc voltage at the primary coil and the gas flow rate. The resonant frequency is controlled by the selection of the switching power transistor and means of step-up voltage transformation (ferrite core, flyback transformer, or Tesla coil). The flyback transformer operates in the tens of kHz, the ferrite core in the hundreds of kHz and Tesla coil in the MHz range. Embedded within this work is the principle of frequency pulling which is exemplified in the flyback transformer circuit that utilizes a pickup coil for feedback control of the switching frequency. (paper)

  1. Rapid high mass resolution mass spectrometry using matrix-assisted ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpin, Sarah; Thawoos, Shameemah; Foley, Casey D; Woodall, Daniel W; Li, Jing; Inutan, Ellen D; Stemmer, Paul M

    2016-07-15

    Matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) is demonstrated to be a robust and sensitive analytical method capable of analyzing proteins such as cholera toxin B-subunit and pertussis toxin mutant from conditions containing relatively high amounts of inorganic salts, buffers, and preservatives without the need for prior sample clean-up or concentration. By circumventing some of the sample preparation steps, MAI simplifies and accelerates the analytical workflow for biological samples in complex media. The benefits of multiply charged ions characteristic of electrospray ionization (ESI) and the robustness of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) can be obtained from a single method, making it well suited for analysis of proteins and other biomolecules at ultra-high resolution as demonstrated on an Orbitrap Fusion where protein subunits were resolved for which MALDI-time-of-flight failed. MAI results are compared with those obtained with ESI, MALDI, and laserspray ionization methods and fundamental commonalities discussed. PMID:26835606

  2. Growth of thin films of low molecular weight proteins by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Constantinescu, C.;

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of lysozyme and myoglobin grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from a water ice matrix have been investigated. The deposition rate of these two low molecular weight proteins (lysozyme: 14307 amu and myoglobin: 17083 amu) exhibits a maximum of about 1–2 ng/cm2 per...... pulse at a fluence of 1–2 J/cm2 and decreases slowly with increasing fluence. This rate is presumably determined by the matrix rather by the proteins. A significant fraction of the proteins are intact in the film as determined by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) spectrometry. The...... results for lysozyme demonstrate that the fragmentation rate of the proteins during the MAPLE process is not influenced by the pH of the water solution prior to freezing....

  3. The influence of atmospheric pressure on landfill methane emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions to the atmosphere in the United States. However, few measurements of whole landfill CH4 emissions have been reported. Here, we present the results of a multi-season study of whole landfill CH4 emissions using atmospheric tracer methods at the Nashua, New Hampshire Municipal landfill in the northeastern United States. The measurement data include 12 individual emission tests, each test consisting of 5-8 plume measurements. Measured emissions were negatively correlated with surface atmospheric pressure and ranged from 7.3 to 26.5 m3 CH4 min-1. A simple regression model of our results was used to calculate an annual emission rate of 8.4x106 m3 CH4 year-1. These data, along with CH4 oxidation estimates based on emitted landfill gas isotopic characteristics and gas collection data, were used to estimate annual CH4 generation at this landfill. A reported gas collection rate of 7.1x106 m3 CH4 year-1 and an estimated annual rate of CH4 oxidation by cover soils of 1.2x106 m3 CH4 year-1 resulted in a calculated annual CH4 generation rate of 16.7x106 m3 CH4 year-1. These results underscore the necessity of understanding a landfill's dynamic environment before assessing long-term emissions potential

  4. On the Primary Ionization Mechanism(s) in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Molin; Roberta Seraglia; Zbigniew Czarnocki; Maurin, Jan K; Franciszek A. Pluciński; Pietro Traldi

    2012-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the first step of ionization occurring in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, leading to protonated and deprotonated matrix (Ma) molecules ([Ma + H]+ and [Ma − H]− ions). It is based on observation that in solid state, for carboxyl-containing MALDI matrices, the molecules form strong hydrogen bonds and their carboxylic groups can act as both donors and acceptors. This behavior leads to stable dimeric structures. The laser irradiation leads to the cleavage ...

  5. Matrix Assisted Ionization Vacuum (MAIV), a New Ionization Method for Biological Materials Analysis Using Mass Spectrometry*

    OpenAIRE

    Inutan, Ellen D.; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for the mass spectrometric analysis of peptides and proteins had a dramatic impact on biological science. We now report that a wide variety of compounds, including peptides, proteins, and protein complexes, are transported directly from a solid-state small molecule matrix to gas-phase ions when placed into the vacuum of a mass spectrometer without the use of high voltage, a laser, or adde...

  6. Unusual Fragmentation of Peptide and Protein in Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuo Takayama

    2001-01-01

    Unusual amine - bond fragmentation on the peptide/protein backbone has been reported using matrix - assisted laser desorption/ionization time - of- flight mass spectrometry (MALDI - TOFMS)The amine - bond cleavage occurred without metastable decay, while the peptide - bond cleavage occurred with metastable decay of peptide ions in a drift region of TOF mass analyzer. It was presumed that the amine - bond cleavage occurred as a non - ergodic process independent of the ionization under MALDI conditions.

  7. Dermatophyte Identification Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Theel, Elitza S.; Hall, Leslie; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Wengenack, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) for the identification of dermatophytes from clinical cultures was compared to that of dermatophyte identification using 28S rRNA gene sequencing. The MALDI Biotyper library (MBL; version 3.0) was used alone and in combination with a supplemented library containing an additional 20 dermatophyte spectra (S-MBL). Acquired spectra were interpreted using both the ma...

  8. Growth of thin fullerene films by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    bound carbon molecule with a well-defined mass (M = 720 amu) and therefore a good, organic test molecule. C60 fullerene thin films of average thickness of more than 100 nm was produced in vacuum by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A 355 nm Nd:YAG laser was di-rected onto a frozen target...... favours evaporation of matrix and organic molecules, resulting in production of films with smooth surfaces and minimal contamination....

  9. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of immobilized duplex DNA probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, K; Fu, D.; Kötter, S; Cotter, R J; Cantor, C R; Köster, H

    1995-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry was used to analyze short DNA duplex probes with one strand immobilized on solid supports (straptavidin-coated magnetic beads or controlled pore glass beads). Only the non-immobilized strand could be detected. Partial denaturation was found when the duplex probes were mixed with 3-hydroxypicolinic acid, ammonium citrate matrix. The strategy has several applications, such as fast DNA sequence analysis an...

  10. Measurement of viscosity of gaseous mixtures at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Coefficients of viscosity of various types of gas mixtures, including simulated natural-gas samples, have been measured at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using a modified capillary tube method. Pressure drops across the straight capillary tube section of a thermal mass flowmeter were measured for small, well-defined, volume flow rates for the test gases and for standard air. In this configuration, the flowmeter provides the volumetric flow rates as well as a well-characterized capillary section for differential pressure measurements across it. The coefficients of viscosity of the test gases were calculated using the reported value of 185.6 micro P for the viscosity of air. The coefficients of viscosity for the test mixtures were also calculated using Wilke's approximation of the Chapman-Enskog (C-E) theory. The experimental and calculated values for binary mixtures are in agreement within the reported accuracy of Wilke's approximation of the C-E theory. However, the agreement for multicomponent mixtures is less satisfactory, possible because of the limitations of Wilkes's approximation of the classical dilute-gas state model.

  11. Specific interaction between negative atmospheric ions and organic compounds in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Sakai, Mami; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between negative atmospheric ions and various types of organic compounds were investigated using atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. Atmospheric negative ions such as O(2)(-), HCO(3)(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and NO(3)(-)(HNO(3)) having different proton affinities served as the reactant ions for analyte ionization in APCDI in negative-ion mode. The individual atmospheric ions specifically ionized aliphatic and aromatic compounds with various functional groups as atmospheric ion adducts and deprotonated analytes. The formation of the atmospheric ion adducts under certain discharge conditions is most likely attributable to the affinity between the analyte and atmospheric ion and the concentration of the atmospheric ion produced under these conditions. The deprotonated analytes, in contrast, were generated from the adducts of the atmospheric ions with higher proton affinity attributable to efficient proton abstraction from the analyte by the atmospheric ion. PMID:22528201

  12. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment

  13. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  14. Electrical characterization of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the electrical characterization of dielectric barrier discharge produced at atmospheric pressure using a high voltage power supply operating at 50Hz. The characteristics of the discharge have been studied under different values as such applied voltage and the electrode gap width. The results presented in this work can be helpful in understanding the influence of dielectric material on the nature of the discharge. An attempt has also been made to investigate the influence of ballast resistor on the magnitude of discharge current and also the density of micro-discharges. Our results indicated that with this power supply and electrode geometry, a relatively more homogenous discharge is observed for 3 mm spacing. (author)

  15. A dielectric barrier discharge in neon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dielectric barrier discharge in neon at atmospheric pressure is investigated with electrical measurement and fast photography. It is found that a stable diffuse discharge can be easily generated in a gap with a gap space of 0.5-6 mm and is identified with a glow discharge. The first breakdown voltage of the gap is considerably higher than that of the same gap working in a stable diffuse discharge mode, which indicates that Penning ionization of neon metastables from the previous discharge with inevitable gas impurities plays an important role in the decrease in the breakdown voltage. Discharge patterns are observed in a gap shorter than 1 mm. From the experiments with a wedge-like gap, it is found that the discharge patterns are formed in the area with a higher applied electric field, which suggests that a higher applied electric field may cause a transition from a diffuse glow to discharge patterns.

  16. Controlled Microdroplet Transport in an Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma

    CERN Document Server

    Maguire, P D; Kelsey, C P; Bingham, A; Montgomery, E P; Bennet, E D; Potts, H E; Rutherford, D; McDowell, D A; Diver, D A; Mariotti, D

    2015-01-01

    We report the controlled injection of near-isolated micron-sized liquid droplets into a low temperature He-Ne steady-state rf plasma at atmospheric pressure. The H2O droplet stream is constrained within a 2 mm diameter quartz tube. Imaging at the tube exit indicates a log-normal droplet size distribution with an initial count mean diameter of 15 micrometers falling to 13 micrometers with plasma exposure. The radial velocity profile is approximately parabolic indicating near laminar flow conditions with the majority of droplets travelling at >75% of the local gas speed and having a plasma transit time of < 100 microseconds. The maximum gas temperature, determined from nitrogen spectral lines, was below 400 K and the observed droplet size reduction implies additional factors beyond standard evaporation, including charge and surface chemistry effects. The successful demonstration of controlled microdroplet streams opens up possibilities for gas-phase microreactors and remote delivery of active species for pla...

  17. Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu. D.; Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas'yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.

  18. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film

  19. Plasmid DNA damage induced by helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cantrell, William A.; Escobar, Erika E.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    A helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is applied to induce damage to aqueous plasmid DNA. The resulting fractions of the DNA conformers, which indicate intact molecules or DNA with single- or double-strand breaks, are determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA strand breaks increase with a decrease in the distance between the APPJ and DNA samples under two working conditions of the plasma source with different parameters of applied electric pulses. The damage level induced in the plasmid DNA is also enhanced with increased plasma irradiation time. The reactive species generated in the APPJ are characterized by optical emission spectra, and their roles in possible DNA damage processes occurring in an aqueous environment are also discussed.

  20. Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance

  1. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Hicks; Gary S. Selwyn

    2001-01-09

    Project was to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. With the invention of the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet the goal was achieved. This device selectively etches heavy metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. Studies on tantalum, a surrogate material for plutonium, have shown that etch rate of 6.0 microns per minute can be achieved under mild conditions. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the plasma jet. It may now be operated for hundreds of hours and not undergo any degradation in performance. Furthermore, small compact units have been developed, which are easily deployed in the field.

  2. Controlling the NO production of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of NO radicals by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been investigated by means of absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region (IR) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the ultraviolet (UV) part of the spectrum. The plasma jet investigated here operates in argon with air admixtures up to 1%. The study shows that OES can be used to characterize the relative NO production at small air admixtures. The Production of NO radicals can be controlled by variation of air admixture. Important to note—especially for operation in ambient conditions—is that a small addition of water vapour strongly affects the production of NO radicals especially at higher air admixtures (greater than 0.2%). (paper)

  3. Analysis of the cathodic region of atmospheric pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cathodic region of atmospheric pressure arcs is dominated by a number of different mechanisms. This makes a theoretical model extremely difficult. A description of this region based on fundamental physical principles is given. Using a previously published model of the inhomogeneous boundary layer of a Saha plasma (Schmitz H and Riemann K-U 2001 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34 1193), the description is set on a firm theoretical basis. A number of equations including the energy balances of plasma boundary and cathode body lead to a maximum closure of the system. The values for the boundary conditions toward the plasma column could be motivated by a simple minimum principle argument thus eliminating all arbitrary fitting parameters. Results are given for a variety of external parameters and three different discharge gases. The comparison with experimental results shows excellent agreement. (author)

  4. Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    2007-04-01

    In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance.

  5. Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pencheva, M [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Benova, E [Department for Language Teaching and International Students, Sofia University, 27 Kosta Loulchev Street, BG-1111 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zhelyazkov, I [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-04-15

    In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency ({nu}/{omega}) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption {nu}/{omega} = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary {nu}/{omega}. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance.

  6. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thong, K. L. [Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  7. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project was to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. With the invention of the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet the goal was achieved. This device selectively etches heavy metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. Studies on tantalum, a surrogate material for plutonium, have shown that etch rate of 6.0 microns per minute can be achieved under mild conditions. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the plasma jet. It may now be operated for hundreds of hours and not undergo any degradation in performance. Furthermore, small compact units have been developed, which are easily deployed in the field

  8. Diagnostics of atmospheric pressure capillary DBD oxygen plasma jet

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, N C; Pramanik, B K

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure capillary dielectric barrier oxygen discharge plasma jet is developed to generate non-thermal plasma using unipolar positive pulse power supply. Both optical and electrical techniques are used to investigate the characteristics of the produced plasma as function of applied voltage and gas flow rate. Analytical results obtained from the optical emission spectroscopic data reveal the gas temperature, rotational temperature, excitation temperature and electron density. Gas temperature and rotational temperature are found to decrease with increasing oxygen flow rate but increase linearly with applied voltage. It is exposed that the electron density is boosting up with enhanced applied voltage and oxygen flow rate, while the electron excitation temperature is reducing with rising oxygen flow rate. Electrical characterization demonstrates that the discharge frequency is falling with flow rate but increasing with voltage. The produced plasma is applied preliminarily to study the inactivation yie...

  9. Development of ac corona discharge modes at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona discharges in gases exist under several distinctive forms. In this paper, a survey study has been made of ac corona discharge modes generated in some different gases fed in a wire-duct reactor with a constant rate of flowing at atmospheric pressure. The properties of different corona modes are analyzed under some condition transitions from Trichel pulses to a steady glow. In the course of the presented experimental work, numerous apparent contradictions with earlier observations necessitated further study and are given to provide more information on the physical mechanisms of the ac corona discharges. Furthermore, we have gained insight into some new technologies and applications of the environmentally friendly corona and plasma discharges.

  10. Electron-ion recombination study in argon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with a wall-stabilized arc burning in argon at atmospheric pressure. A transient mode is obtained using a fast thyristor connected to the electrodes, which short-circuits the discharge. By means of two wavelengths laser interferometry and spectroscopy measurements we have determined the temporal changes of the electron density, ground state atom density and excited atom density. We have shown that, when the electric field is suppressed, the electron temperature rapidly decreases to the gas temperature before changing electron and atom densities. This phenomenon is applied to determine the gas temperature and to evaluate the role played by ionization in electron density balance. The coefficients of ambipolar diffusion, ionization and recombination and an apparent recombination coefficient are determined versus electron temperature and compared with theoretical values

  11. Bacterial Inactivation by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sanxi; Cheng, Cheng; Ni, Guohua; Meng, Yuedong; Chen, Hua

    2008-08-01

    Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli seeded in two media (agar and filter papers) were exposed to after-glow plasma emitted from a atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator in open air with a temperature of about 30-80 °C. In order to estimate the inactivation of microorganism using DBD plasma jet, various plasma conditions (such as treatment time and feed-gas composition of plasma jet) were changed. The results shown that the effective area of inactivation increased with the plasma treatment time as the bacteria seeded in Agar medium. The effective area of inactivation was much bigger than plasma jet treatment area after 5 min treatment. With the use of filter papers as the supporting media, the addition of reactive gases (oxygen, hydrogen peroxide vapor) into the plasma jet system, compared with only pure noble gas, led to a significant improvement in the bacterial Inactivation efficacy.

  12. Deposition of carbon nanostructures on metal substrates at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Zh; Nikovski, M.; Kiss'ovski, Zh

    2016-03-01

    The microwave-plasma-enhanced CVD of carbon nanostructures at atmospheric pressure allows shorter deposition times and reduces the complexity of the experimental set-up. In our study, the substrate temperature was varied in a wide range (300 – 700 C) using microwave plasma heating, as well as an additional heater. The distance between the substrate and the plasma flame was also varied in order to establish the conditions for an efficient deposition process, the latter being carried out at specific argon/hydrogen/methane gas mixtures. Optical measurements of the plasma flame spectrum were conducted to obtain the gas temperature and the plasma density and to analyze the existence of reactive species. The carbon nanostructures deposited on the metal samples were investigated by SEM. The relation between the morphology and the gas-discharge conditions is discussed.

  13. Sterilization of Surfaces with a Handheld Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Robert; Habib, Sara; Chan, Wai; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Tijerina, A.; Sloan, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for decontaminating the surfaces of materials and equipment. In this study, an atmospheric pressure, oxygen and argon plasma was investigated for the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and spores. The plasma was operated at an argon flow rate of 30 L/min, an oxygen flow rate of 20 mL/min, a power density of 101.0 W/cm^3 (beam area = 5.1 cm^2), and at a distance from the surface of 7.1 mm. An average 6log10 reduction of viable spores was obtained after only 45 seconds of exposure to the reactive gas. By contrast, it takes more than 35 minutes at 121^oC to sterilize anthrax in an autoclave. The plasma properties were investigated by numerical modeling and chemical titration with nitric oxide. The numerical model included a detailed reaction mechanism for the discharge as well as for the afterglow. It was predicted that at a delivered power density of 29.3 W/cm^3, 30 L/min argon, and 0.01 volume% O2, the plasma generated 1.9 x 10^14 cm-3 O atoms, 1.6 x 10^12 cm-3 ozone, 9.3 x 10^13 cm-3 O2(^1δg), and 2.9 x 10^12 cm-3 O2(^1σ^+g) at 1 cm downstream of the source. The O atom density measured by chemical titration with NO was 6.0 x 10^14 cm-3 at the same conditions. It is believe that the oxygen atoms and the O2(^1δg) metastables were responsible for killing the anthrax and other microorganisms.

  14. Mass Spectrometry of Atmospheric Pressure Surface Wave Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenti, M. A.; Souza-Corrêa, J. A.; Amorim, J.

    2016-05-01

    By applying mass spectrometry techniques, we carried out measurements of ionic mass spectrum and their energy distribution in order to investigate an atmospheric argon discharge by using a surfatron surface-wave device. The mass and energy distribution measurements were performed with fixed flow rate (2.5 SLM) of pure argon gas (99.999%) and different Ar-O2 gas mixture compositions (99-1, 98-2 and 97-3). The mass spectra and energy distributions were recorded for Ar+, O+, O+ 2, N+ and N2 +. The axial distribution profiles of ionic mass and their energy were obtained for different experimental conditions as a function of the plasma length. The results showed that the peak of the positive ion energy distributions shifted to higher energies and also that the distribution width increased as the distance between the sampling orifice and the launcher gap was increased. It was also found that under certain experimental conditions the ion flux of atomic species were higher than the ion flux of their diatomic counterpart. The motivation of this study was to obtain a better understanding of a surface wave discharge in atmospheric pressure that may play a key role on new second generation biofuel technologies.

  15. Development of Simplified Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Ichiki, Ryuta; Maeda, Akihide; Yamanouchi, Kenta; Akamine, Shuichi; Kanazawa, Seiji; Oita University Team

    2015-09-01

    Nitriding treatment is one of the surface hardening technologies, applied to dies and automobile components. In recent industry, low-pressure nitriding treatment using vacuum system is mainstream. On the other hand, we have originally developed an atmospheric-pressure plasma nitriding which do not need vacuum system. However we needed an air-tight container to purge residual oxygen and external heater to control treatment temperature. To make this technique practical, we addressed to construct a simplified treatment system, where treatment temperature is controlled by thermal plasma itself and oxygen purging is achieved by a simple cover. This means that any air-tight container and external heater is not necessary. As a result, surface temperature is controlled by changing treatment gap from nozzle tip to steel surface. We succeeded in controlling well thickness of hardened layer by adjusting treatment temperature even in such a simplified system. In the conference, we also discuss experimental results for hardening complex shaped materials by using our simplified nitriding.

  16. Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: powerful analytical tools in recombinant protein chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Svensson, B; Roepstorff, P

    1996-01-01

    Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy is...

  17. Comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization for a lipidomic analysis of Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Laurent; Gaudin, Mathieu; Libong, Danielle; Touboul, David; Abreu, Sonia; Loiseau, Philippe M; Laprévote, Olivier; Chaminade, Pierre

    2012-06-15

    A comparison of electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) for the analysis of a wide range of lipids has been performed on standard mixtures and extracts of Leishmania donovani promastigotes resistant to Amphotericin B (AmB). Calibration model, precision, limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were assessed for each source. APPI provided the highest signal, signal-to-noise (S/N), and sensitivity for non-polar and low-polarity lipids, while ESI and APCI gave better results for the most polar ones. The linear model was valid for all lipids, except for one class with APPI, six classes with ESI, and eleven classes with APCI. LODs ranged from 0.2 to 20 μg mL(-1) for ESI, from 0.1 to 10 μg mL(-1) for APCI, and from 0.02 to 9.5 μg mL(-1) for APPI. LOQs ranged from 0.2 to 61 μg mL(-1) for ESI, from 0.4 to 31 μg mL(-1) for APCI, and from 0.1 to 29 μg mL(-1) for APPI. Each source provided similar lipid composition and variations in a comparison of three different L. donovani samples: miltefosine-treated, miltefosine-resistant and treated miltefosine-resistant parasites. A treated miltefosine-resistant sample was finally analyzed with each ion source in order to verify that the same lipid molecular species are detected. PMID:22560453

  18. Ionization of EPA contaminants in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-seven EPA priority environmental pollutants were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with an optimized atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and an atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) interface with and without dopants. The analyzed compounds included e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro compounds, halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds with phenolic, acidic, alcohol, and amino groups, phthalate and adipatic esters, and aliphatic ethers. Toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene, and acetone were tested as dopants. The widest range of analytes was ionized using direct APPI (66/77 compounds). The introduction of dopants decreased the amount of compounds ionized in APPI (e.g., 54/77 with toluene), but in many cases the ionization efficiency increased. While in direct APPI the formation of molecular ions via photoionization was the main ionization reaction, dopant-assisted (DA) APPI promoted ionization reactions, such as charge exchange and proton transfer. Direct APLI ionized a much smaller amount of compounds than APPI (41/77 compounds), showing selectivity towards compounds with low ionization energies (IEs) and long-lived resonantly excited intermediate states. DA-APLI, however, was able to ionize a higher amount of compounds (e.g. 51/77 with toluene), as the ionization took place entirely through dopant-assisted ion/molecule reactions similar to those in DA-APPI. Best ionization efficiency in APPI and APLI (both direct and DA) was obtained for PAHs and aromatics with O- and N-functionalities, whereas nitro compounds and aliphatic ethers were the most difficult to ionize. Halogenated aromatics and esters were (mainly) ionized in APPI, but not in APLI. PMID:25828352

  19. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma in polymer and composite adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang

    An atmospheric pressure helium and oxygen plasma was used to investigate surface activation and bonding in polymer composites. This device was operated by passing 1.0-3.0 vol% of oxygen in helium through a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes powered by 13.56 or 27.12 MHz radio frequency power. The gases were partially ionized between the capacitors where plasma was generated. The reactive species in the plasma were carried downstream by the gas flow to treat the substrate surface. The temperature of the plasm gas reaching the surface of the substrate did not exceed 150 °C, which makes it suitable for polymer processing. The reactive species in the plasma downstream includes ~ 1016-1017 cm-3 atomic oxygen, ~ 1015 cm-3 ozone molecule, and ~ 10 16 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecule (O2 1Deltag). The substrates were treated at 2-5 mm distance from the exit of the plasma. Surface properties of the substrates were characterized using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Subsequently, the plasma treated samples were bonded adhesively or fabricated into composites. The increase in mechanical strength was correlated to changes in the material composition and structure after plasma treatment. The work presented hereafter establishes atmospheric pressure plasma as an effective method to activate and to clean the surfaces of polymers and composites for bonding. This application can be further expanded to the activation of carbon fibers for better fiber-resin interactions during the fabrication of composites. Treating electronic grade FR-4 and polyimide with the He/O2 plasma for a few seconds changed the substrate surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, which allowed complete wetting of the surface by epoxy in underfill applications. Characterization of the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows formation of oxygenated functional groups, including hydroxyl, carbonyl, and

  20. Functional porphyrin thin films deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Atomistilor 409, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Popescu, A.C.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Atomistilor 409, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ciucu, A.A. [Univeristy of Bucharest, Chemistry Department, Bucharest (Romania); Andronie, A.; Iordache, S.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3 Nano-SAE Research Center, P.O. Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Fagadar-Cosma, E. [Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, Department of Organic Chemistry, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, School of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Troy 12180-3590, NY (United States)

    2010-05-25

    We report the first successful deposition of functionalized and nanostructured Zn(II)- and Co(II)-metalloporphyrin thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation onto silicon wafers, quartz plates and screen-printed electrodes. The deposited nanostructures have been characterized by Raman spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. The novelty of our contribution consists of the evaluation of the sensitivity of the MAPLE-deposited Zn(II)- and Co(II)-metalloporphyrin thin films on screen-printed carbon nanotube electrodes when challenged with dopamine.

  1. The Need for Speed in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) has emerged as a powerful analytical tool enabling the direct molecular mapping of many types of tissue. Specifically, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization (MALDI) represents one of the most broadly applicable IMS technologies. In recent years, advances in solid state laser technology, mass spectrometry instrumentation, computer technology, and experimental methodology have produced IMS systems capable of unprecedented data acquisition speeds (>50 pixels/second). In applications of this technology, throughput is an important consideration when designing an IMS experiment. As IMS becomes more widely adopted, continual improvements in experimental setups will be important to address biologically and clinically relevant time scales.

  2. Cosmetic Analysis Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Catharino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new “omic” platform—Cosmetomics—that proves to be extremely simple and effective in terms of sample preparation and readiness for data acquisition/interpretation is presented. This novel approach employing Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI for cosmetic analysis has proven to readily identify and quantify compounds of interest. It also allows full control of all the production phases, as well as of the final product, by integration of both analytical and statistical data. This work has focused on products of daily use, namely nail polish, lipsticks and eyeliners of multiple brands sold in the worldwide market.

  3. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation for growth of fullerene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster Nielsen, Søren

    C60 fullerene thin films of average thickness of more than 100 nm can be produced in vacuum by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A 355 nm Nd:YAG laser was directed onto a frozen target of anisole with a concentration of 0.67 wt% C60. At laser fluences below 1.5 J/cm2, a dominant...... fluences, are caused by ejection of large matrix-fullerene liquid droplets into the gas-phase and subsequent deposition. At similar laser energies, but using an unfocused laser beam, MAPLE favours evaporation of matrix and organic molecules, resulting in production of films with smooth surfaces and minimal...

  4. Growth of thin fullerene films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren

    C60 fullerene thin films of average thickness of more than 100 nm on silicon substrates can be produced in vacuum by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A 355 nm Nd:YAG laser was directed onto a frozen target of anisole with a concentration of 0.67 wt% C60. At laser fluences below 1......, observed over a wide range of laser fluences, are caused by ejection of large matrix-fullerene liquid droplets into the gas-phase and subsequent deposition. At similar laser energies, but using an unfocused laser beam, MAPLE favours evaporation of matrix and organic molecules, resulting in films with...

  5. Functional polyethylene glycol derivatives nanostructured thin films synthesized by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the thin film deposition by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of a polymer conjugate with an hydrophilic sequence between metronidazole molecules that was covalently attached to both oligomer ends of carboxylate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 1.5-metronidazole). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the drug-polymer composite films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical properties similar to the starting materials. The dependence of the surface morphology on incident laser fluence is given.

  6. Functional polyethylene glycol derivatives nanostructured thin films synthesized by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Popescu, A.; Grigorescu, S.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D. [University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti, Bucharest (Romania); Gittard, S.D.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Buruiana, T. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 41A, Iasi (Romania); Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Troy, NY (United States)

    2009-09-30

    We report the thin film deposition by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of a polymer conjugate with an hydrophilic sequence between metronidazole molecules that was covalently attached to both oligomer ends of carboxylate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 1.5-metronidazole). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the drug-polymer composite films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical properties similar to the starting materials. The dependence of the surface morphology on incident laser fluence is given.

  7. Functional porphyrin thin films deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first successful deposition of functionalized and nanostructured Zn(II)- and Co(II)-metalloporphyrin thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation onto silicon wafers, quartz plates and screen-printed electrodes. The deposited nanostructures have been characterized by Raman spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. The novelty of our contribution consists of the evaluation of the sensitivity of the MAPLE-deposited Zn(II)- and Co(II)-metalloporphyrin thin films on screen-printed carbon nanotube electrodes when challenged with dopamine.

  8. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  9. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  10. Repetitive nanosecond glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packan, Denis

    Nonequilibrium, weakly ionized plasmas are widely used in the industry, but they are restricted to the domain of continuous discharges at low gas pressure or with specialty gases because of stability and power budget constraints. In this study, repetitively pulsed discharges were investigated as a way to decrease the power budget of atmospheric air plasmas by several orders of magnitude compared to continuous discharges, for an electron density of 1012 cm-3. The principle of the pulsed scheme is to use nanosecond electrical pulses to ionize air diffusely and with high efficiency, and to match the pulse interval with the recombination time of the plasma in order to maintain an elevated average electron density. Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian models of the physical processes in the discharge were examined, and the discharge parameters were chosen to minimize the power. Using a 10 ns, 12 kV, 100 kHz repetitive pulse generator, it was found that a repetitive nanosecond glow discharge could be operated in stable manner in atmospheric pressure air at 2000 K at an electron density of about 10 12 cm-3. Two pulsed discharges, with repetition frequencies of 100 kHz and 30 kHz, are described in this work. The electrode gap is 1 cm and the pulsed voltage is about 5 kV/cm. Electrical and optical methods were developed to measure the electron density in the discharge. The electron density was measured from the electrical conductivity during both the pulse and recombination phases, from the absolute intensity of the N2 Second Positive system during the pulse phase, and from the NO-gamma system during the recombination phase. The average electron density was found to be 1.4 x 1012 cm -3 for the 100 kHz discharge, and 1.8 x 102 cm-3 for the 30 kHz discharge, with peak values of 2 x 1012 cm-3 and 1013 cm-3, respectively. The power budget for the 30 kHz discharge was measured, from the voltage and current during the pulse phase, to be about 10 W/cm3, which represents an improvement of

  11. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry method for selectively producing either singly or multiply charged molecular ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpin, Sarah; Inutan, Ellen D; Herath, Thushani N; McEwen, Charles N

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is noted for its ability to produce primarily singly charged ions. This is an attribute when using direct ionization for complex mixtures such as protein digests or synthetic polymers. However, the ability to produce multiply charged ions, as with electrospray ionization (ESI), has advantages such as extending the mass range on mass spectrometers with limited mass-to-charge (m/z) range and enhancing fragmentation for structural characterization. We designed and fabricated a novel field free transmission geometry atmopsheric pressure (AP) MALDI source mounted to a high-mass resolution Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. We report the ability to produce at will either singly charged ions or highly charged ions using a MALDI process by simply changing the matrix or the matrix preparation conditions. Mass spectra with multiply charged ions very similar to those obtained with ESI of proteins such as cytochrome c and ubiquitin are obtained with low femtomole amounts applied to the MALDI target plate and for peptides such as angiotensin I and II with application of attomole amounts. Single scan acquisitions produce sufficient ion current even from proteins. PMID:19904915

  12. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure Rotating Gliding Arc Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Fengsen; Tu, Xin; Bo, Zheng; Cen, Kefa; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor has been developed for plasma-assisted chemical reactions. The influence of the gas composition and the gas flow rate on the arc dynamic behaviour and the formation of reactive species in the N2 and air gliding arc plasmas has been investigated by means of electrical signals, high speed photography, and optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics. Compared to conventional gliding arc reactors with knife-shaped electrodes which generally require a high flow rate (e.g., 10–20 L/min) to maintain a long arc length and reasonable plasma discharge zone, in this RGA system, a lower gas flow rate (e.g., 2 L/min) can also generate a larger effective plasma reaction zone with a longer arc length for chemical reactions. Two different motion patterns can be clearly observed in the N2 and air RGA plasmas. The time-resolved arc voltage signals show that three different arc dynamic modes, the arc restrike mode, takeover mode, and combined modes, can be clearly identified in the RGA plasmas. The occurrence of different motion and arc dynamic modes is strongly dependent on the composition of the working gas and gas flow rate. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51576174), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120101110099) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015FZA4011)

  13. Breakdown of atmospheric pressure microgaps at high excitation frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave (mw) breakdown of atmospheric pressure microgaps is studied by a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions numerical model. The effect of both field electron emission and secondary electron emission (due to electron impact, ion impact, and primary electron reflection) from surfaces on the breakdown process is considered. For conditions where field emission is the dominant electron emission mechanism from the electrode surfaces, it is found that the breakdown voltage of mw microdischarge coincides with the breakdown voltage of direct-current (dc) microdischarge. When microdischarge properties are controlled by both field and secondary electron emission, breakdown voltage of mw microdischarge exceeds that of dc microdischarge. When microdischarge is controlled only by secondary electron emission, breakdown voltage of mw microdischarge is smaller than that of dc microdischarge. It is shown that if the interelectrode gap exceeds some critical value, mw microdischarge can be ignited only by electrons initially seeded within the gap volume. In addition, the influence of electron reflection and secondary emission due to electron impact is studied

  14. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure Rotating Gliding Arc Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao; ZHU Fengsen; TU Xin; BO Zheng; CEN Kefa; LI Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    In this work,a novel direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor has been developed for plasma-assisted chemical reactions.The influence of the gas composition and the gas flow rate on the arc dynamic behaviour and the formation of reactive species in the N2 and air gliding arc plasmas has been investigated by means of electrical signals,high speed photography,and optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics.Compared to conventional gliding arc reactors with knife-shaped electrodes which generally require a high flow rate (e.g.,10-20 L/min) to maintain a long arc length and reasonable plasma discharge zone,in this RGA system,a lower gas flow rate (e.g.,2 L/min) can also generate a larger effective plasma reaction zone with a longer arc length for chemical reactions.Two different motion patterns can be clearly observed in the N2 and air RGA plasmas.The time-resolved arc voltage signals show that three different arc dynamic modes,the arc restrike mode,takeover mode,and combined modes,can be clearly identified in the RGA plasmas.The occurrence of different motion and arc dynamic modes is strongly dependent on the composition of the working gas and gas flow rate.

  15. Basic characteristics of an atmospheric pressure rf generated plasma jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shou-Guo; Li Hai-Jiang; Ye Tian-Chun; Zhao Ling-Li

    2004-01-01

    A plasma jet has been developed which operates using radio frequency (rf) power and produces a stable homogeneous discharge at atmospheric pressure. Its discharge characteristics, especially the dependence of stable discharge operating range on the feed gas, were studied, and the electric parameters such as RMS current, RMS voltage and reflected power were obtained with different gas flows. These studies indicate that there is an optimum range of operation of the plasma jet for a filling with a gas mixture of He and O2. Two "failure" modes of the discharge are identified.One is a filamentary arc when the input power is raised above a critical level, another is that the discharge disappears gradually as the addition of O2 approaches 3.2%. Possible explanations for the two failure modes have been given. The current and voltage waveform measurements show that there is a clear phase shift between normal and failure modes.In addition, Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves as a function of pure helium and for 1% addition of oxygen have been studied.

  16. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed.

  17. Temperature profiles in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical properties of atmospheric pressure filamentary dielectric barrier discharges (f-DBD) depend on coupled electrical characteristics and thermal profiles. In this paper, a method for studying thermal and electrical effects is developed. Therefore, thermal profiles of f-DBD are studied for well-defined electrical characteristics of quasi-identical filaments with controlled distribution in time and space. The temperatures of gas, dielectric surface and plasma depend on the surface density and on the temporal frequency of filaments, defining the input power, and can be tuned by controlling heat transfers. Different methods to control these temperatures are depicted. Moreover, heat transfer through conduction and convection from dielectric surface is shown to be the dominant heating mechanism of the flowing gas in the reactor. Finally, experimental results show that the local temperature gradient around each filament can be controlled by the frequency of the applied voltage. Actually, the temperature difference between the filament and the surrounding gas is constant below 10 kHz but increases linearly with the frequency above 10 kHz. At high frequency, the time between two successive filaments occurring at the same position becomes smaller than the relaxation time constant of thermal exchanges (∼0.1 ms). Hence, this rise in local temperature can be attributed to time-limited heat transfers from the filament axis.

  18. Temperature profiles in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jidenko, N; Bourgeois, E; Borra, J-P [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (UMR 8578 CNRS-Univ Paris-Sud Orsay, F-91405) SUPELEC, Plateau Moulon, F-91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-07-28

    Physico-chemical properties of atmospheric pressure filamentary dielectric barrier discharges (f-DBD) depend on coupled electrical characteristics and thermal profiles. In this paper, a method for studying thermal and electrical effects is developed. Therefore, thermal profiles of f-DBD are studied for well-defined electrical characteristics of quasi-identical filaments with controlled distribution in time and space. The temperatures of gas, dielectric surface and plasma depend on the surface density and on the temporal frequency of filaments, defining the input power, and can be tuned by controlling heat transfers. Different methods to control these temperatures are depicted. Moreover, heat transfer through conduction and convection from dielectric surface is shown to be the dominant heating mechanism of the flowing gas in the reactor. Finally, experimental results show that the local temperature gradient around each filament can be controlled by the frequency of the applied voltage. Actually, the temperature difference between the filament and the surrounding gas is constant below 10 kHz but increases linearly with the frequency above 10 kHz. At high frequency, the time between two successive filaments occurring at the same position becomes smaller than the relaxation time constant of thermal exchanges ({approx}0.1 ms). Hence, this rise in local temperature can be attributed to time-limited heat transfers from the filament axis.

  19. Mass spectrometric diagnosis of an atmospheric pressure helium microplasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) has been used to study how different capillary widths (530 µm and 2.4 mm) and excitation waveforms (continuous wave kHz and pulsed dc) affect the ionic composition of atmospheric pressure plasma jets. It is shown from time-averaged ion intensities that reducing the width of the jet capillary results in a significant increase in the variety of both positive and negative ions detected within the discharge. We discuss this in terms of changes in flow velocity and the onset of turbulence within the plasma plume. Changing the mode of excitation had little effect on the ionic species detected from the microplasma jet; however, there was a notable shift in dominance towards higher mass ions when operated in a continuous wave kHz mode. The temporal evolution of the ions within the microplasma jet was observed for both excitation sources, operated at 5 and 15 kHz. Positive ions were created during periods correlated with the positive and negative peaks in discharge current, while negative ions were predominantly created at times when the discharge current peak was negative. This phenomenon was independent of the driving waveform. For pulsed dc excitation, considerably fewer positive ions were created in periods related to the negative current peaks, especially at higher frequencies. We propose a simple explanation for these processes based on ideas of streamer propagation and the influence of self-induced electric fields in the plasma plume. (paper)

  20. Atmospheric pressure arc discharge with ablating graphite anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemchinsky, V. A. [Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale Campus, FL, 33309, USA; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-05-18

    The anodic carbon arc discharge is used to produce carbon nanoparticles. Recent experiments with the carbon arc at atmospheric pressure helium demonstrated the enhanced ablation rate for narrow graphite anodes resulting in high deposition rates of carbonaceous products on the copper cathode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322–6). The proposed model explains these results with interconnected steady-state models of the cathode and the anode processes. When considering cathode functioning, the model predicts circulation of the particles in the near-cathode region: evaporation of the cathode material, ionization of evaporated atoms and molecules in the near-cathode plasma, return of the resulting ions to the cathode, surface recombination of ions and electrons followed again by cathode evaporation etc. In the case of the low anode ablation rate, the ion acceleration in the cathode sheath provides the major cathode heating mechanism. In the case of an intensive anode ablation, an additional cathode heating is due to latent fusion heat of the atomic species evaporated from the anode and depositing at the cathode. Using the experimental arc voltage as the only input discharge parameter, the model allows us to calculate the anode ablation rate. A comparison of the results of calculations with the available experimental data shows reasonable agreement.

  1. Gas flow dependence of atmospheric pressure plasma needle discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Muyang; Yang, Congying; Liu, Sanqiu; Chen, Xiaochang; Ni, Gengsong; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional coupled model of neutral gas flow and plasma dynamics is presented to explain the gas flow dependence of discharge characteristics in helium plasma needle at atmospherics pressure. The diffusional mixing layer between the helium jet core and the ambient air has a moderate effect on the streamer propagation. The obtained simulation results present that the streamer shows the ring-shaped emission profile at a moderate gas flow rate. The key chemical reactions which drive the streamer propagation are electron-impact ionization of helium neutral, nitrogen and oxygen molecules. At a moderate gas flow rate of 0.5 slm, a significant increase in propagation velocity of the streamer is observed due to appropriate quantity of impurities air diffuse into the helium. Besides, when the gas flow rate is below 0.35 slm, the radial density of ground-state atomic oxygen peaks along the axis of symmetry. However, when the gas flow rate is above 0.5 slm, a ring-shaped density distribution appears. The peak density is on the order of 1020 m-3 at 10 ns in our work.

  2. Ultrasonic nebulization atmospheric pressure glow discharge - Preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greda, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (μAPGD) generated between a small-sized He nozzle jet anode and a flowing liquid cathode was coupled with ultrasonic nebulization (USN) for analytical optical emission spectrometry (OES). The spatial distributions of the emitted spectra from the novel coupled USN-μAPGD system and the conventional μAPGD system were compared. In the μAPGD, the maxima of the intensity distribution profiles of the atomic emission lines Ca, Cd, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na and Sr were observed in the near cathode region, whereas, in the case of the USN-μAPGD, they were shifted towards the anode. In the novel system, the intensities of the analytical lines of the studied metals were boosted from several to 35 times. As compared to the conventional μAPGD-OES with the introduction of analytes through the sputtering and/or the electrospray-like nebulization of the flowing liquid cathode solution, the proposed method with the USN introduction of analytes in the form of a dry aerosol provides improved detectability of the studied metals. The detection limits of metals achieved with the USN-μAPGD-OES method were in the range from 0.08 μg L- 1 for Li to 52 μg L- 1 for Mn.

  3. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred P M

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography hyphenated to atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappler, Julie; Guillarme, Davy; Rudaz, Serge; Veuthey, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    CZE is an appropriate technique for separating charged species, but lacks selectivity for neutral compounds. Alternative approaches such as microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) have been developed to broaden its range of applications. Hyphenation of MEEKC with MS is an attractive perspective since it can enhance sensitivity and selectivity. The on-line coupling of MEEKC with MS, however, is not straightforward due to the low compatibility of non-volatile surfactant additives (e.g. SDS) and the commonly used API source, namely ESI. In order to hyphenate MEEKC with MS detection, the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source was investigated. Possibilities offered by the coupling of MEEKC with APPI-MS were highlighted for the complex separation of ionized and neutral compounds in both the positive and negative modes. MEEKC-APPI-MS performance, in terms of selectivity, efficiency and sensitivity was compared to CZE-ESI-MS and MEEKC-ESI-MS for the screening of doping substances (beta-blockers, central stimulants, diuretics, etc). Relevant selectivity and detectability, particularly for neutral, structurally related and isobaric compounds was demonstrated with the MEEKC-APPI-MS approach opening new avenues for CE-MS, in addition to the well-established CZE-ESI-MS technique. PMID:18161697

  5. Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

    2014-02-15

    Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. PMID:24507269

  6. Pulsed, atmospheric pressure plasma source for emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2004-05-11

    A low-power, plasma source-based, portable molecular light emission generator/detector employing an atmospheric pressure pulsed-plasma for molecular fragmentation and excitation is described. The average power required for the operation of the plasma is between 0.02 W and 5 W. The features of the optical emission spectra obtained with the pulsed plasma source are significantly different from those obtained with direct current (dc) discharge higher power; for example, strong CH emission at 431.2 nm which is only weakly observed with dc plasma sources was observed, and the intense CN emission observed at 383-388 nm using dc plasma sources was weak in most cases. Strong CN emission was only observed using the present apparatus when compounds containing nitrogen, such as aniline were employed as samples. The present apparatus detects dimethylsulfoxide at 200 ppb using helium as the plasma gas by observing the emission band of the CH radical. When coupled with a gas chromatograph for separating components present in a sample to be analyzed, the present invention provides an apparatus for detecting the arrival of a particular component in the sample at the end of the chromatographic column and the identity thereof.

  7. Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in a cross flow at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang

    2015-07-22

    The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow and pressure were investigated by a series of experiments conducted in an especially built wind tunnel in Lhasa, a city on the Tibetan plateau where the altitude is 3650 m and the atmospheric pressure condition is naturally low (64 kPa). These results were compared with results obtained from a wind tunnel at standard atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) in Hefei city (altitude 50 m). The size of the fuel nozzles used in the experiments ranged from 3 to 8 mm in diameter and propane was used as the fuel. It was found that the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow first increased (“cross flow dominant” regime) and then decreased (“fuel jet dominant” regime) as the fuel jet velocity increased in both pressures; however, the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow was much lower at sub-atmospheric pressure than that at standard atmospheric pressure whereas the domain of the blow-out limit curve (in a plot of the air speed of the cross flow versus the fuel jet velocity) shrank as the pressure decreased. A theoretical model was developed to characterize the blow-out limit of nonpremixed jet flames in a cross flow based on a Damköhler number, defined as the ratio between the mixing time and the characteristic reaction time. A satisfactory correlation was obtained at relative strong cross flow conditions (“cross flow dominant” regime) that included the effects of the air speed of the cross flow, fuel jet velocity, nozzle diameter and pressure.

  8. Layered double hydroxides/polymer thin films grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Mitu, B.; Ionita, M.D.; Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest–Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Corobea, M.C. [National R. and S. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-09-30

    Due to their highly tunable properties, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an emerging class of the favorably layered crystals used for the preparation of multifunctional polymer/layered crystal nanocomposites. In contrast to cationic clay materials with negatively charge layers, LDHs are the only host lattices with positively charged layers (brucite-like), with interlayer exchangeable anions and intercalated water. In this work, the deposition of thin films of Mg and Al based LDH/polymers nanocomposites by laser techniques is reported. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation was the method used for thin films deposition. The Mg–Al LDHs capability to act as a host for polymers and to produce hybrid LDH/polymer films has been investigated. Polyethylene glycol with different molecular mass compositions and ethylene glycol were used as polymers. The structure and surface morphology of the deposited LDH/polymers films were examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Hybrid composites deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). • Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used. • Mixtures of PEG1450 and LDH were deposited by MAPLE. • Deposited thin films preserve the properties of the starting material. • The film wettability can be controlled by the amount of PEG.

  9. The growth of organosilicon film using a hexamethyldisilazane/oxygen atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet, using a hexamethyldisilazane and oxygen mixture, was used to deposit an organosilicon thin film on polycarbonate (PC) substrates. The atmospheric pressure plasma jet deposited homogeneous thin films without unfavorable contamination from the plasma source. The surface properties of the organosilicon thin films were studied as a function of oxygen gas flow rate. The atmospheric pressure plasma deposited organosilicon thin films were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis spectrometry and atomic forced microscopy. Surface analysis showed that atmospheric pressure plasma deposited films are more inorganic as the oxygen flow rate increases. The UV–vis spectra, detected in the range 300–800 nm, demonstrated improved transparency in the visible region and increased absorption in UV region of the spectrum. The improved hardness of the atmospheric pressure plasma deposited PC substrates was measured using a pencil hardness testing method and this was related to the chemical composition of the plasma deposited organosilicon thin films. The plasma jet allowed deposition of the coating without a chamber. - Highlights: ► Organosilicon thin films on polycarbonate (PC) by atmospheric pressure plasma jet. ► Properties of SiOx films vary with the injected oxygen flow rate in the plasma jet. ► Improved hardness of atmospheric pressure plasma deposited SiOx films achieved. ► Double-pipe atmospheric pressure plasma jet suitable for chamberless deposition

  10. The growth of organosilicon film using a hexamethyldisilazane/oxygen atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chun, E-mail: chunhuang@saturn.yzu.edu.tw; Wu, Shin-Yi; Tsai, Ching-Yuan; Liu, Wei-Ting

    2013-02-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet, using a hexamethyldisilazane and oxygen mixture, was used to deposit an organosilicon thin film on polycarbonate (PC) substrates. The atmospheric pressure plasma jet deposited homogeneous thin films without unfavorable contamination from the plasma source. The surface properties of the organosilicon thin films were studied as a function of oxygen gas flow rate. The atmospheric pressure plasma deposited organosilicon thin films were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis spectrometry and atomic forced microscopy. Surface analysis showed that atmospheric pressure plasma deposited films are more inorganic as the oxygen flow rate increases. The UV–vis spectra, detected in the range 300–800 nm, demonstrated improved transparency in the visible region and increased absorption in UV region of the spectrum. The improved hardness of the atmospheric pressure plasma deposited PC substrates was measured using a pencil hardness testing method and this was related to the chemical composition of the plasma deposited organosilicon thin films. The plasma jet allowed deposition of the coating without a chamber. - Highlights: ► Organosilicon thin films on polycarbonate (PC) by atmospheric pressure plasma jet. ► Properties of SiOx films vary with the injected oxygen flow rate in the plasma jet. ► Improved hardness of atmospheric pressure plasma deposited SiOx films achieved. ► Double-pipe atmospheric pressure plasma jet suitable for chamberless deposition.

  11. Forbush-effects and atmospheric pressure dynamics at high-altitude Tien Shan station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present atmospheric pressure dynamics studies at the high-altitude Tien Shan station (3340 m above sea level) during 23rd cycle of solar activity after Forbush-effects. It is established that 80 % of Forbush effects with delay 1 ÷ 3 days are accompanied with steady depression of atmospheric pressure irrespective of geomagnetic field conditions. We found that atmospheric pressure dynamics at mountains and ground levels during investigated periods is different. Experimental results are compared with possible mechanisms of influence of sporadic effects of solar activity on circulation of the lower atmosphere.

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of flat aluminum surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DCSBD plasma is applicable for activation and cleaning of flat aluminum surfaces. • Decrease in the value of the contact angle after 1 s plasma treatment was 93%. • EDX measurements confirmed removal of oil contamination by 50% decreasing of carbon. • XPS analyze shown decrease of carbon content and increase of aluminum hydroxide and oxyhydroxide. - Abstract: The atmospheric pressure ambient air and oxygen plasma treatment of flat aluminum sheets using the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) were investigated. The main objective of this study is to show the possibility of using DCSBD plasma source to activate and clean aluminum surface. Surface free energy measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used for the characterization of the aluminum surface chemistry and changes induced by plasma treatment. Short plasma exposure times (several seconds) led to a significant increase in the surface free energy due to changes of its polar components. Various ageing effects, depending on the storage conditions were observed and discussed. Effects of air and oxygen plasmas on the removal of varying degrees of artificial hydrocarbon contamination of aluminum surfaces were investigated by the means of EDX, ATR-FTIR and XPS methods. A significant decrease in the carbon surface content after the plasma treatment indicates a strong plasma cleaning effect, which together with high energy efficiency of the DCSBD plasma source points to potential benefits of DCSBD application in processing of the flat aluminum surfaces

  13. Pulsed microwave discharge at atmospheric pressure for NOx decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3.0 GHz pulsed microwave source operated at atmospheric pressure with a pulse power of 1.4 MW, a maximum repetition rate of 40 Hz, and a pulse length of 3.5 μs is experimentally studied with respect to the ability to remove NOx from synthetic exhaust gases. Experiments in gas mixtures containing N2/O2/NO with typically 500 ppm NO are carried out. The discharge is embedded in a high-Q microwave resonator, which provides a reliable plasma ignition. Vortex flow is applied to the exhaust gas to improve gas treatment. Concentration measurements by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm an NOx reduction of more than 90% in the case of N2/NO mixtures. The admixture of oxygen lowers the reductive potential of the reactor, but NOx reduction can still be observed up to 9% O2 concentration. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering technique is applied to measure the vibrational and rotational temperature of N2. Gas temperatures of about 400 K are found, whilst the vibrational temperature is 3000-3500 K in pure N2. The vibrational temperature drops to 1500 K when O2 and/or NO are present. The randomly distributed relative frequency of occurrence of selected breakdown field intensities is measured by a calibrated, short linear-antenna. The breakdown field strength in pure N2 amounts to 2.2x106 V m-1, a value that is reproducible within 2%. In the case of O2 and/or NO admixture, the frequency distribution of the breakdown field strength scatters more and extends over a range from 3 to 8x106 V m-1

  14. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O2 = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed

  15. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges interacting with liquid covered tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of plasmas with liquids is of increasing importance in biomedical applications. Tissues treated by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in plasma medicine are often covered by a thin layer of liquid, typically a blood serum like water with dissolved gases and proteins up to hundreds of micrometres thick. The liquid processes the plasma-produced radicals and ions prior to their reaching the tissue. In this paper, we report on a computational investigation of the interaction of DBDs in humid air with a thin water layer covering tissue. The water layer, 50–400 µm thick, contains dissolved O2aq (aq means an aqueous species) and alkane-like hydrocarbons (RHaq). In the model, the DBDs are operated with multiple pulses at 100 Hz followed by a 1 s afterglow. Gas phase reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) intersect the water-vapour saturated air above the liquid and then solvate when reaching the water. The photolysis of water by plasma-produced UV/VUV plays a significant role in the production of radicals. Without RHaq, O2aq−, ONOOaq−, NO3aq− and hydronium (H3Oaq+) dominate the water ions with H3Oaq+ determining the pH. The dominant RONS in the liquid are O3aq, H2O2aq, and HNOxaq. Dissolved O2aq assists the production of HNO3aq and HOONOaq during the afterglow. With RHaq, reactive oxygen species are largely consumed, leaving an R·aq (alkyl radical) to reach the tissue. These results are sensitive to the thickness of the water layer. (paper)

  16. Collaborative Research. Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma Chemistry-Photon Synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Jin [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Eden, James Gary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Combining the effects of low temperature, atmospheric pressure microplasmas and microplasma photon sources offers the promise of greatly expanding the range of applications for each of them. The plasma sources create active chemical species and these can be activated further by the addition of photons and the associated photochemistry. There are many ways to combine the effects of plasma chemistry and photochemistry, especially if there are multiple phases present. This project combined the construction of appropriate test experimental systems, various spectroscopic diagnostics and mathematical modeling. Through a continuous discussion and co-design process with the UC-Berkeley Team, we have successfully completed the fabrication and testing of all components for a microplasma array-assisted system designed for photon-activated plasma chemistry research. Microcavity plasma lamps capable of generating more than 20 mW/cm2 at 172 nm (Xe dimer) were fabricated with a custom form factor to mate to the plasma chemistry setup, and a lamp was current being installed by the Berkeley team so as to investigate plasma chemistry-photon synergies at a higher photon energy (~7.2 eV) as compared to the UVA treatment that is afforded by UV LEDs operating at 365 nm. In particular, motivated by the promising results from the Berkeley team with UVA treatment, we also produced the first generation of lamps that can generate photons in the 300-370 nm wavelength range. Another set of experiments, conducted under the auspices of this grant, involved the use of plasma microjet arrays. The combination of the photons and excited radicals produced by the plasma column resulted in broad area deactivation of bacteria.

  17. Tailoring non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas for healthcare technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Timo

    2012-10-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas operated at ambient atmospheric pressure are very efficient sources for energy transport through reactive neutral particles (radicals and metastables), charged particles (ions and electrons), UV radiation, and electro-magnetic fields. This includes the unique opportunity to deliver short-lived highly reactive species such as atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can initiate a wide range of reactions in biochemical systems, both therapeutic and toxic. The toxicological implications are not clear, e.g. potential risks through DNA damage. It is anticipated that interactions with biological systems will be governed through synergies between two or more species. Suitable optimized plasma sources are improbable through empirical investigations. Quantifying the power dissipation and energy transport mechanisms through the different interfaces from the plasma regime to ambient air, towards the liquid interface and associated impact on the biological system through a new regime of liquid chemistry initiated by the synergy of delivering multiple energy carrying species, is crucial. The major challenge to overcome the obstacles of quantifying energy transport and controlling power dissipation has been the severe lack of suitable plasma sources and diagnostic techniques. Diagnostics and simulations of this plasma regime are very challenging; the highly pronounced collision dominated plasma dynamics at very small dimensions requires extraordinary high resolution - simultaneously in space (microns) and time (picoseconds). Numerical simulations are equally challenging due to the inherent multi-scale character with very rapid electron collisions on the one extreme and the transport of chemically stable species characterizing completely different domains. This presentation will discuss our recent progress actively combining both advance optical diagnostics and multi-scale computer simulations.

  18. Common 0.1 bar Tropopause in Thick Atmospheres Set by Pressure-Dependent Infrared Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Tyler D

    2014-01-01

    A minimum atmospheric temperature, or tropopause, occurs at a pressure of around 0.1 bar in the atmospheres of Earth, Titan, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, despite great differences in atmospheric composition, gravity, internal heat and sunlight. In all these bodies, the tropopause separates a stratosphere with a temperature profile that is controlled by the absorption of shortwave solar radiation, from a region below characterised by convection, weather, and clouds. However, it is not obvious why the tropopause occurs at the specific pressure near 0.1 bar. Here we use a physically-based model to demonstrate that, at atmospheric pressures lower than 0.1 bar, transparency to thermal radiation allows shortwave heating to dominate, creating a stratosphere. At higher pressures, atmospheres become opaque to thermal radiation, causing temperatures to increase with depth and convection to ensue. A common dependence of infrared opacity on pressure, arising from the shared physics of molecular absorption, sets t...

  19. Applications of a versatile technique for trace analysis: atmospheric pressure negative chemical ionization.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, B A; Davidson, W R; Lovett, A M

    1980-01-01

    The ability to use ambient air as a carrier and reagent gas in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source allows instantaneous air analysis to be combined with hypersensitivity toward a wide variety of compounds. The TAGA (Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyser) is an instrument which is designed to use both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for trace gas analysis; this paper describes several applications of negative APCI which demonstrates that the techni...

  20. Laser induced chemical vapour deposition of TiN coatings at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Croonen, Y.; Verspui, G.

    1993-01-01

    Laser induced Chemical Vapour Deposition of a wide variety of materials has been studied extensively at reduced pressures. However, for this technique to be economically and industrially applicable, processes at atmospheric pressure are preferred. A model study was made on the substrate-coating system molybdenum-titaniumnitride focussing on the feasibility to deposit TiN films locally at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study turned out to be very promising. A Nd-YAG laser beam ([MAT...

  1. Biomolecular papain thin films grown by matrix assisted and conventional pulsed laser deposition: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, E.; Pérez del Pino, A.; Sauthier, G.; Figueras, A.

    2009-12-01

    Biomolecular papain thin films were grown both by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) and conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques with the aid of an UV KrF∗ (λ =248 nm, τFWHM≅20 ns) excimer laser source. For the MAPLE experiments the targets submitted to laser radiation consisted on frozen composites obtained by dissolving the biomaterial powder in distilled water at 10 wt % concentration. Conventional pressed biomaterial powder targets were used in the PLD experiments. The surface morphology of the obtained thin films was studied by atomic force microscopy and their structure and composition were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The possible physical mechanisms implied in the ablation processes of the two techniques, under comparable experimental conditions were identified. The results showed that the growth mode, surface morphology as well as structure of the deposited biomaterial thin films are determined both by the incident laser fluence value as well as target preparation procedure.

  2. Two-laser infrared and ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark W; Kim, Jae-Kuk; Murray, Kermit K

    2003-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was performed using two pulsed lasers with wavelengths in the IR and UV regions. A 10.6 micro m pulsed CO(2) laser was used to irradiate a MALDI target, followed after an adjustable delay by a 337 nm pulsed nitrogen laser. The sample consisted of a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix and bovine insulin guest molecule. The pulse energy for both of the lasers was adjusted so that the ion of interest, either the matrix or guest ion, was not produced by either of the lasers alone. The delay time for maximum ion yield occurs at 1 micro s for matrix and guest ions and the signal decayed to zero in approximately 400 micro s. A mechanism is presented for enhanced UV MALDI ion yield following the IR laser pulse based on transient heating. PMID:12898657

  3. UV and RIR matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition of organic MEH-PPV films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study of thin film production based on gentle laser-ablation techniques has been carried out with the luminescent polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]. Using a free-electron laser films were made by resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD). For the first time resonant infrared matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was successfully demonstrated on a luminescent polymer system. In addition to this, an excimer laser has been used for UV-MAPLE depositions at 193 and 248-nm irradiation. Films deposited onto NaCl and quartz substrates were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance and photoluminescence. Photoluminescent material was deposited by RIR-MAPLE and 248-nm MAPLE, while the RIR-PLD and 193-nm-MAPLE depositions displayed the smoothest surfaces but did not show photoluminescence

  4. What do Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectra Reveal about Ionization Mechanisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papantonakis, Michael R.(VISITORS); Kim, Jun S.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Hess, Wayne P.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Haglund, Richard F.(Vanderbilt University)

    2002-06-01

    We describe the results of experiments designed to test several of the most widely discussed mechanistic models for matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization. By comparing ion mass spectra from the same matrix-analyte systems across various wavelengths from ultraviolet to mid-infrared and pulse durations from nanosecond to femtosecond, we have evaluated the plausibility of such ion-formation mechanisms as multiphoton ionization, excited state ionization, and photothermal ionization. We conclude that some of these models are not plausible for the matrix-analyte systems we studied. However, the fundamental principles of the laser-materials interaction also suggest that inspection of the mass spectra alone can only serve to exclude certain mechanisms, not to establish which of several competing mechanisms is actually occurring. This is particularly true with respect to variations in pulse duration and wavelength.

  5. Matrix-assisted laser desorption of biological molecules in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D.M.; Goeringer, D.E.; McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD), which has been proven to be an effective ionization technique for biological molecules, has been implemented on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). In the instrumental configuration used for this work both the sample probe and the laser beam are brought through holes in the ring electrode, thereby enabling MALD-generated ions to expand directly into the ion trap cavity. This approach for directly introducing MALD-generated ions compliments the capabilities of the ITMS to obtain low detection limits and to perform tandem mass spectrometric analysis. For example, detection limits in the single-unit femtomole regime have been achieved for small polypeptides such as leucine enkephalin, bradykinin, and neuromedin U-8. Furthermore, structural information has been acquired via multiple stages of mass spectrometry. One limitation that currently exists is an unanticipated drop in sensitivity and resolution as the mass/charge ratio for ions exceeds 3000. 42 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The minimum amount of "matrix " needed for matrix-assisted pulsed laser deposition of biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabetah, Marshall; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin;

    2014-01-01

    The ability of matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique to transfer and deposit high-quality thin organic, bioorganic, and composite films with minimum chemical modification of the target material has been utilized in numerous applications. One of the outstanding problems in MAPLE...... the ejection of intact lysozyme molecules from pressed lysozyme targets containing small amounts of residual water. The results of this study suggest a new approach for deposition of thin films of bioorganic molecules with minimum chemical modification of the molecular structure and minimum...... film deposition, however, is the presence of residual solvent (matrix) codeposited with the polymer material and adversely affecting the quality of the deposited films. In this work, we investigate the possibility of alleviating this problem by reducing the amount of matrix in the target. A series of...

  7. Functionalized porphyrin conjugate thin films deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordache, S. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, A.C.; Popescu, C.E.; Dorcioman, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ciucu, A.A. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Bucharest (Romania); Balan, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, PO Box MG-38, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Fagadar-Cosma, E. [Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, M. Viteazul Ave. 24, 300223-Timisoara (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Tulane University, Departments of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We report on the deposition of nanostructured porphyrin-base, 5(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4-phenoxyphenyl)-porphyrin thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation onto silicon substrates with screen-printed electrodes. AFM investigations have shown that at 400 mJ/cm{sup 2} fluence a topographical transition takes place from the platelet-like stacking porphyrin-based nanostructures in a perpendicular arrangement to a quasi-parallel one both relative to the substrate surface. Raman spectroscopy has shown that the chemical structure of the deposited thin films is preserved for fluences within the range of 200–300 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Cyclic voltammograms have demonstrated that the free porphyrin is appropriate as a single mediator for glucose in a specific case of screen-printed electrodes, suggesting potential for designing a new class of biosensors.

  8. High fluence deposition of polyethylene glycol films at 1064 nm by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purice, Andreea; Schou, Jørgen; Kingshott, P.; Pryds, Nini; Dinescu, M.

    2007-01-01

    microbalance. The laser fluence needed to produce PEG films turned out to be unexpectedly high with a threshold of 9 J/cm(2) and the deposition rate was much lower than that with laser light at 355 nm. Results from matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI......Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been applied for deposition of thin polyethylene glycol (PEG) films with infrared laser light at 1064 nm. We have irradiated frozen targets (of 1 wt.% PEG dissolved in water) and measured the deposition rate in situ with a quartz crystal 2...

  9. Relating landfill gas emissions to atmospheric pressure using numerical modeling and state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    were applied: (I) State-space analysis was used to identify relations between gas flux and short-term (hourly) variations in atmospheric pressure. (II) A numerical gas transport model was fitted to the data and used to quantify short-term impacts of variations in atmospheric pressure, volumetric soil-water...... content, soil gas permeability, soil gas diffusion coefficients, and biological CH4 degradation rate upon landfill gas concentration and fluxes in the soil. Fluxes and concentrations were found to be most sensitive to variations in volumetric soil water content, atmospheric pressure variations and gas...

  10. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Electrospin Hybrid Process for Protective Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitchuli Gangadharan, Narendiran

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and biological (C-B) warfare agents like sarin, sulfur mustard, anthrax are usually dispersed into atmosphere in the form of micro aerosols. They are considered to be dangerous weapon of mass destruction next to nuclear weapons. The airtight protective clothing materials currently available are able to stop the diffusion of threat agents but not good enough to detoxify them, which endangers the wearers. Extensive research efforts are being made to prepare advanced protective clothing materials that not only prevent the diffusion of C-B agents, but also detoxify them into harmless products thus ensuring the safety and comfort of the wearer. Electrospun nanofiber mats are considered to have effective filtration characteristics to stop the diffusion of submicron level particulates without sacrificing air permeability characteristics and could be used in protective application as barrier material. In addition, functional nanofibers could be potentially developed to detoxify the C-B warfare threats into harmless products. In this research, electrospun nanofibers were deposited on fabric surface to improve barrier efficiency without sacrificing comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Multi-functional nanofibers were fabricated through an electrospinning-electrospraying hybrid process and their ability to detoxify simulants of C-B agents was evaluated. Nanofibers were also deposited onto plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrate through a newly developed plasma-electrospinning hybrid process, to improve the adhesive properties of nanofibers on the fabric surface. The nanofiber adhesion and durability properties were evaluated by peel test, flex and abrasion resistance tests. In this research work, following tasks have been carried out: i) Controlled deposition of nanofiber mat onto woven fabric substrate Electrospun Nylon 6 fiber mats were deposited onto woven 50/50 Nylon/Cotton fabric with the motive of making them into protective material against submicron

  11. Effect that atmospheric pressure exerts to DC tracking of polyethylene irradiated with gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the testing method of tracking resistance carried out generally, particular stipulation is not made on atmospheric pressure. But there is the case that electric and electronic equipments are used in the place of low pressure. The lowering of atmospheric pressure affects the phenomenon of tracking deterioration, and it is sufficiently conceivable that tracking resistance changes. So far, the effect that atmospheric pressure exerts on tracking resistance at the time of applying AC voltage has been mainly studied, however recently, DC voltage has become widely utilized, and the elucidation of DC tracking phenomena has become important. The experiment of irradiating Co-60 gamma ray to polyethylene and obtaining the basic data on the effect that atmospheric pressure exerts to DC tracking using those samples was carried out. The experimental setup, the samples and the tracking resistance test are reported. The relation of the weight loss with atmospheric pressure, the relation of the maximum erosion depth and atmospheric pressure, the measurement of the amount of residual carbide and the tracking resistance using brass electrodes are described. (K.I.)

  12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and electrospray ionization combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Staneke, Paul O.; Nibbering, Nico M. M.

    1997-01-01

    During recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) are successfully employed to analyze biomolecules and polymers. In combination with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, high mass resolution and mass measurement accuracy can be achieved to enable the determination of molecular weights and structural characterization of biochemical compounds larger than 10 kDa.

  13. Pigments and proteins in green bacterial chlorosomes studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, S; Sönksen, C P; Frigaard, N U;

    2000-01-01

    We have used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for mass determination of pigments and proteins in chlorosomes, the light-harvesting organelles from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. By applying a small volume (1...

  14. Calibration of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight peptide mass fingerprinting spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Højrup, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes a number of aspects important for calibration of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight spectra prior to peptide mass fingerprinting searches. Both multipoint internal calibration and mass defect-based calibration is illustrated. The chapter describes how...

  15. Spatially resolved protein hydrogen exchange measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization in-source decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Bache, Nicolai; Nedertoft, Morten M;

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for measuring protein hydrogen exchange and thereby reveal the structural dynamics of proteins in solution. Here we describe the successful application of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry approach based on in...

  16. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  17. A novel sample preparation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Zhang; Zhen Wen Zhao; Lei Xiong; Bin Xin; Wei Hua Hu; Shao Xiang Xiong

    2007-01-01

    A novel sample preparation method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for polystyrene was reported.Compared to the conventional dried-droplet method, the efficiency of ionization and signal intensity of mass spectra were improved.The mechanism was also analyzed.

  18. Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of clinical yeast isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenvinge, Flemming S; Dzajic, Esad; Knudsen, Elisa;

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast yeast identification is important when treating patients with invasive fungal disease as susceptibility to antifungal agents is highly species related. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) provides a powerful tool with a clear potential...

  19. Serum protein profiling by miniaturized solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bunkenborg, Jakob;

    2005-01-01

    Serum profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) holds promise as a clinical tool for early diagnosis of cancer and other human diseases. Sample preparation is key to achieving reproducible and well-resolved signals in MALDI-MS; a prerequisite for...

  20. Applications of tunable high energy/pressure pulsed lasers to atmospheric transmission and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. V.; Seals, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Atmospheric transmission of high energy C12 O2(16) lasers were improved by pulsed high pressure operation which, due to pressure broadening of laser lines, permits tuning the laser 'off' atmospheric C12 O2(16) absorption lines. Pronounced improvement is shown for horizontal transmission at altitudes above several kilometers, and for vertical transmission through the entire atmosphere. The atmospheric transmission of tuned C12 O2(16) lasers compares favorably with C12 O2(18) isotope lasers and CO lasers. The advantages of tunable, high energy, high pressure pulsed lasers over tunable diode lasers and waveguide lasers, in combining high energies with a large tuning range, are evaluated for certain applications to remote sensing of atmospheric constituents and pollutants. Pulsed operation considerably increases the signal to noise ratio without seriously affecting the high spectral resolution of signal detection obtained with laser heterodyning.

  1. Ion-ion reactions for charge reduction of biopolymer at atmospheric pressure ambient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming Zhou; Jian Hua Ding; Xie Zhang; Huan Wen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization source (EESI) was adapted for ion-ion reaction, which was demonstrated by using a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for the first ion-ion reaction of biopolymers in the atmospheric pressure ambient.

  2. A Minimized Mutual Information retrieval for simultaneous atmospheric pressure and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Koner, Prabhat K.; Drummond, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of the Mars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) collaboration between NASA and ESA is the detection of the temporal and spatial variation of the atmospheric trace gases using a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer. To retrieve any trace gas mixing ratios from these measurements, the atmospheric pressure and temperature have to be known accurately. Thus, a prototype retrieval model for the determination of pressure and temperature from a broadband high resolution infrared Fou...

  3. Development of propulsion for high atmospheric pressure or dense environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, G.; Back, L. H.; Dowler, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a propulsion system that employs a detonating propellant is described, and the need for such a system and its use in certain planetary atmospheres are demonstrated. A theoretical formulation of the relevant gas-dynamic processes was developed, and a related series of experimental tests were pursued.

  4. Atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of electrochromic organonickel oxide thin films with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of electrochromic organonickel oxide (NiOxCy) films onto glass/indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under various precursor injection angles is investigated. A precursor [nickelocene, Ni(C5H5)2] vapor, carried by argon gas and mixed with oxygen gas, is injected into an air plasma torch for the deposition of NiOxCy films by a short exposure of the substrate, 20 s, in the plasma. Uniform light modulation on glass/ITO/NiOxCy is produced while the moving glass/ITO substrate is exposed to the plasma torch at room temperature (∼ 23 °C) and under atmospheric pressure. Light modulation with up to a 40.9% transmittance variation at a wavelength of 513.9 nm under Li+ intercalation and de-intercalation in a 1 M LiClO4–propylene carbonate electrolyte is achieved. - Highlights: ► Rapid deposition of electrochromic NiOxCy film by atmospheric pressure plasma jet ► Uniform light modulation on NiOxCy film is produced. ► Nano-grains in NiOxCy films offer fast coloration and bleaching

  5. Water cycles in closed ecological systems: effects of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Metz, Joannah M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems that use plants to generate food and oxygen, the largest mass flux between the plants and their surrounding environment will be water. This water cycle is a consequence of the continuous change of state (evaporation-condensation) from liquid to gas through the process of transpiration and the need to transfer heat (cool) and dehumidify the plant growth chamber. Evapotranspiration rates for full plant canopies can range from 1 to 10 L m-2 d-1 (1 to 10 mm m-2 d-1), with the rates depending primarily on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaves and the air inside the plant growth chamber. VPD in turn is dependent on the air temperature, leaf temperature, and current value of relative humidity (RH). Concepts for developing closed plant growth systems, such as greenhouses for Mars, have been discussed for many years and the feasibility of such systems will depend on the overall system costs and reliability. One approach for reducing system costs would be to reduce the operating pressure within the greenhouse to reduce structural mass and gas leakage. But managing plant growth environments at low pressures (e.g., controlling humidity and heat exchange) may be difficult, and the effects of low-pressure environments on plant growth and system water cycling need further study. We present experimental evidence to show that water saturation pressures in air under isothermal conditions are only slightly affected by total pressure, but the overall water flux from evaporating surfaces can increase as pressure decreases. Mathematical models describing these observations are presented, along with discussion of the importance for considering "water cycles" in closed bioregenerative life support systems.

  6. Super-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry and its application to ultrafast online protein digestion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2016-06-01

    Ion source pressure plays a significant role in the process of ionization and the subsequent ion transmission inside a mass spectrometer. Pressurizing the ion source to a gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a relatively new approach that aims to further improve the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization sources. For example, under a super-atmospheric pressure environment, a stable electrospray can be sustained for liquid with high surface tension such as pure water, because of the suppression of electric discharge. Even for nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI), which is known to work with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity can also be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source is pressurized. A brief review on the development of super-atmospheric pressure ion sources, including high-pressure electrospray, field desorption and superheated ESI, and the strategies to interface these ion sources to a mass spectrometer will be given. Using a recent ESI prototype with an operating temperature at 220 °C under 27 atm, we also demonstrate that it is possible to achieve an online Asp-specific protein digestion analysis in which the whole processes of digestion, ionization and MS acquisition could be completed on the order of a few seconds. This method is fast, and the reaction can even be monitored on a near-real-time basis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27270863

  7. Measurement of the First Townsend's Ionization Coefficients in Helium, Air, and Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Junxia; Luo, Haiyun; Yue, Yang; Wang, Xinxin

    2014-07-01

    In the past the first Townsend’s ionization coefficient α could only be measured with Townsend discharge in gases at low pressure. After realizing Townsend discharge in some gases at atmospheric pressure by using dielectric barrier electrodes, we had developed a new method for measuring α coefficient at atmospheric pressure, a new optical method based on the discharge images taken with ICCD camera. With this newly developed method α coefficient in helium, nitrogen and air at atmospheric pressure were measured. The results were found to be in good agreement with the data obtained at lower pressure but same reduced field E/p by other groups. It seems that the value of α coefficient is sensitive to the purity of the working gas.

  8. A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project evaluated an alternative method of controlled atmosphere stunning of commercial broilers to induce anoxia utilizing a vacuum pump to reduce the oxygen tension, low atmospheric pressure stun (LAPS). A custom built 2 cage-module system (holding a total of 600 broilers each) with...

  9. Simulation of Electron-Beam Generating Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Liang; LI Hong; LI Benben; ZHOU Junqing; YAN Hong; SU Tie; WANG Huihui; LIUWandong

    2007-01-01

    As electron-beam generating plasma is widely applied,the software tool EGS4(Electron-Gamma Shower) was used to simulate the transmission and energy deposition of electron-beam in air.The simulation results indicated that the range of the electron-beam was inversely proportional to the gas pressure in a wide range of gas pressure,and the electron-beam of 200 keV could generate a plasma with a density 1011 cm-3 in air of latm.In addition,the energy distribution of the beam-electron and plasma density profile produced by the beam were achieved.

  10. Protein-resistant polymer coatings obtained by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusen, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mustaciosu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mitu, B.; Filipescu, M.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinca, V., E-mail: dinali@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    Adsorption of proteins and polysaccharides is known to facilitate microbial attachment and subsequent formation of biofilm on surfaces that ultimately results in its biofouling. Therefore, protein repellent modified surfaces are necessary to block the irreversible attachment of microorganisms. Within this context, the feasibility of using the Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) methyl ether (PEG-block-PCL Me) copolymer as potential protein-resistant coating was explored in this work. The films were deposited using Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique that allows good control of composition, thickness and homogeneity. The chemical and morphological characteristics of the films were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The FTIR data demonstrates that the functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited films remain intact, especially for fluences below 0.5 J cm{sup −2}. Optical Microscopy and AFM images show that the homogeneity and the roughness of the coatings are related to both laser parameters (fluence, number of pulses) and target composition. Protein adsorption tests were performed on the PEG-block-PCL Me copolymer coated glass and on bare glass surface as a control. The results show that the presence of copolymer as coating significantly reduces the adsorption of proteins.

  11. Study of ionization process of matrix molecules in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Proton transfer and adduction reaction of matrix in MALDI were studied. ► Hydroxyl group forming intramolecular hydrogen bond was related to the ionization. ► Intramolecular proton transfer in the electronic excited state was the initial step. ► Non-volatile analytes stabilized protonated matrix in the ground state. ► A possible mechanism, “analyte support mechanism”, has been proposed. - Abstract: Proton transfer and adduction reaction of matrix molecules in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization were studied. By using 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), and their related compounds in which the position of a hydroxyl group is different, it was clarified that a hydroxyl group forming an intramolecular hydrogen bond is related to the ionization of matrix molecules. Intramolecular proton transfer in the electronic excited state of the matrix and subsequent proton adduction from a surrounding solvent to the charge-separated matrix are the initial steps for the ionization of matrix molecules. Nanosecond pump–probe NIR–UV mass spectrometry confirmed that the existence of analyte molecules having large dipole moment in their structures is necessary for the stabilization of [matrix + H]+ in the electronic ground state

  12. Nanoparticle Thin Films for Gas Sensors Prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rella

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique has been used for the deposition of metal dioxide (TiO2, SnO2 nanoparticle thin films for gas sensor applications. For this purpose, colloidal metal dioxide nanoparticles were diluted in volatile solvents, the solution was frozen at the liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed excimer laser. The dioxide nanoparticles were deposited on Si and Al2O3 substrates. A rather uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm and of SnO2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 3 nm was obtained, as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM-FEG inspections. Gas-sensing devices based on the resistive transduction mechanism were fabricated by depositing the nanoparticle thin films onto suitable rough alumina substrates equipped with interdigitated electrical contacts and heating elements. Electrical characterization measurements were carried out in controlled environment. The results of the gas-sensing tests towards low concentrations of ethanol and acetone vapors are reported. Typical gas sensor parameters (gas responses, response/recovery time, sensitivity, and low detection limit towards ethanol and acetone are presented.

  13. Two-photon ionization thresholds of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Q; Knochenmuss, R

    2001-01-01

    Direct two-photon ionization of the matrix has been considered a likely primary ionization mechanism in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. This mechanism requires that the vertical ionization threshold of matrix materials be below twice the laser photon energy. Because dimers and larger aggregates may be numerous in the early stages of the MALDI plume expansion, their ionization thresholds are important as well. We have used two-color two-photon ionization to determine the ionization thresholds of jet cooled clusters of an important matrix, 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHB), and mixed clusters with the thermal decomposition product of DHB, hydroquinone. The thresholds of the clusters were reduced by only a few tenths of an eV compared to the monomers, to an apparent limit of 7.82 eV for pure DHB clusters. None of the investigated clusters can be directly ionized by two nitrogen laser photons (7.36 eV), and the ionization efficiency at the thresholds is low. PMID:11507754

  14. Properties of matrix-assisted laser desorption. Measurements with a time-to-digital converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, W; Mao, Y; Mayer, F; Standing, K G

    1991-03-01

    Some properties of matrix-assisted laser desorption have been studied using single-ion-counting methods and a time-to-digital converter. The methods allow examination of the process for irradiances near the reported threshold for observation with a transient recorder. All measurements were made using bovine insulin as a test compound. We present direct evidence that an irradiance threshold near 10(6) W cm-2 exists for ion production, and that the process is a collective effect, either involving a large number of molecular ions (approximately 10(4) in a successful event or none at all. Above the threshold, the yield is found to scale with a high power (4th to 6th) of the irradiance. Measurements of initial velocity distributions indicate an axial velocity spread corresponding to approximately 50 eV and a radial velocity spread corresponding to approximately 2.4 eV. Thus the ejection or extraction mechanism appears to be strongly asymmetric. PMID:1804409

  15. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Merete; Zardini, Alessandro Alessio; Hong, Juan;

    allowed to evaporate in a laminar flow reactor, and changes in particle size as function of evaporation time are determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer system. In this work saturation vapor pressures of sugar alcohols at several temperatures have been inferred from such measurements using...

  16. The Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on Rocket Thrust -- Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    The first of a two-part question asks: Does the total thrust of a rocket depend on the surrounding pressure? The answer to this question is provided, with accompanying diagrams of rockets. The second part of the question (and answer) are provided in v20 n7, p479, Oct 1982 of this journal. (Author/JN)

  17. Vertical thermal structure of the Venus atmosphere from temperature and pressure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkin, V.M.; Blamon, Z.; Lipatov, A.P.; Devyatkin, S.I.; Dyachkov, A.V.; Ignatova, S.I.; Kerzhanovich, V.V.; Malyk, K.; Stadny, V.I.; Sanotskiy, Y.V.

    1986-05-01

    Accurate temperature and pressure measurements were made on the Vega-2 lander during its entire descent. The temperature and pressure at the surface were 733 K and 89.3 bar, respectively. A strong temperature inversion was found in the upper troposphere. Several layers with differing static stability were visible in the atmospheric structure.

  18. ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE-IONIZATION MASS-SPECTROMETRY .1. INSTRUMENTATION AND IONIZATION TECHNIQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, AP

    1994-01-01

    Mass spectrometer ion sources are normally located inside a high-vacuum envelope. Such low-pressure ion sources can make use of a range of different ionization methods and are in routine use in analytical mass spectrometers. An ion source operating at atmospheric pressure is better suited, and may b

  19. Self-sustained carbon monoxide oxidation oscillations on size-selected platinum nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert; Andersen, Thomas; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev;

    2013-01-01

    High-quality mass spectrometry data of the oscillatory behavior of CO oxidation on SiO2 supported Pt-nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure have been acquired as a function of pressure, coverage, gas composition and nanoparticle size. The oscillations are self-sustained for several days at constan...

  20. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaaki [Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Toyokuni, Shinya [Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Maruyama, Shoichi [Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroko [Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuo [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 501-1196 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Masashi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hori, Masaru [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  1. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-12-01

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  2. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established

  3. Silicon-based quantum dots: synthesis, surface and composition tuning with atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Sadegh; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Maguire, Paul; Svrcek, Vladmir; Mariotti, Davide

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of silicon and silicon-based quantum dots (diameter plasmas is reviewed and the most recent developments are also reported. Atmospheric pressure plasmas are then compared with other synthesis methods that include low pressure plasmas, wet chemistry, electrochemical etching and laser-based methods. Finally, progress in the synthesis of alloyed silicon QDs is discussed where the nanoscale Si-Sn and Si-C systems are reported. The report also includes a theoretical analysis that highlights some fundamental differences offered by plasmas at atmospheric pressure and that may provide opportunities for novel materials with advantageous properties.

  4. Modelling of microwave sustained capillary plasma columns at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a model of argon microwave sustained discharge at high pressure (1 atm), which includes two self-consistently linked parts - electrodynamic and kinetic ones. The model is based on a steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge numerically solved together with Maxwell's equation for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave and wave energy balance equation. It is applied for the purpose of theoretical description of the discharge in a stationary state. The phase diagram, the electron energy distribution function as well as the dependences of the electron and heavy particles densities and the mean input power per electron on the electron number density and wave number are presented

  5. Modelling of microwave sustained capillary plasma columns at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pencheva, M [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrova, Ts [Berkeley Research Associate, Inc., Beltsville MD 20705 (United States); Benova, E [Department of Language Learning, Sofia University, 27 Kosta Loulchev Street, BG-1111 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zhelyazkov, I [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-07-15

    In this work we present a model of argon microwave sustained discharge at high pressure (1 atm), which includes two self-consistently linked parts - electrodynamic and kinetic ones. The model is based on a steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge numerically solved together with Maxwell's equation for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave and wave energy balance equation. It is applied for the purpose of theoretical description of the discharge in a stationary state. The phase diagram, the electron energy distribution function as well as the dependences of the electron and heavy particles densities and the mean input power per electron on the electron number density and wave number are presented.

  6. Modelling of microwave sustained capillary plasma columns at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, M.; Petrova, Ts; Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we present a model of argon microwave sustained discharge at high pressure (1 atm), which includes two self-consistently linked parts - electrodynamic and kinetic ones. The model is based on a steady-state Boltzmann equation in an effective field approximation coupled with a collisional-radiative model for high-pressure argon discharge numerically solved together with Maxwell's equation for an azimuthally symmetric TM surface wave and wave energy balance equation. It is applied for the purpose of theoretical description of the discharge in a stationary state. The phase diagram, the electron energy distribution function as well as the dependences of the electron and heavy particles densities and the mean input power per electron on the electron number density and wave number are presented.

  7. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  8. Silicon-based quantum dots: synthesis, surface and composition tuning with atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of silicon and silicon-based quantum dots (diameter < 5 nm) is discussed. Specifically the synthesis of Si-based quantum dots (QDs) by atmospheric pressure plasmas is reviewed and the most recent developments are also reported. Atmospheric pressure plasmas are then compared with other synthesis methods that include low pressure plasmas, wet chemistry, electrochemical etching and laser-based methods. Finally, progress in the synthesis of alloyed silicon QDs is discussed where the nanoscale Si–Sn and Si–C systems are reported. The report also includes a theoretical analysis that highlights some fundamental differences offered by plasmas at atmospheric pressure and that may provide opportunities for novel materials with advantageous properties. (review article)

  9. Effects of initiating anaerobic digestion of layer-hen poultry dung at sub-atmospheric pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of initiating anaerobic digestion (AD of dry layer-hen poultry dung at the sub-atmospheric pressure of -30 cmHg on biodegradation, biogasification, and biomethanation. The setup was performed as a batch process at an average ambient temperature of 29±2 0C and a retention time of 15 days. Comparisons were made with two other experiments which were both begun at ambient atmospheric pressure; one was inoculated with digestate from a previous layer-hen dung AD, while the other was not inoculated. The bioreactors initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure, ambient atmospheric pressure without inoculum, and ambient atmospheric pressure with inoculum showed the following for biogas and biomethane yields respectively: 16.8 cm3 g-1 VS and 15.46 cm3 g 1 VS, 25.10 cm3 g-1 VS and 12.85 cm3 g-1 VS, 21.44 cm3 g-1 VS and 14.88 cm3 g 1 VS. In the same order, after AD, the following values were recorded for volatile solids and total viable counts (prokaryotes and fungi in the digestates: 40.33% and 23.22 x 106 cfu mL-1, 43.42% and 22.17 x 106 cfu mL-1, 41.11% and 13.3 x 106 cfu mL-1. The feedstock showed values of 83.93% and 3.98 x 106 cfu mL-1 for volatile solids and total viable count respectively. There was a slight difference in the volatile solids of the digestates of the three bioreactors after AD. The pH recorded for the feedstock slurry before AD was 7.9 at 30oC, while after AD, the digestates from all the three bioreactors showed the same pH of 5.9 at 29 0C. Statistical analysis using ANOVA showed no significant difference in biogas yields of the feedstock for the three bioreactors (A, B, C. ANOVA showed no significant difference for biomethane yields in the bioreactors initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure and for those initiated at ambient atmospheric pressure with inoculums. However, it showed significant difference in the bioreactor initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure and that initiated at ambient atmospheric

  10. Pressure sensing of the atmosphere by solar occultation using broadband CO2 absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Russell, J. M., III; Drayson, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for obtaining pressure at the tangent point in an IR solar occulation experiment is described. By measuring IR absorption in bands of atmospheric CO2 (e.g., 2.0, 2.7, or 4.3 microns), mean pressure values for each tangent point layer (vertical thickness 2 km or less) of the atmosphere can be obtained with rms errors of less than 3%. The simultaneous retrieval of pressure and gas concentration in a remote-sensing experiment will increase the accuracy of inverted gas concentrations and minimize the dependence of the experiment on pressure or mass path error resulting from use of climatological pressure data, satellite ephemeris, and instrument pointing accuracy.

  11. Competing ion decomposition channels in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guanghong; Marginean, Ioan; Ye, Louise; Vertes, Akos

    2008-06-12

    We gauged the internal energy transfer for two dissociative ion decomposition channels in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) using the benzyltriphenylphosphonium (BTP) thermometer ion [PhCH 2PPh 3] (+). Common MALDI matrixes [alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (sinapinic acid, SA), and 2,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHB)] were studied with nitrogen laser (4 ns pulse length) and mode-locked 3 x omega Nd:YAG laser (22 ps pulse length) excitation. Despite the higher fluence required to initiate fragmentation, BTP ions indicated lower internal energy transfer with the picosecond laser in all three matrixes. These differences can be rationalized in terms of phase explosion induced by the nanosecond laser vs a stress-confinement-driven desorption mechanism for the picosecond laser. For the two ion production channels of the BTP thermometer ion, breaking a single bond can result in the formation of benzyl/tropylium ions, F1, or triphenylphosphine ions, F2. In SA and DHB, as well as in CHCA at low fluence levels, the efficiency of these channels (expressed by the branching ratio I F1/ I F2) is moderately in favor of producing tropylium ions, 1 < I F1/ I F2 < 6. As the laser fluence is increased, for CHCA, there is a dramatic shift in favor of the tropylium ion production, with I F1/ I F2 approximately 30 for the nanosecond and the picosecond laser, respectively. This change is correlated with the sudden increase in the BTP internal energies in CHCA in the same laser fluence range. The large changes observed in internal energy deposition for CHCA with laser fluence can account for its ability to induce fragmentation in peptides more readily than SA and DHB. PMID:18489138

  12. A novel covalent coating of capillaries for capillary electrophoresis coupled to matrix assisted laser desorption ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers the advantage of flexibility and method development. It excels in the area of separation of ions, chiral, polar, and biological compounds (especially proteins and peptides). Masking the active sites on the inner surface of a bare fused-silica capillary wall is often necessary for CE separations of basic compounds, proteins and peptides. The use of capillary surface coatings is an approach to prevent adsorption phenomena and improve the repeatability of these analytes. In this work, new capillary coatings consisting of (I) derivatized polystyrene nanoparticles (PS) and (II) derivatized fullerenes, were investigated for the analysis of peptides and protein digest by CE. The coated capillaries showed excellent run-to-run and batch-to-batch reproducibility (RSD of migration time ≤ 0.5 % for run to run and ≤ 9.5 % for batch-to-batch experiments). Furthermore, the capillaries offer high stability from pH 2.0 up to pH 10.0. The actual potential of the coated capillaries was tested by combining CE with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) for analysing complex samples, such as peptides, whereas the overall performance of the CE-MALDI-TOF-MS system was investigated by analysing a five protein digest mixture. Subsequently, the peak list (peptide mass fingerprint) generated from the mass spectra of each fraction was entered into the Swiss Prot database in order to search for matching tryptic fragments using the Mascot software. The sequence coverage of analysed proteins was between 36-68%. The established technology benefits from the synergism of high separation efficiency and the structure selective identification via MS. (author)

  13. Plasma Treatment of Industrial Landfill Leachate by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges%Plasma Treatment of Industrial Landfill Leachate by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵迪; 王达成; 严贵; 马宏; 熊小京; 罗津晶; 张先徽; 刘东平; 杨思泽

    2011-01-01

    An dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system in atmospheric pressure utilized for the treatment of industrial landfill leachate is reported. The discharge parameters, such as the operating frequency, gas flow rate, and treating duration, were found to affect significantly the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) in industrial landfill leachate. An increase in treating duration leads to an obvious increase in the removal efficiency of AN (up to 83%) and the leachate color changed from deep grey-black to transparent. Thus the dielectric barrier discharges in atmospheric pressure could degrade the landfill leachate effectively. Typical waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current were also presented for analyzing the discharge processes under different discharge parameters. Optical emission spectra measurements indicate that oxidation species generated in oxygen DBD plasma play a crucial role in removing AN, oxidizing organic and inorganic substances and decolorizing the landfill leachate.

  14. Breaking the pumping speed barrier in mass spectrometry: discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    The performance of mass spectrometers with limited pumping capacity is shown to be improved through use of a discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI). A proof-of-concept DAPI interface was designed and characterized using a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer. The interface consists of a simple capillary directly connecting the atmospheric pressure ion source to the vacuum mass analyzer region; it has no ion optical elements and no differential pumping stages. Gases carrying ionized analytes were pulsed into the mass analyzer for short periods at high flow rates rather than being continuously introduced at lower flow rates; this procedure maximized ion transfer. The use of DAPI provides a simple solution to the problem of coupling an atmospheric pressure ionization source to a miniature instrument with limited pumping capacity. Data were recorded using various atmospheric pressure ionization sources, including electrospray ionization (ESI), nano-ESI, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) sources. The interface was opened briefly for ion introduction during each scan. With the use of the 18 W pumping system of the Mini 10, limits of detection in the low part-per-billion levels were achieved and unit resolution mass spectra were recorded. PMID:18461971

  15. Three electrode atmospheric pressure plasma jet in helium flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Dejan; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.

    2015-09-01

    Plasma jets are widely used in various types of applications and lately more and more in the field of plasma medicine. However, it is not only their applicability that distinguishes them from other atmospheric plasma sources, but also the behavior of the plasma. It was shown that plasma plume is not continuous, but discrete set of plasma packages. Here we present iCCD images and current voltage characteristics of a three electrode plasma jet. Our plasma jet has a simple design with body made of glass tube and two transparent electrodes wrapped around it. The additional third metal tip electrode was positioned at 10 and 25 mm in front of the jet nozzle and connected to the same potential as the powered electrode. Power transmitted to the plasma was from 0.5 W to 4.0 W and the helium flow rate was kept constant at 4 slm. For the 10 mm configuration plasma is ignited on the metal tip in the whole period of the excitation signal and in the positive half cycle plasma ``bullet'' is propagating beyond the metal tip. In contrast to that, for the 25 mm configuration at the tip electrode plasma can be seen only in the minimum and maximum of the excitation signal, and there is no plasma ``bullet'' formation. This research has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia, under projects ON171037 and III41011.

  16. Application of nanodiamonds in human body fluid analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglei Kong

    2008-01-01

    Direct mass spectrometric analysis of complex biological samples is very important and challenging. In this paper, nanodiamonds have been successfully used in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of human serum and urine. As a practical tool and platform, it can be widely used in the field of humoral proteomics, and it plays a very promising role in clinical diagnosis, including identification of novel disease-associated biomarkers.

  17. Filamentous fungal characterizations by matrix-assisted laser desorption⁄ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    C. Santos; Paterson, R. R. M.; Venâncio, Armando; Lima, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ⁄ ionization time-of-flight intact cell mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF ICMS) is coming of age for the identification and characterization of fungi. The procedure has been used extensively with bacteria. UV-absorbing matrices function as energy mediators that transfer the absorbed photoenergy from an irradiation source to the surrounding sample molecules, resulting in minimum fragmentation. A surprisingly high number of fungal groups have been s...

  18. Overview literature on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI MS): basics and its applications in characterizing polymeric materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Jagtap; A H Ambre

    2005-10-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI MS) is a technique which allows the measurement of molecular mass > 200,000 Daltons by ionization and vapourization without degradation. This technique is useful for the mass analysis of synthetic polymers, which have very low volatility. The basic principles of and its applications for polymer characterization have been discussed in this paper. In addition, the possibilities of combining MALDI MS with chromatographic and other analytical techniques have also been discussed.

  19. Peptides Quantification by Liquid Chromatography with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization and Selected Reaction Monitoring Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lesur, Antoine; Varesio, Emmanuel; Domon, Bruno; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel analytical platform for peptides quantitative assays in biological matrices based on microscale liquid chromatography fractionation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The MALDI source was equipped with a high frequency Nd:YAG laser (1000 Hz) and mounted on a triple quadrupole / linear ion trap mass spectrometer (MALDI-QqQLIT). Compared to conventional LC-ESI-SRM/MS, the separated an...

  20. Detergent enhancement of on-tissue protein analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mainini, Veronica; Angel, Peggi M; Magni, Fulvio; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is a molecular technology that allows simultaneous investigation of the content and spatial distribution of molecules within tissue. In this work, we examine different classes of detergents, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the nonionic detergents Triton X-100, Tween 20 and Tween 80, and the zwitterionic 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) for use in MALDI IMS of analytes...

  1. Characterization of Dust-Plasma Interactions In Non-Thermal Plasmas Under Low Pressure and the Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilik, Narula

    This dissertation research focuses on the experimental characterization of dust-plasma interactions at both low and atmospheric pressure. Its goal is to fill the knowledge gaps in (1) the fundamental research of low pressure dusty plasma electrons, which mainly relied on models with few experimental results; and (2) the nanoparticle synthesis process in atmospheric pressure uniform glow plasmas (APGDs), which is largely unexplored in spite of the economical advantage of APGDs in nanotechnology. The low pressure part of the dissertation research involves the development of a complete diagnostic process for an argon-siline capacitively-coupled RF plasma. The central part of the diagnostic process is the Langmuir probe measurement of the electron energy probability function (EEPF) in a dusty plasma, which has never been measured before. This is because the dust particles in the plasma cause severe probe surface contamination and consequently distort the measurement. This problem is solved by adding a solenoid-actuated shield structure to the Langmuir probe, which physically protects the Langmuir probe from the dust particle deposition to ensure reliable EEPF measurements. The dusty plasma EEPFs are characterized by lower electron density and higher electron temperature accompanied by a drop in the low energy electron population. The Langmuir probe measurement is complemented with other characterizations including the capacitive probe measurement, power measurement, and dust particle collection. The complete diagnostic process then gives a set of local plasma parameters as well as the details of the dust-electron interactions reflected in the EEPFs. This set of data serves as input for an analytical model of nanoparticle charging to yield the time evolution of nanoparticle size and charge in the dusty plasma. The atmospheric pressure part of the dissertation focuses on the design and development of an APGD for zinc oxide nanocrystal synthesis. One of the main

  2. Atmospheric pressure change associated with the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Watada, Shingo; Kunugi, Takashi; Hirata, Kenji; Sugioka, Hiroko; Nishida, Kiwamu; Sekiguchi, Shoji; Oikawa, Jun; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2006-01-01

    Clear atmospheric pressure changes associated with the 2003 Tokachi-Oki, Japan, earthquake with Mw 8.3 were recorded with the microbarographs distributed in Japan. The pressure change starts at the arrival of seismic waves and reaches its maximum amplitude at the arrival of Rayleigh waves, suggesting that the observed pressure change was driven by the ground motion of seismic waves passing by the site. We computed the seismic-to-pressure transfer function (i.e., the spectral ratio of the pres...

  3. Effect of the atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas on the conformational changes of plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cold atmospheric pressure plasma, which has been widely used for biomedical applications, may potentially affect the conformation of DNA. In this letter, an atmospheric pressure plasma plume is used to investigate its effects on the conformational changes of DNA of plasmid pAHC25. It is found that the plasma plume could cause plasmid DNA topology alteration, resulting in the percentage of the supercoiled plasmid DNA form decreased while that of the open circular and linearized form of plasmid DNA increased as detected by agrose gel electrophoresis. On the other hand, further investigation by using polymerase chain reaction method shows that the atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatments under proper conditions does not affect the genes of the plasmid DNA, which may have potential application in increasing the transformation frequency by genetic engineering.

  4. Polymer Surface Treatment by Atmospheric Pressure Low Temperature Surface Discharge Plasma:Its Characteristics and Comparison with Low Pressure Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi KUWABARA; Shin-ichi KURODA; Hitoshi KUBOTA

    2007-01-01

    The polymer treatment with a low-temperature plasma jet generated on the atmospheric pressure surface discharge (SD) plasma is performed.The change of the surface property over time,in comparison with low pressure oxygen (O2) plasma treatment,is examined.As one compares the treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma to that by the low pressure O2 plasma of PS (polystyrene) the treatment effects were almost in complete agreement.However,when the atmospheric pressure plasma was used for PP(polypropylene),it produced remarkable hydrophilic effects.

  5. Self-Consistent Model for Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges in Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show the necessity of leaving out the approximation of constant average electron energy in many fluid models. For this purpose a one-dimensional self-consistent model for He atmospheric barrier discharges is developed. With this model, the electron energy distribution function in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is obtained without introducing much difficulty, and the new model is readily implemented for investigating discharges in complicated gases. (gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  6. Emission properties of an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet excited by barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet is initiated by the barrier discharge in a capillary, through which argon was flown. The spectral composition of radiation emitted by the jet in the atmosphere and its variation in the space are analyzed in detail. The jet radiation spectrum is shown to be predominantly formed by spectral transitions of argon and oxygen atoms, by electron-vibrational transitions of the first positive system of nitrogen molecules N2, and by transitions of hydroxyl radical OH

  7. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M.; Riris, H.; Abshire, J. B.; Allan, G. R.; Stephen, M.; Hasselbrack, W.; Mao, J.

    2012-12-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote atmospheric temperature and pressure measurements are needed for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. ASCENDS will measure atmospheric CO2 dry mixing ratios on a global scale. Remote atmospheric pressure measurements are necessary to normalize ASCENDS CO2 measurements. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses erbium doped fiber optic amplifiers and non-linear optics technology to tune laser radiation over the Oxygen A-band between 764.5 nm and 765 nm. Surface reflections are fiber-coupled from a receiver telescope to photon counting detectors. Our pulsed, time gated approach resolves ground reflections from cloud returns. This system successfully recorded O2 absorption spectra during two airborne campaigns aboard a NASA DC-8. Airborne data has been analyzed and fitted to HITRAN reference spectra based upon aircraft meteorological data. Our algorithm linearly scales the HITRAN reference until measurement errors are minimized. Atmospheric pressure changes are estimated by comparing the differential optical depth of the optimum scaled HITRAN spectra to the differential optical depth of the nominal HITRAN spectra. On flights over gradually sloping terrain, these results compare favorably with ground-based observations and predictions from computer models. Measurement uncertainty is commensurate with photon counting noise. We plan to reduce measurement uncertainty in future campaigns by improving transmitter pulse energy and increasing wavelength sweep frequency.

  8. Decontamination of a rotating cutting tool during operation by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Hansen, F.;

    2010-01-01

    The decontamination of a rotating cutting tool used for slicing in the meat industry by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua......, is used for the experiments. A rotating knife was inoculated with L. innocua. The surface of the rotating knife was partly exposed to an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge operated in air, where the knife itself served as a ground electrode. The rotation of the knife ensures a...

  9. Relation among Summer Rainfall in South Shandong and High Pressure in South Asia and Atmospheric Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relation among summer rainfall in south Shandong and high pressure in South Asia and atmospheric circulation.[Method] Taking the precipitation in south Shandong along the Yellow River and Huaihe River,using the NCEP/NCAR data and summer rainfall data in south Shandong in summer from 1961 to 2005,the characteristics of high pressure in South Asia and atmospheric circulation in drought year and flood year in summer in south Shandong Province were expounded.The mechanism of...

  10. Effects of initiating anaerobic digestion of layer-hen poultry dung at sub-atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Chima C. Ngumah; Jude N. Ogbulie; Justina C. Orji; Ekperechi S. Amadi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initiating anaerobic digestion (AD) of dry layer-hen poultry dung at the sub-atmospheric pressure of -30 cmHg on biodegradation, biogasification, and biomethanation. The setup was performed as a batch process at an average ambient temperature of 29±2 0C and a retention time of 15 days. Comparisons were made with two other experiments which were both begun at ambient atmospheric pressure; one was inoculated with digestate from a previous layer-hen dung AD...

  11. Spectral measurement of atmospheric pressure plasma by means of digital camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digital camera measuring system has been used successfully to measure the space fluctuation behaviors of Induced Dielectric Barrier Discharge (IDBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results showed that: (1) The uniformity of electron temperature in space depends on discharge condition and structure of web electrode. For a certain web electrode the higher the discharge voltage is, the more uniform distribution of electron temperature in space will be. For a certain discharge the finer and denser the holes on web electrode are, the more uniform distribution of electron temperature in space will be. (2) Digital camera is an available equipment to measure some behaviors of the plasma working at atmospheric pressure

  12. [Determination of electron density in atmospheric pressure radio frequency dielectric barrier discharges by Stark broadening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Liu, Zhong-wei; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Fu-ping; Wang, Zheng-duo; Yang, Li-zhen

    2012-01-01

    The use of high frequency power to generate plasma at atmospheric pressure is a relatively new development. An apparatus of atmospheric pressure radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge was constructed. Plasma emission based measurement of electron density in discharge columns from Stark broadening Ar is discribed. The spacial profile of electron density was studied. In the middle of the discharge column, as the input power increases from 138 to 248 W, the electron density rises from 4.038 x 10(21) m(-3) to 4.75 x 10(21) m(-3). PMID:22497121

  13. Generations and applications of atmospheric pressure glow discharge by integration of microplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, O; Tachibana, K [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto-daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Integration of microplasmas enables us to obtain atmospheric pressure discharges with good macroscopic uniformity and various functions. We demonstrate two specific electrodes of microplasmas for generations of dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure, and integrated microplasmas on large two-dimensional area are sustained with electron density more than 10{sup 12}cm{sup -3}. Especially 'fabric' type electrode has a promising structure to provide various flexible discharge space and plasma processing on winding surface. Integrated microplasmas in array structure will serve as electromagnetic-wave control devices as well as processing tools, and two aspects are discussed in terms of equivalent dielectrics and metals.

  14. Translational, rotational and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Li, Zhongshan; Aldén, Marcus; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Gliding arc discharges have generally been used to generate non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure. Temperature distributions of a gliding arc are of great interest both for fundamental plasma research and for practical applications. In the presented studies, translational, rotational and...... vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc generated at atmospheric pressure air are investigated. Translational temperatures (about 1100 K) were measured by laser-induced Rayleigh scattering, and two-dimensional temperature imaging was performed. Rotational and vibrational temperatures (about 3600 K and 6700...

  15. Biomedical Applications of Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas to Cancerous Cell Treatment and Tooth Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Koo; Kim, Myoung Soo; Byun, June Ho; Kim, Kyong Tai; Kim, Gyoo Cheon; Park, Gan Young

    2011-08-01

    Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas have attracted great interests and they have been widely applied to biomedical applications to interact with living tissues, cells, and bacteria due to their non-thermal property. This paper reviews the biomedical applications of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas to cancerous cell treatment and tooth bleaching. Gold nanoparticles conjugated with cancer-specific antibodies have been introduced to cancerous cells to enhance selective killing of cells, and the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by plasma has been investigated. Tooth exposed to helium plasma jet with hydrogen peroxide has become brighter and the productions of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide have been enhanced by plasma exposure.

  16. Scaling laws for gas breakdown for nanoscale to microscale gaps at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Amanda M.; Garner, Allen L.

    2016-06-01

    Electronics miniaturization motivates gas breakdown predictions for microscale and smaller gaps, since traditional breakdown theory fails when gap size, d, is smaller than ˜15 μm at atmospheric pressure, patm. We perform a matched asymptotic analysis to derive analytic expressions for breakdown voltage, Vb, at patm for 1 nm ≤ d ≤ 35 μm. We obtain excellent agreement between numerical, analytic, and particle-in-cell simulations for argon, and show Vb decreasing as d → 0, instead of increasing as predicted by Paschen's law. This work provides an analytic framework for determining Vb at atmospheric pressure for various gap distances that may be extended to other gases.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A. H.; McLinden, M. O.; Tew, W. L.

    2013-09-01

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO2 concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the above article has been replaced with a corrected version. The original PDF file supplied to AIP Publishing contained several equations with incorrect/missing characters resulting from processes used to create the PDF file. The article has been replaced and the equations now display correctly.

  18. Using Dimers to Measure Biosignatures and Atmospheric Pressure for Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Amit; Claire, Mark; Crisp, Dave

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to probe atmospheric pressure on Earthlike planets using (O2-O2) dimers in the near-infrared. We also show that dimer features could be the most readily detectable biosignatures for Earthlike atmospheres, and may even be detectable in transit transmission with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The absorption by dimers changes more rapidly with pressure and density than that of monomers, and can therefore provide additional information about atmospheric pressures. By comparing the absorption strengths of rotational and vibrational features to the absorption strengths of dimer features, we show that in some cases it may be possible to estimate the pressure at the reflecting surface of a planet. This method is demonstrated by using the O2 A band and the 1.06 $\\mu$m dimer feature, either in transmission or reflected spectra. It works best for planets around M dwarfs with atmospheric pressures between 0.1 and 10 bars, and for O2 volume mixing ratios above 50% of Earth's present day lev...

  19. Surface atmospheric pressure excitation of the translational mode of the inner core

    CERN Document Server

    Rosat, Séverine; Rogister, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using hourly atmospheric surface pressure field from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) models, we show that atmospheric pressure fluctuations excite the translational oscillation of the inner core, the so-called Slichter mode, to the sub-nanogal level at the Earth surface. The computation is performed using a normal-mode formalism for a spherical, self-gravitating anelastic PREM-like Earth model. We determine the statistical response in the form of power spectral densities of the degree-one spherical harmonic components of the observed pressure field. Both hypotheses of inverted and non-inverted barometer for the ocean response to pressure forcing are considered. Based on previously computed noise levels, we show that the surface excitation amplitude is below the limit of detection of the superconducting gravimeters, making the Slichter mode detection a challenging instrumental task...

  20. Prediction of Atmospheric Pressure at Ground Level using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angshuman Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of Atmospheric Pressure is one important and challenging task that needs lot of attention and study for analyzing atmospheric conditions. Advent of digital computers and development of data driven artificial intelligence approaches like Artificial Neural Networks (ANN have helped in numerical prediction of pressure. However, very few works have been done till now in this area. The present study developed an ANN model based on the past observations of several meteorological parameters like temperature, humidity, air pressure and vapour pressure as an input for training the model. The novel architecture of the proposed model contains several multilayer perceptron network (MLP to realize better performance. The model is enriched by analysis of alternative hybrid model of k-means clustering and MLP. The improvement of the performance in the prediction accuracy has been demonstrated by the automatic selection of the appropriate cluster

  1. Atmospheric pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy apparatus: Bridging the pressure gap

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Vélez, J.; Pfeifer, V.; Hävecker, M.; R. Wang; Centeno, A.; Zurutuza, A.; Algara-Siller, G.; Stotz, E.; Skorupska, K.; Teschner, D; Kube, P.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Hofmann, S.; Schlögl, R.; Knop-Gericke, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals in catalysis is the characterization of solid/gas interfaces in a reaction environment. The electronic structure and chemical composition of surfaces become heavily influenced by the surrounding environment. However, the lack of surface sensitive techniques that are able to monitor these modifications under high pressure conditions hinders the understanding of such processes. This limitation is known throughout the community as the “pressure gap”. We have developed a nov...

  2. Time Invariant Surface Roughness Evolution during Atmospheric Pressure Thin Film Depositions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Merkh; Robert Spivey; Toh Ming Lu

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of thin film morphology during atmospheric pressure deposition has been studied utilizing Monte Carlo methods. Time invariant root-mean-squared roughness and local roughness morphology were both observed when employing a novel simulation parameter, modeling the effect of the experimental high pressure condition. This growth regime, where the surface roughness remains invariant after reaching a critical value, has not been classified by any existing universality class. An anti-sh...

  3. Melt-vapor phase transition in the lead-selenium system at atmospheric and low pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, V. N.; Burabaeva, N. M.; Trebukhov, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The boiling temperature and the corresponding vapor phase composition in the existence domain of liquid solutions were calculated from the partial pressures of saturated vapor of the components and lead selenide over liquid melts in the lead-selenium system. The phase diagram was complemented with the liquid-vapor phase transition at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum of 100 Pa, which allowed us to judge the behavior of the components during the distillation separation.

  4. EDITORIAL: Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas for processing and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massines, Françoise

    2005-02-01

    Interest has grown over the past few years in applying atmospheric pressure plasmas to plasma processing for the benefits this can offer to existing and potential new processes, because they do not require expensive vacuum systems and batch processing. There have been considerable efforts to efficiently generate large volumes of homogeneous atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas to develop environmentally friendly alternatives for surface treatment, thin film coating, sterilization, decontamination, etc. Many interesting questions have arisen that are related to both fundamental and applied research in this field. Many concern the generation of a large volume discharge which remains stable and uniform at atmospheric pressure. At this pressure, depending on the experimental conditions, either streamer or Townsend breakdown may occur. They respectively lead to micro-discharges or to one large radius discharge, Townsend or glow. However, the complexity arises from the formation of large radius streamers due to avalanche coupling and from the constriction of the glow discharge due to too low a current. Another difficulty is to visually distinguish many micro-discharges from one large radius discharge. Other questions relate to key chemical reactions in the plasma and at the surface. Experimental characterization and modelling also need to be developed to answer these questions. This cluster collects up-to-date research results related to the understanding of different discharges working at atmospheric pressure and the application to polymer surface activation and thin film coating. It presents different solutions for generating and sustaining diffuse discharges at atmospheric pressure. DC, low-frequency and radio-frequency excitations are considered in noble gases, nitrogen or air. Two specific methods developed to understand the transition from Townsend to streamer breakdown are also presented. They are based on the cross-correlation spectroscopy and an electrical

  5. Collision-induced dissociation analysis of negative atmospheric ion adducts in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2013-05-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed on atmospheric ion adducts [M + R](-) formed between various types of organic compounds M and atmospheric negative ions R(-) [such as O2(-), HCO3(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO2(-), NO3(-), and NO3(-)(HNO3)] in negative-ion mode atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. All of the [M + R](-) adducts were fragmented to form deprotonated analytes [M - H](-) and/or atmospheric ions R(-), whose intensities in the CID spectra were dependent on the proton affinities of the [M - H](-) and R(-) fragments. Precursor ions [M + R](-) for which R(-) have higher proton affinities than [M - H](-) formed [M - H](-) as the dominant product. Furthermore, the CID of the adducts with HCO3(-) and NO3(-)(HNO3) led to other product ions such as [M + HO](-) and NO3(-), respectively. The fragmentation behavior of [M + R](-) for each R(-) observed was independent of analyte type (e.g., whether the analyte was aliphatic or aromatic, or possessed certain functional groups). PMID:23479312

  6. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  7. Exploring the Potential of Cryodetectors for the Detection of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Produced Ions: Application to Profiling and Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PierreChaurand; GertraudHayn; UrsMatter; RichardM.Caprioli

    2004-01-01

    OVERVIEW Evaluation of the potential of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI TOFMS) equipped with a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ)cryodetector for the detection of high molecular weight proteins.

  8. Exploring the Potential of Cryodetectors for the Detection of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Produced Ions:Application to Profiling and Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Chaurand; Gertraud Hayn; Urs Matter; Richard M. Caprioli

    2004-01-01

    @@ OVERVIEW Evaluation of the potential of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI TOFMS) equipped with a superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) cryodetector for the detection of high molecular weight proteins.

  9. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma synthesis of submicrometer-sized pharmaceuticals with improved physicochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radacsi, N.; Ambrus, R.; Szabó-Révész, P.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    A reduction in particle size is one of the strategies to enhance the dissolution behavior of low water-soluble drugs such as niflumic acid. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma crystallization is a novel technique to achieve such submicrometer particles. This technique uses a surface dielectric barrier

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of titanium for high temperature adhesive bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.; Bhowmik, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation surface treatment of titanium is carried out by plasma ion implantation under atmospheric pressure plasma in order to increase the adhesive bond strength. Prior to the plasma treatment, titanium surfaces were mechanically treated by sand blasting. It is observed that the contac

  11. treatment of polyimide by an atmospheric pressure plasma of capacitive rf discharge for liquid crystal alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform planar alignment of liquid crystals is obtained by polyimide films obliquely treated by a stream of argon plasma from capacitive RF discharge at atmospheric pressure. Two liquid crystal alignment modes are discovered differing by their longitudinal or transverse orientation with respect to treatment direction. Optimum parameters of the treatment for obtaining these orientation modes are determined.

  12. Synthesis of 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine from 2-naphthol under atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Feng; Chao Zhang; Qiang Tang; Mei Ming Luo

    2009-01-01

    A practical protocol to obtain 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine was developed from 2-naphthol and 2-naphthylhydrazine under mild conditions: solvent-free, 125-130 ℃, atmospheric pressure. The convenient procedure makes the process amenable for large-scale synthesis of the versatile compound.

  13. The PWM auto-control circuit of neutron tube atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion source atmospheric pressure auto-control circuit for C/O logging neutron generator is introduced. The pulse circuit of ion source adopts zero-voltage quasi-resonant switch technique and the heating circuit for replenisher adopts PWM converter

  14. Atmospheric pressure photoionisation : An ionization method for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robb, DB; Covey, TR; Bruins, AP

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) has been successfully demonstrated to provide high sensitivity to LC-MS analysis. A vacuum-ultraviolet lamp designed for photoionization detection in gas chromatography is used as a source of 10-eV photons. The mixture of samples and solvent eluting from a

  15. Real-Time Flavor Release from French Fries Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using both assessors (in vivo) and a mouth model system (in vitro). Several volatiles measured with APCI were identified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time, salt addition, and a

  16. Sterilization of packed matter by means of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Summary form only given. The decontamination of material in closed containers by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is ...

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to 0. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  18. Sterilization of packed matter by means of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Summary form only given. The decontamination of material in closed containers by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is...

  19. Characterization of typical chemical background interferences in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and origins of typical chemical background noise ions in positive atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (API LC/MS) are investigated and summarized in this study. This was done by classifying chemical background ions using precursor and product ion sc

  20. Polysilicon Prepared from SIC14 by Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma%Polysilicon Prepared from SIC14 by Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小松; 王楠; 杨晋华; 王友年; 朱爱民

    2011-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure was explored for the preparation of polysilicon from SiCl4. The power supply sources of positive pulse and alternating current (8 kHz and 100 kHz) were compared for polysilicon preparation. The samples prepared by using the 100 kHz power source were crystalline silicon. The effects of H2 and SiCl4 volume fractions were investigated. The optical emission spectra showed that silicon species played an important role in polysilicon deposition

  1. Bivariate wavelet-based clustering of sea-level and atmospheric pressure time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Gouveia, Sonia; Scotto, Manuel; Alonso, Andres

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric pressure is responsible for a downward force acting on the sea surface which is compensated, to some extent, by corresponding sea-level variations. The static response of the sea surface can be linearly modelled, a decrease (increase) in atmospheric pressure of 1 mb raising (depressing) sea level by 1 cm. However, the dynamic sea surface response to atmospheric pressure loading, associated with ocean dynamics and wind effects, is scale-dependent and difficult to establish. The present study addresses the co-variability of sea-level and pressure time series in the Baltic Sea from the bivariate analysis of tide gauge and reanalysis records. The time series are normalised by the corresponding standard deviation and the wavelet covariance is computed as a measure of the association between sea-level and pressure across scales. A clustering procedure using a dissimilarity matrix based on the wavelet covariance is then implemented. Different classical clustering techniques, including average, single and complete linkage criteria are applied and the group linkage is selected in order to maximise the dendrogram's goodness-of-fit.

  2. Gas permeation barriers deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film gas permeation barriers fabricated by atmospheric pressure atomic layer deposition (APPALD) using trimethylaluminum and an Ar/O2 plasma at moderate temperatures of 80 °C in a flow reactor. The authors demonstrate the ALD growth characteristics of Al2O3 films on silicon and indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate. The properties of the APPALD-grown layers (refractive index, density, etc.) are compared to that deposited by conventional thermal ALD at low pressures. The films films deposited at atmospheric pressure show water vapor transmission rates as low as 5 × 10−5 gm−2d−1

  3. Surface-initiated graft polymerization on multiwalled carbon nanotubes pretreated by corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Fang, Zhengping; Song, Ping'an; Peng, Mao

    2010-03-01

    Surface-initiated graft polymerization on multi-walled carbon nanotubes pretreated with a corona discharge at atmospheric pressure was explored. The mechanism of the corona-discharge-induced graft polymerization is discussed. The results indicate that MWCNTs were encapsulated by poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA), demonstrating the formation of PGMA-grafted MWCNTs (PGMA-g-MWCNTs), with a grafting ratio of about 22 wt%. The solubility of PGMA-g-MWCNTs in ethanol was dramatically improved compared to pristine MWCNTs, which could contribute to fabricating high-performance polymer/MWCNTs nanocomposites in the future. Compared with most plasma processes, which operate at low pressures, corona discharge has the merit of working at atmospheric pressure. PMID:20644821

  4. Deposition of anti-corrosion coatings by atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric-pressure, non-equilibrium plasma jet is currently under investigation at Chalk River Laboratories for the application of anti-corrosion coatings. This device produces concentrations of chemically-active species, similar to those observed in low-pressure plasma deposition systems, with the advantage of operating in an ambient pressure atmosphere. This paper describes measurements of the properties of a bench-scale plasma jet operating in etch and deposition mode. The jet effluent was characterized by various methods, including optical emission spectroscopy. Films deposited on metallic and insulating substrates have been characterized by optical microscopy and surface analytical techniques. The potential for scale-up of this process to treatment of reactor components is discussed. (author)

  5. A Minimized Mutual Information retrieval for simultaneous atmospheric pressure and temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Koner, Prabhat K

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of the Mars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) collaboration between NASA and ESA is the detection of the temporal and spatial variation of the atmospheric trace gases using a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer. To retrieve any trace gas mixing ratios from these measurements, the atmospheric pressure and temperature have to be known accurately. Thus, a prototype retrieval model for the determination of pressure and temperature from a broadband high resolution infrared Fourier Transform spectrometer experiment with the Sun as a source on board a spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars is presented. It is found that the pressure and temperature can be uniquely solved from remote sensing spectroscopic measurements using a Regularized Total Least Squares method and selected pairs of micro-windows without any a-priori information of the state space parameters and other constraints. The selection of the pairs of suitable micro-windows is based on the information content analysis. A comparative info...

  6. Pigments and proteins in green bacterial chlorosomes studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, S; Sönksen, C P; Frigaard, N-U;

    2000-01-01

    proportional to peak areas obtained from HPLC analysis of the same sample. The same result was also obtained when whole cells of Chl. tepidum were applied to the target, indicating that MALDI-MS can provide a rapid method for obtaining a semiquantitative determination or finger-print of the bacteriochlorophyll......We have used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for mass determination of pigments and proteins in chlorosomes, the light-harvesting organelles from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. By applying a small volume (1...

  7. Combinatorial matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation: Single-step synthesis of biopolymer compositional gradient thin film assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, F.; Axente, E.; Sima, L. E.; Tuyel, U.; Eroglu, M. S.; Serban, N.; Ristoscu, C.; Petrescu, S. M.; Toksoy Oner, E.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce a combinatorial approach for the fabrication of organic biopolymer thin films. Structures with compositional gradient are obtained by simultaneous laser vaporization of two distinct targets. Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation deposition method was applied to obtain a compositional library of levan and oxidized levan in form of thin film. The gradient of film composition and structure was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy while in vitro cell culture assays illustrated characteristic responses of cells to specific surface regions. The method can rapidly generate discrete areas of organic film compositions with improved properties than starting materials.

  8. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation of pullulan tailor-made biomaterial thin films for controlled drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first successful deposition of cinnamate-pullulan polysaccharide thin films by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE). Thin film depositions were performed in vacuum using a KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ ∼ 20 ns) operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The dependence on incident laser fluence of the induced surface morphology is studied. We demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy that our MAPLE-deposited cinnamate-pullulan thin films are composed of starting materials preserving their chemical structures, with no impurities

  9. Combinatorial Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation of a biodegradable polymer and fibronectin for protein immobilization and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, F., E-mail: felix.sima@inflpr.ro [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Măgurele (Romania); Axente, E.; Iordache, I.; Luculescu, C. [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Măgurele (Romania); Gallet, O. [ERRMECE, Cergy-Pontoise University, Cergy-Pontoise (France); Anselme, K. [IS2M, CNRS UMR7361, Haute-Alsace University, Mulhouse (France); Mihailescu, I.N. [Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Măgurele (Romania)

    2014-07-01

    Defined protein quantities were embedded in situ in a biodegradable polymer coating during simultaneous laser vaporization of two targets. Fibronectin (FN) and poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA) were transferred and immobilized concomitantly by Combinatorial Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation onto solid substrates. The film surface with gradient of composition was characterized by optical, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. Micrometric FN packages were visualized in the polymeric matrix by confocal microscopy. The composition of FN was investigated by FTIR and μFTIR analyses in a polymeric matrix with different thickness.

  10. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  11. Effect of pressure broadening on molecular absorption cross sections in exoplanetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Christina; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are leading to unprecedented constraints on their atmospheric compositions. However, molecular abundances derived from spectra are degenerate with the absorption cross-sections which form critical input data in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is important to quantify the uncertainties in molecular cross-sections to reliably estimate the uncertainties in derived molecular abundances. However, converting line lists into cross-sections via line broadening involves a series of prescriptions for which the uncertainties are not well understood. We investigate and quantify the effects of various factors involved in line broadening in exoplanetary atmospheres - the profile evaluation width, pressure versus thermal broadening, broadening agent, spectral resolution and completeness of broadening parameters - on molecular absorption cross-sections. We use H2O as a case study as it has the most complete absorption line data. For low-resolution spectra (R ≲ 100) for representative temperatures and pressures (T ˜ 500-3000 K, P ≲ 1 atm) of H2-rich exoplanetary atmospheres, we find the median difference in cross-sections (δ) introduced by various aspects of pressure broadening to be ≲1 per cent. For medium resolutions (R ≲ 5000), including those attainable with James Webb Space Telescope, we find that δ can be up to 40 per cent. For high resolutions (R ˜ 105), δ can be ≳100 per cent, reaching ≳1000 per cent for low temperatures (T ≲ 500 K) and high pressures (P ≳ 1 atm). The effect is higher still for self-broadening. We generate a homogeneous data base of absorption cross-sections of molecules of relevance to exoplanetary atmospheres for which high-temperature line lists are available, particularly H2O, CO, CH4, CO2, HCN, and NH3.

  12. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O3) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O3 partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O3 partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 μPa Pa-1 O3 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O3 treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO2 assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O3 partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O3 and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O3 treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O3 exposure

  13. Thermoeconomic analysis of large solid oxide fuel cell plants: Atmospheric vs. pressurized performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed thermoeconomic analysis of two large solid oxide fuel cell-based power plants operating at atmospheric pressure and 20 bar, respectively, is assessed in this work. The analyzed systems employ SOFC-GT (gas turbine) modules as main power generators; a bottom HRSC (heat recovery steam cycle) to generate additional electricity from the SOFC-GT exhaust hot gases is also included. The thermodynamic and economic performance of the two plant configurations are studied in detail: the exergy analysis shows an enhanced exergetic performance for the pressurized cycle that features components with higher efficiency and consequently a lower rate of exergy destruction (∼20% less than the atmospheric plant). The economic analysis considers the capital cost of each component within the system and is developed aiming at estimating the levelized cost of electricity. In order to match both exergetic and economic parts, a rigorous thermoeconomic analysis following the theory of Valero and Bejan [1,2] is implemented. A well-defined set of rules for the exergoeconomic balance around each plant component is specified and specific cost balance equations are thus derived. Results show how pressurized plant outperforms the atmospheric one, with a (on exergo-economic base) cost of electricity of 47.7 $/MWh instead of 64.2 $/MWh. Therefore, both exergetic and economic advantages result from the adoption of a pressurized SOFC-GT cycle in the framework of future advance power plants based on high-temperature fuel cells. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis of atmospheric and pressurized SOFC plants. • Exergy destruction in a fuel cell hybrid power plant. • Rigorous thermoeconomic methodology to assess the performance of different power generation plants. • Economic performance of SOFC plants

  14. Energy transfer from a laser pulse to a blast wave in reduced-pressure air atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser beam in air atmospheres induced a blast wave. The kinetic energy of a laser-induced blast wave was determined from shadowgraph images of shock wave expansion. Results showed that the fraction of input laser energy that is converted into the blast wave energy decreased from 0.45 to 0.2 concomitant with the decrease in ambient pressure from 100 to 10 kPa. Also, it was insensitive to input laser energy from 4 to 13 J

  15. Where do winds come from? A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Makarieva, A. M.; V. G. Gorshkov; D. Sheil; A. D. Nobre; B.-L. Li

    2013-01-01

    Phase transitions of atmospheric water play a ubiquitous role in the Earth's climate system, but their direct impact on atmospheric dynamics has escaped wide attention. Here we examine and advance a theory as to how condensation influences atmospheric pressure through the mass removal of water from the gas phase with a simultaneous account of the latent heat release. Building from fundamental physical principles we show that condensation is associated with a decline in air pressure in t...

  16. Where do winds come from? A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Makarieva, A. M.; V. G. Gorshkov; D. Sheil; A. D. Nobre; B.-L. Li

    2010-01-01

    Phase transitions of atmospheric water play a ubiquitous role in the Earth's climate system, but their direct impact on atmospheric dynamics has escaped wide attention. Here we examine and advance a theory as to how condensation influences atmospheric pressure through the mass removal of water from the gas phase with a simultaneous account of the latent heat release. Building from fundamental physical principles we show that condensation is associated with a decline in air pressure in t...

  17. High frequency glow discharges at atmospheric pressure with micro-structured electrode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-structured electrode (MSE) arrays allow the generation of large-area uniform glow discharges over a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure. The electrode widths, thicknesses and distances in the micrometre range are realized by means of modern micro-machining and galvanic techniques. The electrode distance, the gap width d, is small enough to generate sufficiently high electric field strengths to ignite gas discharges by applying only moderate radio frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) voltages (80-390 V in Ne, He, Ar, N2 and air). The non-thermal plasma system is characterized by a special probe measuring the electric parameters. We tested MSE arrays with d = 70, 25 and 15 μm. The MSE driven plasmas show a different behaviour from conventional RF discharge plasmas. Due to the very small electrode gap width we can describe the behaviour of the charged particles in the RF field of our system with the dc Townsend breakdown theory, depending on the pressure range and gas. With decreasing pressure, the gas discharges, especially in Ne and He, are increasingly dominated by field electron emission. With the MSE arrays as plasma sources several applications were developed and successfully tested, e.g. decomposition of waste gases and sterilization of food packaging materials at atmospheric pressure

  18. High frequency glow discharges at atmospheric pressure with micro-structured electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars-Hibbe, L.; Sichler, P.; Schrader, C.; Lucas, N.; Gericke, K.-H.; Büttgenbach, S.

    2005-02-01

    Micro-structured electrode (MSE) arrays allow the generation of large-area uniform glow discharges over a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure. The electrode widths, thicknesses and distances in the micrometre range are realized by means of modern micro-machining and galvanic techniques. The electrode distance, the gap width d, is small enough to generate sufficiently high electric field strengths to ignite gas discharges by applying only moderate radio frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) voltages (80-390 V in Ne, He, Ar, N2 and air). The non-thermal plasma system is characterized by a special probe measuring the electric parameters. We tested MSE arrays with d = 70, 25 and 15 µm. The MSE driven plasmas show a different behaviour from conventional RF discharge plasmas. Due to the very small electrode gap width we can describe the behaviour of the charged particles in the RF field of our system with the dc Townsend breakdown theory, depending on the pressure range and gas. With decreasing pressure, the gas discharges, especially in Ne and He, are increasingly dominated by field electron emission. With the MSE arrays as plasma sources several applications were developed and successfully tested, e.g. decomposition of waste gases and sterilization of food packaging materials at atmospheric pressure.

  19. Fabrication of YBCO film by TFA-MOD process at low-pressure atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of the process conditions, including the water partial pressure and the total annealing pressure, on YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) film growth has been investigated in order to increase the growth rate. YBCO films have been fabricated on SrTiO3 substrate by metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA) as a solute source under the low-pressure atmosphere. It was observed that the growth rate of the YBCO film was in proportion to the square root of the water partial pressure and was in inverse proportion to the total pressure. A higher YBCO growth rate was achieved about 3 times as fast as that under the atmospheric fabrication conditions with maintaining the high Jc performance. On the other hand, the volume fraction of a-axis oriented grains in the YBCO film was strongly dependent on the growth rate, a-axis oriented YBCO grains were clearly recognized in the films grown with either very low or very high growth rate. As a result, it was found that the growth region should be controlled to prevent from the growth of the a-axis oriented grains

  20. Tribological Performance of Silahydrocarbons Used as Steel-Steel Lubricants under Vacuum and Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Zhong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The silahydrocarbons of tetraalkylsilanes with different substituted alkyl groups (named as SiCH were synthesized and evaluated as lubricants for steel-steel contacts by a home-made vacuum four-ball tribometer (VFBT-4000 under atmospheric pressure and under vacuum pressure (5×10-4 Pa. The SiCH oils possess better thermal stability, low temperature fluidity, and lower saturated vapor pressure than those of multialkylatedcyclopentanes (MACs. The tribological performances of the SiCH oils are also superior to those of MACs and PFPE-Z25 in terms of friction-reduction ability and antiwear capacity under sliding friction at vacuum. The SEM/EDS and XPS results reveal that the boundary lubricating film consisting of (-O-Si-R-n compounds is formed by tribochemical reactions and serious adhesion wear under atmospheric pressure and the film consisting of (-Si-R-Si-n compounds is formed on the worn surface under vacuum pressure.

  1. The effect of meteorological data on atmospheric pressure loading corrections in VLBI data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Glaser, Susanne; Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Lu, Cuixian; Anderson, James; Liu, Li; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Earth's crustal deformation is a manifestation of numerous geophysical processes, which entail the atmosphere and ocean general circulation and tidal attraction, climate change, and the hydrological circle. The present study deals with the elastic deformations induced by atmospheric pressure variations. At geodetic sites, APL (Atmospheric Pressure Loading) results in displacements covering a wide range of temporal scales which is undesirable when rigorous geodetic/geophysical analysis is intended. Hence, it is of paramount importance that the APL signal are removed at the observation level in the space geodetic data analysis. In this study, elastic non-tidal components of loading displacements were calculated in the local topocentric frame for all VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) stations with respect to the center-of-figure of the solid Earth surface and the center-of-mass of the total Earth system. The response of the Earth to the load variation at the surface was computed by convolving Farrell Green's function with the homogenized in situ surface pressure observations (in the time span 1979-2014) after the subtraction of the reference pressure and the S1, S2 and S3 thermal tidal signals. The reference pressure was calculated through a hypsometric adjustment of the absolute pressure level determined from World Meteorological Organization stations in the vicinity of each VLBI observatory. The tidal contribution was calculated following the 2010 International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service conventions. Afterwards, this approach was implemented into the VLBI software VieVS@GFZ and the entirety of available VLBI sessions was analyzed. We rationalize our new approach on the basis that the potential error budget is substantially reduced, since several common errors are not applicable in our approach, e.g. those due to the finite resolution of NWM (Numerical Weather Models), the accuracy of the orography model necessary for adjusting the former as

  2. Experimental characterization of an argon laminar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a dc laminar pure argon plasma jet operating at atmospheric pressure in ambient air that was experimentally studied in order to obtain temperature and velocity. Plasma jet temperature was evaluated by optical emission spectroscopy and the plasma jet velocity was determined by various methods using a pressure sensor. It is shown that the maximum plasma jet temperature is 15 000 K and the maximum plasma jet velocity is 250 m s-1 at the plasma jet centre. Finally, a study of the ambient air amount entrained into the plasma jet is presented.

  3. Experimental characterization of an argon laminar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois-Bertrand, Emilie; De Izarra, Charles, E-mail: charles.de_izarra@univ-orleans.fr [Groupe de Recherche sur l' Energetique des Milieux Ionises, UMR6606 Universite d' Orleans - CNRS, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, rue Gaston Berger, BP 4043, 18028 BOURGES Cedex (France)

    2011-10-19

    This paper deals with a dc laminar pure argon plasma jet operating at atmospheric pressure in ambient air that was experimentally studied in order to obtain temperature and velocity. Plasma jet temperature was evaluated by optical emission spectroscopy and the plasma jet velocity was determined by various methods using a pressure sensor. It is shown that the maximum plasma jet temperature is 15 000 K and the maximum plasma jet velocity is 250 m s{sup -1} at the plasma jet centre. Finally, a study of the ambient air amount entrained into the plasma jet is presented.

  4. Hydrogen production by radio frequency plasma stimulation in methane hydrate at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Andi Erwin Eka

    2013-01-01

    Methane hydrate, formed by injecting methane into 100 g of shaved ice at a pressure of 7 MPa and reactor temperature of 0 ??C, was decomposed by applying 27.12 MHz radio frequency plasma in order to produce hydrogen. The process involved the stimulation of plasma in the methane hydrate with a variable input power at atmospheric pressure. It was observed that production of CH4 is optimal at a slow rate of CH4 release from the methane hydrate, as analyzed by in light of the steam...

  5. Black pepper powder microbiological quality improvement using DBD systems in atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Maciej; Hołub, Marcin; Balcerak, Michał; Kalisiak, Stanisław; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary results are given regarding black pepper powder decontamination using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric pressure. Three different DBD reactor constructions were investigated, both packaged and unpackaged material was treated. Due to potential, industrial applications, in addition to microbiological results, water activity, loss of mass and the properties of packaging material, regarding barrier properties were investigated. Argon based treatment of packed pepper with DBD reactor configuration is proposed and satisfactory results are presented for treatment time of 5 min or less. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  6. Development of data logger for atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity for gas-filled detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At IoP-NISER an initiative has been taken to build and test micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects. Temperature (t), atmospheric pressure (p) and relative humidity (RH) monitor and recording is very important for gas filled detector development. A data logger to monitor and record the ambient parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and pressure has been developed. With this data logger continuous recording of t, p, RH and time stamp can be done with a programmable sampling interval. This data is necessary to correct the gain of a gas filled detector

  7. Effect of ambient pressure and radiation reabsorption of atmosphere on the flame spreading over thermally thin combustibles in microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Wenfeng; (杜文峰); HU; Wenrui; (胡文瑞)

    2003-01-01

    For the flame spread over thermally thin combustibles in an atmosphere, if the atmosphere cannot emit and absorb the thermal radiation (e.g. for atmosphere of O2-N2), the conductive heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface dominates the flame spread at lower ambient atmosphere. As the ambient pressure increases, the flame spread rate increases, and the radiant heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface gradually becomes the dominant driving force for the flame spread. In contrast, if the atmosphere is able to emit and absorb the thermal radiation (e.g. for atmosphere of O2-CO2), at lower pressure, the heat transfer from flame to the fuel surface is enhanced by the radiation reabsorption of the atmosphere at the leading edge of the flame, and both conduction and thermal radiation play important roles in the mechanism of flame spread. With the increase in ambient pressure, the oxygen diffuses more quickly from ambient atmosphere into the flame, the chemical reaction in the flame is enhanced, and the flame spread rate increases. When the ambient pressure is greater than a critical value, the thermal radiation from the flame to the solid surface is hampered by the radiation reabsorption of ambient atmosphere with the further increase in ambient pressure. As a result, with the increase in ambient pressure, the flame spread rate decreases and the heat conduction gradually dominates the flame spread over the fuel surface.

  8. Design challenges for matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and infrared resonant laser evaporation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, James A.

    2011-11-01

    Since the development of the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) process by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the late 1990s, MAPLE has become an active area of research for the deposition of a variety of polymer, biological, and organic thin films. As is often the case with advancements in thin-film deposition techniques new technology sometimes evolves by making minor or major adjustments to existing deposition process equipment and techniques. This is usually the quickest and least expensive way to try out new ideas and to "push the envelope" in order to obtain new and unique scientific results as quickly as possible. This process of "tweaking" current equipment usually works to some degree, but once the new process is further refined overall designs for a new deposition tool based on the critical attributes of the new process typically help capitalize more fully on the all the salient features of the new and improved process. This certainly has been true for the MAPLE process. In fact the first MAPLE experiments the polymer/solvent matrix was mixed and poured into a copper holder held at LN2 temperature on a laboratory counter top. The holder was then quickly placed onto a LN2 cooled reservoir in a vacuum deposition chamber and placed in a vertical position on a LN2 cooled stage and pumped down as quickly as possible. If the sample was not placed into the chamber quickly enough the frozen matrix would melt and drip into the bottom of the chamber onto the chambers main gate valve making a bit of a mess. However, skilled and motivated scientists usually worked quickly enough to make this process work most of the time. The initial results from these experiments were encouraging and led to several publications which sparked considerable interest in this newly developed technique Clearly this approach provided the vision that MAPLE was a viable deposition process, but the equipment was not optimal for conducting MAPLE experiments on a regular basis

  9. Plasma chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, A.; Leipold, F.; Kusano, Y.;

    2005-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in Ar/NH3 (0.1 - 10%) mixtures with a parallel plate electrode geometry was studied. The plasma was investigated by emission and absorption spectroscopy in the UV spectral range. Discharge current and voltage were measured as well. UV...... absorption spectroscopy was also employed for the detection of stable products in the exhaust gas. To clarify the different processes for ammonia decomposition, N-2(2 - 10%) was added to the plasma. Modeling of the chemical kinetics in an Ar/NH3 plasma was performed as well. The dominant stable products of...... an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 DBD are H-2, N-2 and N2H4. The hydrazine (N2H4) concentration in the plasma and in the exhaust gases at various ammonia concentrations and different discharge powers was measured. Thermal N2H4 decomposition into NH2 radicals may be used for NOx reduction processes....

  10. Asymptotic analysis of simple ionization kinetics of air flows at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degond, Pierre [Mathematiques pour l' Industrie et la Physique, UFR MIG, Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, 118, route de Narbonne, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Quinio, Geraldine [Mathematiques pour l' Industrie et la Physique, UFR MIG, Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, 118, route de Narbonne, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rogier, Francois [Onera centre de Toulouse, Departement Traitement de l' Information et Modelisation, 2, avenue Edouard Belin, 31055 Toulouse cedex (France)

    2005-05-07

    The purpose of this paper is to propose and analyse a simplified model for plasma generation in air flows at atmospheric pressure. The starting point is a model previously proposed by Lowke (1992 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 25 202-10), enriched with a loss term which schematically takes into account the drag of the metastable and ionized species by the flow. An asymptotic analysis of this model confirmed by numerical simulations is proposed and shows that plasma generation is a two or three time scale process (depending on the electric field value). Eventually, the existence of the plasma over long time scales depends on the value of the flow velocity relative to a threshold value, which can be approximately computed analytically. A procedure for generating a plasma at atmospheric pressure in air at low energetic cost is also suggested.

  11. Decontamination of objects in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kusano, Yukihiro;

    2011-01-01

    The decontamination of objects (food) in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is used for the exper......The decontamination of objects (food) in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is used...... for the experiments. Glass slides were inoculated with L. innocua. The slides were placed inside a low density polyethylene (LDPE) bag. The bag was filled with a gas mixture of 97.5 Vol% Ar and 2.5 Vol% O2 and subsequently sealed. The bag was placed between the electrodes of a dielectric barrier discharge...

  12. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON TOURISTS AND TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN THE PRAHOVA CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAVRIŞ LOREDANA-ELENA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the climate literature it is known that the atmospheric temperature directly and permanently acts on the all organisms and all geographical environment components, influencing the wellness of the weather sensitive persons and implicitly the wellness of tourists in this region. In the same time, its evolution is a good indicator in shaping the short and medium term meteorological forecast, considering that the region chosen for research is a very tripper one, especially during the winter season when the atmospheric pressure variation trend is much more pronounced. Within this framework, the present paper tries to develop a climatic diagnosis on the reference climate parameters (annual and monthly average pressure values, seasonal values, minimum and maximum absolute values and their emergence probability but also the non-periodic variability based on data recorded during 1961-2007 at Câmpina, Sinaia 1500, Predeal, Omu Peak and Braşov weather stations.

  13. Diffuse α-mode atmospheric pressure radio-frequency discharge in neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a radio-frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure glow discharge burning in neon between planar metal electrodes is achieved for the first time. The RF discharge can operate in two stable modes: in a diffuse α-mode with uniformly covered electrode surfaces and in a constricted γ-mode. Similarities are revealed when the discharge is compared against the RF atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium, namely both discharges show a discontinuity and a hysteresis in the current–voltage characteristic at the mode transition; the spatio-temporal profiles of the light emission in the α-mode from neon, helium and atomic oxygen are also similar. (fast track communication)

  14. Plasma Treatment of Industrial Landfill Leachate by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system in atmospheric pressure utilized for the treatment of industrial landfill leachate is reported. The discharge parameters, such as the operating frequency, gas flow rate, and treating duration, were found to affect significantly the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) in industrial landfill leachate. An increase in treating duration leads to an obvious increase in the removal efficiency of AN (up to 83%) and the leachate color changed from deep grey-black to transparent. Thus the dielectric barrier discharges in atmospheric pressure could degrade the landfill leachate effectively. Typical waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current were also presented for analyzing the discharge processes under different discharge parameters. Optical emission spectra measurements indicate that oxidation species generated in oxygen DBD plasma play a crucial role in removing AN, oxidizing organic and inorganic substances and decolorizing the landfill leachate.

  15. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma and Subsequent Enzymatic Treatment on Flax Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shaofeng; Yang, Bin; Ou, Qiongrong

    2015-09-01

    The objective is to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) plasma and subsequent cellulase enzyme treatment on the properties of flax fabrics. The changes of surface morphology and structure, physico-mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, bending properties, whiteness, and dyeing properties of the treated substrate were investigated. The results indicated that atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma pre-treatment and subsequent cellulase enzyme treatment could diminish the hairiness of flax fabrics, endowing the flax fabrics with good bending properties, water uptake and fiber accessibility while keeping their good mechanical properties compared with those treated with cellulase enzyme alone. supported by the Science and Technology Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (No. Y201432680) and the Professional Leaders Leading Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (No. lj2013131), the Teaching and Research Award Program for Outstanding Young Teachers in Higher Education Institutions of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (No. 1097802072012001)

  16. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ∼5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eUm, where Um is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  17. Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al2O3 films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100 °C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.11–0.13 nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of ±2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76 ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1 m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5 mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD

  18. Synergistic effects of atmospheric pressure plasma-emitted components on DNA oligomers: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edengeiser, Eugen; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Bründermann, Erik; Schneider, Simon; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E; Havenith, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas have become of increasing importance in sterilization processes especially with the growing prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria. Albeit the potential for technological application is obvious, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial inactivation. X-jet technology separates plasma-generated reactive particles and photons, thus allowing the investigation of their individual and joint effects on DNA. Raman spectroscopy shows that particles and photons cause different modifications in DNA single and double strands. The treatment with the combination of particles and photons does not only result in cumulative, but in synergistic effects. Profilometry confirms that etching is a minor contributor to the observed DNA damage in vitro. Schematics of DNA oligomer treatment with cold atmospheric-pressure plasma. PMID:25656637

  19. Numerical simulation of torus breakdown to chaos in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the routes to chaos occurring in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge systems by changing controlling parameters is very important to predict and control the dynamical behaviors. In this paper, a route of a quasiperiodic torus to chaos via the strange nonchaotic attractor is observed in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge driven by triangle-wave voltage. By increasing the driving frequency, the discharge system first bifurcates to a quasiperiodic torus from a stable single periodic state, and then torus and phase-locking periodic state appear and disappear alternately. In the meantime, the torus becomes increasingly wrinkling and stretching, and gradually approaches a fractal structure with the nonpositive largest Lyapunov exponent, i.e., a strange nonchaotic attractor. After that, the discharge system enters into chaotic state. If the driving frequency is further increased, another well known route of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos is also observed

  20. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue; Yang, Si-ze

    2013-05-01

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  1. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu, Dongping [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Yue [School of Physics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  2. Modification of silicon carbide surfaces by atmospheric pressure plasma for composite applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Santiago, Victor; Vargas-Gonzalez, Lionel; Bujanda, Andres A; Baeza, Jose A; Fleischman, Michelle S; Yim, Jacqueline H; Pappas, Daphne D

    2013-06-12

    In this study, we explore the use of atmospheric pressure plasmas for enhancing the adhesion of SiC surfaces using a urethane adhesive, as an alternative to grit-blasting. Surface analysis showed that He-O2 plasma treatments resulted in a hydrophilic surface mostly by producing SiOx. Four-point bending tests and bonding pull tests were carried out on control, grit-blasted, and plasma-treated surfaces. Grit-blasted samples showed enhanced bonding but also a decrease in flexural strength. Plasma treated samples did not affect the flexural strength of the material and showed an increase in bonding strength. These results suggest that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of ceramic materials is an effective alternative to grit-blasting for adhesion enhancement. PMID:23639326

  3. Discharge Characteristics in Atmospheric Pressure Glow Surface Discharge in Helium Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-Chen; WANG Long

    2005-01-01

    @@ Atmospheric pressure glow discharge is observed for the first time in a surface discharge generator in flowing helium. Electrical and optical methods are used to measure the characteristics of atmospheric pressure glow discharge for different voltages. The results show that discharge current waveforms are asymmetric for the different polarities of the applied voltage. A continuous discharge profile with a width of several microseconds appears for per half cycle of the applied voltage when the voltage is increased to a certain value. The short-pulsed discharge and the continuous current would result from the Townsend breakdown and glow discharge mechanisms respectively. The properties of surface discharge in stagnant helium are completely different from that in flowing helium.

  4. Transparent conductive indium-doped zinc oxide films prepared by atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kow-Ming [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30010 (China); College of Electrical and Information Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan 84001 (China); Huang, Sung-Hung, E-mail: sunghunghuang@gmail.com [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30010 (China); Wu, Chin-Jyi [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, 31040, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Li; Chen, Wei-Chiang; Chi, Chia-Wei [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30010 (China); Lin, Je-Wei; Chang, Chia-Chiang [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Chutung, Hsinchu, 31040, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-31

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma processing has attracted much interest for industrial applications due to its low cost, high processing speed and simple system. In this study, atmospheric-pressure plasma jet technique was developed to deposit indium-doped zinc oxide films. The inorganic metal salts of zinc nitrate and indium nitrate were used as precursors for Zn ions and In ions, respectively. The effect of different indium doping concentration on the morphological, structural, electrical and optical properties of the films was investigated. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction results show that the deposited films with a preferred (002) orientation. The lowest resistivity of 1.8 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm was achieved with the 8 at.% indium-doped solution at the substrate temperature of 200 deg. C in open air, and average transmittance in the visible region was more than 80%.

  5. Gas Breakdown of Radio Frequency Glow Discharges in Helium at near Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinkun; Xu, Jinzhou; Cui, Tongfei; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Jianjun

    2013-07-01

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was developed for radio frequency glow discharge in helium at near atmospheric pressure, and was employed to study the gas breakdown characteristics in terms of breakdown voltage. The effective secondary electron emission coefficient and the effective electric field for ions were demonstrated to be important for determining the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge at near atmospheric pressure. The constant of A was estimated to be 64±4 cm-1Torr-1, which was proportional to the first Townsend coefficient and could be employed to evaluate the gas breakdown voltage. The reduction in the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge with excitation frequency was studied and attributed to the electron trapping effect in the discharge gap.

  6. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  7. Promoted cell and material interaction on atmospheric pressure plasma treated titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Inho [Convergence Technology Exam. Div. II, Korean Intellectual Patent Office, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Vagaska, Barbora [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyok Jin [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jae Kyeong [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byeong-Ju [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Hee [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Chul, E-mail: parkjc@yuhs.ac [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-01

    Surface carbon contamination is a natural phenomenon. However, it interferes with cell-biomaterial interaction. In order to eliminate the interference, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was employed. Dielectric barrier discharge treatment of titanium surface for less than 10 min turned titanium super-hydrophilic. Adsorption of fibronectin which is the major cell adhesive protein increased after plasma treatment. Cell attachment parameters of osteoblast cells such as population, cell area, perimeter, Feret's diameter and cytoskeleton development were also enhanced. Cell proliferation increased on the plasma treated titanium. In conclusion, dielectric barrier discharge type atmospheric pressure plasma system is effective to modify titanium surface and the modified titanium promotes cell and material interactions.

  8. Apoptotic effects on cultured cells of atmospheric-pressure plasma produced using various gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominami, Kanako; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kudo, Tada-aki; Sasaki, Shota; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma on various cells such as rat fibroblastic Rat-1 cell line, rat neuroblastoma-like PC12 cell line, and rat macrophage-like NR8383 cell line. The plasma was irradiated directly to a culture medium containing plated cells for 0-20 s. The applied voltage, excitation frequency, and argon or helium gas flow were, respectively, 3-6 kV, 10 kHz, and 3 L/min. Cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated using annexin-V/propidium iodide staining. Results showed that the low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation promoted cell death in a discharge-voltage-dependent and irradiation-time-dependent manner. Furthermore, different effects are produced depending on the cell type. Moreover, entirely different mechanisms might be responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cells by helium and argon plasma.

  9. Using dimers to measure biosignatures and atmospheric pressure for terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Claire, Mark; Crisp, Dave

    2014-02-01

    We present a new method to probe atmospheric pressure on Earth-like planets using (O2-O2) dimers in the near-infrared. We also show that dimer features could be the most readily detectable biosignatures for Earth-like atmospheres and may even be detectable in transit transmission with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The absorption by dimers changes more rapidly with pressure and density than that of monomers and can therefore provide additional information about atmospheric pressures. By comparing the absorption strengths of rotational and vibrational features to the absorption strengths of dimer features, we show that in some cases it may be possible to estimate the pressure at the reflecting surface of a planet. This method is demonstrated by using the O2 A band and the 1.06 μm dimer feature, either in transmission or reflected spectra. It works best for planets around M dwarfs with atmospheric pressures between 0.1 and 10 bar and for O2 volume mixing ratios above 50% of Earth's present-day level. Furthermore, unlike observations of Rayleigh scattering, this method can be used at wavelengths longer than 0.6 μm and is therefore potentially applicable, although challenging, to near-term planet characterization missions such as JWST. We also performed detectability studies for JWST transit transmission spectroscopy and found that the 1.06 and 1.27 μm dimer features could be detectable (SNR>3) for an Earth analogue orbiting an M5V star at a distance of 5 pc. The detection of these features could provide a constraint on the atmospheric pressure of an exoplanet and serve as biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. We calculated the required signal-to-noise ratios to detect and characterize O2 monomer and dimer features in direct imaging-reflected spectra and found that signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 at a spectral resolving power of R=100 would be required. PMID:24432758

  10. Characterization of a Dielectric Barrier Plasma Gun Discharging at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-Qiu; GE Yuan-Jing; ZHANG Yue-Fei; CHEN Guang-Liang

    2004-01-01

    @@ We develop a plasma gun based on dielectric barrier discharge and working at atmospheric pressure. A theoretical model to predict the gun discharge voltage is built, which is in agreement with the experimental results. After investigating the characterization of discharging gun and utilizing it for polymerization, we find that the gun can be used as a source to generate a stable uniform plasma for different plasma-processing technologies.

  11. Behavior of ZnO-coated alumina dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Meng; Tao, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    A complete investigation of the discharge behavior of dielectric barrier discharge device using ZnO-coated dielectric layer in atmospheric pressure is made. Highly conductive ZnO film was deposited on the dielectric surface. Discharge characteristic of the dielectric barrier discharge are examined in different aspects. Experimental result shows that discharge uniformity is improved definitely in the case of ZnO-coated dielectric barrier discharge. And relevant theoretical models and explanation are presented to describing its discharge physics.

  12. Nano-Coating Process for Si [1 0 0] Wafer Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Rida Galaly

    2012-01-01

    Three-electrode plasma jet system consisting of a perforated dielectric tube with two outer and one floating inner electrodes was developed and employed for nano-coating processes of Si [1 0 0] wafer. Lowered gas breakdown voltage, increasing plasma density and increased discharge current were achieved by using the floating inner electrode. The low temperature (Nonthermal) Atmospheric Pressure Plasma protective coating technique using precursor-containing gases (Ar, O2 and OMCTS mixture) whic...

  13. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  14. Improvement of stability of sinusoidally driven atmospheric pressure plasma jet using auxiliary bias voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Jin Kim; Jae Young Kim; Jae Hyun Kim; Dong Ha Kim; Duck-Sik Lee; Choon-Sang Park; Hyung Dal Park; Bhum Jae Shin; Heung-Sik Tae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have proposed the auxiliary bias pulse scheme to improve the stability of atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by an AC sinusoidal waveform excitation source. The stability of discharges can be significantly improved by the compensation of irregular variation in memory voltage due to the effect of auxiliary bias pulse. From the parametric study, such as the width, voltage, and onset time of auxiliary bias pulse, it has been demonstrated that the auxiliary bias pulse plays...

  15. Radiative ion-ion neutralization: a new gas-phase atmospheric pressure ion transduction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric J; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H

    2012-06-01

    All atmospheric pressure ion detectors, including photo ionization detectors, flame ionization detectors, electron capture detectors, and ion mobility spectrometers, utilize Faraday plate designs in which ionic charge is collected and amplified. The sensitivity of these Faraday plate ion detectors are limited by thermal (Johnson) noise in the associated electronics. Thus approximately 10(6) ions per second are required for a minimal detection. This is not the case for ion detection under vacuum conditions where secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) can be used. SEMs produce a cascade of approximately 10(6) electrons per ion impinging on the conversion dynode. Similarly, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) can generate approximately 10(6) electrons per photon. Unlike SEMs, however, PMTs are evacuated and sealed so that they are commonly used under atmospheric pressure conditions. This paper describes an atmospheric pressure ion detector based on coupling a PMT with light emitted from ion-ion neutralization reactions. The normal Faraday plate collector electrode was replaced with an electrode "needle" used to concentrate the anions as they were drawn to the tip of the needle by a strong focusing electric field. Light was emitted near the surface of the electrode when analyte ions were neutralized with cations produced from the anode. Although radiative-ion-ion recombination has been previously reported, this is the first time ions from separate ionization sources have been combined to produce light. The light from this radiative-ion-ion-neutralization (RIIN) was detected using a photon multiplier such that an ion mobility spectrum was obtained by monitoring the light emitted from mobility separated ions. An IMS spectrum of nitroglycerin (NG) was obtained utilizing RIIN for tranducing the mobility separated ions into an analytical signal. The implications of this novel ion transduction method are the potential for counting ions at atmospheric pressure and for obtaining ion

  16. Influence of gap width on discharge asymmetry in atmospheric pressure glow dielectric barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to investigate the mechanism of discharge asymmetry in atmospheric pressure helium glow dielectric barrier discharges (GDBDs). By observing the evolutionary process between the successive peak currents, the effect of the gap width on the discharge asymmetry is thoroughly discussed. It is shown that when the gap width is too large, the very severe nonuniformity of electric field distribution over the gas gap leads to the discharge asymmetry.

  17. Study of Dielectric Barrier Discharges in nitrogen and afterglows at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to the study of Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD) and afterglows obtained at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen. Electrical and optical analysis of the DBD reactor are carried out in order to characterize specific activated gaseous species, which can travel with low energy dispersion for long distances in tubes. A hypothesis for the explanation of the presence of long-lived species in such afterglows is finally explained as related to a solitary wave effect.

  18. Numerical simulations of superlattice patterns in dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fucheng; Wang, Xiaofei; He, Yafeng; Dong, Lifang

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the numerical investigation on superlattice patterns in atmospheric pressure glow discharges in dielectric barrier discharges by using a self-consistent 2D fluid model. It is found that the superlattice pattern is an interleaving of two filamentary sub-patterns with alternate spatial and temporal characteristics. The competition between the volume ionization and the memory effects of both surface charges and space charges is expected to the formation mechanism of this superlattice pattern.

  19. Characterization of transient discharges under atmospheric pressure conditions applying nitrogen photoemission and current measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Sandra; Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density of three atmospheric-pressure transient discharges namely filamentary and homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges in air, and the spark discharge of argon plasma coagulation (APC) system are determined. A combination of numerical simulation as well as diagnostic methods including current measurement and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) based on nitrogen emissions is used. The applied methods supplement each...

  20. Study of Dielectric Barrier Discharges in nitrogen and afterglows at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, F; Panousis, E; Lecoq, E; Loiseau, J-F; Held, B [Universite de Pau - LEGP, IPREM - 64000 Pau (France); Ricard, A [Universite Paul Sabatier - LAPLACE - 31000 Toulouse (France)

    2010-01-01

    This article is devoted to the study of Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD) and afterglows obtained at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen. Electrical and optical analysis of the DBD reactor are carried out in order to characterize specific activated gaseous species, which can travel with low energy dispersion for long distances in tubes. A hypothesis for the explanation of the presence of long-lived species in such afterglows is finally explained as related to a solitary wave effect.

  1. Adhesion improvement of fibres by continuous plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Sørensen, Bent F.;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon fibres and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres were continuously treated by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure for adhesion improvement with epoxy resins. The plasma treatment improved wettability, increased the oxygen containing polar...... functional groups at the surface, and subsequently improved adhesion to the epoxy and fracture resistance of epoxy composites. Hansen solubility parameters (HSP), quantitatively describing physical interactions among molecules, were measured for the UHMWPE fibre surfaces. The result identifies two distinct...

  2. Investigation of the Process of Methane-Oxygen Combustion in Steam Under the Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribaturin, N. A.; Bogomolov, A. R.; Azikhanov, S. S.; Shevyrev, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the article presented results of combustion methane-oxygen mixtures in the slightly superheated water steam under the atmospheric pressure. It is shown that exist dependence of flow rate combustible mixture and steam ratio (Gg.s./Gs) on the composition of the reacting mixture at the outlet of combustion chamber. There is a trend of increasing CO2 concentration in the reacting mixture at the outlet of combustion chamber with increase of Gg.s./Gs.

  3. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Treatment on Polymerization of Acrylic Fabric and Its Printing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D M El-Zeer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic fibers have been treated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD plasma in open air to enhance surface antistatic properties. The treated surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier-Transition Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM. Plasma treatment of acrylic fabric has been found to increase the surface roughness, modify the nature and density of surface functionalities, and drastically improve the wettability and antistatic ability of acrylic fibers.

  4. Analysis of insect triacylglycerols using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofroňová, Edita; Cvačka, Josef; Jiroš, Pavel; Sýkora, D.; Valterová, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 5 (2009), s. 519-525. ISSN 1438-7697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055403; GA MŠk 2B06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : atmospheric pressure chemical ionization * bumblebees * fat body * NARP-HPLC Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.831, year: 2009

  5. Concentric-Ring Patterns in a Helium Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Wan-Li; WANG De-Zhen

    2007-01-01

    We perform the theoretical simulation of the concentric-ring patterns between two parallel electrodes covered with thin dielectric layers within the scope of a two-dimensional diffusion-drift model at atmospheric pressure. The time evolution of the discharge patterns is studied and the concentric-ring patterns with different radii shift alternately. The spatial-temporal evolution of electron density in a cycle at different time scales is performed.

  6. Characterisation of PMMA/ATH Layers Realised by Means of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Powder Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenhorst, Lena M.; Sebastian Dahle; Matej Vovk; Lisa Wurlitzer; Leander Loewenthal; Nils Mainusch; Christoph Gerhard; Wolfgang Viöl

    2015-01-01

    We report on the characteristics of aluminium trihydrate filled poly(methyl methacrylate) composite (PMMA/ATH) coatings realised by plasma deposition at atmospheric pressure. For this purpose, PMMA/ATH powder was fed to a plasma jet where the process and carrier gas was compressed air. The deposited coatings were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Further, the raw material was characterised before deposition. It was found that, with respect ...

  7. Enhancing the mechanical properties of superhydrophobic atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Nwankire, Charles E.; Favaro, Gregory; Duong, Quynh-Huong; Denis P. Dowling

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces with water contact angles above 150° are regarded as superhydrophobic. In this study the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jet system called PlasmaStreamTM to deposit superhydrophobic coatings is investigated. The coatings were deposited from the following liquid precursors: HMDSO, tetramethyl cyclotetrasiloxane (Tomcats) and a mixture of Tomcats and fluorosiloxane. The objective of the study is to investigate how precursor type and deposition conditions, influences t...

  8. Self-Organized Filaments in Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li-Fang; LI Xue-Chen; YINZeng-Qian; QIAN Sheng-Fa; OUYANG Ji-Ting; WANG Long

    2001-01-01

    The self-organized filament pattern created by dielectric barrier discharges in air at atmospheric pressure is investigated experimentally. The density and dimension of filament are analysed quantitatively. The experimental results show that the distance between neighbouring filaments decreases with the increased applied voltage or with the decreased width of the gas gap. Also, the diameter of the filament decreases with the increased applied voltages or with the decreased width of the gas gap.

  9. Thin layer chromatography/desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry of lipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Cvačka, Josef

    Praha: Ústav organické chemie a biochemie AV ČR, 2016 - (Kuda, O.). s. 30 ISBN 978-80-86241-54-8. [Česká lipidomická konference /5./. 21.04.2016-22.04.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization * ambient mass spectrometry * thin layer chromatography * lipids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  10. Physical features of atmospheric pressure microdischarge system with vortex gas flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prysiazhnevych Iryna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The parameters for microdischarges of plasma medicine in air and argon vortex flows at atmospheric pressure for different shapes of electrodes (outlet nozzle and axis electrode diameters ratio set have been investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of the designed systems have been analyzed, the parameters of the generated jets plasma have been investigated by means of the optical emission spectroscopy, and the form of plasma jets has been studied by using video camera.

  11. Novel Therapeutic Effects of Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma for Muscle Regeneration and Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Won Choi; Sung Un Kang; Yang Eun Kim; Ju Kyeong Park; Sang Sik Yang; Yeon Soo Kim; Yun Sang Lee; Yuijina Lee; Chul-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle can repair muscle tissue damage, but significant loss of muscle tissue or its long-lasting chronic degeneration makes injured skeletal muscle tissue difficult to restore. It has been demonstrated that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP) can be used in many biological areas including regenerative medicine. Therefore, we determined whether NTP, as a non-contact biological external stimulator that generates biological catalyzers, can induce regeneration of injured muscl...

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K, E-mail: ashwini@smita-iitd.co, E-mail: manjeet.jassal@smita-iitd.co [Smart and Innovative Textile Materials Group (SMITA), Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 {mu}l took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to < 1 s in the untreated samples. The plasma modified samples showed water contact angle of around 134{sup 0}. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  13. The measurement of the electron temperature in a spark discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron temperature in atmospheric pressure spark surface discharge was measured from the relative intensity ratio using several well-resolved atomic N I, N II, O II lines. The evaluated value is of 18 000 K. The repeated sparks were glowed by a pulsed high voltage source which restricted the are phase of sparks by appropriate low value of capacitors in voltage multiplier. (Authors)

  14. Ionic wind generation by a wire-cylinder-plate corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Colas, Dorian,; Ferret, Antoine; Pai, David,; Lacoste, Deanna,; Laux, C.

    2010-01-01

    A wire-cylinder-plate electrode configuration is presented to generate ionic wind with a dc corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. The objective of the work is to maximize the power supplied to the flow in order to increase acceleration while avoiding breakdown. Thus, the proposed experimental setup addresses the problem of decoupling the mechanism of ion generation from that of ion acceleration. Using a wire-plate configuration as a reference, we have focused on improving the topog...

  15. Sequential Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Assisted Laser Ablation of Photovoltaic Cover Glass for Improved Contour Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Gerhard; Maximilian Dammann; Stephan Wieneke; Wolfgang Viöl

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present sequential atmospheric pressure plasma-assisted laser ablation of photovoltaic cover glass. First, glass samples were plasma pre-treated using a hydrogenous plasma process gas in order to accomplish a modification of the near-surface glass network by a chemical reduction and the implantation of hydrogen. As a result, the transmission at a wavelength of 355 nm was reduced by approximately 2% after plasma treatment duration of 60 min. Further, the surface polarity was ...

  16. Atomic Oxygen Cleaning Shown to Remove Organic Contaminants at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and filed for a patent on a method to produce atomic oxygen at atmospheric pressure by using a direct current arc in a gas flow mixture of oxygen and helium. A prototype device has been tested for its ability to remove various soot residues from surfaces exposed to fire, and various varnishes such as acrylic and egg white.

  17. Charge dependence of the plasma travel length in atmospheric-pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Konda, Kohmei; Masuda, Seiya

    2016-06-01

    Plasma plume is generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and foil electrode by applying AC high voltage under the atmosphere. The plasma plume is released into the atmosphere from inside of the quartz tube and is seen as the continuous movement of the plasma bullet. The travel length of plasma bullet is defined from plasma energy and force due to electric field. The drift velocity of plasma bullet has the upper limit under atmospheric-pressure because the drift velocity is determined from the balance between electric field and resistive force due to collisions between plasma and air. The plasma plume charge depends on the drift velocity. Consequently, in the laminar flow of helium gas flow state, the travel length of the plasma plume logarithmically depends on the plasma plume charge which changes with both the electric field and the resistive force.

  18. Effect of Pressure Broadening on Molecular Absorption Cross Sections in Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Hedges, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are leading to unprecedented constraints on their atmospheric compositions. However, molecular abundances derived from spectra are degenerate with the absorption cross sections which form critical input data in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is important to quantify the uncertainties in molecular cross sections to reliably estimate the uncertainties in derived molecular abundances. However, converting line lists into cross sections via line broadening involves a series of prescriptions for which the uncertainties are not well understood. We investigate and quantify the effects of various factors involved in line broadening in exoplanetary atmospheres - the profile evaluation width, pressure versus thermal broadening, broadening agent, spectral resolution, and completeness of broadening parameters - on molecular absorption cross sections. We use H$_2$O as a case study as it has the most complete absorption line data. For low resolution spectra (R$\\lesssim$100) for re...

  19. Effects of Shelves on Amplification of Long Waves Generated by Atmospheric Pressure Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duha Metin, Ayse; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozyurt Tarakcıoglu, Gulizar; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Meteotsunami is a type of long period ocean wave generated by different types of meteorological disturbances such as atmospheric gravity waves, spatial and temporal pressure distributions and squall lines. The main idea behind the occurrence of this type of long wave is that low atmospheric pressure leads to static water level rise in a part of the marine area and high atmospheric pressure leads to static water level drop in another zone. Then, it causes deformation of the water level throughout the entire sea area. The relation between the pressure difference and change of water level from normal position (η =0.99Δ P where η is the water level change (cm) according to the pressure difference from normal pressure Δ P) can be used to determine the sea level deformation. The relation represents that 1 hPa decrease in air pressure causes 1 cm rise in mean sea level. Due to the spatial and temporal changes of atmospheric pressure, the respective small amplitude long waves propagate along the entire marine area. This type of tsunami-like waves can propagate through long distances and can also be amplified due to resonant effects in the enclosed basins, offshore shelves, and nearshore/offshore coastal morphology. Therefore, it can result in considerable amplifications and causes unexpected effects in some coastal regions. This study is mainly focused on understanding of amplification of long waves generated by atmospheric pressure differences when they encounter the offshore shelves while it is propagating towards to the shore. The problem is investigated by numerically solving nonlinear shallow water equations by using regular shaped basins with different depth and shelf characteristics. In all cases, the rectangular shape large basin is triggered by spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric pressure. The water depth and shelf formation is changed for different cases. Initially, a deep flat bottom basin is used in simulations and the reference data of water

  20. Quantifying wind and pressure effects on trace gas fluxes across the soil-atmosphere interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, K. R.; Baird, A. J.; Teh, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large uncertainties persist in estimates of soil-atmosphere exchange of important trace gases. One significant source of uncertainty is the combined effect of wind and pressure on these fluxes. Wind and pressure effects are mediated by surface topography: few surfaces are uniform and over scales of tenths of a metre to tens of metres, air pressure and wind speed at the ground surface may be very variable. In this paper we consider how such spatial variability in air pressure and wind speed affects fluxes of trace gases. We used a novel nested wind tunnel design comprising a toroidial wind tunnel, in which wind speed and pressure may be controlled, set within a larger, linear wind tunnel. The effects of both wind speed and pressure differentials on fluxes of CO2 and CH4 within three different ecosystems (forest, grassland, peat bog) were quantified. We find that trace gas fluxes are positively correlated with both wind speed and pressure differential near the surface boundary. We argue that wind speed is the better proxy for trace gas fluxes because of its stronger correlation and because wind speed is more easily measured and wind speed measurement methodology more easily standardized. Trace gas fluxes, whether into or out of the soil, increase with wind speed within the toroidal tunnel (+55 % flux per m s-1), while faster, localized surface winds that are external to the toroidal wind tunnel reduce trace gas fluxes (-13 % flux per m s-1). These results are consistent for both trace gases over all ecosystem soil types studied. Our findings support the need for a revised conceptualization of soil-atmosphere gas exchange. We propose a conceptual model of the soil profile that has a "mixed layer", with fluxes controlled by wind speed, wind duration, porosity, water table, and gas production and consumption.

  1. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishaq, M., E-mail: ishaqmusarat@gmail.com [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bazaka, K. [Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ostrikov, K. [Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  2. Patterning of graphene for flexible electronics with remote atmospheric-pressure plasma using dielectric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Jae; Park, Jeongwon; Geon Han, Jeon

    2016-08-01

    We show results of the patterning of graphene layers on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films through remote atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma. The size of plasma discharge electrodes was adjusted for large-area and role-to-role-type substrates. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to analyze the characteristics of charge species in atmospheric-pressure plasma. The OES emission intensity of the O2* peaks (248.8 and 259.3 nm) shows the highest value at the ratio of \\text{N}2:\\text{clean dry air (CDA)} = 100:1 due to the highest plasma discharge. The PET surface roughness and hydrophilic behavior were controlled with CDA flow rate during the process. Although the atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment of the PET film led to an increase in the FT-IR intensity of C–O bonding at 1240 cm‑1, the peak intensity at 1710 cm‑1 (C=O bonding) decreased. The patterning of graphene layers was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Optical and electrical characteristics of air dielectric barrier discharges in mode transition at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have a wide range of industrial applications, generally exhibiting either filamentary or diffuse (i.e. glow) discharges. The focus of this investigation is on the formation mechanisms of the discharge current pulse width, on the order of tens of microseconds, accompanied by a light source formation, which is called a light source (LS) mode in air DBDs at atmospheric pressure. From a macroscopic point of view, the characteristics of the discharge current in the LS mode are similar with those of the glow mode. The optical and electrical characteristics of air DBDs at atmospheric pressure are investigated in the transition from the filamentary mode to the LS mode by measuring the optical emission spectroscopy and electrical signals. It is shown that in the manual increasing voltage stage, the vibrational temperature almost never changes and the gas temperature, electron temperature, dielectric capacitance, gas voltage (Vg) and discharge power (P) increase with an increase in the applied voltage. In the automatic decreasing voltage stage, all of these parameters, except Vg and P, increase with a decrease in the voltage. But, when the voltage decreases to a minimum value corresponding to the LS mode, P reaches a maximum value. In this paper, the variations of these parameters are analyzed and discussed in detail. The formation of the LS mode originates from the secondary electrons. The formation mechanisms of the secondary electrons are also discussed. (paper)

  4. PFC decomposition with atmospheric pressure microwave plasma using resonant and non-resonant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PFC (Perfluoro Carbon Compound) decomposition using resonant structure microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure has been investigated in comparison with conventional non-resonant plasma system. In the atmospheric pressure plasma abatement the high flow rate of N2 purging gas (>30slm) remains to be a difficult problem in obtaining the stable discharge and sufficient DRE (Destruction Removal Efficiency). In order to increase the residence time of gas molecules in discharge, we designed the resonant structure chamber with strongly coupled TE31/TM010 mode, which generates the large area (dia.> 60mm) plasma. For the CF4/Ar etch recipes with oxygen and water vapor, the DRE has been estimated as about 95-99% from the result measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) in detuned resonant and non-resonant system. With the coupled cavity, it is achieved to sustain the stable atmospheric pressure plasma and demonstrated higher energy efficiency and availability than those by the conventional plasma scrubb process under high flow rate condition. (author)

  5. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta; Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana; Černák, Mirko

    2015-11-01

    We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  6. Development of superhydrophobic surface on glass substrate by multi-step atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Duksun [Department of Applied Plasma Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Se Youn, E-mail: symoon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Plasma Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Quantum system Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    Superhydrophobic surface was prepared on a glass by helium based CH{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8} atmospheric pressure plasmas, and its water wettability was investigated by a water droplet contact angle method. The water droplet spread over on the untreated glasses that showed the initial hydrophilic property of the glass surface. Then, the static contact angles became about 85° and 98° after a single step CH{sub 4} plasma treatment and a single step C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma treatment, respectively. The contact angle was remarkably increased to 152°, indicating a superhydrophobic property, after a sequential multi-step CH{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma treatment. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the field emission scanning electron microscope measurements, it was found that the physical morphologies and the chemical compositions were depending on the substrate materials, which were important factors for the superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • Development of rapid and simple method for superhydrophobic surface • Effects of atmospheric pressure plasma for superhydrophobic surface preparation • Observation of chemical and physical surface modification by atmospheric pressure plasma • Effects of substrate properties for plasma–surface interaction.

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide and aluminum zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited via atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A second-generation precursor, bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)(N,N′-diethylethylenediamine) zinc, exhibited significant vapor pressure and good stability at one atmosphere where a vaporization temperature of 110 °C gave flux ∼ 7 μmol/min. Auger electron spectroscopy confirmed that addition of H2O to the carrier gas stream mitigated F contamination giving nearly 1:1 metal:oxide stoichiometries for both ZnO and AZO with little precursor-derived C contamination. ZnO and AZO thin film resistivities ranged from 14 to 28 Ω·cm for the former and 1.1 to 2.7 Ω·cm for the latter. - Highlights: • A second generation precursor was utilized for atmospheric pressure film growth. • Addition of water vapor to the carrier gas stream led to a marked reduction of ZnF2. • Carbonaceous contamination from the precursor was minimal

  8. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet

  9. Development of superhydrophobic surface on glass substrate by multi-step atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superhydrophobic surface was prepared on a glass by helium based CH4 and C4F8 atmospheric pressure plasmas, and its water wettability was investigated by a water droplet contact angle method. The water droplet spread over on the untreated glasses that showed the initial hydrophilic property of the glass surface. Then, the static contact angles became about 85° and 98° after a single step CH4 plasma treatment and a single step C4F8 plasma treatment, respectively. The contact angle was remarkably increased to 152°, indicating a superhydrophobic property, after a sequential multi-step CH4 and C4F8 plasma treatment. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the field emission scanning electron microscope measurements, it was found that the physical morphologies and the chemical compositions were depending on the substrate materials, which were important factors for the superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • Development of rapid and simple method for superhydrophobic surface • Effects of atmospheric pressure plasma for superhydrophobic surface preparation • Observation of chemical and physical surface modification by atmospheric pressure plasma • Effects of substrate properties for plasma–surface interaction

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Kartick K.; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  11. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  12. Efficacy of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma as an Antibacterial Agent Against Enterococcus Faecalis in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a microorganism that can survive extreme challenges in obturated root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma plume against E. faecalis in vitro. A non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet device which could generate a cold plasma plume carrying a peak current of 300 mA was used. The antibacterial efficacy of this device against E. faecalis and its biofilm under different conditions was detected. The antibacterial efficacy of the plasma against E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was also evaluated. After plasma treatment, the average diameter of inhibition zone on S. aureus and E. faecalis was 2.62±0.26 cm and 1.06±0.30 cm, respectively (P < 0.05). The diameter was increased with prolongation of the treatment duration. The diameters of inhibition zone of the sealed Petri dishes were larger than those of the uncovered Petri dishes. There was significant difference in colony-forming units between plasma group and control group on E. faecalis biofilm (P < 0.01). The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructural changes cytoderm of E. faecalis were observed after treatment for 2 min. It is concluded that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma could serve as an effective adjunct to standard endodontic microbial treatment.

  13. Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide and aluminum zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle W. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States); Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Sailer, Robert A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States); Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Schulz, Douglas L., E-mail: SBRconsulting@hotmail.com [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States)

    2013-12-02

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited via atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A second-generation precursor, bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)(N,N′-diethylethylenediamine) zinc, exhibited significant vapor pressure and good stability at one atmosphere where a vaporization temperature of 110 °C gave flux ∼ 7 μmol/min. Auger electron spectroscopy confirmed that addition of H{sub 2}O to the carrier gas stream mitigated F contamination giving nearly 1:1 metal:oxide stoichiometries for both ZnO and AZO with little precursor-derived C contamination. ZnO and AZO thin film resistivities ranged from 14 to 28 Ω·cm for the former and 1.1 to 2.7 Ω·cm for the latter. - Highlights: • A second generation precursor was utilized for atmospheric pressure film growth. • Addition of water vapor to the carrier gas stream led to a marked reduction of ZnF{sub 2}. • Carbonaceous contamination from the precursor was minimal.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet. PMID:24880391

  15. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas

  16. High-resolution atmospheric pressure infrared laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römpp, Andreas; Schäfer, Karl Christian; Guenther, Sabine; Wang, Zheng; Köstler, Martin; Leisner, Arne; Paschke, Carmen; Schramm, Thorsten; Spengler, Bernhard

    2013-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging ion source has been developed that combines high spatial resolution and high mass resolution for the in situ analysis of biological tissue. The system is based on an infrared laser system working at 2.94 to 3.10 μm wavelength, employing a Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametrical oscillator. A Raman-shifted Nd:YAG laser system was also tested as an alternative irradiation source. A dedicated optical setup was used to focus the laser beam, coaxially with the ion optical axis and normal to the sample surface, to a spot size of 30 μm in diameter. No additional matrix was needed for laser desorption/ionization. A cooling stage was developed to reduce evaporation of physiological cell water. Ions were formed under atmospheric pressure and transferred by an extended heated capillary into the atmospheric pressure inlet of an orbital trapping mass spectrometer. Various phospholipid compounds were detected, identified, and imaged at a pixel resolution of up to 25 μm from mouse brain tissue sections. Mass accuracies of better than 2 ppm and a mass resolution of 30,000 at m/z = 400 were achieved for these measurements. PMID:23877173

  17. THE CONCEPT OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERGRADUATE GEOGRAPHY STUDENTS: A PHENOMENOGRAPHIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret TUNA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this study is to determine the geography and geography education students’ perceptions of "atmospheric pressure" by the method of phenomenographic analysis. Total of 150 undergraduate geography students in Marmara University Faculty of Education and Faculty of Arts and Science were included in the study in the academic year 2011-2012. Of 150 students, 103 were male (68.67% and 47 were female (31.33%. Of these students, 57 were studying in the department of geography (38% and 93 (62% were geography education.In the study, a semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. In order to analyze the data, followings stages were conducted respectively: (1 coding and classification, (2 the creation of leading categories, (3 the creation of description categories and (4 creation of description map. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it was revealed that the students described atmospheric pressure in eight different categories and six different ways. Among the categories, the metaphor of "atmospheric pressure is the air force that is exerted on the earth" hasthe highest number of metaphors with total of 42 records (28%.

  18. Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by varying gas flow rate is proposed in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma treatment. • Without employing additional reactive gas, requiring more plasma power and longer treatment time, hydrophilicity of polyimide films was improved after the low-gas-flow plasma treatment. • The gas flow rate affects the hydrophilic properties of polymer surface by changing the discharge atmosphere in the particular geometry of the reactor developed. • Low-gas-flow induced wettability control suggests effective and economical plasma treatment. - Abstract: This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films

  19. Ellipsometric investigations during plasma cleaning: Comparison between low-pressure rf-plasma and barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of hydrocarbon containing compounds using a barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure (air) as well as a capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz low-pressure rf-discharge has been examined. Al plates, Si-wafer and Al coated Si-wafer served as substrate materials. In the rf-discharge, power and gas pressure were varied. Argon, oxygen, and hydrogen were used as process gases. In the barrier discharge, power variation was investigated. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine thickness and optical properties of the contamination. The removal of the contamination layers was observed by means of in-situ kinetic ellipsometry. In the rf-discharge the thickness of the lubricant decreases linearly with the treatment time. The determined removal rates per discharge power are 0.1 nm/Ws for O2 and about 0.01 nm/Ws for Ar and H2. In the barrier discharge the etching rate decreases about exponentially with treatment time. This is due to a beginning polymerization shown by the increase of the optical constants of the lubricant. The etching rate reaches values up to 0. 1 mm/Ws. After the removal of the lubricant the thickness of the surface oxide increases significantly. (author)

  20. Where do winds come from? A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, A M; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Li, B -L

    2010-01-01

    Phase transitions of atmospheric water play a ubiquitous role in the Earth's climate system, but their direct impact on atmospheric dynamics has escaped wide attention. Here we examine and advance a theory as to how condensation influences atmospheric pressure through the mass removal of water from the gas phase with a simultaneous account of the latent heat release. Building from the fundamental physical principles we show that condensation is associated with a decline in air pressure in the lower atmosphere. This decline occurs up to a certain height, which ranges from 3 to 4 km for surface temperatures from 10 to 30 deg C. We then estimate the horizontal pressure differences associated with water vapor condensation and find that these are comparable in magnitude with the pressure differences driving observed circulation patterns. The water vapor delivered to the atmosphere via evaporation represents a store of potential energy available to accelerate air and thus drive winds. Our estimates suggest that the...

  1. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  2. Hydrogen discharges operating at atmospheric pressure in a semiconductor gas discharge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, K; Acar, S; Salamov, B G [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Analyses of physical processes which initiate electrical breakdown and spatial stabilization of current and control it with a photosensitive cathode in a semiconductor gas discharge system (SGDS) are carried out in a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure p, interelectrode distance d and diameter D of the electrode areas of the semiconductor cathode. The study compares the breakdown and stability curves of the gas discharge in the planar SGDS where the discharge gap is filled with hydrogen and air in two cases. The impact of the ionizing component of the discharge plasma on the control of the stable operation of the planar SGDS is also investigated at atmospheric pressure. The loss of stability is primarily due to modification of the semiconductor-cathode properties on the interaction with low-energy hydrogen ions and the formation of a space charge of positive ions in the discharge gap which changes the discharge from Townsend to glow type. The experimental results show that the discharge current in H{sub 2} is more stable than in air. The breakdown voltages are measured for H{sub 2} and air with parallel-plane electrodes, for pressures between 28 and 760 Torr. The effective secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient is then determined from the breakdown voltage results and compared with the experimental results. The influence of the SEE coefficient is stated in terms of the differences between the experimental breakdown law.

  3. Hydrogen discharges operating at atmospheric pressure in a semiconductor gas discharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, K.; Acar, S.; Salamov, B. G.

    2011-08-01

    Analyses of physical processes which initiate electrical breakdown and spatial stabilization of current and control it with a photosensitive cathode in a semiconductor gas discharge system (SGDS) are carried out in a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure p, interelectrode distance d and diameter D of the electrode areas of the semiconductor cathode. The study compares the breakdown and stability curves of the gas discharge in the planar SGDS where the discharge gap is filled with hydrogen and air in two cases. The impact of the ionizing component of the discharge plasma on the control of the stable operation of the planar SGDS is also investigated at atmospheric pressure. The loss of stability is primarily due to modification of the semiconductor-cathode properties on the interaction with low-energy hydrogen ions and the formation of a space charge of positive ions in the discharge gap which changes the discharge from Townsend to glow type. The experimental results show that the discharge current in H2 is more stable than in air. The breakdown voltages are measured for H2 and air with parallel-plane electrodes, for pressures between 28 and 760 Torr. The effective secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient is then determined from the breakdown voltage results and compared with the experimental results. The influence of the SEE coefficient is stated in terms of the differences between the experimental breakdown law.

  4. Pressure transducer used for measuring close-in shock waves of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces a variable reluctance pressure transducer. It has been successfully used for the measurement of close-in shock waves of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. This transducer's highest pressure range is 100kg/cm2 and its response rise time for all ranges is lms. It uses a specially made oil-filled pressure which allows the transducer to be able to realize underground installation. In this way, it can endure the intense nuclear radiation of nuclear explosions without losing its fast speed response characteristics. This transducer has undergone a series of environmental tests and dynamic standardizations. Therefore, it was used to measure the complete waveform of shock wave overpressure in areas near the fire ball of nuclear explosions. This paper lists the test data of a group of nuclear explosion tests

  5. An improved film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzada, Muhammad Wakil

    2011-10-03

    This paper presents an investigation of heat transfer correlation in a falling-film evaporator working with saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures. The experiments are conducted at different salinity levels ranging from 15000 to 90000 ppm, and the pressures were maintained between 0.92 to 2.81 kPa (corresponds to saturation temperatures of 5.9 – 23 0C). The effect of salinity, saturation pressures and chilled water temperatures on the heat transfer coefficient are accounted in the modified film evaporation correlations. The results are fitted to the Han & Fletcher\\'s and Chun & Seban\\'s falling-film correlations which are used in desalination industry. We modify the said correlations by adding salinity and saturation temperature corrections with respective indices to give a better agreement to our measured data.

  6. Effect of Concentration by Boiling at Atmospheric Pressure on Mineral Content of White and Red Grape Juices

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Mehmet; Coklar, Hacer

    2015-01-01

    Pekmez (molasses), concentrated by boiling in open vessel at atmospheric pressure from sugar-rich fruit and vegetable juices, is a traditional product consumed widely in Turkey. In this works, heat treatment during the concentration by boiling in open vessel at atmospheric pressure was examined the effect on major and minor elements of grape juices. After the white and red grape juice were concentrated in open vessel at atmospheric pressure up to 50, 60 and 70 oBx, minerals in samples were de...

  7. An Experimental Study of the Statistical Scaling of Turbulent Surface Pressure in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, G. W.; Murray, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) produces fluctuations in the static pressure. The instantaneous pressure at a point depends on an integral over the entire flow; therefore, the effects from turbulence far aloft may be felt at the earth's surface. The statistics of fluctuating pressure at the surface have been studied extensively in the context of wall-bounded engineering-type flows. At best, these neutral flows are a special case of the thermally-stratified ABL, but relatively few experimental studies have considered pressure at the ground under various stability conditions. Here the scaling of pressure statistics at the surface, particularly the spectral density, is reported over a range of convective and stable conditions for both inner and outer turbulence parameters. Measurements of turbulent surface pressure were made using low-frequency microphones buried flush to the ground in a field near Laramie, Wyoming. Simultaneous measurements from three near-surface sonic anemometers and a 50-meter wind tower give estimates of the mean surface-layer parameters. The normalization of the pressure spectrum with the inner scales collapses the spectra along the high-frequency viscous power-law band. The wall shear stress, Obukhov length, L, and horizontal integral scale, λ, are identified as outer scaling parameters for the surface pressure spectrum from an integral solution employing a Monin-Obukhov-similar profile and a simple model of inhomogeneous surface-layer turbulence. Normalization with the outer scales collapses the spectra at low frequencies. Spectral scaling also reveals trends with λ/L in the low-frequency region for both convective and stable boundary layers.

  8. Phosphopeptide detection and sequencing by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Keiryn L; Stensballe, Allan; Podtelejnikov, Alexandre V;

    2002-01-01

    localization of one, three or four phosphorylated amino acid residues in phosphopeptides up to 3.1 kDa. Tandem mass spectra of two different phosphotyrosine peptides permitted amino acid sequence determination and localization of one and three phosphorylation sites, respectively. The phosphotyrosine immonium...... ion at m/z 216.04 was observed in these MALDI low-energy CID tandem mass spectra. Elimination of phosphate groups was evident from the triphosphorylated peptide but not from the monophosphorylated species. The main fragmentation pathway for the synthetic phosphothreonine-containing peptide and for......A prototype matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) tandem mass spectrometer was used to sequence a series of phosphotyrosine-, phosphothreonine- and phosphoserine-containing peptides. The high mass resolution and mass accuracy of the instrument allowed the...

  9. 5-Methoxysalicylic Acid Matrix for Ganglioside Analysis with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkun; Cha, Sangwon

    2015-03-01

    In this note, we report that high quality ganglioside profiles with minimal loss of sialic acid residues can be obtained in the positive ion mode by using a 5-methoxysalicylic acid (MSA) matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Our results showed that MSA produced much less sialic acid losses from gangliosides than DHB, although MSA and DHB are differ only by their functional groups at their 5-positions (-OH for DHB and -OCH3 for MSA). Furthermore, our data also demonstrated that addition of an alkali metal additive was effective for simplifying ganglioside profiles, but not necessary for stabilizing glycosidic bonds of gangliosides if MSA was used as a matrix. This suggests that MALDI MS with MSA has a potential to gain additional benefits from the positive-ion mode analyses without losing performance in ganglioside profiling.

  10. High Sensitivity Analysis of Nanoliter Volumes of Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds using Matrix Assisted Ionization (MAI) Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Khoa; Pophristic, Milan; Horan, Andrew J.; Johnston, Murray V.; McEwen, Charles N.

    2016-06-01

    First results are reported using a simple, fast, and reproducible matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) sample introduction method that provides substantial improvements relative to previously published MAI methods. The sensitivity of the new MAI methods, which requires no laser, high voltage, or nebulizing gas, is comparable to those reported for MALDI-TOF and n-ESI. High resolution full acquisition mass spectra having low chemical background are acquired from low nanoliters of solution using only a few femtomoles of analyte. The limit-of-detection for angiotensin II is less than 50 amol on an Orbitrap Exactive mass spectrometer. Analysis of peptides, including a bovine serum albumin digest, and drugs, including drugs in urine without a purification step, are reported using a 1 μL zero dead volume syringe in which only the analyte solution wetting the walls of the syringe needle is used in the analysis.

  11. Ion-to-Neutral Ratios and Thermal Proton Transfer in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I.-Chung; Chu, Kuan Yu; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Wu, Shang-Yun; Dyakov, Yuri A.; Chen, Jien-Lian; Gray-Weale, Angus; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2015-07-01

    The ion-to-neutral ratios of four commonly used solid matrices, α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), sinapinic acid (SA), and ferulic acid (FA) in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm are reported. Ions are measured using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with a time-sliced ion imaging detector. Neutrals are measured using a rotatable quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion-to-neutral ratios of CHCA are three orders of magnitude larger than those of the other matrices at the same laser fluence. The ion-to-neutral ratios predicted using the thermal proton transfer model are similar to the experimental measurements, indicating that thermal proton transfer reactions play a major role in generating ions in ultraviolet-MALDI.

  12. Affinity labeling coupled with matrix assistant laser desorption tandem time of flight mass spectrometry for quantitative proteomies research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qingfang; ZHANG Yangjun; CAI Yun; QIAN Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    A relative quantitative method for differential proteomics by cleavable isotope-coded atTmity tag (cICAT)and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was estab-lished. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method were evaluated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest as having a relative standard deviation of less than 30% and good reproducibility. The dynamic range was als0 evaluated by analyzing two mixtures of several standard proteins with dif-ferent concentration. The experimental results showed that in the dynamic range of 1:30, the quantitation error of the method was less than 30%. Although the quantitation error becomes very large when used beyond this range, it does not affect the derivation of information on the differential proteins. All the work provides an alternative method for differential proteomics analysis in biological samples from different origins.

  13. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for direct visualization of plant metabolites in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Drew; Lee, Young-Jin; Chapman, Kent D

    2016-02-01

    Direct visualization of plant tissues by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has revealed key insights into the localization of metabolites in situ. Recent efforts have determined the spatial distribution of primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissues and cells. Strategies have been applied in many areas of metabolism including isotope flux analyses, plant interactions, and transcriptional regulation of metabolite accumulation. Technological advances have pushed achievable spatial resolution to subcellular levels and increased instrument sensitivity by several orders of magnitude. It is anticipated that MALDI-MSI and other MSI approaches will bring a new level of understanding to metabolomics as scientists will be encouraged to consider spatial heterogeneity of metabolites in descriptions of metabolic pathway regulation. PMID:26613199

  14. Deposition of matrix-free fullerene films with improved morphology by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Thin films of C60 were deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from a frozen target of anisole with 0.67 wt% C60. Above a fluence of 1.5 J/cm2 the C60 films are strongly non-uniform and are resulting from transfer of matrix-droplets containing fullerenes. At low fluence the...... fullerene molecules in the films are intact, the surface morphology is substantially improved and there are no measurable traces of the matrix molecules in the film. This may indicate a regime of dominant evaporation at low fluence which merges into the MAPLE regime of liquid ejection of the host matrix at...

  15. Analysis and Quantitation of Glycated Hemoglobin by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattan, Stephen J.; Parker, Kenneth C.; Vestal, Marvin L.; Yang, Jane Y.; Herold, David A.; Duncan, Mark W.

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of glycated hemoglobin is widely used for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of patient samples is used to demonstrate a method for quantitation of total glycation on the β-subunit of hemoglobin. The approach is accurate and calibrated with commercially available reference materials. Measurements were linear (R2 > 0.99) across the clinically relevant range of 4% to 20% glycation with coefficients of variation of ≤ 2.5%. Additional and independent measurements of glycation of the α-subunit of hemoglobin are used to validate β-subunit glycation measurements and distinguish hemoglobin variants. Results obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were compared with those obtained in a clinical laboratory using validated HPLC methodology. MALDI-TOF MS sample preparation was minimal and analysis times were rapid making the method an attractive alternative to methodologies currently in practice.

  16. Aerosol matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. Effects of analyte concentration and matrix-to-analyte ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeson, M.D.; Murray, K.K.; Russell, D.H. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    We have recently developed an aerosol-liquid introduction interface for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. In this study, we examine the effect of matrix-to-analyte ratio and analyte concentration on analyte ion yield. These studies were performed using bradykinin, gramicidin S, bovine insulin, and myoglobin as analytes and {alpha}-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and 4-nitroaniline as matrices. The optimum matrix-to-analyte molar ratio for aerosol MALDI was determined to be 10-100:1, which is lower than that typically used for conventional surface MALDI (100-10 000:1). The ion yield was found to be a nonlinear function of analyte concentration. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed. 43 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode. PMID:8633761

  18. Azo-derivatives thin films grown by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation for non-linear optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azo-dye compounds, in bulk or as thin films, are extensively studied due to their particular optical properties. These properties include non-linear interaction, e.g. two-photon absorption, optical limiting and all-optical poling, with potential applications in optoelectronics and sensors development. Herein, we report on the deposition of pyrazolone derivatives, namely 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(1′-azo-2′-sodium carboxylate)-pyrazole-5-one thin films, for applications in second harmonic generation. Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation was employed for layers growth, using a Nd:YAG device operating at 266 nm (4ω). The structure and surface morphology of the deposited films were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Spectroscopic-ellipsometry was employed to investigate thin film optical properties. Significant second harmonic generation capabilities of the compound were pointed out by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser.

  19. The habitable zone of Earth-like planets with different levels of atmospheric pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Silva, Laura; Provenzale, Antonello; Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a 1-D Energy Balance Model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p=1/3 bar to p=3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is...

  20. Growth of carbon nanowalls at atmospheric pressure for one-step gas sensor fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yanwu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanowalls (CNWs, two-dimensional "graphitic" platelets that are typically oriented vertically on a substrate, can exhibit similar properties as graphene. Growth of CNWs reported to date was exclusively carried out at a low pressure. Here, we report on the synthesis of CNWs at atmosphere pressure using "direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition" by taking advantage of the high electric field generated in a pin-plate dc glow discharge. CNWs were grown on silicon, stainless steel, and copper substrates without deliberate introduction of catalysts. The as-grown CNW material was mainly mono- and few-layer graphene having patches of O-containing functional groups. However, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies confirmed that most of the oxygen groups could be removed by thermal annealing. A gas-sensing device based on such CNWs was fabricated on metal electrodes through direct growth. The sensor responded to relatively low concentrations of NO2 (g and NH3 (g, thus suggesting high-quality CNWs that are useful for room temperature gas sensors. PACS: Graphene (81.05.ue, Chemical vapor deposition (81.15.Gh, Gas sensors (07.07.Df, Atmospheric pressure (92.60.hv

  1. Windowless transition between atmospheric pressure and high vacuum via differential pumping for synchrotron radiation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gog, T; Casa, D M; Kuzmenko, I; Krakora, R J; Bolin, T B

    2007-07-01

    A differential pump assembly is introduced which can provide a windowless transition between the full atmospheric pressure of an in-air sample environment and the high-vacuum region of a synchrotron radiation beamline, while providing a clear aperture of approximately 1 mm to pass through the X-ray beam from a modern third-generation synchrotron radiation source. This novel pump assembly is meant to be used as a substitute for an exit vacuum window on synchrotron beamlines, where the existence of such a window would negatively impact the coherent nature of the X-ray beam or would introduce parasitic scattering, distorting weak scattering signals from samples under study. It is found that the length of beam pipe necessary to reduce atmospheric pressure to below 10 mbar is only about 130 mm, making the expected photon transmission for hard X-rays through this pipe competitive with that of a regular Be beamline window. This result is due to turbulent flow dominating the first pumping stage, providing a mechanism of strong gas conductance limitation, which is further enhanced by introducing artificial surface roughness in the pipe. Successive reduction of pressure through the transitional flow regime into the high-vacuum region is accomplished over a length of several meters, using beam pipes of increasing diameter. While the pump assembly has not been tested with X-rays, possible applications are discussed in the context of coherent and small-angle scattering. PMID:17587659

  2. Variations in atmospheric pressure as a source of errors in polychromatic X-ray experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Matjushin, A M

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the atmospheric pressure on the accuracy of energy diffractometry (ED), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) using a semiconductor Si(Li) detector, polychromatic diffractometry without the energy dispersion (PDWED) using a coordinate detector has been considered. It is shown that in the interval of pressures 710-810 mm Hg, errors in the determination of interplanar spaces can reach 2% for PDWED, which is caused by the displacement of the maximum of spectral distribution due to changes in absorption by air gaps of the device, and by changes in the quantum efficiency of the coordinate detector. In the ED and XRF methods, changes in the spectrum lead to errors in the determination of relative intensities of diffraction and fluorescence peaks, respectively. The changes in integral intensity are about 1% and can be neglected in the majority of experiments. The curves of the displacement of the spectral distribution maximum and spectral changes were calculated as a function of the atmospheric pressure...

  3. Atmospheric pressure growth of Eu-doped GaN by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Naoki; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Takashi; Terai, Yoshikazu; Fujiwara, Yasufumi [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    We investigated the luminescence properties of the Eu-doped GaN (GaN:Eu) grown at atmospheric (100kPa) and low (10kPa) pressures by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). Although Eu concentration of atmospheric pressure GaN:Eu (AP-GaN:Eu) is lower than that of low pressure GaN:Eu (LP-GaN:Eu), the integrated photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the AP-GaN:Eu was 10 times higher than that of the LP-GaN:Eu (A. Nishikawa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 051113 (2010)). Temperature dependent PL and time-resolved PL measurements revealed that the improved PL intensity was attributed to the higher crystal quality of the AP-GaN:Eu compared to that of the LP-GaN:Eu, which resulted in the enhancement of the energy transfer efficiency from the GaN host material to the Eu ions and in the increase in the number of optically active Eu ions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Ultrasound enhanced 50 Hz plasma treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram;

    2013-01-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50Hz dielectric barrier discharge at a peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of aro...... approximately from 20 up to 80 mJm2 with ultrasonic irradiation. The plasma treatment with ultrasonic irradiation also introduced oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups at the GFRP surface. These changes would improve the adhesion properties of the GFRP plates.......Glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50Hz dielectric barrier discharge at a peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of...... around 30 kHz with the sound pressure level of approximately 155 dB were introduced vertically to the GFRP surface through a cylindrical waveguide. The polar component of the surface energy was almost unchanged after the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, but drastically increased...

  5. Treatment of polycarbonate by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, K. G.; Hamia, Y. A. A.; Mota, R. P.; dos Santos, A. L. R.; Nascente, P. A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Generally most plastic materials are intrinsically hydrophobic, low surface energy materials, and thus do not adhere well to other substances. Surface treatment of polymers by discharge plasmas is of great and increasing industrial application because it can uniformly modify the surface of sample without changing the material bulk properties and is environmentally friendly. The plasma processes that can be conducted under ambient pressure and temperature conditions have attracted special attention because of their easy implementation in industrial processing. Present work deals with surface modification of polycarbonate (PC) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. The treatment was performed in a parallel plate reactor driven by a 60Hz power supply. The DBD plasmas at atmospheric pressure were generated in air and nitrogen. Material characterization was carried out by contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energy of the polymer surface was calculated from contact angle data by Owens-Wendt method using distilled water and diiodomethane as test liquids. The plasma-induced chemical modifications are associated with incorporation of polar oxygen and nitrogen containing groups on the polymer surface. Due to these surface modifications the DBD-treated polymers become more hydrophilic. Aging behavior of the treated samples revealed that the polymer surfaces were prone to hydrophobic recovery although they did not completely recover their original wetting properties.

  6. Constraints on early Mars atmospheric pressure inferred from small ancient craters

    CERN Document Server

    Kite, Edwin S; Lucas, Antoine; Aharonson, Oded

    2013-01-01

    The single most important control on long-term climate change on Mars is thought to be decay of the CO2-dominated atmosphere, but direct constraints on paleoatmospheric pressure P are lacking. Of particular interest is the climate that allowed rivers to flow early in Mars history, which was affected by P via direct and indirect greenhouse effects. The size of craters embedded within ancient layered sediments is a proxy for P: the smaller the minimum-sized craters that form, the thinner the past atmosphere. Here we use high-resolution orthophotos and Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) to identify ancient craters among the river deposits of Aeolis, and compare their sizes to models of atmospheric filtering of impactors by thicker atmospheres. The best fit is P <= 760+/-70 mbar, rising to P <= 1640+/-180 mbar if rimmed circular mesas are excluded. Surveys tend to undercount smaller craters, so these fits are upper limits. Our work assumes target properties appropriate for desert alluvium: if sediment developed ...

  7. Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Hur, Min; Lee, Jae-Ok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films.

  8. Preparation of silica aerogel from rice hull ash by drying at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The silica aerogel was prepared by a sol-gel process followed the drying process at atmospheric pressure and 40 deg. C. The silicon source was the rice hull ash, which is an agricultural waste and rich in silicon. The rice hull ash was extracted with sodium hydroxide solution to get a sodium silicate solution. The solution was neutralized with sulfuric acid solution to form silica hydrosol, which was immediately added appropriate quantity of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and then gelated to be a gel. The aged gel was washed successively by water and ethanol, and finally dried at the atmosphere. The prepared material was characterized using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The specific surface area of the prepared material is high as 500 m2/g with a bulk density of 0.33 g/cm3. The diameters of the pores inside the prepared materials are between 5 and 60 nm

  9. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Naidis, G. V.; Laroussi, M.; Reuter, S.; Graves, D. B.; Ostrikov, K.

    2016-05-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors' vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  10. Deposition of vertically oriented carbon nanofibers in atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of vertically oriented carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been studied in an atmospheric pressure radio frequency discharge without dielectric barrier covering the metallic electrodes. When the frequency is sufficiently high so that ions reside in the gap for more than one rf cycle ('trapped ions'), the operating voltage decreases remarkably and the transition from a uniform glow discharge to an arc discharge is suppressed even without dielectric barriers. More importantly, the trapped ions are able to build up a cathodic ion sheath. A large potential drop is created in the sheath between the bulk plasma and the electrode, which is essential for aligning growing CNFs. At the same time, the damage to CNFs due to ion bombardment can be minimized at atmospheric pressure. The primary interest of the present work is in identifying the cathodic ion sheath and investigating how it influences the alignment of growing CNFs in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. Spectral emission profiles of He (706 nm), Hα (656 nm), and CH (432 nm) clearly showed that a dark space is formed between the cathode layer and the heated bottom electrode. However, increasing the rf power induced the transition to a nonuniform γ-mode discharge which creates intense plasma spots in the dark space. Aligned CNFs can be grown at moderate input power during the initial stage of the deposition process. Catalyst particles were heavily contaminated by precipitated carbon in less than 5 min. Alignment deteriorates as CNFs grow and deposition was virtually terminated by the deactivation of catalyst particles

  11. Influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on surface properties of PBO fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ruiyun; Pan Xianlin [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Jiang Muwen [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Peng Shujing [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qiu Yiping, E-mail: ypqiu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBO fibers were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When 1% of oxygen was added to the plasma, IFSS increased 130%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased moisture regain could enhance plasma treatment effect on improving IFSS with long treatment time. - Abstract: In order to improve the interfacial adhesion property between PBO fiber and epoxy, the surface modification effects of PBO fiber treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in different time, atmosphere and moisture regain (MR) were investigated. The fiber surface morphology, functional groups, surface wettability for control and plasma treated samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Meanwhile, the fiber interfacial shear strength (IFSS), representing adhesion property in epoxy, was tested using micro-bond pull-out test, and single fiber tensile strength was also tested to evaluate the mechanical performance loss of fibers caused by plasma treatment. The results indicated that the fiber surface was etched during the plasma treatments, the fiber surface wettability and the IFSS between fiber and epoxy had much improvement due to the increasing of surface energy after plasma treatment, the contact angle decreased with the treatment time increasing, and the IFSS was improved by about 130%. The processing atmosphere could influence IFSS significantly, and moisture regains (MR) of fibers also played a positive role on improving IFSS but not so markedly. XPS analysis showed that the oxygen content on fiber surface increased after treatment, and C=O, O-C=O groups were introduced on fiber surface. On the other hand, the observed loss of fiber tensile strength caused by plasma treatment was not so remarkable to affect the overall performance of composite materials.

  12. Influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on surface properties of PBO fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PBO fibers were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas. ► When 1% of oxygen was added to the plasma, IFSS increased 130%. ► Increased moisture regain could enhance plasma treatment effect on improving IFSS with long treatment time. - Abstract: In order to improve the interfacial adhesion property between PBO fiber and epoxy, the surface modification effects of PBO fiber treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in different time, atmosphere and moisture regain (MR) were investigated. The fiber surface morphology, functional groups, surface wettability for control and plasma treated samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Meanwhile, the fiber interfacial shear strength (IFSS), representing adhesion property in epoxy, was tested using micro-bond pull-out test, and single fiber tensile strength was also tested to evaluate the mechanical performance loss of fibers caused by plasma treatment. The results indicated that the fiber surface was etched during the plasma treatments, the fiber surface wettability and the IFSS between fiber and epoxy had much improvement due to the increasing of surface energy after plasma treatment, the contact angle decreased with the treatment time increasing, and the IFSS was improved by about 130%. The processing atmosphere could influence IFSS significantly, and moisture regains (MR) of fibers also played a positive role on improving IFSS but not so markedly. XPS analysis showed that the oxygen content on fiber surface increased after treatment, and C=O, O-C=O groups were introduced on fiber surface. On the other hand, the observed loss of fiber tensile strength caused by plasma treatment was not so remarkable to affect the overall performance of composite materials.

  13. Temperature Profile and Surface Pressure Retrieval of Mars’ Atmosphere Using Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ramsey L.; Hewagama, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Fast, K. E.; Kostiuk, T.

    2012-10-01

    Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of CO2 transitions in the Martian atmosphere was obtained using the Goddard Space Flight Center’s Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds and Composition, HIPWAC, on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility 3-m telescope, with resolving power of 2.5107. The measured spectra are not fully consistent with temperature profiles for this location and season derived from the Mars Global Surveyor mission (MGS), particularly constraining the pressure and temperature in the deepest part of the troposphere with unambiguous differences between the MGS temperature profile and that required to satisfy the measured emergent spectrum. The temperature information is useful for studying seasonal and global variability, for comparison of results from flight mission results, as well as better profiles for interpreting flight obtained measurements. We will report data collected from our analysis of our high-resolution measurement of 16O12C16O used to develop a temperature profile and surface pressure. CO2 is uniformly mixed in the Martian atmosphere, which makes it an ideal candidate for temperature determination. We are able to collect spectra of the isotopologues of CO2 in the same spectra, which eliminates a source of error for molecular species identification and atmosphere temperature determination. The aforementioned parameters are critical for Martian atmospheric-surface investigations such as isotopologue determination and isotope ratio calculations. For example, an average over measurements acquired at the subsolar point and in the early afternoon at the subsolar latitude yields the terrestrial VSMOW standard, with a minimal difference of 18O = +9±14 ‰. This precision is sufficient to enable a remote investigation of seasonal variations, i.e. due to mass-dependent fractionation in the polar ice cap freeze-sublimate cycle.

  14. An atmospheric pressure plasma source driven by a train of monopolar high voltage pulses superimposed to a dc voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Stoican, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An atmospheric pressure plasma source supplied by an electrical circuit consisting of two voltage sources in parallel connection is reported. One of them is a low-power self-oscillating flyback converter which produces negative voltage pulses with an amplitude of several kilovolts. The high voltage pulses are necessary to ignite an electrical discharge between the electrodes at atmospheric pressure. An additional dc source delivering several hundreds of volts at a few hund...

  15. Spatially resolved simulation of a radio-frequency driven micro-atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Hemke, Torben; Wollny, Alexander; Gebhardt, Markus; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency driven plasma jets are frequently employed as efficient plasma sources for surface modification and other processes at atmospheric pressure. The radio-frequency driven micro atmospheric pressure plasma jet ($\\mu$APPJ) is a particular variant of that concept whose geometry allows direct optical access. In this work, the characteristics of the $\\mu$APPJ operated with a helium-oxygen mixture and its interaction with a helium environment are studied by numerical simulation. The de...

  16. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    OpenAIRE

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased wi...

  17. Supercontinuum Generation in Atmospheric-Pressure Nitrogen Using a Tightly Focused Intense Femtosecond Laser Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yuan-Dong; ZHU Chang-Jun; YANG Hong; GONG Qi-Huang

    2000-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation in atmospheric-pressure nitrogen by a focused intense femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser was studied at various pulse durations and energies. The generated supercontinuum was greatly blue-broadened due to self-phase modulation in the plasma produced. The measured blue-broadening △ω is proportional to pulse intensity for fixed pulse duration, and values up to 0. 7ω (ω being the originaI laser frequency) was obtained with a pulse energy of 9.5 mJ and minimum duration of 100 fs.

  18. Effect of microwave frequency on plasma formation in air breakdown at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵朋程; 郭立新; 李慧敏

    2015-01-01

    Microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure causes the formation of a discrete plasma structure. The one-dimensional fluid model coupling Maxwell equations with plasma fluid equations is used to study the effect of the mi-crowave frequency on the formation of air plasma. Simulation results show that, the filamentary plasma array propagating toward the microwave source is formed at different microwave frequencies. As the microwave frequency decreases, the ratio of the distance between two adjacent plasma filaments to the corresponding wavelength remains almost unchanged (on the order of 1/4), while the plasma front propagates more slowly due to the increase in the formation time of the new plasma filament.

  19. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duten, X.; Redolfi, M.; Aggadi, N.; Vega, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  20. Electrical properties of metallic SmS phase stable at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric conductivity, Hall effect and magnetoresistance of SmS metal phase, stable at atmospheric pressu re, produced by transformation of a thin polycrystalline semiconductor film to a metal state over the whole thickness with the use of mechanical polishing were investigated. The temperature of measurements ranged within 0.45 to 260 K. It is established from the behaviour of the Hall constant and Hall mobility that a metal film corresponds to a high pressure phase of SmS metal monocrystals. The concentration of conductivity electrons in the film at helium temperatures corresponds to 2.80 samarium ion valency

  1. Bacterial inactivation using atmospheric pressure single pin electrode microplasma jet with a ground ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial inactivation experiment was performed using atmospheric pressure microplasma jets driven by radio-frequency wave of 13.56 MHz and by low frequency wave of several kilohertz. With addition of a ground ring electrode, the discharge current, the optical emission intensities from reactive radicals, and the sterilization efficiency were enhanced significantly. When oxygen gas was added to helium at the flow rate of 5 SCCM, the sterilization efficiency was enhanced. From the survival curve of Escherichia coli, the primary role in the inactivation was played by reactive species with minor aid from heat, UV photons, charged particles, and electric fields

  2. Genetic effects of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to low gas temperatures and high densities of active species, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGDs) would have potential applications in the fields of plasma-based sterilization, gene mutation, etc. In this letter, the genetic effects of helium radio-frequency APGD plasmas with the plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide as the treated biomaterials are presented. The experimental results show that it is the chemically active species, instead of heat, ultraviolet radiation, intense electric field, and/or charged particles, that break the double chains of the plasmid DNA. The genetic effects depend on the plasma operating parameters, e.g., power input, helium flow rate, processing distance, time, etc

  3. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Non-equilibrium Plasmas on Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂亚庭; 许莉; 俞莺; 谭明; 李娟; 陈宏翔

    2010-01-01

    In this study,the sterilizing effect of atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas(APNPs) on Neisseria gonorrhoeae(N.gonorrhoeae) was preliminarily examined and the possible mechanisms were explored.N.gonorrhoeae FA1090,FA19 and MS11 were treated by APNPs and their survival rate was analyzed by using CFUs counting and structurally studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy.The morphological changes of bacterial cell membrane and wall were studied under TEM.Our results showed that APNPs had strong steril...

  4. A new transitory product in the ozonolysis of trans-2-butene at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, O.; Moortgat, G. K.

    1989-03-01

    A previously unidentified transitory species, tentatively assigned as hydroxyethyl formate, CH 3CH (OH)-O-CHO, was formed as a major product in the ozonolysis of trans-2-butene at atmospheric pressure. A continuous stirred-tank reactor was used to analyze reaction products via molecular-beam sampling and matrix isolation FTIR spectroscopy. CH 3CHO, HCHO, CO 2, CO, CH 3OH, CH 4 and H 2O were the main, HCOOH and CH 2CO the minor, products. CH 3COOH and propene ozonide were detected as trace components.

  5. Gas flow effects on the submicrosecond pulsed atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gas flow on the discharge characteristics in the submicrosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure was investigated by a one-dimensional self-consistent kinetic model. The convection-transport mechanism of the plasma species caused by a longitudinal gas flow was integrated into flux equation. Two discharge current pulses, the positive one and the negative one, are operated in a normal glow mode and a subnormal glow mode, respectively. It is shown that the gas flow has a significant impact on the discharge characteristics, especially on the positive discharge pulse. The spatial distribution of electrons is affected by the gas flow through the convection transport mechanism.

  6. Bacterial inactivation using atmospheric pressure single pin electrode microplasma jet with a ground ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Bae, S. H.; Leem, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Bacterial inactivation experiment was performed using atmospheric pressure microplasma jets driven by radio-frequency wave of 13.56 MHz and by low frequency wave of several kilohertz. With addition of a ground ring electrode, the discharge current, the optical emission intensities from reactive radicals, and the sterilization efficiency were enhanced significantly. When oxygen gas was added to helium at the flow rate of 5 SCCM, the sterilization efficiency was enhanced. From the survival curve of Escherichia coli, the primary role in the inactivation was played by reactive species with minor aid from heat, UV photons, charged particles, and electric fields.

  7. Genetic effects of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Li, He-Ping; Wang, Li-Yan; Wang, Sen; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Sun, Wen-Ting; Xing, Xin-Hui; Bao, Cheng-Yu

    2008-06-01

    Due to low gas temperatures and high densities of active species, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGDs) would have potential applications in the fields of plasma-based sterilization, gene mutation, etc. In this letter, the genetic effects of helium radio-frequency APGD plasmas with the plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide as the treated biomaterials are presented. The experimental results show that it is the chemically active species, instead of heat, ultraviolet radiation, intense electric field, and/or charged particles, that break the double chains of the plasmid DNA. The genetic effects depend on the plasma operating parameters, e.g., power input, helium flow rate, processing distance, time, etc.

  8. Time-resolved mass spectroscopic studies of an atmospheric-pressure helium microplasma jet

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Aranda-Gonzalvo, Yolanda; James W. Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Using molecular beam mass spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements of the ionic species 12 in the plasma plume of an atmospheric-pressure helium microplasma jet have been made for 13 a range of excitation frequencies (5, 10 and 25 kHz) and source-instruments orifice distances 14 (1, 7 and 11 mm). Ionic species can only be observed in the visible plasma plume, with the 15 main positive species being N 2 + (65.26%) and O 2 + (21.11%), and few percentages of N +, O +, 16 NO + and He ...

  9. LIF diagnostics in volume and surface dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we review our recent work based on Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics applied to Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD) at atmospheric pressures. Emphasis is given to the main issues that have to be faced in this application through the detailed description of the most difficult case, that of CH LIF detection. The application to kinetic studies of LIF diagnostics is then illustrated through the application of LIF to the CN radical and of Optical-Optical Double Resonance (OODR) LIF to the measurement of N2(A3Σ+u) metastable.

  10. LIF diagnostics in volume and surface dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilecce, G; Ambrico, P F; De Benedictis, S [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi CNR, sede di Bari - Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Simek, M, E-mail: giorgio.dilecce@ba.imip.cnr.i [Institute of Plasma Physics, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we review our recent work based on Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics applied to Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD) at atmospheric pressures. Emphasis is given to the main issues that have to be faced in this application through the detailed description of the most difficult case, that of CH LIF detection. The application to kinetic studies of LIF diagnostics is then illustrated through the application of LIF to the CN radical and of Optical-Optical Double Resonance (OODR) LIF to the measurement of N{sub 2}(A{sup 3{Sigma}+}{sub u}) metastable.

  11. [Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges in air at atmospheric pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zeng-qian; Dong, Li-fang; Han, Li; Li, Xue-chen; Chai, Zhi-fang

    2002-12-01

    The experimental setup of dielectric barrier discharge was designed which is propitious to optical measurement. Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges (filamentary model) in air at atmospheric pressure was measured by using optical method. Temporal behavior of dielectric barrier discharges was obtained. The experimental results show that the discharge burst in each half cycle of applied voltage consists of a series of discharge pulses, the duration of each discharge pulse is about 30-50 ns, and the interval of the neighboring discharge pulses is about a few hundred ns. The result is of great importance to the application of dielectric barrier discharges. PMID:12914154

  12. Design Study of an Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Interface for GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Hendrik; Kroll, Kai; Haberer, Kirsten; Brockmann, Klaus J.; Benter, Thorsten; Peterson, Amelia; Makarov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    This contribution reports on the development of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source interfacing a gas chromatograph (GC) with a bench-top Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometer (MS). We present efforts on method development aiming at high temperature stability (325°C), constant low impurity levels upon prolonged source operation, and efficient reaction volume irradiation combined with minimum peak broadening. The performance throughout each iterative development step was carefully assessed. The final GC-APPI-MS setup demonstrated femtogram-on-column sensitivity and chromatographic peaks of Gaussian shape with base peak widths <2 s for even the highest boiling compounds present in different EPA standard mixtures.

  13. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of CdTe—reactor design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Peter V.; Kee, Robert J.; Raja, Laxminarayan; Wolden, Colin A.; Aire, Michael

    1999-03-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) of polycrystalline thin-film CdTe appears to offer several practical advantages over state-of-the-art manufacturing techniques. APCVD employs the same reaction chemistry utilized to produce 16% efficient CdTe cells (i.e., same reaction chemistry as Close Spaced Sublimation), avoids use of vacuum equipment, allows for physical separation of the source and substrate, and employs forced convection to ensure uniform delivery of source material over large-area substrates. Reactor design considerations and preliminary numerical simulations of mass transport are presented.

  14. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xu; Ptasinska, Sylwia [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Klas, Matej [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Liu, Yueying [Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Sharon Stack, M. [Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was applied to induce DNA damage of SCC-25 oral cancer cells. Optical emission spectra were taken to characterize the reactive species produced in APPJ. In order to explore the spatial distribution of plasma effects, cells were placed onto photo-etched grid slides and the antibody H2A.X was used to locate double strand breaks of DNA inside nuclei using an immunofluorescence assay. The number of cells with double strand breaks in DNA was observed to be varied due to the distance from the irradiation center and duration of plasma treatment.

  15. Determination of sulfonamides in meat by liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) has been used for the determination of sulfonamides in meat. Five typical sulfonamides were selected as target compounds, and beef meat was selected as a matrix sample. As internal standards, sulfapyridine and isotope labeled sulfamethazine (13C6-SMZ) were used. Compared to the results of recent reports, our results have shown improved precision to a RSD of 1.8% for the determination of sulfamethazine spiked with 75 ng/g level in meat

  16. Modelling of OH production in cold atmospheric-pressure He–H2O plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the modelling of OH production in the plasma bullet mode of cold atmospheric-pressure He–H2O plasma jets are presented. It is shown that the dominant source of OH molecules is related to the Penning and charge transfer reactions of H2O molecules with excited and charged helium species produced by guided streamers (plasma bullets), in contrast to the case of He–H2O glow discharges where OH production is mainly due to the dissociation of H2O molecules by electron impact. (paper)

  17. Carbon Nanostructures Production by AC Arc Discharge Plasma Process at Atmospheric Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Shenqiang Zhao; Ruoyu Hong; Zhi Luo; Haifeng Lu; Biao Yan

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanostructures have received much attention for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we produced carbon nanostructures by decomposition of benzene using AC arc discharge plasma process at atmospheric pressure. Discharge was carried out at a voltage of 380 V, with a current of 6 A–20 A. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra. The results sho...

  18. Suppression of angiogenesis by atmospheric pressure plasma in human aortic endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Bomi; Kim, Hyeonyu; Kim, Kijung; Kim, Mina; Shim, Eunyoung; Kim, Sunja; Choe, Wonho; Shin, Jennifer H.

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has been recognized as a promising tool for cancer therapy based on its ability to remove cancer cells by causing apoptosis and necrosis. However, the effect of APP on the neighboring tissues of tumors remains unknown. Moreover, the role of APP on the vessels near tumors could be very important, because once a tumor becomes vascularized, the potential for metastasis can increase dramatically. We show in the present study that APP can induce cell cycle arrest in endothelial cells and further suppress the angiogenesis process. These results strongly support the use of APP in cancer treatment.

  19. Amphiphobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride porous films after atmospheric pressure plasma intermittent etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study modified the surface of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films and characterized their surface physicochemical properties. The main aim of this study was to examine how to provide the surface with a specific property, e.g., not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic (amphiphobicity) after argon atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment. The surface free energy calculated using the Owens-Wendt (OW) method decreased significantly while showing a very small value of the polar component. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that a small amount of hydrophilic solid spines and many superamphiphobic uniform micro air pockets formed in the plasma-modified PVDF film, which made it amphiphobic but not superamphiphobic.

  20. Radial Evolution of the Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge in Helium Controlled by Dielectric Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-Tao; WANG De-Zhen; WANG Yan-Hui; LIU Cheng-Sen

    2005-01-01

    @@ The radial evolution of atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium is presented by numerical simulation. The calculations reveal the mechanism of two current peaks per half cycle. The first breakdown occurs firstly in the central region of the electrode, and then spreads to the edge, while the second breakdown ignites at the periphery firstly, and then propagates toward the discharge central region. The simulations indicate that radial electric fields and radial sheath play an important role in the evolution of the second peak. These results agree fundamentally with the experimental observations.

  1. Surface modification of non-fabricated polypropylene textile in low-temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma activation of polypropylene (PP) non-fabricated textile in low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure has been studied. The aim of the present work was the study of the surface modification of non-fabricated textiles in order to improve their hydrophilic properties. The surface treatment has been provided by nonequilibrium discharges as barrier discharge and surface discharge. The surface properties have been characterized by measuring the contact angle of PP textiles with liquid, standard industrial permeability measurements and absorption tests. The degradation of treated PP samples has also been studied. (author)

  2. Optical emission and mass spectra observations during hydrogen combustion in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We experimentally investigated hydrogen combustion by atmospheric pressure plasma generated by a 2.45 GHz microwave discharge. Small amounts of hydrogen and oxygen were mixed in the operational argon gas during discharge. To clarify the details of combustion, optical emission was measured. The constituents of combustion-processed gases were observed by a quadruple mass spectrometer. The degree of hydrogen oxidation, the so-called conversion rate, increased with input microwave power. The maximum hydrogen conversion rate was greater than 80% under these experimental conditions. During discharge, an optical emission peak due to OH radicals was observed. (author)

  3. Gas pressure atmosphere annealing: A novel method for the preparation of SiC nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zhong, B.; Liu, L.; Huang, X.; Wen, G.; Huang, Y.; Bollmann, J.

    2016-04-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires were fabricated by gas pressure annealing of SiOC nanocomposite powders, which were synthesized by pyrolysis of a SiO2 - sucrose gel. The reaction was carried out in an atmosphere sintering furnace without any additives. The nanowires have pronounced homogenous diameters smaller than 100 nm and lengths of up to several millimetres. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the formation of the β-SiC phase and transmission electron microscopy analysis show the monocrystalline structure of the nanowires.

  4. Fabrication of transparent antifouling thin films with fractal structure by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Hayato; Yamauchi, Koji; Kim, Yoon-Kee; Ogawa, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Kenzo; Suzaki, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-21

    Antifouling surface with both superhydrophobicity and oil-repellency has been fabricated on glass substrate by forming fractal microstructure(s). The fractal microstructure was constituted by transparent silica particles of 100 nm diameter and transparent zinc-oxide columns grown on silica particles by atmospheric pressure cold plasma deposition. The sample surface was coated with a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. We found that one sample has the superhydrophobic ability with a water droplet contact angle of more than 150°, while another sample has a high transmittance of more than 85% in a wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. PMID:23186100

  5. Sterilization of E.coli bacterium with an atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lei; Zhang Rui; Liu Peng; Ding Li-Li; Zhan Ru-Juan

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge (APSBD) in air has been used in killing Escherichia coli (E.coli). There is almost no bacterial colony in the sample after treatment by discharge plasma for 2 min. A diagnostic technique based on mass spectrum has been applied to the discharge gas and the mechanism of killing is discussed.Ozone and monatomic oxide are considered to be the major antimicrobial active species. There is almost no harmful by-product. The experiment proves that APSBD plasma is a very simple, effective and innocuous tool for sterilization.

  6. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  7. Theoretical computation for non-equilibrium air plasma electrical conductivity at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Chapman-Enskog theory, we calculate the electrical conductivity of non-equilibrium air plasma in the two-temperature model. We consider different degrees of non-equilibrium, which is defined by the ratio of electronic temperature to heavy particles temperature. The method of computing the composition of air plasma is demonstrated. After calculating the electrical conductivity from electron temperature 1000 K to 15000 K, the present result is compared with Murphy's study for equilibrium case. All the calculation is completed at atmospheric pressure. The present results may have potential applications in numerical calculation of non-equilibrium air plasma. (authors)

  8. Selective killing of ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis by nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.

  9. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma with ultrahigh electron density and high performance for glass surface cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We produced a nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma by applying an alternative current between two electrodes. The gas temperature and electron density were evaluated using optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that the plasma had gas temperatures from 1800 to 2150 K and ultrahigh electron densities in the order of 1016 cm-3. A remarkably high oxygen radical concentration of 1.6x1015 cm-3 was obtained at a 1% O2/Ar gas flow rate of 15 slm (standard liters per minute). Contact angles below 10 deg. were obtained in the process of glass cleaning with a plasma exposure time of 23 ms

  10. Prediction of atmospheric pressure glow discharge in dielectric-barrier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoxi; He, Feng; Ouyang, Jiting

    2010-06-01

    A one-dimensional fluid model was used to investigate the breakdown mechanism and discharge mode in dielectric-barrier system. The results show that the dielectric barrier discharge mode depends strongly on the gas property (i.e., the electron multiplication). The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier glow discharge could only be achieved in a gas (e.g., noble gas) in which the first Townsend ionization coefficient is sufficiently small and the electron multiplication does not rise up rapidly with the electric field, while could not be sustained in the gas (e.g., N2 and O2) in which the electron multiplication is sensitive to the field.

  11. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the plasma source with argon rf barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glow characteristics of capacitive radio frequency discharge with isolated electrodes in atmospheric pressure argon in low-current and high-current modes are determined experimentally and calculated by the hybrid hydrodynamic model. Comparative analysis of obtained experimental data and simulated spatio-temporal distributions of concentrations of discharge plasma electrons and heavy species, mean energy of electrons in the RF barrier discharge enabled interpretation of the discharge structure peculiarities in low-current α,α-gamma transition and high-current modes.

  12. Observation and interpretation of energy efficient, diffuse direct current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jie, E-mail: tangjie1979@opt.ac.cn; Jiang, Weiman; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi' an 710119 (China); Li, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi' an 710119 (China); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Duan, Yixiang [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics of CAS, Xi' an 710119 (China); Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2015-08-24

    A diffuse direct-current glow discharge was realized with low energy consumption and high energy utilization efficiency at atmospheric pressure. The formation of diffuse discharge was demonstrated by examining and comparing the electrical properties and optical emissions of plasmas. In combination with theoretical derivation and calculation, we draw guidelines that appearance of nitrogen ions at low electron density is crucial to enhance the ambipolar diffusion for the expansion of discharge channel and the increasing ambipolar diffusion near the cathode plays a key role in the onset of diffuse discharge. An individual-discharge-channel expansion model is proposed to explain the diffuse discharge formation.

  13. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure Estimation Methods for Use in Simulating the Dynamic of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Komkoua Mbienda

    2013-01-01

    Lee and Kesler (LK, and Ambrose-Walton (AW methods for estimating vapor pressures ( are tested against experimental data for a set of volatile organic compounds (VOC. required to determine gas-particle partitioning of such organic compounds is used as a parameter for simulating the dynamic of atmospheric aerosols. Here, we use the structure-property relationships of VOC to estimate . The accuracy of each of the aforementioned methods is also assessed for each class of compounds (hydrocarbons, monofunctionalized, difunctionalized, and tri- and more functionalized volatile organic species. It is found that the best method for each VOC depends on its functionality.

  14. Deposition of SiOx films by means of atmospheric pressure microplasma jets

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Jan; Ellerweg, Dirk; Rügner, Katja; von Keudell, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet sources are currently in the focus of many researchers for their promising applications in medical industry (e.g. treatment of living tissues), surface modification or material etching or synthesis. Here we report on the study of fundamental principles of deposition of SiOx films from microplasma jets with admixture of hexamethyldisiloxane [(CH3)3SiOSi(CH3)3, HMDSO] molecules and oxygen. The properties of the deposited films, the composition of the plasma as measured by molecular beam mass spectrometry and the effect of additional treatment of grown film by oxygen or hydrogen atoms will be presented.

  15. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was applied to induce DNA damage of SCC-25 oral cancer cells. Optical emission spectra were taken to characterize the reactive species produced in APPJ. In order to explore the spatial distribution of plasma effects, cells were placed onto photo-etched grid slides and the antibody H2A.X was used to locate double strand breaks of DNA inside nuclei using an immunofluorescence assay. The number of cells with double strand breaks in DNA was observed to be varied due to the distance from the irradiation center and duration of plasma treatment.

  16. Observation and interpretation of energy efficient, diffuse direct current glow discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffuse direct-current glow discharge was realized with low energy consumption and high energy utilization efficiency at atmospheric pressure. The formation of diffuse discharge was demonstrated by examining and comparing the electrical properties and optical emissions of plasmas. In combination with theoretical derivation and calculation, we draw guidelines that appearance of nitrogen ions at low electron density is crucial to enhance the ambipolar diffusion for the expansion of discharge channel and the increasing ambipolar diffusion near the cathode plays a key role in the onset of diffuse discharge. An individual-discharge-channel expansion model is proposed to explain the diffuse discharge formation

  17. Scientific Opinion on the use of low atmosphere pressure system (LAPS) for stunning poultry

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW)

    2014-01-01

    The EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the use of a low atmosphere pressure system (LAPS) for stunning poultry. Four documents were provided by the European Commission (EC) as the basis for an assessment of the extent to which the LAPS is able to provide a level of animal welfare at least equivalent to that ensured by the current allowed methods for stunning poultry. The LAPS is described as rendering poultry unconscious by grad...

  18. Role of secondary emission on discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S., E-mail: cswong@um.edu.my [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-04-15

    The discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes. The DBD discharge has been generated by a 50 Hz ac high voltage power source. The high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera is used to capture the images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap. It is observed that frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges occurs across the discharge gap in the case of negative current pulse. The experimental results reveal that secondary emissions from the dielectric surface play a key role in the synchronous breakdown of plasma filaments.

  19. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of ˜0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  20. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duten, X; Redolfi, M; Aggadi, N; Vega, A; Hassouni, K, E-mail: duten@lspm.cnrs.fr [LSPM-CNRS UPR 3407, Universite Paris Nord, 90 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2011-10-19

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  1. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan;

    2014-01-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating......, synchronized with simultaneously recorded current and voltage waveforms. Dynamic details of the novel non-equilibrium discharge are revealed, which is characterized by a sinusoidal current waveform with amplitude stabilized at around 200 mA intermediate between thermal arc and glow discharge, shedding light to...

  2. On the plasma-based growth of ‘flowing’ graphene sheets at atmospheric pressure conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tsyganov, D.; Bundaleska, N.; Tatarova, E; Dias, A.; Henriques, J; Rego, A.; Ferraria, A.; Abrashev, M. V.; Dias, F. M.; Claudia C. Luhrs; Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-0252/25/1/015013 A theoretical and experimental study on atmospheric pressure microwave plasma-based assembly of free standing graphene sheets is presented. The synthesis method is based on introducing a carbon-containing precursor (C₂H₅OH) through a microwave (2.45 GHz) argon plasma environment, where decomposition of ethanol molecules takes place and carbon atoms and molecules are created and th...

  3. Introduction of a new atmospheric pressure plasma device and application on tomato seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuwen Zhou; Yanfen Huang; Size Yang; Wei Chen

    2011-01-01

    We designed new atmospheric pressure plasma device, to explore appropriate voltage of plasma treatment that promote traits and yield of to-mato, tomato seeds were treated by plasma at 4760 to 6800 V, and traits and yield of tomato were observed. The results showed that the ef-fects of different voltage plasma treatments on seed germination were not the same. The bloom times, the height, the caulis, the extent of the plants and the average weight, length,diameter of each fruit in the seven tre...

  4. Highly efficient oxidation of silicon at low temperatures using atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon oxide (SiO2) layers were formed with initial oxidation rates in the range of 6.2-14.1 nm/min in the temperature range of 150-400 deg. C by oxidizing Si(001) wafers. Such a high-rate and low-temperature oxidation was realized by using a stable glow He/O2 plasma excited at atmospheric pressure by a 150 MHz very high-frequency power. Increasing the temperature led to both the higher oxidation rate and the better quality of SiO2 and SiO2/Si interface. The oxidation at 400 deg. C showed an interface trap density of 6.2x1010 eV-1 cm-2, which is considerably lower than that in a radical oxidation process using low-pressure He/O2 plasma at the same temperature

  5. On atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets and plasma bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets (APNP-Js), which generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined discharge gap, have recently been a topic of great interest. In this paper, the development of APNP-Js will be reviewed. Firstly, the APNP-Js are grouped based on the type of gas used to ignite them and their characteristics are discussed in detail. Secondly, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the ‘plasma bullet’, is discussed and its behavior described. Thirdly, the very recent developments on the behavior of plasma jets when launched in a controlled environment and pressure are also introduced. This is followed by a discussion on the interaction between plasma jets. Finally, perspectives on APNP-J research are presented. (paper)

  6. 50-Hz plasma treatment of glass fibre reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram;

    2011-01-01

    approximately from 20 mJ m-2 up to 80 mJ m-2 with ultrasonic irradiation. The plasma treatment with ultrasonic irradiation also introduced oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups at the GFRP surface. These changes would improve the adhesion properties of the GFRP plates.......Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50-Hz dielectric barrier discharge at peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of around...... 30 kHz with the sound pressure level of approximately 155 dB were introduced vertically to the GFRP surface through a cylindrical waveguide. The polar component of the surface energy was almost unchanged after the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, but drastically increased...

  7. Time Invariant Surface Roughness Evolution during Atmospheric Pressure Thin Film Depositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkh, Thomas; Spivey, Robert; Lu, Toh Ming

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of thin film morphology during atmospheric pressure deposition has been studied utilizing Monte Carlo methods. Time invariant root-mean-squared roughness and local roughness morphology were both observed when employing a novel simulation parameter, modeling the effect of the experimental high pressure condition. This growth regime, where the surface roughness remains invariant after reaching a critical value, has not been classified by any existing universality class. An anti-shadowing growth mechanism responsible for this regime occurs when particles undergo binary collisions beneath the surface apexes. Hence, this mechanism is applicable when the mean free path of the depositing species is comparable to the amplitude of the surface features. Computationally this has been modeled by allowing particles to change direction at a specified height above the local film surface. This modification of the incoming flux trajectory consequently has a dramatic smoothening effect, and the resulting surfaces appear in agreement with recent experimental observations. PMID:26814165

  8. Removal of H2S from gas stream using combined plasma photolysis technique at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Xia, Lanyan; Ge, Xiaoxue; Jing, Hengye; Dong, Wenbo; Hou, Huiqi

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, H(2)S in gas stream was successfully decomposed at atmospheric pressure by dielectric barrier discharge plasma and VUV-UV radiation from a combined plasma photolysis reactor (CDBD). In comparison with DBD, CDBD enhanced H(2)S removal efficiency significantly at the same applied voltage, inlet H(2)S concentration and gas residence time. H(2)S removal efficiency was determined as a function of Kr pressure, applied voltage, inlet H(2)S concentration, and gas residence time. H(2)S removal efficiency could reach as high as 93% at inlet H(2)S concentration of 27.1 mg m(-3), residence time of 0.4 s, and applied voltage of 7.5 kV. The main products were discerned as H(2)O and SO(4)(2-) based on FTIR and IC analysis. PMID:22436586

  9. New high quality adaptive mesh generator utilized in modelling plasma streamer propagation at atmospheric pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, A. P.; Georghiou, G. E.; Metaxas, A. C.

    2008-12-01

    A new adaptive mesh generator has been developed and used in the analysis of high-pressure gas discharges, such as avalanches and streamers, reducing computational times and computer memory needs significantly. The new adaptive mesh generator developed, uses normalized error indicators, varying from 0 to 1, to guarantee optimal mesh resolution for all carriers involved in the analysis. Furthermore, it uses h- and r-refinement techniques such as mesh jiggling, edge swapping and node addition/removal to develop an element quality improvement algorithm that improves the mesh quality significantly and a fast and accurate algorithm for interpolation between meshes. Finally, the mesh generator is applied in the characterization of the transition from a single electron to the avalanche and streamer discharges in high-voltage, high-pressure gas discharges for dc 1 mm gaps, RF 1 cm point-plane gaps and parallel-plate 40 MHz configurations, in ambient atmospheric air.

  10. New high quality adaptive mesh generator utilized in modelling plasma streamer propagation at atmospheric pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, A P [Department of Electrical Engineering, Frederick University Cyprus, 7 Y Frederickou Street, Palouriotissa, Nicosia 1036 (Cyprus); Georghiou, G E [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos, PO Box 20577, 1678, Nicosia (Cyprus); Metaxas, A C [St John' s College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1TP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: eng.ap@frederick.ac.cy, E-mail: geg@ucy.ac.cy, E-mail: acm33@cam.ac.uk

    2008-12-07

    A new adaptive mesh generator has been developed and used in the analysis of high-pressure gas discharges, such as avalanches and streamers, reducing computational times and computer memory needs significantly. The new adaptive mesh generator developed, uses normalized error indicators, varying from 0 to 1, to guarantee optimal mesh resolution for all carriers involved in the analysis. Furthermore, it uses h- and r-refinement techniques such as mesh jiggling, edge swapping and node addition/removal to develop an element quality improvement algorithm that improves the mesh quality significantly and a fast and accurate algorithm for interpolation between meshes. Finally, the mesh generator is applied in the characterization of the transition from a single electron to the avalanche and streamer discharges in high-voltage, high-pressure gas discharges for dc 1 mm gaps, RF 1 cm point-plane gaps and parallel-plate 40 MHz configurations, in ambient atmospheric air.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of gas discharges at atmospheric pressure incorporating photoionization phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papageorgiou, L; Georghiou, G E [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Avenue, PO Box 20537 Nicosia, 1678 (Cyprus); Metaxas, A C [St John' s College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TP (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-02

    A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model for the characterization of gas discharges in air at atmospheric pressure incorporating photoionization through the solution of the Helmholtz equation is presented. Initially, comparisons with a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric model are performed in order to assess the validity of the model. Subsequently several discharge instabilities (plasma spots and low pressure inhomogeneities) are considered in order to study their effect on streamer branching and off-axis propagation. Depending on the magnitude and position of the plasma spot, deformations and off-axis propagation of the main discharge channel were obtained. No tendency for branching in small (of the order of 0.1 cm) overvolted discharge gaps was observed.

  12. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of gas discharges at atmospheric pressure incorporating photoionization phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, L.; Metaxas, A. C.; Georghiou, G. E.

    2011-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model for the characterization of gas discharges in air at atmospheric pressure incorporating photoionization through the solution of the Helmholtz equation is presented. Initially, comparisons with a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric model are performed in order to assess the validity of the model. Subsequently several discharge instabilities (plasma spots and low pressure inhomogeneities) are considered in order to study their effect on streamer branching and off-axis propagation. Depending on the magnitude and position of the plasma spot, deformations and off-axis propagation of the main discharge channel were obtained. No tendency for branching in small (of the order of 0.1 cm) overvolted discharge gaps was observed.

  13. Plasma polymerization of ethylene in an atmospheric pressure-pulsed discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, K.; Wydeven, T.

    1979-01-01

    The polymerization of ethylene in an atmospheric pressure-pulsed discharge has been studied. Partial pressures of ethylene up to 4 kN/sq m were used with helium as a diluent. Deposition rates (on glass slides) were the same throughout the discharge volume over a wide range of operating conditions. These rates were in the 1-2 A/sec range. The films were clear, soft, and showed good adhesion to the glass substrates. Oligomers large enough to visibly scatter 637.8-nm light were observed in the gas phase under all conditions in which film deposition occurred. The experimental results suggest that Brownian diffusion of these oligomers was the rate-limiting step in the film deposition process.

  14. Diamond-like films deposited in the plasma of barrier and surface discharges at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and properties were investigated of carbon coatings deposited in the plasma of barrier and surface discharges at atmospheric pressure. To examine the structure of the coatings, methods of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis were used. The coatings produced in a barrier discharge in methane and in acetylene-hydrogen mixtures are similar in chemical and phase composition to amorphous diamond-like carbon films produced at low pressures by conventional deposition techniques. However, the coatings have a significant number of defects, evidently caused by the inherent microstructure of the barrier discharge. From this point of view, the use of a surface discharge is much more promising. The coatings produced in a surface discharge have almost no microdefects and both the spatial distribution of the energy delivered to the discharge and the transport of film-forming particles towards the substrate are more efficient. (J.U.)

  15. Advances in the optical diagnostics of kinetic processes in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilecce, G; Ambrico, P F; De Benedictis, S [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi-CNR, sede di Bari, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: giorgio.dilecce@ba.imip.cnr.it

    2008-10-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure have recently received a growing interest because of their potentially advantageous use in a number of applicative fields, in both their main classes of 'volume' and 'surface' geometric arrangements. From a diagnostic point of view, the high pressure regime adds problems relevant to an enhanced role of collision quenching, vibrational and rotational relaxation, while maintaining many of the demands of a highly non-equilibrium system for a detailed characterization of its degrees of freedom. In addition, filamentary DBDs are intrinsically pulsed systems, in which the electron impact excitation is confined in small space regions and very short time intervals, such that a prominent afterglow phase, both spatial and temporal, is present in the discharge volume, and kinetic processes involving long-lived species, chemi-luminescent reactions, recombinations (aided by the large pressure) can competitively come into play in the excitation of electronic states. We have applied our ensemble of diagnostic methods, based on time resolved emission and laser spectroscopy, to the investigation of elementary kinetics in DBDs. Here we present our last two years results that include: Optical-Optical Double Resonance (OODR)-LIF measurements of N2(A{sup 3}{sigma}{sup +}{sub u}) density, in a volume DBD that is of relevance in the debate upon the mechanisms for establishing the glow regime; OODR-LIF and emission study on a Masuda type surface discharge; measurement of N2 (C{sup 3}II{sub U}, v) quenching and vibrational relaxation rate constants and its relevance to nitrogen Second Positive System emission diagnostics at atmospheric pressure; kinetics of CN(B{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}, v) formation and violet system emission in N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} discharges. The latter issue shows in addition a correlation between emissions and surface status (i.e. the presence of a deposit) that is a clear monitor of a gas

  16. Advances in the optical diagnostics of kinetic processes in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure have recently received a growing interest because of their potentially advantageous use in a number of applicative fields, in both their main classes of 'volume' and 'surface' geometric arrangements. From a diagnostic point of view, the high pressure regime adds problems relevant to an enhanced role of collision quenching, vibrational and rotational relaxation, while maintaining many of the demands of a highly non-equilibrium system for a detailed characterization of its degrees of freedom. In addition, filamentary DBDs are intrinsically pulsed systems, in which the electron impact excitation is confined in small space regions and very short time intervals, such that a prominent afterglow phase, both spatial and temporal, is present in the discharge volume, and kinetic processes involving long-lived species, chemi-luminescent reactions, recombinations (aided by the large pressure) can competitively come into play in the excitation of electronic states. We have applied our ensemble of diagnostic methods, based on time resolved emission and laser spectroscopy, to the investigation of elementary kinetics in DBDs. Here we present our last two years results that include: Optical-Optical Double Resonance (OODR)-LIF measurements of N2(A3σ+u) density, in a volume DBD that is of relevance in the debate upon the mechanisms for establishing the glow regime; OODR-LIF and emission study on a Masuda type surface discharge; measurement of N2 (C3IIU, v) quenching and vibrational relaxation rate constants and its relevance to nitrogen Second Positive System emission diagnostics at atmospheric pressure; kinetics of CN(B2σ+, v) formation and violet system emission in N2-CH4 discharges. The latter issue shows in addition a correlation between emissions and surface status (i.e. the presence of a deposit) that is a clear monitor of a gas-surface interplay.

  17. Sulphation of oil shale ash under atmospheric and pressurized combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuelaots, I.; Yrjas, P.; Hupa, M.; Ots, A.

    1995-09-01

    One of the main problems in conventional combustion boilers firing pulverized oil shale is the corrosion and fouling of heating surfaces, which is caused by sulphur compounds. Another major problem, from the environmental point of view, are the high SO{sub 2} emissions. Consequently, the amount of sulphur in flue gases must be reduced. One alternative to lower the SO{sub 2}, concentration is the use of new technologies, such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). In FBC processes, the sulphur components are usually removed by the addition of limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or dolomite (CaCO{sub 3} x MgCO{sub 3}) into the bed. The calcium in these absorbents react with SO{sub 2}, producing solid CaSO{sub 4}. However, when burning oil shale, there would be no need to add limestone or dolomite into the bed, due to the initially high limestone content in the fuel (molar ratio Ca/S =10). The capture of sulphur by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus (PTGA). The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Four different materials were tested - one cyclone ash from an Estonian oil shale boiler, two size fractions of Estonian oil shale and, one fraction of Israeli oil shale. The cyclone ash was found to be the poorest sulphur absorbent. In general, the results from the sulphur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed conditions showed that the oil shale can capture not only its own sulphur but also significant amounts of additional sulphur from another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. (author)

  18. Sulphation of oil shale ash under atmospheric and pressurized combustion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main problems in conventional combustion boilers firing pulverized oil shale is the corrosion and fouling of heating surfaces, which is caused by sulphur compounds. Another major problem, from the environmental point of view, are the high SO2 emissions. Consequently, the amount of sulphur in flue gases must be reduced. One alternative to lower the SO2, concentration is the use of new technologies, such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). In FBC processes, the sulphur components are usually removed by the addition of limestone (CaCO3) or dolomite (CaCO3 x MgCO3) into the bed. The calcium in these absorbents react with SO2, producing solid CaSO4. However, when burning oil shale, there would be no need to add limestone or dolomite into the bed, due to the initially high limestone content in the fuel (molar ratio Ca/S =10). The capture of sulphur by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus (PTGA). The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Four different materials were tested - one cyclone ash from an Estonian oil shale boiler, two size fractions of Estonian oil shale and, one fraction of Israeli oil shale. The cyclone ash was found to be the poorest sulphur absorbent. In general, the results from the sulphur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed conditions showed that the oil shale can capture not only its own sulphur but also significant amounts of additional sulphur from another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. (author)

  19. Atmospheric pressure synthesis of photoluminescent hybrid materials by sequential organometallic vapor infiltration into polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposing a polymer to sequential organometallic vapor infiltration (SVI) under low pressure conditions can significantly modify the polymer's chemical, mechanical, and optical properties. We demonstrate that SVI of trimethylaluminum into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can also proceed readily at atmospheric pressure, and at 60 °C the extent of reaction determined by mass uptake is independent of pressure between 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr. At 120 °C, however, the mass gain is 50% larger at 2.5 Torr relative to that at 760 Torr, indicating that the precursor diffusion in the chamber and fiber matrix decreases at higher source pressure. Mass gain decreases, in general, as the SVI process temperature increases both at 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr attributed to the faster reaction kinetics forming a barrier layer, which prevents further diffusion of the reactive species. The resulting PET/Al-Ox product shows high photoluminescence compared to untreated fibers. A physical mask on the polymer during infiltration at 760 Torr is replicated in the underlying polymer, producing an image in the polymer that is visible under UV illumination. Because of the reduced precursor diffusivity during exposure at 760 Torr, the image shows improved resolution compared to SVI performed under typical 2.5 Torr conditions

  20. Atmospheric pressure synthesis of photoluminescent hybrid materials by sequential organometallic vapor infiltration into polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyildiz, Halil I. [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Mousa, Moataz Bellah M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Jur, Jesse S., E-mail: jsjur@ncsu.edu [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-01-28

    Exposing a polymer to sequential organometallic vapor infiltration (SVI) under low pressure conditions can significantly modify the polymer's chemical, mechanical, and optical properties. We demonstrate that SVI of trimethylaluminum into polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can also proceed readily at atmospheric pressure, and at 60 °C the extent of reaction determined by mass uptake is independent of pressure between 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr. At 120 °C, however, the mass gain is 50% larger at 2.5 Torr relative to that at 760 Torr, indicating that the precursor diffusion in the chamber and fiber matrix decreases at higher source pressure. Mass gain decreases, in general, as the SVI process temperature increases both at 2.5 Torr and 760 Torr attributed to the faster reaction kinetics forming a barrier layer, which prevents further diffusion of the reactive species. The resulting PET/Al-O{sub x} product shows high photoluminescence compared to untreated fibers. A physical mask on the polymer during infiltration at 760 Torr is replicated in the underlying polymer, producing an image in the polymer that is visible under UV illumination. Because of the reduced precursor diffusivity during exposure at 760 Torr, the image shows improved resolution compared to SVI performed under typical 2.5 Torr conditions.