WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric pollution monitor

  1. Biomagnetic Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution: A Review of Magnetic Signatures from Biological Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Maher, Barbara A; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Wuyts, Karen; Castanheiro, Ana; Samson, Roeland

    2017-06-20

    Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ("sensors") used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes. Our work addresses the following: the range of magnetic properties reported for lichens, mosses, leaves, bark, trunk wood, insects, crustaceans, mammal and human tissues; their associations with atmospheric pollutant species (PM, NO x , trace elements, PAHs); the pros and cons of biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution; current challenges for large-scale implementation of biomagnetic monitoring; and future perspectives. A summary table is presented, with the aim of aiding researchers and policy makers in selecting the most suitable biological sensor for their intended biomagnetic monitoring purpose.

  2. Atmospheric pollutants monitoring by analysis of epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko; Marcelli, Marcelo P.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2008-01-01

    The Canoparmelia texana epiphytic lichenized fungi was used to monitor atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, SP, Brazil. The cluster analysis applied to the element concentration values confirmed the site groups of different levels of pollution due to industrial and vehicular emissions. In the distribution maps of element concentrations, higher concentrations of Ba and Mn were observed in the vicinity of industries and of a petrochemical complex. The highest concentration of Co found in lichens from the Sao Miguel Paulista site is due to the emissions from a metallurgical processing plant that produces this element. For Br and Zn, the highest concentrations could be associated both to vehicular and industrial emissions. Exploratory analyses revealed that the accumulation of toxic elements in C. texana may be of use in evaluating the human risk of cardiopulmonary mortality due to prolonged exposure to ambient levels of air pollution. - Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi is a valuable biomonitor for atmospheric pollution

  3. Low-technology monitoring of atmospheric metal pollution in central Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, F A; Lloyd, O L

    1984-01-01

    In epidemiological studies covering relationships of disease patterns and patterns of atmospheric pollution, conventional filtering equipment is normally used for monitoring the pollution. For various reasons, however, this type of approach often results in levels of pollution being obtained for only a few sites within an extensive fieldwork area. Hence, alternative monitoring techniques, which allow a high density of sampling sites in an area, have been of interest to an increasing number of investigators. The monitors used, known as low-technology monitors, fall into two main categories; indigenous; and transplants. In the authors surveys of atmospheric metal pollutants in industrial communities in Scotland, the indigenous sample materials have included: Hypnum cupressiforme, Lecanora conizaeoides, Agropyron repens and surface soils. In their transplant surveys a variety of different low-technology samplers have been deployed, the most frequently used being: spherical and flat moss bags, Hypogymnia physodes, Tak (synthetic fabric), and total deposition collectors. The data obtained from the various surveys have been plotted on a variety of types of computer map to minimize any systematic bias resulting from the use of a single technique. The pollution patterns found in one particular town were partly unexpected, in view of the dominant wind direction in the locality concerned. Hence it was decided to carry out a wind tunnel experiment to investigate the situation further. The wind tunnel experiment produced results which were consistent with the patterns of pollution derived from the metal surveys, and revealed that the meteorological dispersal of the pollution was unexpectedly influenced by local topography.

  4. Study of laser monitoring techniques of pollutants in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T. A. A.

    2006-01-01

    There are several techniques used as a tool for monitoring the pollutions in the atmosphere, where the laser radiation sending through the sample of atmosphere to be investigated ether transmission or the scattering of the light, all the way through a variety of different techniques for monitoring the air quality. We are showed in this study the comparison of detection techniques through measuring the light scattered in some particular direction, rather than measuring direction the attenuation due to two type of scattering (Rayieh scattering and Mie scattering) during (optical Radar, Roman backscattering and Resonance fluorescence).(Author)

  5. Ozone and atmospheric pollution at synoptic scale: the monitoring network Paes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheusi, F.; Chevalier, A.; Delmas, R.; Athier, G.; Bouchou, P.; Cousin, J.M.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Ancellet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone as an environmental concern extends beyond the questions usually covered by media - stratospheric ozone depletion and urban pollution peaks. Strong expositions to this pollutant are frequent even far from pollution sources, and the background tropospheric content of ozone has been growing fivefold over the last century. In response to this concern at the French national scale, formerly independent monitoring stations have been coordinated since 2004 in a structured network: Paes (French acronym for atmospheric pollution at synoptic scale). The data are put in free access online. (authors)

  6. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This project is to design, develop, and test an atmospheric pollution monitor which can measure concentrations of DOE-specified and EPA-specified hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. A CO 2 laser to measure absorption spectra and to determine the distance over which the measurements are made, is combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to measure thermal emission spectra

  7. Laser system for remote sensing monitoring of air pollution and quality control of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the atmosphere and determination of the types and amounts of pollutants is becoming more important issue in complex and global monitoring of the environment. On the geocomponent and geocomplex level problem of monitoring the environment is attracting the attention of the scientific experts of different profiles (chemists, physicists, geographers, biologists, meteorologists, both in the national and international projects. Because of the general characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere (Dynamically Ballanced Instability DBI and the potential contribution to climate change solutions air-pollution monitoring has become particularly important field of environmental research. Control of aerosol distribution over Europe is enabled by EARLINET systems (European Aerosol Lidar NETwork. Serbia’s inclusion into these European courses needs development of the device, the standardization of methods and direct activity in determining the type, quantity and location of aerosol. This paper is analyzing the first step in the study of air-pollution, which is consisted of the realization of a functional model of LIDAR remote sensing devices for the large particle pollutants.

  8. Differential Optical-absorption Spectroscopy (doas) System For Urban Atmospheric-pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Edner, H; Ragnarson, P; Spannare, S; Svanberg, Sune

    1993-01-01

    We describe a fully computer-controlled differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric air pollution monitoring. A receiving optical telescope can sequentially tune in to light beams from a number of distant high-pressure Xe lamp light sources to cover the area of a medium-sized city. A beam-finding servosystem and automatic gain control permit unattended long-time monitoring. Using an astronomical code, we can also search and track celestial sources. Selected wavelength ...

  9. An advanced open path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mani, S. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Over 100 million gallons of radioactive and toxic waste materials generated in weapon materials production are stored in 322 tanks buried within large areas at DOE sites. Toxic vapors occur in the tank headspace due to the solvents used and chemical reactions within the tanks. To prevent flammable or explosive concentration of volatile vapors, the headspace are vented, either manually or automatically, to the atmosphere when the headspace pressure exceeds preset values. Furthermore, 67 of the 177 tanks at the DOE Hanford Site are suspected or are known to be leaking into the ground. These underground storage tanks are grouped into tank farms which contain closely spaced tanks in areas as large as 1 km{sup 2}. The objective of this program is to protect DOE personnel and the public by monitoring the air above these tank farms for toxic air pollutants without the monitor entering the tanks farms, which can be radioactive. A secondary objective is to protect personnel by monitoring the air above buried 50 gallon drums containing moderately low radioactive materials but which could also emit toxic air pollutants.

  10. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  11. AMFIC Web Data Base - A Satellite System for the Monitoring and Forecasting of Atmospheric Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Symeonidis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the contribution of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution and Pollution Control Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace in the AMFIC-Air Monitoring and Forecasting In China European project. Within the framework of this project our laboratory in co-operation with DRAXIS company will create and manage a web satellite data base. This system will host atmospheric pollution satellite data for China and for the whole globe in general. Atmospheric pollution data with different spatial resolution such as O3 and NO2 total columns and measurements of other important trace gasses from GOME (ERS-2, SCIAMACHY (ENVISAT and OMI (EOS-AURA along with aerosol total load estimates from AATSR (ENVISAT will be brought to a common spatial and temporal resolution and become available to the scientific community in simple ascii files and maps format. Available will also be the results from the validation procedure of the satellite data with the use of ground-based observations and a set of high resolution maps and forecasts emerging from atmospheric pollution models. Data will be available for two geographical clusters. The one cluster includes the greater area of China and the other the whole globe. This integrated satellite system will be fully operational within the next two years and will also include a set of innovative tools that allow easy manipulation and analysis of the data. Automatic detection of features such as plumes and monitoring of their evolution, data covariance analysis enabling the detection of emission signatures of different sources, cluster analysis etc will be possible through those tools. The AMFIC satellite system shares a set of characteristics with its predecessor, AIRSAT. Here, we present some of these characteristics in order to bring out the contribution of such a system in atmospheric sciences.

  12. The laser absorption spectrometer - A new remote sensing instrument for atmospheric pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    An instrument capable of remotely monitoring trace atmospheric constituents is described. The instrument, called a laser absorption spectrometer, can be operated from an aircraft or spacecraft to measure the concentration of selected gases in three dimensions. This device will be particularly useful for rapid determination of pollutant levels in urban areas.

  13. Atmosphere pollutants-their health and environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, Ali Sasi; Ibsaim, Rajab A.

    2006-01-01

    The conducted studies, continuous monitoring and measuring of the atmosphere pollution surrounding the world cities for a decade in the last century demonstrated increased rates of some pollutants, often exceeded the levels which are considered to be safe for health. Most of the dangerous pollutants in the atmosphere are suspended particles, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, ozone troposphere and lead, these are the main responsible pollutant in contaminating the atmosphere leading to increase of death percentage in the major cities. For a duration of nearly a century, atmosphere pollution accidents in cities like London approved that inhaling contaminated air is dangerous and deadly sometimes. In 1880 2200 person from London inhabitants have died when coal smoke with heating and industrial gases have been accumulated to form a toxic smog of sulfur oxide gas and suspended particles in the atmosphere of the city. In this paper we discuss type of atmosphere pollutants and their health and environmental effects on human being, creatures and earth and ways of eliminating that.(Author)

  14. Modeling of atmospheric pollutant transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, F.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling is today a common tool for the evaluation of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution events, for the design of air monitoring networks or for the calculation of pollutant concentrations in the ambient air. It is even necessary for the a priori evaluation of the consequences of a pollution plume. A large choice of atmospheric transfer codes exist but no ideal tool is available which allows to model all kinds of situations. The present day approach consists in combining different types of modeling according to the requested results and simulations. The CEA has a solid experience in this domain and has developed independent tools for the impact and safety studies relative to industrial facilities and to the management of crisis situations. (J.S.)

  15. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  16. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  17. Appraising city-scale pollution monitoring capabilities of multi-satellite datasets using portable pollutant monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Yahaya A.; Botai, Joel O.

    2018-04-01

    The retrieval characteristics for a city-scale satellite experiment was explored over a Nigerian city. The study evaluated carbon monoxide and aerosol contents in the city atmosphere. We utilized the MSA Altair 5× gas detector and CW-HAT200 particulate counter to investigate the city-scale monitoring capabilities of satellite pollution observing instruments; atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS), measurement of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT), moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) and ozone monitoring instrument (OMI). To achieve this, we employed the Kriging interpolation technique to collocate the satellite pollutant estimations over 19 ground sample sites for the period of 2015-2016. The portable pollutant devices were validated using the WHO air filter sampling model. To determine the city-scale performance of the satellite datasets, performance indicators: correlation coefficient, model efficiency, reliability index and root mean square error, were adopted as measures. The comparative analysis revealed that MOPITT carbon monoxide (CO) and MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates are the appropriate satellite measurements for ground equivalents in Zaria, Nigeria. Our findings were within the acceptable limits of similar studies that utilized reference stations. In conclusion, this study offers direction to Nigeria's air quality policy organizers about available alternative air pollution measurements for mitigating air quality effects within its limited resource environment.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of the atmospheric pollutants in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City (MZMC) is a serious problem with social, economical and political consequences, in virtue that it is the region which concentrates both the greatest country population and a great part of commercial and industrial activities. According to the World Health Organization, maximum permissible concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are exceeded frequently. In the MZMC, the environmental monitoring has been limited to criteria pollutants, named in this way due to when their levels are measured in the atmosphere, they indicate in a precise way the air quality. The Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network monitors and registers the values of pollutants concentration in air in the MZMC. Actually, it is integrated by approximately 35 automatic-equipped remote stations, which report an every-hour register. Local and global invariant quantities have been widely used to describe the fractal properties of diverse time series. In the study of certain time series, many times it is assumed that they are monofractal, which means that they can be described only with one fractal dimension. But this hypothesis is unrealistic because a lot of time series are heterogeneous and non stationary, so their scaling properties are not the same throughout time and therefore they may require more fractal dimensions for their description. Complexity of the atmospheric pollutants dynamics suggests us to analyze its time series of hourly concentration registers with the multifractal formalism. So, in this work, air concentration time series of MZMC criteria pollutants were studied with the proposed method. The chosen pollutants to perform this analysis are ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and PM10 (particles less than 10 micrometers). We found that pollutants air concentration time series are multifractal. When we calculate the degree of multifractality for each time series we know that while more

  19. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  1. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Beltran H, R. I.; Issac O, K.; Lucho C, C. A.; Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  2. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  3. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-01-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. - Highlights: • Magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the heavy mental pollution in sediments. • Accurate age model was obtained using known events of environmental improvement. • Regression equation was obtained among sediment records and monitoring data. • Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed. - Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed using magnetic and chemical records of reservoir sediments combined with atmospheric monitoring data

  4. On development of system for environmental monitoring of atmospheric air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Волкодаева

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the directions for development of the system of environmental monitoring of atmospheric air quality in the Russian Federation, namely: an increase in the number of stationary control posts for atmospheric pollution in each specific city; expansion of the list of cities where constant measurements of pollutant concentrations are conducted; expansion of the list of controlled impurities through the introduction of automated air quality monitoring systems, the development of computational methods for monitoring air quality, including not only information on pollution levels in terms of compliance with hygienic standards, but also assessment of pollution levels from the perspective of environmental risk to the health of the population. There is a great sensitivity of plants to the low quality of atmospheric air in comparison with the sensitivity of animals and humans. The air quality standards for vegetation are given. It is proposed to evaluate the quality of atmospheric air not only from the point of view of the impact on human health, but taking into account the impact on vegetation, to include in the program route observations carried out by mobile atmospheric air monitoring laboratories, territories with public green areas, which will increase the information content of atmospheric air monitoring and the state of green spaces. In connection with the increasing noise level in large cities and the lack of a permanent noise monitoring system, it is proposed to equip existing and new monitoring stations with noise level meters to provide reliable information for the development of relevant environmental measures.

  5. Study on the total amount control of atmospheric pollutant based on GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Guo, Xi-Kun

    2005-08-01

    To provide effective environmental management for total amount control of atmospheric pollutants. An atmospheric diffusion model of sulfur dioxide on the surface of the earth was established and tested in Shantou of Guangdong Province on the basis of an overall assessment of regional natural environment, social economic state of development, pollution sources and atmospheric environmental quality. Compared with actual monitoring results in a studied region, simulation values fell within the range of two times of error and were evenly distributed in the two sides of the monitored values. Predicted with the largest emission model method, the largest emission of sulfur dioxide would be 54,279.792 tons per year in 2010. The mathematical model established and revised on the basis of GIS is more rational and suitable for the regional characteristics of total amount control of air pollutants.

  6. Spectroradiometric inspection of nuclear pollution in the atmosphere based on photochemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Kopytin, Yurii D.

    2005-07-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental investigations of remote monitoring methods based on secondary radioactivity effects including anomalous gaseous fields and their emissions in optical and microwave ranges are discussed. The feasibility of remote registration of secondary emission and absorption spectra from weakly ionized regions in the atmosphere above nuclear power engineering objects, dumps, and tailings dumps of nuclear wastes are examined. Based on the literature data on the excess concentrations of aerosol and gaseous components produced in radiation fields above their background levels, the diffusion parameters of radioactive emissions in the atmosphere are evaluated. The methods under consideration are shown to be promising for ecological monitoring of atmospheric radioactive pollution. High sensitivities of these methods enable pollutants to be detected at long distances. Simultaneous use of passive and active methods gives additional information on the parameters of radioactive pollution.

  7. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Particulate Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Hong, J.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF), whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  8. Monitoring and inventorying of the pollutant emissions from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, Gherghina; Iordache, Daniela; Iordache, Victorita; Ciomaga, Carmencita; Matei, Magdalena; Ilie, Ion; Motiu, Cornel

    2001-01-01

    Pollution due to emissions discharged in atmosphere as a result of human (anthropogenic) activities and the related environmental effects, such as acid depositions, land quality degradation, global warming/climate changes, building degradation, ozone layer depletion required the monitoring and inventorying of the polluting emissions at the local, regional and global levels. The paper briefly presents the international requirements concerning the development of a polluting emission inventory, the European methodologies for air polluting emission inventorying, programs and methodologies used in the Romanian electricity production sector for inventorying the polluting emissions and calculation of the dispersion of the pollutants discharged in the atmosphere. (author)

  9. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants with laser techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corio, W; Querzola, B; Zanzottera, E

    1979-03-01

    Laser techniques for the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants are reviewed, with attention given to lidars based on Rayleigh and Mie scattering, the Raman effect, or fluorescent scattering. Emphasis is placed on differential absorption lidars, which rely on Rayleigh or Mie scattering for measurements made in the IR or in the visible-UV range, respectively. A comprehensive air pollution monitoring program based on differential absorption lidars, together with systems using fluorescent backscattering and absorption measurements with topographic backscattering, is described.

  10. Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Changes over the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, Z.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Cong, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, J.; Huang, J.; Tripathee, L.; Rupakheti, D.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Known as "the Third Pole" (TP), the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains hold the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the pole regions. Recent monitoring and projection indicated an accelerated glacier decline and increasing glacier runoff. The long-range transport of South Asian atmospheric pollutants, including light absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD), can absorb the solar radiation in the atmosphere and reduce albedo after being deposited onto the cryosphere, thereby promoting glacier and snow melt. A coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network has been launched covering the TP with emphasis on trans-Himalayan transects since 2013. TSP were collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days. BC/OC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured. Results reveal a consistent decrease in almost all analyzed parameters from south to north across the Himalayas. Geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicate dominant sources of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust, in line with results of PAHs. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggest that the trans-boundary air pollution occurred episodically and concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons via upper air circulation, through-valley wind, and local convection. Simulation results showed that carbonaceous aerosols produced positive/negative shortwave radiative forcing in the atmosphere/ground surface. Aerosols increased surface air temperatures by 0.1-0.5° over the TP and decreased temperatures in South Asia during the monsoon season. Surface snow/ice samples were collected from benchmark glaciers to estimate the impacts of LAIs on glacier melt with model assistance. BC (37%) and MD (32%) contribute to the summer melting of Laohugou Glacier in the northern TP. MD (38%) contributed more glacier melt than BC (11%) on Zhadang Glacier in the southern TP. In the southeastern TP, BC and MD contribute to 30% of the

  11. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  12. Gas fired boilers and atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaranello, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A general analysis concerning atmospheric pollution is presented: chemical composition and vertical distribution of atmosphere and pollutants, chemical reactions, ozone destruction and production cycles, COx, NOx and SOx pollutions. The gas fired boiler number and repartition in France are presented and the associated pollution is analyzed (CO2, CO, NOx) and quantified. Various pollution control technics concerning gas fired boiler pollutants are described and a pollution criterion for clean gas fired generators is proposed

  13. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmwork are expected to cover a lack of reliable information regarding sources of atmospheric pollutants in Portugal and present, for the first time, systematic data of PAHs levels in Lisbon. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under Project PAHLIS (PTDC/AMB/65699/2006) financed by "Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia". C. Oliveira thanks Project PAHLIS his scholarship.

  14. POLARIMETRIC REMOTE SENSING OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF, whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  15. Monitoring of contamination of atmospheric environment by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Hiroaki

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a worldwide problem regardless of developed industrial nations and developing countries. In particular, the pollution due to automobile exhaust gas, the carcinogenic particles in diesel exhaust and their relation to various respiratory diseases are the problems. Nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides in exhaust gas become the cause of acid rain. Radiation began to be utilized for the measurement of the concentration of floating particles and the amount of fallout dust, the forecast of the generation and diffusion of pollutants, the elucidation of the contribution of generation sources in wide areas and so on. In this report, the circumstances that radiation became to be utilized for monitoring atmospheric environment and the present status and the perspective of the radiation utilization in the field of the preservation of atmospheric environment are described. The progress of the method of measuring floating particles in Japan is explained. The automatic measurement of floating particles by β-ray absorption method and the application of β-ray absorption method to the measurement of the amount of fallout dust, generation source particles and the exposure to floating particles of individuals for health control are described. The utilization of radiation for real time monitoring, the investigation of the generation of blown-up dust, atmospheric diffusion experiment and the elucidation of the contribution of generation sources by PIXE radioactivation analysis are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Atmospheric pollution: history, science and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.Z. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The book provides an introduction to the history and science of major air pollution issues. It begins with an introduction to the history of discovery of chemicals in the atmosphere, and moves on to a discussion of the evolution of the earth's atmosphere. It then discusses five major atmospheric pollution topics: urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global climate change. The book contains numerous student examples and problems and over 200 color illustrations and photographs.

  17. Atmospheric particulate pollution in Kenitra (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghaid, Mustapha; Noack, Yves; Boukla, Moussa; Benyaich, Fouad

    2009-01-01

    Cities of Morocco are exposed to a high atmospheric particulate pollution due to automobile traffic, industrialization, but also to soil dusts (in relation with aridity and desert proximity). Monitoring networks and data about air pollution still rare. The present study is a preliminary work about particulate and heavy metals pollution in Kenitra city. Aerosols had been collected with a PM10 sampler (Partisol), a dichotomous sampler (P M2.5 and P M2.5-10 fractions) and stacked filter unit (Gent type) with a fine fraction (below 2.5 um) and a coarse fraction. In summer, the average PM10 concentration is near 80 u g/N m 3 , above the EEC rule and OMS recommendations, but similar to some other african towns. The ratio P M2.5/PM 10 is low (below 0.5), with seasonal variation in relation with meteorology. The lead and nickel concentrations are also very low, in relation with the use of leaded gasoline and the oldness of many vehicles. This preliminary work reveals high levels of pollution (especially PM10, Pb and Ni) in the town of Kenitra. The major sources are traffic, soil dusts and resuspension of deposited particles. It is necessary to develop monitoring network and sanitary and and environmental impact studies in these cities [fr

  18. Atmospheric environment measurement 3. Environmental pollution monitoring system using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keizo

    2009-01-01

    The PIXE(Proton Induced X-ray Emission) method is used in various fields owing to its high sensitivity. This method can be used to analyze multiple elements in a short time and therefore is suitable for the analysis of large quantities of environmental samples. We researched the effect of removing footwear in a room on indoor aerosol pollution. The concentration of aerosol particles in the case that footwear was not removed was 5 times larger than in the case when footwear was removed. We were able to identify a source of air pollution using both the results of PIXE analysis and information on wind direction. We applied PIXE analysis to investigate airborne yellow sand, which originals from the Gobi desert. By analyzing each yellow sand particle, hazardous yellow sand could be detected. We also applied PIXE analysis to river water pollution. River water samples were collected at a number of points along a river. The dilution of metallic elements by the river water was observed. Thus, it was shown that monitoring systems using the PIXE method are very useful for monitoring environmental pollution. (author)

  19. Integrated monitoring and assessment of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, O.

    2009-09-15

    Improved quality, better understanding of processes and optimisation of allocated resources, these are the main advantages of applying Integrated Monitoring and Assessment (IMA) in air quality management. The IMA is defined as the combined use of measurements and model calculations. The use of IMA is demonstrated with examples with different aims: to obtain data for air pollution in urban streets, to assess human exposure to traffic air pollution, and to assess atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. (author)

  20. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  1. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-09-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmens, H.; Foan, L.; Simon, V.; Mills, G.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. - Highlights: ► Terrestrial mosses are suitable organisms to monitor deposition of POPs. ► They provide a good indication of spatial patterns and temporal trends. ► Mosses have been used as biomonitors of PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs dioxins and furans. ► Few studies have assessed the relationship between concentrations in air and mosses. - Mosses are suitable biomonitors of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  3. Mosses Are Better than Leaves of Vascular Plants in Monitoring Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanbin; Fan, Miao; Hu, Ronggui; Zhao, Jinsong; Wu, Yupeng

    2018-05-29

    Mosses and leaves of vascular plants have been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals originating from various sources. This study aims to compare the metal accumulation capabilities of mosses and vascular species in urban areas and quantify the suitability of different taxa for monitoring airborne heavy metals. One pleurocarpous feather moss species, Haplocladium angustifolium , and two evergreen tree species, Cinnamomum bodinieri Osmanthus fragrans , and substrate soil were sampled in the urban area of different land use types in Wuhan City in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Pb, and Zn in these samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The differences of heavy metals concentration in the three species showed that the moss species was considerably more capable of accumulating heavy metals than tree leaves (3 times to 51 times). The accumulated concentration of heavy metals in the moss species depended on the metal species and land use type. The enrichment factors of metals for plants and the correlations of metals in plants with corresponding metals in soil reflected that the accumulated metals in plants stemmed mostly from atmospheric deposition, rather than the substrate soil. Anthropogenic factors, such as traffic emissions from automobile transportation and manufacturing industries, were primarily responsible for the variations in metal pollutants in the atmosphere and subsequently influenced the metal accumulation in the mosses. This study elucidated that the moss species H. angustifolium is relatively more suitable than tree leaves of C. bodinieri and O. fragrans in monitoring heavy metal pollution in urban areas, and currently Wuhan is at a lower contamination level of atmospheric heavy metals than some other cities in China.

  4. Web technologies for rapid assessment of pollution of the atmosphere of the industrial city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparev, N.; Tokarev, A.; Yakubailik, O.; Soldatov, A.

    2018-05-01

    The functionality, architectural features, the user interface of the geoinformation web-system of environmental monitoring of Krasnoyarsk is discussed. This system is created in service-oriented architecture. Data collection from the automated stations to monitor the state of atmospheric air has been implemented. An original device to measure the level of contamination of the atmosphere by fine dust PM2.5 has developed. Assessment of the level of air pollution is based on the quality index AQI atmosphere.

  5. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  6. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  7. Monitoring Of Pollutants In Museum Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Budu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Art works are affected by environmental factors as light, temperature, humidity. Air pollutants are also implicated in their degradation. The pollution in museums has two sources: the air from outside, which brings usually dust and inorganic particles, and the inside sources – the materials used for casings (sealants, textiles placed on the display cases, varnishes, wood that emanate organic compounds. The dust is composed of particles with a diameter of approximately 2µm or higher, which come from soil (silica or animal and vegetal residues (skin cells, pollen. They facilitate water condensation on objects surface and biologic attack. The inorganic compounds are a result of materials combustion (SO2, NO2, NO and in presence of water they form acidic compounds which affect the museum objects. The organic compounds are usually peroxides, acids, phthalates, formaldehyde. The effects of these pollutants are: soiling, surface discolouration, embrittlement, corrosion. Therefore, conservators are interested in monitoring the pollution degree in the display cases or in the museum air and in analyzing the effects of pollutants on the exhibited objects. They use different methods for pollutants identification, like direct reading devices based on colorimetry, that can be read after few minutes and hours (they interact with the pollutants in atmosphere, or indirect reading samples that require a laboratory. The information gathered is used for the identification of pollution source and to analyze the concentration of pollutants needed to provoke damages on the surfaces of art objects. This paper is a review of pollutants that affect the art objects and of the monitoring systems used for their identification and measuring.

  8. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-22

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  9. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric 137Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12–23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric 137Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models. PMID:25335435

  10. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-02-15

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the -5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Lidar system for air-pollution monitoring over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Irina V.; Shcheglov, Djolinard A.; Molodtsov, Nikolai A.

    1997-05-01

    The atmospheric environmental situation over the urban area of a large city is determined by a complex combination of anthropogenic pollution and meteorological factors. The efficient way to provide three-dimensional mapping of gaseous pollutants over wide areas is utilization of lidar systems employing tunable narrowband transmitters. The paper presented describes activity of RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in the field of lidar atmospheric monitoring. The project 'mobile remote sensing system based on tunable laser transmitter for environmental monitoring' is developed under financial support of International Scientific and Technology Center (Moscow). The objective of the project is design, construction and field testing of a DIAL-technique system. The lidar transmitter consists of an excimer laser pumping dye laser, BBO crystal frequency doubler, and scanning flat mirror. Sulfur dioxide and atomic mercury have been selected as pollutants for field tests of the lidar system under development. A recent large increase in Moscow traffic stimulated taking into consideration also the remote sensing of lower troposphere ozone because of the photochemical smog problem. The status of the project is briefly discussed. The current activity includes also collecting of environmental data relevant to lidar remote sensing. Main attention is paid to pollutant concentration levels over Moscow city and Moscow district areas.

  12. Effectiveness of using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips to measure the severity levels of air pollutants in indoor and outdoor atmospheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foax, LJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Severity levels of air pollutants rich in oxides, chlorides and sulphides were successfully measured in indoor and outdoor atmospheres using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips when the maximum exposure periods...

  13. Effect of atmospheric pollution on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years the incidence of smog episodes and their intensity have gone down considerably and difference in atmospheric pollutant levels between urban and rural areas is very small. Even the sudden moderate elevation of atmospheric pollution during winter months affects the pulmonary function adversely and provokes increased respiratory symptomes. The prevalence of rhinitis and allergy is more frequent both in adults and in children in urban townships than in rural areas. It has also been observed that industrial city dwellers have inferior pulmonary function. Very recent results indicate possible interaction between atmospheric pollutant levels and regeneration process following airways infection in yound children. (orig.) [de

  14. Air pollution sources, impact and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    1999-01-01

    Improper management of socio-economic developmental activities has put a great stress on natural resources and eco-systems and has caused environmental degradation. Indiscriminate release of toxic substances into the atmosphere from power generation, industrial operations, transportation, incineration of waste and other operations has affected the quality of ambient air. Combustion of fossil fuel results in the emission of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, particulate and organic compounds which affect the local, regional and global environment. Industrial operations release a wide variety of pollutants which directly affect the local environment. Operation of automobiles releases oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons, traces of heavy metals and toxic polycyclic aromatic compounds whereas incineration of municipal waste releases particulate, acid fumes and photochemically reactive and odorous compounds. These air pollutants have varying impacts on health and environment. The intake of polluted air may produce various physiological disorders ranging from respiratory diseases to changes in blood chemistry. Therefore, the emission of pollutants should be controlled at the source and monitoring the levels of pollution should assess the quality of air. (author)

  15. Dispersion and transport of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslik, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the physical mechanisms that govern the dispersion and transport of air pollutant; the influence of the state of the 'carrying fluid', i.e. the role of meteorology; and finally, outlines the different techniques of assessing the process. Aspects of physical mechanisms and meteorology covered include: fate of an air pollutant; turbulence and dispersion; transport; wind speed and direction; atmospheric stability; and the role of atmospheric water. Assessment techniques covered are: concentrations measurements; modelling meteorological observations; and tracer releases. It is concluded that the only way to reduce air pollution is to pollute less. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  17. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The monitoring of air pollution in France. History, evolution, structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delandre, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    After a broad description of APPA's (Association for Prevention of Atmospheric Pollution) activities in France since it was created in 1958, the structures of the various types of measuring systems (at July 1, 1991) are presented: urban centers networks, industrial areas networks, including forest acid rain monitoring. A list of the main continuously measured pollutants is given (high acidity, settling dust, sulfur dioxide, black smoke, suspended dust, fluorine, etc.)

  19. Observations of atmospheric pollutants at Lhasa during 2014-2015: Pollution status and the influence of meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Bu; Cui, Lulu; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Rui; Zhang, Liwu; Fu, Hongbo; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Huifang; Qiong, A

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and inhalable particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were monitored continuously from March 2014 to February 2015 to investigate characteristics of air pollution at Lhasa, Tibetan Plateau. Species exhibited similar seasonal variations except O 3 , with the peaks in winter but low valleys in summer. The maximum O 3 concentration was observed in spring, followed by summer, autumn, and winter. The positive correlation between O 3 and PM 10 in spring indicated similar sources of them, and was assumed to be turbulent transport. Temperature was the dominant meteorological factor for most species in spring. High temperature accelerates O 3 photochemistry, and favors air disturbance which is conductive to dust resuspension in spring. Relative humidity (RH) and atmospheric pressure were the main meteorological factors in summer. RH showed negative correlations with species, while atmospheric pressure posed opposite situation. Wind speed (WS) was the dominant meteorological factor in autumn, the negative correlations between WS and species indicated diffusion by wind. Most species showed non-significant correlations with meteorological factors in winter, indicating the dependence of pollution on source emission rather than restriction by meteorology. Pollution weather character indicated that emissions were from biomass burning and dust suspension, and meteorological factors also played an important role. Air stream injection from the stratosphere was observed during O 3 pollution period. Air parcels from Southwest Asia were observed during air pollution period in winter. An enhancement in air pollutants such as O 3 would be expected in the future, more attention should be given to countermeasures for prevention of air pollution in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Detection and monitoring of pollutant sources with Lidar/Dial techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, P; Gelfusa, M; Malizia, A; Parracino, S; Richetta, M; De Leo, L; Perrimezzi, C; Bellecci, C

    2015-01-01

    It's well known that air pollution due to anthropogenic sources can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last years, surveying large regions of the atmosphere in an automatic way has become a strategic objective of various public health organizations for early detection of pollutant sources in urban and industrial areas.The Lidar and Dial techniques have become well established laser based methods for the remote sensing of the atmosphere. They are often implemented to probe almost any level of the atmosphere and to acquire information to validate theoretical models about different topics of atmospheric physics. They can also be used for environment surveying by monitoring particles, aerosols and molecules.The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the potential of these methods to detect pollutants emitted from local sources (such as particulate and/or chemical compounds) and to evaluate their concentration. This is exemplified with the help of experimental data acquired in an industrial area in the south of Italy by mean of experimental campaign by use of pollutants simulated source. For this purpose, two mobile systems Lidar and Dial have been developed by the authors. In this paper there will be presented the operating principles of the system and the results of the experimental campaign. (paper)

  1. Monitoring of trace organic air pollutants – a developing country perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants arise both from natural sources and from various anthropogenic activities, and are of concern due to their environmental impacts, including human health effects. In developing countries, atmospheric monitoring has largely focused...

  2. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, P.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Pennington, W. F.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Hilton, B. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Newchurch, M. J.; Carr, J. L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (approximately 2.1 kilometers N/S by 4.4 kilometers E/W at 36.5 degrees N, 100 degrees W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO (iodine monoxide),water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the

  3. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Some organisms accumulate atmospheric contaminants over certain periods of time and concentrate them, thus allowing reliable analytical measurements if the organisms are suitably chosen. Measurements of contaminants accumulated by such organisms (biomonitors) provide information on the integrated exposure over an extended period of time. They may also be present in remote areas, and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Therefore, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact human health, and one of the main emphases is on studying air contaminants. The idea of organizing a workshop on biomonitoring atmospheric pollution arose during an IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Monitoring of Trace Element Air Pollution, carried out at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Portugal, with substantial technical support by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Netherlands. The International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (With Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21 to 24 September 1997. The meeting was organized in co-operation with the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear

  4. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP. Proceedings of an international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Some organisms accumulate atmospheric contaminants over certain periods of time and concentrate them, thus allowing reliable analytical measurements if the organisms are suitably chosen. Measurements of contaminants accumulated by such organisms (biomonitors) provide information on the integrated exposure over an extended period of time. They may also be present in remote areas, and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Therefore, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practicaluse of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact human health, and one of the main emphases is on studying air contaminants. The idea of organizing a workshop on biomonitoring atmospheric pollution arose during an IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Monitoring of Trace Element Air Pollution, carried out at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Portugal, with substantial technical support by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Netherlands. The International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (With Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21 to 24 September 1997. The meeting was organized in co-operation with the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear.

  5. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howton, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on effects of atmospheric pollutants on lipids emphasized effects of nitrogen dioxide on olefinic centers of alveolar fluid surfactant lipids. The finding that NO 2 attacks α-tocopherol much more avidly than olefinic fatty esters indicates that the autoxidation enhancing effects of this atmospheric pollutant may be greatly magnified by destruction of native antioxidants that normally suppress the extensiveness of such lipid oxidation

  6. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  7. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  8. Continuous atmosperic pollutant distribution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.W.

    1984-06-01

    The feasibility of an on-line continuous pollutant distribution monitor has been established. The device employs a small microprocessor to simulate atmospheric dispersion using the segmented Gaussian plume model, an anemometer-bivane to measure the wind conditions, and a control 'box' with which certain model parameters can be specified and changed without interrupting the execution of the computer program. The output of the device is in the form of contours of equal ground-level concentrations on a colour monitor, or a printer dump of the associated graphic screen. The device is only suitable for short range predictions due to the memory limitations of the microprocessor. Predictions are updated approximately once every minute. Various case studies were performed to investigate the behaviour of the model when subjected to controlled input data. A series of short-range experimental runs were conducted in which predicted SO 2 concentrations were compared with measured values. The performance of the model in the case studies was acceptable, and comparisons with the measured SO 2 concentration values proved the model to overpredict by about 30%, which is considered satisfactory. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere

  9. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sportisse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  10. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David; Al-Saadi, Jay; Janz, Scott

    2015-01-01

    TEMPO is now well into its implementation phase, having passed both its Key Decision Point C and the Critical Design Review (CDR) for the instrument. The CDR for the ground systems will occur in March 2016 and the CDR for the Mission component at a later date, after the host spacecraft has been selected. TEMPO is on schedule to measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 percent. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. Instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will

  11. Online vehicle and atmospheric pollution monitoring using GIS and wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova-Lopez, L E; Mason, A; Cullen, J D; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2007-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer system designed to integrate, store, edit, analyse, share and display geographically referenced data. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. This paper presents the integration of these two technologies to create a system able to detect measure and transmit information regarding the presence and quantities of internal combustion derived pollution and the geographical location in real time with the aim of creating pollution maps in urban environments

  12. Applications of Ground-based Mobile Atmospheric Monitoring: Real-time Characterization of Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. Douglas

    Gas and particle phase atmospheric pollution are known to impact human and environmental health as well as contribute to climate forcing. While many atmospheric pollutants are regulated or controlled in the developed world uncertainty still remains regarding the impacts from under characterized emission sources, the interaction of anthropogenic and naturally occurring pollution, and the chemical and physical evolution of emissions in the atmosphere, among many other uncertainties. Because of the complexity of atmospheric pollution many types of monitoring have been implemented in the past, but none are capable of perfectly characterizing the atmosphere and each monitoring type has known benefits and disadvantages. Ground-based mobile monitoring with fast-response in-situ instrumentation has been used in the past for a number of applications that fill data gaps not possible with other types of atmospheric monitoring. In this work, ground-based mobile monitoring was implemented to quantify emissions from under characterized emission sources using both moving and portable applications, and used in a novel way for the characterization of ambient concentrations. In the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania two mobile platforms were used to estimate emission rates from infrastructure associated with the production and transmission of natural gas using two unique methods. One campaign investigated emissions of aerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from natural gas wells, well development practices, and compressor stations using tracer release ratio methods and a developed fenceline tracer release correction factor. Another campaign investigated emissions of methane from Marcellus Shale gas wells and infrastructure associated with two large national transmission pipelines using the "Point Source Gaussian" method described in the EPA OTM-33a. During both campaigns ambient concentrations

  13. Inverse atmospheric radiative transfer problems - A nonlinear minimization search method of solution. [aerosol pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.

  14. Atmospheric pollution in our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir, G.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with all the activities of humans. It is becoming a serious problem in coming years so it is relevant to find out how seriously our atmosphere is being polluted and how this pollution affects human and plant life in our environment. Not only the human activities are the source of our pollution but nature causes more pollution. Air pollution that is due to the pressure of foreign substances in air, effects the quality and concentration of air substances. It is not only injurious to property, but also to vegetation and animal life. Air pollution is one of our most serious environmental problems. The sources vary from smoke-stacks and automobiles to noise and foreon containing aerosols. (orig./A.B.)

  15. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  16. Errors in spectroscopic measurements of SO2 due to nonexponential absorption of laser radiation, with application to the remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassington, D.J.; Moncrieff, T.M.; Felton, R.C.; Jolliffe, B.W.; Marx, B.R.; Rowley, W.R.C.; Woods, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of measuring the concentration of atmospheric pollutants by laser absorption spectroscopy, such as differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and integrated long-path techniques, all rely on the validity of Beer's exponential absorption law. It is shown here that departures from this law occur if the probing laser has a bandwidth larger than the wavelength scale of structure in the absorption spectrum of the pollutant. A comprehensive experimental and theoretical treatment of the errors resulting from these departures is presented for the particular case of SO 2 monitoring at approx.300 nm. It is shown that the largest error occurs where the initial calibration measurement of absorption cross section is made at low pressure, in which case errors in excess of 5% in the cross section could occur for laser bandwidths >0.01 nm. Atmospheric measurements by DIAL or long-path methods are in most cases affected less, because pressure broadening smears the spectral structure, but when measuring high concentrations errors can exceed 5%

  17. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  18. North American pollution measurements from geostationary orbit with Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, K.

    2017-12-01

    TEMPO is the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument. It launches between 2019 and 2021 to measure atmospheric pollution from Mexico City and Cuba to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly at high spatial resolution, 10 km2. Geostationary daytime measurements capture the variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry at sub-urban scale to improve emission inventories, monitor population exposure, and enable emission-control strategies.TEMPO measures UV/visible Earth reflectance spectra to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, BrO, OClO, IO, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. It tracks aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products. TEMPO is the North American component of the upcoming the global geostationary constellation for pollution monitoring, together with the European Sentinel-4 and the Korean Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS).TEMPO science studies include: Intercontinental pollution transport; Solar-induced fluorescence from chlorophyll over land and in the ocean to study tropical dynamics, primary productivity and carbon uptake, to detect red tides, and to study phytoplankton; measurements of stratospheric intrusions that cause air quality exceedances; measurements at peaks in vehicle travel to capture the variability in emissions from mobile sources; measurements of thunderstorm activity, including outflow regions to better quantify lightning NOx and O3 production; cropland measurements to follow the temporal evolution of emissions after fertilizer application and from rain-induced emissions from semi-arid soils; investigating the chemical processing of primary fire emissions and the secondary formation of VOCs and ozone; examining ocean halogen emissions and their impact on the oxidizing capacity of coastal environments; measuring spectra of nighttime lights as markers for human activity, energy conservation, and compliance with outdoor lighting standards

  19. The nitrogen oxides and the atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this document is to bring information on the acid atmospheric pollution, on the researches and studies in progress, on the european directives and the national regulations, on the processus and burners with low emission of nitrogen oxides and on the rule that the gas, fuel without sulphur, generating little nitrogen oxides, plays in the fight against atmospheric pollution. 20 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs

  20. An Airborne Wireless Sensor System for Near-Real Time Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestis EVANGELATOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades with the rapid growth of industrial zones, manufacturing plants and the substantial urbanization, environmental pollution has become a crucial health, environmental and safety concern. In particular, due to the increased emissions of various pollutants caused mainly by human sources, the air pollution problem is elevated in such extent where significant measures need to be taken. Towards the identification and the qualification of that problem, we present in this paper an airborne wireless sensor network system for automated monitoring and measuring of the ambient air pollution. Our proposed system is comprised of a pollution-aware wireless sensor network and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. It is designed for monitoring the pollutants and gases of the ambient air in three-dimensional spaces without the human intervention. In regards to the general architecture of our system, we came up with two schemes and algorithms for an autonomous monitoring of a three-dimensional area of interest. To demonstrate our solution, we deployed the system and we conducted experiments in a real environment measuring air pollutants such as: NH3, CH4, CO2, O2 along with temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure. Lastly, we experimentally evaluated and analyzed the two proposed schemes.

  1. Monitoring of atmospheric excess 14C around Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, M.; Bujtás, T.; Svingor, E.; Futó, I.; Světlík, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2007), s. 1031-1043 ISSN 0033-8222 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiocarbon * monitoring * atmospheric excess 14C Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.164, year: 2007

  2. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2014-06-01

    TEMPO, selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest-cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 %. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well-proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement

  3. Implementation of Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Janz, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The updated status of TEMPO, as it proceeds from formulation phase into implementation phase is presented. TEMPO, the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50%. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. GEO-CAPE is not planned for implementation this decade. However, instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will form parts of a global GEO constellation for pollution monitoring later this decade, with a major focus on intercontinental

  4. Medical aspects of atmosphere pollution in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagidze, Lamzira; Matchavariani, Lia; Tsivtsivadze, Nodar; Khidasheli, Nargiz; Paichadze, Nino; Motsonelidze, Nargiz; Vakhtangishvili, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and its impact on ecosystems is one of the main problem of 21st century. Increase in green house gas in the atmosphere was regarded as an important cause. Atmospheric composition had significantly changed due to intensive technogenic pollution. Increase in aerosol (solid, liquid and gas) concentration had serious impact on human health and raised the level of risk factors for longevity of life. Despite, global character of climatic change and its intensity in numerous ways was influenced by local specificity of regions, their geographical location and meteorological factors. A study on the atmospheric quality (quantitative and percentage estimation of aerosols) of Georgia was carried out. Also the assessment of impact of meteorological and ecological conditions on human health was made for Tbilisi city. A relation between contaminants and meteorological factors was evaluated, particularly gas pollutants were strongly correlated with each other due to their photochemical activity; positive correlation (0.65; 0.69) between air temperature and pollutants. All the contaminants showed negative correlation with relative humidity, due to hydrolyzing ability. On the basis of multi-factorial statistical analysis, correlation between ambulance call, weather type, atmosphere pollution index, change in ground ozone quantity and earth magnetic field were determined. Atmospheric pollution due to dust, carbon, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, ground ozone quantity in Tbilisi significantly exceeded maximum permissible level, that effected human health.

  5. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  6. Sampling of Atmospheric Precipitation and Deposits for Analysis of Atmospheric Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Skarżyńska, K.; Polkowska, Ż; Namieśnik, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews techniques and equipment for collecting precipitation samples from the atmosphere (fog and cloud water) and from atmospheric deposits (dew, hoarfrost, and rime) that are suitable for the evaluation of atmospheric pollution. It discusses the storage and preparation of samples for analysis and also presents bibliographic information on the concentration ranges of inorganic and organic compounds in the precipitation and atmospheric deposit samples.

  7. Lenticels as indicators of atmospheric smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, F.

    1960-01-01

    The invasion of smoke pollution gets from the atmosphere into the plants only by lenticels and stomata. The most toxic smoke constituents penetrating into the stele are SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/, H/sub 3/AsO/sub 4/, HCl and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/OH. Lenticels are bark stomata filled with merenchym tissue, which hinders the entrance of mechanical smoke particles into the interior tissues of the stele. In autumn, the lenticels are packed by cork slabs formed by the cork cambium. In spring, this cork slab is broken by a new mechanical tissue. Sambucus nigra L. has a merenchym sensitive to the presence of smoke pollution, and the lenticels may serve, therefore, as indicators of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The intensity of damage caused by smoke constituents penetrating into the plants through lenticels depends upon a series of exterior and interior factors. They are the number of lenticels per area unit of bark surface in the whole circumference, the pH of the biocomplex near the lenticel in the interior tissues of stele, and the concentration of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The most effective way of preventing smoke damage is to install pollution control equipment in the industrial works.

  8. Tropospheric emissions: Monitoring of pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, P.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Pennington, W. F.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Hilton, B. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Newchurch, M. J.; Carr, J. L.; Janz, S. J.; Andraschko, M. R.; Arola, A.; Baker, B. D.; Canova, B. P.; Chan Miller, C.; Cohen, R. C.; Davis, J. E.; Dussault, M. E.; Edwards, D. P.; Fishman, J.; Ghulam, A.; González Abad, G.; Grutter, M.; Herman, J. R.; Houck, J.; Jacob, D. J.; Joiner, J.; Kerridge, B. J.; Kim, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L.; Li, C.; Lindfors, A.; Martin, R. V.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D. O.; Nowlan, C. R.; O`Sullivan, E. J.; Palmer, P. I.; Pierce, R. B.; Pippin, M. R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Szykman, J. J.; Torres, O.; Veefkind, J. P.; Veihelmann, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Chance, K.

    2017-01-01

    TEMPO was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution ( 2.1 km N/S×4.4 km E/W at 36.5°N, 100°W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO (iodine monoxide), water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the North American component of the global geostationary constellation of pollution monitoring

  9. Radioisotope dust pollution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepke, R.; Harasimczuk, J.; Dobrowiecki, J.

    1990-01-01

    Measuring principles and specification of two dust monitors: station-type AMIZ and portable-type PIK-10 for ambient air pollution are presented. The first one, a fully automatic instrument is destined for permanent monitoring of air pollution in preset sampling time from .25 to 24 hours. The second one was developed as a portable working model. Both instruments display their results in digital form in dust concentration units. (author)

  10. mathematical modelling of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    the main objectives of this thesis are dealing with environmental problems adopting mathematical techniques. in this respect, atmospheric dispersion processes have been investigated by improving the analytical models to realize the realistic physical phenomena. to achieve these aims, the skeleton of this work contained both mathematical and environmental topics,performed in six chapters. in chapter one we presented a comprehensive review study of most important informations related to our work such as thermal stability , plume rise, inversion, advection , dispersion of pollutants, gaussian plume models dealing with both radioactive and industrial contaminants. chapter two deals with estimating the decay distance as well as the decay time of either industrial or radioactive airborne pollutant. further, highly turbulent atmosphere has been investigated as a special case in the three main thermal stability classes namely, neutral, stable, and unstable atmosphere. chapter three is concerned with obtaining maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant. the variable effective height of pollutants has been considered throughout the mathematical treatment. as a special case the constancy of effective height has been derived mathematically and the maximum ground level concentration as well as its location have been established

  11. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Monleon, Vicente J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m"3, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m"3, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two stained

  12. Static and mobile networks design for atmospheric accidental releases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abida, R.

    2010-01-01

    The global context of my PhD thesis work is the optimization of air pollution monitoring networks, but more specifically it concerns the monitoring of accidental releases of radionuclides in air. The optimization problem of air quality measuring networks has been addresses in the literature. However, it has not been addresses in the context of surveillance of accidental atmospheric releases. The first part of my thesis addresses the optimization of a permanent network of monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the air, covering France. The second part concerns the problem of targeting of observations in case of an accidental release of radionuclides from a nuclear plant. (author)

  13. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  14. Metal concentrations in homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; Han, Shuang; Li, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban areas is a major worldwide concern with potential adverse impacts on wildlife and humans. Biomonitoring can provide direct evidence of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the environment that is not available with mechanical air monitoring. The current study continues our evaluation of the usefulness of homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. Homing pigeons (1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old (yo)) collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in lung tissue. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations were significantly greater in 9-10+-year-old pigeons compared with those in other age groups, indicating their bioavailability and bioaccumulation. Lung Pb and Cd concentrations measured in 5-yo pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were significantly lower than concentrations reported in 5-yo homing pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2011 and correlated with concentrations measured using mechanical air monitoring. In addition to temporal differences, spatial differences in concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg reported in ambient air samples and in pigeon lung tissues collected from Beijing and Guangzhou are discussed.

  15. An assessment of worldwide energy-related atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Energy-related emissions of atmospheric pollutants are currently suspected as the source of a number of major environmental problems. Early concerns about local and regional air quality and respiratory health risks, greatly alleviated in the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by the use of tall stacks, have been superseded by ''global problems,'' such as acidification of the biosphere, increase in tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), visibility impairment, long-term exposure to toxic pollutants, and buildup of ''greenhouse gases''. Chapter 1 assesses the sources and physical/chemical atmospheric processes of energy-related atmospheric pollution (ERAP). It is not an exhaustive review but rather a documented statement of the state-of-art knowledge on issues critical to effective environmental decision-making. Chapter 2 looks at the effects on man, the environment and materials, and chapter 3 presents an overview and policy options. (author)

  16. Atmospheric pollution: How is it in Morocco?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejjari, Chakib; Mechakra-Tahiri, S.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric pollution is recognised. Risks are defined by toxicological studies on man and animal and by epidemiological studies based on population in industrial countries. Air pollution due to the economical development and the contamination of the atmosphere by chemical substances (gas and aerosols), has been also increasing around the world. The case here is in Morocco. SO 2 emissions has increased from 129 thousand tons per year to 180 tt per year in 1992 and will reach 300 tt per year in 2005. In Morocco today exist a large number of vehicles and industries (chemical industries, refineries, plastic...) emitting pollutants in rural cities and causing toxic products as aerosols and smog. A table concerning the evolution of gas emissions (SO 2 ; NO x ; CO and Ozone) in Morocco per thousand tons per year from 1982 until 2020 is given in details. Projects are settled to increase the air quality and reduce air pollution and its impact on public health

  17. Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to the Eastern Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncel, G.; Tuncel, S.

    1994-01-01

    A permanent stations has been established in the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey for continuous monitoring of aerosols and precipitation. The station is part of the MED-POL programme which includes all countries that have coasts in the Mediterranean Sea and attempts to determine the role of the atmospheric fluxes of pollutants on the pollution of the Mediterranea Sea. Aerosol and deposition samples have been collected since early 1992. Concentrations of SO 4 , NO 3 , Cl, Li, Pb, K, Ca, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn and Na were determined by ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. Daily samples will be screened to select the ones which correspond to transport from Europe and will be analyzed for a larger number of parameters using INAA. Method development took most of the time in 1992, and analysis are still in progress. Available data have shown that concentrations of anthropogenic elements are smaller in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere compared to other rural sites in the Europe. (author). 21 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  19. Development of mobile air pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Dukh Yeon; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Yoon, S.; Rostov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment and provide pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR(Light Detection And Ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The coal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  20. Groundwater pollution: Are we monitoring appropriate parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants and protection of groundwater resources. Monitoring groundwater quality is a ...

  1. Atmospheric Metal Pollutants-Archives, Methods, and History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the atmosphere with cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) is a consequence of human activities. Natural archives are necessary to reconstruct the long-term history of metal deposition because accurate measurement of atmospheric deposition is a recent accomplishment. Reconstructions require: (1) accurate determination of concentrations of elements and isotopes, (2) accurate chronology of archives, and (3) archives that faithfully record atmosphere deposition. The most useful long-term archives are accumulations of ice and snow, peat, and lake sediment. Quantification of Cd deposition is uncommon because of its low concentration and substantial chemical mobility. Nonetheless, trends in peat and lake sediment are similar to those of Hg and Pb since ca. 1800 a.d. Both Hg and Pb are relatively chemically immobile and thus the peat and lake archives are believed to record historic trends of atmospheric deposition. Isotopic and concentration studies of Pb indicate a history of northern hemisphere atmospheric pollution extending back prior to 0 a.d. Although measurements of Hg concentration are now routine, isotopic measurements are in their infancy. Some Hg pollution sources have unique isotopic ratios, thereby contributing unique signals to the total Hg. Maximum accumulation rates of Hg and Pb occur up to 10 years later than for Cd (1970s versus 1960s in eastern North America, perhaps slightly later in Europe). By 2004, deposition of Cd, Hg, and Pb had declined from peak values in eastern North America more than 75, 75, and 90%, respectively

  2. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  3. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  4. Application of computational fluid mechanics to atmospheric pollution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Smith, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most noticeable effects of air pollution on the properties of the atmosphere is the reduction in visibility. This paper reports the results of investigations of the fluid dynamical and microphysical processes involved in the formation of advection fog on aerosols from combustion-related pollutants, as condensation nuclei. The effects of a polydisperse aerosol distribution, on the condensation/nucleation processes which cause the reduction in visibility are studied. This study demonstrates how computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer modeling can be applied to simulate the life cycle of the atmosphereic pollution problems.

  5. Laser Gas-Analyser for Monitoring a Source of Gas Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorodnichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of growing air pollution of the Earth is of relevance. Many countries have taken measures to protect the environment in order to limit the negative anthropogenic impacts.In such a situation an objective information on the actual content of pollutants in the atmosphere is of importance. For operational inspection of the pollutant concentrations and for monitoring pollution sources, it is necessary to create high-speed high-sensitivity gas analysers.Laser meters are the most effective to provide operational remote and local inspection of gas pollution of the Earth atmosphere.Laser meter for routine gas analysis should conduct operational analysis of the gas mixture (air. For this a development of appropriate information support is required.Such information support should include a database with absorption coefficients of pollutants (specific to potential sources of pollution at possible measuring wavelengths (holding data for a particular emitter of the laser meter and an efficient algorithms to search the measuring wavelengths and conduct a quantitative analysis of gas mixtures.Currently, the issues, important for practice and related to the development of information support for the laser gas analyzer to conduct important for practice routine measurements remain unclear.In this paper we develop an algorithm to provide an operational search of the measuring wavelengths of laser gas analyser and an algorithm to recover quantitively the gaseous component concentrations of controlled gas mixture from the laser multi-spectral measurements that take into account a priori information about the source-controlled gas pollution and do not require a large amount of computation. The method of mathematical simulation shows the effectiveness of the algorithms described both for seach of measuring wavelengths and for quantitative analysis of gas releases.

  6. [Consequences of atmospheric pollution fluctuations in patients with COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, N; Tillon, J; Viacroze, C; Aouine, H; Muir, J-F

    2010-10-01

    Fluctuations in atmospheric pollution are responsible for an important morbidity and mortality in the patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiological studies show a significant increase in the mortality and hospitalization rates in COPD patients in relation to moderate increases in atmospheric pollution. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role and an oxidative toxicity of atmospheric particles and secondary morphological and functional changes in the respiratory epithelium and the immune system. An excess of particulate matter, ozone, NO(2), SO(2) and CO is directly correlated to the number of episodes of acute respiratory failure in different countries all over the world. The mechanisms implicated are complex and variable, dependent on the different pollutant agents, climatic variations and inter-individual susceptibility. Further experimental studies are necessary in order to clarify our fundamental understanding and, alongside better control of air quality, to reduce short-term respiratory complications. The consequences of atmospheric pollution fluctuations on the exacerbation rate and therefore on the morbidity and mortality of patients with COPD emphasize the importance of preventive environmental management in the field of public health. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  8. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  9. Monitoring and modelling of biosphere/atmosphere exchange of gases and aerosols in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, Jan Willem [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)]. E-mail: erisman@ecn.nl; Vermeulen, Alex [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hensen, Arjan [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Flechard, Chris [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Daemmgen, Ulrich [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Agroecology, D-38116 Braunschweig, (Germany); Fowler, David [CEH, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Sutton, Mark [CEH, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Gruenhage, Ludger [Institute for Plant Ecology, Justus-Liebig-University, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka [Finnish Meteorological Institute, FIN-00810 Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-02-01

    Monitoring and modelling of deposition of air pollutants is essential to develop and evaluate policies to abate the effects related to air pollution and to determine the losses of pollutants from the atmosphere. Techniques for monitoring wet deposition fluxes are widely applied. A recent intercomparison experiment, however, showed that the uncertainty in wet deposition is relatively high, up to 40%, apart from the fact that most samplers are biased because of a dry deposition contribution. Wet deposition amounts to about 80% of the total deposition in Europe with a range of 10-90% and uncertainty should therefore be decreased. During recent years the monitoring of dry deposition has become possible. Three sites have been operational for 5 years. The data are useful for model development, but also for model evaluation and monitoring of progress in policy. Data show a decline in SO{sub 2} dry deposition, whereas nitrogen deposition remained constant. Furthermore, surface affinities for pollutants changed leading to changes in deposition. Deposition models have been further developed and tested with dry deposition measurements and total deposition measurements on forests as derived from throughfall data. The comparison is reasonable given the measurement uncertainties. Progress in ozone surface exchange modelling and monitoring shows that stomatal uptake can be quantified with reasonable accuracy, but external surface uptake yields highest uncertainty. - Monitoring and modelling of the deposition of sulphur and nitrogen components and the exposure of ozone has gained much progress through the research within BIATEX.

  10. Spectral solar irradiance and some optical properties for various polluted atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacovides, Constantinos P.; Asimakopoulos, Demosthenis N.; Steven, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Using ground-based spectroradiometric measurements taken over the Athens atmosphere during May 1995, the influence of gaseous pollutants and aerosol on the spectral radiant energy distribution was investigated. It was found that spectral measurements exhibited variations based on various polluted urban atmospheric conditions as determined via gaseous pollutants record analysis. The relative attenuations cause by gaseous pollutants and aerosol can exceed 27%, 17% and 16% in the global ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum respectively, as compared to 'background' values. In contrast, an enhancement of the near-infrared diffuse component by 66%, was observed, while in visible and ultraviolet bands the relative increases reached 54% and 21% respectively. Experimental total Rayleigh-corrected and spectral aerosol optical depths were retrieved, representing differences in polluted air over the Athens atmosphere. The diffuse component accounts for more than 80% of the total radiation field under high polluted atmosphere. The observed differences of solar radiation between the Athens center and at a nearby suburban site are a manifestation of contrasting air properties provided mainly by automotive traffic. (Author)

  11. The co-ordinated programme for research and monitoring of pollution in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civili, F.S.; Jeftic, L.

    1987-01-01

    The turnover rate of water in the Mediterranean is explained, and the problem of pollution is identified. The Mediterranean Action Plan which was approved in 1975, has three main elements: environmental legislation, environmental management and environmental assessments. The environmental assessment component is a coordinated programme involving groups and institutions in 16 countries. The longterm objectives are stated and the activities undertaken are given. Four types of monitoring are being carried out - of sources, of coastal areas, of reference areas and of the transport of pollutants to the Mediterranean Sea through the atmosphere. The research activities are outlined and the resulting reports are considered. The state of pollution is assessed and the measures proposed to solve the problems are given. In particular, mercury pollution is explained. (UK)

  12. Atmospheric pollution and its influence on British forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, R

    1958-01-01

    The two chief sources of atmospheric pollution in Britain are the combustion of fuels and salt spray blown inland from the sea. This paper reviews the research done up to 1958 on both combustion-related air pollution and sea salt deposition in Great Britain.

  13. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  14. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  15. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  16. Atmospheric analyzer, carbon monoxide monitor and toluene diisocyanate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the atmospheric analyzer and the carbon monoxide and toluene diisocyanate monitors is to analyze the atmospheric volatiles and to monitor carbon monoxide and toluene diisocyanate levels in the cabin atmosphere of Skylab. The carbon monoxide monitor was used on Skylab 2, 3, and 4 to detect any carbon monoxide levels above 25 ppm. Air samples were taken once each week. The toluene diisocyanate monitor was used only on Skylab 2. The loss of a micrometeoroid shield following the launch of Skylab 1 resulted in overheating of the interior walls of the Orbital Workshop. A potential hazard existed from outgassing of an isocyanate derivative resulting from heat-decomposition of the rigid polyurethane wall insulation. The toluene diisocyanate monitor was used to detect any polymer decomposition. The atmospheric analyzer was used on Skylab 4 because of a suspected leak in the Skylab cabin. An air sample was taken at the beginning, middle, and the end of the mission.

  17. Remote sensing FTIR-system for emission monitoring and ambient air control of atmospheric trace gases and air pollutants; Remote sensing FTIR-System zur Emissions- und Immissionsmessung atmosphaerischer Spurengasse und Luftschadstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, T; Mosebach, H; Bittner, H [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer K300, based on the double-pendulum interferometer, is due to its optical design particularly suitable for high resolution remote sensing emission and transmission (long path monitoring) measurements of air pollutants and atmospheric trace gases in the field. The applications encompass direct emission measurements of hot flue gases and aircraft engine exhaust as well as surveillance of industrial complexes and waste disposal sites and ambient air control of e.g. traffic polluted sites. For direct emission measurements the infrared radiation of hot gases is utilized. Monitoring of cold diffuse emissions (e.g. at waste disposal sites) and ambient air control is carried out applying a bistatic transmission configuration with an artificial infrared source (glowbar) facing the instrument from a distance up to several hundred meters (long-path monitoring). Following a short introduction of the measurement technique and system, results from the above mentioned applications, obtained during several field studies are depicted and discussed. 19 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. The characteristic features of the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, H.

    1986-01-01

    The publication facilitates access to the development and effects of air pollution caused by the major emission sources by way of discussing the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants and the processes involved. Apart from the physical ratings of atmospheric pollutants the author focuses on the meteorological parameters determining the dispersion process as well as on the unavoidable statistical variations. Representative realistic maximum and minimum values indicating the relation between emissions from the relevant sources and the resulting air pollution allow an expeditious evaluation of possible environmental impacts classified by the different types of pollutants. The publication not only discusses the direct incorporation, that is the breathing of contaminated air or the absorption of food grown or produced in contaminated regions but also refers to radiation doses which due to the presence of radioactive substances accumulate in the human organism. Comprehensive references are annexed to facilitate access to relevant problems connected with the subject discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  19. LIDAR for atmosphere research over Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available d’aéronomie, CNRS, Paris, France 1Email: SVenkataraman@csir.co.za – www.csir.co.za K-6665 [www.kashangroup.com] Lidar for atmospheric studies: The CSIR’s laser research into monitoring various pollutants in the lower atmosphere via... to lidar applications for atmosphere studies including pollutant monitoring. The following salient features emanated from the survey: • Around 80% of the lidars are in the northern hemisphere • Of the 20% in the southern hemisphere region...

  20. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  1. Mortality, fog and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A E; Bradley, W H

    1960-01-01

    A study was made associating climate and atmospheric pollution with excess mortality in greater London during the winter of 1958 and 1959. It was a particularly foggy winter with 6 major episodes, 4 of which resembled previous dangerous smogs. There were two additional periods of high pollution without fog. Excess mortality during these 8 periods ranged from 70 to 230. During one period, a flu epidemic accompanied the fog. In 4 to 6 foggy periods, morbidity (hospital bed demand) also increased. This small number of observations indicates mortality association: on 2/3 of days with high SO/sub 2/ (2.5 pphM) or high particulate soot (10 mg/m/sup 3/), and on all days with thick fog, there was an increase in mortality (20 deaths more than previous day) on that or the following day. Fifteen-day moving mortality index and bronchitis mortality index were significantly correlated with black suspended matter and SO/sub 2/; association with pneumonia was not significant. Also little or no relation between mortality and humidity, mean temperature, or barometric pressure was found. Rapid response of mortality to air pollution may indicate that pollution affects mostly those already ill.

  2. Multi-scale dynamic modeling of atmospheric pollution in urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouron, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    Urban air pollution has been identified as an important cause of health impacts, including premature deaths. In particular, ambient concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) are regulated, which means that emission reduction strategies must be put in place to reduce these concentrations in places where the corresponding regulations are not respected. Besides, air pollution can contribute to the contamination of other media, for example through the contribution of atmospheric deposition to runoff contamination. The multifactorial and multi-scale aspects of urban make the pollution sources difficult to identify. Indeed, the urban environment is a heterogeneous space characterized by complex architectural structures (old buildings alongside a more modern building, residential, commercial, industrial zones, roads, etc.), non-uniform atmospheric pollutant emissions and therefore the population exposure to pollution is variable in space and time. The modeling of urban air pollution aims to understand the origin of pollutants, their spatial extent and their concentration/deposition levels. Some pollutants have long residence times and can stay several weeks in the atmosphere (PM2.5) and therefore be transported over long distances, while others are more local (NO x in the vicinity of traffic). The spatial distribution of a pollutant will therefore depend on several factors, and in particular on the surfaces encountered. Air quality depends strongly on weather, buildings (canyon-street) and emissions. The aim of this thesis is to address some of these aspects by modeling: (1) urban background pollution with a transport-chemical model (Polyphemus / POLAIR3D), which makes it possible to estimate atmospheric pollutants by type of urban surfaces (roofs, walls and roadways), (2) street-level pollution by explicitly integrating the effects of the building in a three-dimensional way with a multi-scale model of

  3. Long distance atmospheric pollution: assessment, risks, management and decision. Collection of abstracts of research works. Synthesis of results of researches performed within the framework of the PRIMEQUAL programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Severine; Ramalho, Olivier; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Blondeau, Patrice; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Campagna, Dave; Cellier, Pierre; Charles, Lionel; Coddeville, Patrice; Coll, Isabelle; Frejafon, Emeric; Gehin, Evelyne; George, Christian; Glorennec, Philippe; Gros, Valerie; Hecq, Walter; Laj, Paolo; Le Calve, Stephane; Mallet, Cecile; Momas, Isabelle; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Plaisance, Herve; Probst, Anne; Seigneur, Christian; Vlassopoulo, Chloe; Weiss, Karine

    2014-11-01

    After a brief presentation of the PRIMEQUAL programme, an inter-agency and institution research programme for a better air quality (275 supported research actions since the programme creation), an introduction presents the context of research works within this programme on long distance pollution. Various research works are then briefly presented. They address three main themes: 1) determining factors and atmospheric processes (role of organic nitrates in nitrogen transport, source and evolution of organic carbonated pollution in the atmosphere, modelling of long distance pollution, a miniature and autonomous station for atmospheric composition monitoring), 2) the regional evidence of pollutants transport (local and long distance pollution in Ile-de-France, pollutant transport and air quality in Mediterranean Sea, measurement and modelling of the deposition of Saharan dusts, relationship between forest fires and air quality), and 3) long term impacts on ecosystems, health and economy (peat lands as markers of atmospheric contamination, 20 years of measurements of atmospheric depositions in France and trends on the long term, vulnerability of ecosystems to atmospheric nitrogen, a cost-benefit approach to the relationship between long distance pollution and climate change). An appendix contains the call for research propositions which resulted in the above-mentioned researches

  4. Groundwater pollution: are we monitoring appropriate parameters?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tredoux, G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution is a worldwide phenomenon with potentially disastrous consequences. Prevention of pollution is the ideal approach. However, in practice groundwater quality monitoring is the main tool for timely detection of pollutants...

  5. Atmospheric Pollution: Its Origins and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetham, A. R.

    Although atmospheric pollution can be reduced or eliminated in many different ways, each way involves questions of economics, the time factor, availability of materials, priority over other urgent reforms, and individual and social psychology. To provide a basis for consideration of these questions, this book gives information not only about the…

  6. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sénéchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  7. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  8. Influence of ship emission on atmospheric pollutant concentration around Osaka Bay, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, A.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nishikawa, E.

    1999-01-01

    Marine traffic in Osaka Bay is very intensified and much atmosphere pollutant (SO x and NO x ) from ships is released but there is no regulation about the ship emission. In this paper, we investigated the emission amounts of SO x NO x and HC from car, factory and ships in Osaka bay area and estimated the influence of the ship emission on the atmospheric pollutant concentration, using both the meteorological prediction model and the atmospheric pollutant concentration prediction model including the dry deposition and the chemical reaction. In Osaka bay area, the emission amounts of SO x and NO x from ships were about 30% of the total emission amounts, respectively. Using these emission data, the atmospheric pollutant concentration was simulated on a summer fine day when high oxidant concentration was measured at several observatories and was compared with the observed data. Though some differences were seen between the simulated results and the observed data, the diurnal variation agreed reasonably. The second simulation was carried out except for the ship emission and we estimated the influence of the ship emission on the atmospheric pollutant concentration. It was found that the ship emission raised SO 2 , NO 2 and NO concentration not only in shore area but also in 40km inland. (Author)

  9. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  10. Atmospheric dispersion models for environmental pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutants are introduced into the air by many of man's activities. The potentially harmful effects these can cause are, broadly speaking, of two kinds: long-term, possibly large-scale and wide-spread chronic effects, including long-term effects on the earth's climate; and acute, short-term effects such as those associated with urban air pollution. This section is concerned with mathematical cloud or plume models describing the role of the atmosphere, primarily in relation to the second of these, the acute effects of air pollution, i.e., those arising from comparatively high concentration levels. The need for such air pollution modeling studies has increased spectacularly as a result of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1968 and, especially, two key court decisions; the Calvert Cliffs decision, and the Sierra Club ruling on environmental non-degradation

  11. [Observation on atmospheric pollution in Xianghe during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue-Peng; Wang, Yue-Si; Hu, Bo; Liu, Quan; Wang, Ying-Hong; Nan, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    There is a concern that much of the atmospheric pollution experienced in Beijing is regional in nature and not attributable to local sources. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of sources outside Beijing to atmospheric pollution levels during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The observations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were conducted from June 1 to September 30, 2008 in Xianghe, a rural site about 70 km southeast of Beijing. Sources and transportation of atmospheric pollution during the experiment were discussed with surface meteorology data and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The results showed that the daily average maximum (mean +/- standard deviation) concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5, and PM10 during observation reached 84.4(13.4 +/- 15.2), 43.3 (15.9 +/- 9.1), 230 (82 +/- 38), 184 (76 +/- 42) and 248 (113 +/- 52) microg x m(-3), respectively. In particular, during the pollution episodes from July 20 to August 12, the hourly average concentration of O3 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II for 46 h (9%), and the daily average concentration of PM10 exceeded the Standard for 11 d (46%); PM2.5 exceeded the US EPA Standard for 18 d (75%). The daily average concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 decreased from 27.7, 18.6, 96, 90, 127 microg x m(-3) in June-July to 5.8, 13.2, 80, 60, 106 microg x m(-3) during Olympic Games (August-September), respectively. The typical diurnal variations of NO(x), PM2.5 and PM10 were similar, peaking at 07:00 and 20:00, while the maximum of O3 occurred between 14:00 to 16:00 local time. The findings also suggested that the atmospheric pollution in Xianghe is related to local emission, regional transport as well as the meteorological conditions. Northerly wind and precipitation are favorable for diffusion and wet deposition of pollutants, while sustained south flows make the atmospheric pollution more serious. The lead-lag correlation analysis during the

  12. Nanostructures in environmental pollution detection, monitoring, and remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaseashta et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of our joint investigations to monitor and mitigate environmental pollution, a leading contributor to chronic and deadly health disorders and diseases affecting millions of people each year. Using nanotechnology-based gas sensors; pollution is monitored at several ground stations. The sensor unit is portable, provides instantaneous ground pollution concentrations accurately, and can be readily deployed to disseminate real-time pollution data to a web server providing a topological overview of monitored locations. We are also employing remote sensing technologies with high-spatial and spectral resolution to model urban pollution using satellite images and image processing. One of the objectives of this investigation is to develop a unique capability to acquire, display and assimilate these valuable sources of data to accurately assess urban pollution by real-time monitoring using commercial sensors fabricated using nanofabrication technologies and satellite imagery. This integrated tool will be beneficial towards prediction processes to support public awareness and establish policy priorities for air quality in polluted areas. The complex nature of environmental pollution data mining requires computing technologies that integrate multiple sources and repositories of data over multiple networking systems and platforms that must be accurate, secure, and reliable. An evaluation of information security risks and strategies within an environmental information system is presented. In addition to air pollution, we explore the efficacy of nanostructured materials in the detection and remediation of water pollution. We present our results of sorption on advanced nanomaterials-based sorbents that have been found effective in the removal of cadmium and arsenic from water streams.

  13. ANSTO radon monitoring within the WMO global atmosphere watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorowski, W.; Chambers, S.; Sisoutham, O.; Werczynski, S.

    2003-01-01

    A brief overview of results from the ANSTO radon programmes at the Cape Grim (Tasmania) and Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii), World Meteorological Organisation Global Atmosphere Watch stations it presented. At Cape Grim, a 100 mBq m 3 threshold on radon concentration observations has proven to be a suitable criterion for Baseline monitoring. Furthermore, analysis of the Cape Grim Baseline radon data has enabled the characterisation of the oceanic radon flux over the Southern Ocean Cape Grim fetch region. Radon observations at the Mauna Loa Observatory, in conjunction with back trajectory analysis, have helped to identify the source regions of the most pervasive pollution events in the atmosphere of the Pacific Basin. The seasonal variability in the strength of terrestrial influence on Pacific air masses has also been characterised

  14. Isotopic Recorders of Pollution in Heterogeneous Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Cobley, L.; Smith, R. M.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Chritz, K.

    2017-12-01

    A significant difficulty in quantifying urban pollution lies in the extreme spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cities. Dense sources of both point and non-point source pollution as well as the dynamic role of human activities, which vary over very short time scales and small spatial scales, complicate efforts to establish long-term urban monitoring networks that are relevant at neighborhood, municipal, and regional scales. Fortunately, the natural abundance of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements provides a wealth of information about the sources and fate of urban atmospheric pollution. In particular, soils and plant material integrate pollution sources and cycling over space and time, and have the potential to provide long-term records of pollution dynamics that extend back before atmospheric monitoring data are available. Similarly, sampling organic material at high spatial resolution can provide "isoscapes" that shed light on the spatial heterogeneity of pollutants in different urban parcels and neighborhoods, along roads of varying traffic density, and across neighborhoods of varying affluence and sociodemographic composition. We have compiled numerous datasets of the isotopic composition of urban organic matter that illustrate the potential for isotopic monitoring of urban areas as a means of understanding hot spots and hot moments in urban atmospheric biogeochemistry. Findings to date already reveal the critical role of affluence, economic activity, demographic change, and land management practices in influencing urban pollution sources and sinks, and suggest an important role of stable isotope and radioisotope measurements in urban atmospheric and biogeochemical monitoring.

  15. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  16. Population-production-pollution nexus based air pollution management model for alleviating the atmospheric crisis in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Tong, Y F; Cui, L; Kong, X M; Sheng, Y N; Chen, L; Li, Y P

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection. A fuzzy-stochastic mixed quadratic programming method (FSQ) is developed and introduced into a PPP for tackling atmospheric pollution issues with uncertainties. Based on the contribution of an index of population-production-pollution, a hybrid PPP-based AMP model that considers employment structure, industrial layout pattern, production mode, pollutant purification efficiency and a pollution mitigation scheme have been applied in Beijing. Results of the adjustment of employment structure, pollution mitigation scheme, and green gross domestic product under various environmental regulation scenarios are obtained and analyzed. This study can facilitate the identification of optimized policies for alleviating population-production-emission conflict in the study region, as well as ameliorating the hazardous air pollution crisis at an urban level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Atmospheric pollution and its implications in the Eastern Transvaal highveld

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tyson, PD

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a review of available information on the dispersion climatology, the degree of atmospheric pollution and the various impacts of that pollution on man and environment in the Eastern Transvaal Highveld (ETH) and adjacent regions...

  18. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasaan, A.A.; Dann, T.F.; Brunet, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  19. Preliminary study of elemental composition in tree leaves for using as bio monitor for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree

    2004-10-01

    The use of plant tissue as biological monitor of air pollution has been of interest world wild. The study on chemical composition of such biological monitor may provide important information on the levels and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and trace toxic elements in atmosphere. The appropriate bio monitors are such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves, bryophytes and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In this research an investigation of element composition in leaves was performed. The technique of Instrument Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was developed to determine heavy metal and trace elements in 8 species of tree leaves collected from 3 different locations. From the experiments, it was found that content of elements might vary depending on species and environment. Some specific elements are discussed and compared in this report

  20. Role of atmospheric circulations in haze pollution in December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2017-09-01

    In the east of China, recent haze pollution has been severe and damaging. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric circulations and local meteorological conditions were conducive factors. The number of December haze days over North China and the Huanghuai area has increased sharply since 2010 and was greatest in 2016. During 2016, the most aggressive control measures for anthropogenic emissions were implemented from 16 to 21 December, but the most severe haze pollution still occurred, covering approximately 25 % of the land area of China and lasting for 6 days. The atmospheric circulations must play critical roles in the sub-seasonal haze events. Actually, the positive phase of the East Atlantic-West Russia pattern in the middle troposphere strengthened the anomalous anti-cyclone over the NH area that confined vertical motion below. The associated southerly anomalies made the cold air and surface wind speed weaker, but enhanced the humid flow. Thus, the horizontal and vertical dispersion of atmospheric particulates was suppressed and the pollutants gathered within a narrow space. In December 2016, these key indices were strongly beneficial for haze occurrence and combined to result in the severest haze pollution. The influences of the preceding autumn sea surface temperature near the Gulf of Alaska and the subtropical eastern Pacific, October-November snow cover in western Siberia, and associated physical processes on haze pollution are also discussed.

  1. Atmospheric transport of pollution to the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, T.

    1984-01-01

    If the atmospheric processes are assumed to be nearly adiabatic, the conclusion is that the possible source areas of Arctic air pollution detected at ground level have to be situated in areas with almost the same temperature as observed in the Arctic itself. Sources south of the polar front system can only contribute to high-altitude (or upper level) Arctic pollution. The amplitude and phase of long, planetary waves are important since they determine the position of the polar front, and provide conditions for meridional transport of air at certain longitudes

  2. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  3. Tree rings as monitors of heavy metal air pollution histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, G.; Bergeron, S.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of five species of trees as historical monitors of heavy metal air pollution has been investigated. The study was carried out at a site 2 km from an industrial complex including several metal refineries. Using neutron activation, heavy metal concentrations were measured in the xylem as a function of the year of wood formation. The manganese concentrations were by far the highest. In maple trees the high natural level of this essential trace element masked any increases due to pollution. In ash and cedar increased Mn concentrations were found, relative to control trees, but there is evidence for radial translocation. In hemlock the time variations of the average Mn concentrations followed the production rates of the refineries but large variations among individual trees were observed. Hemlock was estimated to accumulate up to 0.3% of the atmospheric Mn input. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs

  4. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants and precipitation. Monitoring programme for forest damage. Abstract of annual reports 1996; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Overvaakingsprogram for skogskader. Sammendrag av aarsrapporter 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report sums up the results for 1996 of two monitoring programmes: `` Norwegian Monitoring Programme for Long-Range Transported Air Pollutants`` and ``Norwegian forest monitoring programme``. The atmospheric pollution is monitored by measurements of chemical main components in the air and in precipitation. The effects of the pollutants on water quality are followed by monitoring of rivers, lakes and field research areas. The effects on fish are followed by regional investigations on benthic organisms, zooplankton and fish populations in rivers and lakes. Water chemical samples are taken each month from 16 rivers and acid material is monitored at seven field research areas. Samples are also taken from 200 lakes every autumn. The biological monitoring programme comprises fish in lakes and streams and benthic animals in lakes. The monitoring of forest damage uses three nation-wide areas from which registrations have been taken over a period of ten years. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  6. The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2012-12-01

    Recent methods to map artificial night-sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere that allows fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. They are accurate for a clear atmosphere, when a two-scattering approximation is acceptable, which is the most common situation. We present here up-to-date extended Garstang models (EGM), which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) satellite measurements of artificial light emission and to GTOPO30 (Global 30 Arcsecond) digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the world at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atmosphere across the territory. EGM account for (i) multiple scattering, (ii) wavelengths from 250 nm to infrared, (iii) the Earth's curvature and its screening effects, (iv) site and source elevation, (v) many kinds of atmosphere with the possibility of custom set-up (e.g. including thermal inversion layers), (vi) a mix of different boundary-layer aerosols and tropospheric aerosols, with the possibility of custom set-up, (vii) up to five aerosol layers in the upper atmosphere, including fresh and aged volcanic dust and meteoric dust, (viii) variations of the scattering phase function with elevation, (ix) continuum and line gas absorption from many species, ozone included, (x) up to five cloud layers, (xi) wavelength-dependent bidirectional

  7. [Atmospheric pollution characteristic during fireworks burning time in spring festival in Quanzhou suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-ping; Xu, Ya; Zhang, Fu-wang; Chen, Jin-sheng

    2011-05-01

    Atmospheric pollution characteristics during fireworks burning time in 2009 Spring Festival in Quangzhou suburb were studied. Particulate aerosol has been monitored and collected using real-time monitor and middle-volume sampler during fireworks burning time. The objectives of this study were to identify the contents and distributing characteristics of particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and water-soluble ions and to discuss sources of these pollutants. The results showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were increased significantly during fireworks burning time. The highest concentration of particles presented time of 00:57-01:27 on New Year's Eve, which the average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 were reached 1102.43 microm(-3) and 1610.22 microg x m(-3) in 30 min. The concentration of particle- and gas-PAHs were 54.18 ng x m(-1) and 47.10 ng x m(-3), respectively, during fireworks burning time in New Year's Eve, which were higher than that in the normal day. It can be judged by the diagnostic ratios that the primary source of PAHs in Quanzhou suburb were the combustion of coal, biomass and the exhaust emission from diesel vehicles in this region. Results of water-soluble ions indicated that fireworks burning were the main reason to lead to higher concentration of these ions during Spring Festival. Moreover, pollution gases of NOx and SO2 that were origined from fireworks burning, coal combustion and exhaust emission from motor vehicle were supplied precursors to form secondary pollutants, such as NO3- and SO4(2-).

  8. Urban planning and interactions with atmospheric pollution in Arve valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois de Septenville, William; Cossart, Étienne

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a major concern of urbanised areas and territory managers have to conduct efficient policies to decrease population exposure and vulnerability. Even if pollution peaks are subject to an important mediatisation and to a large part of preventive actions, background pollution remains responsible of the largest sanitary effects. They depend on (1) the concentration and the duration of the exposure and (2) to the kind of pollutants considered. Many sources of pollutants can be identified in urban areas as heating, industry or traffic; and each of them generates specific particles. Currently, the major part of pollution risk studies focuses on modelling particle emissions and their dissemination in the environment. These kinds of studies highlight the hazard intensity and its spatiality, commonly named the hazard exposure. Another part of risk studies, less frequent, considers the vulnerability. Vulnerability is a complex concept that involves a wide range of scales and objects ranging from biophysical parameters to social characteristics. They notably concern accessibility to information, knowledge and perceptions about the risk. The Arve valley (south-east of France) is subject to heavy pollution concentrations. High levels recording in this area have imposed the implementation of an Atmosphere Protection Plan. This type of plan is triggered if a peak occurs and enforces provisional binding measures for polluters, such as highway speed limitation for traffic emissions. These measures are only focused on emissions and have no effect for reducing vulnerability and exposition, for a long- and short-term time scales. An opportunity to ensure this objective is to consider how local urban morphologies can combine exposition and vulnerability situations. Indeed, cities have been planned without taking into account atmospheric pollution and morphologies. This context may conduct to the increase in both of these two risk components and producing

  9. Evaluation of atmospheric pollution in Kenitra city (MOROCCO) (Particles and Metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghaid, M.; Noack, Y.; Tahiri, M.; Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Benyaich, F

    2008-01-01

    Full text: All Recent epidemiological studies show that air pollution in general and especially particulate pollution have a strong influence on human health, particularly on the respiratory and cardio-vascular systems, but also affect the developing fetus. Like developed countries, countries under development are subject to significant air pollution both urban and industrial. The car park is often old, sometimes uncontrolled industrialization, the regulations of atmospheric emissions are infancy and the network monitoring rare. The aim of this work is to focus on the problem of particulate air pollution in Kenitra (50 km north of Rabat, Morocco) by characterizing the pollution in both quantity and quality, to assess the impact potential health and provide decision makers with reliable data. Initial results show that the OMS recommendations, along with European standards on sulfur dioxide as well as PM10 are largely outdated (80 ug / Nm 3 instead of 40 in average). This is also the case for some metals: Lead concentrations are approximately ten times greater than those encountered in urban sites in Europe; nickel is fifteen times higher than the European standard. The metals are mainly present in the thin fraction (particles below 2.5 um). The low proportion of thin particles in the total particles, show the influence of resuspension events and other natural inputs from arid or desert. The SO2 average concentrations are also quite important (60 ug / m 3 ). The concentrations near the site are much higher than those that can be measured on similar sites in Europe. It is more than probable that in this city, the health impacts are not negligible. We will look to continue this work in three aspects: Spatial distribution of particulate pollution in Kenitra; The health impact of air pollution in Kenitra; Cyto-and geno-toxicity of airborne particles in Kenitra [fr

  10. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Persistent organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hayley; MacLeod, Matthew; Guardans, Ramon; Scheringer, Martin; Barra, Ricardo; Harner, Tom; Zhang, Gan

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are global pollutants that can migrate over long distances and bioaccumulate through food webs, posing health risks to wildlife and humans. Multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Stockholm Convention on POPs, were enacted to identify POPs and establish the conditions to control their release, production and use. A Global Monitoring Plan was initiated under the Stockholm Convention calling for POP monitoring in air as a core medium; however long temporal trends (>10 years) of atmospheric POPs are only available at a few selected sites. Spatial coverage of air monitoring for POPs has recently significantly improved with the introduction and advancement of passive air samplers. Here, we review the status of air monitoring and modeling activities and note major uncertainties in data comparability, deficiencies of air monitoring and modeling in urban and alpine areas, and lack of emission inventories for most POPs. A vision for an internationally-integrated strategic monitoring plan is proposed which could provide consistent and comparable monitoring data for POPs supported and supplemented by global and regional transport models. Key recommendations include developing expertise in all aspects of air monitoring to ensure data comparability and consistency; partnering with existing air quality and meteorological networks to leverage synergies; facilitating data sharing with international data archives; and expanding spatial coverage with passive air samplers. Enhancing research on the stability of particle-bound chemicals is needed to assess exposure and deposition in urban areas, and to elucidate long-range transport. Conducting targeted measurement campaigns in specific source areas would enhance regional models which can be extrapolated to similar regions to estimate emissions. Ultimately, reverse-modeling combined with air measurements can be used to derive “emission” as an indicator to assess environmental

  12. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  13. Atmospheric corrosion in Gran Canaria specifically meteorological and pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.E.G.; Valles, M.L.; Mirza R, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon steel, copper, zinc and aluminium samples were exposed in different sizes with known ambient parameters in Gran Canaria Island and atmospheric corrosion was investigated. Weight-loss measurements used to determine corrosion damage were complemented with metallographic and XP S determination in order to characterize the structure and morphology of surface corrosion products. The ambient aggressiveness could be well evaluated from meteorological and pollution data. All atmospheric corrosion and environmental data were statistically processed for establishing general corrosion damage functions for carbon steel, copper, aluminium and zinc in terms of Gran Canaria extreme meteorological and pollution parameters. (Author)

  14. Atmospheric Pollution and Urban Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guinot, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese cities face the challenge of battling air pollution during a time of rapid urbanisation and rising energy demand. Poor air quality is heightening anxiety over the environment. Given pollution’s economic cost, a real policy of monitoring and control has emerged at the national level. Chinese researchers and industry have come up with technological responses to the enormous challenges. While some showcase cities have boosted their pollution-control measures, the situation in smaller one...

  15. [Development and current status of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elichegaray, C; Bouallala, S; Maitre, A; Ba, M

    2009-02-01

    Air quality is a public health issue and this article includes a reminder of the related causes and issues and a description of the monitoring of ambient air quality in France. It also provides a review of major developments in recent years of the pollutants measured. Emissions of major air pollutants have declined significantly since the 1970s, and this is reflected in an overall improvement in the quality of ambient air. Nevertheless, various forms of air pollution remain a concern (in the case of photochemical pollution) and health data show that air pollution is still a cause of morbidity and mortality. The fight against air pollution must remain a priority and requires multi-pollutant and multi-effect approaches. The National Health and Environment Program adopted during the Grenelle environment stakeholder consultation processes includes targets for reducing human exposure to air pollution, especially particulate matter, as well as measures to improve indoor air quality. In a context dominated by the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases, problems of air quality should not be underestimated and policies relating to climate protection must be taken into account.

  16. Natural sources of gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuller, A P

    1958-01-01

    Various gaseous pollutants including ozone, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane, hydrogen, formaldehyde, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, chlorine compounds and free radicals can be formed by natural processes such as ultraviolet photochemical processes in the upper atmosphere and microbiological processes. The modes of formation and destruction of these gases, especially of their concentrations in the atmosphere, and the various reactions in which these gases can participate with each other are discussed in detail. 114 references.

  17. Usefulness of the infrared heterodyne radiometer in remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    The application of narrow-band optical receivers to the problem of sensing atmospheric pollution is discussed. The emission/absorption lines of many major atmospheric pollutant molecules overlap the operating frequency bands of CO2 laser and CO laser heterodyne receivers. Several remote pollution sensing systems which are based upon utilization of these spectral overlaps are described, and an analysis of their potential is presented. The possibility of using other lasers (e.g.: the PbSnTe tunable diode laser) as local oscillators is also considered. Results of laboratory experiments with a CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer are presented.

  18. Measurement of radioactive aerosols as an original indicator of atmospheric pollution in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Millies-Lacroix, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Service Radioanalyses, Chimie et Environnment (Departement Analyses Surveillance de l'Environnement) of the French Atomic Energy Commission, located in suburban Paris, has for many years been conducting atmospheric radioactivity measurements. Since 1994, the laboratory has been using high volume air samplers equipped with filters for the weekly collection of atmospheric aerosols at a mean rate of about 600 m 3 .h -1 . The polypropylene filters, with a collection efficiency in excess of 93%, are compacted after sampling. The atmospheric radioactivity is measured by HP Ge gamma spectrometry after decay of short-lived natural relationship products. A study conducted in 1996 shows good correlation between the evolution with time of some of the indicators routinely used by AIRPARIF, the organization in charge of monitoring the air quality in the Ile-de-France region, to measure atmospheric pollution in the Paris area (SO 2 , NO) and that related to radioactivity of terrestrial ( 210 Pb, 40 K) and anthropogenic ( 137 Cs) origin, as well as the amount of aerosols collected. Further, the distribution in time of the atmospheric radioactivity of cosmogenic origin ( 7 Be) shows a yearly evolution somewhat similar to that observed with ozone

  19. Characteristics and applications of small, portable gaseous air pollution monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Grant R; Salmond, Jennifer A; Vanos, Jennifer K

    2017-04-01

    Traditional approaches for measuring air quality based on fixed measurements are inadequate for personal exposure monitoring. To combat this issue, the use of small, portable gas-sensing air pollution monitoring technologies is increasing, with researchers and individuals employing portable and mobile methods to obtain more spatially and temporally representative air pollution data. However, many commercially available options are built for various applications and based on different technologies, assumptions, and limitations. A review of the monitor characteristics of small, gaseous monitors is missing from current scientific literature. A state-of-the-art review of small, portable monitors that measure ambient gaseous outdoor pollutants was developed to address broad trends during the last 5-10 years, and to help future experimenters interested in studying gaseous air pollutants choose monitors appropriate for their application and sampling needs. Trends in small, portable gaseous air pollution monitor uses and technologies were first identified and discussed in a review of literature. Next, searches of online databases were performed for articles containing specific information related to performance, characteristics, and use of such monitors that measure one or more of three criteria gaseous air pollutants: ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide. All data were summarized into reference tables for comparison between applications, physical features, sensing capabilities, and costs of the devices. Recent portable monitoring trends are strongly related to associated applications and audiences. Fundamental research requires monitors with the best individual performance, and thus the highest cost technology. Monitor networking favors real-time capabilities and moderate cost for greater reproduction. Citizen science and crowdsourcing applications allow for lower-cost components; however important strengths and limitations for each application must be addressed

  20. Potential atmospheric pollution from the Invergordon industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neustein, S A; Danby, N P

    1971-11-01

    The main atmospheric pollutants from the Invergordon complex will be fluorine and hydrogen fluoride from the aluminum smelter and sulfur dioxide and hydrocarbons from the oil refinery. Both acute and chronic tree damage is expected. The effects of F and SO/sub 2/ on the trees via the soil is expected to be insignificant. Acute tree damage results from high concentrations of pollutants as a result of meteorological conditions or industrial cleansing failure. Chronic tree damage results from long term low level pollution. Broad leaved trees are not regarded as susceptible to chronic pollution. All the conifers are susceptible. Clean air sampling has begun in order to provide before and after comparison. Foliage samplers will be taken for a radius of 16,000 m. A survey of lichens has been completed. Lichenology may assist in discrimination between F and SO/sub 2/ injuries.

  1. Biological monitors of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1994-01-01

    Direct biological monitoring of air pollution was introduced about 30 years ago. Although still under development, the application of biological monitors, or indicators, may provide important information on the levels, availability, and pathways of a variety of pollutants including heavy metals and other toxic trace elements in the air. A survey is given of the most frequently used biomonitors, such as herbaceous plants, tree leaves or needles, bryophytes, and lichens, with their possible advantages and/or limitations. In addition to using naturally-occurring biomonitors, a possibility of employing ''transplanted'' species in the study areas, for instance grasses grown in special containers in standard soils or lichens transplanted with their natural substrate to an exposition site, is also mentioned. Several sampling and washing procedures are reported. The important of employing nuclear analytical methods, especially instrumental neutron activation analysis, for multielemental analysis of biomonitors as a pre-requisite for unlocking the information contained in chemical composition of monitor's tissues, such as apportionment of emission sources using multivariate statistical procedures, is also outlined. (author). 32 refs, 2 figs

  2. On the calculation of atmospheric thermal pollution resulted from a flat area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkauskas, D.Ch.; Senuta, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spatial distribution of thermal atmospheric pollution from a flat area source - a great city or a lake-cooler of NPP was investigated. The numerical solution obtained lets to evaluate the horizontal and vertical spreading of the thermal atmospheric pollution by the different wind velocities in dependence of the inhomogeneities in humidity of the earth's surface

  3. Effects of atmospheric pollution on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, C R

    1953-10-10

    In September, 1953, two sections of the British Association (Botany and Forestry) jointly discussed the effects of various components of air pollution. Conclusions reached included the position that the symptoms of ill health in plants that have been subjected to a polluted fog are due not so much to reduction in availability of light as to the presence of toxic substances in the atmosphere. Examples of these symptoms include shedding of flowers and leaves, blackening and death of buds and flowers, scorching of foliage, and complete destruction of more sensitive plants. Sulfur dioxide was identified as one of the more important toxic substances. Practical remedies for the problem were discussed, and the currently-known dose-response relationships (concentrations in excess of 0.5 ppm were known to cause lesions on some plants) were defined. Instances of reduced growth of crop plants and the inhibition of development of lichens and mosses were recounted. The complex relationships between soil condition and air pollution of the growth of plants were discussed.

  4. Mathematical models for atmospheric pollutants. Appendix A. Elements of meteorology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.L.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1979-08-01

    The meteorological elements that are important in the transport and fate of airborne pollutants are summarized. The summary consists of descriptions of the thermal, water, kinematic and dynamic structures of the atmosphere, the time and space scale classifications of atmospheric motions, and modifications of pollutant plumes as they pass over nonhomogeneous surface conditions and complex terrain. The discussions consider the atmospheric thermal layers and their stability, formation of clouds and the production of rain and snow, the movement of air masses and weather fronts, the horizontal winds in the planetary boundary layer, and wind profiles over transition zones and complex terrain

  5. Recreational atmospheric pollution episodes: Inhalable metalliferous particles from firework displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cruz Minguillón, Mari; Pey, Jorge; Rodriguez, Sergio; Vicente Miró, José; Felis, Carles; Gibbons, Wes

    The use of fireworks creates an unusual and distinctive anthropogenic atmospheric pollution event. We report on aerosol samples collected during Las Fallas in Valencia, a 6-day celebration famous for its firework displays, and add comparative data on firework- and bonfire-contaminated atmospheric aerosol samples collected from elsewhere in Spain (Barcelona, L'Alcora, and Borriana) and during the Guy Fawkes celebrations in London. Specific high-profile official firework events during Las Fallas included the afternoon Mascletà and the nightly aerial displays (especially in the climactic final 2 days of the fiesta) and were accompanied by pollution spikes in suspended particles, NO, SO 2, and the creation and dispersal of an aerosol cloud enriched in a range of metallic elements. Notable metal aerosol concentration increases recorded during Las Fallas were potassium (from 500 to 5900 ng m -3), aluminium (as Al 2O 3 from around 600 to 2200 ng m -3), titanium (from 200 to 700 ng m -3), magnesium (from 100 to 500 ng m -3), lead (from 17 to 379 ng m -3), barium (from 39 to 322 ng m -3), strontium (from 3 to 112 ng m -3), copper (from 12 to 71 ng m -3), and antimony (from 1 to 52 ng m -3). Firework-contaminated aerosols of similarly metalliferous composition were also identified at the other monitoring sites, although different sites show variations attributable to other sources such as bonfires and local industry. Unusual levels of the trace elements Ba, Sr and (to a lesser extent) Cu, always in proportions with Ba dominant, along with strongly enhanced K, Pb, and Sb, are identified as being particularly characteristic of firework aerosols. Although firework-related recreational pollution episodes are transient in nature, they are highly concentrated, contribute significantly to total annual metal emissions, and are on average fine enough to be easily inhaled and a health risk to susceptible individuals.

  6. A field study of pollutant deposition in radiation fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, J.M.; Jacob, D.J.; Munger, J.W.; Hoffman, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    Deposition during fog episodes can make a significant contribution to the overall flux of pollutants in certain ecosystems. Furthermore, when atmospheric stagnation prevents normal ventilation in a region, fog deposition may become the main route of pollutant removal. Fogs can consequently exert dominant control over pollutant levels in certain atmospheres. The southern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California is a region prone to wintertime episodes of atmospheric stagnation. These lead to elevated pollutant concentrations and/or dense, widespread fogs. Major oil-recovery operations plus widespread agricultural and livestock feeding activities are important sources of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub X/ and NH/sub 3/ in the valley. A multifaceted program of field monitoring was conducted in the SJV during the winter 1984-1985, focusing on aspects of pollutant scavenging and removal in the fog-laden atmosphere. Concentrations of major species were measured in gas, dry aerosol and fogwater phases. In addition, depositional fluxes were monitored by surrogate-surface methods. These measurements were employed to directly assess the magnitude of removal enhancement by fog.

  7. Concentrations and (delta)13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta) 13 C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta) 13 C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO 2 from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO 2 concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta) 13 C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO 2 concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta) 13 C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO 2 over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at the end of 1996 to about 373 ppmv at the end of 2003 (mean growth

  8. Use of Spanish Moss as an atmospheric monitor for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padaki, P.M.; McWilliams, E.L.; James, W.D

    1992-01-01

    Samples of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides L.) were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) for trace elements as atmospheric environmental monitors. The plant material was collected at a single location in east Texas, then deployed along a 6*6 matrix gridwork in the extreme northeastern corner of the state. The study area includes several possible pollution sources including fossil fuel fired power plants. Two separate study periods were conducted, one during the summer months of 1989 and the other the following winter. Concentrations of about 35 elements were determined and contour plots for each element were prepared for each study period. Concentration ranges were found to be somewhat lower than those reported in other studies using epihytic plants as environmental indicators. Initial correlations between elements and the possible relationships to pollution sources are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  9. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  10. Chromatographic air analyser microsystem for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Lahlou, Houda; Mohsen, Yehya; Berger, Franck; Vilanova, Xavier; Correig, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The development of industry and automotive trafic produces Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) whose toxicity can affect seriously human health and environment. The level of those contaminants in air must be as low as possible. In this context, there is a need for in situ systems that could monitor selectively the concentration of these compounds. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficiency of a system build with a pre-concentrator, a chromatographic micro-column and a tin oxide-based gas sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, this study is focused on the selective detection of benzene and 1,3 butadiene.

  11. The role of forest in mitigating the impact of atmospheric dust pollution in a mixed landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Artur; Pinho, Pedro; Munzi, Silvana; Botelho, Maria João; Palma-Oliveira, José Manuel; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition. After a multivariate analysis, we have modeled the maximum pollution load expected for each site taking into consideration nearby pollutant sources. The difference between maximum expected pollution load and the observed values was explained by the deposition in nearby forests. Both the dust pollution and the ameliorating effect of forested areas were then mapped. The results showed that forest located nearby pollution sources plays an important role in reducing atmospheric dust pollution, highlighting their importance in the provision of the ecosystem service of air purification.

  12. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed. - Epiphytic lichen diversity differs increasingly between healthy and dead or dying conifers with increasing atmospheric pollutant load

  13. Air pollution monitoring - a methodological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajkovska Trpevska, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Methodology for monitoring the emission of polluters in the air is a complex concept that in general embraces following fazes: sampling, laboratory treatment, and interpretation of results. In Company for technological and laboratory investigation and environmental protection - Mining Institute Skopje, the control of emission of polluters in the air is performing according methodology based in general on the recommendation of standard VDI 2.066 prescribe from Ministry of Ecology in Germany, because adequate legislation in our country does not exist. In this article the basic treatment of methodology for the air polluters emission control is presented. (Original)

  14. Evaluation to the aspen for the air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Rosa, D.; Lima, L.; Santana, J.L.; Olivares, S.; Martin, R.; Garcia, M.

    2003-01-01

    Aspen is not often used in bio monitoring programs, but when it is, several interacting and confounding variables have to be considered. Biomass of leaves, and height changes are not easy linked with air pollution, whereas dry weight and leaf abscission are. Visible injury diagnosis and crown thinning are useful records for bio monitoring programs to consider, but skill and understanding of air pollution effects versus seasonal effects are very important. Understanding of actual air pollution symptoms and elemental ratios are especially important. Clonal response and heritability is discuses below, and has to be considered in any bio monitoring program. Above all, integration of aspen response with other key variables is key

  15. Spatio-temporal modelling of atmospheric pollution based on observations provided by an air quality monitoring network at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study is devoted to the spatio-temporal modelling of air pollution at a regional scale using a set of statistical methods in order to treat the measurements of pollutant concentrations (NO 2 , O 3 ) provided by an air quality monitoring network (AIRPARIF). The main objective is the improvement of the pollutant fields mapping using either interpolation methods based on the spatial or spatio-temporal structure of the data (spatial or spatio-temporal kriging) or some algorithms taking into account the observations, in order to correct the concentrations simulated by a deterministic model (Ensemble Kalman Filter). The results show that nitrogen dioxide mapping based only on spatial interpolation (kriging) gives the best results, while the spatial repartition of the monitoring sites is good. For the ozone mapping it is the sequential data assimilation that leads us to a better reconstruction of the plume's form and position for the analyzed cases. Complementary to the pollutant mapping, another objective was to perform a local prediction of ozone concentrations on a 24-hour horizon; this task was performed using Artificial Neural Networks. The performance indices obtained using two types of neural architectures indicate a fair accuracy especially for the first 8 hours of prediction horizon. (author)

  16. Modelling of particulate matter pollution (PM10) over the Etang de Berre area Determination of areas of homogeneous pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Mesbah, B.; Hourdin, G.

    2010-01-01

    AIRFOBEP is the association in charge of the air quality monitoring in the Etang de Berre area. AIRFOBEP is managing a network of ten sensors to monitor the PMI (particulate matter index) particulate pollution. This network is updated once a year according to the Air Quality Monitoring Plan (PSQA). Optimizing this network needs to know how the particulate pollution is distributed in the area. In other words, to determine the limits of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution. The aim of the project presented in this article is to produce a map of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution in the Etang de Berre area. The project was carried out in two steps: - PM 10 atmospheric dispersion modeling, using a ADMS-URBAN software, - Statistic classification, based on the well known Hierarchical Ascending Classification (HAC) technique. Results of the atmospheric dispersion modeling was namely adjusted using an original technique for the 'background PM 10 pollution' computation. Good performances have been obtained when comparing modeling and measurements data. Finally, a set of five homogeneous zones was found to well describe the PM 10 pollution level distribution in the Etang de Berre area. (author)

  17. Monitoring of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Monitoring Krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitchkov, V.

    1996-01-01

    Krypton-85 is an anthropogenic radioactive noble gas, a gaseous fission product which builds up in the atmosphere. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) integrates many monitoring and research activities involving the measurements of atmospheric composition. Kr-85 represents one of the gases recommended by the WMO for monitoring. The collaborative program of the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPI) and the US Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) NOAA activities is aimed at determining the possible future consequences of Krypton-85 content (trend) increasing in the earth's atmosphere. The research is conducted at the MEPI to study the character of KR-85 release into the atmosphere and its distribution in the atmosphere, to determine Kr-85 possible sources. If only the question of the direct impact of Kr-85 on climate would be considered, only the order of magnitude of the atmospheric concentration would be of interest. In this case almost any available detection method and a precision as low as some 10% would be acceptable. If however, Kr-85 is to be applied as a tracer for the improvement of our present knowledge of local, regional and global transport and mixing processes and the validation of global-scale transport and mixing models, a much higher precision is required (order of +1%). This high standard cannot be met without a permanent quality assurance programmer. It is within the framework of the WMO that MEPI and the Air Resources Laboratory NOAA USA proposes collaboration of Kr-85 scientific findings. The project MEPI open-quotes Monitoring Krypton-85close quotes is being financed through the International Science and Technology Center

  18. Emission of pollutants and the dynamics of air quality in Ida-Viru County in 1995-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut; Maalma, Kaiu

    1999-01-01

    The organisation of monitoring atmospheric air in Ida-Viru County is described and data on the emission of pollutants in 1995-1998 are presented by industrial enterprises and by individual pollutants. A thorough analysis of the concentration of pollutants in the atmospheric air and air quality of towns and concrete air monitoring data are presented. Changes in the air quality are analysed by towns as well as by pollutants. An analysis of the dynamics of the changes in emissions and air quality showed that after a low concentration of pollutants in the atmospheric air in 1993-1995 a tendency towards worsening air quality occurred in 1995-1997. The concentration of some pollutants, for example phenol, has again reached the level of 1990-1991 when the largest amounts of pollutants were emitted into the air. These are signs of some new intensification of production activity in the region, but also of decreasing interest in environmental issues. Although according to reports the total volume of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere in Ida-Viru County has fallen nearly twice as compared with 1991, air monitoring data do not corroborate this. Hazardous pollution incidences may emerge at Saka and in the district of Jaerve in Kohtla-Jaerve in case of unfavourable weather conditions (no wind, high air temperature). The analysis of monitoring data revealed a necessity to improve the system of collecting and processing air monitoring data. For example, at present it is not possible to make a thorough analysis (including correlation analysis of the concentrations of pollutants and direction of winds) of the towns of Narva various objects on an undermine objective conclusions about the origin of pollutants cannot be drawn. It is necessary to guarantee that the existing automatic monitoring system OPSIS should be kept in working order as it is of great significance in monitoring and objective estimation of the air quality in Jaerve district in Kohtla-Jaerve. Presently OPSIS is

  19. Research on airborne comprehensive survey system of atmosphere quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhentao; Yu Yanbin

    1998-01-01

    The global atmosphere pollution is becoming more and more serious, affecting the human existence and development. Besides, the high spectrum resolution remote sensing technique, which has been applied to observe topographic features, identify military objectives and distinguish lithology and vegetation, has the relation to atmosphere quality and is influenced by atmosphere pollution (including radon pollution) and dust content in the atmosphere, it is imperative to monitor atmosphere quality. Based upon the selection of some main parameters evaluating atmospheric quality and necessary equipment, the author introduces the design of multiple airborne comprehensive survey system of atmosphere quality and how to deal with problems that crop up during the hardware designing and software programming

  20. Atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for pollution plume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a comparative investigation of atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for gaseous pollution plume released from an isolated industrial facility into the ambient air of the host community in Ile-Ife suburb, southwest Nigeria. For the months of September to December in the year 2012 and 2013, ...

  1. Is atmospheric pollution exposure during pregnancy associated with individual and contextual characteristics? A nationwide study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouidir, Marion; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frederik; Rivière, Emmanuel; Launay, Ludivine; Zaros, Cécile; Cheminat, Marie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Slama, Rémy

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants is a danger for the health of pregnant mother and children. Our objective was to identify individual (socioeconomic and behavioural) and contextual factors associated with atmospheric pollution pregnancy exposure at the nationwide level. Among 14 921 women from the French nationwide ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children) mother-child cohort recruited in 2011, outdoor exposure levels of PM 2.5 , PM 10 (particulate matter atmospheric pollutants with individual (maternal age, body mass index, parity, education level, relationship status, smoking status) and contextual (European Deprivation Index, urbanisation level) factors. Patterns of associations were globally similar across pollutants. For the CART approach, the highest tertile of exposure included mainly women not in a relationship living in urban and socially deprived areas, with lower education level. Linear regression models identified different determinants of atmospheric pollutants exposure according to the residential urbanisation level. In urban areas, atmospheric pollutants exposure increased with social deprivation, while in rural areas a U-shaped relationship was observed. We highlighted social inequalities in atmospheric pollutants exposure according to contextual characteristics such as urbanisation level and social deprivation and also according to individual characteristics such as education, being in a relationship and smoking status. In French urban areas, pregnant women from the most deprived neighbourhoods were those most exposed to health-threatening atmospheric pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Peculiarities of general atmospheric circulation above Kazakhstan and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turulina, G.K.; Muradov, M.A.; Sal'nikov, V.G.; Bogacev, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    Essential information is gathered for analysis and typification of atmospheric processes observed above Kazakhstan during studied period (1964-1986). Peculiarities of atmospheric processes and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances above Kazakhstan territory are researched. Received data indicate on actuality of the problem for Republic of Kazakhstan and necessity of signing of the International Convention on trans-bordering pollution with purpose of integration in fulfillment of International Program of observation and assessment of spreading of air pollutants in Europe. (author)

  3. Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Monte de Oca, Feliberto de la; Furet Bridon, Norma Raisa; Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Lorente Vera, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO 2 concentrations (μg/m 3 ) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 μg/m 3 ). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO 2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km 2 and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km 2 . For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  4. Measurement of radioactive aerosols as an original indicator of atmospheric pollution in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Millies-Lacroix, J.-C.; Simon, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Service Radioanalyses, Chimie et Environnement (Departement Analyses Surveillance de l'Environnement) of the French Atomic Energy Commission, located in suburban Paris, has for many years been conducting atmospheric radioactivity measurements. Since 1994, the laboratory has been using high volume air samplers equipped with filters for the weekly collection of atmospheric aerosols at a mean rate of about 600 m 3 .h -1 . The polypropylene filters, with a collection efficiency in excess of 93%, are compacted after sampling. The atmospheric radioactivity is measured by HP Ge gamma spectrometry after decay of short-lived natural relationship products. A study conducted in 1996 shows good correlation between the evolution with time of some of the indicators routinely used by AIRPARIF, the organization in charge of monitoring of the air quality in the Ile-de-France region, to measure atmospheric pollution in the Paris area (SO 2 , NO) and that related to radioactivity of terrestrial ( 210 Pb, 40 K) and anthropogenic ( 137 Cs) origin, as well as the amount of aerosols collected. Further, the distribution in time of the atmospheric radioactivity of cosmogenic origin ( 7 Be) shows a yearly evolution somewhat similar to that observed with ozone. (author). 16 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  5. Transboundary radioactive and chemical pollution simulation using an atmospheric/marine predicting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telenta, B.; Antic, D.

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric models can be used to simulate the transport of contaminants in typical accidental cases and for realistic meteorological conditions. Some numerical models for weather forecast can be used for near to real simulations of propagation of radioactive nuclides or classical chemical pollutants to the atmosphere. The various meteorological parameters are taken into account and various meteorological conditions, even complex ones, can be analyzed. The models can be used for very well assessment of the airborne pollution from energy sources and industrial installations, for comparative studies and for safety analysis. This report describes an proposal for a project of the transboundary pollution simulation, that can be used for the East Mediterranean Region. The project is based on the numerical models developed in the in simulating of the Chernobyl accident and similar hypothetical cases. The study is based on an atmospheric models developed in Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Insular Coastal Dynamics (ICoD), Foundation for International Studies, Valeta, Malta

  6. Use of multi-objective air pollution monitoring sites and online air pollution monitoring system for total health risk assessment in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Jayakumar, I; Hima Bindu, V; Sagareswar, G; Mukunda Rao, P V; Rambabu, N; Ramani, K V

    2005-08-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  7. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the city of Naberezhnye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the nature of spatial distribution, two distinctly different groups of pollutants were defined: mainly contained in emissions of industrial enterprises, and coming into the atmospheric air, mainly with emissions from automotive transport. Keywords: emissions fromautomotive transport, maximum permissible concentration, ...

  8. Investigation on supervising and monitoring of major radioactive pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yibing; Zhang Zongrang; Men Meng; Zhang Peng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: In order to optimize the supervisory monitoring proposal of the major radioactive enterprises. Methods: The authors have worked out the public doses within the range of 0-1 km as well as 1-2 km through monitoring analysis of the radioactive pollutant enterprises on the samples of its surrounding air, water, soil and organism. Results: Generally the pollutant range of the enterprises runs from 0 to 1.5 km. Conclusion: Unnecessary working hours can be shortened as long as we keep the routine supervisory monitor of pollutant enterprises within the range of 2 km. (authors)

  9. First simultaneous space measurements of atmospheric pollutants in the boundary layer from IASI: A case study in the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynard, Anne; Safieddine, Sarah; Oudot, Charlotte; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Clerbaux, Cathy; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Pommier, Matthieu; Van Damme, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a severe pollution episode that occurred in Beijing, Tianjin, and the Hebei province in January 2013. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and a high-pressure system that trapped pollutants in the boundary layer. Using IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) satellite measurements, high concentrations of key trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and ammonia (NH 3 ) along with ammonium sulfate aerosol ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) are found. We show that IASI is able to detect boundary layer pollution in case of large negative thermal contrast combined with high levels of pollution. Our findings demonstrate that anthropogenic key pollutants, such as CO and SO 2 , can be monitored by IASI in the North China Plain during wintertime in support of air quality evaluation and management. (authors)

  10. [Atmospheric air pollution: a risk factor for COPD?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Y-M; Roche, N; Huchon, G

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of COPD worldwide but other risk factors have been recognized. Air pollution is one of them, but its exact role in the development of COPD is hard to demonstrate. Its physiological effects on lung function have only been studied since the nineties by long and tedious cohort studies. Difficulties arise from the heterogeneity of air pollution (gas and particles); thus, its respiratory effects have to be examined for every component separately, and in different populations. It is also necessary to analyse the effects of atmospheric pollution in the short and the long term, considering both its physiological, clinical and toxicological effects, from childhood to adulthood. These factors make it difficult to obtain statistically significant results. Nevertheless, most studies seem to point to a role of air pollution in the development of COPD via oxydative stress but further studies are needed to confirm the exact effect of each component of air pollution on the respiratory tract. These studies could lead to improved public health policies and results are awaited that would identify at-risk populations, decide appropriate preventive measures and propose documented thresholds in pollution exposure... thereby limiting the spread of COPD. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Aleppo pine bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in the arid environment of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Alawi, Mu' taz M.; Jiries, Anwar [Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Carreras, Hebe [University of Cordoba, FCEFyN, Cordoba (Argentina); Alawi, Mahmoud [Chemistry Department, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Geography, Environment and Disaster Management, Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Batarseh, Mufeed I.

    2007-11-15

    Monitoring of atmospheric pollution using Aleppo bark as a bioindicator was carried out in the industrial area surrounding the Al-Hussein thermal power station and the oil refinery at Al-Hashimyeh town, Jordan. The concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc, iron, and chromium) were analyzed in bark samples collected from the study area during July 2004. The results showed that high levels of heavy metals were found in tree bark samples retrieved from all studied sites compared with the remote reference site. This is, essentially, due to the fact that the oil refinery and the thermal power plant still use low-quality fuel oil from the by-products of oil refining. Automobile emissions are another source of pollution since the study area is located along a major heavy-traffic highway. It was found that the area around the study sites (Al-Hashimyeh town, Zarqa) is polluted with high levels of heavy metals. Pine bark was found to be a suitable bioindicator of aerial fallout of heavy metals in arid regions. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g -1 levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at μg g -1 and Ca at mg g -1 . By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental composition. It was

  13. Evaluation of environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneikis, J.; Shtreimikiene, D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods to evaluate the environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy are presented. The products of burning fossil fuel (CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and ashes) make the bulk of the pollutants that are being discharged into the atmosphere. To evaluate the damage caused by these pollutants an empirical method is suggested. The direct and analytical methods are used as a basis in collecting data for the empirical evaluation. All the three methods are described and empirical formulas suggested for calculating environmental damage due to burning fossil fuel in thermal power stations. The authors prove the necessity to change the present system of environmental taxes in Lithuania, which are purely symbolic. (author). 8 refs., 9 tabs

  14. Meteorological controls on atmospheric particulate pollution during hazard reduction burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Hart, Melissa Anne; Jiang, Ningbo

    2018-05-01

    Internationally, severe wildfires are an escalating problem likely to worsen given projected changes to climate. Hazard reduction burns (HRBs) are used to suppress wildfire occurrences, but they generate considerable emissions of atmospheric fine particulate matter, which depend upon prevailing atmospheric conditions, and can degrade air quality. Our objectives are to improve understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and air quality during HRBs in Sydney, Australia. We identify the primary meteorological covariates linked to high PM2.5 pollution (particulates pollution, the PBLH between 00:00 and 07:00 LT (local time) was 100-200 m higher than days with high pollution. The PBLH was similar during 10:00-17:00 LT for both low and high pollution days, but higher after 18:00 LT for HRB days with low pollution. Cloud cover, temperature and wind speed reflected the above pattern, e.g. mean temperatures and wind speeds were 2 °C cooler and 0.5 m s-1 lower during mornings and evenings of HRB days when air quality was poor. These cooler, more stable morning and evening conditions coincide with nocturnal westerly cold air drainage flows in Sydney, which are associated with reduced mixing height and vertical dispersion, leading to the build-up of PM2.5. These findings indicate that air pollution impacts may be reduced by altering the timing of HRBs by conducting them later in the morning (by a matter of hours). Our findings support location-specific forecasts of the air quality impacts of HRBs in Sydney and similar regions elsewhere.

  15. Atmospheric deposition exposes Qinling pandas to toxic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Song, Yi; An, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Qing-Yi; Ellison, Aaron M

    2017-03-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas. Average atmospheric deposition was 199, 115, and 49 g·m -2 ·yr -1 in the center of Xi'an City, at China's Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center (SWARC), and at Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), respectively. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) and POPs was highest at Xi'an City, intermediate at SWARC, and lowest at FNNR. Soil concentrations of the aforementioned heavy metals other than As and Zn also were significantly higher at SWARC than at FNNR. Efforts to conserve Qinling pandas may be compromised by air pollution attendant to China's economic development. Improvement of air quality and reductions of toxic emissions are urgently required to protect China's iconic species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. The spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents during the period 2000-2005 in the Urban Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hermes U Ramírez; García, María D Andrade; Bejaran, Rubén; Guadalupe, Mario E García; Vázquez, Antonio Wallo; Toledano, Ana C Pompa; Villasenor, Odila de la Torre

    2009-06-15

    In the large cities, the disordered urban development, the industrial activities, and the transport, have caused elevated concentrations of polluting agents and possible risks to the health of the population. The metropolises located in valleys with little ventilation (such as the Urban Area of Guadalajara: UAG) present low dispersion of polluting agents can cause high risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particles smaller than 10 microns (microm) (PM(10)) and ozone (O(3)) in the UAG during the period 2000-2005. A spatial-temporal distribution analysis was made by means of graphic interpolation (Kriging method) of the statistical parameters of CO, NO(2), SO(2), PM(10) and O(3) with the collected data from eight stations of atmospheric monitoring in the UAG. The results show that the distributions of the atmospheric polluting agents are variable during the analyzed years. The polluting agent with highest concentration is PM(10) (265.42 microg/m(3)), followed by O(3) (0.11 ppm), NO(2) (0.11 ppm), CO (9.17 ppm) and SO(2) (0.05 ppm). The most affected zone is the southeast of the UAG. The results showed that an important percentage of days exceed the Mexican norms of air quality (93-199 days/year).

  17. Microscale atmospheric pollution of Pogranichny settlement (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Agoshkov, Alexander; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter in the small urban settlement Pogranichny by means of laser granulometry of snow water. The atmosphere of this settlement is polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10) to a certain extent. We found microparticles potentially hazardous to health in significant quantities (from 176.3% to 24.9%) in 4 sampling points out of 9. Large particles (sized over 400 μm) dominate on the most territory of the settlement reaching 78.1%.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in forest litter - indicators of pollutant depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angehrn-Bettinazzi, C.; Hertz, J.

    1990-01-01

    By means of a comparison of the heavy metal concentrations in organic litter from different sites it was examined to what extent the heavy metal concentrations correlate with the atmospheric pollution situation. It follows from the variance analyses: The atmospheric pollution situation is the dominating factor for the heavy metal concentration in L litter. The elements Cd and Zn show a pH-sensitivity at the same time. The lead concentration in the L n and L v horizons reflects the atmospheric pollution situation of the corresponding site. Specific pollution patterns, e.g. in the case of hillside sites, are neither detected through the gravitational deposition (open land) nor through the airborne dust concentration; these can be recognized by the monitor 'litter'. Only horizons in the intercrown area with identical tree vegetation, which are characterized in detail, must be used for monitoring. (orig.) [de

  19. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  20. Silica nanoparticles capture atmospheric lead: implications in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xifei; Shen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Jianping; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in the air is a severe global problem, most notably in China. Removal of Pb from polluted air remains a significant challenge. It is unclear what potential effects silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) exposure can have on atmospheric Pb. Here we first characterized the features of SiNPs by measuring the particle size, zeta potential and the specific surface area of SiO(2) particles using a Nicomp 380/ZLS submicron particle sizer, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). We measured the content of the metal Pb adsorbed by SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is found that SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants absorb more atmospheric Pb compared to either blank control or micro-sized SiO(2) particles in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study demonstrating that SiNPs exposure can absorb atmospheric Pb in the polluted environment. These novel findings indicate that SiNPs have potential to serve as a significant adsorbent of Pb from industrial pollution, implicating a potentially novel application of SiNPs in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dust and smoke pollution monitoring in industrial unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Dust and smoke are the two most commonly emitted industrial pollutants which are visible to the naked eye. Cement plants and power generation plants, based on coal and fuel oil etc. are the most common examples of industry emitting these pollutants. In this article these pollutants have been briefly described and some monitoring instruments for dust and smoke emissions have been specific. These instruments are especially suitable for power station and the cement industry etc. Automotive in urban areas. However, this paper does not include equipment for automotive exhaust pollution. (author)

  2. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Aakash C.; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N.; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David

    2017-01-01

    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to ...

  3. Monitoring of the aquatic environment by species accumulator of pollutants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review on the biomonitoring of aquatic environments by animal and plant species accumulators of toxic pollutants ("scavengers". This monitoring is based on the relationship between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment, and not on alterations produced by pollution on the biota. The latter is the basis of other types of biomonitoring, such as those based on the biotic and diversity indices and saprobic scale. The various aspects of monitoring by pollutant accumulators are illustrated; for example, the uptake and loss of pollutants, the "critical organs" and "tissues", the detoxification mechanisms and the most common factors (C.F., BAF, BSAF for establishing a connection between the pollutant concentration in the organism and that in its environment. Several examples of this monitoring on heavy metals, radioisotopes and organic micropollutants are reported. The advantages of this monitoring, the characteristics of the species to be used as bioaccumulators and some practical suggestions are listed. A close collaboration between the scientific teams working on the biomonitoring based on accumulator organisms and on the chemical monitoring is recommended from the scientific and economic point of view.

  4. Atmospheric pollution and specific tolerance of lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sloover, J

    1968-01-01

    An ecological method has been designed which allows a quantitative estimation of specific sensitivity of lichens to atmospheric pollution. That method is based on a comparison of the ''cortege moyen specifique'' i.e. the mean number of lichens growing with each species in a given area. Four of the obtained sequences are compared (The Dender valley and the area surrounding Gand, Belgium: the Oslo and the Helsinki areas); they show the order to toxiphoby of the related epiphytic lichens.

  5. Design of Sensor Data Processing Steps in an Air Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Woo Nam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring is required to understand the effects of various kinds of phenomena such as a flood, a typhoon, or a forest fire. To detect the environmental conditions in remote places, monitoring applications employ the sensor networks to detect conditions, context models to understand phenomena, and computing technology to process the large volumes of data. In this paper, we present an air pollution monitoring system to provide alarm messages about potentially dangerous areas with sensor data analysis. We design the data analysis steps to understand the detected air pollution regions and levels. The analyzed data is used to track the pollution and to give an alarm. This implemented monitoring system is used to mitigate the damages caused by air pollution.

  6. Environment, pollution and growing health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmud, S.

    1987-01-01

    The atmosphere surround the planet like a mantle and compositions of atmosphere also changes. The role of high concentration in the stratosphere is vital in as much as it act as a very effective filter for absorbing ultraviolet rays. Different type of wastes that is industrial waste, domestic waste, etc. are being mixed in the environment. The procedure for monitoring pollution in the atmosphere involves the use of a laser radar (LIDAR). Laser beam is sent out in the atmosphere and point of the laser beam back-scattered by the pollutants. Aerosols to the laser radar which receives and processes it with the help of a high speed digital computer. (A.B.)

  7. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanova, Magdalena; Penkova-Radicheva, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    One of Europe's most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant "Maritza East" (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. A five year study (2009-2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care) in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format. Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009-2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%), the respiratory system (17.34%) and the genitourinary system (9.76%). The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%), the cardiovascular system (11.85%), respiratory system (10.86%) and the genitourinary system (8.88%). The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria) and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization). Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies.

  8. An experience in Montenegro with atmospheric pollution by means of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.

    2000-01-01

    The very first study of the atmospheric pollution by means of bioindicators in the region of Montenegro was performed in 1992-93. The study, supported by the Commission of the European Union, was focused to the impact of an aluminium smelter plant to the air pollution in its surroundings. The plant (KAP) is situated 10 km to the south of Podgorica (capital of Montenegro) and produces some 100,000 tons of cast aluminium per year, using French (Pechine) technology. The technological process contributes in several manners to the atmospheric pollution. We investigated an area up to 50 km distances from the plant. Epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia caperata) were collected from the tree bark 2 m above the ground. In the near vicinity of the plant no epiphytic lichens could have been found (died out due to high pollution levels). Instead, the more resistant lithophytic varieties (Lecanora expallens) were collected therein. Samples of wild grasses and pine needles were taken at the same spots, so as to compare the three indicators. We further found 5-10 times higher pollutant accumulation factors in lichens than in grasses or pine needles, emphasising thus the monitoring sensitivity of the lichens. Soil samples were also taken at the spots and analysed, but no impact factors for the soil were calculated. Samples were analysed by means of the k 0 -method of neutron activation analysis at 'Pierre Sue' Laboratory, Nuclear Research Centre, Saclay/Paris, France. Three types of analyses were made: (i) with short (matter of a few minutes) irradiations at the reactor ORPHEE , followed by analysing the short lived nuclides; (ii) with long (matter of hours) irradiations at the reactor OSIRIS, followed by analysing the long lived nuclides and occasionally - when necessary - (iii) epithermal analyses, in order to suppress the induced activities of certain matrix elements (e.g.Na) and obtain better sensitivity for the other elements. The following elements were determined down to

  9. Contribution to the modeling of atmospheric pollution in cities; Contribution a la modelisation de la pollution atmospherique dans les villes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glockmer, St.

    2000-07-01

    Pollution generated by urban traffic and by industry at its periphery is a serious problem of our cities. Once emitted in the atmosphere, pollutants undergo two types of constraints: on one side they react chemically one with another and, on the other side, they are transported by the wind. We have chosen to work on the dynamical, thermal and chemical aspects of the pollution at different scales of the phenomena: local scale (around a group of buildings) and meso-scale (a whole city). Our ambition is not to realize a complete model but to advance step by step on each aspect. We have contributed to the realization of a numerical tool that will be completed and used for concrete pollution episodes. The first chapter is a description of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapters two and three present models and results of numerical simulations. We stress on k-{epsilon}, RNG and v{sup 2}-f turbulence models, radiative heat transfer models and dynamical and thermal wall laws that allow to take in consideration surface roughness. The last chapter is dedicated to atmospheric chemistry. We have moreover developed a general solver of any number of transport equations coupled by a stiff chemistry and simplified ozone kinetics. (author)

  10. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  11. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  12. Use of lichens as indicator and test organism for atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1969-01-01

    Some species of lichens are very specialized with regard to their substrata, while others grow on almost any substratum. The species that grow on the bark of trees are discussed. Not all kinds of bark are equally desirable to all epiphytic lichen species. Some species occur on bark with a fairly low pH (pH 3-4), while others occur on moderately acid to almost neutral bark (pH 4.5-6-7). Different ways of using lichens as indicators and test plants for atmospheric pollution have been tried. Individual species have served as indicators. In order to get an idea of the zonation around a source of damage, it is possible to use the number of species per tree or group of trees examined. This method is practicable only under certain special conditions. The comparison of the species gives a better indication of the degree and kind of atmospheric pollution than the epiphyte flora. De Sloover and LeBlanc have published a formula, with the aid of which an index of atmospheric purity (IAP) may be produced. This index may then be used in the cartographical representation of zones of air purity. Another formula is based on the degree of cover and poleotolerance in the individual species. Schoenbeck has developed Brodo's transplantation method and uses Hypogymnia physodes as a test organism for atmospheric pollution. The extent of the damage to the lichens is recorded on infra-red-sensitive film. The damaged areas are measured with a planimeter, by which means a numerical value is obtained for the extent of damage.

  13. Control of emissions from stationary combustion sources: Pollutant detection and behavior in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, W.; Engel, A.J.; Slater, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary combustion resources continue to be significant sources of NOx and SOx pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. This volume considers four problem areas: (1) control of emissions from stationary combustion sources, particularly SOx and NOx (2) pollutant behavior in the atmosphere (3) advances in air pollution analysis and (4) air quality management. Topics of interest include carbon slurries for sulfur dioxide abatement, mass transfer in the Kellogg-Weir air quality control system, oxidation/inhibition of sulfite ion in aqueous solution, some micrometeorological methods of measuring dry deposition rates, Spanish moss as an indicator of airborne metal contamination, and air quality impacts from future electric power generation in Texas

  14. The Use of Biomonitors to Monitor Atmospheric Deposition of 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeran, Z.; Jacimovic, R.

    1998-01-01

    The main source of 210 Pb in the environment is the exhalation of 222 Rn gas from the ground to the atmosphere during the radioactive decay of natural uranium - radium chain. In the atmosphere this radionuclide is rapidly attached to small particles - aerosols, predominantly on those particles below 0.3 mm. The half-life of 210 Pb is longer than the atmospheric residence time of the aerosols on which it resides (1). By sedimentation and washout of aerosols this nuclide is then transferred to the soil or vegetation. The other main sources include burning of fossil fuels and phosphate fertilizers. The usual way to determine the levels of 210 Pb and other radionuclides in the atmosphere is the use of a high volume filter system, which should operate for a long time to collect enough material for analysis. An other approach to determining the outdoor levels of radionuclides is the use of suitable biomonitors such as lichens or mosses. These organisms, although neither evolutionarie nor taxonomically related, have some common characteristics which enable them to be used as monitors for atmospheric pollution. They lack roots and protective organs against the substances derived from the atmosphere (stomata and cuticle) and are very efficient accumulators of atmospheric particulate material and chemical substances such as radionuclides or heavy metals (2). The levels of these substances in lichens and mosses are usually much higher than in air particulates or precipitation and for these reason the analysis is much easier. Another advantage of biomonitors over conventional sampling of air particulates or precipitation is that the collection of lichens or mosses is very cheap therefore allows a very large number of sites to be included in the same survey and permits detailed geographical deposition patterns to be drawn (3). It must be emphasised that concentration data on elements or radionuclides in lichens or mosses represent the relative deposition patterns over a certain

  15. Сomparative Analysis of 0.266 and 0.355 µm Fluorescence Excitation Wavelengths for Laser Fluores-Cence Monitoring of Oil Pollution Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The on-line detection of pipeline spillage is really essential for the fast oil spill response to the ecological and economical consequences. However existing on-line pipelines spillage detection systems have a sensibility of 0.2 – 1 % of pipe flow and do not detect the smaller-sized spillages.For unpeopled or sparsely populated regions an advanced technique for detection of pipeline spillages (including low-intensity ones is to monitor oil pollution (petroleum spills on the earth surface along the pipeline using, for example, an air drone.The laser remote sensing method is an effective method to detect the pipelines spillage.The paper is dedicated to development of laser fluorescence detection method of oil pollution. The remote sensing laser method to monitor oil pollution is based on the fluorescence excitation of oil in UV spectral band and on the data record of the earth surface laser-induced fluorescence radiation.For laser fluorescence method of monitoring oil pollution the paper presents a comparative analysis  of 0.266 and 0.355 µm wavelengths of the fluorescence excitation in terms of earth atmosphere propagation, eye-safety, laser characteristics, and petroleum fluorescence excitation efficiency.It is shown that in terms of eye-safety, laser characteristics, and propagation in the earth atmosphere a 0.355 µm laser wavelength of the fluorescence excitation has a sure advantage.In the context of petroleum fluorescence excitation efficiency a 0.266 µm laser wavelength of the fluorescence excitation has the advantage, but this advantage depends heavily on the petroleum base. For low-sulfur (sweet oil for instance,  it is not that big.At large, in solving the task of oil pollution detection because of the oil pipeline spillages the 0.355 µm wavelength of fluorescence excitation ought to be preferable. However, when creating a monitoring system for the pipeline with a specific petroleum base the irreversible decision depends on the

  16. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  17. The risks of premature mortality related to atmospheric pollution. Comparison with those related to tobacco and those related to radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Whereas atmospheric pollution is now recognized as one of the most important cause of mortality in the world, this report first notices that these pollutants have mainly an anthropogenic origin. In a first part, the author presents the main harmful atmospheric pollutants, and briefly discusses their origin and their impact on health: carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, persistent organic pollutants, volatile organic compounds, ozone, tars, soot or particles, heavy metals. In a second part, the author discusses the assessment of hazards related to atmospheric pollution, and more particularly the assessment of premature morbidity due to different pollutants according to different organisations and programs. He also discusses health impacts on a short and on a long term, notably in terms of exposure in big cities. In a third part, based on measurements of emissions of primary pollutant, notably primary particles, the author tries to identify the most dangerous sources of atmospheric pollutions

  18. Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Richard O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.

  19. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  20. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Atmospheric pathway formulations. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a multimedia model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations. The MEPAS atmospheric component for the air media documented in this report includes models for emission from a source to the air, initial plume rise and dispersion, airborne pollutant transport and dispersion, and deposition to soils and crops. The material in this report is documentation for MEPAS Versions 3.0 and 3.1 and the MEPAS version used in the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) Version 1.0

  1. Correlation study of air pollution and cardio-respiratory diseases through NAA of an atmospheric pollutant biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Alves, E.R.; Genezini, F.A.; Santos, J.O.; Marcelli, M.P.; Saldiva, P.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study neutron activation analysis was applied to analyze lichen samples used as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors in order to verify if there is correlation between air pollution and its effects on the cardio respiratory system. Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungii species was chosen for passive biomonitoring of atmospheric pollutants. The population group selected for this study was adults over 45 years. Lichen samples collected in Sao Paulo city were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for the analyses. Aliquots of samples were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for short and long periods along with synthetic element standards. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer with an HPGe detector and the concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se,Th, V, Zn and lanthanides were determined. For quality control of the results, certified reference materials were analyzed together. Mortality data for the population due to cardio-respiratory diseases were obtained from the database of the Secretariat of Health of the Sao Paulo Municipality for the years 2005-2009. Results obtained point to vehicular and industrial emissions as the origins of pollutants in Sao Paulo city. The statistical treatment of Pearson's correlation applied to the results of lichen element concentrations and mortality rates indicated significant positive correlation for the elements Co, Mn and Zn for adults. (author)

  2. First simultaneous space measurements of atmospheric pollutants in the boundary layer from IASI: a case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynard, Anne; Clerbaux, Cathy; Clarisse, Lieven; Safieddine, Sarah; Pommier, Matthieu; Van Damme, Martin; Bauduin, Sophie; Oudot, Charlotte; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2014-05-01

    An extremely severe and persistent smog episode occurred in January 2013 over China. The levels of air pollution have been dangerously high, reaching 40 times recommended safety levels and have affected health of millions of people. China faced one of the worst periods of air quality in recent history and drew worldwide attention. This pollution episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and stable meteorological conditions (absence of wind and temperature inversion) that trapped pollutants in the boundary layer. To characterize this episode, we used the IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) instrument onboard the MetOp-A platform. IASI observations show high concentrations of key trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) along with ammonium sulfate aerosol. We show that IASI is able to detect boundary layer pollution in case of large negative thermal contrast combined with high levels of pollution. Our findings demonstrate the ability of thermal infrared instrument such as IASI to monitor boundary layer pollutants, which can support air quality evaluation and management.

  3. PIXE studies of pollutants in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczyk, S.; Kajfosz, J.; Hrynkiewicz, A.; Curzydlo, J.

    1980-01-01

    Both industrial and road traffic pollutions were studied by PIXE by means of determination of trace elements accumulated in different plant tissues from affected areas. The method was improved by the application of an intermediate atmosphere in the target chamber. The PIXE method was proved to be adequate and convenient for monitoring many of the pollutants. (author)

  4. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  5. Composition of Estonian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J. M.; Karindi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric study, particularly that of its chemical composition, has a long tradition in Estonia. Since middle of this century, in addition to meteorological observations, some chemical compounds in precipitations have been regularly measured in many meteorological stations. The main aim was to acquire information about the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, main attention was paid to monitoring chemical compounds which have a direct impact on the human environment. As energy production developed intensively and SO 2 and NO x increased drastically in the atmosphere in acidic rock areas, like Scandinavia, the problem of acid rain became the most important environmental problem in Europe and North-America. As a consequence, monitoring the compounds of sulphur in precipitation was organized in Estonia. In the 1970 s, as related to large operating oil shale-based power plants, Estonia became a country , where emissions of sulphur compounds per capita were extremely high. In 1979, Estonia became a participant in the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme - the network created to study transboundary air pollution. The aims of the precipitation chemistry study and the related problems of the formation and transformation of the atmospheric composition have varied over the years. But monitoring of pollutant (in particular, sulphur compound) loads has been a central issue. Over recent years, an attempt was made to estimate the spatial regularities of atmospheric impurities and their impact on the pH of mean monthly precipitations. Furthermore, calculations were provided to find out the origin of atmospheric impurities washed out in Estonia. Until the 1990 s, CO 2 , and some other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were not studied in Estonia. The first inventory of GHG for Estonia was provided in 1995 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology

  6. Atmospheric pollution over the eastern Mediterranean during summer - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Uri; Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Régina; Dulac, François

    2017-11-01

    The eastern Mediterranean (EM) is one of the regions in the world where elevated concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous air pollutants have been reported frequently, mainly in summer. This review discusses published studies of the atmospheric dispersion and transport conditions characterizing this region during the summer, followed by a description of some essential studies dealing with the corresponding concentrations of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen, methane, and sulfate aerosols observed there. The interlaced relationship between the downward motion of the subsiding air aloft induced by global circulation systems affecting the EM and the depth of the Persian Trough, a low-pressure trough that extends from the Asian monsoon at the surface controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the mixed boundary layer during summer, is discussed. The strength of the wind flow within the mixed layer and its depth affect much the amount of pollutants transported and determine the potential of the atmosphere to disperse contaminants off their origins in the EM. The reduced mixed layer and the accompanying weak westerlies, characterizing the summer in this region, led to reduced ventilation rates, preventing an effective dilution of the contaminants. Several studies pointing at specific local (e.g., ventilation rates) and regional peculiarities (long-range transport) enhancing the build-up of air pollutant concentrations are presented. Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations observed in the summer over the EM are among the highest over the Northern Hemisphere. The three essential processes controlling its formation (i.e., long-range transport of polluted air masses, dynamic subsidence at mid-tropospheric levels, and stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange) are reviewed. Airborne campaigns and satellite-borne initiatives have indicated that the concentration values of reactive nitrogen identified as precursors in the formation of O

  7. Atmospheric air contamination monitoring. Monitoring station ASS-500, GIG Katowice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, B.

    1993-01-01

    The results obtained during the period of 1991-1993 in monitoring station ASS-500 working in Katowice have been presented. The concentration of 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and dustiness in atmospheric air have been shown. Some proposals about the modifications of monitoring station ASS-500 have been introduced. 3 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Monitoring of atmospheric contamination by plutonium in laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarola, J.; Risselin, A.; Feliers, P.

    1965-02-01

    Immediate detection of atmospheric contamination by plutonium is necessary for warning of operators. A precise estimate of the level of this contamination is also necessary in order to give the Medical Section proper information. Experiments have been carried out at CEN-FAR using atmospheric contamination by plutonium monitors. This paper deals successively with: important problems of monitoring, the carrying out of the experiments and the results yielded. (authors) [fr

  9. Evergreen oak leaves as natural monitor in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capannesi, G.; Rosada, A.; Caroli, S.

    1988-01-01

    Evergreen oak was chosen as a possible biological monitor of environmental pollution. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the concentration of elements in leaves and the presence of pollution sources, i.e. the density of vehicular traffic. (author) 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  11. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to

  12. Huguangyan Maar Lake (SE China): A solid record of atmospheric mercury pollution history in a non-remote region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Chen, Jingan; Yang, Yongqiong; Wang, Jianxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Li, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic metal that can cause harm to environment and human health. As atmospheric deposition is the main source of total Hg input to aquatic system in remote and pristine regions, almost all the studies on atmospheric Hg pollution history concentrated in these areas, while the studies in non-remote areas are much limited, especially for the long history records. In this study, Huguangyan Maar Lake, an undisturbed lake system at low altitude in China, was selected to reconstruct the atmospheric mercury pollution history. Variation patterns of TOC, Hg and non-residual Sr in the sediment core indicated that, compared to the direct atmospheric Hg deposition, the effect of either Hg scavenging from water column by algae or the catchment inputs of previously deposited Hg on the Hg accumulation in the lake sediment was limited. The sediment Hg content in Huguangyan Lake was mainly controlled by the atmospheric Hg deposition, and thus accurately reflected the atmospheric Hg pollution history. The Hga (Hg content from atmospheric deposition) in Huguangyan Lake presented a comparable variation pattern to that in remote sites. It had the same variation trend as the global atmospheric Hg before 1950 CE, which could be attributed to the Industrial Revolution. After that, it was mainly controlled by Hg emissions from Asian countries. The variation of Hga also indicated that atmospheric Hg deposition accelerated significantly since 2000 CE. This study, along with other investigations in remote sites in China, showed that the sediment Hg in Huguangyan Lake responded to the atmospheric Hg pollution more sensitively than in the alpine regions. It should be noted that, the more intensive acceleration of Hg deposition in Huguangyan Lake may imply that the South of China suffered from much more serious atmospheric Hg pollution than previous studies revealed.

  13. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...

  14. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Lin, Jintai; Peters, Glen P.; Li, Meng; Geng, Guannan; Zheng, Bo; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Haikun; Davis, Steven J.; He, Kebin

    2017-09-01

    Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2.5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths) of China's PM2.5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths) China's PM2.5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total) and 145 100 (14 %) premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  15. Advection of pollutants by internal solitary waves in oceanic and atmospheric stable stratifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Haarlemmer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available When a pollutant is released into the ocean or atmosphere under turbulent conditions, even a steady release is captured by large eddies resulting in localized patches of high concentration of the pollutant. If such a cloud of pollutant subsequently enters a stable stratification-either a pycnocline or thermocline-then internal waves are excited. Since large solitary internal waves have a recirculating core, pollutants may be trapped in the sclitary wave, and advected large distances through the waveguide provided by the stratification. This paper addresses the mechanisms, through computer and physical simulation, by which a localized release of a dense pollutant results in solitary waves that trap the pollutant or disperse the pollutant faster than in the absence of the waves.

  16. Baseline atmospheric program Australia 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs

  17. Multi-perspective analysis and spatiotemporal mapping of air pollution monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovos, Alexander; Skupin, André; Jerrett, Michael; Christakos, George

    2010-09-01

    Space-time data analysis and assimilation techniques in atmospheric sciences typically consider input from monitoring measurements. The input is often processed in a manner that acknowledges characteristics of the measurements (e.g., underlying patterns, fluctuation features) under conditions of uncertainty; it also leads to the derivation of secondary information that serves study-oriented goals, and provides input to space-time prediction techniques. We present a novel approach that blends a rigorous space-time prediction model (Bayesian maximum entropy, BME) with a cognitively informed visualization of high-dimensional data (spatialization). The combined BME and spatialization approach (BME-S) is used to study monthly averaged NO2 and mean annual SO4 measurements in California over the 15-year period 1988-2002. Using the original scattered measurements of these two pollutants BME generates spatiotemporal predictions on a regular grid across the state. Subsequently, the prediction network undergoes the spatialization transformation into a lower-dimensional geometric representation, aimed at revealing patterns and relationships that exist within the input data. The proposed BME-S provides a powerful spatiotemporal framework to study a variety of air pollution data sources.

  18. Measurement of radioactivity in the atmosphere and pollution nearby an atomic centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Weill, J.

    1955-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is particularly interested in studies on atmospheric radioactivity by reason of the necessity to control the atmosphere nearby nuclear plants as uranium mines, nuclear reactors and hot laboratories or radioactive materials treatment plants. Thus, the CEA developed different apparatus to control and monitor the atmosphere nearby its sites. These air monitors are essentially of two types: the first one, called 'Babar', monitors smokes, fogs and dusts, the second type is an ionization chamber and measures the concentration of radioactive gas in the air. The functioning and sensitivity of these two systems are discussed. (M.P.)

  19. Acute exacerbations and deaths in the group of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases in the city of Lodzin relation to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiatczak, J; Olejnik, A

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution episodes (sulfur dioxide and dust) on the morbidity and mortality of a group of people suffering from upper respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease was studied by examining air monitoring data and health statistics (ambulance service records and death certificates) for the city of Lodz. During the month of January in 1971, when the atmospheric pollution reached a 7-year peak, ambulance station statistics revealed the incidnce of acute cardiovascular and respiratory diseases to be at a maximum. The number of deaths from these diseases reached a maximum of 18 on the first day of the episode; on subsequent days, however, the mortalities returned to average.

  20. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ''multimedia'' model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations

  1. Atmospheric radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Peixoto, C.J. Todero; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Luzio, V.P. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), SP (Brazil); Barbosa, A.F.; Lima Junior, H.P.; Vilar, A.B.; Gama, R.G.; Ferraz, V.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (MonRAt) is a compact telescope designed to detect fluorescence photons generated in the atmosphere by ultra-high energy cosmic rays showers with energies in the interval between 10{sup 17} eV and 10{sup 18} eV. It is composite by a 64 pixels MultiAnodic PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT) placed at the focus of a parabolic mirror mounted in a Newtonian telescope setup and the data acquisition system. In front of the MAPMT photocathode, filters will be positioned to select light with wavelength in the near ultraviolet region (300 nm < {lambda} < 450 nm) where the nitrogen fluorescent emissions occurs. The data acquisition system consists of a set of pre-amplifiers and FPGA-based boards able to record trigger times and waveforms from each channel and send the data to a computer by USB ports. MonRAt will be used to detect fluorescence photons under different atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, humidity, local geomagnetic field, etc) and will contribute with a detailed study of the fluorescence radiation yield. The assembly of the telescope is under way and we present in this work the status of the experiment and its first measurements in the laboratory. (author)

  2. Atmospheric radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Peixoto, C.J. Todero; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Luzio, V.P.; Barbosa, A.F.; Lima Junior, H.P.; Vilar, A.B.; Gama, R.G.; Ferraz, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (MonRAt) is a compact telescope designed to detect fluorescence photons generated in the atmosphere by ultra-high energy cosmic rays showers with energies in the interval between 10 17 eV and 10 18 eV. It is composite by a 64 pixels MultiAnodic PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT) placed at the focus of a parabolic mirror mounted in a Newtonian telescope setup and the data acquisition system. In front of the MAPMT photocathode, filters will be positioned to select light with wavelength in the near ultraviolet region (300 nm < λ < 450 nm) where the nitrogen fluorescent emissions occurs. The data acquisition system consists of a set of pre-amplifiers and FPGA-based boards able to record trigger times and waveforms from each channel and send the data to a computer by USB ports. MonRAt will be used to detect fluorescence photons under different atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, humidity, local geomagnetic field, etc) and will contribute with a detailed study of the fluorescence radiation yield. The assembly of the telescope is under way and we present in this work the status of the experiment and its first measurements in the laboratory. (author)

  3. Forest condition and chemical characteristics of atmospheric depositions: research and monitoring network in Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminio DI GIROLAMO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, the Regional Forestry Board of Lombardy and the Water Research Institute of the National Research Council have been carrying out surveys of forest conditions and the response of the ecosystem to environmental factors. The study approach is based on a large number of permanent plots for extensive monitoring (Level 1. At this level, crown condition is assessed annually, and soil condition and the nutritional status of forests surveyed. Some of the permanent plots were selected for intensive monitoring (Level 2, focussing mainly on the impact of atmospheric pollution on forest ecosystems. Level 2 monitoring also includes increment analyses, ground vegetation assessment, atmospheric deposition, soil solution analyses and climatic observations. This paper summarises the main results of a pluriannual research, which provides a general picture of the state of forest health in the region and focuses on more detailed investigations, described as case studies. Modified wet and dry samplers which use a water surface to collect dry deposition were used in a pluriannual field campaign at five sites in alpine and prealpine areas, to measure the total atmospheric depositions and to evaluate the nitrogen and sulphate exceedances of critical loads. Throughfall and bulk precipitation chemistry were studied for five years (June 1994-May 1999 at two high elevation forest sites (Val Gerola and Val Masino which were known to differ in terms of tree health, as assessed by live crown condition. Results indicated a higher contribution from the dry deposition of N-NO3 -, N-NH4 + and H+ and considerable canopy leaching of Ca2+, K+ and weak organic acids at Val Gerola, where the symptoms of damage were more evident. In the area of Val Masino (SO, included since 1997 in the national CONECOFOR network, investigations focused on the effectiveness of the biological compartment in modifying fluxes of atmospheric elements, and on the role of nitrogen both as an

  4. Essentials of multiangle data-processing methodology for smoke polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; A. Petkov; Cyle Wold; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao

    2011-01-01

    Essentials for investigating smoke plume characteristics with scanning lidar are discussed. Particularly, we outline basic principles for determining dynamics, heights, and optical properties of smoke plumes and layers in wildfire-polluted atmospheres. Both simulated and experimental data obtained in vicinities of wildfires with a two-wavelength scanning lidar are...

  5. Measurement of radioactivity in the atmosphere and pollution nearby an atomic centre; Mesure de la radioactivite de l'atmosphere et de la pollution au voisinage d'un centre atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J; Weill, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is particularly interested in studies on atmospheric radioactivity by reason of the necessity to control the atmosphere nearby nuclear plants as uranium mines, nuclear reactors and hot laboratories or radioactive materials treatment plants. Thus, the CEA developed different apparatus to control and monitor the atmosphere nearby its sites. These air monitors are essentially of two types: the first one, called 'Babar', monitors smokes, fogs and dusts, the second type is an ionization chamber and measures the concentration of radioactive gas in the air. The functioning and sensitivity of these two systems are discussed. (M.P.)

  6. Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Samuel K.; Kamber, Balz S.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Zawadzki, Atun

    2010-01-01

    Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). - Detailed records of atmospheric metal pollution accumulation in Australia are presented and are shown to trace the industrial and agricultural development of the continent.

  7. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  8. Tube bundle system: for monitoring of coal mine atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, R Karl; Marchewka, W; Mohamed, K; Addis, J; Karnack, F

    2013-05-01

    A tube bundle system (TBS) is a mechanical system for continuously drawing gas samples through tubes from multiple monitoring points located in an underground coal mine. The gas samples are drawn via vacuum pump to the surface and are typically analyzed for oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Results of the gas analyses are displayed and recorded for further analysis. Trends in the composition of the mine atmosphere, such as increasing methane or carbon monoxide concentration, can be detected early, permitting rapid intervention that prevents problems, such as a potentially explosive atmosphere behind seals, fire or spontaneous combustion. TBS is a well-developed technology and has been used in coal mines around the world for more than 50 years. Most longwall coal mines in Australia deploy a TBS, usually with 30 to 40 monitoring points as part of their atmospheric monitoring. The primary uses of a TBS are detecting spontaneous combustion and maintaining sealed areas inert. The TBS might also provide mine atmosphere gas composition data after a catastrophe occurs in an underground mine, if the sampling tubes are not damaged. TBSs are not an alternative to statutory gas and ventilation airflow monitoring by electronic sensors or people; rather, they are an option to consider in an overall mine atmosphere monitoring strategy. This paper describes the hardware, software and operation of a TBS and presents one example of typical data from a longwall coal mine.

  9. Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowicz, Robert; Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Fetter, Wojciech

    2017-11-04

    Seasonal variation of air pollution is associated with variety of seasons and specificity of particular months which form the so-called summer and winter season also known as the "heating" season. The occurrence of higher values of air pollution in different months of a year is associated with the type of climate, and accordingly with different atmospheric conditions in particular months, changing state of weather on a given day, and anthropogenic activity. The appearance of these conditions results in different levels of air pollution characteristic for a given period. The study uses data collected during a seven-year period (2009-2015) in the automatic measuring station of immissions located in Eastern Wielkopolska. The analysis concerns the average and maximum values of air pollution (i.e., particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) from the perspective of their occurrence in particular seasons and months or in relation to meteorological actors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

  10. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Nursyairah, E-mail: nursyairah1990@gmail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  11. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  12. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O.; Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  13. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  14. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A study on the environmental behavior of global air pollutants based on the continuous measurements of atmospheric radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    Radon is a useful natural radioactive tracer of air transportation of atmospheric pollution, since radon is a noble gas and chemically inert. The atmospheric radon concentration is usually measured by a high-sensitivity electrostatic collection method or a two-filter method. The variations of radon concentrations observed over a solitary island and in the upper atmosphere are suitable for comparing with those of air pollutants. Some numerical simulation models were used to study the radon global transport in the atmosphere. In East Asia, atmospheric radon and air pollutants are transported with the air stream from the continent of China to the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. It is necessary to clarify the transport mechanism from both radon observations at various locations and numerical simulation. (author)

  16. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Comparative discussion on some measurements of the atmospheric natural radioactivity and pollution with coal smoke particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of measuring the natural radioactivity and coal smoke pollution are discussed for two sites in an industrial town, as well as for two heights at the same site, in connection with large scale and local atmospheric stability. The effects of the radiation fog upon the radon daughters acumulation near the ground are examined in some detail. By comparing the pollutant diurnal variations during two periods of similar atmospheric stability in autumn, respectively in winter, the contribution from the dwelling coal heating has been estimated to be about half of the total pollution in the town. (author)

  18. Atmospheric pollution and human reproduction: Report on the Munich International Workshop

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slama, R.; Darrow, L.; Parker, J.; Woodruff, T.J.; Strickland, M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Glinianaia, S.; Hoggatt, J.; Kannan, S.; Hurley, K.; Kalinka, J.; Šrám, Radim; Brauer, M.; Wilhelm, M.; Heinrich, J.; Ritz, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 6 (2008), s. 791-798 ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Atmospheric pollution * Birth weight * Exposure assessment Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 6.123, year: 2008

  19. Emission of pollutants in the atmosphere according to oil products quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkovska, Jasmina; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the comparison of the environmental protection legal regulations as well as pollutants emission in atmosphere in a most European countries is shown. The air pollution directly depends on both fuel consumption and fuel quality. The fuel quality in Republic of Macedonia gradually is performing and incorporating with anchors European countries. On the other side, energy potentials have no rights to ignore environmental protection, neither environmental protection should be dominated under energy plants. Reciprocal antagonisms should be overtaken through corresponding legislation. (Author)

  20. The Role of Monitoring in Controlling Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Allan

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of trends in the national water pollution control effort and to describe the role of monitoring in that effort, particularly in relation to the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I hope the paper will serve as a useful framework for the more specific discussions of monitoring technology to follow.

  1. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  2. Influence of weather and atmospheric pollution on physical activity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmari, Ayedh D; Mackay, Alex J; Patel, Anant R C; Kowlessar, Beverly S; Singh, Richa; Brill, Simon E; Allinson, James P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2015-06-13

    Information concerning how climate and atmospheric pollutants affects physical activity in COPD patients is lacking and might be valuable in determining when physical activity should be encouraged. Seventy-three stable COPD patients recorded on daily diary cards worsening of respiratory symptoms, peak expiratory flow rate, hours spent outside the home and the number of steps taken per day. Pedometry data was recorded on 16,478 days, an average of 267 days per patient (range 29-658). Daily data for atmospheric PM10 and ozone (O3) were obtained for Bloomsbury Square, Central London from the Air Quality Information Archive databases. Daily weather data were obtained for London Heathrow from the British Atmospheric Data Archive. Colder weather below 22.5 °C, reduced daily step count by 43.3 steps day per °C (95% CI 2.14 to 84.4; p = 0.039) and activity was lower on rainy than dry days (p = 0.002) and on overcast compared to sunny days (p atmospheric pollution at high levels.

  3. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  4. Monitoring Mediterranean marine pollution using remote sensing and hydrodynamic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Loggia, Goffredo; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Drago, Aldo; Maltese, Antonino

    2011-11-01

    Human activities contaminate both coastal areas and open seas, even though impacts are different in terms of pollutants, ecosystems and recovery time. In particular, Mediterranean offshore pollution is mainly related to maritime transport of oil, accounting for 25% of the global maritime traffic and, during the last 25 years, for nearly 7% of the world oil accidents, thus causing serious biological impacts on both open sea and coastal zone habitats. This paper provides a general review of maritime pollution monitoring using integrated approaches of remote sensing and hydrodynamic modeling; focusing on the main results of the MAPRES (Marine pollution monitoring and detection by aerial surveillance and satellite images) research project on the synergistic use of remote sensing, forecasting, cleanup measures and environmental consequences. The paper also investigates techniques of oil spill detection using SAR images, presenting the first results of "Monitoring of marine pollution due to oil slick", a COSMO-SkyMed funded research project where X-band SAR constellation images provided by the Italian Space Agency are used. Finally, the prospect of using real time observations of marine surface conditions is presented through CALYPSO project (CALYPSO-HF Radar Monitoring System and Response against Marine Oil Spills in the Malta Channel), partly financed by the EU under the Operational Programme Italia-Malta 2007-2013. The project concerns the setting up of a permanent and fully operational HF radar observing system, capable of recording surface currents (in real-time with hourly updates) in the stretch of sea between Malta and Sicily. A combined use of collected data and numerical models, aims to optimize intervention and response in the case of marine oil spills.

  5. A Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution, Amended Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, San Juan.

    Nine articles, related to the preservation of the natural quality of the air, and to prevention, elimination and control of atmospheric pollution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are contained in this document. These articles were written and enacted by the Environmental Quality Board in accordance with Law No. 9, approved June 18, 1970 -…

  6. Source-receptor metrology and modeling of trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddeville, P.

    2005-12-01

    This work deals with acid pollution and with its long distance transport using the metrology of trace amounts of pollutants in rural environment and the identification of the emission sources at the origin of acid atmospheric fallouts. Several French and foreign precipitation collectors have been evaluated and tested on the field. The measurement efficiency and limitations of four sampling systems for gas and particulate sulfur, ammonia and nitrous compounds have been evaluated. The limits of methods and the measurement uncertainties have been determined and calculated. A second aspect concerns the development of oriented receptor-type statistical models with the aim of improving the research of emission sources in smaller size areas defined by the cells of a geographical mesh. The construction of these models combines the pollution data of the sites with the informations about the trajectories of air masses. Results are given as probability or concentration fields revealing the areas potentially at the origin of pollutant emissions. Areas with strong pollutant emissions have been detected at the Polish, Czech and German borders and have been identified as responsible of pollution events encountered in Morvan region. Quantitative source-receptor relations have been also established. The different atmospheric transport profiles, their related frequency and concentration have been also evaluated using a dynamical clouds classification of air mass retro-trajectories. Finally, the first medium-term exploitation results (14 years) of precipitation data from measurement stations allow to perfectly identify the different meteorological regimes of the French territory by establishing a relation with the chemical composition of rainfalls. A west-east oriented increase of rainfall acidity is observed over the French territory. The pluviometry of the north-east area being among the highest of France, it generates more important deposits of acidifying compounds. The analysis

  7. Atmospheric pollution assessment from a mountainous environment in Southern Ghana: case study of Abetifi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Linda Maud Naa-Dedei

    2016-07-01

    In the pursuit to improve man’s livelihood, human activities which include emission of heavy metals from various industries and sectors, as well as the past use of chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and flame retardants have often mobilized and redistributed natural substances and anthropogenic pollutants into the atmosphere, predisposing it to relatively high concentrations of such pollutants even in pristine areas in the environment. This study assessed the level of atmospheric pollution, contributing sources and human health exposure risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along with selected heavy metals with focus on Abetifi, one of the highest altitude environments in Ghana. Passive sampling with polyurethane foam (PUF) as adsorbent was employed. Samplers were deployed every 84 days for two years. A total of 65 polyurethane foams were deployed and twelve (12) groups of analytes were considered together with their various isomers. High resolution gas chromatographic technique coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and electron capture detectors (ECD) were used in the analysis of the POPs. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with MS was employed in analysing the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) while the heavy metals were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and UNMIX model were used to group pollution source contribution of all analytes (POPs and heavy metals) in this study. Diagnostic isomer and other predictive ratios were also employed for source apportionment of various individual analyte groups. Results revealed that polychlorinated dibenzo-furans gave with the least total mean concentration (0.074 pg/m"3) for the sampling period and polybrominated biphenyls gave the highest (55 pg/m"3). The pesticide group gave values in the order of DRINs (53 pg/m"3) > DDT (41 pg/m"3) > HCHs (28 pg/m"3). Data for perflourinated compounds (PFCs) in

  8. Individual air pollution monitors. 2. Examination of some nonoccupational research and regulatory uses and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.G.; Morris, S.C.

    1977-01-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels measured at fixed monitoring stations and the actual exposure of the population is very limited. Indeed, there is rapidly growing evidence that fixed-station monitors do not provide adequate data for population exposure. This report examines available data for carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and presents a new analysis. Actual population exposure to CO appears to be consistently higher than expected from fixed-station data, while limited evidence suggests that exposures to SO/sub 2/ are lower. A reported general relationship between indoor and outdoor levels of SO/sub 2/ is not supported by the data. If air pollution represents a threat to public health, then more attention must be given to total population exposure to pollutants. A selective use of individual air pollution monitors that can be worn or carried appears to be required at some stage by any experimental design seeking to uncover the relation between air pollution exposure and health effects. Additionally, potential uses of individual monitoring in air pollution regulation are explored. Current status and research needs for individual air pollution monitors are examined and a first-order evaluation is given of the promise held by the candidate instrumentation technologies. A national program of support for the development of individual air pollution monitors is recommended.

  9. Coupled atmosphere-soil-vegetation modelling for the assessment of the impact of atmospheric releases of heavy metals and of persistent organic pollutants at the European scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queguiner, Solen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to couple a model of atmospheric dispersion with a multi-environment model in order to perform impact studies related to atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and POPs (persistent organic pollutants). The author first presents the studied pollutants, their physical and chemical properties, and their effects on health. Then, he addresses the atmospheric modelling with a presentation of the used atmospheric dispersion model (POLAIR3D), and an application to heavy metals. Simulations are performed on a 4-year period in order to try to represent the inter-annual variability of atmospheric lead and cadmium concentrations. The next part reports the modelling of POPs which required the introduction of a soil model to address re-emissions. Results are compared with provided measurements. The fourth part reports the modelling of agricultural environments in the impact model, and more particularly physical processes and parameters proper to heavy metals and POPs. The author finally reports two case studies, one related to heavy metals, and the other to POPs [fr

  10. Bio-monitoring studies using nuclear and related techniques for the study of air pollution in and around the city of Hyderabad, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; Balaramakrishna, M.V.; Karunasagar, D.; David, Christopher; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2001-01-01

    Passive bio-monitoring using different plant species affords a cost effective approach to studies on environmental trace element pollution. Lower plants like mosses and lichens have already been demonstrated to be effective bio monitors. As part of our participation in the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Program on 'Validation and application of plants as bio-monitors of trace element atmospheric pollution analyzed by nuclear and related techniques', we have carried out studies on the use of a moss (Funaria hygrometrica) and a shrub (Lanatana Camera). About 35 sampling locations covering industrial zones, locations with heavy traffic, commercial and residential areas were identified. The samples have been analyzed using ICP-MS and PIGE to provide elemental concentrations on a number of the moss show physical trapping of fine particulate matter. The data are examined with a view to assess the use of these plants as bio-monitors of toxic trace elements. The moss, available only during the monsoon, shows, on a dry weight basis, much higher levels of concentrations for many elements, than the shrub (leaves). The concentration profiles in relation to the sampling locations suggest that metallic pollution can be easily discerned. The elemental data are examined using principle component analysis. While the qualitative identification of the metallic pollutants is easier with reference to the sampling locations, it would also require complimentary information using other techniques to provide a quantitative estimate of total environmental trace element burden. (author)

  11. The state of transboundary air pollution: 1989 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This sixth volume of the series of Air Pollution Studies published under the auspices of the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, contains the documents reviewed and approved for publication at the seventh session of the Executive Body held at Geneva from 21 to 24 November 1989. Part one is the annual review of strategies and policies for air pollution abatement. Country by country, recent legislative and regulatory developments are summarized, including ambient-air quality standards, fuel-quality standards, emission standards, as well as economic instruments for air pollution abatement. Part two is an executive summary of the 1988 forest damage survey in Europe, carried out under the International Co-operative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests which was established by the Executive Body for the Convention in 1985. A total of 25 countries participated in the survey, conducted in accordance with common guidelines laid down in an ECE manual on methodologies and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Parts three and four describe the effects of mercury and some other heavy metals related to the long-range atmospheric transport of pollution. The section on mercury describes the environmental effects and the causes of mercury pollution in air and atmospheric deposition, including its sources and its transport from forest soils into fresh water and aquatic organisms. The section dealing with other heavy metals (such as asbestos, cadmium and lead) describes the process of atmospheric transport and deposition, the effects on forest ecosystems, ground water, surface water and agricultural products. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. [Impact of atmospheric total suspended particulate pollution on photosynthetic parameters of street mango trees in Xiamen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-xian; Chen, Jin-sheng; Ren, Yin; Li, Fang-yi; Cui, Sheng-hui

    2010-05-01

    With the development of urbanization, total suspended particulate (TSP) pollution is getting serious, and the normal physiological processes of urban vegetation are profoundly affected while adsorbing and purifying the particulates. In this study, four areas were selected, i.e., Tingxi reservoir (clean control area), Xiamen University (cultural and educational area), Xianyue (business area), and Haicang (industrial area), with their atmospheric TSP concentrations and the photosynthetic parameters of street Mango (Mangifera indica) trees monitored in April and May, 2009. The daily average concentration of TSP in Tingxi, Xiamen University, Xianyue, and Haicang was 0.061, 0.113, 0.120 and 0.205 mg x m(-3), respectively, and the impact of TSP stress on M. indica was in the sequence of Haicang > Xianyue > Xiamen University > Tingxi. TSP pollution negatively affected the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of M. indica, and induced intercellular CO2 concentration changed significantly. High TSP concentration could cause the decline of net photosynthetic rate via stomatal limitation.

  13. Atmospheric corrosion Monitoring with Time-of-Wetness (TOW) sensor and Thin Film Electric Resistance (TFER) sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Young Geun; Song, Hong Seok; Lee, Seung Min; Kho, Young Tai

    2002-01-01

    In this study, TOW sensor was fabricated with the same P. J. Serada's in NRC and was evaluated according to pollutant amount and wet/dry cycle. Laboratorily fabricated thin film electric resistance (TFER) probes were applied in same environment for the measurement of corrosion rate for feasibility. TOW sensor could not differentiate the wet and dry time especially at polluted environment like 3.5% NaCl solution. This implies that wet/dry time monitoring by means of TOW sensor need careful application on various environment. TFER sensor could produce instant atmospheric corrosion rate regardless of environment condition. And corrosion rate obtained by TFER sensor could be differentiated according to wet/dry cycle, wet/dry cycle time variation and solution chemistry. Corrosion behaviors of TFER sensor showed that corrosion could proceed even after wet cycle because of remained electrolyte at the surface

  14. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  15. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2. 5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths of China's PM2. 5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths China's PM2. 5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total and 145 100 (14 % premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  16. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of primary pollutants from electric power plants: Application to a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The normal operation of a power plant generally releases pollutants to the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to describe a modeling method to estimate the changes in air pollutant concentrations that result from these emissions. This modeling approach is applicable to coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas technologies. As an example, this paper uses a hypothetical 500 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power plant, located at a Southeast Reference site in the U.S. and at a Southwest Reference Site. The pollutants resulting from the operation of the power plant may be classified as primary (emitted directly from the plant) or secondary (formed in the atmosphere from primary pollutants). The primary pollutants of interest in this paper are nitrogen oxides (NO x , sulfur dioxide SO 2 , particulate matter and metals

  17. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We pr...

  18. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kallenborn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land. As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007–2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m−3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART.

  19. Long-term monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the Norwegian Troll station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, R.; Breivik, K.; Eckhardt, S.; Lunder, C. R.; Manø, S.; Schlabach, M.; Stohl, A.

    2013-07-01

    A first long-term monitoring of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic air has been conducted at the Norwegian research station Troll (Dronning Maud Land). As target contaminants 32 PCB congeners, α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), trans- and cis-chlordane, trans- and cis-nonachlor, p,p'- and o,p-DDT, DDD, DDE as well as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were selected. The monitoring program with weekly samples taken during the period 2007-2010 was coordinated with the parallel program at the Norwegian Arctic monitoring site (Zeppelin mountain, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard) in terms of priority compounds, sampling schedule as well as analytical methods. The POP concentration levels found in Antarctica were considerably lower than Arctic atmospheric background concentrations. Similar to observations for Arctic samples, HCB is the predominant POP compound, with levels of around 22 pg m-3 throughout the entire monitoring period. In general, the following concentration distribution was found for the Troll samples analyzed: HCB > Sum HCH > Sum PCB > Sum DDT > Sum chlordanes. Atmospheric long-range transport was identified as a major contamination source for POPs in Antarctic environments. Several long-range transport events with elevated levels of pesticides and/or compounds with industrial sources were identified based on retroplume calculations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART).

  20. The electric power stations viewed as a source of local and transfrontier pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiu, C.; Sandu, I.

    1994-01-01

    The pollutant emission of the thermal power stations may have an important contribution to the local pollution as well as to regional (transfrontier) and global pollution. Due to the impossibility at present of making continuous monitoring of the emission of pollutants it is necessary to use computational models for obtaining inventories of the pollutant sources and for studying their dispersion into atmosphere. The computational code used to simulate the pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere is a climatologic model giving the annual average concentration and the evaluation of the maximum SO 2 concentration. The paper presents the analyses for the case of 14 thermal power stations of Romania

  1. Estimation of air quality by air pollution indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, Valdo; Kundel, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    A novel system for estimating the quality of atmospheric air in the over-ground air layer with the help of air pollution indices was developed. The method is based on a comparison of measured or calculated maximum short-term concentrations and average annual concentrations of pollutants with maximum permissible concentrations (with regard to human beings and vegetation). Special air quality estimation scales for residential areas and natural systems are presented. On the basis of the concentration of the substance under study zones of very high, high, rather high, moderate, low and very low air pollution were distinguished in the over-ground layer of the atmosphere. These are projected to land surface for landscape zonation. The application of the system of indices is demonstrated in the analysis of air quality for the towns of Kohtla-Jarve, Johvi and Kivioli (in 1997-1998). A comparative analysis of the air pollution zones distinguished on the basis of emissions and data from bio monitoring yielded satisfactory results. The system of air pollution indices developed enables to process the results of air monitoring in case of pollution fields of complicated composition so that the result for estimating the quality of ambient air in a residential area is easily understood by inhabitants and interpretable with the help of a special scale; analyse temporal changes in the quality of the air in towns, villages and other residential areas and use the results as basis for developing measures for reducing the pollution of ambient air; carry out zonation of large territories on the basis of air pollution levels (spatial air pollution zones are projected on the ground surface) and estimate air quality in places where air monitoring is lacking to forecast the possible effect of air pollution on natural systems (author)

  2. Predictive monitoring and diagnosis of periodic air pollution in a subway station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YongSu; Kim, MinJung; Lim, JungJin; Kim, Jeong Tai; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive monitoring and diagnosis system for the air pollutants in a subway system using a lifting technique with a multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) which monitors the periodic patterns of the air pollutants and diagnoses the sources of the contamination. The basic purpose of this lifting technique was to capture the multivariate and periodic characteristics of all of the indoor air samples collected during each day. These characteristics could then be used to improve the handling of strong periodic fluctuations in the air quality environment in subway systems and will allow important changes in the indoor air quality to be quickly detected. The predictive monitoring approach was applied to a real indoor air quality dataset collected by telemonitoring systems (TMS) that indicated some periodic variations in the air pollutants and multivariate relationships between the measured variables. Two monitoring models--global and seasonal--were developed to study climate change in Korea. The proposed predictive monitoring method using the lifted model resulted in fewer false alarms and missed faults due to non-stationary behavior than that were experienced with the conventional methods. This method could be used to identify the contributions of various pollution sources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of an Air Pollution Monitoring Campaign in Beijing for Application to Cohort Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, Sverre; Han, Bin; Xu, Jia; Szpiro, Adam; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-12-15

    No cohort studies in China on the health effects of long-term air pollution exposure have employed exposure estimates at the fine spatial scales desirable for cohort studies with individual-level health outcome data. Here we assess an array of modern air pollution exposure estimation approaches for assigning within-city exposure estimates in Beijing for individual pollutants and pollutant sources to individual members of a cohort. Issues considered in selecting specific monitoring data or new monitoring campaigns include: needed spatial resolution, exposure measurement error and its impact on health effect estimates, spatial alignment and compatibility with the cohort, and feasibility and expense. Sources of existing data largely include administrative monitoring data, predictions from air dispersion or chemical transport models and remote sensing (specifically satellite) data. New air monitoring campaigns include additional fixed site monitoring, snapshot monitoring, passive badge or micro-sensor saturation monitoring and mobile monitoring, as well as combinations of these. Each of these has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that a campaign in Beijing that at least includes a mobile monitoring component, when coupled with currently available spatio-temporal modeling methods, should be strongly considered. Such a campaign is economical and capable of providing the desired fine-scale spatial resolution for pollutants and sources.

  4. Design of an Air Pollution Monitoring Campaign in Beijing for Application to Cohort Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Vedal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available No cohort studies in China on the health effects of long-term air pollution exposure have employed exposure estimates at the fine spatial scales desirable for cohort studies with individual-level health outcome data. Here we assess an array of modern air pollution exposure estimation approaches for assigning within-city exposure estimates in Beijing for individual pollutants and pollutant sources to individual members of a cohort. Issues considered in selecting specific monitoring data or new monitoring campaigns include: needed spatial resolution, exposure measurement error and its impact on health effect estimates, spatial alignment and compatibility with the cohort, and feasibility and expense. Sources of existing data largely include administrative monitoring data, predictions from air dispersion or chemical transport models and remote sensing (specifically satellite data. New air monitoring campaigns include additional fixed site monitoring, snapshot monitoring, passive badge or micro-sensor saturation monitoring and mobile monitoring, as well as combinations of these. Each of these has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that a campaign in Beijing that at least includes a mobile monitoring component, when coupled with currently available spatio-temporal modeling methods, should be strongly considered. Such a campaign is economical and capable of providing the desired fine-scale spatial resolution for pollutants and sources.

  5. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sprovieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project was funded by the European Commission (http://www.gmos.eu and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010–2015, analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  6. Focal plane subsystem design and performance for atmospheric chemistry from geostationary orbit tropospheric emissions monitoring of pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. S.; Philbrick, R. H.; Funderburg, J.

    2017-09-01

    Remote sensing of pollutants are enabled from a satellite in a geostationary orbit containing an imaging spectrometer encompassing the wavelength ranges of 290 - 490 nm and 540 - 740 nm. As the first of NASA's Earth Venture Instrument Program, the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) program will utilize this instrument to measure hourly air quality over a large portion of North America. The focal plane subsystem (FPS) contains two custom designed and critically aligned full frame transfer charge coupled devices (active area: 1028 x 2048, 18 μm) within a focal plane array package designed for radiation tolerance and space charging rejection. In addition, the FPS contains custom distributed focal plane electronics that provide all necessary clocks and biases to the sensors, receives all analog data from the sensors and performs 14 bit analog to digital conversion for upstream processing. Finally, the FPS encompasses custom low noise cables connecting the focal plane array and associated electronics. This paper discusses the design and performance of this novel focal plane subsystem with particular emphasis on the optical performance achieved including alignment, quantum efficiency, and modulation transfer function.

  7. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aakash C; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David

    2017-12-31

    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to alarming consequences such as reporting acceptable air pollutant levels when they are above the limits deemed safe for human health. This article provides scientific guidance to the end-users for effectively deploying low-cost sensors for monitoring air pollution and people's exposure, while ensuring reasonable data quality. We review the performance characteristics of several low-cost particle and gas monitoring sensors and provide recommendations to end-users for making proper sensor selection by summarizing the capabilities and limitations of such sensors. The challenges, best practices, and future outlook for effectively deploying low-cost sensors, and maintaining data quality are also discussed. For data quality assurance, a two-stage sensor calibration process is recommended, which includes laboratory calibration under controlled conditions by the manufacturer supplemented with routine calibration checks performed by the end-user under final deployment conditions. For large sensor networks where routine calibration checks are impractical, statistical techniques for data quality assurance should be utilised. Further advancements and adoption of sophisticated mathematical and statistical techniques for sensor calibration, fault detection, and data quality assurance can indeed help to realise the promised benefits of a low-cost air pollution sensor network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.P.; Dews, J.; Harris, F.C. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D.J. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  9. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D P; Dews, J; Harris, F C [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D J [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  10. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such pollutants ... spheric transport processes. In rural regions ... response of redox potential: those which are fixed in reducing conditions ... pollution in urban areas of northern Britain in the eighteenth .... adjusting the desired flame condition, the instrument is cali-.

  11. Magnetic particles in atmospheric particulate matter collected at sites with different level of air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Zbořil, R.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Kotlík, B.; Novák, J.; Kapička, Aleš; Grison, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2013), s. 755-770 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0554 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : magnetite * atmospheric dust * pollution * rock magnetism Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2013

  12. Atmospheric turbidity parameters in the high polluted site of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, M.A.M.; Rahoma, U.A.

    1996-01-01

    Monthly variations of Linke, angstrom and Schuepp turbidity coefficients and gamma exponent as well as the influence of climatic factor on them are analysed. For each of these turbidity coefficients; calculated from measurements of broad band filters at Helwan, egypt, desert climate, are reported. A linear regression model fitted to Angstrom's turbidity turbidity coefficient beta and Linke turbidity L for Helwan. The calculation showed that, it is higher values of atmospheric turbidity coefficients due to, both the effect of air pollutants in the Helwan atmosphere from the four cement companies and some of heavy industrial factories, and the effect of the former's desert climate. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Ding; C. B. Fu; X. Q. Yang; J. N. Sun; T. Petäjä; V.-M. Kerminen; T. Wang; Y. N. Xie; E. Herrmann; L. F. Zheng; W. Nie; X. L. Wei; M. Kulmala

    2013-01-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural ...

  14. Historical atmospheric pollution trends in Southeast Asia inferred from lake sediment records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, S; Fong, L S R Z; Chen, Q; Leng, M J; McGowan, S; Idris, M; Rose, N L; Ruslan, M S; Taylor, D; Yang, H

    2018-04-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to increased levels of air pollution, which negatively affects human health as well as the environment. Documented data for Southeast Asia (SEA) show a strong increase in fossil fuel consumption since 1980, but information on coal and oil combustion before 1980 is not widely available. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) and heavy metals, such as mercury (Hg), are emitted as by-products of fossil fuel combustion and may accumulate in sediments following atmospheric fallout. Here we use sediment SCP and Hg records from several freshwater lentic ecosystems in SEA (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore) to reconstruct long-term, region-wide variations in levels of these two key atmospheric pollution indicators. The age-depth models of Philippine sediment cores do not reach back far enough to date first SCP presence, but single SCP occurrences are first observed between 1925 and 1950 for a Malaysian site. Increasing SCP flux is observed at our sites from 1960 onward, although individual sites show minor differences in trends. SCP fluxes show a general decline after 2000 at each of our study sites. While the records show broadly similar temporal trends across SEA, absolute SCP fluxes differ between sites, with a record from Malaysia showing SCP fluxes that are two orders of magnitude lower than records from the Philippines. Similar trends in records from China and Japan represent the emergence of atmospheric pollution as a broadly-based inter-region environmental problem during the 20th century. Hg fluxes were relatively stable from the second half of the 20th century onward. As catchment soils are also contaminated with atmospheric Hg, future soil erosion can be expected to lead to enhanced Hg flux into surface waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies of atmospheric pollutants concentration factors from La Reina reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, I.; Alegria, E.

    1983-01-01

    Results of an atmospheric diffusion model for pollutant gases re shown, in which the nuclear reactor of the La Reina Nuclear Centre is considered as the emitting source. The model uses a gaussian shape steady state cloud of concentration of pollutants and actual topographical and meteorological statistics data os the zone. Expected and maximum probable concentration factors are computed in a polar lattice in 16 wind directions. It was found that peaks for expected concentration factors and maximum probable concentration factors at ground level fall within the N and ESE directions at distances where hills or mountains reach the emitted cloud. A discussion of the practical value of these calculations is given. (Author)

  16. Studies of atmospheric pollutants concentration factors from La Reina reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, I; Alegria, E [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Div. de Seguridade Nuclear y Radioproteccion

    1983-11-01

    Results of an atmospheric diffusion model for pollutant gases are shown, in which the nuclear reactor of the La Reina Nuclear Centre is considered as the emitting source. The model uses a gaussian shape steady state cloud of concentration of pollutants and actual topographical and meteorological statistics data of the zone. Expected and maximum probable concentration factors are computed in a polar lattice in 16 wind directions. It was found that peaks for expected concentration factors and maximum probable concentration factors at ground level fall within the N and ESE directions at distances where hills or mountains reach the emitted cloud. A discussion of the practical value of these calculations is given.

  17. Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring for Long Duration Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) for Long Duration Exploration Project project is maturing Atmosphere Revitalization...

  18. Elevational and Spatial Gradients of Atmospheric Metal Pollution in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongebloed, U. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Ferris, D. G.; Campbell, S.; Saylor, P. L.; Winski, D.; Handley, M.

    2017-12-01

    The industrial revolution has led to a several-fold increase in the atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids including Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As. Modern emissions inventories identify Asia as the largest emitter of many of these toxic pollutants, which are subsequently transported eastwards across the North Pacific Ocean by prevailing westerly winds in the mid-upper troposphere. Previous ice cores collected from the Yukon Territory in the eastern North Pacific reveal evolution-dependent metal pollution histories; the highest (5300 m elevation) core from Mt. Logan records a nearly pure trans-Pacific Asian pollution record, whereas cores from lower sites like the Eclipse Icefield (3017 m) record a complex combination of Asian and more local North American emission. However, it is unclear if this elevation gradient of pollution sources is found in other regions of the North Pacific. Furthermore, the previous ice core records end in the late 1990's, before efforts by some Asian nations to reduce metal pollution, and it is unknown if North Pacific atmospheric metal concentrations have declined in response to these efforts. Here we investigate metal and metalloid concentrations and sources recorded in ice core and snow pit samples recovered from a vertical transect spanning 2200 - 5242 m within Denali National Park in the Central Alaska Range. We compare these metal concentrations and crustal enrichment factors to data from the Yukon Territory to investigate North Pacific regional metal gradients. We also present preliminary results from a new 60 m ice core from the Eclipse Icefield to evaluate recent trends in metal concentrations since the end of the Mt. Logan and original Eclipse records in 1998, and compare this to the recent metal pollution history recorded in the 2013 Denali Ice Core collected from the summit plateau (3900 m) of Mt. Hunter.

  19. Public Perceptions of How Long Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Remain in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Rachel; Morgan, M Granger; Bostrom, Ann; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2018-03-01

    The atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide is hundreds of years, many orders of magnitude longer than that of common air pollution, which is typically hours to a few days. However, randomly selected respondents in a mail survey in Allegheny County, PA (N = 119) and in a national survey conducted with MTurk (N = 1,013) judged the two to be identical (in decades), considerably overestimating the residence time of air pollution and drastically underestimating that of carbon dioxide. Moreover, while many respondents believed that action is needed today to avoid climate change (regardless of cause), roughly a quarter held the view that if climate change is real and serious, we will be able to stop it in the future when it happens, just as we did with common air pollution. In addition to assessing respondents' understanding of how long carbon dioxide and common air pollution stay in the atmosphere, we also explored the extent to which people correctly identified causes of climate change and how their beliefs affect support for action. With climate change at the forefront of politics and mainstream media, informing discussions of policy is increasingly important. Confusion about the causes and consequences of climate change, and especially about carbon dioxide's long atmospheric residence time, could have profound implications for sustained support of policies to achieve reductions in carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Experiences with the Haertel-Truebungstest at diagnosing injuries to spruce caused by atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    The Haertel-Truebungstest is based on the observation that spruce needles secrete more wax at the stomata in areas affected by atmospheric pollution than in areas without. The increased secretion of wax is taken for a symptom of injury caused by atmospheric pollution. The wax is extracted in boiling water and, after cooling down, the turbidity of the extract is measured quantitatively in a photometer. Investigations on spruce in Saxony and Thuringia confirm the tendency to increasing turbidity towards the source of smoke. A considerable dispersion of turbidity values however impairs the results of this method, so that a great number of samples must be used in order to find out a trend. The dispersion of turbidity values in spruce forests that are not directly influenced by atmospheric pollution substantially exceeds the dispersion of the +/- 1% of the turbidity value that was found by Haertel. As was stated by Haertel and Papesch, the dispersion of individual turbidity values grows with increasing doses of SO/sub 2/. In Saxony the individual smoke emissions so densely cover one another, that there are scarcely any areas without air pollution and, probably, a relation exists between this continuous influence of smoke and SO/sub 2/ and the dispersion of turbidity values. It may be, however, that the environmental factors have also a certain influence, as, on vast areas of Saxony, spruce is growing on sites that are not its natural habitat.

  1. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Liu, Q.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-10-01

    The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution-weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

  2. The GMES Sentinel-5 mission for operational atmospheric monitoring: status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierk, Bernd; Bezy, Jean-Loup; Caron, Jerôme; Meynard, Roland; Veihelmann, Ben; Ingmann, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Sentinel-5 is an atmospheric monitoring mission planned in the frame of the joint EU/ESA initiative Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES). The objective of the mission, planned to be launched in 2020, is the operational monitoring of trace gas concentrations for atmospheric chemistry and climate applications.

  3. An Integrated Approach for Pollution Monitoring: Smart Acquirement and Smart Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco, E.; Boccardo, P.; Gandino, F.; Lingua, A.; Noardo, F.; Rebaudengo, M.

    2016-09-01

    Air quality is a factor of primary importance for the quality of life. The increase of the pollutants percentage in the air can cause serious problems to the human and environmental health. For this reason it is essential to monitor its values to prevent the consequences of an excessive concentration, to reduce the pollution production or to avoid the contact with major pollutant concentration through the available tools. Some recently developed tools for the monitoring and sharing of the data in an effective system permit to manage the information in a smart way, in order to improve the knowledge of the problem and, consequently, to take preventing measures in favour of the urban air quality and human health. In this paper, the authors describe an innovative solution that implements geomatics sensors (GNSS) and pollutant measurement sensors to develop a low cost sensor for the acquisition of pollutants dynamic data using a mobile platform based on bicycles. The acquired data can be analysed to evaluate the local distribution of pollutant density and shared through web platforms that use standard protocols for an effective smart use.

  4. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR POLLUTION MONITORING: SMART ACQUIREMENT AND SMART INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Air quality is a factor of primary importance for the quality of life. The increase of the pollutants percentage in the air can cause serious problems to the human and environmental health. For this reason it is essential to monitor its values to prevent the consequences of an excessive concentration, to reduce the pollution production or to avoid the contact with major pollutant concentration through the available tools. Some recently developed tools for the monitoring and sharing of the data in an effective system permit to manage the information in a smart way, in order to improve the knowledge of the problem and, consequently, to take preventing measures in favour of the urban air quality and human health. In this paper, the authors describe an innovative solution that implements geomatics sensors (GNSS and pollutant measurement sensors to develop a low cost sensor for the acquisition of pollutants dynamic data using a mobile platform based on bicycles. The acquired data can be analysed to evaluate the local distribution of pollutant density and shared through web platforms that use standard protocols for an effective smart use.

  5. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  7. Green seaweed Ulva as a monitor for pollution in coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    Methods have been developed which capitalize on the capacity of Ulva to function as a bioindicator of pollution in coastal waters. Studies have been performed evaluating the growth of both Ulva tissue discs and Ulva germlings as they relate to physical and chemical parameters of the environment. The Ulva tissue disc method for the in situ monitoring of organic load (nitrogen and phosphorus) in coastal waters was demonstrated to be marginally effective. The in situ differential growth reponse of parthenogenetically developed germlings fulfilled the monitoring objective, but multi-faceted environmental considerations introduced complications which reduced the feasibility of the germling deployment method for routine monitoring. The assessment of Ulva as a bioaccumulator was undertaken. Use of Ulva as an in situ sampling device has demonstrated appreciable success. This in situ monitor can provide concentrated samples of environmental pollutants. Analytical techniques have been employed to extract information on trace metals, pesticides, PCBs and other accumulated organohalides. Ulva is a bioacumulator which, by all standards, has much to recommend it. Precedures have been developed to reduce much of the inherent biological varation. Ulva has world-wide occurrence, and is therefore capable of providing a standard for comparison of data. This alga merits consideration as an international monitor for pollutants in the marine environment.

  8. Meteorologia e poluição atmosférica Meteorology and atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Martins Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentam-se os principais aspectos relacionados à meteorologia ligada ao processo de dispersão turbulenta de poluentes atmosféricos. Ressalta-se que a meteorologia desempenha um papel fundamental para o controle da qualidade do ar, pois os eventos meteorológicos guiam a dispersão de poluentes e sua deposição no solo. Discutem-se os recentes melhoramentos da descrição e previsão dos fenômenos que envolvem a poluição atmosférica considerando a melhoria da qualidade de vida da população.This work shows the main aspects related to the meteorology linked to the process of turbulent dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. It is pointed out that meteorology is fundamental to air quality control, and meteorological events guide the pollutant dispersion and its deposition on the soil. Recent improvements on the description and forecast of the phenomena that involve atmospheric pollution, considering the population quality of life, are discussed.

  9. Ozone Atmospheric Pollution and Alzheimer's Disease: From Epidemiological Facts to Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Marine L; Zimmer, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a well-known environmental hazard, especially in developing countries where millions of people are exposed to airborne pollutant levels above safety standards. Accordingly, several epidemiological and animal studies confirmed its role in respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies and identified a strong link between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality. More recently, the potential deleterious effect of air pollution inhalation on the central nervous system was also investigated and mounting evidence supports a link between air pollution exposure and neurodegenerative pathologies, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). The focus of this review is to highlight the possible link between ozone air pollution exposure and AD incidence. This review's approach will go from observational and epidemiological facts to the proposal of molecular mechanisms. First, epidemiological and postmortem human study data concerning residents of ozone-severely polluted megacities will be presented and discussed. Then, the more particular role of ozone air pollution in AD pathology will be described and evidenced by toxicological studies in rat or mouse with ozone pollution exposure only. The experimental paradigms used to reproduce in rodent the human exposure to ozone air pollution will be described. Finally, current insights into the molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation can affect the brain and play a role in AD development or progression will be recapitulated.

  10. Strategy implementation for the CTA Atmospheric monitoring program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doro Michele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA is the next generation facility of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. It reaches unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution in very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. CTA detects Cherenkov light emitted within an atmospheric shower of particles initiated by cosmic-gamma rays or cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere. From the combination of images the Cherenkov light produces in the telescopes, one is able to infer the primary particle energy and direction. A correct energy estimation can be thus performed only if the local atmosphere is well characterized. The atmosphere not only affects the shower development itself, but also the Cherenkov photon transmission from the emission point in the particle shower, at about 10–20 km above the ground, to the detector. Cherenkov light on the ground is peaked in the UV-blue region, and therefore molecular and aerosol extinction phenomena are important. The goal of CTA is to control systematics in energy reconstruction to better than 10%. For this reason, a careful and continuous monitoring and characterization of the atmosphere is required. In addition, CTA will be operated as an observatory, with data made public along with appropriate analysis tools. High-level data quality can only be ensured if the atmospheric properties are consistently and continuously taken into account. In this contribution, we concentrate on discussing the implementation strategy for the various atmospheric monitoring instruments currently under discussion in CTA. These includes Raman lidars and ceilometers, stellar photometers and others available both from commercial providers and public research centers.

  11. Atmospheric monitoring in H.E.S.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments applying the IACT method, such as H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System, observe VHE (very high energy, E > 100 GeV photons indirectly, using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter. In the H.E.S.S. data reconstruction, the properties of this component are estimated by Monte Carlo simulations of a yearly averaged atmosphere density profile. Deviations of the real atmospheric conditions from this assumed atmospheric model will result in a biased reconstruction of the primary gamma-ray energy and thus the resulting source spectrum. In order to keep the corresponding systematic effects to a minimum, H.E.S.S. operates a set of atmospheric monitoring devices that allows it to characterise the atmospheric conditions during data taking. This information in turn is then used in data selection. Here, a short overview with respect to their usage during source observation and a posteriori analysis data selection will be presented.

  12. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the gas emission of H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Moscow city. We start the project at the beginning of 2015 year in two Moscow academicals organization -Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry and Moscow Geological State Museum. One place is in the center of Moscow, near the Kremlin and other one is in the most clear zone of Moscow - Moscow State University place, Vorobyevy Mountains (high point of Moscow). We plan to compare these regions by the concentration of H2 and other gases (CH4, SO2) for green gas pollution. Application network of monitoring is composed of gas sensors (H2, CH4), complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer the technical solutions for monitoring network on the base of WSN (wireless sensor network) technology and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. Gas sensors for monitoring system were developed on the base of MIS-structures (metal-insulator-semiconductor). MIS-sensors are suitable for measuring the concentrations of the following gases: hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide, ethylmercaptan, chlorine and ammonia. The basis of the sensor is MIS - structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si,), which capacitance changes when reaction with gases occurs. The sensor fabrication technology is based on the microelectronics device fabrication technologies and the thin film laser deposition technique. Sensor can be used for measuring the concentration of any gas among noted before, in ambient temperature range -30..+40°C and RH 30-90% (30°C).Three gas sensors with analog interface were made for our experimental monitoring system. Original calibration was made using calibration by special standard mixture of H2 and atmosphere. There are 10-15 points

  13. Monitoring and abatement of environmental mercury pollution using human hair as absorbant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, S.S.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.; Munoz, L.; Gras, N.

    1985-01-01

    Mercury pollution in the industrial environment of Chile was studied using hair as monitor. Data from samples representing people living in non-polluted and also from polluted areas show that hair is an effective and convenient indicator of environmental mercury pollution. A major source of mercury pollution and its transport is contaminated water. The method discussed is an inexpensive and convenient alternative to conventional ion-exchange processes which are generally very expensive, particulary for developing countries. (author)

  14. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Pollutants from Combustion Formation and Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This volume is based on the lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute: (ASI) «Pollutants Formation from Combustion. Formation Mechanisms and Impact on th th Atmospheric Chemistry» held in Maratea, Italy, from 13 to 26 september 1998. Preservation of the environment is of increasing concern in individual countries but also at continental or world scales. The structure of a NATO ASI which involve lecturers and participants of different nationalities was thought as especially well suited to address environmental issues. As combustion is known to substantially contribute to the damaging of the atmosphere, it was natural to concentrate the ASI program on reviewing the currently available knowledge of the formation mechanisms of the main pollutants liberated by combustion systems. In most situations, pollutants are present as trace components and their formation and removal is strongly conditioned by the chemical reactions initiated by fuel consumption. Therefore specific lectures were aimed at defi...

  15. Pollutants transport and atmospheric variability of CO2 over Siberia: contribution of airborne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, J.D.

    2008-12-01

    The work presented here intends to characterize the variations of atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 , CO, O 3 and ultrafine particles, over a large scale aircraft transect above Siberia, during three intensive YAK-AEROSIB campaigns in April 2006, September 2006 and August 2007, respectively. Pollutant and greenhouse gases distribution in this poorly studied region is needed to model atmospheric long range transport. I show here that CO concentrations at the time of the campaigns is broadly affected by (1) advection of Chinese pollutants through baro-clinic perturbations, (2) advection (diffuse or not) of European pollutants at various altitudes, (3) and of biomass burning from Central Asia. This set of factors is analyzed through a novel statistical technique based on clustering of backward transport simulated by the FLEXPART Lagrangian model. Large observed CO 2 gradients in summer are matched against vertical mixing in GCM simulated CO 2 . At last I present ultrafine particle measurements, and a possible nucleation summer maximum in the clean, continental mid-troposphere. (author)

  16. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  17. Probing planetary pollution from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will review the data sets obtained from instruments that have measured carbon monoxide and tropospheric ozone from space. In addition, an example of the capability of Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems will be shown and the current plans for monitoring pollution from spaceborne platforms will be discussed. As a result of these studies, scientists now know that pollution is a widespread phenomenon that has impacted the composition of the atmosphere on continental and hemispheric scales. Such perturbations will have far-reaching consequences for global atmospheric chemistry and climate. New measurement techniques using active remote sensors have already produced exciting data sets from aircraft platforms, and should provide an entirely new capability when used from space sometime in the 21st century

  18. Atmospheric pollution over the eastern Mediterranean during summer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dayan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Mediterranean (EM is one of the regions in the world where elevated concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous air pollutants have been reported frequently, mainly in summer. This review discusses published studies of the atmospheric dispersion and transport conditions characterizing this region during the summer, followed by a description of some essential studies dealing with the corresponding concentrations of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen, methane, and sulfate aerosols observed there. The interlaced relationship between the downward motion of the subsiding air aloft induced by global circulation systems affecting the EM and the depth of the Persian Trough, a low-pressure trough that extends from the Asian monsoon at the surface controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the mixed boundary layer during summer, is discussed. The strength of the wind flow within the mixed layer and its depth affect much the amount of pollutants transported and determine the potential of the atmosphere to disperse contaminants off their origins in the EM. The reduced mixed layer and the accompanying weak westerlies, characterizing the summer in this region, led to reduced ventilation rates, preventing an effective dilution of the contaminants. Several studies pointing at specific local (e.g., ventilation rates and regional peculiarities (long-range transport enhancing the build-up of air pollutant concentrations are presented. Tropospheric ozone (O3 concentrations observed in the summer over the EM are among the highest over the Northern Hemisphere. The three essential processes controlling its formation (i.e., long-range transport of polluted air masses, dynamic subsidence at mid-tropospheric levels, and stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange are reviewed. Airborne campaigns and satellite-borne initiatives have indicated that the concentration values of reactive nitrogen identified as precursors in

  19. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. The Atmospheric Monitoring Strategy for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M. K.; CTA Consortium

    2015-04-01

    The Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique (IACT) is unusual in astronomy as the atmosphere actually forms an intrinsic part of the detector system, with telescopes indirectly detecting very high energy particles by the generation and transport of Cherenkov photons deep within the atmosphere. This means that accurate measurement, characterisation and monitoring of the atmosphere is at the very heart of successfully operating an IACT system. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the next generation IACT observatory with an ambitious aim to improve the sensitivity of an order of magnitude over current facilities, along with corresponding improvements in angular and energy resolution and extended energy coverage, through an array of Large (23 m), Medium (12 m) and Small (4 m) sized telescopes spread over an area of order ~km2. Whole sky coverage will be achieved by operating at two sites: one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. This proceedings will cover the characterisation of the candidate sites and the atmospheric calibration strategy. CTA will utilise a suite of instrumentation and analysis techniques for atmospheric modelling and monitoring regarding pointing forecasts, intelligent pointing selection for the observatory operations and for offline data correction.

  1. [Hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring the vegetation heavy metal pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lü, Jian-sheng; Altemann, W

    2010-09-01

    Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.

  2. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  3. Response of protozoan and microbial communities in various coniferous forest soils after transfer to forests with different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couteaux, M.-M.; Raubuch, M.; Berg, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    During recent decades, forest ecosystems have been exposed to high levels of atmospheric pollution, and it has been argued that this affects the composition and activity of decomposer communities and, subsequently, ecosystem functioning. To investigate the effects of atmospheric pollution on

  4. Numerical models for computation of pollutant-dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leder, S.M.; Biesemann-Krueger, A.

    1985-04-01

    The report describes some models which are used to compute the concentration of emitted pollutants in the lower atmosphere. A dispersion model, developed at the University of Hamburg, is considered in more detail and treated with two different numerical methods. The convergence of the methods is investigated and a comparison of numerical results and dispersion experiments carried out at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe is given. (orig.) [de

  5. Natural gas and quality of fuels for the reduction of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Occhio, L.; Andreetto, B.

    1998-01-01

    The production of atmospheric pollutants in combustion processes depends on plant characteristic, combustion conditions and fuel quality. The influence of fuel quality on the emission of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, dust and carbon dioxide and on the emission of some toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is analysed. The comparison between the emission limits, fixed by the Italian legislation, and the uncontrolled pollutant emissions, produced by fossil fuel combustion in power plants and industrial use, shows that, in order to comply with the limits, a reduction of pollutant emissions is required through the use of abatement systems and cleaner fuels where natural gas has a primary role. The use of cleaner fuels is particularly required in heating plants and appliances for the residential sector, where the development of new gas technologies further increases the environmental advantages of natural gas in comparison with other fuels [it

  6. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to it s sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  7. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  8. Development of Atmospheric Air 85Kr Monitoring Methodology on the Territory of the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Sergei; Dubasov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Highly sensitive, low-background and high-performance method of beta-radioactivity measurements of the gas samples was developed in mid-eighties at Khlopin Radium institute. This method was based on the use of the serial automated installation for liquid scintillation measurements and special scintillating cells. Cells were equipped with the gas valve, and their internal surface were covered by a thin layer of organic scintillator. This method found was successfully was applied for 85Kr activity measurements in atmospheric krypton samples and for 85Kr concentration measurements in atmospheric air. For the first time, method developed for 85Kr activity measurements, was practically tested in May - June, 1986, while studying radioactive pollution characteristics in the air basin of Russia and Ukraine after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Thus for sampling of atmospheric krypton the industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at air-separating plants, located in the cities of Cherepovets, Lipetsk, Krivoi Rog and Enakiyevo was used. In the end of April and in the first half of May it was determined that 1,5-fold excess concentrations of 85Kr in atmospheric air were observed in atmospheric air of considerable part of the European territory of Russia and Ukraine During the period from 1987 to 1991 this method was used for monitoring of 85Kr on the territory of the former USSR in the air basin of Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Industrial krypton-xenon mix manufactured at 14 large air-separating plants was also used for sampling. Six of them were situated in Russia (Novomoskovsk, Lipetsk, Cherepovets, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Tagil, Orsk). Seven - in Ukraine (Enakiyevo, Kommunarsk, Krivoi Rog, Makeyevka, Mariupol, Severodonetsk, Dneprodzerzhinsk). One plant was situated in Temirtau, in Kazakhstan. The analysis indicated that in Krivoi Rog; Dneprozhzerzhinsk; Severodonetsk; Makeyevka; Mariupol; Enakiyevo; Kommunarsk; Novomoskovsk and Cherepovets the average 85Kr concentration in

  9. The relative influence of the anthropogenic air pollutants on the atmospheric turbidity factors measured at an urban monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminir, Hamdy K.; Hamid, R.H.; El-Hussainy, F.; Ghitas, Ahmed E.; Beheary, M.M.; Abdel-Moneim, Khaled M.

    2006-01-01

    This work is based on simultaneous measurements of direct solar radiation along with other chemical measurements, with the objective of investigating the diurnal and seasonal variations of atmospheric turbidity factors (i.e., Linke's factor, Angstroem's coefficient, and aerosol optical depth). Relationships between atmospheric turbidity factors, expressing the solar radiation extinction, and anthropogenic air pollutants were also evaluated. The frequency of occurrence of the individual indices has been established to describe the sky conditions. The preliminary results obtained indicate high variability of aerosol loading, leading to high turbidity for most of the year. Annual averages of 0.2 and 6 with standard deviations of 0.096 and 0.98 were found for Angstroem and Linke turbidities, respectively. On the base of the frequency of occurrence, it has been found that over 50% of the dataset are around 0.25 and 6.3 for Angstroem and Linke turbidities, respectively. On average, the month of September experienced the highest turbidity, while December experienced the lowest. A possible reason for this is that the vertical distribution of the aerosol particles moves up in September due to the extent of the Sudan monsoon trough. We also note that spring values of the turbidity factors are closer to summer values, whereas the pronounced difference between the summer values in comparison with the winter values may be attributed to relatively greater difference in the water vapor level in the atmosphere

  10. Biological characteristics as a part of pollution monitoring studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    Ecosystem modifications can be considered as an integral part of any pollution monitoring studies and in such cases community structure/diversity is of prime importance. Considering this advantage of aquatic life, pelagic and benthic communities...

  11. Monitoring atmospheric nitrogen pollution in Guiyang (SW China) by contrasting use of Cinnamomum Camphora leaves, branch bark and bark as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Xiao, Huayun; Guan, Hui; Long, Chaojun

    2018-02-01

    Moss (as a reference material) and camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaf, branch bark and bark samples were systematically collected across an urban-rural gradient in Guiyang (SW China) to determine the efficacy of using these bio-indicators to evaluate nitrogen (N) pollution. The tissue N concentrations (0.13%-2.70%) and δ 15 N values (-7.5‰ to +9.3‰) of all of these bio-indicators exhibited large spatial variations, as they recorded higher values in urban areas that quickly decreased with distance from the city center; moreover, both soil N concentrations and soil δ 15 N values were found no significant differences within each 6 km from the urban to the rural area. This not only suggests that the different N uptake strategies and variety of N responses of these bio-indicators can be reflected by their different susceptibilities to variations in N deposition but also reveals that they are able to indicate that urban N deposition is mostly from traffic and industry (NO x -N), whereas rural N deposition is mainly from agriculture (NH x -N). Compared to previously collected urban moss and camphor leaf samples, the significantly increased δ 15 N values in current urban moss and camphor leaf samples further indicate a greater contribution of NO x -N than NH x -N to urban N deposition. The feasibility of using the N concentrations and δ 15 N values of branch bark and bark as biomarkers of N deposition thus was further confirmed through the comparative use of these bio-indicators. It can be concluded that vascular plant leaves, branch bark and bark can be used as useful biomonitoring tools for evaluating atmospheric N pollution. For further study, quantitative criteria for the practical use of these bio-indicators in response to N deposition should be developed and the differences in the δ 15 N values of different plant parts should also be considered, particularly in urban environments that are severely disrupted by atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2017

  12. Data processing technique for multiangle lidar sounding of poorly stratified polluted atmospheres: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle E. Wold; Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander P. Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    Scanning elastic lidar, which can operate in different slant directions, is the most appropriate remote sensing tool for investigating the optical properties of smoke-polluted atmospheres. However, the commonly used methodologies of multiangle measurements are based on the assumption of horizontal stratification of the searched atmosphere1,2. When working in real...

  13. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70%, of sensible heat flux over 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution - weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather with the influence of air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloudy feedbacks. This study highlights a cross-disciplinary needs to study the environmental, weather and climate impact of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in the East China.

  14. Atmospheric methods for nuclear test monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, D.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes two atmomospheric methods for the monitoring and detection of underground nuclear explosions: Near infrasound technique, and ionospheric monitoring. Ground motion from underground explosions cause induced air pressure perturbations. The ionospheric technique utilizes the very strong air pressure pulse which is launched straight up above an underground explosion. When the pressure disturbance reaches the ionosphere, it becomes a 10 % pressure perturbation. Detection involves sending radio waves through the ionosphere with transmitters and recievers on the ground. Radar analysis yields interpretable signals. The near infrasound method detects the signal which is projected into the side lobes of the main signal. Both of the atmospheric methods were utilized on the monitoring of the NPE underground chemical explosion experiment. Results are described.

  15. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnan, Y.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Probst, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. - Highlights: ► We compared metal concentrations registered in contemporary and early 1900's lichens. ► In the past, As, Pb and Cd were enriched due to coal combustion. ► Nowadays, a new mixture of enriched contaminants (Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) was evidenced. ► REE originated from local bedrock and proved an increased dust deposition in the past. ► Lichens recorded both local and long-range atmospheric contamination. - Using lichens registration, past (As, Pb, Cd) and recent (Sb, Sn, Cu) atmospheric pollution from local and long-range transport, as well as dust deposition, was evidenced in SW France.

  16. Analysis of the experimental data of air pollution using atmospheric dispersion modeling and rough set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfa, I.K.I

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains four chapters and list of references:In chapter 1, we introduce a brief survey about the atmospheric concepts and the topological methods for data analysis.In section 1.1, we give introduce a general introduction. We recall some of atmospheric fundamentals in Section 1.2. Section 1.3, shows the concepts of modern topological methods for data analysis.In chapter 2, we have studied the properties of atmosphere and focus on concept of Rough set and its properties. This concepts of rough set has been applied to analyze the atmospheric data.In section 2.1, we introduce a general introduction about concept of rough set and properties of atmosphere. Section 2.2 focuses on the concept of rough set and its properties and generalization of approximation of rough set theory by using topological space. In section 2.3 we have studied the stabilities of atmosphere for Inshas location for all seasons using different schemes and compared these schemes using statistical and rough set methods. In section 2.4, we introduce mixing height of plume for all seasons. Section 2.5 introduced seasonal surface layer turbulence processes for Inshas location. Section 2.6 gives a comparison between the seasonal surface layer turbulence processes for Inshas location and for different locations using rough set theory.In chapter 3 we focus on the concept of variable precision rough set (VPRS) and its properties and using it to compare, between the estimated and observed data of the concentration of air pollution for Inshas location. In Section 3.1 we introduce a general introduction about VPRS and air pollution. In Section 3.2 we have focused on the concept and properties of VPRS. In Section 3.3 we have introduced a method to estimate the concentration of air pollution for Inshas location using Gaussian plume model. Section 3.4 has showed the experimental data. The estimated data have been compared with the observed data using statistical methods in Section 3.5. In Section 3

  17. Lidar investigations of atmospheric aerosols over Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreischuh, T.; Deleva, A.; Peshev, Z.; Grigorov, I.; Kolarov, G.; Stoyanov, D.

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of the laser remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and related processes over the Sofia area performed in the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, during the last three years. Results from lidar investigations of the optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols obtained in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, as well as from the lidar mapping of near-surface aerosol fields for remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants are presented and discussed in this paper.

  18. Imaging spectrometers for atmosphere monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Thido; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Münzenmayer, Ralf; Weiss, Stefan; Posselt, Winfried

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric monitoring missions aim at products like O3, H2O, NO2, SO2, BrO, CH4, CO, CO2 as well as aerosols and cloud information. Depending on the application area (Ozone Monitoring, Green House Gas Monitoring, Tropospheric Composition and Air Quality, Chemistry Climate Interaction etc.) total or tropospheric columns as well as profile information is required. The user community of these data as well as their central requirements w.r.t. the payload aspects will be described. A large range of relevant passive instrument types is available, in particular imaging spectrometer, sounder and polarisation measuring systems in the UV-VIS, SWIR and TIR spectral range. Differences between instruments for dedicated missions are highlighted and evolution of requirements is explained, also in comparison with relevant existing instrumentation partly in orbit today. Aspects of technology roadmaps for instrument implementation as well as synergetic effects of instrument combinations and according mission scopes are discussed.

  19. Inventory of conventional atmospheric pollutant emissions in the Cali-Yumbo zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, Mauricio; Nunez, Maria Eugenia; Ocampo, William; Perez, Diego; Portilla, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    This work presents the results of the emission inventory of criteria pollutants (VOC's, PM 1 0, CO, NO x and SO x ) from anthropogenic sources for the Cali-Yumbo urban area in Colombia in 1997. Area, point and mobile sources, were considered in the study. Four point sources; reports to environmental authorities from 108 industries in the area were analyzed. The method of emission factors was employed to relate production activity with pollutant emissions, and the MOBILE 6.0 model was applied to calculate vehicular emissions. This analysis will be useful to generate urban environmental management projects, to develop pollutant dispersion models, and to contribute criteria for improved air quality monitoring and prediction in the zone of interest

  20. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  1. Fifty years of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring by the German Meteorological Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    At a commemorative event at the Langen Training and Congress Center on 8 and 9 June 2005 it was brought to the attention of the audience that the German Meteorological Service has been charged with the sovereign task of monitoring atmospheric radioactivity since 8 August 1955. The purpose of this commission at the time was to measure traces of radioactivity in the atmosphere and precipitation and make forecasts on the movement of radioactive air masses. This was motivated by the above-ground nuclear tests carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union and the resulting measurable increase in atmospheric radioactivity levels. Equipped as it was with the necessary infrastructure the German Meteorological Service offered to take on this monitoring task. The importance of being able to assess the meteorological situation and provide data on radioactivity levels in the atmosphere and precipitation became apparent in 1986 after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl. When the Law on Preventive Radiation Protection was enacted in 1986 it was therefore only logical for the German Meteorological Service's commission to monitor atmospheric radioactivity levels to be renewed

  2. A review of urban air pollution monitoring and exposure assessment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xingzhe; Semanjski, Ivana; Gautama, Sidharta; Tsiligianni, Evaggelia; Deligiannis, Nikos; Rajan, Raj; Pasveer, Frank; Philips, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    The impact of urban air pollution on the environments and human health has drawn increasing concerns from researchers, policymakers and citizens. To reduce the negative health impact, it is of great importance to measure the air pollution at high spatial resolution in a timely manner. Traditionally, air pollution is measured using dedicated instruments at fixed monitoring stations, which are placed sparsely in urban areas. With the development of low-cost micro-scale sensing technology in the...

  3. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  5. Laser spectroscopic analysis in atmospheric pollution research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info ForbesP_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3174 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ForbesP_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Laser spectroscopic... Department and a CSIR National Laser Centre rental pool programme grant-holder, is involved in research into a novel method of monitoring atmospheric PAHs. The rental pool programme gives South African tertiary education institutions access to an array...

  6. How and when urban vehicular traffic pollutes the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cera, L.; Di Mascio, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper first compares monitored values of urban traffic air and noise pollution with Italian and European Communities pollution limits to assess the efficacy of current and proposed pollution regulations. The paper then focuses on the environmental impacts of the generation and discharge of waste waters during the construction and use of road surfaces. The related problems discussed include: soil erosion due to the increased exposure of bordering terrestrial ecosystems to damaging atmospheric pollutants; and the reception by roadside land areas of pollutants absorbed in rainfall runoff which has come into contact with road surfaces. Some suggestions are made on how to abate these particular types of traffic derived pollutants

  7. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  8. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual Summary for 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.

    2007-06-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to monitor the levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the concentration trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2006 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Besides this model calculations were carried out to supplement the measurements. NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were at several stations found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply 2005 and in 2010. While the concentrations for most other pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, only a minor decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (au)

  9. Atmospheric dispersion and inverse modelling for the reconstruction of accidental sources of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiarek, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled releases of pollutant in the atmosphere may be the consequence of various situations: accidents, for instance leaks or explosions in an industrial plant, or terrorist attacks such as biological bombs, especially in urban areas. In the event of such situations, authorities' objectives are various: predict the contaminated zones to apply first countermeasures such as evacuation of concerned population; determine the source location; assess the long-term polluted areas, for instance by deposition of persistent pollutants in the soil. To achieve these objectives, numerical models can be used to model the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. We will first present the different processes that govern the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere, then the different numerical models that are commonly used in this context. The choice between these models mainly depends of the scale and the details one seeks to take into account. We will then present several inverse modeling methods to estimate the emission as well as statistical methods to estimate prior errors, to which the inversion is very sensitive. Several case studies are presented, using synthetic data as well as real data such as the estimation of source terms from the Fukushima accident in March 2011. From our results, we estimate the Cesium-137 emission to be between 12 and 19 PBq with a standard deviation between 15 and 65% and the Iodine-131 emission to be between 190 and 380 PBq with a standard deviation between 5 and 10%. Concerning the localization of an unknown source of pollutant, two strategies can be considered. On one hand parametric methods use a limited number of parameters to characterize the source term to be reconstructed. To do so, strong assumptions are made on the nature of the source. The inverse problem is hence to estimate these parameters. On the other hand nonparametric methods attempt to reconstruct a full emission field. Several parametric and nonparametric methods are

  10. Assessment of space sensors for ocean pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Tomiyasu, K.; Gulatsi, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Several passive and active microwave, as well as passive optical remote sensors, applicable to the monitoring of oil spills and waste discharges at sea, are considered. The discussed types of measurements relate to: (1) spatial distribution and properties of the pollutant, and (2) oceanic parameters needed to predict the movement of the pollutants and their impact upon land. The sensors, operating from satellite platforms at 700-900 km altitudes, are found to be useful in mapping the spread of oil in major oil spills and in addition, can be effective in producing wind and ocean parameters as inputs to oil trajectory and dispersion models. These capabilities can be used in countermeasures.

  11. A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Based Air Pollution Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei Ying; Lo, Kin Ming; Mak, Terrence; Leung, Kwong Sak; Leung, Yee; Meng, Mei Ling

    2015-12-12

    The air quality in urban areas is a major concern in modern cities due to significant impacts of air pollution on public health, global environment, and worldwide economy. Recent studies reveal the importance of micro-level pollution information, including human personal exposure and acute exposure to air pollutants. A real-time system with high spatio-temporal resolution is essential because of the limited data availability and non-scalability of conventional air pollution monitoring systems. Currently, researchers focus on the concept of The Next Generation Air Pollution Monitoring System (TNGAPMS) and have achieved significant breakthroughs by utilizing the advance sensing technologies, MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, there exist potential problems of these newly proposed systems, namely the lack of 3D data acquisition ability and the flexibility of the sensor network. In this paper, we classify the existing works into three categories as Static Sensor Network (SSN), Community Sensor Network (CSN) and Vehicle Sensor Network (VSN) based on the carriers of the sensors. Comprehensive reviews and comparisons among these three types of sensor networks were also performed. Last but not least, we discuss the limitations of the existing works and conclude the objectives that we want to achieve in future systems.

  12. Development of a passive doas system to retrieve atmospheric pollution columns in the 200 to 355 nm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Rubén Galicia; Vázquez, Josémanueldelarosa; Isakina, Suren Stolik; García, Edgard Moreno; Iglesias, Gustavo Sosa

    2013-01-08

    In recent years several techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the pollution of the air. Among these techniques, remote sensing using optical methods stands out due to several advantages for air quality control applications. A Passive Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy system that uses the ultraviolet region from 200 to 355 nm of the solar radiation is presented. The developed system is portable; therefore it is practical for real time and in situ measurements. The enhanced wavelength range of the system is intended to detect the ultraviolet light penetration in the Mexican Valley considering the solar zenith angle and the altitude. The system was applied to retrieve atmospheric SO2 columns emitted either by anthropogenic (power plant) or natural sources (volcano), reaching a detection limit of about 1 ppm. The measurement of the penetrating solar radiation on the earth surface at the UVC range is presented and the possibility to measure pollution traces of some contaminants as O3, NO2 and aromatic compounds in real time and in situ in the ultraviolet region is discussed.

  13. Development of a passive doas system to retrieve atmospheric pollution columns in the 200 to 355 nm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía Rubén Galicia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years several techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the pollution of the air. Among these techniques, remote sensing using optical methods stands out due to several advantages for air quality control applications. A Passive Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy system that uses the ultraviolet region from 200 to 355 nm of the solar radiation is presented. The developed system is portable; therefore it is practical for real time and in situ measurements. The enhanced wavelength range of the system is intended to detect the ultraviolet light penetration in the Mexican Valley considering the solar zenith angle and the altitude. The system was applied to retrieve atmospheric SO2 columns emitted either by anthropogenic (power plant or natural sources (volcano, reaching a detection limit of about 1 ppm. The measurement of the penetrating solar radiation on the earth surface at the UVC range is presented and the possibility to measure pollution traces of some contaminants as O3, NO2 and aromatic compounds in real time and in situ in the ultraviolet region is discussed.

  14. L'IIASA and the integrated simulation of the trans-border atmospheric pollution assessment and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleille, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Farret, R.; Landrieu, G.; Le Gall, A.C.; Rouil, L.

    2003-09-01

    The RAINS model is an integrated evaluation model for many pollutants and many effects, developed by he IIASA. This model studies the emissions of 4 atmospheric pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds) and the necessary costs to reduce them and the dispersion of these pollutants and their effects (tropospheric ozone formation, acidification and eutrophication). The model can be used in activities scenario mode (energy, agriculture, transports...) to calculate the emissions and their effects or in optimization mode to calculate strategies of emissions control from environmental constraints. (A.L.B.)

  15. An overview of environmental pollution and monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world-wide concern as it is likely to affect the ecological system and human health. The indiscriminate release of harmful chemicals and toxic heavy metals in the environment by industrial, agricultural and other activities of man may adversely affect the quality of our air, water and food resources. These toxic chemicals may find their way to living organisms and human body through food chain and may induce various metabolic disorders. It is, therefore, necessary to assess the quality of environment by measuring the concentration of pollutants in air, water, soil and food materials and to establish base-line level. Since the pollutants are present in extremely small amounts, sensitive and accurate analytical techniques have to be employed to obtain reliable data. Studies on the measurement of essential and toxic inorganic elements in various food items and other materials have been carried out at PINSTECH with a view to assess the safety of diet and to establish baseline values. These values will he helpful, in future, to monitor the degree of pollution and to suggest possible remedial and control measures. The estimation of some of the inorganic pollutants and the techniques used in our laboratories and briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C

    2003-06-01

    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  17. Temporal trends in metal pollution: using bird excrement as indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa M M Berglund

    Full Text Available Past mining and smelting activities have resulted in metal polluted environments all over the world, but long-term monitoring data is often scarce, especially in higher trophic levels. In this study we used bird (Parus major and Ficedula hypoleuca excrement to monitor metal pollution in the terrestrial environment following 16 years of continuously reduced emissions from a copper/nickel smelter in Finland. In the early 1990s, lead and cadmium concentrations dropped significantly in excrement, but the reduction did not directly reflect the changes in atmospheric emission from the smelter. This is likely due to a continuous contribution of metals also from the soil pool. We conclude that bird excrement can be used to assess changes in the environment as a whole but not specifically changes in atmospheric emission. Inter-annual variation in excrement concentration of especially copper and nickel demonstrates the importance of long-term monitoring to discern significant trends.

  18. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 14: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Fifteen papers were translated: On the removal of impurities from the atmosphere by clouds and precipitation; Some aspects of the adoption of automatic methods of determining atmospheric pollutants; Recording of sulfur dioxide content at the outskirts of a city. Comparison of measurement results for a valley and an elevation; Theoretical and…

  19. Atmospheric pollution and melanic moths in Manchester and its environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askew, R R; Cook, L M; Bishop, J A

    1971-01-01

    Samples of moths have been taken in the Manchester area at sites in localities with moderate to extreme atmospheric pollution. The majority of species collected are dark in color, many typically pale species being represented by dark variants. Four species polymorphic for melanic and non-melanic morphs have been examined in more detail. In Biston betularia the melanic frequency is over 93% at all stations, but the frequency of typicals appears to have increased over the past 15 years. This coincides with a period of extensive smoke control zonation. Gondontis bidentata has a higher frequency of melanics than has been recorded elsewhere in the country. There is significant variation between sites, the higher frequencies occurring in the more polluted localities. Non-melanics segregate into a pale and a dark category. In reared samples males exhibit a greater frequency of melanics than females.

  20. Calculations of color and visibility in urban atmospheres polluted by gaseous NO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodkinson, J.R.

    1966-01-01

    Calculations are made of the optical effects of persistent gaseous NO/sub 2/ pollution at 0.2-2 ppm in a city atmosphere in both the presence and absence of a polluting aerosol which does not absorb light or NO/sub 2/. It is concluded that the coloring of the horizon sky and of distant white objects would resemble whiskey, tea or cola-drinks, and the visual range would be markedly reduced. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Waste to energy plant-air pollution monitoring and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullowney, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    We can't eat it. We can't wear it. We are running out of places to bury it. We can't export it. We can't stop making it. Garbage seems to be, by volume at least, our biggest national product. These facts are driving more and more industries and municipalities to construct waste to energy plants. Following the adage that when you get lemons, make lemonade, municipalities have been burning their garbage to produce steam and electricity. Communities, fearful that what they have produced may be toxic to them when burned, have enacted stringent air pollution control and monitoring regulations. The federal government has enacted regulations under the Clean Air Act 43 CFR Part 60 which regulate the emission limits monitoring and reporting requirements of waste energy plants. The most important of these regulations was enacted on December 16, 1987 and June 26, 1987, regulating particulate, SO 2 and NO x emissions. This paper reports that these regulations also tie in to various other EPA regulations and requirements. The most important of these to air pollution monitoring is Appendix F, Quality Assurance. However, these regulations are only minimum requirements -- individual states further strengthen their bite by requiring lower emissions limits and the monitoring of additional parameters such as H 2 S, HCl, NH 2 , CO, CO 2 and moisture. These monitoring limits and reporting requirements are currently being negotiated on a case by case basis in most instances

  2. Research plan for integrated ecosystem and pollutant monitoring at remote wilderness study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, D.A.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1988-03-01

    This research plan outlines an approach to the measurement of pollutants and ecosystem parameters at remote, high-elevation, wilderness study sites. A multimedia, systems approach to environmental monitoring is emphasized. The primary purpose of the research is to apply and field test a technical report entitled ''Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of wilderness ecosystems.'' This document intended to provide Federal Land Managers with information to establish environmental monitoring programs in wilderness areas. To date, this monitoring document has yet to be evaluated under rigorous field conditions at a remote, high-elevation Rocky Mountain site. For the purpose of field testing approaches to monitoring of pollutants and ecosystems in remote, wilderness areas, evaluation criteria were developed. These include useability, cost-effectiveness, data variability, alternative approaches, ecosystems conceptual approach, and quality assurance. Both the Forest Service and INEL environmental monitoring techniques will be evaluated with these criteria. Another objective of this research plan is to obtain an integrated data base on pollutants and ecosystem structure and function at a remote study site. The methods tested in this project will be used to acquire these data from a systems approach. This includes multimedia monitoring of air and water quality, soils, and forest, stream, and lake ecosystems. 71 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs

  3. Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi; Howard, David

    2015-01-01

    Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) is a project focused on evolving existing and maturing emerging 'closed loop' atmosphere revitalization (AR) life support systems that produce clean, breathable air for crewmembers, and developing a suite of low mass, low power environmental monitors to detect and measure air- and waterborne constituents and contaminants. The objective is to improve reliability and efficiency, reduce mass and volume, and increase recovery of oxygen from carbon dioxide created by human metabolism from 43% to greater than 90%. The technology developments under ARREM are vital to extending human space missions from low-Earth orbit like the International Space Station to destinations deeper into space such as Mars where dependency on Earth for resupply of maintenance items and critical life support elements such as water and oxygen is not possible. The primary goal of the ARREM project is to demonstrate that systems meet the more stringent performance parameters for deep space exploration and are compatible with other systems within closed loop life support through a series of integrated tests performed in an environmental test chamber capable of simulating human metabolic activities and measuring systems outputs.

  4. Assessment of an air pollution monitoring network to generate urban air pollution maps using Shannon information index, fuzzy overlay, and Dempster-Shafer theory, A case study: Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, Parham; Sheikhian, Hossein; Bigdeli, Behnaz

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution assessment is an imperative part of megacities planning and control. Hence, a new comprehensive approach for air pollution monitoring and assessment was introduced in this research. It comprises of three main sections: optimizing the existing air pollutant monitoring network, locating new stations to complete the coverage of the existing network, and finally, generating an air pollution map. In the first section, Shannon information index was used to find less informative stations to be candidate for removal. Then, a methodology was proposed to determine the areas which are not sufficiently covered by the current network. These areas are candidates for establishing new monitoring stations. The current air pollution monitoring network of Tehran was used as a case study, where the air pollution issue has been worsened due to the huge population, considerable commuters' absorption and topographic barriers. In this regard, O3, NO, NO2, NOx, CO, PM10, and PM2.5 were considered as the main pollutants of Tehran. Optimization step concluded that all the 16 active monitoring stations should be preserved. Analysis showed that about 35% of the Tehran's area is not properly covered by monitoring stations and about 30% of the area needs additional stations. The winter period in Tehran always faces the most severe air pollution in the year. Hence, to produce the air pollution map of Tehran, three-month of winter measurements of the mentioned pollutants, repeated for five years in the same period, were selected and extended to the entire area using the kriging method. Experts specified the contribution of each pollutant in overall air pollution. Experts' rankings aggregated by a fuzzy-overlay process. Resulted maps characterized the study area with crucial air pollution situation. According to the maps, more than 45% of the city area faced high pollution in the study period, while only less than 10% of the area showed low pollution. This situation confirms the need

  5. Atmospheric lidar: Legal, scientific and technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Lidar is one of the systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing under development at the ENEA Research Center of Frascati. This technical report addresses the legislative, scientific and technological aspects that are the basis for the identification of the requirements, the definition of the architecture and the fixation of the specifications of the Atmospheric Lidar. The problems of air pollution are introduced in section 2. A summary of the Italian laws on that topic is then given. Section 4 provides a survey of the atmospheric measurements that can be achieved with the lidar. The sensitivity in the monitoring of pollutants is discussed in section 5. The other systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing are shortly described in section 6. The last section is devoted to conclusions and perspectives [it

  6. Tillandsia recurvata L. as a bioindicator of sulfur atmospheric pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Graciano, Corina; Fernández, L V; Caldiz, D O

    2003-01-01

    Tillandsia recurvata L. is an epiphyte that absorbs nutrients from the air, so it could be used as a bioindicator of atmospheric sulfur pollution. In order to test this idea, Tillandsia recurvata samples were seasonally collected for two years at three sites of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in a suburban park and in a rural area 60 km away from the city. Macro- and microscopic observations were carried out and chlorophyll and sulfur concentrations of the tissue were measured to ...

  7. Marine pollution monitoring and coastal processes off Andhra Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    plants are some of them. ESSAR group is going to invest Rs.1000 crores to set up industries in this belt. In view of the above, regular monitoring of pollution concentration in the harbour and coastal waters is being done by NIO, RC, Visakhapatnam under...

  8. Influence factor analysis of atmospheric electric field monitoring near ground under different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Haojiang; Wei, Guanghui; Cui, Yaozhong; Chen, Yazhou

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric electric field near ground plays a critical role in atmospheric environment detecting and lightning warning. Different environmental conditions (e.g. buildings, plants, weather, etc.) have different influences on the data's coherence in an atmospheric electric field detection network. In order to study the main influence factors of atmospheric electric field monitoring under different weather conditions, with the combination of theoretical analysis and experiments, the electric field monitoring data on the ground and on the top of a building are compared in fair weather and thunderstorm weather respectively in this paper. The results show that: In fair weather, the field distortion due to the buildings is the main influence factor on the electric field monitoring. In thunderstorm weather, the corona ions produced from the ground, besides the field distortion due to the buildings, can also influence the electric field monitoring results.

  9. Ionization detector for aerosol air pollution detection and ventilation control in the metal processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Istvan

    1989-01-01

    An indicator and measuring instrument was developed for the continuous monitoring, recording and indicating aerosol mass concentrations in mechanical workshops, like in metal cutting, welding or forming industries, for air pollution control and ventilation of the atmosphere in the workshops. An ionization chamber containing alpha radiation source was modified for this purpose, and a suitable electronic circuit was built for the measurement of ionization current. The calibration of the ionization aerosol detectors was performed for welding smoke and oil mist. They were suitable for continuous monitoring of workshop atmospheres and controlling ventilation equipment, or as portable instruments, for the rapid inspection of air pollution. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Stable lead isotopes and lake sediments. A useful combination for the study of atmospheric lead pollution history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renberg, I.; Braennvall, M.-L.; Bindler, R. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Emteryd, O. [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden)

    2002-06-20

    Analysis of stable lead isotopes and lead concentrations in lake-sediment deposits, not least in varved (annually-laminated) sediments, is a useful method to study lead pollution history. This paper presents details from a study of 31 lakes in Sweden. Using a strong acid digestion of sediment samples and ICP-MS analyses, we have found that Swedish lake sediments have a high natural (pre-pollution) 206[Pb]/207[Pb] ratio (mean 1.52{+-}0.18, range 1.28-2.01, n=31 lakes). In contrast, atmospheric lead pollution derived from metal smelting processes, coal burning and from alkyl-lead added to petrol has a lower ratio (<1.2). Consequently, when pollution lead deposition began approximately 3500 years ago, the lead isotope ratio of the sediments started to decline, and in modern sediments it is typically <1.2. Using the isotope and concentration values and a mixing model, the relative contribution of pollution and natural lead in sediment samples can be calculated. The pollution lead records of the Swedish lake sediments show a consistent picture of the atmospheric lead pollution history. Some noticeable features are the Roman peak, the large and permanent Medieval increase, peaks at approximately 1200 and 1530 ad, the rapid increase after World War II, the peak in the 1970s, and the large modern decline.

  11. Air Quality – monitoring and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DEACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a major concern for all nations, regardless of their development. The rapid growth of the industrial sector and urban development have lead to significant quantities of substances and toxic materials, mostly discharged into the atmosphere and having adverse effects both on human health and environment in general. Human society has to recognize that environment has only a limited capacity to process all of its waste without major changes. Each of us is a pollutant but also a victim of pollution. If monitoring of air pollutants is particularly important for assessing the air quality at any moment, by modelling the monitoring data spectacular results are obtained both through the factor analysis and identification of potential pollution mitigation measures. Latest equipment and techniques come and support these problems giving medium and long term solutions.

  12. Air pollution and climate change effects on health of the Ukrainian forests: monitoring and evalution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igor F. Buksha; Valentina L. Meshkova; Oleg M. Radchenko; Alexander S. Sidorov

    1998-01-01

    Forests in the Ukraine are affected by environmental pollution, intensive forestry practice, and recreational uses. These factors make them sensitive to impacts of climate change. Since 1989 Ukraine has participated in the International Cooperative Program on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests). A network of monitoring plots has...

  13. Relationships between removal processes and residence times for atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1978-01-01

    This report is concerned with improving estimates for the residence times of atmospheric trace constituents in various atmospheric reservoirs. Residence times are defined only for steady-state conditions; i.e., when the net growth rate vanishes. The most useful case of vanishing net growth rate is when the total growth rate is equal to the decay rate. It is demonstrated that the most important advance towards improving estimates of pollutant residence times is through proper choices of reservoirs. Chosen reservoirs should possess the following features: steady-state conditions, uniform mixing ratio throughout or throughout specified subreservoirs, and subreservoirs chosen in which removal rates can be treated as approximate constants. An example of a poorly mixed reservoir, the stratosphere, is discussed. In another example, it is suggested that commonly used reservoirs for atmospheric CO 2 have been chosen poorly and that a substantial portion of the anthropogenic CO 2 released during the past 50 years may still be mixing into the stratosphere. In another example, it is suggested that determination of the dry deposition velocity for accumulation-mode aerosol particles may not be so important as previously thought. To improve estimates for the atmospheric residence times of these particles, it is important to increase knowledge of what is called the ascension velocity

  14. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  15. Atmospheric pollution and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasdale, J K.A.

    1952-03-01

    Although sulfur dioxide is the most common and usually the most abundant polluting agent, experiments with this gas have shown that, under the conditions employed, there is no effect on yield unless the concentration is high enough to cause leaf injury. S23 ryegrass was grown in beds in greenhouses. Treatment with purified air gave, with one exception, a dry weight considerably higher than treatment with polluted air. No sign of leaf damage could be detected in the greenhouse with polluted air. This fact would seem to indicate that pollution decreases the growth rate, even in the absence of visible injury.

  16. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C.

    2003-06-01

    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  17. MERCURY IN ATMOSPHERE OVER RURAL, URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL PARTS OF ZAGREB CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Zagreb city encounters severe pollution problems in aquatic, terrrestrial and atmospheric environment. A random or permanent monitoring of some inorganic gaseous pollutants in atmosphere has already been organized and published alsewhere. By means of a sophisticated mercury vapor analyser with a Zeeman effect background corrector, however, continuous registration along two traverses (monitoring routes over rural, urban and industrial parts of Zagreb has been elaborated for the first lime. Data show strong anthropogenic influence in the Žitnjak industrial area. The anomaly high 105 ngm Hg, on the 22 October moved slightly to downtown by change of wind direction on the 31 October. Intensity raised as much as 155 ngm Hg, 13 times augmented in comparison to a background value on the Medvednica mountain. Explanation should be sought in denser public traffic, change of wind direction and lowering of atmospheric pressure.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic pollution of the global atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Results of determination of natural radionuclides, fission products and heavy metals in contemporary and pre-industrial ice from 14 glaciers in Southern and Northern Hemisphere, and in aerosols collected during three decades from seven altitudes between 0 and 15 km in the troposphere and atmosphere, were used for determinations of fluxes of man-made and natural pollutants into the global atmosphere. For these determinations 137 Cs from nuclear explosions and natural 210 Pb were used as tracers. Concentration of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in ice deposited before industrial revolution were higher than the contemporary precipitation presented as firn in high mountain and polar glaciers. This is due probably to volcanic activity which was higher before the first part of 20 th century. Man-made contribution to the total atmospheric flux is now 3.5% for 226 Ra, 12% for U, 7.4% for Pb, 011% for Cd, 62% for V and 5.8 for Hg. The mass of annual global wet precipitation, determined for the first time with radioactive tracers, is 5.7·10 1 7 kg. In Poland the lowest concentration of stable lead in human bones is now in highly industrialized southern districts. Lead level in medieval human bones from these districts reached up to 370 μg/g. Its current average level in inhabitants of southern Poland is 3.5 μg/g, i. e. similar as 1800 years ago. (author)

  19. Détente from the Air: Monitoring Air Pollution during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Rachel

    During the period of détente in the 1970s, a Norwegian proposal to construct an air pollution monitoring network for the European continent resulted in the first concrete collaboration between the communist and capitalist blocs after the 1975 Helsinki Accords. Known as the "European-wide monitoring programme" or EMEP, the network earned considerable praise from diplomats for facilitating cooperation across the Iron Curtain. Yet as this article argues, EMEP was strongly influenced by the politics of détente and the constraints of the Cold War even as it helped to decrease tensions. Concerns about national security and sharing data with the enemy shaped both the construction of the monitoring network and the modeling of pollution transport. The article also proposes that environmental monitoring systems like EMEP reveal the ways in which observational technologies can affect conceptions of the natural world and the role of science in public policy.

  20. Growing Atmospheric Pollution and Its Relation with Occurrences of Natural Hazards in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh

    In the last three decades, multi satellite remote sensing data have revealed increasing atmospheric pollution. The satellite data have shown spatial distribution of fine and coarse atmospheric particles which impact human health, cloud albedo and atmospheric and meteorological parameters. The long range dusts coming over India travel through Arabian Sea and reach to the Bay of Bengal, such long range transport of dust influences atmospheric and ocean parameters, as a result strong coupling exists between land-ocean-atmosphere. Various kind of natural hazards, such as cyclone, algal bloom, cloud burst, excessive rainfall have been observed apart from the intense fog, haze and smog during winter and post monsoon seasons that have serious impacts on human health of people living in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The long range transport of dust and local anthropogenic emissions also reach to the Himalayan region affecting snow and glaciers of Himalaya and accelerating melting of snow and glaciers which is a threat of flooding of rivers originate from Himalayan region.

  1. FRAM telescope - monitoring of atmospheric extinction and variable star photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysek, J.; Honkova, K.; Masek, M.

    2015-02-01

    The FRAM (F/(Ph)otometric Robotic Atmospheric Monitor) telescope is a part of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) located near town Malargüe in Argentina. The main task of the FRAM telescope is the continuous night - time monitoring of the atmospheric extinction and its wavelength dependence. The current methodology of the measurement of a atmospheric extinction and for instrumentation properties also allows simultaneous observation of other interesting astronomical targets. The current observations of the FRAM telescope are focused on the photometry of eclipsing binaries, positional refinement of minor bodies of the Solar system and observations of optical counterparts of gamma ray bursts. In this contribution, we briefly describe the main purpose of the FRAM telescope for the PAO and we also present its current astrono mical observing program.

  2. The effect of nitrogen additions on oak foliage and herbivore communities at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D.; Fenn, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate plant and herbivore responses to nitrogen we conducted a fertilization study at a low and high pollution site in the mixed conifer forests surrounding Los Angeles, California. Contrary to expectations, discriminant function analysis of oak herbivore communities showed significant response to N fertilization when atmospheric deposition was high, but not when atmospheric deposition was low. We hypothesize that longer-term fertilization treatments are needed at the low pollution site before foliar N nutrition increases sufficiently to affect herbivore communities. At the high pollution site, fertilization was also associated with increased catkin production and higher densities of a byturid beetle that feeds on the catkins of oak. Leaf nitrogen and nitrate were significantly higher at the high pollution site compared to the low pollution site. Foliar nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with abundance of sucking insects, leafrollers and plutellids in all three years of the study. - Nitrogen additions at sites impacted by air pollution were associated with altered foliar herbivore communities and increased densities of a catkin-feeding beetle on Quercus kellogii

  3. A four-layer model for calculating the dispersion and chemical conversion of pollutants in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    A four-layer model for the calculation of the propagation and chemical change of emitted pollutants in the ground level troposphere is presented. The following influences on the spreading of pollutants are considered: the height of the mixing layer, the orography, the horizontal and vertical advection, the horizontal and vertical diffusion, the diurnal variation of insolation, the source strength of the emissions of NO x , HC, SO 2 and CO. The knowledge of the wind field is an essential precondition for spreading calculations in the ground level troposphere. For the calculation of the wind field, a wind model is developed with the help of the variation calculation. The propagation and the chemical change of pollutants in the atmosphere in the Upper Rhine Graben are calculated for various atmospheric conditions and emission data. The influences of the wind power orography, the parametrization of the turbulent diffusion and the emission volume on the concentration of the photooxidants are studied in detail. (orig./KW) With 82 figs., 9 tabs [de

  4. Pollution Monitoring System Using Gas Sensor based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 gases are classified as colorless and odorless gas so we need special tools to monitor their concentration in the air. Concentration of air pollution of CO and CO2 that are high in the air will give serious effects for health status. CO is a poisonous gas that damages the circulation of oxygen in the blood when inhaled, while CO2 is one of the gases that causes global warming. In this paper, we developed an integrated pollution monitoring (IPOM system to monitor the concentration of air pollution. This research implemented three sensor nodes (end-device which each node contains CO and CO2 sensors on the gas sensors board to perform sensing from the environment. Furthermore, the data taken from the environment by the sensor will be sent to the meshlium gateway using IEEE 802.15.4 Zigbee communications and processed by the gateway in order to be sent to the computer server. The data is stored in meshlium gateway using MySQL database as a backup, and it will be synchronized to the MySQL database in the computer server. We provide services for public to access the information in database server through a desktop and website application.

  5. Human health risk assessment of lead pollution in atmospheric deposition in Baoshan District, Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jun; Shi, Guitao; Sun, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The lead (Pb) content in atmospheric deposition was determined at 42 sampling sites in Baoshan District of Shanghai, China. Based on exposure and dose-response assessments, the health risk caused by Pb exposure in atmospheric deposition was investigated. The results indicated that Pb was significantly accumulated in atmospheric deposition. The spatial distribution of Pb was mapped by geostatistical analysis, and the results showed that pollution hotspots were present at traffic and industrial zones. Ingestion was the main route of Pb exposure in both adults and children. For children the risk value was above 1, whereas it was below 1 for the adult group. Therefore, children belong to the high-risk group for Pb exposure from atmospheric deposition in the observed area of Shanghai, China.

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  7. Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale Wigg. S.L. Is A Convenient Object For Genetic Monitoring Of Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V Reutova

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to use dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Wigg. s.l. for testing of mutagenic effects of environmental pollutants. This widespread species is convenient for genetic monitoring. It is sensitive to various types of pollutants (heavy metals, products of combustion and processing of oil. T. officinale appeared to be a convenient, simple in using and inexpensive object for genetic monitoring of environmental pollution. anaphase-telophase method is recomended for this purpose.

  8. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaoliu; Kang Shichang; Zhang Qianggong

    2009-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical 'pollution' elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles <20 μm are transportable as long distances, elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP. - High concentrations of some elements of the Tibetan soils can cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements during aerosol related study.

  9. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m 3 for PM 2.5 and ΡΜ 10 , respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO 2 , NO x and SO 2 ) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM 10 and PM 2.5 , for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  11. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program

  12. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  13. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management.

  14. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  15. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B.; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35–50% of THg concentration and 50–70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. - Highlights: • China's anthropogenic mercury emission was 643.1 t in 2007. • GEOS-Chem model well reproduces the background Hg concentrations. • Anthropogenic emissions contribute 35–50% of Hg concentrations in polluted regions. • The priorities for mercury control in polluted regions are identified. - Anthropogenic Hg emissions are updated and their impacts on atmospheric mercury concentrations and depositions are quantified for China

  16. Interception of wet deposited atmospheric pollutants by herbaceous vegetation: Data review and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, M.-A., E-mail: marc-andre.gonze@irsn.fr; Sy, M.M.

    2016-09-15

    Better understanding and predicting interception of wet deposited pollutants by vegetation remains a key issue in risk assessment studies of atmospheric pollution. We develop different alternative models, following either empirical or semi-mechanistic descriptions, on the basis of an exhaustive dataset consisting of 440 observations obtained in controlled experiments, from 1970 to 2014, for a wide variety of herbaceous plants, radioactive substances and rainfall conditions. The predictive performances of the models and the uncertainty/variability of the parameters are evaluated under Hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework. It is demonstrated that the variability of the interception fraction is satisfactorily explained and quite accurately modelled by a process-based alternative in which absorption of ionic substances onto the foliage surfaces is determined by their electrical valence. Under this assumption, the 95% credible interval of the predicted interception fraction encompasses 81% of the observations, including situations where either plant biomass or rainfall intensity are unknown. This novel approach is a serious candidate to challenge existing empirical relationships in radiological or chemical risk assessment tools. - Highlights: • Literature data on the interception of atmospheric pollutants by herbs were reviewed • Predictive models were developed and evaluated in the Bayesian modelling framework • Sensitivity of interception to environmental conditions was satisfactorily explained • 81% of the observations were satisfactorily predicted by a semi-mechanistic model • This model challenges empirical relationships currently used in risk assessment tools.

  17. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  18. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in

  19. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING LINDEN TREE LEAVES AS NATURAL TRAPS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION: A PILOT STUDY IN TRANSILVANIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHÁLY BRAUN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the moreusual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition. Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which showed a systematic geographic distribution.

  1. Severe Pollution in China Amplified by Atmospheric Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Chang, Di; Pöschl, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Dusek, Uli; Li, Guohui; Worsnop, Douglas R; O'Dowd, Colin D

    2017-11-17

    In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL). A positive feedback cycle is triggered resulting in the formation of heavy haze: (1) the dispersal of water vapour is constrained by the shallow PBL, leading to an increase in relative humidity (RH); (2) the high RH induces an increase of aerosol particle size by enhanced hygroscopic growth and multiphase reactions to increase particle size and mass, which results in (3) further dimming and decrease of PBL height, and thus further depressing of aerosol and water vapour in a very shallow PBL. This positive feedback constitutes a self-amplification mechanism in which water vapour leads to a trapping and massive increase of particulate matter in the near-surface air to which people are exposed with severe health hazards.

  2. Monitoring an air pollution episode in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and the HYSPLIT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Liu, Yihong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-07-01

    Urban air pollution is influenced not only by local emission sources including industry and vehicles, but also greatly by regional atmospheric pollutant transportation from the surrounding areas, especially in developed city clusters, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Taking an air pollution episode in Shenzhen as an example, this paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of the pollution episode and identifies the transport pathways of air pollutants in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis. Results show that this pollution episode is mainly caused by the local emission of pollutants in PRD and oceanic air masses under specific weather conditions.

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing for light pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marcoionni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available industries. In this paper we introduce the results from a remote sensing campaign performed in September 2001 at night time. For the first time nocturnal light pollution was measured at high spatial and spectral resolution using two airborne hyperspectral sensors, namely the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS and the Visible InfraRed Scanner (VIRS-200. These imagers, generally employed for day-time Earth remote sensing, were flown over the Tuscany coast (Italy on board of a Casa 212/200 airplane from an altitude of 1.5-2.0 km. We describe the experimental activities which preceded the remote sensing campaign, the optimization of sensor configuration, and the images as far acquired. The obtained results point out the novelty of the performed measurements and highlight the need to employ advanced remote sensing techniques as a spectroscopic tool for light pollution monitoring.

  4. Design and implementation air quality monitoring robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanhua; Li, Jie; Qi, Chunxue

    2017-01-01

    Robot applied in environmental protection can break through the limitations in working environment, scope and mode of the existing environmental monitoring and pollution abatement equipments, which undertake the innovation and improvement in the basin, atmosphere, emergency and pollution treatment facilities. Actually, the relevant technology is backward with limited research and investment. Though the device companies have achieved some results in the study on the water quality monitoring, pipeline monitoring and sewage disposal, this technological progress on the whole is still much slow, and the mature product has not been formed. As a result, the market urges a demand of a new type of device which is more suitable for environmental protection on the basis of robot successfully applied in other fields. This paper designs and realizes a tracked mobile robot of air quality monitoring, which can be used to monitor air quality for the pollution accident in industrial parks and regular management.

  5. Groundwater quality deterioration as a result of anthropogenic organic air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, I.; Schleyer, R.; Muehlhausen, D.

    1990-01-01

    For monitoring the atmospherical depositions of organic materials in soil and in particular groundwater, we measured in rain water, soil seepage water and groundwater from four measuring stations in hessian forest areas the AOX sum parameter (organic halogen compounds which can be adsorbed) and numerous single compounds, above all chlorinated hydrocarbons. Anthropogenic organic pollutants are found in all precipitations. Their concentrations are clearly increased as compared to the open land. Of special importance are the atmospherical reaction products of the primary emissions, for example trichloroacetic acid. In analogy to inorganic pollutants, organic pollutant depositions affect above all poorly protected water-bearing strata with thin topsoil layers with a low capacity for adsorption and buffering. Harmful concentrations may be reached here in some cases. (orig.) [de

  6. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1998-01-01

    The document presents an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon, with an analysis of sources of pollution, their impact on local and global environment and their control.Local causes of pollution are mainly: -Thermal power plants of electric power production which produce 75% SO 2 emission and 60% dust - Industries, especially cement industry - Land transportation which produces 70% NOX emission and 50% CO 2 A description of air pollution caused by these three sectors is revealed. Pollutants derived from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, Co 2 emission will reach 5204450 tons, SO 2 emission will be 136470 tons, NOX emissions 96870 and dust estimated to 4130 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal Protocol are described. Recommendations for control of air pollution in Lebanon within a national policy are presented

  7. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5). An executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Pyhala, M.; Kotilainen, P.; Bartnicki, J.; Knuuttila, S.; Durkin, M.

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes and combines the main results of the Fifth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation (HELCOM 2011) which covers waterborne loads to the sea and data on atmospheric loads which are submitted by countries to the co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP), which subsequently compiles and reports this information to HELCOM.

  8. Atmospheric Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, P.; Edson, J.; Cifuentes, A.; McGillis, W. R.; Zappa, C.

    2008-12-01

    Long-range transport of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) is a global concern. Remote regions such as the Southern Ocean are greatly under-sampled though critical components in understanding POPs cycling. Over 20 high-volume air samples were collected in the Southern Ocean aboard the RV Brown during the GASEX III experiment between Mar 05 to April 9 2008. The relatively stationary platform (51S,38W) enabled the collection of a unique atmospheric time series at this open ocean station. Air sampling was also conducted across transects from Punto Arenas, Chile and to Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were collected using glass sleeves packed with poly-urethane foam plugs and C-18 resin in order to collect target organic pollutants (per-fluorinated compounds, currently and historically used pesticides) in this under-sampled region. Here we present POPs concentrations and trends over the sampled period and compare variations with air parcel back trajectories to establish potential origins of their long-range transport.

  9. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aboel Fetouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.

  10. Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: A northern hemisphere perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Omasa, Kenji; Paoletti, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Many air pollutants and greenhouse gases have common sources, contribute to radiative balance, interact in the atmosphere, and affect ecosystems. The impacts on forest ecosystems have been traditionally treated separately for air pollution and climate change. However, the combined effects may significantly differ from a sum of separate effects. We review the links between air pollution and climate change and their interactive effects on northern hemisphere forests. A simultaneous addressing of the air pollution and climate change effects on forests may result in more effective research, management and monitoring as well as better integration of local, national and global environmental policies. - Simultaneous addressing air pollution and climate change effects on forests is an opportunity for capturing synergies in future research and monitoring

  11. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, E.; Gras, N.; Guzman, G.; Pereira, I.

    1999-01-01

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  12. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In January 1993 within the framework of the LIFE programme a project was financed which aim was to develop a deposition monitoring method for air pollution of Europe. This method should be used to extend existing European monitoring networks of air concentrations to provide deposition inputs on an

  13. [Monitoring and SWOT analysis of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil of rural China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui-hui; Zhou, Chang-hai; Zang, Wei; Zhang, Xue-qiang; Chen, Ying-dan

    2014-06-01

    To understand the status of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil at national monitoring spots of soil-transmitted nematodiasis, so as to provide the evidence for making countermeasures and evaluating the control effect. Ten households were selected from each of the 22 national monitoring spots annually according to the National Surveillance Program of Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (Trial), and the soil samples from vegetable gardens, toilet periphery, courtyards and kitchens were collected and examined by using the modified floatation test with saturated sodium nitrate. Fertilized or unfertilized eggs as well as live or dead fertilized eggs were discriminated and identified. In addition, a SWOT analysis of monitoring of Ascaris eggs pollution in the soil of rural China was carried out. A total of 1 090 households were monitored in 22 monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010. The total detection rate of Ascaris eggs in the soil was 30.73%, and the detection rates of fertilized, unfertilized and live fertilized eggs were 13.21%, 26.42% and 20.28%, respectively. The total detection rates of Ascaris eggs in the vegetable garden, toilet periphery, courtyard and kitchen were 16.51%, 13.49%, 14.22% and 10.73% respectively. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that the monitoring work had both advantages and disadvantages, and was faced with opportunities as well as threats. The pollution status of Ascaris eggs in the soil is still quite severe at some national monitoring spots, and the counter-measures such as implementing hazard-free treatment of stool, improving water supply and sanitation and reforming environment should be taken to protect people from being infected.

  14. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    2000-01-01

    The article is an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon. It presents an analysis of sources of pollution in the country and their impacts on local and global environment and describes their control. Air pollution is mainly due to the industrial, electrical and transportation sectors. Pollutants from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, CO 2 emissions will reach 5987250 tons, SO 2 emissions is estimated to be 182950 tons, Nox to 105180 and dusts to 4965 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal protocol are described. Consumption of primary energy, consumption of petroleum products, quantity of petroleum in refineries and production of cement in Lebanon are also presented in tables

  15. Public Transportation Based Dynamic Urban Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ-PEÑA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and results of a mobile sensor based opportunistic urban pollution monitoring network that uses public transportation buses as platforms for its deployment. This work is an extended and improved version of the paper presented to the IDAACS’09 conference. It reports some aspects of the implementation of a single pollution sensor based sensing node prototype which was used for testing an opportunistic communications network and which was reported in depth elsewhere. More emphasis is given to the description of the basic sensing unit and its modular conversion into a sensing system able to acquire data on several pollutants as well as temperature, humidity and geo-location information. The software architecture developed around it in order to process the huge amounts of data the system produces is also described. The different prototypes were tested on the public transportation system of the city of Vigo and on multiple test runs around the city of A Coruña in the north-west of Spain producing very promising results.

  16. Size-differentiated composition of inorganic atmospheric aerosols of both marine and polluted continental origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Pio, Casimiro A.

    Atmospheric aerosols were sampled with a high volume impactor/diffusion battery system and the collected fractions analysed for their major water-soluble inorganic constituents. Sulphate, nitrate and chloride showed bimodal distributions; sulphate and nitrate were mainly associated with NH 4+, having approximately log-normal distributions with modes at 1.0 μm. In unpolluted maritime air, chlorides appeared as salts of sodium and magnesium with average modes at c. 5 μm, whilst in polluted air masses significant concentrations of ammonium chloride sub-μm aerosols were detected. Sodium nitrate and sodium sulphate aerosols having average modes of c. 3.5 μm were observed in mixed maritime/polluted air masses. The dimensions of these particles indicate formation from absorption of H 2SO 4 and HNO 3 at the surface of marine NaCl particles. The concentration of H + was very low, but the possibility of its neutralization by atmospheric ammonia during sampling was ruled out by parallel air sampling using an 'ammonia denuder'.

  17. Data on microscale atmospheric pollution of Bolshoy Kamen town (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Maiss, Natalia; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter of Bolshoy Kamen town by means of laser granulometry of snow water samples. Snow sampling points were selected close to major enterprises, along the main streets and roads of the town and in the residential area. The near-ground layer of atmospheric air of the town contains particulate matter of three main size classes: under 10 microns, 10-50 microns and over 700 microns. It is shown that the atmosphere of this town is lightly polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10). Only in 5 sampling points out of 11 we found microparticles potentially hazardous to human health in significant quantities - from 16.2% to 34.6%. On the most territory of the town large particles (over 400 μm) dominate reaching 79.2%. We can conclude that judging by the particle size analysis of snow water samples Bolshoy Kamen town can be considered safe in terms of presence of particles under 10 μm (PM10) in the atmosphere.

  18. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; SaïD, F.; Ancellet, G.; Arteta, J.; Augustin, P.; Bastin, S.; Brut, A.; Caccia, J. L.; Campistron, B.; Cautenet, S.; Colette, A.; Coll, I.; Corsmeier, U.; Cros, B.; Dabas, A.; Delbarre, H.; Dufour, A.; Durand, P.; GuéNard, V.; Hasel, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C.; Lasry, F.; Lemonsu, A.; Lohou, F.; Masson, V.; Menut, L.; Moppert, C.; Peuch, V. H.; Puygrenier, V.; Reitebuch, O.; Vautard, R.

    2007-07-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources that cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes, especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when the sea breeze circulation redistributes pollutants farther north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of 5 years of research on the sea breeze in southern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE) program held in June and July 2001. This paper provides an overview of the experimental and numerical challenges identified before the ESCOMPTE field experiment and summarizes the key findings made in observation, simulation, and theory. We specifically address the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation to local ozone vertical distribution and the mesoscale processes driving horizontal advection of pollutants and vertical transport and mixing via entrainment at the top of the sea breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial importance of the interactions between processes of various spatial and temporal scales is thus highlighted. The advances in numerical modeling and forecasting of sea breeze events and ozone pollution episodes in southern France are also underlined. Finally, we conclude and point out some open research questions needing further investigation.

  19. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobinski, P.; Menut, L.; Ancellet, G.; Bastin, S.; Colette, A.; Said, F.; Brut, A.; Campistron, B.; Cros, B.; Durand, P.; Lohou, F.; Moppert, C.; Puygrenier, V.; Arteta, J.; Cautenet, S.; Augustin, P.; Delbarre, H.; Caccia, J.L.; Guenard, V.; Coll, I.; Lasry, F.; Corsmeier, U.; Hasel, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C.; Dabas, A.; Dufour, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Masson, V.; Peuch, V.H.; Reitebuch, O.; Vautard, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources that cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes, especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when the sea breeze circulation redistributes pollutants farther north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of 5 years of research on the sea breeze in southern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE) program held in June and July 2001. This paper provides an overview of the experimental and numerical challenges identified before the ESCOMPTE field experiment and summarizes the key findings made in observation, simulation, and theory. We specifically address the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation to local ozone vertical distribution and the mesoscale processes driving horizontal advection of pollutants and vertical transport and mixing via entrainment at the top of the sea breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial importance of the interactions between processes of various spatial and temporal scales is thus highlighted. The advances in numerical modeling and forecasting of sea breeze events and ozone pollution episodes in southern France are also underlined. Finally, we conclude and point out some open research questions needing further investigation. (authors)

  20. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobinski, P.; Menut, L. [Ecole Polytechnique, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Ancellet, G.; Bastin, S.; Colette, A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Service d' aeronomie, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, (France); Said, F.; Brut, A.; Campistron, B.; Cros, B.; Durand, P.; Lohou, F.; Moppert, C.; Puygrenier, V. [Univ Toulouse, Lab Aerol, F-31400 Toulouse, (France); Arteta, J.; Cautenet, S. [Univ Clermont Ferrand, Lab Meteorol Phys, F-63174 Aubiere, (France); Augustin, P.; Delbarre, H. [Univ Littoral Cote d' Opale, Lab Physicochim Atmosphere, F-59140 Dunkerque, (France); Caccia, J.L.; Guenard, V. [Univ Toulon and Var, Lab Sondages Electromagnet Environm Terr, F-83957 La Garde, (France); Coll, I.; Lasry, F. [Fac Sci and Technol, Lab Interuniv Syst Atmospher, F-94010 Creteil, (France); Corsmeier, U.; Hasel, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C. [Univ Karlsruhe, Inst Meteorol and Klimaforsch, Forschungszentrum, D-76133 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Dabas, A.; Dufour, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Masson, V.; Peuch, V.H. [Ctr Natl Rech Meteorol, F-31057 Toulouse, (France); Reitebuch, O. [Deutsch Zentrum Luft and Raumfahrt, Inst Atmospher Phys, D-82234 Wessling, (Germany); Vautard, R. [Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, CEA Saclay, Lab Sci Climat and Environm, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources that cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes, especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when the sea breeze circulation redistributes pollutants farther north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of 5 years of research on the sea breeze in southern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE) program held in June and July 2001. This paper provides an overview of the experimental and numerical challenges identified before the ESCOMPTE field experiment and summarizes the key findings made in observation, simulation, and theory. We specifically address the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation to local ozone vertical distribution and the mesoscale processes driving horizontal advection of pollutants and vertical transport and mixing via entrainment at the top of the sea breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial importance of the interactions between processes of various spatial and temporal scales is thus highlighted. The advances in numerical modeling and forecasting of sea breeze events and ozone pollution episodes in southern France are also underlined. Finally, we conclude and point out some open research questions needing further investigation. (authors)

  1. The use of tropical bromeliads (Tillandsia spp.) for monitoring atmospheric pollution in the town of Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighigna, Luigi; Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; Cornia, Andrea; Bocchini, Paola; Galletti, Guido

    2002-06-01

    The results of an experiment with two species of epiphytic angiosperms (Tillandsia caput-medusae and T. bulbosa) for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air of Florence, Italy, are presented. PAHs are compounds known to be dangerous because of their carcinogenic potential, and among cormophytes, tillands (monocotyledons equipped with peculiar, specialised, epidermal trichomes) are considered promising for air pollution biomonitoring. PAHs data were obtained using GC/MS analysis of plant extracts. Analytical data indicated an increasing trend in time of PAHs bioaccumulation. This result was compared with instrumentally recorded parameters such as meteorological (rain) and environmental ones (PM10), indicating that trichome-operated physical capture of aerial particles was prominent in PAHs bioaccumulation on tillands. SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations confirmed the role of the trichomes. This work indicates that tillands are particularly useful, low-cost biomonitoring organisms inside their area of distribution (all Latin American countries and southern USA) where these plants are easily available, but also wherever the climate allows them to survive.

  2. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  3. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO 2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived 137 Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  4. Environmental pollution and radiation situation in Russia in January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovanesyants, A.M.; Belova, N.A.; Savel'ev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The article presents a review of the environmental status of the territory of Russia in January 1995 caused by various occidents. An extremely high level of mercury ions pollution of the Northern Dvina is established. Ruptures of oil lines took place in the Republic of Komi. A high level of atmospheric pollution is recorded on the territory of Chechnya. Air pollution is still high in major cities. Somewhat higher levels of radioactive fallouts are recorded on seven points of the monitoring network in January as compared with the background values

  5. Development of a Ground-Based Atmospheric Monitoring Network for the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent, high-quality measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg are necessary in order to better understand Hg emissions, transport, and deposition on a global scale. Although the number of atmospheric Hg monitoring stations has increased in recent years, the available measurement database is limited and there are many regions of the world where measurements have not been extensively performed. Long-term atmospheric Hg monitoring and additional ground-based monitoring sites are needed in order to generate datasets that will offer new insight and information about the global scale trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and deposition. In the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a coordinated global observational network for atmospheric Hg is being established. The overall research strategy of GMOS is to develop a state-of-the-art observation system able to provide information on the concentration of Hg species in ambient air and precipitation on the global scale. This network is being developed by integrating previously established ground-based atmospheric Hg monitoring stations with newly established GMOS sites that are located both at high altitude and sea level locations, as well as in climatically diverse regions. Through the collection of consistent, high-quality atmospheric Hg measurement data, we seek to create a comprehensive assessment of atmospheric Hg concentrations and their dependence on meteorology, long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric emissions.

  6. Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

    2014-12-01

    Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

  7. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  8. Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval, Yuval; Rimon, Yaara; Graber, Ellen R; Furman, Alex

    2014-08-01

    A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanisation often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data is thus an important tool for supplementing monitoring observations. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range of values (up to a few orders of magnitude) in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. A local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. The inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the coastal aquifer along the Israeli

  9. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  10. Cd pollution and ecological risk assessment for mining activity zone in Karst Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; He, J. L.; Wen, X. M.; Tan, H.

    2017-08-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from farmland in the area with mining activity in Karst area in Liupanshui. In this article, moss bag technology and TSP were used simultaneously for Cd transportation and deposition in the study area. Geostatistics and GIS were then used for the spatial distribution of Cd in the soil. Afterwards, Cd pollution to the soil environment and human health was studied by using the geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index methods. The results indicated that atmospheric deposition is the major route of Cd pollution. A moderate to strong pollution of Cd in the area and the degree of potential ecological risk was in a high level in the study area. Furthermore, Cd pollution in Liupanshui may originate from mining activity and atmospheric deposition.

  11. Ecological monitoring for Berlin and its back country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, the city of Berlin started the implementation of the 'monitoring program natural budget'. The aim of this program is the assessment of biological and ecological effects of atmospheric pollution as well as the analysis and evaluation of the functioning of the natural balance in pine forest ecosystems in the city area of Berlin and in the close vicinity. The investigations should make temporal and regional statements possible. Techniques of active and passive monitoring are applied (effect cadastre) as well as extensive investigations in long-term observation areas (at present pine forest systems). The ecosystem itself is in the foreground as a sensitive indicator for an existing atmospheric pollution load. The results should enable forecasts of the development of the related organisms and the ecosystems under the effect of anthropogenic load factors. (orig.) [de

  12. Simulation of trace metals and PAH atmospheric pollution over Greater Paris: Concentrations and deposition on urban surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouron, L.; Seigneur, C.; Kim, Y.; Legorgeu, C.; Roustan, Y.; Bruge, B.

    2017-10-01

    Urban areas can be subject not only to poor air quality, but also to contamination of other environmental media by air pollutants. Here, we address the potential transfer of selected air pollutants (two metals and three PAH) to urban surfaces. To that end, we simulate meteorology and air pollution from Europe to a Paris suburban neighborhood, using a four-level one-way nesting approach. The meteorological and air quality simulations use urban canopy sub-models in order to better represent the effect of the urban morphology on the air flow, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants to urban surfaces. This modeling approach allows us to distinguish air pollutant deposition among various urban surfaces (roofs, roads, and walls). Meteorological model performance is satisfactory, showing improved results compared to earlier simulations, although precipitation amounts are underestimated. Concentration simulation results are also satisfactory for both metals, with a fractional bias Paris region. The model simulation results suggest that both wet and dry deposition processes need to be considered when estimating the transfer of air pollutants to other environmental media. Dry deposition fluxes to various urban surfaces are mostly uniform for PAH, which are entirely present in fine particles. However, there is significantly less wall deposition compared to deposition to roofs and roads for trace metals, due to their coarse fraction. Meteorology, particle size distribution, and urban morphology are all important factors affecting air pollutant deposition. Future work should focus on the collection of data suitable to evaluate the performance of atmospheric models for both wet and dry deposition with fine spatial resolution.

  13. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Niklas; Stenroth, Patrik; Berglund, Olof; Nystroem, Per; Olsson, Karin; Jellyman, Don; McIntosh, Angus R.; Larsson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use

  14. Air pollutants and atmospheric pressure increased risk of ED visit for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Hyung; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yun, Seong Jong; Ryu, Seokyong; Choi, Seung Woon; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Tae Kyung; Oh, Sung Chan; Cho, Suk Jin

    2018-04-14

    To investigate the impact of short-term exposure to air pollutants and meteorological variation on ED visits for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). We retrospectively identified PSP cases that presented at the ED of our tertiary center between January 2015 and September 2016. We classified the days into three types: no PSP day (0 case/day), sporadic days (1-2 cases/day), and cluster days (PSP, ≥3 cases/day). Association between the daily incidence of PSP with air pollutants and meteorological data were determined using Poisson generalized-linear-model to calculate incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and the use of time-series (lag-1 [the cumulative air pollution level on the previous day of PSP], lag-2 [two days ago], and lag-3 [three days ago]). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, O 3 (p = 0.010), NO 2 (p = 0.047), particulate matters (PM) 10 (p = 0.021), and PM 2.5 (p = 0.008) were significant factors of PSP occurrence. When the concentration of O 3 , NO 2 , PM 10 , and PM 2.5 were increased, PSP IRRs increased approximately 15, 16, 3, and 5-fold, respectively. With the time-series analyses, atmospheric pressure in lag-3 was significantly lower and in lag-2, was significantly higher in PSP days compared with no PSP days. Among air pollutant concentrations, O 3 in lag-1 (p = 0.017) and lag-2 (p = 0.038), NO 2 in lag-1 (p = 0.015) and lag-2 (p = 0.009), PM 10 in lag-1 (p = 0.012), and PM 2.5 in lag-1 (p = 0.021) and lag-2 (p = 0.032) were significantly different between no PSP and PSP days. Increased concentrations of air pollutants and abrupt change in atmospheric pressure were significantly associated with increased IRR of PSP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of the atmospheric aerosol and air pollution on solar albedo of the earth. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Mohamed, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of increasing atmospheric aerosol and air pollutant concentration on the solar albedo and consequently upon the heat budget near the earth's surface is studied. The magnitude of aerosol absorption coefficient to back-scattering coefficient B ab /B bs is calculated. This study will be used to estimate atmospheric stability categories and other meteorological parameters which are affected by thermal state radiation balance of the atmosphere as mixing and inversion height of Inshas nuclear reactor site. Consequently, concentration distribution of radioactive release from Inshas can be evaluated.. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Influence of the atmospheric aerosol and air pollution on solar albedo of the earth. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhoub, A B; Mohamed, K S [Mathematics and Theoretical Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Auhtority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The effect of increasing atmospheric aerosol and air pollutant concentration on the solar albedo and consequently upon the heat budget near the earth`s surface is studied. The magnitude of aerosol absorption coefficient to back-scattering coefficient B{sub ab}/B{sub bs} is calculated. This study will be used to estimate atmospheric stability categories and other meteorological parameters which are affected by thermal state radiation balance of the atmosphere as mixing and inversion height of Inshas nuclear reactor site. Consequently, concentration distribution of radioactive release from Inshas can be evaluated.. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Capability of Raman lidar for monitoring the variation of atmospheric CO2 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peitao; Hu Shunxing; Su Jia; Cao Kaifa; Hu Huanling; Zhang Yinchao; Wang Lian; Zhao Yuefeng

    2008-01-01

    Lidar (Light detection and ranging) has special capabilities for remote sensing of many different behaviours of the atmosphere. One of the techniques which show a great deal of promise for several applications is Raman scattering. The detecting capability, including maximum operation range and minimum detectable gas concentration is one of the most significant parameters for lidar remote sensing of pollutants. In this paper, based on the new method for evaluating the capabilities of a Raman lidar system, we present an evaluation of detecting capability of Raman lidar for monitoring atmospheric CO 2 in Hefei. Numerical simulations about the influence of atmospheric conditions on lidar detecting capability were carried out, and a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum difference of the operation ranges caused by the weather conditions alone can reach about 0.4 to 0.5km with a measuring precision within 30ppmv. The range of minimum detectable concentration caused by the weather conditions alone can reach about 20 to 35 ppmv in vertical direction for 20000 shots at a distance of 1 km on the assumption that other parameters are kept constant. The other corresponding parameters under different conditions are also given. The capability of Raman lidar operated in vertical direction was found to be superior to that operated in horizontal direction. During practical measurement with the Raman lidar whose hardware components were fixed, aerosol scattering extinction effect would be a significant factor that influenced the capability of Raman lidar. This work may be a valuable reference for lidar system designing, measurement accuracy improving and data processing

  18. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a twolayer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  19. Using remote sensing imagery to monitoring sea surface pollution cause by abandoned gold-copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H. M.; Ren, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-08-01

    The Chinkuashih Benshen mine was the largest gold-copper mine in Taiwan before the owner had abandoned the mine in 1987. However, even the mine had been closed, the mineral still interacts with rain and underground water and flowed into the sea. The polluted sea surface had appeared yellow, green and even white color, and the pollutants had carried by the coast current. In this study, we used the optical satellite images to monitoring the sea surface. Several image processing algorithms are employed especial the subpixel technique and linear mixture model to estimate the concentration of pollutants. The change detection approach is also applied to track them. We also conduct the chemical analysis of the polluted water to provide the ground truth validation. By the correlation analysis between the satellite observation and the ground truth chemical analysis, an effective approach to monitoring water pollution could be established.

  20. Prediction on long-term mean and mean square pollutant concentrations in an urban atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Lamb, R G; Seinfeld, J H

    1976-01-01

    The general problem of predicting long-term average (say yearly) pollutant concentrations in an urban atmosphere is formulated. The pollutant concentration can be viewed as a random process, the complete description of which requires knowledge of its probability density function, which is unknown. The mean concentration is the first moment of the concentration distribution, and at present there exist a number of models for predicting the long-term mean concentration of an inert pollutant. The second moment, or mean square concentration, indicates additional features of the distribution, such as the level of fluctuations about the mean. In the paper a model proposed by Lamb for the long-term mean concentration is reviewed, and a new model for prediction of the long-term mean square concentration of an inert air pollutant is derived. The properties and uses of the model are discussed, and the equations defining the model are presented in a form for direct application to an urban area.

  1. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual Summary for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2008-07-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (au)

  2. The Danish air quality monitoring programme. Annual summary for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, K.; Ellemann, T.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, Jesper; Ketzel, M.; Solvang Jensen, S.

    2010-06-15

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality Monitoring (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2007 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. Model calculations were also carried out to supplement the measurements. At several stations NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} were found in concentrations above EU limit values, which the Member States have to comply with in 2005 and 2010. The concentrations for most pollutants have been strongly decreasing since 1982, however, only a slight decrease has been observed for NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}. (author)

  3. Sensor Deployment for Air Pollution Monitoring Using Public Transportation System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, James J. Q.; Li, Victor O. K.; Lam, Albert Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution monitoring is a very popular research topic and many monitoring systems have been developed. In this paper, we formulate the Bus Sensor Deployment Problem (BSDP) to select the bus routes on which sensors are deployed, and we use Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) to solve BSDP. CRO is a recently proposed metaheuristic designed to solve a wide range of optimization problems. Using the real world data, namely Hong Kong Island bus route data, we perform a series of simulations an...

  4. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1999-01-01

    Lebanon has imported in 1996 5000 Kt of carburants causing about 80 Kt of SO x ; 40 Kt of NO x ; 3 Kt of dusts and 3.5 million tons of CO 2 . The atmospheric pollution in Lebanon is due to three main sources: - Thermal central of electric production - Industries (cement) - Transportation sector The document describes in tables: the inventory of pollutants and pollutant emissions in 1993 and 2010; industrial and heating gas oil; liquified petroleum gas commercial propane; fuel oil for EDL; consumption of energy in 1996; sectorial distribution of pollutants PPM; emissions of CO 2 per tons per habitant in 1993; consumption in 1993 broken down by use and application. Finally, three projects concerning public transportation were presented

  5. Leaves of Bauhinia blakeana as indicators of atmospheric pollution in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O. W.; Luk, S. F.

    Bauhinia blakeana was used as a biomonitor to monitor the air quality in Hong Kong. Equations were set up to relate the ambient iron, copper, zinc and lead concentrations with those in leaves of the biomonitor and good correlations were observed. The concentration of sulphate in the leaves of Bauhinia blakeana was found to be directly related to ambient sulphur dioxide and total suspended particulates. Using these equations the ambient pollutant levels in different districts of Hong Kong were determined quantitatively according to the concentrations of pollutants in leaves. As many residential buildings are close to congested roads, the ambient pollutant concentrations at selected roads were evaluated. Many temples are known to be heavily polluted with air particulates, and thus the air quality inside are suspected to be poor. The air quality inside temples may be reflected by the air quality outside these buildings, which were also assessed using the proposed method of biomonitoring. The levels of ambient lead and copper outside these temples were higher than their respective background levels while the levels of pollutants at the kerbsides were reported to be 10-300% higher than those of the background.

  6. An index for estimating the potential metal pollution contribution to atmospheric particulate matter from road dust in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Shao, Yaping; Yin, Chengqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Xuyong

    2016-04-15

    The resuspension of road dust from street surfaces could be a big contributor to atmospheric particulate pollution in the rapid urbanization context in the world. However, to date what its potential contribution to the spatial pattern is little known. Here we developed an innovative index model called the road dust index (RIatmospheric suspended particles. The factors were ranked and weighted based on road dust characteristics (the amounts, grain sizes, and mobilities of the road dust, and the concentrations and toxicities of metals in the road dust). We then applied the RIatmospheric suspended particles. The results demonstrated that the road dust in urban areas has higher potential risk of metal to atmospheric particles than that in rural areas. The RIatmospheric suspended particles and for controlling atmospheric particulate pollution caused by road dust emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flux rates of atmospheric lead pollution within soils of a small catchment in northern Sweden and their implications for future stream water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin; Emteryd, Ove; Renberg, Ingemar

    2006-08-01

    It is not well-known how the accumulated pool of atmospheric lead pollution in the boreal forest soil will affect the groundwater and surface water chemistry in the future as this lead migrates through the soil profile. This study uses stable lead isotopes (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios) to trace the transport of atmospheric lead pollution within the soil of a small catchment and predict future lead level changes in a stream draining the catchment. Low 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios for the lead in the soil water (1.16 +/- 0.02; 2.43 +/- 0.03) and streamwater (1.18 +/- 0.03; 2.42 +/- 0.03) in comparison to that of the mineral soil (>1.4; >2.5) suggest that atmospheric pollution contributes by about 90% (65-100%) to the lead pool found in these matrixes. Calculated transport rates of atmospheric lead along a soil transect indicate that the mean residence time of lead in organic and mineral soil layers is at a centennial to millennial time scale. A maximum release of the present pool of lead pollution in the soil to the stream is predicted to occur within 200-800 years. Even though the uncertainty of the prediction is large, it emphasizes the magnitude of the time lag between the accumulation of atmospheric lead pollution in soils and the subsequent response in streamwater quality.

  8. An integrated Bayesian model for estimating the long-term health effects of air pollution by fusing modelled and measured pollution data: A case study of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guowen; Lee, Duncan; Scott, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The long-term health effects of air pollution can be estimated using a spatio-temporal ecological study, where the disease data are counts of hospital admissions from populations in small areal units at yearly intervals. Spatially representative pollution concentrations for each areal unit are typically estimated by applying Kriging to data from a sparse monitoring network, or by computing averages over grid level concentrations from an atmospheric dispersion model. We propose a novel fusion model for estimating spatially aggregated pollution concentrations using both the modelled and monitored data, and relate these concentrations to respiratory disease in a new study in Scotland between 2007 and 2011. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A case study in atmospheric lead pollution of Northern-German coastal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitza, H.; Eppel, D.P. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1998-12-31

    Transport and deposition of atmospheric lead over the coastal zone of Northern Germany are investigated. It is shown that marked differences in the impact of the ecologically valuable wadden sea areas can occur between summer and winter time. Due to the formation of sea breeze systems in summer the coastal zone is likely to be less stressed than in winter when the pollutant is confined to a shallow layer above ground. (orig.) 10 refs.

  10. Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnett, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6-10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20-64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p health among participants living outside the catchment area for regulatory monitoring suggest that RS can provide useful estimates of long-term ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. This is

  11. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1979-04-01

    Environmental monitoring data are reported for accelerator produced radiation; radionuclide measurements and release data from atmospheric and water sampling; population dose equivalent resulting from LBL operations; and non-radioactive pollutants

  12. New Approach to Monitor Transboundary Particulate Pollution over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. E.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Woo, J. H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Eck, Thomas F.; Holben, Brent N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM) pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). The area studied is Northeast Asia (including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan), where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite) through the Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May, 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117-265% compared to background average AOD (aerosol optical depth) at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. This paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  13. Monitoring of priority pollutants in dynamic stormwater discharges from urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) from 2000 has put focus on the chemical status of surface waters by the specified Environmental Quality Standard (EQSs) and the requirements for monitoring of surface water quality throughout Europe. When considering the water quality of urban stormwater...... runoff it is evident that surface waters receiving large amount of urban stormwater runoff will be at risk of failing to meet the EQSs. Therefore stormwater treatment is crucial. However, as stormwater quality varies orders of magnitude between sites, stormwater monitoring is important in order to design...... discharges. Sorption of pollutants to particulate matter and dissolved organic carbon is important for both the toxicity of the pollutants and for removal in stormwater treatment systems. Furthermore sorption is important for sampling using the most common types of passive samplers, which are based on uptake...

  14. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yajie; Richards, Mark; Ghanem, Moustafa; Guo, Yike; Hassard, John

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a two-layer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:27879895

  15. Air Pollution Monitoring and Mining Based on Sensor Grid in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hassard

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a distributed infrastructure based on wireless sensors network and Grid computing technology for air pollution monitoring and mining, which aims to develop low-cost and ubiquitous sensor networks to collect real-time, large scale and comprehensive environmental data from road traffic emissions for air pollution monitoring in urban environment. The main informatics challenges in respect to constructing the high-throughput sensor Grid are discussed in this paper. We present a twolayer network framework, a P2P e-Science Grid architecture, and the distributed data mining algorithm as the solutions to address the challenges. We simulated the system in TinyOS to examine the operation of each sensor as well as the networking performance. We also present the distributed data mining result to examine the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  16. Atmosphere and water quality monitoring on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, William

    1990-01-01

    In Space Station Freedom air and water will be supplied in closed loop systems. The monitoring of air and water qualities will ensure the crew health for the long mission duration. The Atmosphere Composition Monitor consists of the following major instruments: (1) a single focusing mass spectrometer to monitor major air constituents and control the oxygen/nitrogen addition for the Space Station; (2) a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to detect trace contaminants; (3) a non-dispersive infrared spectrometer to determine carbon monoxide concentration; and (4) a laser particle counter for measuring particulates in the air. An overview of the design and development concepts for the air and water quality monitors is presented.

  17. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the air pollution concentration and temperature inversion in Sosnowiec. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widawski Artur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sosnowiec is located in the Katowice Region, which is the most urbanized and industrialized region in Poland. Urban areas of such character favor enhancement of pollution concentration in the atmosphere and the consequent emergence of smog. Local meteorological and circulation conditions significantly influence not only on the air pollution level but also change air temperature considerably in their centers and immediate vicinities. The synoptic situation also plays the major role in dispersal and concentration of air pollutants and changes in temperature profile. One of the most important are the near-ground (100 m inversions of temperature revealed their highest values on clear winter days and sometimes stay still for the whole day and night. Air temperature inversions in Sosnowiec occur mainly during anticyclone stagnation (Ca-anticyclone centre and Ka-anticyclonic ridge and in anticyclones with air advection from the south and southwest (Sa and SWa which cause significantly increase of air pollution values. The detailed evaluation of the influence of circulation types on the appearance of a particular concentration of pollutants carried out in this work has confirmed the predominant influence of individual circulation types on the development of air pollution levels at the Katowice region. This paper presents research case study results of the thermal structure of the near-ground atmospheric layer (100 m and air pollution parameters (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2 changes in selected days of 2005 year according to regional synoptic circulation types. The changes in urban environment must be taken into account in analyses of multiyear trends of air temperature and air conditions on the regional and global scales.

  18. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  19. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi'ou; Zhang Yuliang; Wang Ya; Wang Pei; Tian Hailin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20 th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  20. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution - Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition ((13)C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ(13)C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ(13)C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  1. Influence of climatic factors and pollution on the atmospheric corrosion of steels. Laboratory measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muylder, Jean van; Pourbaix, Marcel

    1977-01-01

    The influence of climatic and polluting factors on the atmospheric corrosion of four steels has been examined in the laboratory by an original accelerated electrochemical testing method. This research has led notably to the following conclusions: the corrosion behavior of the steels very much depends on the chloride- and SO 2 -contents of the rain water, as well as on the temperature of the metal during the drying periods. The best patinas have been obtained by submitting the steel successively to the corroding action of a solution of bisulphite and to the alternate actions of non-polluted rains and of drying, preferably at about 60 0 C. As a result of this, the formation of a protective patina may be accelerated by different methods. The relative merits of different steels under different conditions of atmospheric exposure may be predetermined by laboratory tests lasting several weeks. It is useful, when exposing steels in natural exposure sites, to measure as often as feasible the electrode potentials and the temperature of the steel specimens

  2. Pb isotopic composition of the atmosphere of the Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and isotopic characterization of some pollutant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aily, C.; Babinski, M.; Ruiz, I.R.; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Lead isotopes are known to be good tools for surveying lead origin in atmospheric samples (Chow et al., 1975). Lead has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb and 204 Pb. The first three isotopes are end products of radioactive decay chains from 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, respectively, and the last one is non-radiogenic. Therefore, their abundance and the ratios among the four isotopes gradually change with time. Lead in the atmosphere comes from various sources, such as leaded gasoline, industrial emissions and coal combustion. Thus, lead isotope ratios different from those of the mother rock in the region are often observed in the atmosphere (Tatsumoto and Patterson, 1963). Lead is emitted to the atmosphere in fine particles, which can be transported within air masses for very long distances, e. g. from mid latitude regions to the Artic and Antarctica (Sturges and Barrie, 1989). Lead isotopes have been used to trace the pollutant sources in many cities of the world. However, a systematic study using this methodology has not been done in any Brazilian city. The main purpose of the present work is to characterize the Pb isotope composition in the atmosphere in Sao Paulo city, and suggest the possible pollutant sources. For our study lead isotopes were measured in different samples: aerosols and rainwater which would yield the Pb isotope composition of the atmosphere. Samples of gasoline and ethanol, gutter sweepings, soot from vehicle exhaust pipes, and filters containing particulate material from industrial emissions were also analyzed, since they were considered potential pollutant sources of the atmosphere. In order to obtain the local geogenic Pb isotopic composition we also analyzed rock and K-feldspar samples. Lead concentrations were only determined on aerosols and rainwater samples (au)

  3. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  4. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  5. Air pollution control. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Baumann, K.; Droescher, F.; Gross, H.; Steisslinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Controlling the pollution of the air is an interdisciplinary problem. This introduction reaches from the origin of hazardous substances via their extension and conversion in the atmosphere, their effects of men, animals, plants and goods up to reduction methods for the various sources. Measuring techniques are one of the main points of interest, as it plays a key role in detecting hazardous substances and monitoring reduction measures. A survey of the history shows the historical dimension of the subject. The prescriptions relating to air pollution control give an impression of the present situation of air pollution control. Currently existing problems such as waste gases from motor vehicles, SO 2 transports, ozone in the ambient air, newly detected sorts of damage to the forests, emission reduction in the burning of fossile fuels, polychloried dibenzodioxins and furanes are dealt with. (orig.). 232 figs [de

  6. Measurements of atmospheric mercury with high time resolution: recent applications in environmental research and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinghaus, R; Kock, H H; Schmolke, S R

    2001-11-01

    In the past five years automated high time-resolution measurements of mercury species in ambient air have promoted remarkable progress in the understanding of the spatial distribution, short-term variability, and fate of this priority pollutant in the lower troposphere. Examples show the wide range of possible applications of these techniques in environmental research and monitoring. Presented applications of measurement methods for total gaseous mercury (TGM) include long-term monitoring of atmospheric mercury at a coastal station, simultaneous measurements during a south-to-north transect measurement campaign covering a distance of approximately 800 km, the operation on board of a research aircraft, and the quantification of mercury emissions from naturally enriched surface soils. First results obtained with a new method for the determination of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) are presented. Typical background concentrations of TGM are between 1.5 and 2 ng m(-3) in the lower troposphere. Concentrations of RGM have been determined at a rural site in Germany between 2 and 35 pg m(-3). Flux measurements over naturally enriched surface soils in the Western U.S.A. have revealed emission fluxes of up to 200 ng Hg m(-1) h(-1) under dry conditions.

  7. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  8. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  9. Towards a monitoring strategy to assess the anthropogenic signature of traffic derived pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.; Wawer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination along roadsides is one important factor of anthropogenic linear pollution source. In our present study we focus on typical traffic pollutants like heavy metals (HM), platinum group elements (PGEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, in particular to discriminate the distribution of contaminants by surface runoff, splash-water and airborne transport. For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and replaced it by 30 plastic boxes, and installed pillars at 1 m and 2 m distances to the roadside with samplers in different heights (ground, 0.5 m, 2 m) as well as 4 m long u-channels (surface and 2.5 cm above ground) perpendicular to the road. Clean quartz sand was used as collector material. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) and the concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time in the box samples, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to vertical migration. Similar significant differences of χ, PAH and HM concentrations and an importance of splash-water were noticed in pillars and u-channels within one year of monitoring. Magnetic results revealed that magnetite-like phases are responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. A good correlation between χ and semi-volatile and particle-bound PAH phases as well as HM suggests that χ can be used as a proxy for traffic derived PAH and HM pollution. SEM observations and EDX analyses identified a dominance of angular and aggregates-shaped particles with composition of Fe-Cr-Ni derived from traffic-specific activities (abrasion of tyres, exhausts and brake linings). The results from our monitoring studies will be utilized to develop new innovative roadside pollution monitoring concepts.

  10. Accumulation of specific pollutants in various media in the area affected by a petrochemical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, C.D.; Mihul, Al.

    2002-01-01

    The results on monitoring of oil pollution around the town of Ploiesti (South Romania), known for its petrochemical and chemical industry complexes and crude oil activity, are reported. The distribution of heavy metals, rare earth and other microelements along the wind rose profile (the oil complex ∼ 20 km distance) was examined through the analysis of soil samples. Mosses were chosen as biomonitors of local atmospheric pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements. The trace element content of vegetation growing near the territory of the plant was compared with that of the background one. The contamination of the river flowing in the vicinity of the plant was examined. Comparison of the spatial trends of different pollutants shows the influence of the same atmospheric transport phases on the uptake of trace elements by vegetation. A comparative evaluation of the results was carried out to find to what extent the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere or the amount deposited in the soil or transported by sediments contributes to pollution of the local ecosystem in the vicinity of a petrochemical center. (authors)

  11. Use of hydraulic and aerial mock up to study atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facy, L.; Perrin De Brichambaut, C.; Doury, A.; Le Quinio, R.

    1962-01-01

    Fundamental studies on turbulent atmospheric diffusion of finely divided particles, cannot remain on a purely theoretical basis. Further experimental studies must be considered. - In full scale, from accidental and induced releases. - On a reduced scale, in aerodynamic wind tunnels or hydraulic water tunnels. A first set of studies on reduced scale models has been worked out according to a contract between French 'Meteorologie Nationale' and French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' and with the Collaboration of Saint-Cyr 'Institut Aerotechnique'. Essentially two kinds of results have been obtained: - The mathematical model of SUTTON for the turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere, deduced from the SUTTON theory, generally used by us, has been correctly verified, qualitatively and quantitatively whenever experiments were consistent with the theory conditions. - The quantitative assays of photographic and cinematographic visualization have given precise details on the phenomena inaccessible to calculations, due to the influence of obstacles and release conditions. - Generally, it can be asserted, that the atmospheric pollution studies are worked out by mock up experimentations and that, in some cases these experiments never can be replaced by mathematically pure models. (authors) [fr

  12. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  13. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  14. Key indicators of air pollution and climate change impacts at forest supersites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paoletti, E.; Vries, de W.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Ibrom, A.; Larsen, K.S.; Tuovinen, J.P.; Serengil, Y.; Yurtseven, I.; Wieser, G.; Matyssek, R.

    2013-01-01

    Untangling the complex effects that different air pollution and climate change factors cause to forest ecosystems is challenging. Supersites, that is, comprehensive measurement sites where research and monitoring of the whole soil–plant–atmosphere system can be carried out, are suggested as a

  15. Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuval; Rimon, Y.; Graber, E. R.; Furman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanization often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate management decisions. Interpolation of monitoring data between points is thus an important tool for supplementing measured data. However, interpolating routine groundwater pollution data poses a special problem due to the nature of the observations. The data from a producing aquifer usually includes many zero pollution concentration values from the clean parts of the aquifer but may span a wide range (up to a few orders of magnitude) of values in the polluted areas. This manuscript presents a methodology that can cope with such datasets and use them to produce maps that present the pollution plumes but also delineates the clean areas that are fit for production. A method for assessing the quality of mapping in a way which is suitable to the data's dynamic range of values is also presented. Local variant of inverse distance weighting is employed to interpolate the data. Inclusion zones around the interpolation points ensure that only relevant observations contribute to each interpolated concentration. Using inclusion zones improves the accuracy of the mapping but results in interpolation grid points which are not assigned a value. That inherent trade-off between the interpolation accuracy and coverage is demonstrated using both circular and elliptical inclusion zones. A leave-one-out cross testing is used to assess and compare the performance of the interpolations. The methodology is demonstrated using groundwater pollution monitoring data from the Coastal aquifer along the Israeli

  16. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  17. Trentepohlia algae biofilms as bioindicator of atmospheric metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; Marcaida, Iker; Salcedo, Isabel; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a reddish biocolonization composed mainly by Trentepohlia algae affecting a synthetic building material from a modern building from the 90s located in the Bizkaia Science and Technology Park (Zamudio, North of Spain) was characterized and its ability to accumulate metals coming from the surrounding atmosphere was evaluated. To asses if these biofilms can act as bioindicators of the surrounding metal pollution, a fast non-invasive in situ methodology based on the use of hand-held energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (HH-ED-XRF) was used. In order to corroborate the in situ obtained conclusions, some fragments from the affected material were taken to analyze the metal distribution by means of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-ED-XRF) and to confirm the presence of metal particles deposited on it using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). In order to confirm if Trentepohlia algae biofilms growing on the surface of building materials could be a fast way to in situ provide information about the surrounding metal pollution, a second Trentepohlia algae biofilm growing on a different kind of material (sandstone) was analyzed from an older historical building, La Galea Fortress (Getxo, North of Spain). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Foraminiferal proxies for pollution monitoring in moderately polluted harbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armynot du Chatelet, E.; Debenay, J.-P.; Soulard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Foraminiferal density and species richness that decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration may be used as pollution indicators. - Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators, especially in polluted environments where their sensitivity to pollutants may be expressed by a modification of the assemblages. Eighteen sediment samples were collected in September 2000 in five harbors located in moderately polluted estuaries on the coast of Vendee (France) for the study of foraminiferal assemblages. Ten heavy metals and 13 PAH have been analyzed from the sediments. The marine to continental estuarine gradient has a prevalent influence on the foraminiferal distribution. However, the results show that foraminiferal density and species richness of the assemblages decrease with an increase in heavy metal and PAH concentration, and therefore may be used as pollution indicators. Moreover, the more polluted areas are dominated by the tolerant pioneer species Haynesina germanica that may be used as bio-indicator of pollution, mainly in the uppermost areas

  19. Behaviour of arsenic in forested catchments following a high-pollution period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Martin; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Cudlin, Pavel; Kubena, Ales

    2011-01-01

    Due to high availability of adsorption sites, forested catchments could be net sinks for pollutant arsenic both during the period of increasing and decreasing pollution. We tested this hypothesis along a north-south pollution gradient in spruce die-back affected areas of Central Europe. For two water years (2007-2008), we monitored As fluxes via spruce-canopy throughfall, open-area precipitation, and runoff in four headwater catchments (Czech Republic). Since 1980, atmospheric As inputs decreased 26 times in the north, and 13 times in the south. Arsenic export by runoff was similar to atmospheric inputs at three sites, resulting in a near-zero As mass balance. One site exhibited a net export of As (2.2 g ha -1 yr -1 ). In contrast, the preceding period (1995-2006) showed much higher As fluxes, and higher As export. Czech catchments do not serve as net sinks of atmospheric As. A considerable proportion of old industrial arsenic is flushed out of the soil. - Following a period of high atmospheric As deposition, a considerable proportion of old industrial arsenic is flushed out of soil and exported from forested catchments.

  20. Outdoor air Pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter focuses on the air pollutants which are generally found in the troposphere and does not provide detail on specific areas where atmospheric pollutants and atmospheric chemistry may differ from that generally found, such as in the arctic...

  1. Effects of ascorbate feeding on chlorophyll fluorescence and xanthophyll cycle components in the lichen Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vainio exposed to atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, A.; Deltoro, V.I.; Barreno, E. [Univ. de Valencia, Inst. `Cavanilles` de Biodiversitat y Biologia Evolutiva, Burjassot (Spain); Abadia, A. [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei, CSIC, Dept. of Plant Nutrition, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    The effects of environmental stresses on photosynthetic responses, ascorbate levels and pigment composition were investigated in samples of Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vainio from control and polluted regions of the northern Castellon area (Valencia, Spain). In response to sustained pollutant stress in the field, lichen thalli has closed PSII traps and exhibited lower rates of electron transport and non-radiative energy dissipation. The xanthophyll concentration was not affected by exposure to atmospheric pollutants. The ascorbate concentration was lower in samples exposed to ambient air pollutants compared to control thalli. Ascorbate feeding of thalli from polluted sites stimulated electron flow, photochemical quenching and non-raditive energy dissipation. Additionally, ascorbate feeding enhances the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll pool in polluted thalli. The partial recovery for non-radiative energy dissipation was presumabley due to the interaction between the increased thylakoid pH gradient and de-epoxidized xanthophylls. Furhtermore, ascorbate feeding descreased photon excess in thalli from polluted sites owing to the stimulation of linear electron flow and non-radiative energy dissipation. The present study suggests that atmospheric pollutants besides their intrinsic toxicity, put on an additional burden by hampering the operation of photoprotective mechanisms. (au)

  2. Trace element air pollution monitoring studies in Slovenia using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, S.B.; Jacimovic, R.; Jeran, Z.; Miklavcic, V.; Stegnar, P.; Stropnik, B.

    1994-01-01

    In the past, only a few investigations have been performed in Slovenia concerning trace elements, toxic elements, heavy metals and radionuclides in the atmosphere. During recent years, several projects were initiated, involving health-related studies connected to air pollution in highly exposed areas, mapping the status of air pollution in the whole country using biomonitors, as well as some specific research, i.e. involving studies of mercury speciation in the atmosphere around a mercury mine or concentration levels of radionuclides in biomonitors around a uranium mine. Since all these projects were or are of a preliminary nature, in this report, the emphasis is mainly on the methodology and analytical development (neutron activation analysis and X-ray spectrometry), and to a lesser extent on the results obtained up to now. Efforts are being put into co-ordination of all the presently running projects in order to complement the results and to make a unified database for their later evaluation and statistical interpretation. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. A chemometric approach to the evaluation of atmospheric and fluvial pollutant inputs in aquatic systems: The Guadalquivir River estuary as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Lopez, Jose A.; Garcia-Vargas, Manuel; Moreno, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To establish the quality of waters it is necessary to identify both point and non-point pollution sources. In this work, we propose the combination of clean analytical methodologies and chemometric tools to study discrete and diffuse pollution caused in a river by tributaries and precipitations, respectively. During a two-year period, water samples were taken in the Guadalquivir river (selected as a case study) and its main tributaries before and after precipitations. Samples were characterized by analysing nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen, total and volatile suspended solids, carbon species, and heavy metals. Results were used to estimate fluvial and atmospheric inputs and as tracers for anthropic activities. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate the background pollution, and to identify pollution inputs. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were used as data exploratory tools, while box-whiskers plots and Linear Discriminant Analysis were used to analyse and distinguish the different types of water samples. - Highlights: → Atmospheric and fluvial inputs of pollutants in Guadalquivir River were identified. → Point (tributary rivers) and non-point sources (rains) were studied. → Nature and extension of anthropogenic pollution in the river were established. - By combining trace environmental analysis and selected chemometric tools atmospheric and fluvial inputs of pollutants in rivers may be identified. The extension of the pollution originated by each anthropic activity developed along the River may be established, as well as the identification of the pollution introduced into the river by the tributary rivers (point sources) and by rains (non-point sources).

  4. Interpolation of extensive routine water pollution monitoring datasets: methodology and discussion of implications for aquifer management

    OpenAIRE

    Yuval; Y. Rimon; E. R. Graber; A. Furman

    2013-01-01

    A large fraction of the fresh water available for human use is stored in groundwater aquifers. Since human activities such as mining, agriculture, industry and urbanization often result in incursion of various pollutants to groundwater, routine monitoring of water quality is an indispensable component of judicious aquifer management. Unfortunately, groundwater pollution monitoring is expensive and usually cannot cover an aquifer with the spatial resolution necessary for making adequate...

  5. Effect of cadmium pollution of atmospheric origin on field-grown maize in two consecutive years with diverse weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Angéla; Illés, Bernadett; Soós, G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of atmospheric cadmium (Cd) pollution of atmospheric origin in maize compared to a control without Cd pollution. The plant parameters investigated were the timing of phenological phases, leaf area index (LAI) and yield, while radiation and water regime parameters were represented by albedo (reflection grade) and evapotranspiration, respectively. In treatments with and without irrigation, Cd caused a significant reduction in LAI, accompanied by lower evapotranspiration. The mean annual albedo in the Cd-polluted treatment only rose to a moderate extent in 2011 (in 2010 there was hardly any change), but changes within the year were more pronounced in certain phases of development. Cd led to greater reflection of radiation by plants during the vegetative phase, so the radiation absorption of the canopy was reduced leading to a lower level of evapotranspiration. In the dry, hot year of 2011 maize plants in the non-irrigated treatments showed a substantial reduction in grain dry matter, but maize yield losses could be reduced by irrigation in areas exposed to Cd pollution.

  6. Assessment of atmospheric pollution level using Asclepias procera leaves as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Ahmad, S. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Iqbal, J. [University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The potential of Asclepias procera plant leaves as biomonitor for air pollution monitoring has been explored by analyzing 36 elements in the leaf samples employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in summer and winter seasons from urban areas of Islamabad with different anthropogenic activities as well as from a rural area as a reference site. The soil samples of the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the methods used was established by analyzing the certified reference materials under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtai