WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric pollutants based

  1. Atmospheric pollution; Pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G. [EDF-Gas de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  2. Atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R B

    1992-06-01

    Air pollution has been directly responsible for increases in mortality and morbidity in the general population during periods known as episodes, when pollutant levels were elevated well above those that occur on a regular basis. The major concern today regarding pollution and health is, however, more subtle--namely, whether the lower levels of pollution to which we are exposed daily are harmful to health. It is extremely difficult to relate specific health problems to specific pollutants, because other environmental and lifestyle factors may contribute to decrements in health. Furthermore, people are generally exposed to mixtures of pollutants, making it difficult to extract the effects caused by individual components, or to determine which combinations are the most hazardous. Community air pollution results from various sources: mobile sources, such as vehicles; stationary sources, such as power plants and factories; and indoor sources, such as building material. Complicating the picture is the fact that many chemicals released into the air may react, producing additional secondary pollutants. This article provides an overview of the major air pollutants that may be of concern in terms of public health.

  3. Population-production-pollution nexus based air pollution management model for alleviating the atmospheric crisis in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Tong, Y F; Cui, L; Kong, X M; Sheng, Y N; Chen, L; Li, Y P

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection. A fuzzy-stochastic mixed quadratic programming method (FSQ) is developed and introduced into a PPP for tackling atmospheric pollution issues with uncertainties. Based on the contribution of an index of population-production-pollution, a hybrid PPP-based AMP model that considers employment structure, industrial layout pattern, production mode, pollutant purification efficiency and a pollution mitigation scheme have been applied in Beijing. Results of the adjustment of employment structure, pollution mitigation scheme, and green gross domestic product under various environmental regulation scenarios are obtained and analyzed. This study can facilitate the identification of optimized policies for alleviating population-production-emission conflict in the study region, as well as ameliorating the hazardous air pollution crisis at an urban level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  5. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  6. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  7. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  8. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    251, 1975. [2] L A Bame, Arctic air pollution: An overview of current knowledge,. Atmos Environ., 20, 643-663, 1986. [3] LA Bame and R S Schemenauer, Pollutant wet deposition mechanisms in precipitation and fog water, Water Air Soil Pollut., ...

  9. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  10. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  11. Atmospheric pollution and atopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, D. [Hopital Nord, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-04-01

    One possible explanation to account for the current increase in prevalence of respiratory allergic diseases lies in the facilitating influence of air pollutants. Pollen grains collected in polluted areas could enclose a higher allergenic content. In vitro exposure of pollen grains to current levels of air pollutants can induce a change in protein and allergenic content. Animal experiments demonstrate that pre-exposure to high levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and diesel-exhaust particulates enhances specific responses to inhaled or intra-peritoneally administered pollutants. In humans, few studies have been performed. They also suggest an increased response to allergenic challenge after pre-exposure to a moderate concentration of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and Ozone. Epidemiological surveys comparing prevalence of atopy in urban vs settings usually demonstrate a higher prevalence in the former. However no survey can attribute this difference to urban pollutants. It is rather due the overall difference in daily living conditions. Comparative studies performed in groups of school children living in former East and West Germany show a two-fold higher prevalence of atopy and atopic diseases such as hay fever and asthma in former West Germany. It is hypothesized that the western way of life, including a lower rate of recurrent early childhood infections and a higher allergenic exposure could explain those differences. (author). 44 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  13. RNA‐based molecular survey of biodiversity of limestone tombstone microbiota in response to atmospheric sulphur pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villa, F; Vasanthakumar, A; Mitchell, R; Cappitelli, F

    2015-01-01

    .... For the first time, transcripts involved in important energy‐yielding processes were investigated to reveal the metabolic capabilities of the microflora in response to atmospheric sulphur pollution...

  14. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  15. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmcommunication, the results of both organic and inorganic analyses of aerosol samples from these two sites will be presented, compared and discussed. Results of this work are expected to cover a lack of reliable information regarding sources of atmospheric pollutants in Portugal and present, for the first time, systematic data of PAHs levels in Lisbon. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under Project PAHLIS (PTDC

  16. [Current data on atmospheric pollutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festy, B; Petit-Coviaux, F; Le Moullec, Y

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutions (AP) are very important for human health and ecological equilibrium. They may be natural or anthropogenic and in this later case they can appear outdoor or indoor. Urban air pollution is the most known form of AP. Its main sources are industries, individual and collective heating and now mainly automobile traffic in most cities. Classical AP indicators are SO2, particles, NOx, CO and Pb measured in networks. Important factors of AP are amounts of pollutants emitted and local climatic and meteorological characteristics. Health effects of AP peaks and of AP background levels are not well known. But generally, mean AP levels of SO2 and particles decreased in the last years in most towns as the consequence of collective actions on the three main sources of AP and on fuels, emission and immission levels; but more is wanted about motor-cars. Progress are necessary for limitation of three major ecological risks: "acid-rain" (SO2 and NOx derivatives, ozone,...) which participates in lake and forest attacks; "green house" effects whose air CO2 concentration increase is the main responsible, and stratospheric ozone depletion mainly due to freons (CFC); the consequences of these two last phenomena are not well known but ecological and health risk exist. Besides, indoor air pollution (IAP) is very important because we live more than 20 h a day indoor. IAP may be occupational (a lot of chemical or biological agents) or not. In the later case air pollutants are very various: CO, NOx and particles from heating or cooking, formaldehyde from wood glue, plywood or urea-formol foams, radon and derivatives in some granitic countries, odd jobs products, cosmetics, aero-allergens of chemical or biological origins, microbes,... Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is also an important pollutant complex. Risks of IAP are real or potential: acute risk is obvious for CO, aero-allergens, formaldehyde, NOx,...); irritations are produced by ETS, formaldehyde, solvants

  17. A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model for pollutants emitted by complex source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gaussian dispersion models are widely used to simulate the concentrations and deposition fluxes of pollutants emitted by source areas. Very often, the calculation time limits the number of sources and receptors and the geometry of the sources must be simple and without holes. This paper presents CAREA, a new GIS-based Gaussian model for complex source areas. CAREA was coded in the Python language, and is largely based on a simplified formulation of the very popular and recognized AERMOD model. The model allows users to define in a GIS environment thousands of gridded or scattered receptors and thousands of complex sources with hundreds of vertices and holes. CAREA computes ground level, or near ground level, concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of pollutants. The input/output and the runs of the model can be completely managed in GIS environment (e.g. inside a GIS project). The paper presents the CAREA formulation and its applications to very complex test cases. The tests shows that the processing time are satisfactory and that the definition of sources and receptors and the output retrieval are quite easy in a GIS environment. CAREA and AERMOD are compared using simple and reproducible test cases. The comparison shows that CAREA satisfactorily reproduces AERMOD simulations and is considerably faster than AERMOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. RNA-based molecular survey of biodiversity of limestone tombstone microbiota in response to atmospheric sulphur pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, F; Vasanthakumar, A; Mitchell, R; Cappitelli, F

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor stoneworks sustain biofilm formation and are constantly at risk of deterioration by micro-organisms. In this study, the biofilm microflora of historic limestone tombstones located in a highly polluted urban environment (Cambridge, MA) and in a less polluted location (Lexington, MA) were compared using comprehensive RNA-based molecular analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as sequences of genes for different pathways of sulphur metabolism (soxB, apsA, dsrA). The metabolically active micro-organisms detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA fragments were predominantly represented by cyanobacteria (belonging to the family Nostocaceae and to the genus Chroococcidiopsis) in both polluted and unpolluted environments. The investigation of soxB, apsA, dsrA transcripts reflected the abundance and the diversity of sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria in the Cambridge samples in comparison with the Lexington samples. The investigation revealed that in addition to phototrophic sulphur bacteria belonging to the genera Thiocapsa, Halochromatium, Allochromatium, Thiococcus and Thermochromatium, other sulphate-oxidizing prokaryotes (e.g. the genus Thiobacillus) as well as sequences of Deltaproteobacteria from the genus Desulfovibrio occurred at the polluted urban site. The interactions between the main functional groups retrieved from the limestone tombstones were discussed. The biofilm microflora inhabiting historic limestones are a multi-component open ecosystem sensitively reacting to all environmental factors including air pollutants. Little is known about specific target groups that are active in the biofilm and their physiological functions. For the first time, transcripts involved in important energy-yielding processes were investigated to reveal the metabolic capabilities of the microflora in response to atmospheric sulphur pollution. This work provides novel and important information about the ecology of limestone

  19. Acid-base chemical reaction model for nucleation rates in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Modi; Titcombe, Mari; Jiang, Jingkun; Jen, Coty; Kuang, Chongai; Fischer, Marc L; Eisele, Fred L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Hanson, David R; Zhao, Jun; McMurry, Peter H

    2012-11-13

    Climate models show that particles formed by nucleation can affect cloud cover and, therefore, the earth's radiation budget. Measurements worldwide show that nucleation rates in the atmospheric boundary layer are positively correlated with concentrations of sulfuric acid vapor. However, current nucleation theories do not correctly predict either the observed nucleation rates or their functional dependence on sulfuric acid concentrations. This paper develops an alternative approach for modeling nucleation rates, based on a sequence of acid-base reactions. The model uses empirical estimates of sulfuric acid evaporation rates obtained from new measurements of neutral molecular clusters. The model predicts that nucleation rates equal the sulfuric acid vapor collision rate times a prefactor that is less than unity and that depends on the concentrations of basic gaseous compounds and preexisting particles. Predicted nucleation rates and their dependence on sulfuric acid vapor concentrations are in reasonable agreement with measurements from Mexico City and Atlanta.

  20. [Simulation of polluted atmospheres for animal experimentation: toxic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, J; Boudène, C

    1976-09-20

    A process for the generation of standardized polluted atmospheres usable for animal exposure is described. It is based on the diffusion of compressed gases across a silicone membrane. This device has been tested with four gases of particular importance in the field of atmospheric pollution (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and ammoniac).

  1. Atmospheric trace metal pollution in the Naples urban area based on results from moss and lichen bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, S. [Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e Funzionale, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia - 80126 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: giordano@unina.it; Adamo, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita, 100 - 80055 Portici, NA (Italy)]. E-mail: adamo@unina.it; Sorbo, S. [Centro Interdipartimentale di Servizio per la Microscopia Elettronica CISME, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria, 223 - 80139 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: sersorbo@unina.it; Vingiani, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Universita, 100 - 80055 Portici, NA (Italy)

    2005-08-15

    The results of trace element content analysed in Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in 1999 are reconsidered to evaluate the reliability of moss and lichen transplants to detect urban trace element atmospheric pollution, using Naples as a case example. After 4 months' exposure, trace element concentrations were at least twice as high as the pre-exposure values and in general higher in Sphagnum than in Pseudevernia. Moss samples were enriched in the following order: As = Cu > Mo > Pb > V > Co > Cr > Zn; lichen samples in the order: Mo > Cu > As = Co = Ni > V > Pb. Based on the calculation of a cumulative load factor, all sites located along the coast had higher trace element loads compared to sites in the hilly inland area. Complementary SEM, TEM and EDS observations showed, despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in moss and lichen, indicating the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due both to anthropogenic and natural sources such as volcanic rock and soil and sea salts. - Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, moss and lichen in bags efficiently intercept airborne trace elements.

  2. Historical reconstruction of atmospheric lead pollution in central Yunnan province, southwest China: an analysis based on lacustrine sedimentary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Li, Kai; Nath, Bibhash; Li, Yanling; Shen, Ji

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric lead (Pb) pollution during the last century in central Yunnan province, one of the largest non-ferrous metal production centers in China, was reconstructed using sediment cores collected from Fuxian and Qingshui Lakes. Lead concentrations and isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were measured in sediment cores from both lakes. The operationally defined chemical fractions of Pb in sediment core from Fuxian Lake were determined by the optimized BCR procedure. The chronology of the cores was reconstructed using (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating methods. Similar three-phase variations in isotopic ratios and enrichment factors of Pb were observed in the sediment cores from both lakes. Before the 1950s, the sediment data showed low (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios and enrichment factors (EFs=~1), indicating that the sedimentary Pb was predominantly of lithogenic origin. However, these indices were increased gradually between the 1950s and the mid-1980s, implying an atmospheric Pb deposition. The EFs and isotopic ratios of Pb reached their peak during recent years, indicating aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution. The average anthropogenic Pb fluxes since the mid-1980s were estimated to be 0.032 and 0.053 g m(-2) year(-1) recorded in Fuxian and Qingshui cores, respectively. The anthropogenic Pb was primarily concentrated in the reducible fraction. Combining the results of Pb isotopic compositions and chemical speciations in the sediment cores and in potential sources, we deduced that recent aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution in central Yunnan province should primarily be attributed to regional emissions from non-ferrous metal production industries.

  3. Lenticels as indicators of atmospheric smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, F.

    1960-01-01

    The invasion of smoke pollution gets from the atmosphere into the plants only by lenticels and stomata. The most toxic smoke constituents penetrating into the stele are SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/, H/sub 3/AsO/sub 4/, HCl and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/OH. Lenticels are bark stomata filled with merenchym tissue, which hinders the entrance of mechanical smoke particles into the interior tissues of the stele. In autumn, the lenticels are packed by cork slabs formed by the cork cambium. In spring, this cork slab is broken by a new mechanical tissue. Sambucus nigra L. has a merenchym sensitive to the presence of smoke pollution, and the lenticels may serve, therefore, as indicators of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The intensity of damage caused by smoke constituents penetrating into the plants through lenticels depends upon a series of exterior and interior factors. They are the number of lenticels per area unit of bark surface in the whole circumference, the pH of the biocomplex near the lenticel in the interior tissues of stele, and the concentration of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The most effective way of preventing smoke damage is to install pollution control equipment in the industrial works.

  4. Atmospheric Pollution: Its Origins and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetham, A. R.

    Although atmospheric pollution can be reduced or eliminated in many different ways, each way involves questions of economics, the time factor, availability of materials, priority over other urgent reforms, and individual and social psychology. To provide a basis for consideration of these questions, this book gives information not only about the…

  5. Atmospheric pollution reduction effect and regional predicament: An empirical analysis based on the Chinese provincial NOx emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Liu, Chao; Chen, Kunlun; Huang, Yalin; Diao, Beidi

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric pollution emissions have become a matter of public concern in recent years. However, most of the existing researches on NOx pollution are from the natural science and technology perspective, few studies have been conducted from an economic point, and regional differences have not been given adequate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2006 to 2013 and the LMDI model to analyze the key driving factors and regional dilemmas of NOx emissions. The results show that significant regional disparities still exit on NOx emissions and its reduction effect 27 provinces didn't accomplish their corresponding reduction targets. Economic development factor is the dominating driving factor of NOx emissions during the study period, while energy efficiency and technology improvement factors offset total NOx emissions in the majority of provinces. In addition, the industrial structure factor plays a more significant role in reducing the NOx emissions after 2011. Therefore, the government should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in developing appropriate pollution mitigating policies. It's necessary to change NOx emissions control attitude from original key areas control to divided-zone control, not only attaches great importance to the reduction of the original key areas, but also emphasizes the new potential hotspots with high NOx emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm-2. Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm-2) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  7. Photodynamic bioassay of polycyclic atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S.S.; Small, M.; Sawicki, E.; Falk, H.L.

    1965-04-01

    A photodynamic bioassay which can be conducted on one mgm amounts of organic atmospheric particulates is described, using Paramecium caudatum. The results of a pilot study on pollutants from several American cities indicate that the assay may provide a rapid, simple and economical biological index of a potential carcinogenic hazard attributable to polycyclic compounds. The utility of the assay for this purpose is under further evaluation. 15 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. Meeting Report: Atmospheric Pollution and Human Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Darrow, Lyndsey; Parker, Jennifer; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Strickland, Matthew; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Kannan, Srimathi; Hurley, Fintan; Kalinka, Jaroslaw; Šrám, Radim; Brauer, Michael; Wilhelm, Michelle; Heinrich, Joachim; Ritz, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of epidemiologic literature reporting associations between atmospheric pollutants and reproductive outcomes, particularly birth weight and gestational duration. Objectives The objectives of our international workshop were to discuss the current evidence, to identify the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiologic studies, and to suggest future directions for research. Discussion Participants identified promising exposure assessment tools, including exposure models with fine spatial and temporal resolution that take into account time–activity patterns. More knowledge on factors correlated with exposure to air pollution, such as other environmental pollutants with similar temporal variations, and assessment of nutritional factors possibly influencing birth outcomes would help evaluate importance of residual confounding. Participants proposed a list of points to report in future publications on this topic to facilitate research syntheses. Nested case–control studies analyzed using two-phase statistical techniques and development of cohorts with extensive information on pregnancy behaviors and biological samples are promising study designs. Issues related to the identification of critical exposure windows and potential biological mechanisms through which air pollutants may lead to intrauterine growth restriction and premature birth were reviewed. Conclusions To make progress, this research field needs input from toxicology, exposure assessment, and clinical research, especially to aid in the identification and exposure assessment of feto-toxic agents in ambient air, in the development of early markers of adverse reproductive outcomes, and of relevant biological pathways. In particular, additional research using animal models would help better delineate the biological mechanisms underpinning the associations reported in human studies. PMID:18560536

  9. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  10. Atmospheric pollution and its implications in the Eastern Transvaal highveld

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tyson, PD

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a review of available information on the dispersion climatology, the degree of atmospheric pollution and the various impacts of that pollution on man and environment in the Eastern Transvaal Highveld (ETH) and adjacent regions...

  11. Source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants based on the online data by using PMF and ME2 models at a megacity, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshuang; Yang, Jiamei; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Jiao; Dai, Qili; Li, Tingkun; Bi, Xiaohui; Feng, Yinchang; Xiao, Zhimei; Zhang, Yufen; Xu, Hong

    2017-03-01

    From 1st June to 31st August 2015, the online datasets (the water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), OC and EC in PM2.5, and SO2, NO2, NO) were measured continuously at Tianjin. Source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants was carried out by using PMF and ME2 models based on the online datasets. During summer in Tianjin, the ammonium sulfate/ammonium hydrogen sulfate might be major forms of sulfate in the atmospheric aerosol, while the ammonium nitrate might be major forms of nitrate. The poor correlation between OC and EC might be caused by the changes of emission sources and the production of secondary organic carbon (SOC). Five source-categories that contributed to atmospheric pollutants were extracted by PMF and ME2 models, respectively. The profiles calculated by PMF and ME2 models were consistent, and the source contributions estimated by the two models were also similar. The correlations (R2 = 0.84-0.94) were better on the time series of the contributed concentrations for the same source-category calculated from PMF and ME2 models. The source-categories were identified as secondary sources (the contribution of 25.4-26.1%), vehicle exhaust (23.3-25.4%), coal combustion (16.5-18.2%), crustal dust (13.2-14.0%) and biomass burning (9.1-10.2%). For the same source-category identified from PMF and ME2 models, the differences of profiles might be attributed to the differences of calculated methods from the two models and the uncertainties of the online datasets.

  12. Atmospheric pollution in cities of Russia: statistics, causes and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A.; Petrova, D.

    2017-06-01

    The article considers the issues of air pollution assessment in Russian industrial regions (2014) and cities (2012). The statistical data is presented both in terms of absolute emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Russian cities and relative air pollution calculated for 1 average statistical inhabitant. Classifications of the ecological state of Russian cities on the basis of specific (per inhabitant) air pollution and the air pollution by predominant type source (stationary or non-stationary) are proposed.

  13. The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2012-12-01

    Recent methods to map artificial night-sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere that allows fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. They are accurate for a clear atmosphere, when a two-scattering approximation is acceptable, which is the most common situation. We present here up-to-date extended Garstang models (EGM), which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) satellite measurements of artificial light emission and to GTOPO30 (Global 30 Arcsecond) digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the world at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atmosphere across the territory. EGM account for (i) multiple scattering, (ii) wavelengths from 250 nm to infrared, (iii) the Earth's curvature and its screening effects, (iv) site and source elevation, (v) many kinds of atmosphere with the possibility of custom set-up (e.g. including thermal inversion layers), (vi) a mix of different boundary-layer aerosols and tropospheric aerosols, with the possibility of custom set-up, (vii) up to five aerosol layers in the upper atmosphere, including fresh and aged volcanic dust and meteoric dust, (viii) variations of the scattering phase function with elevation, (ix) continuum and line gas absorption from many species, ozone included, (x) up to five cloud layers, (xi) wavelength-dependent bidirectional

  14. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  15. The atmospheric pollution in the area of the Goczałkowice Reservoir changes based on wet and dry deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław LEŚNIOK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Goczałkowice Reservoir was formed as a result of the accumulation of waters from the Vistula River caused by the construction of the earth dam of 2980 m in length between the town of Goczałkowice-Zdrój and Zabrzeg. It is located in Subcaprathia, near the Silesian Beskids mountain range (Outer Western Carpathians. Discussed reservoir was investigated in several environmental aspects. One of those researched elements was wet and dry pollution deposition in Integrated System Supporting Management and Protection of Water Reservoir (ZiZOZap.The research on wet and dry pollution deposition was carried out at two measurement points situated on the opposite sides of the Goczałkowice Reservoir. From the east side it was a station in Goczałkowice and from the west side a station in Frelichów (fig. 1.  The location of points allowed to assess influence of air masses from different directions and define sources of the pollutants.

  16. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  17. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aboel Fetouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.

  18. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  19. [Development and current status of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elichegaray, C; Bouallala, S; Maitre, A; Ba, M

    2009-02-01

    Air quality is a public health issue and this article includes a reminder of the related causes and issues and a description of the monitoring of ambient air quality in France. It also provides a review of major developments in recent years of the pollutants measured. Emissions of major air pollutants have declined significantly since the 1970s, and this is reflected in an overall improvement in the quality of ambient air. Nevertheless, various forms of air pollution remain a concern (in the case of photochemical pollution) and health data show that air pollution is still a cause of morbidity and mortality. The fight against air pollution must remain a priority and requires multi-pollutant and multi-effect approaches. The National Health and Environment Program adopted during the Grenelle environment stakeholder consultation processes includes targets for reducing human exposure to air pollution, especially particulate matter, as well as measures to improve indoor air quality. In a context dominated by the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases, problems of air quality should not be underestimated and policies relating to climate protection must be taken into account.

  20. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  1. Application of computational fluid mechanics to atmospheric pollution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Smith, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most noticeable effects of air pollution on the properties of the atmosphere is the reduction in visibility. This paper reports the results of investigations of the fluid dynamical and microphysical processes involved in the formation of advection fog on aerosols from combustion-related pollutants, as condensation nuclei. The effects of a polydisperse aerosol distribution, on the condensation/nucleation processes which cause the reduction in visibility are studied. This study demonstrates how computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer modeling can be applied to simulate the life cycle of the atmosphereic pollution problems.

  2. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants Emissions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... Pollutants Emissions from Mining Operations at Ghana Managanese Company Ltd.”, Ghana Mining Journal,. Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 65 - 72. Abstract ... processing whilst waste materials from the pit will be hauled directly to the Pit C ... Management of GMC is required to show that the. 400 m buffer zone from the ...

  3. STUDY OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION LEVELS BY TRACE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    the measured content of a substance in the environment (e.g., of a heavy metal) and the measured content within the organism which is to serve as the biomonitor. In this case, the specific element content of the plant reflects the concentration relations of the pollutant in the environment. The chemical plant composition thus ...

  4. Atmospheric pollution from the major mobile telecommunication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution from five major mobile telephone companies in Tanzania was investigated. These companies are Airtel, tIGO, Zantel, Sasatel and Vodacom. The parameters measured were the noise levels, NOx concentrations, and Particulate matter. The noise levels and exhaust gases were determined at 10 ...

  5. Data processing technique for multiangle lidar sounding of poorly stratified polluted atmospheres: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle E. Wold; Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander P. Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    Scanning elastic lidar, which can operate in different slant directions, is the most appropriate remote sensing tool for investigating the optical properties of smoke-polluted atmospheres. However, the commonly used methodologies of multiangle measurements are based on the assumption of horizontal stratification of the searched atmosphere1,2. When working in real...

  6. Sampling of Atmospheric Precipitation and Deposits for Analysis of Atmospheric Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Skarżyńska, K.; Polkowska, Ż; Namieśnik, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews techniques and equipment for collecting precipitation samples from the atmosphere (fog and cloud water) and from atmospheric deposits (dew, hoarfrost, and rime) that are suitable for the evaluation of atmospheric pollution. It discusses the storage and preparation of samples for analysis and also presents bibliographic information on the concentration ranges of inorganic and organic compounds in the precipitation and atmospheric deposit samples.

  7. Usefulness of the infrared heterodyne radiometer in remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    The application of narrow-band optical receivers to the problem of sensing atmospheric pollution is discussed. The emission/absorption lines of many major atmospheric pollutant molecules overlap the operating frequency bands of CO2 laser and CO laser heterodyne receivers. Several remote pollution sensing systems which are based upon utilization of these spectral overlaps are described, and an analysis of their potential is presented. The possibility of using other lasers (e.g.: the PbSnTe tunable diode laser) as local oscillators is also considered. Results of laboratory experiments with a CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer are presented.

  8. Laser spectroscopic analysis in atmospheric pollution research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Department and a CSIR National Laser Centre rental pool programme grant-holder, is involved in research into a novel method of monitoring atmospheric PAHs. The rental pool programme gives South African tertiary education institutions access to an array... says, "The fields of chromatography and mass spectrometry are to chemistry what the telescope is to astronomy or the microscope to biology. Besides its obvious benefits, analytical chemistry will also help researchers form a better understanding...

  9. Urban planning and interactions with atmospheric pollution in Arve valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois de Septenville, William; Cossart, Étienne

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a major concern of urbanised areas and territory managers have to conduct efficient policies to decrease population exposure and vulnerability. Even if pollution peaks are subject to an important mediatisation and to a large part of preventive actions, background pollution remains responsible of the largest sanitary effects. They depend on (1) the concentration and the duration of the exposure and (2) to the kind of pollutants considered. Many sources of pollutants can be identified in urban areas as heating, industry or traffic; and each of them generates specific particles. Currently, the major part of pollution risk studies focuses on modelling particle emissions and their dissemination in the environment. These kinds of studies highlight the hazard intensity and its spatiality, commonly named the hazard exposure. Another part of risk studies, less frequent, considers the vulnerability. Vulnerability is a complex concept that involves a wide range of scales and objects ranging from biophysical parameters to social characteristics. They notably concern accessibility to information, knowledge and perceptions about the risk. The Arve valley (south-east of France) is subject to heavy pollution concentrations. High levels recording in this area have imposed the implementation of an Atmosphere Protection Plan. This type of plan is triggered if a peak occurs and enforces provisional binding measures for polluters, such as highway speed limitation for traffic emissions. These measures are only focused on emissions and have no effect for reducing vulnerability and exposition, for a long- and short-term time scales. An opportunity to ensure this objective is to consider how local urban morphologies can combine exposition and vulnerability situations. Indeed, cities have been planned without taking into account atmospheric pollution and morphologies. This context may conduct to the increase in both of these two risk components and producing

  10. Role of atmospheric circulations in haze pollution in December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2017-09-01

    In the east of China, recent haze pollution has been severe and damaging. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric circulations and local meteorological conditions were conducive factors. The number of December haze days over North China and the Huanghuai area has increased sharply since 2010 and was greatest in 2016. During 2016, the most aggressive control measures for anthropogenic emissions were implemented from 16 to 21 December, but the most severe haze pollution still occurred, covering approximately 25 % of the land area of China and lasting for 6 days. The atmospheric circulations must play critical roles in the sub-seasonal haze events. Actually, the positive phase of the East Atlantic-West Russia pattern in the middle troposphere strengthened the anomalous anti-cyclone over the NH area that confined vertical motion below. The associated southerly anomalies made the cold air and surface wind speed weaker, but enhanced the humid flow. Thus, the horizontal and vertical dispersion of atmospheric particulates was suppressed and the pollutants gathered within a narrow space. In December 2016, these key indices were strongly beneficial for haze occurrence and combined to result in the severest haze pollution. The influences of the preceding autumn sea surface temperature near the Gulf of Alaska and the subtropical eastern Pacific, October-November snow cover in western Siberia, and associated physical processes on haze pollution are also discussed.

  11. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to

  12. A Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution, Amended Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, San Juan.

    Nine articles, related to the preservation of the natural quality of the air, and to prevention, elimination and control of atmospheric pollution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are contained in this document. These articles were written and enacted by the Environmental Quality Board in accordance with Law No. 9, approved June 18, 1970 -…

  13. [Consequences of atmospheric pollution fluctuations in patients with COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, N; Tillon, J; Viacroze, C; Aouine, H; Muir, J-F

    2010-10-01

    Fluctuations in atmospheric pollution are responsible for an important morbidity and mortality in the patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiological studies show a significant increase in the mortality and hospitalization rates in COPD patients in relation to moderate increases in atmospheric pollution. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role and an oxidative toxicity of atmospheric particles and secondary morphological and functional changes in the respiratory epithelium and the immune system. An excess of particulate matter, ozone, NO(2), SO(2) and CO is directly correlated to the number of episodes of acute respiratory failure in different countries all over the world. The mechanisms implicated are complex and variable, dependent on the different pollutant agents, climatic variations and inter-individual susceptibility. Further experimental studies are necessary in order to clarify our fundamental understanding and, alongside better control of air quality, to reduce short-term respiratory complications. The consequences of atmospheric pollution fluctuations on the exacerbation rate and therefore on the morbidity and mortality of patients with COPD emphasize the importance of preventive environmental management in the field of public health. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for pollution plume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a comparative investigation of atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for gaseous pollution plume released from an isolated industrial facility into the ambient air of the host community in Ile-Ife suburb, southwest Nigeria. For the months of September to December in the year 2012 and 2013, ...

  15. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling; Pollution atmospherique. Des processus a la modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sportisse, B. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees (ENPC), Centre d' Enseignement et de Recherche en Environnement Atmospherique, Lab. Commun ENPC, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  17. Atmospheric Pollutions Emissions, environmental challenges of Isfahan City

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ezzatian; S. Hasheminasab

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe recent fatal events with regard to the rise in the atmospheric pollutants levels have suggested that the reason of their occurrence be more identified. The long-term and short-term effects on the environment caused by pollutants that reached unacceptable level are apparent; existence of pollutatnts has led to short-term effects such as appearance and aggravation of cancer and respiratory‚ optic and lung diseases. The sequence of long-term effects is seen on ...

  18. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  19. Filtering effect of wind flow turbulence on atmospheric pollutant dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a model for coupling the statistics of wind velocity distribution and atmospheric pollutant dispersion. The effect of wind velocity distribution is modeled as a three-dimensional finite-impulse response (3D-FIR) filter. A phase space representation of the 3D-FIR filter window is discussed. The resulting pollutant dispersion is the multiplication in the phase space of the 3-D Fourier transform of the pollutant concentration and the volume described by the filter window coefficients. The shape of the filter window in the phase space enables representing such effects as vortex shedding thermal currents, etc. The impact of spatial distribution of the sensors on the resulting pollutant spatial distribution and the 3-D FIR filter model employed also discuss. The case of a neutrally buoyant plume emitted from an elevated point source in a turbulent boundary layer considers. The results show that wind turbulence is an important factor in the pollutant dispersion and introduces expected random fluctuations in pollutant distribution and leads to spreading the distribution due to wind mixing.

  20. [Atmospheric air pollution: a risk factor for COPD?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Y-M; Roche, N; Huchon, G

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of COPD worldwide but other risk factors have been recognized. Air pollution is one of them, but its exact role in the development of COPD is hard to demonstrate. Its physiological effects on lung function have only been studied since the nineties by long and tedious cohort studies. Difficulties arise from the heterogeneity of air pollution (gas and particles); thus, its respiratory effects have to be examined for every component separately, and in different populations. It is also necessary to analyse the effects of atmospheric pollution in the short and the long term, considering both its physiological, clinical and toxicological effects, from childhood to adulthood. These factors make it difficult to obtain statistically significant results. Nevertheless, most studies seem to point to a role of air pollution in the development of COPD via oxydative stress but further studies are needed to confirm the exact effect of each component of air pollution on the respiratory tract. These studies could lead to improved public health policies and results are awaited that would identify at-risk populations, decide appropriate preventive measures and propose documented thresholds in pollution exposure... thereby limiting the spread of COPD. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Microscale atmospheric pollution of Pogranichny settlement (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Agoshkov, Alexander; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter in the small urban settlement Pogranichny by means of laser granulometry of snow water. The atmosphere of this settlement is polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10) to a certain extent. We found microparticles potentially hazardous to health in significant quantities (from 176.3% to 24.9%) in 4 sampling points out of 9. Large particles (sized over 400 μm) dominate on the most territory of the settlement reaching 78.1%.

  2. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  3. Characterization of atmospheric pollution by means of stochastic indicator parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, George; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    Deriving indicator parameters for determining regions at risk and reducing uncertainties is an important part of atmospheric pollution characterization. In this paper we introduce regional indicator parameters that characterize contamination levels by means of stochastic analysis. The expressions obtained are general, and can be used for different types and distributions of pollutant concentrations. We calculate indicator parameters that represent excess contamination above a threshold level specified by the environmental standards, and we study certain scaling properties of the level-crossing contours. Regional indicator parameters are expressed in terms of the pollutant probability distribution, and are calculated explicitly for specific cases. Certain properties of the indicator parameters related to scale effects are also discussed. An application involving a sulfate deposition data set is discussed, which provides valuable insight regarding stochastic indicator parameters and their importance in environmental policy and decision making.

  4. Intense winter atmospheric pollution episodes affecting the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemí; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cusack, Michael; Reche, Cristina

    2010-03-15

    The geographic location of the Western Mediterranean Basin and its peculiar topography, the climatic conditions and the intense anthropogenic and natural emissions of atmospheric pollutants are key factors necessary to interpret the atmospheric aerosol phenomenology over this area. During the cold season it is common to have severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes (of an anthropogenic origin) affecting this region, not only in the urban and industrial areas but also in the regional and rural sites. During these episodes, the midday hourly PM(1) levels at regional background sites are in many cases higher than those at urban areas. Around 10% of the days under winter anticyclonic conditions registered similar PM(1) levels at the regional background than at the urban area and, sporadically the daily PM(1) levels at the regional background sites may exceed those at urban sites. Furthermore, the very high hourly PM(1) levels measured at regional background sites during these episodes are not regularly attained in the closest urban areas, which leads to the hypothesis that an important formation of secondary aerosols occurs during the transport of the polluted air masses towards the elevated rural sites. The interpretation of the variability of PM levels and composition (2002-2008) at one urban site (Barcelona) and at one regional background site (Montseny) allows us to illustrate the phenomenology of these scenarios, to quantify the mean annual contributions to the PM levels and to identify their main tracers. Ammonium nitrate appears to be the most abundant compound during these scenarios, although organic species and trace metals also increase markedly. Owing to the intensity, composition and recurrence of these atmospheric pollution episodes, important health, climatic and ecological implications may be derived.

  5. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ``multimedia`` model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations.

  6. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on fecundability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bottagisi, Sébastien; Solansky, Ivo; Lepeule, Johanna; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Sram, Radim

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between air pollution levels and semen characteristics, which might in turn affect a couple's ability to achieve a live birth. Our aim was to characterize short-term effects of atmospheric pollutants on fecundability (the month-specific probability of pregnancy among noncontracepting couples). For a cohort of births between 1994 and 1999 in Teplice (Czech Republic), we averaged fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide levels estimated from a central measurement site over the 60-day period before the end of the first month of unprotected intercourse. We estimated changes in the probability of occurrence of a pregnancy during the first month of unprotected intercourse associated with exposure, using binomial regression and adjusting for maternal behaviors and time trends. Among the 1,916 recruited couples, 486 (25%) conceived during the first month of unprotected intercourse. Each increase of 10 µg/m in PM2.5 levels was associated with an adjusted decrease in fecundability of 22% (95% confidence interval = 6%-35%). NO2 levels were also associated with decreased fecundability. There was no evidence of adverse effects with the other pollutants considered. Biases related to pregnancy planning or temporal trends in air pollution were unlikely to explain the observed associations. In this polluted area, we highlighted short-term decreases in a couple's ability to conceive in association with PM2.5 and NO2 levels assessed in a central monitoring station.

  7. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-09-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowicz, Robert; Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Fetter, Wojciech

    2017-11-04

    Seasonal variation of air pollution is associated with variety of seasons and specificity of particular months which form the so-called summer and winter season also known as the "heating" season. The occurrence of higher values of air pollution in different months of a year is associated with the type of climate, and accordingly with different atmospheric conditions in particular months, changing state of weather on a given day, and anthropogenic activity. The appearance of these conditions results in different levels of air pollution characteristic for a given period. The study uses data collected during a seven-year period (2009-2015) in the automatic measuring station of immissions located in Eastern Wielkopolska. The analysis concerns the average and maximum values of air pollution (i.e., particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) from the perspective of their occurrence in particular seasons and months or in relation to meteorological actors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

  9. Microbial release of sulphur ions from atmospheric pollution deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killhan, K.; Wainwright, M.

    1981-12-01

    The surfaces of leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus growing in areas exposed to heavy atmospheric pollution are covered with atmospheric pollution deposits (APD). Using scanning electron microscopy, micro-organisms were seen to be growing in intimate association with these deposits. The deposits contained sufficient carbon and nitrogen to support growth of the fungus Fusarium solani in culture and in autoclaved and non-sterilized soils; and sufficient reduced sulphur for the in vitro growth of Thiobacillus thioparus. When T. thioparus and F. solani were grown in medium supplemented with APD as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, increases in the concentrations of soluble S/sub 2/O/sup 2 -//sub 3/; S/sub 4/O/sup 2 -//sub 6/ and SO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ resulted. Similar increases also occurred when APD was added to complete fungal growth medium. Increases in LiCl/sub 2/-extractable sulphur-ions also occurred in fresh soil amended with APD, and in autoclaved soils containing APD, and inoculated with spores of F. solani. Arylsulphatase activity increased in fresh soils and in soils autoclaved and inoculated with F. solani when APD was added; suggesting sulphur mineralization, as well as sulphur oxidation, in the release of sulphur ions from APD. We concluded that APD can support microbial growth in vitro and in soils when provided as sole carbon and sulphur source; and that micro-organisms can release sulphur ions from this complex substrate. Microbial release of sulphur ions from APD can account in part for the increased concentrations of sulphur ions in heavy atmospheric-polluted soils.

  10. Microbial release of sulphur ions from atmospheric pollution deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killham, K.; Wainwright, M.

    1981-12-01

    The surface of leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus growing in areas exposed to heavy atmospheric pollution are covered with atmospheric pollution deposits (APD). Using scanning electric microscopy, micro-organisms were seen to be growing in intimate association with these deposits. The deposits contained sufficient carbon and nitrogen to support growth of the fungus Fusarium solani in culture and in autoclaved and non-sterilized soils; and sufficient reduced sulphur for in vitro growth of Thiobacillus thioparus. When T. thioparus and F. solani were grown in medium supplemented with APD as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, increases in the concentrations of soluble S/sub 2/O/sub 3//sup 2/ btw/sup -/ and; S/sub 4/O/sub 6//sup 2 -/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ resulted. Similar increases also occurred when APD was added to complete fungal growth medium. Increases in LiCl/sub 2/-extractable sulphur-ions also occurred is fresh soil amended with APD, and in autoclaved soils containing APD, and inoculated with spores of F. solani. Arylsulphatase activity increased in fresh soils and in soils autoclaved and inoculated with F. solani when APD was added; suggesting sulphur mineralization, as well as sulphur oxidation, in the release of sulphur ions from APD. We conclude that APD can support microbial growth in vitro and in soils when provided as sole carbon and sulphur source; and that micro-organisms can release sulphur ions from this complex substrate. Microbial release of sulphur ions from APD can account in part for the increased concentrations of sulphur ions in heavy atmospheric-polluted soils.

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Pollutants from Combustion Formation and Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This volume is based on the lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute: (ASI) «Pollutants Formation from Combustion. Formation Mechanisms and Impact on th th Atmospheric Chemistry» held in Maratea, Italy, from 13 to 26 september 1998. Preservation of the environment is of increasing concern in individual countries but also at continental or world scales. The structure of a NATO ASI which involve lecturers and participants of different nationalities was thought as especially well suited to address environmental issues. As combustion is known to substantially contribute to the damaging of the atmosphere, it was natural to concentrate the ASI program on reviewing the currently available knowledge of the formation mechanisms of the main pollutants liberated by combustion systems. In most situations, pollutants are present as trace components and their formation and removal is strongly conditioned by the chemical reactions initiated by fuel consumption. Therefore specific lectures were aimed at defi...

  12. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  14. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to it s sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  15. Pollutants from air traffic. Results of atmospheric research 1992 - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U.; Kaercher, B.; Schlager, H.; Wendling, P. [eds.] [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Chlond, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Ebel, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie; Pak, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Bereich Managementdienste; Schmitt, A. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Hauptabteilung Verkehrsforschung

    1997-12-01

    `Pollutants from Air Traffic: Effects and Prevention` is a German research program sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) over the years 1992-1997. The program is composed of an atmospheric science part and an engine technology part. It aims at assessing the long-term effects of pollutants from air traffic on the atmosphere, developing measures for reducing jet engine emissions, and providing regulatory measures. The report contains results from the atmospheric science part. Atmospheric science work is directed at diagnosing emissions and assessing their possible effects through the gaseous (nitrogen oxides, water vapour, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide etc.) and particulate components (soot, sulfuric acid aerosols). Remote and in-situ measurements as well as model studies were carried out to analyse the physical and chemical processes which control regional and global changes of atmospheric ozone, cirrus cloud distribution - including contrails - and thus climate possibly induced by air traffic emissions. The research work was performed by partners from universities and research establishments in Germany under coordination by DLR. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs. [Deutsch] Das Verbundprogramm `Schadstoffe in der Luftfahrt: Wirkung und Praevention` wurde im Zeitraum von 1992-1997 vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) gefoerdert. Das Programm besteht aus den Bereichen Atmosphaerenforschung und Triebwerkstechnologie. Ziel des Programms ist es, die langfristigen Auswirkungen von Emmissionen des Luftverkehrs zu untersuchen, Massnahmen zur Reduktion des Schadstoffausstosses aus Flugzeugtriebwerken zu erarbeiten und Daten und Verfahren fuer regulatorische Massnahmen bereitzustellen. Der Bericht stellt die Ergebnisse aus dem Bereich der Atmosphaerenforschung zusammen. Schwerpunkte der Forschungsarbeiten sind die Analyse der Schadstoffemissionen in Form von Gasen

  16. Human health risk assessment of lead pollution in atmospheric deposition in Baoshan District, Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jun; Shi, Guitao; Sun, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The lead (Pb) content in atmospheric deposition was determined at 42 sampling sites in Baoshan District of Shanghai, China. Based on exposure and dose-response assessments, the health risk caused by Pb exposure in atmospheric deposition was investigated. The results indicated that Pb was significantly accumulated in atmospheric deposition. The spatial distribution of Pb was mapped by geostatistical analysis, and the results showed that pollution hotspots were present at traffic and industrial zones. Ingestion was the main route of Pb exposure in both adults and children. For children the risk value was above 1, whereas it was below 1 for the adult group. Therefore, children belong to the high-risk group for Pb exposure from atmospheric deposition in the observed area of Shanghai, China.

  17. Atmospheric pollution over the eastern Mediterranean during summer - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Uri; Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Régina; Dulac, François

    2017-11-01

    The eastern Mediterranean (EM) is one of the regions in the world where elevated concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous air pollutants have been reported frequently, mainly in summer. This review discusses published studies of the atmospheric dispersion and transport conditions characterizing this region during the summer, followed by a description of some essential studies dealing with the corresponding concentrations of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen, methane, and sulfate aerosols observed there. The interlaced relationship between the downward motion of the subsiding air aloft induced by global circulation systems affecting the EM and the depth of the Persian Trough, a low-pressure trough that extends from the Asian monsoon at the surface controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the mixed boundary layer during summer, is discussed. The strength of the wind flow within the mixed layer and its depth affect much the amount of pollutants transported and determine the potential of the atmosphere to disperse contaminants off their origins in the EM. The reduced mixed layer and the accompanying weak westerlies, characterizing the summer in this region, led to reduced ventilation rates, preventing an effective dilution of the contaminants. Several studies pointing at specific local (e.g., ventilation rates) and regional peculiarities (long-range transport) enhancing the build-up of air pollutant concentrations are presented. Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations observed in the summer over the EM are among the highest over the Northern Hemisphere. The three essential processes controlling its formation (i.e., long-range transport of polluted air masses, dynamic subsidence at mid-tropospheric levels, and stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange) are reviewed. Airborne campaigns and satellite-borne initiatives have indicated that the concentration values of reactive nitrogen identified as precursors in the formation of O

  18. Severe Pollution in China Amplified by Atmospheric Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Chang, Di; Pöschl, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Dusek, Uli; Li, Guohui; Worsnop, Douglas R; O'Dowd, Colin D

    2017-11-17

    In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL). A positive feedback cycle is triggered resulting in the formation of heavy haze: (1) the dispersal of water vapour is constrained by the shallow PBL, leading to an increase in relative humidity (RH); (2) the high RH induces an increase of aerosol particle size by enhanced hygroscopic growth and multiphase reactions to increase particle size and mass, which results in (3) further dimming and decrease of PBL height, and thus further depressing of aerosol and water vapour in a very shallow PBL. This positive feedback constitutes a self-amplification mechanism in which water vapour leads to a trapping and massive increase of particulate matter in the near-surface air to which people are exposed with severe health hazards.

  19. Laser-excited fluorescence for measuring atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    System measures amount of given pollutant at specific location. Infrared laser aimed at location has wavelength that will cause molecules of pollutant to fluoresce. Detector separates fluorescence from other radiation and measures its intensity to indicate concentration of pollutant.

  20. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L; Colegrove, Dominique P; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W; Sonke, Jeroen E; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-12

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through 'atmospheric mercury depletion events', or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(ii)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(ii) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)-the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere-occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  1. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanova, Magdalena; Penkova-Radicheva, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    One of Europe's most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant "Maritza East" (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. A five year study (2009-2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care) in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format. Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009-2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%), the respiratory system (17.34%) and the genitourinary system (9.76%). The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%), the cardiovascular system (11.85%), respiratory system (10.86%) and the genitourinary system (8.88%). The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria) and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization). Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies.

  2. Biomagnetic Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution: A Review of Magnetic Signatures from Biological Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Maher, Barbara A; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Wuyts, Karen; Castanheiro, Ana; Samson, Roeland

    2017-06-20

    Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ("sensors") used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes. Our work addresses the following: the range of magnetic properties reported for lichens, mosses, leaves, bark, trunk wood, insects, crustaceans, mammal and human tissues; their associations with atmospheric pollutant species (PM, NOx, trace elements, PAHs); the pros and cons of biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution; current challenges for large-scale implementation of biomagnetic monitoring; and future perspectives. A summary table is presented, with the aim of aiding researchers and policy makers in selecting the most suitable biological sensor for their intended biomagnetic monitoring purpose.

  3. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L.; Colegrove, Dominique P.; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through ‘atmospheric mercury depletion events’, or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(II)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(II) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)—the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere—occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  4. The impact of aviation on the atmosphere - an overview on atmospheric research within the programme ``Pollutants from Air Traffic``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-01

    `Pollutants from Air Traffic: Effects and Prevention` (`Schadstoffe in der Luftfahrt: Wirkung und Vorsorge`) is a German research programme which was performed over the years 1992-1997. The programme is composed of an atmospheric science part and an engine technology part. It deals with the long-term effects of pollutants from air traffic on the atmosphere. This paper gives an overview on the programme and summarises the knowledge on the impact of aircraft emissions on the state of the atmosphere. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  5. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Interception of wet deposited atmospheric pollutants by herbaceous vegetation: Data review and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, M.-A., E-mail: marc-andre.gonze@irsn.fr; Sy, M.M.

    2016-09-15

    Better understanding and predicting interception of wet deposited pollutants by vegetation remains a key issue in risk assessment studies of atmospheric pollution. We develop different alternative models, following either empirical or semi-mechanistic descriptions, on the basis of an exhaustive dataset consisting of 440 observations obtained in controlled experiments, from 1970 to 2014, for a wide variety of herbaceous plants, radioactive substances and rainfall conditions. The predictive performances of the models and the uncertainty/variability of the parameters are evaluated under Hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework. It is demonstrated that the variability of the interception fraction is satisfactorily explained and quite accurately modelled by a process-based alternative in which absorption of ionic substances onto the foliage surfaces is determined by their electrical valence. Under this assumption, the 95% credible interval of the predicted interception fraction encompasses 81% of the observations, including situations where either plant biomass or rainfall intensity are unknown. This novel approach is a serious candidate to challenge existing empirical relationships in radiological or chemical risk assessment tools. - Highlights: • Literature data on the interception of atmospheric pollutants by herbs were reviewed • Predictive models were developed and evaluated in the Bayesian modelling framework • Sensitivity of interception to environmental conditions was satisfactorily explained • 81% of the observations were satisfactorily predicted by a semi-mechanistic model • This model challenges empirical relationships currently used in risk assessment tools.

  7. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  8. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  9. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  10. Modelling atmospheric temperature rise due to pollutants and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a mathematical model we show that temperature increases (warming) as the Hartman number due to pollutant increases. Thus, temperature and pollutants contribute to global warming. We also discuss the implications of the result on agriculture and forestry. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...

  11. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, Cecilia

    1999-04-01

    The load of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is considered high in the Baltic ecosystem. The Baltic Sea spans over 12 latitudes and the regional differences in climate affect the behavior of POPs. Therefore spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of POPs in air and precipitation within this area has been investigated at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990-1993. In addition, the deposition of gaseous and particulate associated POPs to the Baltic Sea is estimated from empirical data. This atmospheric input of POPs is compared with the input from rivers. Additionally, data from Ross Island, Antarctica and Lake Kariba, Zimbabve, Africa is presented, and all results are discussed and explained using the `global fractionation hypothesis` as a framework. In the Baltic Sea, concentration of individual POPs in air were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient air temperature and location. A latitudinal gradient, with higher levels in the south was found for PCBs and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners in air increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentration increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic, or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites. The concentrations of individual congeners in precipitation were found to be influenced by atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, ambient temperature, precipitation volume and

  12. Atmospheric dispersion modelling of particulate and gaseous pollutants affecting the trans-Manche region

    OpenAIRE

    Plainiotis, Stylianos

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a methodology to determine large-scale and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion patterns. The research is only concerned with outdoor exposure to atmospheric pollutants and aims to identify pollution sources using dispersion modelling with the assistance of ground level measurements from British, French and other monitoring stations and remote sensing technology. \\ud \\ud Lagrangian Particle Dispersion (LPD) models compute trajectories of a large number of...

  13. Scientific base for sulfur oxide air pollution standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, I.F.

    1976-01-01

    The main deficiencies in our existing scientific data base that make the formulation of air quality standards a difficult task are summarized. It is pointed out that there are a large number of pollutants in the air, most of which are not measured, many of which are not even identified, let alone tested for toxicity on animals. These pollutants interact in the atmosphere and in the body. Some of them act as co-factors for biological reactions; others have synergistic effects. Our measurements of pollutants are known to be of limited precision and accuracy: The representativeness of our measurements in terms of population exposures has not been adequately investigated. Suitable methods of controlling for other factors that might confound the relationship between pollution and health, such as weather, urbanicity, demographic factors, etc., have not been adequately tested.

  14. Fluid mechanics simulation of fog formation associated with polluted atmosphere produced by energy related fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that large quantities of atmospheric aerosols with composition SO4(-2), NO3(-1), and NH4(+1) have been detected in highly industrialized areas. Most aerosol products come from energy-related fuel combustion. Fluid mechanics simulation of both microphysical and macrophysical processes is considered in studying the time dependent evolution of the saturation spectra of condensation nuclei associated with polluted and clean atmospheres during the time periods of advection fog formation. The results demonstrate that the condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere provide more favorable conditions than condensation nuclei associated with a clean atmosphere to produce dense advection fog, and that attaining a certain degree of supersaturation is not necessarily required for the formation of advection fog having condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere.

  15. MAP3S: studying the transport, transformation, and fate of atmospheric energy-related pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M C

    1977-10-01

    The MAP3S research program combines the existing capabilities of DOE national laboratories, sponsored university groups, and contractor organizations to develop, demonstrate, and verify numerical models that will make it possible to accurately simulate the atmospheric transformation of atmospheric energy related (AER) pollutants for use in assessing the various strategies for generating power. Programs aimed at gaining better understanding of the role of fossil fuel combustion in affecting the atmosphere are discussed. These include measurements of chemical and meteorological variables that determine the distribution of pollutant species from fossil-fuel electric power production; to design and execute atmospheric research experiments necessary to understand the mechanisms and related processes that must be included in simulation models; and to develop, demonstrate, and verify the capability to simulate the atmospheric behavior, pollutant concentrations, and precipitation chemistry effects of emissions from fossil-fuel power plants that are relevant to human health and welfare.

  16. The atmospheric pollution in a few words; La pollution atmospherique en bref

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper takes stock briefly on the different pollution sources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, VOC, methane...), the mechanisms (acidification, photochemical pollution, eutrophication, greenhouse effect, ozone...) and the effects on the health. (A.L.B.)

  17. The role of forest in mitigating the impact of atmospheric dust pollution in a mixed landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Artur; Pinho, Pedro; Munzi, Silvana; Botelho, Maria João; Palma-Oliveira, José Manuel; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition. After a multivariate analysis, we have modeled the maximum pollution load expected for each site taking into consideration nearby pollutant sources. The difference between maximum expected pollution load and the observed values was explained by the deposition in nearby forests. Both the dust pollution and the ameliorating effect of forested areas were then mapped. The results showed that forest located nearby pollution sources plays an important role in reducing atmospheric dust pollution, highlighting their importance in the provision of the ecosystem service of air purification.

  18. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  19. Air pollution monitoring through the application of atmospheric correction for ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the results obtained through the application of atmospheric correction on ASTER images for deriving the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). The literature shows that there is a gap in correlating the determined or measured AOT through the visible and near-infrared spectrum with the air-pollutants such as PM10, PM2.5, CO2, etc. This research investigates such aspects by acquiring sun-photometer measurements, image data, and air-pollutants measurements during the satellite overpass of the urban areas in Paphos and Limassol District in Cyprus. AOT values delivered from MODIS satellite images are regressed against the sun-photometer ground-based measurements. The determined AOT values from both sources are compared with the AOT values retrieved from ASTER and/or LANDSAT TM /ETM+ images. Preliminary results show that the AOT retrieved after applying an atmospheric correction from the images was very near to those found from the sun-photometers acquired simultaneous during the satellite overpass.

  20. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions.

  1. Evaluation of satellites and remote sensors for atmospheric pollution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, J.; Eldridge, R.; Friedman, E.; Keitz, E.

    1976-01-01

    An approach to the development of a prioritized list of scientific goals in atmospheric research is provided. The results of the analysis are used to estimate the contribution of various spacecraft/remote sensor combinations for each of several important constituents of the stratosphere. The evaluation of the combinations includes both single-instrument and multiple-instrument payloads. Attention was turned to the physical and chemical features of the atmosphere as well as the performance capability of a number of atmospheric remote sensors. In addition, various orbit considerations were reviewed along with detailed information on stratospheric aerosols and the impact of spacecraft environment on the operation of the sensors.

  2. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.P.; Dews, J.; Harris, F.C. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D.J. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  3. Contribution to the modeling of atmospheric pollution in cities; Contribution a la modelisation de la pollution atmospherique dans les villes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glockmer, St.

    2000-07-01

    Pollution generated by urban traffic and by industry at its periphery is a serious problem of our cities. Once emitted in the atmosphere, pollutants undergo two types of constraints: on one side they react chemically one with another and, on the other side, they are transported by the wind. We have chosen to work on the dynamical, thermal and chemical aspects of the pollution at different scales of the phenomena: local scale (around a group of buildings) and meso-scale (a whole city). Our ambition is not to realize a complete model but to advance step by step on each aspect. We have contributed to the realization of a numerical tool that will be completed and used for concrete pollution episodes. The first chapter is a description of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapters two and three present models and results of numerical simulations. We stress on k-{epsilon}, RNG and v{sup 2}-f turbulence models, radiative heat transfer models and dynamical and thermal wall laws that allow to take in consideration surface roughness. The last chapter is dedicated to atmospheric chemistry. We have moreover developed a general solver of any number of transport equations coupled by a stiff chemistry and simplified ozone kinetics. (author)

  4. Atmospheric pollution in North-East Nigeria: Measurement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2001, 15(2). 110. Health effects as thyroid enlargement, lung cancer and pneumoconiosis (lung disease due to inhalation of hard metals from welding fumes) have long been associated with prolonged exposure to polluted air. In addition, known cancer-producing agents such as benzo-pyrene are.

  5. ATMOSPHERE POLLUTION AT STORAGE OF SLAGS OF ALUMINIUM SECONDARY PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Panasyugin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic probability of the processes of the formation of compounds of aluminum (which release in the environment by hydrolysis ammonia, acetylene, propane and hydrogen sulfide is determined. In the article the economic loss from irrecoverable waste of aluminum and fines for emissions of air pollutants is estimated.

  6. Soil acidification by atmospheric pollution and forest growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengt Jonsson

    1976-01-01

    In recent years concern has been expressed about the danger of harmful pollution deposits which affect areas at great distances from the emission sources. The investigation was so designed that a possible reaction in growth resulting from a supposed acidification could be observed as far as possible. A poorer growth development was observed in regions, which are...

  7. Variational approach to direct and inverse problems of atmospheric pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present the development of a variational approach for solving interrelated problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry concerning air pollution transport and transformations. The proposed approach allows us to carry out complex studies of different-scale physical and chemical processes using the methods of direct and inverse modeling [1-3]. We formulate the problems of risk/vulnerability and uncertainty assessment, sensitivity studies, variational data assimilation procedures [4], etc. A computational technology of constructing consistent mathematical models and methods of their numerical implementation is based on the variational principle in the weak constraint formulation specifically designed to account for uncertainties in models and observations. Algorithms for direct and inverse modeling are designed with the use of global and local adjoint problems. Implementing the idea of adjoint integrating factors provides unconditionally monotone and stable discrete-analytic approximations for convection-diffusion-reaction problems [5,6]. The general framework is applied to the direct and inverse problems for the models of transport and transformation of pollutants in Siberian and Arctic regions. The work has been partially supported by the RFBR grant 14-01-00125 and RAS Presidium Program I.33P. References: 1. V. Penenko, A.Baklanov, E. Tsvetova and A. Mahura . Direct and inverse problems in a variational concept of environmental modeling //Pure and Applied Geoph.(2012) v.169: 447-465. 2. V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, and A. V. Penenko Development of variational approach for direct and inverse problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 311-319, DOI: 10.1134/S0001433815030093. 3. V.V. Penenko, E.A. Tsvetova, A.V. Penenko. Methods based on the joint use of models and observational data in the framework of variational approach to forecasting weather and atmospheric composition

  8. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  9. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sénéchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  10. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  11. Study of atmospheric pollution levels by trace elements analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, and Mn in leaf and bark samples of 7 tree species at 22 sampling locations with different pollution levels, in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were investigated. The metal concentrations (mean ± RSD in mg g-1) in leaf and bark samples, respectively, were: Pb, 203±70, 282±120; Cu, 19.5±4.2, ...

  12. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  13. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gana Gecheva; Nikolina Gribacheva; Lilyana Yurukova; Violeta Stefanova; Veselin Kmetov; Marina Frontasieva; Georgi Popgeorgiev

    2016-01-01

    The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2) with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  14. Atmospheric lead pollution in fine particulate matter in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuanxun; Tan, Mingguang; Liu, Jiangfeng; Bao, Liangman; Zhang, Guilin; Li, Yan; Iida, Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    The Pb-monitoring program was extended for 6 years from 2002 to 2007 at 17 representative urban sites (6 traffic, 5 industrial, and 6 residential sites), and 3 suburban sites to assess the lead pollution in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) after phasing out leaded gasoline in Shanghai. Compared with Pb levels reported in other places, the Pb pollution in Shanghai is still serious after phasing out leaded gasoline, which remains at high concentration range (213-176 ng/m3) in PM2.5 in winter. Significant spatial variation of Pb concentrations and strong seasonal variation of higher Pb concentration in winter than that in summer were detected. The size distribution of Pb in particulate matter has a unimodal mode that peaks at approximately 0.154-1.59 microm particle diameter, indicating that Pb is mainly concentrated in fine fraction. Lead in the fine fraction is enriched by a factor of 10(3)-10(4) relative to Pb abundance in crust. Eight categories of Pb pollution sources were identified in the PM2.5 in the winter of 2007 in Shanghai. The important emission sources among them are vehicle exhaust derived from combustion of unleaded gasoline, metallurgic industry emission, and coal combustion emission.

  15. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  16. Ozone Atmospheric Pollution and Alzheimer's Disease: From Epidemiological Facts to Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Marine L; Zimmer, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a well-known environmental hazard, especially in developing countries where millions of people are exposed to airborne pollutant levels above safety standards. Accordingly, several epidemiological and animal studies confirmed its role in respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies and identified a strong link between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality. More recently, the potential deleterious effect of air pollution inhalation on the central nervous system was also investigated and mounting evidence supports a link between air pollution exposure and neurodegenerative pathologies, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). The focus of this review is to highlight the possible link between ozone air pollution exposure and AD incidence. This review's approach will go from observational and epidemiological facts to the proposal of molecular mechanisms. First, epidemiological and postmortem human study data concerning residents of ozone-severely polluted megacities will be presented and discussed. Then, the more particular role of ozone air pollution in AD pathology will be described and evidenced by toxicological studies in rat or mouse with ozone pollution exposure only. The experimental paradigms used to reproduce in rodent the human exposure to ozone air pollution will be described. Finally, current insights into the molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation can affect the brain and play a role in AD development or progression will be recapitulated.

  17. The Atmospheric Pollution caused by the Technological Liquid Gas Evaporation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-18

    and controlled gas exhaust into the atmosphere, mostly from industrial chimneys, is theoretically pretty well worked out giving details connected...secially vertexes. It is- o-.-amriified on tK’. :icture by Ynearv- of lii,:eninF7 the - hapie of the diffusinp cloud1 to the z=?m scinon Fi.&.2. The

  18. Spectral Optical Properties of the Polluted Atmosphere of Mexico City (Spring-Summer 1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, O. B.; Contreras, A. Leyva; Valazquez, A. Muhlia; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Ivlev, L. S.; Kovalenko, A. P.; Vasilyev, A. V.; Jukov, V. M.; Welch, Ronald M.

    1995-01-01

    A joint Mexican, Russian, and American research effort has been initiated to develop new methods to remotely sense atmospheric parameters using ground-based, aircraft, and satellite observations. As a first step in this program, ground-based spectrophotometric measurements of the direct solar radiation have been obtained for the extremely polluted Mexico City atmosphere for the period of April-June 1992. These observations were made at more than 1300 channels in the spectral range of 0.35-0.95 microns. In the UltraViolet (UV) portions of the spectrum (e.g., 0.35 microns), aerosol optical thicknesses were found to range between 0.6 and 1.2; in the visible portion of the spectrum (e. g., 0.5 microns) they ranged from 0.5 to 0.8; and in the Near-Infrared (NIR) spectra (e.g., 0.85 micron), values of 0.3 - 0.5 were found. Applying a Spectral Optical Depth (SOD) model of tau(lambda) = C + A(lambda(sup -varies as), values of 1.55 less than varies as less than 1.85 were obtained for polluted, cloudless days, with values of 1.25 less than varies as less than 1.60 on days with haze. The aerosol particles in the polluted Mexico City atmosphere were found to be strongly absorbing, with a single-scattering albedo of 0.7 - 0.9 in the UV, 0.6 - 0.8 in the visible portion of the spectrum, and 0.4 - 0.7 in the NIR. These values are possibly consistent with a high soot concentration, contributed both by vehicular traffic and heavy industry. Analysis of the measured aerosol SOD using the optical parameters of an urban aerosol model pemiits the concentration of aerosol particles to be estimated in the vertical column; a maximum value of 3 x 10(exp 9) 1/sq cm was found. This concentration of aerosol particles exceeds that found in most other regions of the globe by at least an order of magnitude. Near the ground the aerosol size distributions measured using an optical particle counter were found to be strongly multimodal.

  19. Air pollution forecasting by coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF and SFIRE with WRF-Chem

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Clements, Craig B

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution regulations have emerged as a dominant obstacle to prescribed burns. Thus, forecasting the pollution caused by wildland fires has acquired high importance. WRF and SFIRE model wildland fire spread in a two-way interaction with the atmosphere. The surface heat flux from the fire causes strong updrafts, which in turn change the winds and affect the fire spread. Fire emissions, estimated from the burning organic matter, are inserted in every time step into WRF-Chem tracers at the lowest atmospheric layer. The buoyancy caused by the fire then naturally simulates plume dynamics, and the chemical transport in WRF-Chem provides a forecast of the pollution spread. We discuss the choice of wood burning models and compatible chemical transport models in WRF-Chem, and demonstrate the results on case studies.

  20. Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants: Asbestos - The Need For and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 1971 report sets forth in a well-organized fashion the currently available information on asbestos as an air pollutant, with special attention to sources health effects, measurements, and feasibility of control.

  1. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  2. Atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for pollution plume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    for gaseous pollution plume released from an isolated industrial facility into the ambient air of the host ... from industrial facilities are required for assessment of ..... 1.17. 0.71. Year 2013. Year 2013. Sept. 14.6. 27.4. 26.4. 16.5. 8.0. 4.8. 2.2. 1.2. 5.2. 1.25. 0.63. Oct. 35.8. 20.7. 21.0. 14.8. 5.2. 1.9. 0.7. 0.9. 4.0. 0.91. 0.83. Nov.

  3. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  4. A study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery. [pollution transport over the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of the smoke plumes which originated in eastern Cabo Frio, Brazil and crossed over into the Atlantic Ocean, are analyzed to illustrate how high resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of three empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume from the LANDSAT imagery. The vertical diffusion coefficient in stable conditions is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of meso scale atmospheric diffusion models.

  5. Atmospheric Sampling of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Needs, Applications and Advances in Passive Air Sampling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A. Ockenden

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous potential applications for validated passive sampling techniques to measure persistent organic pollutants (POPs in the atmosphere, but such techniques are still in their infancy. Potential uses include: monitoring to check for regulatory compliance and identification of potential sources; cheap/efficient reconnaissance surveying of the spatial distribution of POPs; and deployment in studies to investigate environmental processes affecting POP cycling. This article reviews and discusses the principles and needs of passive sampling methodologies. The timescales required for analytical purposes and for the scientific objectives of the study are critical in the choice and design of a passive sampler. Some techniques may operate over the timescales of hours/days, others over weeks/months/years. We distinguish between approaches based on "kinetic uptake" and "equilibrium partitioning". We highlight potentially useful techniques and discuss their potential advantages, disadvantages, and research requirements, drawing attention to the urgent need for detailed studies of sampler performance and calibration.

  6. Application of cascade lasers to detection of trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczuga, Marcin; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the impact of gaseous pollutants on the earth's atmosphere, as well as more and more felt by mankind negative effects of its contamination, result in increasing the level of environmental awareness and contribute to the intensification of actions aimed at reducing the emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere. At the same time, the extensive studies are conducted in order to continuously monitor the level of air contamination with harmful gases and the industry compliance with the standards limited the amount of emitted pollutants. Over recent years, there has been increasing use of cascade lasers and multi-pass cells in optical systems detecting the gaseous atmospheric pollutants and measuring the gas concentrations. The paper presents the use of a tunable quantum cascade laser as a source of the IR radiation in an advanced detection system enabling the trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants to be identified. Apart from the laser, the main elements of the system are: a multi-pass cell, an IR detector and a module for control and analysis. Operation of the system is exemplified by measuring the level of the air pollution with ammonia, carbon oxide and nitrous oxide.

  7. Pattern of Spatial Distribution and Temporal Variation of Atmospheric Pollutants during 2013 in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by atmospheric particulate and gaseous pollutants has drawn broad public concern globally. In this paper, the spatial-temporal distributions of major air pollutants in Shenzhen from March 2013 to February 2014 are discussed. In this study, ground-site monitoring data from 19 monitoring sites was used and spatial interpolation and spatial autocorrelation methods were applied to analyze both spatial and temporal characteristics of air pollutants in Shenzhen City. During the study period, the daily average concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ranged from 16–189 μg/m3 and 10–136 μg/m3, respectively, with 13 and 44 over-limit days, indicating that particulate matter was the primary air pollutant in Shenzhen. The highest PM occupation in the polluted air was observed in winter, indicating that fine particulate pollution was most serious in winter. Meanwhile, seasonal agglomeration patterns for six kinds of air pollutants showed that Guangming, Baoan, Nanshan, and the northern part of Longgang were the most polluted areas and PMs were their primary air pollutants. In addition, wind scale and rainfall played an important role in dissipating air pollutant in Shenzhen. The wind direction impacted the air pollution level in Shenzhen in multiple ways: the highest concentrations for all air pollutants all occurred on days with a northeast wind; the second highest ones appeared on the days with no wind. The concentrations on days with north-related winds are higher on average than those of days with south-related winds.

  8. Silica nanoparticles capture atmospheric lead: implications in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xifei; Shen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Jianping; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in the air is a severe global problem, most notably in China. Removal of Pb from polluted air remains a significant challenge. It is unclear what potential effects silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) exposure can have on atmospheric Pb. Here we first characterized the features of SiNPs by measuring the particle size, zeta potential and the specific surface area of SiO(2) particles using a Nicomp 380/ZLS submicron particle sizer, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). We measured the content of the metal Pb adsorbed by SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is found that SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants absorb more atmospheric Pb compared to either blank control or micro-sized SiO(2) particles in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study demonstrating that SiNPs exposure can absorb atmospheric Pb in the polluted environment. These novel findings indicate that SiNPs have potential to serve as a significant adsorbent of Pb from industrial pollution, implicating a potentially novel application of SiNPs in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental epidemiology applied to urban atmospheric pollution: a contribution from the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory (LPAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Paulo Afonso de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigation on the effects of human exposure to environmental pollution using scientific methodology only began in the 20th century as a consequence of several environmental accidents followed by an unexpected mortality increase above expected mortality and as a result of observational epidemiological and toxicological studies conducted on animals in developed countries. This article reports the experience of the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory at the School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, concerning the respiratory system and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in responses to exposure to pollution using toxicological and experimental procedures, complemented by observational epidemiological studies conducted in the city of São Paulo. It also describes these epidemiological studies, pointing out that air pollution is harmful to public health, not only among susceptible groups but also in the general population, even when the concentration of pollutants is below the limits set by environmental legislation. The study provides valuable information to support the political and economic decision-making processes aimed at preserving the environment and enhancing quality of life.

  10. Atmospheric Transference of the Toxic Burden of Atmosphere-Surface Exchangeable Pollutants to the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Perlinger, J. A.; Giang, A.; Zhang, H.; Selin, N. E.; Wu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Toxic pollutants that share certain chemical properties undergo repeated emission and deposition between Earth's surfaces and the atmosphere. Following their emission through anthropogenic activities, they are transported locally, regionally or globally through the atmosphere, are deposited, and impact local ecosystems, in some cases as a result of bioaccumulation in food webs. We call them atmosphere-surface exchangeable pollutants or "ASEPs", wherein this group is comprised of thousands of chemicals. We are studying potential future contamination in the Great Lakes region by modeling scenarios of the future for three compounds/compound classes, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this presentation we focus on mercury and future scenarios of contamination of the Great Lake region. The atmospheric transport of mercury under specific scenarios will be discussed. The global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem has been applied to estimate future atmospheric concentrations and deposition rates of mercury in the Great Lakes region for selected future scenarios of emissions and climate. We find that, assuming no changes in climate, annual mean net deposition flux of mercury to the Great Lakes Region may increase by approximately 50% over 2005 levels by 2050, without global or regional policies addressing mercury, air pollution, and climate. In contrast, we project that the combination of global and North American action on mercury could lead to a 21% reduction in deposition from 2005 levels by 2050. US action alone results in a projected 18% reduction over 2005 levels by 2050. We also find that, assuming no changes in anthropogenic emissions, climate change and biomass burning emissions would, respectively, cause annual mean net deposition flux of mercury to the Great Lakes Region to increase by approximately 5% and decrease by approximately 2% over 2000 levels by 2050.

  11. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  12. [Observation on atmospheric pollution in Xianghe during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue-Peng; Wang, Yue-Si; Hu, Bo; Liu, Quan; Wang, Ying-Hong; Nan, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    There is a concern that much of the atmospheric pollution experienced in Beijing is regional in nature and not attributable to local sources. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of sources outside Beijing to atmospheric pollution levels during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The observations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were conducted from June 1 to September 30, 2008 in Xianghe, a rural site about 70 km southeast of Beijing. Sources and transportation of atmospheric pollution during the experiment were discussed with surface meteorology data and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The results showed that the daily average maximum (mean +/- standard deviation) concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5, and PM10 during observation reached 84.4(13.4 +/- 15.2), 43.3 (15.9 +/- 9.1), 230 (82 +/- 38), 184 (76 +/- 42) and 248 (113 +/- 52) microg x m(-3), respectively. In particular, during the pollution episodes from July 20 to August 12, the hourly average concentration of O3 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II for 46 h (9%), and the daily average concentration of PM10 exceeded the Standard for 11 d (46%); PM2.5 exceeded the US EPA Standard for 18 d (75%). The daily average concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 decreased from 27.7, 18.6, 96, 90, 127 microg x m(-3) in June-July to 5.8, 13.2, 80, 60, 106 microg x m(-3) during Olympic Games (August-September), respectively. The typical diurnal variations of NO(x), PM2.5 and PM10 were similar, peaking at 07:00 and 20:00, while the maximum of O3 occurred between 14:00 to 16:00 local time. The findings also suggested that the atmospheric pollution in Xianghe is related to local emission, regional transport as well as the meteorological conditions. Northerly wind and precipitation are favorable for diffusion and wet deposition of pollutants, while sustained south flows make the atmospheric pollution more serious. The lead-lag correlation analysis during the

  13. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  14. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-25

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere - spatial and temporal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backe, Cecilia

    2001-05-01

    In this thesis I have studied the spatial and temporal variations of PCBs in the atmosphere and in precipitation in southern Sweden. Further, soil-air exchange processes of PCBs were investigated. Finally, the long-range transport of PCBs and DDT was studied in the Baltic Sea region and in a tropical vs. a temporal region. On the regional scale there were significant differences in PCB concentration in the atmosphere, in precipitation and in soil between nearby sampling-areas. Differences in PCB concentrations between areas probably originated from varying geographical and meteorological conditions that affected exchange processes between air and soil/vegetation surfaces. Temporal variations in PCB concentration in atmosphere and precipitation were also found. For PCBs in the air, a systematic pattern in the deviation from the yearly median value for the region was observed. Wind direction played an important role for PCB concentration in precipitation in coastal areas, while at the inland sites this variable seemed to have a minor influence. To examine the intensity of precipitation scavenging, the total washout ratios were calculated and the highest ratios were observed at the two sites where PCB concentration in the air was high. Further, high concentrations of PCB in precipitation correlated with a composition of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, as shown by principal component analysis. For most of the sites there was a significant negative relationship between PCB concentration and rain volume. Soil type and soil organic matter content was found to be important for the variations in PCB concentration between nearby areas. Highest concentrations were found at two sites with sandy soils, one with an extremely high organic carbon content. Soils with similar soil textures (i.e. sandy silt moraine) did not show any significant differences in PCB concentrations. PCB congener composition was shown to differ between sites, with site-specific congener patterns. No

  16. [Pollution characteristics of organic acids in atmospheric particles during haze periods in autumn in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-hua; Zhao, Jing-ping; Duan, Jing-chun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin; Yang, Fu-mo

    2013-05-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during a typical haze period in Guangzhou, were analyzed for the fatty acids (C12-C30) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the concentration of total fatty and carboxylic acids was pretty high during the haze episode. The ratios of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in haze to those in normal days were 1.9 and 2.5, respectively. During the episode of the increasing pollution, the fatty acids and carboxylic acids at night (653 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (487 ng x m(-3)) in days. After that, the level of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in days (412 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (336 ng x m(-3)) at night. In general, the time-series of fatty acids and carboxylic acids was similar to that of the air particle and carbonaceous species, however, the trend of the ratio of fatty acids and carboxylic acids to organic carbon was opposite to that of air particle and carbonaceous species. This ratio decreased with the increase of the concentration of air particle and after the night of 27th, the ratio increased with the decrease in the concentration of air particle. The results showed that haze pollution had a significant inhibitory effect on the enrichment of fatty and carboxylic acids. Based on the ratio of malonate to succinate (C3/C4), it could be found that primary sources contribute more to the atmospheric fatty and carboxylic acids during the autumn haze pollution periods in Guangzhou.

  17. [The application of the multidimensional statistical methods in the evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on the population's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, V D; Surzhikov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The search and measurement of causal relationships between exposure to air pollution and health state of the population is based on the system analysis and risk assessment to improve the quality of research. With this purpose there is applied the modern statistical analysis with the use of criteria of independence, principal component analysis and discriminate function analysis. As a result of analysis out of all atmospheric pollutants there were separated four main components: for diseases of the circulatory system main principal component is implied with concentrations of suspended solids, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen fluoride, for the respiratory diseases the main c principal component is closely associated with suspended solids, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, charcoal black. The discriminant function was shown to be used as a measure of the level of air pollution.

  18. Effect of Atmospheric Pollutants on the Air Quality in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bouchlaghem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evolution of Saharan dust advection when the PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 μm concentration exceeds standard limits in different Tunisian sites. Meteorological and concentration data (from 2004 to 2010 obtained from several monitoring stations and in situ measurements were used to identify African dust change in seasonal occurrence, their source origin, and their impact on surface PM10 concentrations. We pointed out that the Saharan dust contribution caused frequently the surpassing of the maximum number of days in excess of EU standard limits as well as of the maximum yearly average in the Mediterranean Tunisian coasts. The maximum daily concentration reaches 439 μg/m3 during the Saharan events. The decrease in particulate levels recorded at the end of each event is due to the injection of European air masses and rainfalls. Primary pollutants peaks were much higher in winter than in summer which can be explained on the basis of the lower ventilation and mixing.

  19. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M. J.; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F.; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H.; Håberg, Siri E.; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in

  20. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in

  1. Essentials of multiangle data-processing methodology for smoke polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; A. Petkov; Cyle Wold; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao

    2011-01-01

    Essentials for investigating smoke plume characteristics with scanning lidar are discussed. Particularly, we outline basic principles for determining dynamics, heights, and optical properties of smoke plumes and layers in wildfire-polluted atmospheres. Both simulated and experimental data obtained in vicinities of wildfires with a two-wavelength scanning lidar are...

  2. The laser absorption spectrometer - A new remote sensing instrument for atmospheric pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    An instrument capable of remotely monitoring trace atmospheric constituents is described. The instrument, called a laser absorption spectrometer, can be operated from an aircraft or spacecraft to measure the concentration of selected gases in three dimensions. This device will be particularly useful for rapid determination of pollutant levels in urban areas.

  3. Atmospheric pollution in thermal power plants; Contaminacion atmosferica en centrales termicas convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre Diaz, A.

    1997-04-01

    The author presents the atmospheric pollution by fossil-fuel power plants. The state of the art is developed in 4 chapters: Legislation, Sulfur dioxide: reduction of SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxides: reduction of emissions, particulates: reduction of particulates and new technologies. (Author)

  4. Trans-boundary air pollution in a city under various atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Hou, Xiangting; Gu, Yefu; Lau, Ngar-Cheung; Yim, Steve Hung-Lam

    2017-11-08

    Trans-boundary air pollution (TAP) is a crucial factor affecting air quality, and its contribution may vary over time and differ under various atmospheric conditions. This study firstly applies an integrated statistical scheme to estimate the contributions of TAP and local sources to air pollutants in a city, and then investigate the influences of tropical cyclones (TC) on TAP. Hong Kong is chosen as an example because of its significant and special TAP characteristics. This study focuses on four major air pollutants, namely, respirable and fine suspended particulates (RSP/PM10 and FSP/PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), from 2002 to 2013. Our results show that, on average, TAP is the major contributor of the annual RSP, FSP, SO2, and NO2 in Hong Kong. We estimate that when a TC is approaching, the increase in pollutant concentration in Hong Kong is mainly due to the increase in TAP contribution by the strengthened northerly wind at higher level of atmosphere (≥900hPa). These changes are accompanied by decreases in precipitation and increases in northerly/north-easterly wind, which may prolong the lifetime of pollutants, enhancing pollutant transport from mainland China to Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Lin, Jintai; Peters, Glen P.; Li, Meng; Geng, Guannan; Zheng, Bo; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Haikun; Davis, Steven J.; He, Kebin

    2017-09-01

    Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2.5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths) of China's PM2.5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths) China's PM2.5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total) and 145 100 (14 %) premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  6. Monitoring based localisation of pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokac, M.; Velisková, Y.

    2017-10-01

    Water quality modelling is currently very effective and important tool in context of the task to ensure the required quality of water resources, respectively, to achieve (maintain) good water status according the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This paper analyses the current status in numerical modelling of pollution dispersion in streams and use of some modelling approaches for the inverse task. Inverse task means a modelling technique, which is focused on the localisation of unknown pollution source (typical common models or equations are rather focused on the pollution spreading simulation, whereas the pollution source location is known). Paper offers an idea of such inverse task solution. It is based on the known pollution concentration time courses or it can be based on the results of the on-line monitoring of the specific water quality parameters as well. For the application of inverse tasks in conditions of real streams and rivers a large number of various requirements and conditions in specific river should be considered, i. a. the non-prismatic river bed, occurrence of dead zones, dispersion rate etc. Paper also describes the first version of the software for solving inverse tasks and preliminary experiences of using this software.

  7. Association of atmospheric pollution and instability indices: A detailed investigation over an Indian urban metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rohit; Saha, Upal; Singh, A. K.; Maitra, Animesh

    2017-11-01

    Convection has a significant role in maintaining the atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics, particularly in the tropical regions during pre-monsoon season, which may be due to the changing patterns in atmospheric instability and pollution. A critical analysis is done on the variability of instability indices and their significant signature to meteorological parameters and atmospheric pollution over Indian region in the warming atmosphere during 2005-2015. The present study represents that the solid as well as gaseous pollutants, in combination, produce a damping force in suppressing convective activities over the eastern coastal regions of India. A significant anti-correlation (r - 0.6 to - 0.8) between instability parameters [Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and Lifted Index (LI)] and atmospheric pollutants [gaseous (NO2 and SO2) and solid (BC and PM2.5)] has been obtained in the eastern coastal regions on a long-term basis. To improve the level of agreement between pollution and instability, a unitless and dimensionless index called KLURT index has been introduced, which provides correlation (r) value as high as 0.6. On a real time basis, KLURT index is found to be useful as an effective precursor of thunderstorm events. The final part of this study indicates a prediction technique using KLURT index which gives a high prediction efficacy of 75%, low FAR value, extremely good BS 0.06, an excellent bias ( 0.96) and a good lead time of 1 h for a threshold value of 12.5 in terms of predicting intense convections at the urban location, Kolkata. Thus, the present study provides an appropriate means to manifest convection as a function of changing anthropogenic factors both in long and short-term basis with high correlation values and provides significant efficacy in predicting severe weather, thereby demonstrating the usefulness of this hypothesis in various socio-economic aspects especially at the current tropical urban location.

  8. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-02-15

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the -5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Climate Warming and Atmospheric Pollution Effects on Denitrification Rates from Forested Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enanga, E. M.; Creed, I. F.

    2013-12-01

    Climate controlled biome experiments were conducted to explore the interactive effects of climate warming and changing atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates on gaseous nitrogen (N) loss from forested landscapes. Previous field-based studies showed substantial differences in gaseous N2O efflux among the three topographic positions (upland, ecotone, and wetland) based on gas measurements using static chambers with wetland areas exporting substantially more gaseous N2O than upland areas. We hypothesized that (1) N2O production occurs mainly in the litter-fibric layer of the wetland soil that has a lower carbon to nitrogen (C:N) quotient and more labile carbon than the deeper hemic/peat deposits; and (2) climate warming and atmospheric pollution will have additive or multiplicative effects on N2O effluxes from the wetland soils. Wetland soils were collected and separated into three depths: the litter-fibric layer; 0--30 cm (with C:N quotients 25, promoting immobilization). A factorial experiment of 2 (+/- labile carbon 0.015 kg/ha/yr) × 3 (0, 15, 30 kg N/ha/yr) was conducted on each of three wetland soil depths. Each 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted across a range of temperatures: 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 30 degrees C. For the highest temperature (30 degrees C), we also examined the potential effect of CO2, by examining ambient versus a doubling of the ambient carbon dioxide (i.e., 750 ppm CO2). The highest N2O efflux was observed in the litter-fibric layer. When all treatments were considered together, the litter-fibric layer had the highest median N2O effluxes (19 kg N2O-N/ha/yr); 0--30 cm depth samples had intermediate effluxes (9 kg N2O-N/ha/yr); and 30--60 cm depth samples had the lowest effluxes (7 kg N2O-N/ha/yr). When the treatments were considered individually, the highest N2O efflux (228 kg N2O-N/ha/yr) was observed at the coolest temperatures (10 degrees C), when amended with labile carbon and 30 kg/ha/yr N

  10. Effects of point-source atmospheric pollution on boreal-forest vegetation of northwestern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, T.M.; Kovalev, B.I.; Filipchuk, A.N.

    1992-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution from the Noril'sk Mining-Metallurgical Complex, in the form of heavy metals and sulfur components, has resulted in damage to plant communities in the area. Vegetation on over 550,000 ha has been detrimentally affected by the pollution fallout, primarily sulfur dioxide. Forests (mainly Larix sibirica) and most lichens have been killed within a 300,000-ha zone around Noril'sk and extending about 50 km to the south and southeast. Less severe damage to lichens and vascular plants extends 170 km to the south and 80 km to the east of the pollution source consistent with prevailing winds during the period of plant growth. Terricolous lichens are particularly vulnerable to the pollution products and among vascular plants Larix gmelinii, Picea obovata, Ledum palustre, Calamagrostis sp., and Salix lanata show least resistance.

  11. Estimation of atmospheric aging time of black carbon particles in the polluted atmosphere over central-eastern China using microphysical process analysis in regional chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueshun; Wang, Zifa; Yu, Fangqun; Pan, Xiaole; Li, Jie; Ge, Baozhu; Wang, Zhe; Hu, Min; Yang, Wenyi; Chen, Huansheng

    2017-08-01

    Mixing state of black carbon (BC) particles has significant impacts on their radiative forcing, visibility impairment and the ability in modifying cloud formation. In this study, an aging scheme of BC particles using prognostic variables based on aerosol microphysics was incorporated into a regional atmospheric chemistry model, Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System with Advanced Particle Microphysics (NAQPMS + APM), to investigate the temporal and spatial variations in aging time scale of BC particles in polluted atmosphere over central-eastern China. The model results show that the aging time scale has a clear diurnal variation with a lower value in the daytime and a higher value in the nighttime. The shorter aging time scale in the daytime is due to condensation aging associated with intense photochemical reaction while the longer aging time scale in the nighttime is due to coagulation aging, which is much slower than that due to condensation. In Beijing, the aging time scale is 2 h or less in the surface layer in daytime, which is far below the fixed 1.2 days used in many models. As a result, the fraction of hydrophilic BC particles by the new scheme is larger than that by the scheme with fixed aging time scale though the mean aging time scale by the new scheme is much larger than 1.2 days. Hydrophilic fraction of BC particles increases with the increase of height. Over central-eastern China, the averaged aging time scale calculated by the new scheme is in the range from 12 h to 7 days, with higher values in regions far from the source areas. Hydrophilic fraction of BC particles is more than 90% at the higher levels in polluted atmosphere. Difference of simulated BC concentration with internal mixing and microphysical aging is within 5%, indicating that the assumption of internal mixing for BC particles to respond to in-cloud scavenging is more appropriate than the external mixing assumption in polluted atmosphere over central-eastern China.

  12. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Sixteenth progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.; Gatz, D.F.; Peden, M.E.; Stensland, G.J.

    1978-07-01

    The relative spatial variability of atmospheric deposition was studied for sampling networks of various areas in the U.S., Sweden, and the U.S.S.R. The data were derived from event, monthly, and yearly sample collection periods. The results indicate the relative variability for precipitation, chemical concentration of constituents, and the deposition increase in that order. A factor analysis approach to interpretation of the role of aerosol in altering rainfall is presented. The results indicate that either aerosol does not influence rainfall amount, or a critical chemical component of the aerosol was not included in the analysis. Careful analyses were carried out, comparing historical and current precipitation chemistry at Champaign-Urbana. The results show that the apparent high pH values of rainfall in 1954 were due to high values of calcium and magnesium and not due to low concentrations of sulfate and nitrogen species. New field efforts were initiated in 1978 in east-central Illinois to measure rain chemistry with improved precision over previous effort. The preliminary results from the first light rainshower show some puzzling relationships between the amount of rain and various chemical concentrations. The pH appears to be inversely related to rain volume, but other ionic species are not so easily identified with rain amount. The summer field experiment has, thus far, produced approximately 12 additional events which are in various stages of analysis. The study of the stability of ions in precipitation was continued and is the subject of additional proposed work. The results are very firm at this time, that either wet-only sampling must be carried out, or the sample must be preserved at 4/sup 0/C to retain the chemical integrity of the sample. It is recommended, however, that filtration of the sample be accomplished within 12 hours of the cessation of precipitation to ensure stability of the ionic composition.

  13. Evaluation of methodologies for exposure assessment to atmospheric pollutants from a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Richard; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Robins, Alan; Jefferis, Stephan; Coy, Joanne; Wight, Jeremy; Murray, Virginia

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological studies around landfill sites are limited by several factors, particularly a lack of accurate exposure assessment. Traditionally, exposure estimates are based on distance between place of residence and the landfill site. However, this measure of exposure ignores the effects that environmental factors may have upon exposure. A previous epidemiological study at a landfill site in the United Kingdom provided the basis for a case study to investigate exposure assessment methodologies that could support ongoing and future epidemiological work. Estimation of relative exposure to atmospheric pollutants near the site was refined using the Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS) 3.1. Annual average concentrations were calculated around the landfill site, which was modeled as an area source with a steady release rate over its entire active surface. Local meteorological and terrain data were used in the assessment. A geographical information system (GIS) was then used to link the results of the modeling to population and other data. Sensitivity studies were included to examine the variation of predicted exposure with several modeling assumptions and hence set other uncertainties in context. No simple relationship existed between the relative individual exposure measured by distance from the site and by dispersion modeling. A reassessment of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies around landfill sites was then undertaken with the refined estimates of exposure. This concluded that use of distance from the site as a proxy for exposure could lead to significant exposure misclassification in comparison with exposure assessment using atmospheric dispersion modeling and GIS. The study also indicated that assessment of peak exposure rates (i.e., extreme concentration levels) might be necessary in some epidemiological work. Optimum strategies for increasing the probability of observing effects in the more highly exposed population can be derived by

  14. Modeling of urban atmospheric pollution and impact on health; Modelisation de la pollution atmospherique urbaine et impact sur la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrto, Valari

    2009-10-15

    The goal of this dissertation, is to develop a methodology that provides an improved knowledge of the associations between atmospheric contaminant concentrations and health impact. The propagation of uncertainties from input data to the output concentrations through a Chemistry Transport Model was first studied. The influence of the resolutions of meteorological parameters and emissions data were studied separately, and their relative role was compared. It was found that model results do not improve linearly with the resolution of emission input. A critical resolution was found, beyond which model error becomes higher and the model breaks down. Based on this first investigation concerning the direct down scaling, further research focused on sub grid scale modeling. Thus, a statistical down scaling approach was adopted for the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability due to heterogeneous surface emissions. Emission fractions released from different types of sources (industry, roads, residential, natural etc.) were calculated from a high-resolution emission inventory. Then emission fluxes were mapped on surfaces emitting source-specific species. Simulations were run independently over the defined micro-environments allowing the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability. Sub grid scale concentrations were therefore combined with demographic and human activity data to provide exposure estimates. The spatial distribution of human exposure was parameterized through a Monte-Carlo model. The new information concerning exposure variability was added to an existing epidemiological model to study relative health risks. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used for this purpose. The principal outcome of the investigation was that a new functionality was added to the regression model which allows the dissociation of the health risk associated with each pollutant (e.g. NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 2.5}). (author)

  15. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemented H2 in the atmospheric transport and chemistry model LOTOS-EUROS. We simulated the present and future (2020) air quality, using emission scenarios with different proportions of H2 vehicles and different H2 leakage rates. The reference future scenario does not include H2 vehicles, and assumes that all present and planned European regulations for emissions are fully implemented. We find that, in general, the air quality in 2020 is significantly improved compared to the current situation in all scenarios, with and without H2 cars. In the future scenario without H2 cars, the pollution is reduced due to the strict European regulations: annually averaged CO, NOx and PM2.5 over the model domain decrease by 15%, 30% and 20% respectively. The additional improvement brought by replacing 50% or 100% of traditionally-fueled vehicles by H2 vehicles is smaller in absolute terms. If 50% of vehicles are using H2, the CO, NOx and PM2.5 decrease by 1%, 10% and 1% respectively, compared to the future scenario without H2 cars. When all vehicles run on H2, then additional decreases in CO, NOx and PM2.5 are 5%, 40%, and 5% relative to the no-H2 cars future scenario. Our study shows that H2 vehicles may be an effective pathway to fulfill the strict future EU air quality regulations. O3 has a more complicated behavior - its annual average decreases in background areas, but increases in the high-NOx area in western Europe, with the decrease in NOx. A more detailed analysis shows that the population exposure to high O3 levels decreases nevertheless. In all future scenarios, traffic emissions account for only a small proportion of the total anthropogenic emissions, thus it becomes more important

  16. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  17. Public Perceptions of How Long Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Remain in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Rachel; Morgan, M Granger; Bostrom, Ann; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-06-30

    The atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide is hundreds of years, many orders of magnitude longer than that of common air pollution, which is typically hours to a few days. However, randomly selected respondents in a mail survey in Allegheny County, PA (N = 119) and in a national survey conducted with MTurk (N = 1,013) judged the two to be identical (in decades), considerably overestimating the residence time of air pollution and drastically underestimating that of carbon dioxide. Moreover, while many respondents believed that action is needed today to avoid climate change (regardless of cause), roughly a quarter held the view that if climate change is real and serious, we will be able to stop it in the future when it happens, just as we did with common air pollution. In addition to assessing respondents' understanding of how long carbon dioxide and common air pollution stay in the atmosphere, we also explored the extent to which people correctly identified causes of climate change and how their beliefs affect support for action. With climate change at the forefront of politics and mainstream media, informing discussions of policy is increasingly important. Confusion about the causes and consequences of climate change, and especially about carbon dioxide's long atmospheric residence time, could have profound implications for sustained support of policies to achieve reductions in carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Is atmospheric pollution exposure during pregnancy associated with individual and contextual characteristics? A nationwide study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouidir, Marion; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frederik; Rivière, Emmanuel; Launay, Ludivine; Zaros, Cécile; Cheminat, Marie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Slama, Rémy

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants is a danger for the health of pregnant mother and children. Our objective was to identify individual (socioeconomic and behavioural) and contextual factors associated with atmospheric pollution pregnancy exposure at the nationwide level. Among 14 921 women from the French nationwide ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children) mother-child cohort recruited in 2011, outdoor exposure levels of PM2.5, PM10 (particulate matter atmospheric pollutants with individual (maternal age, body mass index, parity, education level, relationship status, smoking status) and contextual (European Deprivation Index, urbanisation level) factors. Patterns of associations were globally similar across pollutants. For the CART approach, the highest tertile of exposure included mainly women not in a relationship living in urban and socially deprived areas, with lower education level. Linear regression models identified different determinants of atmospheric pollutants exposure according to the residential urbanisation level. In urban areas, atmospheric pollutants exposure increased with social deprivation, while in rural areas a U-shaped relationship was observed. We highlighted social inequalities in atmospheric pollutants exposure according to contextual characteristics such as urbanisation level and social deprivation and also according to individual characteristics such as education, being in a relationship and smoking status. In French urban areas, pregnant women from the most deprived neighbourhoods were those most exposed to health-threatening atmospheric pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  20. Gaseous atmospheric pollution. Gas measurement; Pollution atmospherique gazeuse. Mesure des gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toupance, G. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France); Person, A. [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Le Moullec, Y.; Masclet, P.; Perros, P.E.

    2004-09-01

    This article deals with the majority of pollutants which are present in gaseous phase in the low layer of the troposphere, of the proximity of sources to the distant areas where are in weak traces persisting substances or sub-products induced by photochemical reactions. The compounds described in this article are of interest for various reasons: either they are source tracers, or they draw attention for their impact on health or/and ecosystem. Their follow-up can also be in other approaches such as the understanding of reactional mechanisms and the support to modeling of the phenomena. Thereby, the range of the covered concentrations is very large: if the preoccupations are in most of the cases to answer to detection limits of about the ppb, for some substances, the requirements can be harder and we have then to orient oneself to techniques able to quantify at the level of ppt, sometimes less. Some pollutants are qualified of 'semi-volatile', that is to say they are the property to be present in gaseous phase and in particles in suspension in air. (O.M.)

  1. Relative dose factors from long-period point source emissions of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Start, G.E.; Markee, E.H. [Environmental Science Services Administration, ARFRO, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A new technique for estimating air pollution exposures which result from long-period effluent releases is described. A continuous point source release is approximated by sequential instantaneous point source releases. The total effluent exposure effect of the release is determined from the summed total integrated concentrations from each instantaneous point release. These exposures are expressed as a relative dose factor, the sum of hourly values of total integrated concentration (units-hr/m{sup 3}) . The new method is particularly useful for calculating relative dose factors in regions in which the winds undergo a marked diurnal cycling. The maximum mixing depth concept is adopted to limit vertical dispersion. As a computational simplification, the fields of atmospheric stability and wind within the boundary layer are assumed to have spatical homogeneity during each hourly computational interval. The technique is illustrated for a continuous, ground-level, point source release of effluent. However, elevated, intermittent, multiple point sources can equally well be incorporated in the model. The input data used for illustration is a sequence of the climatically most probable winds and stabilities within the atmospheric boundary layer over the NRTS. The technique has two other important potential applications. If the input data are the current observed meteorological parameters, the technique becomes a real-time method of evaluating the severity and extent of the relative doses resulting from accidental releases of hazardous atmospheric pollutants. When forecast meteorological parameters are considered, a predicted coverage, severity, and accumulation of atmospheric pollution is obtained. (author)

  2. Effect of atmospheric pollution on Vitis vinifera L. pollen ultrastructure under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirban, M.; Craciun, C.; Bathory, D.; Cipleu, D.

    1984-06-01

    The ultrastructural modification of pollen grains in Vitis vinifera L. variety and hybrids in areas of SO atmospheric pollution (the main polluting SO2 usually reaches 2.72 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide, and other gases derived from noniron metal processing factories have been studied. Strains 1001 and 1002, resistant varieties, do not undergo ultrastructural modifications. Neuburger and Issabelle, medium resistant ones, have a heterogeneity in ultrastructural organization from normal forms to forms having both wall covers as well as the main organelles changed.

  3. Transformations of long-living and short-living gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere of urban regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippenko, Anna; Smyshlyaev, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    The research was devoted to the problem of estimation of chemical transformations of source species and atmospheric species in high-polluted areas. Box Air Quality Model (BAQM offline) was developed to estimate degree of influence of different species on atmospheric processes by analysis of chemical transformation and consequently lifetimes of these species, i.e. how long a representative molecule of the substance will stay in the atmosphere before it is chemically removed. Preliminary study of chemical mechanisms of Global and Regional weather forecast models with chemical branch (Enviro-HIRLAM, WRF, ALADIN, ECMWF GEMS) helped to develop a universal chemical mechanism for BAQM. The new mechanism describes chemical reaction pathways for the troposphere and lower stratosphere and can be implemented at regional and global scales. The mechanism was developed using lumping technique on the basis of RACM mechanism. Aggregation of primary species into lumped species is based on their reactivities and emission rates. The different chemical solvents were used to simulate change of production and destruction. As initial conditions BAQM considers both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions. Lifetime calculations show that "long-living" gases demand special attention since make the greatest impact on global atmospheric processes. Such species well mix in the atmosphere and can transport for long distances from the source of emissions. "Short-living" species can affect regional processes especially in the urban polluted areas where concentration of polluted species is high. So, in such regions (large cities, industrial areas, megacities) there are high concentrations of O3, NOx, but air quality depends on distribution of these concentrations in observing region. According to the simulations we define "long-living" species: SO2, N2, CH4, CO, H2, H2O (above 70hPa), H2O2, HCl and "short-living" species: O3, O(3P), O(1D), H2, HNO3, OH, HO2, CH3, CH3O2, CH3OOH, N, NO, NO2, NO3, Cl

  4. PREDICTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION BY EMISSIONS OF MOTOR TRANSPORT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of 3D numerical models, which allow us to calculate air pollution process from road transport emissions based on chemical transformation of pollutants. Creating numerical models, which would give the opportunity to predict the level of air pollution in urban areas. Methodology. To address the evaluation of the air pollution problem of emissions of vehicles the equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer were used. In order to solve differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer the finite difference methods are used. For the numerical integration of the equation for the velocity potential the method of conditional approximation was applied. The equation for the velocity potential written in difference form, is being split into two equations, and at each step of splitting the unknown value of the potential speed is determined by the explicit scheme of running account and the difference scheme itself is implicit. For the numerical integration of the equation of dispersion of emissions in the atmosphere is used implicit alternating-triangular difference splitting scheme. Emissions from the road are simulated by a series of point sources of a given intensity. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package.Findings. There were developed 3D numerical models, which belong to the class «diagnostic models». These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere when emissions from road transport taking into account the chemical transformation of pollutants. On the basis of the constructed numerical models a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution in the street was carried out. Originality. Numerical models that allow you to calculate the 3D aerodynamic of wind flow in urban areas and the process of mass transfer of emissions from the road were developed. The models make it possible to account the

  5. [Particulate matter and atmospheric pollutants exposure for outdoor workers in the Muggia area (Trieste, Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Ranieri; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Cozzutto, Sergio; Barbieri, Gianpiero; Sist, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Urban air pollution originates from traffic, heating and industrial activities and it exposes several categories of workers to noxious chemicals; in recent years various surveys have been carried on taxi drivers, bus drivers, policemen, newspaper kiosks, fuel station workers and general population, for assessing exposure to main contaminants, benzene and PAHs in particular. defining a specific sampling strategy for collecting an experimental data base for the assessment of potential population exposure to atmospheric particulate matter in the Muggia area (Trieste, North-East Italy). A sample of 14 urban police officers working mainly on the roads and potentially subject to occupational exposure has been analyzed, as well as a sample of the municipal administrative personnel (13 people) working in indoor environments during the same sampling periods. Exposure has been monitored by personal samplers and high volume environmental samples; urinary levels of 1 OH-pyrene and creatinine were collected for each participant at the end of each sampling period. PAHs analyses provided diagnostic ratios for identification of the sources of pollution. In general experimental BaP values stay below the environmental target value, with satisfactory agreement between environmental and personal monitoring. Levels of urinary 1 OH-pyrene for administrative personnel was detected always below the background value (0.089 micromoles/mole creatinine), while they are above the background and below the attention value for most of urban police officers. Municipal police officers participating to the present study, while belonging to one of the categories of people most exposed to outdoor PM, do not show any worrying exposure to the considered chemicals associated to their occupational activity, in comparison to other factors, possibly associated to personal lifestyles.

  6. Methodological approach in determination of small spatial units in a highly complex terrain in atmospheric pollution research: the case of Zasavje region in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukec, Andreja; Boznar, Marija Z; Mlakar, Primoz; Grasic, Bostjan; Herakovic, Andrej; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The study of atmospheric air pollution research in complex terrains is challenged by the lack of appropriate methodology supporting the analysis of the spatial relationship between phenomena affected by a multitude of factors. The key is optimal design of a meaningful approach based on small spatial units of observation. The Zasavje region, Slovenia, was chosen as study area with the main objective to investigate in practice the role of such units in a test environment. The process consisted of three steps: modelling of pollution in the atmosphere with dispersion models, transfer of the results to geographical information system software, and then moving on to final determination of the function of small spatial units. A methodology capable of designing useful units for atmospheric air pollution research in highly complex terrains was created, and the results were deemed useful in offering starting points for further research in the field of geospatial health.

  7. Influence of atmospheric pollution upon pine Microlepidoptera in the Roumare forest (seine-maritime)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemant, C.

    1980-01-01

    Among Microlepidoptera living on scotch Pine Pinus silvestris L., the pine bud moth Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. (Tortricidae) is the only species presenting an important increase of population in the young pine stands of the Roumare forest which are the most exposed to atmospheric pollution by SO/sub 2/ and fluorine. Other species of pine Tortridicae, Rhyacionia pinicolana Dbld., R. pinivorana Zell., Blastesthia posticana Zell., B. Turionella Hb. and Petrova resinella L., are present at low stock in the pine stands of the area, and their population levels do not increase in the polluted plots. Needle-boring species of Microlepidoptera, Exoteleia dodecella (Gelechiidae) Cedestis farinatella Dup. and Ocnerostoma piniariella Zell. (Hyponomeutidae) present significantly higher population levels in the most polluted stands but show relatively poor abundance. 28 references, 5 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Evaluating the suitability of different environmental samples for tracing atmospheric pollution in industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Vítková, Martina; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Samples of lichens, snow and particulate matter (PM10, 24 h) are used for the source identification of air pollution in the heavily industrialized region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic. An integrated approach that uses different environmental samples for metal concentration and Pb isotope analyses was applied. The broad range of isotope ratios in the samples indicates a combination of different pollution sources, the strongest among them being the metallurgical industry, bituminous coal combustion and traffic. Snow samples are proven as the most relevant indicator for tracing metal(loid)s and recent local contamination in the atmosphere. Lichens can be successfully used as tracers of the long-term activity of local and remote sources of contamination. The combination of PM10 with snow can provide very useful information for evaluation of current pollution sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  10. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 14: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Fifteen papers were translated: On the removal of impurities from the atmosphere by clouds and precipitation; Some aspects of the adoption of automatic methods of determining atmospheric pollutants; Recording of sulfur dioxide content at the outskirts of a city. Comparison of measurement results for a valley and an elevation; Theoretical and…

  12. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  13. Laser system for remote sensing monitoring of air pollution and quality control of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the atmosphere and determination of the types and amounts of pollutants is becoming more important issue in complex and global monitoring of the environment. On the geocomponent and geocomplex level problem of monitoring the environment is attracting the attention of the scientific experts of different profiles (chemists, physicists, geographers, biologists, meteorologists, both in the national and international projects. Because of the general characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere (Dynamically Ballanced Instability DBI and the potential contribution to climate change solutions air-pollution monitoring has become particularly important field of environmental research. Control of aerosol distribution over Europe is enabled by EARLINET systems (European Aerosol Lidar NETwork. Serbia’s inclusion into these European courses needs development of the device, the standardization of methods and direct activity in determining the type, quantity and location of aerosol. This paper is analyzing the first step in the study of air-pollution, which is consisted of the realization of a functional model of LIDAR remote sensing devices for the large particle pollutants.

  14. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2. 5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths of China's PM2. 5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths China's PM2. 5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total and 145 100 (14 % premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  15. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  16. Atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-Seine and Alfortville; Pollution atmospherique dans la zone de Vitry-sur-Seine et d'Alfortville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, P.

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this report, demanded by the environmental minister, is the present state and the evolution of the atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-seine and Alfortville, near Paris. In the first part the report takes stock of the air quality to show a decrease in the pollution due to fixed sources. A special interest is given in a second part to exhaust gases from the main factory of the area: the EDF power plant. The report concludes on the decrease of the industrial air pollution, the increase of the traffic air pollution and asks for the public information. (A.L.B.)

  17. The linear accumulation of atmospheric mercury by vegetable and grass leaves: Potential biomonitors for atmospheric mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Ci, Zhijia; Kong, Xiangrui; Wang, Zhangwei

    2013-09-01

    One question in the use of plants as biomonitors for atmospheric mercury (Hg) is to confirm the linear relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves. To explore the origin of Hg in the vegetable and grass leaves, open top chambers (OTCs) experiment was conducted to study the relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The influence of Hg in soil on Hg accumulation in leaves was studied simultaneously by soil Hg-enriched experiment. Hg concentrations in grass and vegetable leaves and roots were measured in both experiments. Results from OTCs experiment showed that Hg concentrations in leaves of the four species were significantly positively correlated with those in air during the growth time (p  0.05). Thus, Hg in grass leaves is mainly originated from the atmosphere, and grass leaves are more suitable as potential biomonitors for atmospheric Hg pollution. The effect detection limits (EDLs) for the leaves of alfalfa and ryegrass were 15.1 and 22.2 ng g(-1), respectively, and the biological detection limit (BDL) for alfalfa and ryegrass was 3.4 ng m(-3).

  18. Influence of weather and atmospheric pollution on physical activity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmari, Ayedh D; Mackay, Alex J; Patel, Anant R C; Kowlessar, Beverly S; Singh, Richa; Brill, Simon E; Allinson, James P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2015-06-13

    Information concerning how climate and atmospheric pollutants affects physical activity in COPD patients is lacking and might be valuable in determining when physical activity should be encouraged. Seventy-three stable COPD patients recorded on daily diary cards worsening of respiratory symptoms, peak expiratory flow rate, hours spent outside the home and the number of steps taken per day. Pedometry data was recorded on 16,478 days, an average of 267 days per patient (range 29-658). Daily data for atmospheric PM10 and ozone (O3) were obtained for Bloomsbury Square, Central London from the Air Quality Information Archive databases. Daily weather data were obtained for London Heathrow from the British Atmospheric Data Archive. Colder weather below 22.5 °C, reduced daily step count by 43.3 steps day per °C (95% CI 2.14 to 84.4; p = 0.039) and activity was lower on rainy than dry days (p = 0.002) and on overcast compared to sunny days (p atmospheric pollution at high levels.

  19. Remote sensing applications for diagnostics of the radioactive pollution of the ground surface and in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Boyarchuk, Kirill; Laverov, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive pollution due to its air ionization activity can drastically change the atmospheric boundary layer conductivity (what was experimentally proved during period of nuclear tests in atmosphere) and through the global electric circuit produce anomalous variations in atmosphere. As additional effect the ions created due to air ionization serve as centers of water vapor condensation and nucleation of aerosol-size particles. This process is accompanied by latent heat release. Both anomalies (ionospheric and thermal) can be controlled by remote sensing technique both from satellites (IR sensors and ionospheric probes) and from ground (GPS receivers, ground based ionosondes, VLF propagation sounding, ground measurements of the air temperature and humidity). We monitored the majority of transient events (Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant emergencies) and stationary sources such as Gabon natural nuclear reactor, sites of underground nuclear tests, etc. and were able to detect thermal anomalies and for majority of cases - the ionospheric anomalies as well. Immediately after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan we started to continuously survey the long-wavelength energy flux (10-13 microns) measurable at top of the atmosphere from POES/NOAA/AVHRR polar orbit satellites. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of energy flux in atmosphere started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network. We were able to detect with ground based ionosonde the ionospheric anomaly associated with the largest radioactive release on March

  20. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic, today and in a future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are of great concern because of their long residence time and long-range transport potential in the environment and because they are readily bioaccumulated along food chains and toxic for wildlife and humans. A multicompartment model is used to study global-scale and long term chemodynamics of anthropogenic organic substances in the Earth system. Model components are the atmosphere (ECHAM5) and ocean general circulation models (MPIOM), which include dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry, two-dimensional surface compartments (topsoil, vegetation surfaces, ice, and temporal snow cover) and intercompartmental mass exchange process parameterisations [1-3]. The transports into and out of the Arctic (66° N) are characterized for 1950-2000 under one realisation of present-day climate [4-5] and for 2001-2100 under one realisation of future climate (greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B of IPCC-AR4). Despite decaying primary emissions (since decades) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodimephenyltrichloromethane (DDT) are continuing to accumulate in the Arctic, which is fed by atmospheric transports. The main regions of import (and export) are identified and the vertical distribution and seasonalities are characterized. Changes by the end of the 21st century are discussed in the context of a major teleconnection, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. References [1] Guglielmo F, Lammel G, Maier-Reimer E: Global environmental cycling of DDT and ?-HCH in the 1980s - a study using a coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model. Chemosphere 76 (2009) 1509-1517 [2] Stemmler I, Lammel G: Cycling of DDT in the global oceans 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (2009) L24602 [3] Hofmann L, Stemmler I, Lammel G: The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on their global distributions and fate - 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover. Environ. Pollut. 162 (2012) 482

  1. [Variation analysis of background atmospheric pollutants in North China during the summer of 2008 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Yi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Bin

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the change of background concentration of air pollutants with the development of economy in the region of North China, the concentrations of NO(x), O3 and PM2.5 were monitored during the summer of 2008 to 2011 at Xinglong station, which is the regional background station of North China. The results indicated that the average concentration of NO(x) in the summer of the four years was (9.1 +/- 5.1), (5.9 +/- 2.6), (12.2 +/- 4.6) and (14.1 +/- 5.0) microg x m(-3), respectively, the daily maximum hourly concentration of O3 was (163.3 +/- 42.7), (175.2 +/- 48.8), (199.6 +/- 52.6) and (207.2 +/- 62.1) microg x m(-3), respectively, and the average concentration of PM2.5 was (59.8 +/- 44.6), (44.4 +/- 28.0), (58.1 +/- 34.2) and (52.5 +/- 36.7) microg x m(-3), respectively; in which, the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants had increased most significantly in 2010, especially the concentration of NO(x). The average concentrations of NO(x), O3 and PM2.5 increased by 106%, 14% and 31%, respectively, compared to those in the summer of 2009. Because of the increase in the number of motor vehicle and the fast development of industry in the region of North China in 2010, the background concentrations of atmospheric pollutants were increasing obviously. The atmospheric oxidizer has also increased, the concentration of O(x) reached (155.3 +/- 40.2) microg x m(-3) and has increased by 20% compared to the average concentration of the period during the summer of 2009, the compound pollution of high concentration of ozone and fine particles becomes more and more serious in North China.

  2. Sorbent-Based Atmosphere Revitalization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C (Inventor); Miller, Lee A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a sorbent-based atmosphere revitalization (SBAR) system using treatment beds each having a bed housing, primary and secondary moisture adsorbent layers, and a primary carbon dioxide adsorbent layer. Each bed includes a redirecting plenum between moisture adsorbent layers, inlet and outlet ports connected to inlet and outlet valves, respectively, and bypass ports connected to the redirecting plenums. The SBAR system also includes at least one bypass valve connected to the bypass ports. An inlet channel connects inlet valves to an atmosphere source. An outlet channel connects the bypass valve and outlet valves to the atmosphere source. A vacuum channel connects inlet valves, the bypass valve and outlet valves to a vacuum source. In use, one bed treats air from the atmosphere source while another bed undergoes regeneration. During regeneration, the inlet, bypass, and outlet valves sequentially open to the vacuum source, removing accumulated moisture and carbon dioxide.

  3. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  4. Meteorologia e poluição atmosférica Meteorology and atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Martins Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentam-se os principais aspectos relacionados à meteorologia ligada ao processo de dispersão turbulenta de poluentes atmosféricos. Ressalta-se que a meteorologia desempenha um papel fundamental para o controle da qualidade do ar, pois os eventos meteorológicos guiam a dispersão de poluentes e sua deposição no solo. Discutem-se os recentes melhoramentos da descrição e previsão dos fenômenos que envolvem a poluição atmosférica considerando a melhoria da qualidade de vida da população.This work shows the main aspects related to the meteorology linked to the process of turbulent dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. It is pointed out that meteorology is fundamental to air quality control, and meteorological events guide the pollutant dispersion and its deposition on the soil. Recent improvements on the description and forecast of the phenomena that involve atmospheric pollution, considering the population quality of life, are discussed.

  5. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  6. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  7. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  8. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, Niklas [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden)]. E-mail: niklas.holmqvist@ekol.lu.se; Stenroth, Patrik [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Berglund, Olof [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Nystroem, Per [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Olsson, Karin [Department of Ecology, Section of Limnology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Jellyman, Don [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd., PO Box 8602, Christchurch (New Zealand); McIntosh, Angus R. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Larsson, Per [Department of Ecology, Section of Ecotoxicology, Ecology Building, Lund University, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use.

  9. The effect of nitrogen additions on bracken fern and its insect herbivores at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Jones; M.E. Fenn; T.D. Paine

    2011-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric pollution, including nitrogen deposition, on bracken fern herbivores has never been studied. Bracken fern is globally distributed and has a high potential to accumulate nitrogen in plant tissue. We examined the response of bracken fern and its herbivores to N fertilization at a high and low pollution site in forests downwind of Los Angeles,...

  10. Investigation of chemical properties and transport phenomena associated with pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Heather A.

    Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to determine which air pollutants are harmful to human health, then regulate, monitor and establish criteria levels for these pollutants. To accomplish this and for scientific advancement, integration of knowledge from several disciplines is required including: engineering, atmospheric science, chemistry and public health. Recently, a shift has been made to establish interdisciplinary research groups to better understand the atmospheric processes that govern the transport of pollutants and chemical reactions of species in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The primary reason for interdisciplinary collaboration is the need for atmospheric processes to be treated as a coupled system, and to design experiments that measure meteorological, chemical and physical variables simultaneously so forecasting models can be improved (i.e., meteorological and chemical process models). This dissertation focuses on integrating research disciplines to provide a more complete framework to study pollutants in the ABL. For example, chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) and the physical processes governing PM distribution and mixing are combined to provide more comprehensive data for source apportionment. Data from three field experiments were utilized to study turbulence, meteorological and chemical parameters in the ABL. Two air quality field studies were conducted on the U.S./Mexico border. The first was located in Yuma, AZ to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PM in an urban environment and relate chemical properties of ambient aerosols to physical findings. The second border air quality study was conducted in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico to investigate the relationship between indoor and outdoor air quality in order to better correlate cooking fuel types and home activities to elevated indoor PM concentrations. The final study was executed in southern Idaho and focused on

  11. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  12. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management.

  13. Magnetic Study on Environmental Samples from Guadalajara Mexico for Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, B.; Cejudo, R.; Bogalo, M. F.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Quintana, P.; Bautista, F.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Morales, J.

    2013-05-01

    Guadalajara is the second bigger city in Mexico, catalogued as critical zone because of atmospheric pollution levels. The magnetic methodology has been largely used as an alternative way to evaluate the pollution levels as well as identify the critical points in a given area. In this work, results from chemical analyses and magnetic measurements are presented in order to show the correlation between magnetic signal and the pollution level. We analyzed three kinds of environmental samples: urban soils, urban dust and leaves from ficus benjamina. Samples were taken in 30 sites distributed along a main avenue and two secondary avenues, including three points with very poor traffic influence. We determined a ferromagnetic carrier in most of samples, magnetite probably, since the Tc calculated from the thermomagnetic curves is around 580 °C. The magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) as well as the Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) correlate well with the heavy metals content, specially Pb in urban dusts. These results allowed us to identify the most affected points, by vehicular traffic and industrial emissions. Furthermore, the values obtained for these magnetic parameters are above of those found in other studies for polluted cities in Europe and Asia.

  14. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Critical levels of atmospheric pollution: criteria and concepts for operational modelling of mercury in forest and lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meili, Markus; Bishop, Kevin; Bringmark, Lage; Johansson, Kjell; Munthe, John; Sverdrup, Harald; de Vries, Wim

    2003-03-20

    Mercury (Hg) is regarded as a major environmental concern in many regions, traditionally because of high concentrations in freshwater fish, and now also because of potential toxic effects on soil microflora. The predominant source of Hg in most watersheds is atmospheric deposition, which has increased 2- to >20-fold over the past centuries. A promising approach for supporting current European efforts to limit transboundary air pollution is the development of emission-exposure-effect relationships, with the aim of determining the critical level of atmospheric pollution (CLAP, cf. critical load) causing harm or concern in sensitive elements of the environment. This requires a quantification of slow ecosystem dynamics from short-term collections of data. Aiming at an operational tool for assessing the past and future metal contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, we present a simple and flexible modelling concept, including ways of minimizing requirements for computation and data collection, focusing on the exposure of biota in forest soils and lakes to Hg. Issues related to the complexity of Hg biogeochemistry are addressed by (1) a model design that allows independent validation of each model unit with readily available data, (2) a process- and scale-independent model formulation based on concentration ratios and transfer factors without requiring loads and mass balance, and (3) an equilibration concept that accounts for relevant dynamics in ecosystems without long-term data collection or advanced calculations. Based on data accumulated in Sweden over the past decades, we present a model to determine the CLAP-Hg from standardized values of region- or site-specific synoptic concentrations in four key matrices of boreal watersheds: precipitation (atmospheric source), large lacustrine fish (aquatic receptor and vector), organic soil layers (terrestrial receptor proxy and temporary reservoir), as well as new and old lake sediments (archives of response

  16. Skill in forecasting extreme ozone pollution episodes with a global atmospheric chemistry model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, J. L.; Holmes, C. D.; Jangam, A.; Prather, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    From the ensemble of stations that monitor surface air quality over the United States and Europe, we identify extreme ozone pollution events and find that they occur predominantly in clustered, multiday episodes with spatial extents of more than 1000 km. Such scales are amenable to forecasting with current global atmospheric chemistry models. We develop an objective mapping algorithm that uses the heterogeneous observations of the individual surface sites to calculate surface ozone averaged over 1° by 1° grid cells, matching the resolution of a global model. Air quality extreme (AQX) events are identified locally as statistical extremes of the ozone climatology and not as air quality exceedances. With the University of California, Irvine chemistry-transport model (UCI CTM) we find there is skill in hindcasting these extreme episodes, and thus identify a new diagnostic using global chemistry-climate models (CCMs) to identify changes in the characteristics of extreme pollution episodes in a warming climate.

  17. Resonance Raman imaging as a tool to assess the atmospheric pollution level: carotenoids in Lecanoraceae lichens as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrondo, I; Prieto-Taboada, N; Martínez-Arkarazo, I; Madariaga, J M

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy differentiation of carotenoids has traditionally been based on the ν 1 position (C = C stretching vibrations in the polyene chain) in the 1500-1600 cm(-1) range, using a 785 nm excitation laser. However, when the number of conjugated double bonds is similar, as in the cases of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, this distinction is still ambiguous due to the closeness of the Raman bands. This work shows the Raman results, obtained in resonance conditions using a 514 mm laser, on Lecanora campestris and Lecanora atra species, which can be used to differentiate and consequently characterize carotenoids. The presence of the carotenoid found in Lecanoraceae lichens has been demonstrated to depend on the atmospheric pollution level of the environment they inhabit. Astaxanthin, a superb antioxidant, appears as the principal xanthophyll in highly polluted sites, usually together with the UV screening pigment scytonemin; zeaxanthin is the major carotenoid in medium polluted environments, while β-carotene is the major carotenoid in cleaner environments. Based on these observations, an indirect classification of the stress suffered in a given environment can be assessed by simply analysing the carotenoid content in the Lecanoraceae lichens by using resonance Raman imaging.

  18. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  19. Huguangyan Maar Lake (SE China): A solid record of atmospheric mercury pollution history in a non-remote region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Chen, Jingan; Yang, Yongqiong; Wang, Jianxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Li, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic metal that can cause harm to environment and human health. As atmospheric deposition is the main source of total Hg input to aquatic system in remote and pristine regions, almost all the studies on atmospheric Hg pollution history concentrated in these areas, while the studies in non-remote areas are much limited, especially for the long history records. In this study, Huguangyan Maar Lake, an undisturbed lake system at low altitude in China, was selected to reconstruct the atmospheric mercury pollution history. Variation patterns of TOC, Hg and non-residual Sr in the sediment core indicated that, compared to the direct atmospheric Hg deposition, the effect of either Hg scavenging from water column by algae or the catchment inputs of previously deposited Hg on the Hg accumulation in the lake sediment was limited. The sediment Hg content in Huguangyan Lake was mainly controlled by the atmospheric Hg deposition, and thus accurately reflected the atmospheric Hg pollution history. The Hga (Hg content from atmospheric deposition) in Huguangyan Lake presented a comparable variation pattern to that in remote sites. It had the same variation trend as the global atmospheric Hg before 1950 CE, which could be attributed to the Industrial Revolution. After that, it was mainly controlled by Hg emissions from Asian countries. The variation of Hga also indicated that atmospheric Hg deposition accelerated significantly since 2000 CE. This study, along with other investigations in remote sites in China, showed that the sediment Hg in Huguangyan Lake responded to the atmospheric Hg pollution more sensitively than in the alpine regions. It should be noted that, the more intensive acceleration of Hg deposition in Huguangyan Lake may imply that the South of China suffered from much more serious atmospheric Hg pollution than previous studies revealed.

  20. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  1. Data on microscale atmospheric pollution of Bolshoy Kamen town (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Maiss, Natalia; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter of Bolshoy Kamen town by means of laser granulometry of snow water samples. Snow sampling points were selected close to major enterprises, along the main streets and roads of the town and in the residential area. The near-ground layer of atmospheric air of the town contains particulate matter of three main size classes: under 10 microns, 10-50 microns and over 700 microns. It is shown that the atmosphere of this town is lightly polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10). Only in 5 sampling points out of 11 we found microparticles potentially hazardous to human health in significant quantities – from 16.2% to 34.6%. On the most territory of the town large particles (over 400 μm) dominate reaching 79.2%. We can conclude that judging by the particle size analysis of snow water samples Bolshoy Kamen town can be considered safe in terms of presence of particles under 10 μm (PM10) in the atmosphere.

  2. Air pollution in Latin America: Bottom-up Vehicular Emissions Inventory and Atmospheric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra Espinosa, S.; Vela, A. V.; Calderon, M. G.; Carlos, G.; Ynoue, R.

    2016-12-01

    Journal of Atmospheric Environment. (1-15) WHO. 2016: WHO Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database (update 2016). http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/

  3. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  4. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  5. Metal concentrations in homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; Han, Shuang; Li, Xinyu

    2017-12-22

    Atmospheric pollution in urban areas is a major worldwide concern with potential adverse impacts on wildlife and humans. Biomonitoring can provide direct evidence of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the environment that is not available with mechanical air monitoring. The current study continues our evaluation of the usefulness of homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. Homing pigeons (1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old (yo)) collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in lung tissue. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations were significantly greater in 9-10+-year-old pigeons compared with those in other age groups, indicating their bioavailability and bioaccumulation. Lung Pb and Cd concentrations measured in 5-yo pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were significantly lower than concentrations reported in 5-yo homing pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2011 and correlated with concentrations measured using mechanical air monitoring. In addition to temporal differences, spatial differences in concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg reported in ambient air samples and in pigeon lung tissues collected from Beijing and Guangzhou are discussed.

  6. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements

  7. Aleppo pine bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in the arid environment of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Alawi, Mu' taz M.; Jiries, Anwar [Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Carreras, Hebe [University of Cordoba, FCEFyN, Cordoba (Argentina); Alawi, Mahmoud [Chemistry Department, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Geography, Environment and Disaster Management, Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Batarseh, Mufeed I.

    2007-11-15

    Monitoring of atmospheric pollution using Aleppo bark as a bioindicator was carried out in the industrial area surrounding the Al-Hussein thermal power station and the oil refinery at Al-Hashimyeh town, Jordan. The concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc, iron, and chromium) were analyzed in bark samples collected from the study area during July 2004. The results showed that high levels of heavy metals were found in tree bark samples retrieved from all studied sites compared with the remote reference site. This is, essentially, due to the fact that the oil refinery and the thermal power plant still use low-quality fuel oil from the by-products of oil refining. Automobile emissions are another source of pollution since the study area is located along a major heavy-traffic highway. It was found that the area around the study sites (Al-Hashimyeh town, Zarqa) is polluted with high levels of heavy metals. Pine bark was found to be a suitable bioindicator of aerial fallout of heavy metals in arid regions. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Atmospheric emissions and pollution from the coal-fired thermal power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

    2014-08-01

    In India, of the 210 GW electricity generation capacity, 66% is derived from coal, with planned additions of 76 GW and 93 GW during the 12th and the 13th five year plans, respectively. Atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired power plants are responsible for a large burden on human health. In 2010-11, 111 plants with an installed capacity of 121 GW, consumed 503 million tons of coal, and generated an estimated 580 ktons of particulates with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2100 ktons of sulfur dioxides, 2000 ktons of nitrogen oxides, 1100 ktons of carbon monoxide, 100 ktons of volatile organic compounds, and 665 million tons of carbon dioxide. These emissions resulted in an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and 20.0 million asthma cases from exposure to PM2.5 pollution, which cost the public and the government an estimated INR 16,000 to 23,000 crores (USD 3.2 to 4.6 billion). The emissions were estimated for the individual plants and the atmospheric modeling was conducted using CAMx chemical transport model, coupled with plume rise functions and hourly meteorology. The analysis shows that aggressive pollution control regulations such as mandating flue gas desulfurization, introduction and tightening of emission standards for all criteria pollutants, and updating procedures for environment impact assessments, are imperative for regional clean air and to reduce health impacts. For example, a mandate for installation of flue gas desulfurization systems for the operational 111 plants could reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by 30-40% by eliminating the formation of the secondary sulfates and nitrates.

  9. A quarter century of biomonitoring atmospheric pollution in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The Czech Republic (CZ) had extremely high emissions and atmospheric deposition of pollutants in the second half of the 1980s. Since the beginning of the 1990s, moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus have been used as bioindicators of air quality. In the first half of the 1990s, seven larger areas were found to be affected by high atmospheric deposition loads. Six of these "hot spots" were caused by industrial pollution sources, mainly situated in coal basins in the NW and NE part of the country, and one large area in the SE was affected by increased deposition loads of eroded soil particles. After restructuring of industry in CZ, these hot spots were substantially reduced or even disappeared between 1995 and 2000. Since 2000, only two larger areas with slightly increased levels of industrial pollutant deposition and a larger area affected by soil dust have repeatedly been identified by biomonitoring. The distribution of lead isotope ratios in moss showed the main deposition zones around important emission sources. Very high SO2 emissions led to extreme acidity of spruce bark extracts (pH of about 2.3) at the end of the 1980s. The rate of increasing bark pH was strikingly similar to the rate of recovery of acid wet deposition measured at forest stations in CZ. By about 2005, when the median pH value in bark increased to about 3.2, the re-colonisation of trees by several epiphyte lichen species was observed throughout CZ. An increase in the accumulation of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in bark was detected at about ten sites affected by precipitation during the time when radioactive plumes crossed CZ (1986). Accumulated deposition loads in forest floor humus corresponded to the position of the moss and bark hot spots.

  10. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  11. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  12. Impacts of atmospheric pollution on the plant communities of British acid grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Richard J., E-mail: r.payne@mmu.ac.uk [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Geography, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stevens, Carly J. [Faculty of Science, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dise, Nancy B. [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Gowing, David J. [Faculty of Science, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pilkington, Michael G.; Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Emmett, Bridget A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Ashmore, Michael R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollutants are recognised as important agents of ecosystem change but few studies consider the effects of multiple pollutants and their interactions. Here we use ordination, constrained cluster analysis and indicator value analyses to identify potential environmental controls on species composition, ecological groupings and indicator species in a gradient study of UK acid grasslands. The community composition of these grasslands is related to climate, grazing, ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition, with evidence for an interaction between the ecological impacts of base cation and nitrogen deposition. Ozone is a key agent in species compositional change but is not associated with a reduction in species richness or diversity indices, showing the subtly different drivers on these two aspects of ecosystem degradation. Our results demonstrate the effects of multiple interacting pollutants, which may collectively have a greater impact than any individual agent. - Highlights: > Ozone exposure, N and base cation deposition modify UK acid grassland composition. > Ozone influences community composition without reducing species richness. > Nitrogen and base cation deposition have interacting impacts. > Distinct species responses to pollutants suggest potential for bioindication. - Ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition have distinct but additive impacts on the plant communities of British acid grasslands.

  13. Numerical study of the effects of local atmospheric circulations on a pollution event over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Liu, Shuhua; Zheng, Yijia; Wang, Shu; Chen, Bicheng; Zheng, Hui; Zhao, Jingchuan

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the Chinese central government is considering plans to build a trilateral economic sphere in the Bohai Bay area, including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (BTH), where haze pollution frequently occurs. To achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to understand the physical mechanism of the haze pollution there. Therefore, the pollutant transport mechanisms of a haze event over the BTH region from 23 to 24 September 2011 were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model and the FLEXible-PARTicle dispersion model to understand the effects of the local atmospheric circulations and atmospheric boundary layer structure. Results suggested that the penetration by sea-breeze could strengthen the vertical dispersion by lifting up the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and carry the local pollutants to the downstream areas; in the early night, two elevated pollution layers (EPLs) may be generated over the mountain areas: the pollutants in the upper EPL at the altitude of 2-2.5 km were favored to disperse by long-range transport, while the lower EPL at the altitude of 1 km may serve as a reservoir, and the pollutants there could be transported downward and contribute to the surface air pollution. The intensity of the sea-land and mountain-valley breeze circulations played an important role in the vertical transport and distribution of pollutants. It was also found that the diurnal evolution of the PBLH is important for the vertical dispersion of the pollutants, which is strongly affected by the local atmospheric circulations and the distribution of urban areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  15. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  17. An advanced analysis and modelling the air pollutant concentration temporal dynamics in atmosphere of the industrial cities: Odessa city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyadzhi, V. V.; Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Ternovsky, V. B.; Serga, I. N.; Bykowszczenko, N.

    2017-10-01

    Results of analysis and modelling the air pollutant (dioxide of nitrogen) concentration temporal dynamics in atmosphere of the industrial city Odessa are presented for the first time and based on computing by nonlinear methods of the chaos and dynamical systems theories. A chaotic behaviour is discovered and investigated. To reconstruct the corresponding strange chaotic attractor, the time delay and embedding dimension are computed. The former is determined by the methods of autocorrelation function and average mutual information, and the latter is calculated by means of correlation dimension method and algorithm of false nearest neighbours. It is shown that low-dimensional chaos exists in the nitrogen dioxide concentration time series under investigation. Further, the Lyapunov’s exponents spectrum, Kaplan-Yorke dimension and Kolmogorov entropy are computed.

  18. Atmospheric mercury pollution around a chlor-alkali plant in Flix (NE Spain): an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, José M; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Díez, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    An integrated analysis approach has been applied to a mercury (Hg) case study on a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River basin, close to the town of Flix (NE Spain). The study focused on atmospheric Hg and its incorporation in soils and lichens close to a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (CAP), which has been operating since the end of the 19th century. Atmospheric Hg present in the area was characterized by means of seven total gaseous mercury (TGM) surveys carried out from 2007 to 2012. Surveys were carried out by car, walking, and at fixed locations, and covered an area of some 12 km(2) (including the CAP area, the village in which workers live, Flix town, and the Sebes Wildlife Reserve). Finally, an atmospheric Hg dispersion model was developed with ISC-AERMOD software validated by a lichen survey of the area. The results for the atmospheric compartment seem to indicate that the Flix area currently has the highest levels of Hg pollution in Spain on the basis of the extremely high average concentrations in the vicinity of the CAP (229 ng m(-3)). Moreover, the Hg(0) plume affects Flix town center to some extent, with values well above the international thresholds for residential areas. Wet and dry Hg deposition reached its highest values on the banks of the Ebro River, and this contributes to increased soil contamination (range 44-12,900 ng g(-1), average 775 ng g(-1)). A good fit was obtained between anomalous areas indicated by lichens and the dispersion model for 1 year.

  19. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter haze pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    height in BTH and its neighboring areas, which are favorable for the formation of haze pollution in BTH winter, and vice versa. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter haze pollution in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take action in advance in dealing with probably severe haze pollution in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  20. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoliu; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong

    2009-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical "pollution" elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP.

  1. [The response of the upper respiratory tract to the impact of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamadiev, R A; Ismagilov, Sh M

    2015-01-01

    The present literature review characterizes the environmental conditions in the Russian Federation in general and the Republic of Tatarstan in particular with special reference to the influence of atmospheric pollution on the development and the clinical picture of the diseases of the respiratory organs including pathology of the upper respiratory tract in the populations of the industrial centres and other environmentally unfriendly areas. The views of the domestic and foreign authors concerning the role of the environmental factors in the clinical picture of the upper respiratory tract disorders are described in detail. The authors emphasize the necessity of the further investigationsinto this problem and the development of the methods for the prevention of diseases of the upper respiratory react.

  2. Inverse atmospheric radiative transfer problems - A nonlinear minimization search method of solution. [aerosol pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The paper studies the inversion of the radiative transfer equation describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atmospheric aerosols. The interaction can be considered as the propagation in the aerosol medium of two light beams: the direct beam in the line-of-sight attenuated by absorption and scattering, and the diffuse beam arising from scattering into the viewing direction, which propagates more or less in random fashion. The latter beam has single scattering and multiple scattering contributions. In the former case and for single scattering, the problem is reducible to first-kind Fredholm equations, while for multiple scattering it is necessary to invert partial integrodifferential equations. A nonlinear minimization search method, applicable to the solution of both types of problems has been developed, and is applied here to the problem of monitoring aerosol pollution, namely the complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles.

  3. Atmospheric pollution over the eastern Mediterranean during summer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dayan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Mediterranean (EM is one of the regions in the world where elevated concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous air pollutants have been reported frequently, mainly in summer. This review discusses published studies of the atmospheric dispersion and transport conditions characterizing this region during the summer, followed by a description of some essential studies dealing with the corresponding concentrations of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen, methane, and sulfate aerosols observed there. The interlaced relationship between the downward motion of the subsiding air aloft induced by global circulation systems affecting the EM and the depth of the Persian Trough, a low-pressure trough that extends from the Asian monsoon at the surface controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the mixed boundary layer during summer, is discussed. The strength of the wind flow within the mixed layer and its depth affect much the amount of pollutants transported and determine the potential of the atmosphere to disperse contaminants off their origins in the EM. The reduced mixed layer and the accompanying weak westerlies, characterizing the summer in this region, led to reduced ventilation rates, preventing an effective dilution of the contaminants. Several studies pointing at specific local (e.g., ventilation rates and regional peculiarities (long-range transport enhancing the build-up of air pollutant concentrations are presented. Tropospheric ozone (O3 concentrations observed in the summer over the EM are among the highest over the Northern Hemisphere. The three essential processes controlling its formation (i.e., long-range transport of polluted air masses, dynamic subsidence at mid-tropospheric levels, and stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange are reviewed. Airborne campaigns and satellite-borne initiatives have indicated that the concentration values of reactive nitrogen identified as precursors in

  4. Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared

  5. Synoptic and climatological analysis of atmospheric circulation impacts on particulate matter pollution in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; Fan, S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the particulate matter characteristics within different circulation types (CTs) in the megacity of Shanghai during the period 2001-2015, and provided a quantitative evaluation of atmospheric circulation influences on PM10 pollution across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from local to region and daily to interannual. Ten CTs were identified over the Asian-Pacific region by objective Lamb Weather Type approach and each resulting CT was characterized with distinct local meteorology and air mass source. The PM10 loadings in the CTs associated with continental westerly flow were significant higher than that in the CTs linked to marine easterly air masses. Regional backgrounds that transported by the synoptic flows were more responsible for the distinct PM10 levels in different CTs. The locally-produced PM10 generally stabilized in range of 20-25 μg m-3, but enhanced to 41.2 μg m-3 in case of anticyclone type. There were distinct PM10 trends in different CTs (ranged from -3.74 to -0.28 μg m-3 yr-1), indicating the different background trends. Overall, the PM10 concentrations have decreased (-2.33 μg m-3 yr-1) in the studied period and the estimated locally-produced trend (-0.79 μg m-3 yr-1) accounted for 33.9% of overall downward trend. The occurrence frequency presented an increase (0.15 % yr-1) for anticyclone type, but a decrease (-0.10 % yr-1) for the type N associated with invasion of cold air. The 15-yr frequency change of atmospheric circulation induced an increase in PM­10 level (0.17 μg m-3) in Shanghai. On the contrary, controls on the pollutant emission had always positive effects and hence should be always encouraged.

  6. An evaluation of atmospheric Nr pollution and deposition in North China after the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. S.; Liu, P.; Tang, A. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Zong, X. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kou, C. L.; Zhang, L. J.; Fowler, D.; Fangmeier, A.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2013-08-01

    North China is known for its large population densities and rapid development of industry and agriculture. Air quality around Beijing improved substantially during the 2008 Summer Olympics. We measured atmospheric concentrations of various Nr compounds at three urban sites and three rural sites in North China from 2010 to 2012 and estimated N dry and wet deposition by inferential models and the rain gauge method to determine current air conditions with respect to reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds and nitrogen (N) deposition in Beijing and the surrounding area. NH3, NO2, and HNO3 and particulate NH4+ and NO3-, and NH4+-N and NO3--N in precipitation averaged 8.2, 11.5, 1.6, 8.2 and 4.6 μg N m-3, and 2.9 and 1.9 mg N L-1, respectively, with large seasonal and spatial variability. Atmospheric Nr (especially oxidized N) concentrations were highest at urban sites. Dry deposition of Nr ranged from 35.2 to 60.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with wet deposition of Nr of 16.3 to 43.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and total deposition of 54.4-103.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The rates of Nr dry and wet deposition were 36.4 and 33.2% higher, respectively, at the urban sites than at the rural sites. These high levels reflect the occurrence of a wide range of Nr pollution in North China and suggest that further strict air pollution control measures are required.

  7. Characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Young; Jo, Wan-Kuen; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Although analysis of long-term data is necessary to obtain reliable information on characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution, it has rarely been performed. Therefore, a long-term evaluation of atmospheric visibility in characteristically different Korean cities, as well as a remote island, during 2001 to 2009, was performed in this study. In general, visibility decreased in the studied areas during the 9-yr study period. In addition, all areas displayed a distinct seasonal trend, with high visibility in the cold season relative to the warm season. Weekday visibility, however, did not significantly differ from weekend visibility. Similarly, the number of days per year for both low (19 km) fluctuated during the study period. Busan (a coastal city) exhibited the highest visibility, with an overall average of 17.6 km, followed by Daegu (a basin city), Ulsan (with concentrated petrochemical industries), Ullungdo (a remote island), and Seoul (the capital of Korea). Visibility was found to be significantly correlated with target air pollutants, except for ozone, for all metropolitan cities, whereas it was significantly correlated only with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone on the remote island (Ullungdo). Among the metropolitan cities, Seoul exhibited the lowest visibility for both the PM10 standard exceedance and non-exceedance days, followed by Ulsan, Daegu, and Busan. The results of this study can be used to establish effective strategies for improving urban visibility and air quality. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnan, Y; Séjalon-Delmas, N; Probst, A

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Atmospheric Cr Pollution as a Factor to Accelerated Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Homa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Cr(VI pollution on the corrosion rate of corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry areas was investigated through simulated laboratory exposure and spectrophotometric detection of Cr(III deposit as a product of the reaction. The total level of Cr detected in the samples ranged from 113.892 ± 0.17 ppm to 53.05 ± 0.243 ppm and showed increasing trend as sampling sites get closer to the tannery and in the direction of tannery effluent stream. The laboratory exposure of a newly manufactured material to a simulated condition showed a relatively faster corrosion rate in the presence of Cr(VI with concomitant deposition of Cr(III under pH control. A significant (P = 0.05 increase in the corrosion rate was also recorded when exposing scratched or stress cracked samples. A coupled redox process where Cr(VI is reduced to a stable, immobile, and insoluble Cr(III accompanying corrosion of the iron is proposed as a possible mechanism leading to the elevated deposition of the latter on the materials. In conclusion, the increased deposits of Cr detected in the corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry zones suggested possible atmospheric Cr pollution as a factor to the accelerated corrosion of the materials.

  10. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Atmospheric Cr Pollution as a Factor to Accelerated Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Dereje; Haile, Ermias

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Cr(VI) pollution on the corrosion rate of corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry areas was investigated through simulated laboratory exposure and spectrophotometric detection of Cr(III) deposit as a product of the reaction. The total level of Cr detected in the samples ranged from 113.892 ± 0.17 ppm to 53.05 ± 0.243 ppm and showed increasing trend as sampling sites get closer to the tannery and in the direction of tannery effluent stream. The laboratory exposure of a newly manufactured material to a simulated condition showed a relatively faster corrosion rate in the presence of Cr(VI) with concomitant deposition of Cr(III) under pH control. A significant (P = 0.05) increase in the corrosion rate was also recorded when exposing scratched or stress cracked samples. A coupled redox process where Cr(VI) is reduced to a stable, immobile, and insoluble Cr(III) accompanying corrosion of the iron is proposed as a possible mechanism leading to the elevated deposition of the latter on the materials. In conclusion, the increased deposits of Cr detected in the corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry zones suggested possible atmospheric Cr pollution as a factor to the accelerated corrosion of the materials. PMID:28469950

  11. The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Hualiang; Zeng, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; You, Jing; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Though rainfall is recognized as one of the main mechanisms to reduce atmospheric particulate pollution, few studies have quantified this effect, particularly the corresponding lag effect and threshold. This study aimed to investigate the association between rainfall and air quality using a distributed lag non-linear model. Daily data on ambient PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and from 2.5 to 10 μm) and meteorological factors were collected in Guangzhou and Xi'an from 2013 to 2014. A better washout effect was found for PM2.5-10 than for PM2.5, and the rainfall thresholds for both particle fractions were 7 mm in Guangzhou and 1 mm in Xi'an. The decrease in PM2.5 levels following rain lasted for 3 and 6 days in Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. Rainfall had a better washout effect in Xi'an compared with that in Guangzhou. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the washout effects of rainfall on particulate pollution, which may help to understand the category and sustainability of dust-haze and enforce anthropogenic control measures in time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Atmospheric Cr Pollution as a Factor to Accelerated Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Dereje; Haile, Ermias; Washe, Alemayehu P

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Cr(VI) pollution on the corrosion rate of corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry areas was investigated through simulated laboratory exposure and spectrophotometric detection of Cr(III) deposit as a product of the reaction. The total level of Cr detected in the samples ranged from 113.892 ± 0.17 ppm to 53.05 ± 0.243 ppm and showed increasing trend as sampling sites get closer to the tannery and in the direction of tannery effluent stream. The laboratory exposure of a newly manufactured material to a simulated condition showed a relatively faster corrosion rate in the presence of Cr(VI) with concomitant deposition of Cr(III) under pH control. A significant (P = 0.05) increase in the corrosion rate was also recorded when exposing scratched or stress cracked samples. A coupled redox process where Cr(VI) is reduced to a stable, immobile, and insoluble Cr(III) accompanying corrosion of the iron is proposed as a possible mechanism leading to the elevated deposition of the latter on the materials. In conclusion, the increased deposits of Cr detected in the corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry zones suggested possible atmospheric Cr pollution as a factor to the accelerated corrosion of the materials.

  13. Extreme abundance ratios in the polluted atmosphere of the cool white dwarf NLTT 19868

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stéphane

    2016-05-01

    We present an analysis of intermediate-dispersion spectra and photometric data of the newly identified cool, polluted white dwarf NLTT 19868. The spectra obtained with X-shooter on the Very Large Telescope-Melipal show strong lines of calcium, and several lines of magnesium, aluminium and iron. We use these spectra and the optical-to-near-infrared spectral energy distribution to constrain the atmospheric parameters of NLTT 19868. Our analysis shows that NLTT 19868 is iron poor with respect to aluminium and calcium. A comparison with other cool, polluted white dwarfs shows that the Fe to Ca abundance ratio (Fe/Ca) varies by up to approximately two orders of magnitudes over a narrow temperature range with NLTT 19868 at one extremum in the Fe/Ca ratio and, in contrast, NLTT 888 at the other extremum. The sample shows evidence of extreme diversity in the composition of the accreted material: in the case of NLTT 888, the inferred composition of the accreted matter is akin to iron-rich planetary core composition, while in the case of NLTT 19868 it is close to mantle composition depleted by subsequent chemical separation at the bottom of the convection zone.

  14. Stable lead isotopes and lake sediments--a useful combination for the study of atmospheric lead pollution history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renberg, I; Brännvall, M L; Bindler, R; Emteryd, O

    2002-06-20

    Analysis of stable lead isotopes and lead concentrations in lake-sediment deposits, not least in varved (annually-laminated) sediments, is a useful method to study lead pollution history. This paper presents details from a study of 31 lakes in Sweden. Using a strong acid digestion of sediment samples and ICP-MS analyses, we have found that Swedish lake sediments have a high natural (pre-pollution) 206[Pb]207[Pb] ratio (mean 1.52+/-0.18, range 1.28-2.01, n=31 lakes). In contrast, atmospheric lead pollution derived from metal smelting processes, coal burning and from alkyl-lead added to petrol has a lower ratio (pollution lead deposition began approximately 3500 years ago, the lead isotope ratio of the sediments started to decline, and in modern sediments it is typically pollution and natural lead in sediment samples can be calculated. The pollution lead records of the Swedish lake sediments show a consistent picture of the atmospheric lead pollution history. Some noticeable features are the Roman peak (approx. 0 AD), the large and permanent Medieval increase (approx. 1000 AD), peaks at approximately 1200 and 1530 AD, the rapid increase after World War II, the peak in the 1970s, and the large modern decline.

  15. Seasonality in the ``grasshopping'' and atmospheric residence times of persistent organic pollutants over the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Elena; Dachs, Jordi

    2008-09-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic, bioaccumulable and semi-volatile compounds that have been detected in all environmental compartments, even in remote pristine regions where they have never been produced or used. Long range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and subsequent deposition is the major route of introduction of POPs to the oceans, including remote regions, and thus to the marine food-webs. It has been suggested that when POPs travel through the atmosphere, they tend to move in stages. This is known as the grasshopper effect, a repeated process of volatilization and deposition, even though the measure of grasshopping potential has been elusive. Here we show the spatial and seasonal variability of the grasshopper and LRAT potentials for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), a significant class of POPs. The number of hops that a chemical undergoes during LRAT over the oceans presents an important spatial and seasonal variability driven by biogeochemical processes occurring in the water column. These results have important implications for the understanding of the widespread distribution and fractionation processes of POPs at the global scale, showing that transport events to remote regions, such the Arctic, are maximized during seasons of low primary productivity.

  16. Detection of Atmospheric Composition Based on Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinye; Tong Yala; Yang Xiaoling; Gong Jiaoli [School of science, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China); Gong Wei, E-mail: yezi.zh@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A summary overview about the types of lidar and their own applications on atmosphere detection is presented. Measurement of atmospheric aerosols by Mie lidar and Raman lidar is focused. The vertical profiles of aerosols in the atmosphere are retrieved. And at the same time, through analyzing aerosol vertical content distribution, the atmosphere boundary layer and the cloud are also observed. All the results show that the lidar has good performance on detecting the atmospheric composition.

  17. Impact of harvesting and atmospheric pollution on nutrient depletion of eastern US hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Adams; J.A. Burger; A.B. Jenkins; L. Zelazny

    2000-01-01

    The eastern hardwood forests of the US may be threatened by the changing atmospheric chemistry and by changes in harvesting levels. Many studies have documented accelerated base cation losses with intensive forest harvesting. Acidic deposition can also alter nutrient cycling in these forests. The combination of increased harvesting, shorter rotations, and more...

  18. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  19. Serum proteins behavior in the urban population from a center with a lead-polluted atmospheric environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casin, I.; Ghelberg, N.W.

    1974-01-01

    Serum protein behavior was determined in an urban population from a center with a lead polluted atmospheric environment. The following increased amounts of serum proteins are found in 94 adult subjects: haptoglobin 75 percent; ceruloplasmin and transferrin 55 percent; IgA (immunoglobulin A) and IgG 40 percent; Igm and beta lc proteins 25 percent.

  20. Evolution of atmospheric pollutants in the city of Sfax (Tunisia) (October 1996-June 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, C. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Sfax (Tunisia)]. E-mail: chafai_azri@yahoo.fr; Maalej, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Departement de Physique, Sfax (Tunisia); Medhioub, K. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), Sfax (Tunisia); Rosset, R. [Laboratoire d' Aerologie UMR CNRS/UPS 5560, Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-15

    The descriptive study related to the evolution of O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NMHC and PM10 concentrations in downtown Sfax showed, during the period October 1996-June 1997, that the city is significantly influenced by many sources and meteorological factors. The diurnal average concentrations of these species let appear at times some peculiarities due to the population local customs and also to particular meteorological conditions associated with predominant strong cyclonic situations (cut-off lows). Based on NO and CH{sub 4}, two species selected respectively as local and synoptic tracers, this descriptive study which is refined by a principal component analysis showed, out from these particular meteorological conditions, three components of the atmospheric pollution: a first component formed by CH{sub 4} and in less degree NMHC showing the impact of synoptic sources, a second component containing NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and in less degree PM10 and NMHC displaying the impact of local sources (vehicle and industrial sources), and finally a third component constituted by O{sub 3} and in less degree PM10 presenting the impact of regional sources. Under the above quoted cyclonic situations, the distribution of such components was shown considerably modified. [Spanish] El estudio descriptivo con relacion a la evolucion de las concentraciones de los compuestos O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NMHC y de los PM10 en la ciudad de Sfax senalo, durante el periodo de octubre 1996 hasta junio 1997, que la ciudad esta fuertemente influenciada por varias fuentes y factores meteorologicos. Las concentraciones diurnas medias de dichas especies mostraron algunas particularidades debidas a las costumbres locales de los habitantes y tambien a las particulares condiciones meteorologicas asociadas a las fuertes situaciones ciclonicas (bajas segregadas). Con base en NO y CH{sub 4}, dos especies seleccionadas como trazadores local y

  1. Simulation of trace metals and PAH atmospheric pollution over Greater Paris: Concentrations and deposition on urban surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouron, L.; Seigneur, C.; Kim, Y.; Legorgeu, C.; Roustan, Y.; Bruge, B.

    2017-10-01

    Urban areas can be subject not only to poor air quality, but also to contamination of other environmental media by air pollutants. Here, we address the potential transfer of selected air pollutants (two metals and three PAH) to urban surfaces. To that end, we simulate meteorology and air pollution from Europe to a Paris suburban neighborhood, using a four-level one-way nesting approach. The meteorological and air quality simulations use urban canopy sub-models in order to better represent the effect of the urban morphology on the air flow, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants to urban surfaces. This modeling approach allows us to distinguish air pollutant deposition among various urban surfaces (roofs, roads, and walls). Meteorological model performance is satisfactory, showing improved results compared to earlier simulations, although precipitation amounts are underestimated. Concentration simulation results are also satisfactory for both metals, with a fractional bias media. Dry deposition fluxes to various urban surfaces are mostly uniform for PAH, which are entirely present in fine particles. However, there is significantly less wall deposition compared to deposition to roofs and roads for trace metals, due to their coarse fraction. Meteorology, particle size distribution, and urban morphology are all important factors affecting air pollutant deposition. Future work should focus on the collection of data suitable to evaluate the performance of atmospheric models for both wet and dry deposition with fine spatial resolution.

  2. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  3. Response of protozoan and microbial communities in various coniferous forest soils after transfer to forests with different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couteaux, M.-M.; Raubuch, M.; Berg, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    During recent decades, forest ecosystems have been exposed to high levels of atmospheric pollution, and it has been argued that this affects the composition and activity of decomposer communities and, subsequently, ecosystem functioning. To investigate the effects of atmospheric pollution on

  4. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  5. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  6. Effect of Meteorology on the Atmospheric Concentrations of Traffic-Related Pollutants in Erzurum, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    , Sevda Ocak; , F. Sezer Turalioglu

    2016-01-01

    The studies of the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological factors can provide important information about air pollution. According to proposed statistical model in this study, daily traffic-related pollutant concentrations are not only inşuenced by daily meteorological parameters but also by the pollutant concentration of previous day. In this study, the relationship between daily CO (carbon monoxide), NOX (nitrogen oxides), O3 (ozone) concentration with the pollutant concentr...

  7. Is Distant Pollution Contaminating Local Air? Analyzing the Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin of aerosols in the atmosphere is important because of visual pollution, climate impacts, and deleterious health effects due to the inhalation of fine particles. This research analyzed aerosols characterized by their chloride, sulfate, and nitrate content as a function of size over a 3-month period. Due to wind patterns over coal-burning power plants, a higher concentration of local sulfate pollution was expected. Aerosols were harvested on the Purdue University campus using a high-volume air sampler with glass fiber filters and a five-stage impactor that separates the aerosols into five sizes. The filters were extracted in water to dissolve anions and the solution was analyzed using high-pressure liquid ion chromatography. Only trace amounts of chloride with no distinct patterns in size were detected. In total, nitrate content ranged from 0.12 to 2.10 μg/m3 and sulfate content ranged from 0.44 to 6.45 μg/m3 over a 3-month period. As for fine particles, a higher concentration of sulfate was observed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model determines air mass origin, and in this study, higher total sulfate content was observed when the air mass moved out of the southwest, and higher total nitrate content was observed when the air mass originated from the southeast. The author concluded that small particles resulted in sulfate from sulfur dioxide, typically from gas to particle conversion. High sulfur dioxide levels are directly correlated with coal-burning power plant density. Small particulate sulfate found in West Lafayette, Indiana, was determined to originate primarily from power plants in southwest Indiana. Though the results do show a significant amount of potentially harmful aerosols in West Lafayette, there is still further research to be done concerning isotopic composition of those particles in attempts to better explain the chemical pathways.

  8. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects in priority watersheds to reduce the impacts of land based sources of pollution on corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to work on understanding and reducing the impacts of land based sources pollution on corals: Input of Sediments and...

  9. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  10. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-12-01

    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  11. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  12. Calculation and analysis of environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from brazilian oil refinery; Calculo e analise dos custos ambientais da poluicao atmosferica emitida por uma refinaria de petroleo brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The present study presents a calculation of the environmental costs associated with the atmospheric pollution from a brazilian oil refinery and its analysis (the name of this oil refinery is confidential, for this reason it will not be mentioned). The calculation of the costs was based on a study of north-american researchers, about the environmental costs of five main atmospheric pollutants: particulate matter, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and carbon monoxide. The original American study offers an statistical analysis of several other American studies about environmental costs of atmospheric pollution, that present maximum, medium and minimum costs. Based on these values, the total environmental costs of the atmospheric pollution from the brazilian oil refinery were calculated, considering a fifty year operational time for the facility. The internalization of the atmospheric pollution environmental costs by the refiners is aligned with the world tendency of enforcement of the environmental limitations faced by the oil refining sector, and therefore, the adoption of a pro-active attitude is recommended by the present study. (author)

  13. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B; Hao, Jiming

    2014-07-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of O3 and NO2 atmospheric pollutants on Platanus x acerifolia pollen: Immunochemical and spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Helena; Costa, Célia; Abreu, Ilda; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of two important oxidizing atmospheric pollutants (O3 and NO2) on the allergenic properties and chemical composition of Platanus x acerifolia pollen were studied. Pollen samples were subjected to O3 and/or NO2 under in vitro conditions for 6h at atmospheric concentration levels (O3: 0.061ppm; NO2: 0.025ppm and the mixture of O3 and NO2: 0.060 and 0.031ppm respectively). Immunoblotting (using Pla a 1 and Pla a 2 antibodies), infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques were used. Immunochemical analysis showed that pollen allergenicity changes were different according to the pollutant tested (gas or mixture of gasses) and that the same pollutant gas may interact in a different manner with each specific allergen. The spectroscopy results showed modifications in the FTIR spectral features of bands assigned to proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides of the pollen exposed to the pollutants, as well as in the XPS spectra high-resolution components C 1s, N 1s, and O 1s. This indicates that while airborne, the pollen wall suffers further modifications of its components induced by air pollution, which can compromise the pollen function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  16. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  17. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    OpenAIRE

    De Vleeschouwer, François; Gérard, Laëtitia; Goormaghtigh, Catherine; Mattielli, Nadine; Le Roux, Gaël; Fagel, Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW...

  18. Ice core record of rising lead pollution in the North Pacific atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osterberg, E; Mayewski, P; Kreutz, K; Fisher, D; Handley, M; Sneed, S; Zdanowicz, C; Zheng, J; Demuth, M; Waskiewicz, M; Bourgeois, J

    2008-01-01

    .... The largest rise in North Pacific Pb pollution from 1970 - 1998 (end of record) is contemporaneous with a decrease in Eurasian and North American Pb pollution as documented in ice core records from Greenland, Devon Island, and the European Alps...

  19. An atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework for environment management and protection based on CAMx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Li, Yu

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an atmospheric vulnerability assessment framework based on CAMx that should be helpful to assess potential impacts of changes in human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements of atmospheric vulnerability. It is also a useful and effective tool that can provide policy-guidance for environmental protection and management to reduce the atmospheric vulnerability. The developed framework was applied to evaluate the atmospheric environment vulnerability of 13 cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region for verification. The results indicated that regional disparity of the atmospheric vulnerability existed in the study site. More specifically, the central and southern regions show more atmospheric environment vulnerability than the northern regions. The impact factors of atmospheric environment vulnerability in the BTH region mainly derived from increasing population press, frequently unfavorable meteorological conditions, extensive economic growth of secondary industry, increased environmental pollution, and accelerating population aging. The framework shown in this paper is an interpretative and heuristic tool for a better understanding of atmospheric vulnerability. This framework can also be replicated at different spatial and temporal scales using context-specific datasets to straightly support environmental managers with decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plants, Pollution and Public Engagement with Atmospheric Chemistry: Sharing the TEMPO Story Through Ozone Garden Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, L. G.; Pippin, M. R.; Malick, E.; Summers, D.; Dussault, M. E.; Wright, E. A.; Skelly, J.

    2016-12-01

    What do a snap-bean plant and a future NASA satellite instrument named TEMPO have in common? They are both indicators of the quality of the air we breathe. Scientists, educators, and museum and student collaborators of the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring Pollution (TEMPO) instrument team are developing a program model to engage learners of all ages via public ozone garden exhibits and associated activities. TEMPO, an ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy instrument due for launch on a geostationary host satellite between 2019 and 2021, will scan North America hourly to measure the major elements in the tropospheric ozone chemistry cycle, providing near real-time data with high temporal and spatial resolution. The TEMPO mission provides a unique opportunity to share the story of the effects of air quality on living organisms. A public ozone garden exhibit affords an accessible way to understand atmospheric science through a connection with nature, while providing a visual representation of the impact of ozone pollution on living organisms. A prototype ozone garden exhibit was established at the Virginia Living Museum in partnership with NASA Langley, and has served as a site to formatively evaluate garden planting and exhibit display protocols, hands-on interpretive activities, and citizen science data collection protocols for learners as young as 3 to 10 as well as older adults. The fun and engaging activities, optimized for adult-child interaction in informal or free-choice learning environments, are aimed at developing foundational science skills such as observing, comparing, classifying, and collecting and making sense of data in the context of thinking about air quality - all NGSS-emphasized scientific practices, as well as key capabilities for future contributing members of the citizen science community. As the launch of TEMPO approaches, a major public engagement effort will include disseminating this ozone garden exhibit and program model to a network of

  1. Accelerator-based chemical and elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, Besim

    Aerosol particles have always been present in the atmosphere, arising from natural sources. But it was not until recently when emissions from anthropogenic (man made) sources began to dominate, that atmospheric aerosols came into focus and the aerosol science in the environmental perspective started to grow. These sources emit or produce particles with different elemental and chemical compositions, as well as different sizes of the individual aerosols. The effects of increased pollution of the atmosphere are many, and have different time scales. One of the effects known today is acid rain, which causes problems for vegetation. Pollution is also a direct human health risk, in many cities where traffic driven by combustion engines is forbidden at certain times when the meteorological conditions are unfavourable. Aerosols play an important role in the climate, and may have both direct and indirect effect which cause cooling of the planet surface, in contrast to the so-called greenhouse gases. During this work a technique for chemical and elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols and an elemental analysis methodology for upper tropospheric aerosols have been developed. The elemental analysis is performed by the ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, PIXE (elements heavier than Al). PESA (C, N and O), cPESA (H) and pNRA (Mg and Na). The chemical speciation of atmospheric aerosols is obtained by ion beam thermography (IBT). During thermography the sample temperature is stepwise increased and the IBA techniques are used to continuously monitor the elemental concentration. A thermogram is obtained for each element. The vaporisation of the compounds in the sample appears as a concentration decrease in the thermograms at characteristic vaporisation temperatures (CVTs). Different aspects of IBT have been examined in Paper I to IV. The features of IBT are: almost total elemental speciation of the aerosol mass, chemical speciation of the inorganic compounds, carbon content

  2. Adsorption and reactions of atmospheric constituents and pollutants on ice particles: an FTIR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakova, A. V.; Marinov, I. L.; Poretskiy, M. S.; Tsyganenko, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    , which act as adsorption sites either as a proton-donor or as a donor of the lone pair of electrons. Such adsorption-induced relaxation explains the dependence of physico-chemical properties of icy particles on the presence of atmospheric gases. Spectra HCN/D2O and ND3/D2O mixed icy films with low (1:10) dopant/water ratios do not manifest any changes in the acidic or basic properties of dangling hydroxyl groups or surface oxygen atoms, but reveal a difference in the proportion between the concentrations of these sites as compared with that for pure water ice. For high dopant concentrations (1:1), the dangling hydroxyls were not observed; the dominant adsorption sites for CO are likely to be the unsaturated oxygen atoms, while serious structural changes occur in the bulk of ices. Ecologically important reactions of atmospheric pollutants such as ozonolysis of ethene, chlorinated ethenes, hydrogen cyanide, and methyl bromide adsorbed on water ice film as well as the influence of UV radiation on this process have been studied in 77 - 200 K temperature range by FTIR spectroscopy. Ozone co-adsorption with ethene or C2H3Cl readily leads to ozonolysis reaction, which also starts for C2H2Cl2 isomers but only at temperatures elevated up to 120 - 150 K. Co-adsorption of O3 with HCN or CH3Br molecules in the dark does not lead to any noticeable spectral changes. Irradiation of HCN or CH3Br deposited on ice films in the presence of ozone leads to appearance of new bands revealing the formation of ozonolysis products. The same "synergetic effect" of simultaneous action of ozone and UV radiation at 77 K, was found for C2H2Cl2 isomers and C2Cl4, which are resistant against O3 even at higher temperatures. The obtained spectral dependence of photo-ozonolysis of C2Cl4 and HCN at 77 K shows that photoexcitation or photodissociation of ozone, evidently, accounts for the observed processes. The surface of ice particles, thus, plays the role of a condenser of atmospheric pollutants and acts

  3. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution – Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition (13C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ13C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ13C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  4. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution - Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition ((13)C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ(13)C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ(13)C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  5. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E.

    2016-01-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~ 3500–3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (> 2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spai...

  6. Effect of cadmium pollution of atmospheric origin on field-grown maize in two consecutive years with diverse weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Angéla; Illés, Bernadett; Soós, G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of atmospheric cadmium (Cd) pollution of atmospheric origin in maize compared to a control without Cd pollution. The plant parameters investigated were the timing of phenological phases, leaf area index (LAI) and yield, while radiation and water regime parameters were represented by albedo (reflection grade) and evapotranspiration, respectively. In treatments with and without irrigation, Cd caused a significant reduction in LAI, accompanied by lower evapotranspiration. The mean annual albedo in the Cd-polluted treatment only rose to a moderate extent in 2011 (in 2010 there was hardly any change), but changes within the year were more pronounced in certain phases of development. Cd led to greater reflection of radiation by plants during the vegetative phase, so the radiation absorption of the canopy was reduced leading to a lower level of evapotranspiration. In the dry, hot year of 2011 maize plants in the non-irrigated treatments showed a substantial reduction in grain dry matter, but maize yield losses could be reduced by irrigation in areas exposed to Cd pollution.

  7. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  8. Atmospheric mercury deposition and its contribution of the regional atmospheric transport to mercury pollution at a national forest nature reserve, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Wang, Dingyong; Du, Hongxia; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Zheng; Wei, Shiqing

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition by wet and dry processes contributes to the transformation of mercury from atmosphere to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Factors influencing the amount of mercury deposited to subtropical forests were identified in this study. Throughfall and open field precipitation samples were collected in 2012 and 2013 using precipitation collectors from forest sites located across Mt. Jinyun in southwest China. Samples were collected approximately every 2 weeks and analyzed for total (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg). Forest canopy was the primary factor on THg and MeHg deposition. Simultaneously, continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were carried out from March 2012 to February 2013 at the summit of Mt. Jinyun. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 3.8 ± 1.5 ng m(-3), which was elevated compared with global background values. Sources identification indicated that both regional industrial emissions and long-range transport of Hg from central, northeast, and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM levels. Precipitation deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Jinyun were slightly higher than those reported in Europe and North America, whereas total fluxes of MeHg and THg under forest canopy on Mt. Jiuyun were 3 and 2.9 times of the fluxes of THg in wet deposition in the open. Highly elevated litterfall deposition fluxes suggest that even in remote forest areas of China, deposition of atmospheric Hg(0) via uptake by vegetation leaf may be a major pathway for the deposition of atmospheric Hg. The result illustrates that areas with greater atmospheric pollution can be expected to have greater fluxes of Hg to soils via throughfall and litterfall.

  9. Levels, sources and chemical fate of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere and snow along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The Antarctic continent is among the most pristine regions; yet various organic contaminants have been measured there routinely. Air and snow samples were collected during the austral spring (October-November, 2010) along the western Antarctic Peninsula and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to assess the relative importance of long-range transport versus local primary or secondary emissions. Highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and DDTs were observed in the glacier's snow sample, highlighting the importance of melting glaciers as a possible secondary source of legacy pollutants to the Antarctic. In the atmosphere, contaminants were mainly found in the vapor phase (>65%). Hexachlorobenzene (33.6 pg/m(3)), PCBs (11.6 pg/m(3)), heptachlor (5.64 pg/m(3)), PBDEs (4.22 pg/m(3)) and cis-chlordane (2.43 pg/m(3)) were the most abundant contaminants. In contrast to other compounds, PBDEs seem to have originated from local sources, possibly the research station itself. Gas-particle partitioning for analytes were better predicted using the adsorption partitioning model than an octanol-based absorption approach. Diffusive flux calculations indicated that net deposition is the dominant pathway for PBDEs and chlordanes, whereas re-volatilization from snow (during melting or metamorphosis) was observed for PCBs and some OCPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao

    2012-09-01

    In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features

  11. Quantifying stability influences on air pollution in Lanzhou, China, using a radon-based "stability monitor": Seasonality and extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenjuan; Chambers, Scott D.; Zhang, Zhenyi; Williams, Alastair G.; Deng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hua; Lonati, Giovanni; Crawford, Jagoda; Griffiths, Alan D.; Ianniello, Antonietta; Allegrini, Ivo

    2016-11-01

    A recently-developed radon-based technique is modified to quantify the seasonal influences of atmospheric stability on urban emissions in Lanzhou, China, based on 11 months of observations at three sites with contrasting pollution characteristics. Near-surface concentrations of primary (CO, SO2, NOx) and secondary (O3) gas phase pollutants responded to changing atmospheric stability in markedly different ways in winter and summer, primarily because monsoonal fetch changes strongly influenced the distance between measurement sites and their nearest upwind pollutant sources, but also due to mean diurnal changes in mixing depth. Typically, morning peak primary pollution concentrations increased by a factor of 2-5 from the most well-mixed to stable conditions, whereas nocturnal ozone concentrations reduced with increasing stability due to surface loss processes and the progressively reduced coupling between the nocturnal boundary layer and overlying free atmosphere. The majority of pollution exceedance events (cf. China National Air Quality Standard guideline values) occurred in winter, when all measurement stations were downwind of the city's main pollution sources, and were directly attributed to morning periods and stable atmospheric conditions. In the sheltered valley region of Lanzhou, extremes of winter nocturnal stability states represented a change in mean nocturnal wind speed of only 0.25 m s-1 (from 0.6 to 0.85 m s-1). Daily-integrated PM10 concentrations increased by a factor of 2 in winter from the most well-mixed to stable conditions, and were usually above guideline values at the industrial and residential sites for all atmospheric stability conditions. In summer, however, daily mean PM10 exceedances usually only occurred at the industrial site, under stable conditions. Finally, a simple model - based on mean radon concentrations between 1900 and 0400 h - is proposed to predict haze conditions in the city prior to commencement of the peak morning

  12. An index for estimating the potential metal pollution contribution to atmospheric particulate matter from road dust in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Shao, Yaping; Yin, Chengqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Xuyong

    2016-04-15

    The resuspension of road dust from street surfaces could be a big contributor to atmospheric particulate pollution in the rapid urbanization context in the world. However, to date what its potential contribution to the spatial pattern is little known. Here we developed an innovative index model called the road dust index (RIBeijing region to assess the spatial distribution of the potential risks posed by metals associated with road dust on atmospheric suspended particles. The results demonstrated that the road dust in urban areas has higher potential risk of metal to atmospheric particles than that in rural areas. The RIpollution caused by road dust emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips to measure the severity levels of air pollutants in indoor and outdoor atmospheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foax, LJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Severity levels of air pollutants rich in oxides, chlorides and sulphides were successfully measured in indoor and outdoor atmospheres using pure copper and silver coupon corrosivity monitoring (CCM) metal strips when the maximum exposure periods...

  14. Forward research on transmission characteristics of near-surface particulate-matter-polluted atmosphere in mining area combined with CFD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Yanming; Shi, Guoqing

    2015-07-27

    The optical radiation and radiation transfer characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in mining area of northwest China were simulated and analyzed in this paper. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was adopted to simulate the distribution of PM considering the local desertification and mining activities. The 1-D radiative transfer equation was solved using discrete ordinates method combined with Mie scattering model based on the CFD simulation results. The spectral aerosol optical depth and transmission characteristics of PM polluted atmosphere in the wavelength of 1-25μm under different intensity of dust releases, wind speeds and dust compositions were obtained and analyzed. The simulation results show that: the transmission characteristics are obviously enhanced with the increase of wind speed and sand particles' proportion but greatly decreased with the increase of the intensity of dust release.

  15. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  16. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María, E-mail: mhijv@unileon.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Molina, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.molina@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Química Avanzada de Cataluña (IQAC), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Schikora, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.schikora@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Michael, E-mail: michael.mueller@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bayona, Josep M., E-mail: josep.bayona@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • DBD plasma reactors were used to remove pollutants from aqueous solutions. • Atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol and lindane were studied. • First-order degradation kinetics were observed for all the compounds. • Degradation by-products were identified by GC–MS. • Treatment efficiencies were lower in industrial wastewater than in pure water. -- Abstract: Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1–5 mg L{sup −1}) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.567 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min{sup −1} for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.523 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min{sup −1} for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for atrazine; 447 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by-products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min{sup −1} for atrazine; k = 0.061 min{sup −1} for lindane)

  17. Modelling dynamics of atmosphere ventilation and industrial city’s air pollution analysis: New approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Agayar, E. V.; Buyadzhi, V. V.; Romanova, A. V.; Mansarliysky, V. F.

    2017-10-01

    We present a new effective approach to analysis and modelling the natural air ventilation in an atmosphere of the industrial city, which is based on the Arakawa-Schubert and Glushkov models, modified to calculate the current involvement of the ensemble of clouds, and advanced mathematical methods of modelling an unsteady turbulence in the urban area. For the first time the methods of a plane complex field and spectral expansion algorithms are applied to calculate the air circulation for the cloud layer arrays, penetrating into the territory of the industrial city. We have also taken into account for the mechanisms of transformation of the cloud system advection over the territory of the urban area. The results of test computing the air ventilation characteristics are presented for the Odessa city. All above cited methods and models together with the standard monitoring and management systems can be considered as a basis for comprehensive “Green City” construction technology.

  18. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  19. A chemometric approach to the evaluation of atmospheric and fluvial pollutant inputs in aquatic systems: The Guadalquivir River estuary as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Lopez, Jose A.; Garcia-Vargas, Manuel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Moreno, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.moreno@uca.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    To establish the quality of waters it is necessary to identify both point and non-point pollution sources. In this work, we propose the combination of clean analytical methodologies and chemometric tools to study discrete and diffuse pollution caused in a river by tributaries and precipitations, respectively. During a two-year period, water samples were taken in the Guadalquivir river (selected as a case study) and its main tributaries before and after precipitations. Samples were characterized by analysing nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen, total and volatile suspended solids, carbon species, and heavy metals. Results were used to estimate fluvial and atmospheric inputs and as tracers for anthropic activities. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate the background pollution, and to identify pollution inputs. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were used as data exploratory tools, while box-whiskers plots and Linear Discriminant Analysis were used to analyse and distinguish the different types of water samples. - Highlights: > Atmospheric and fluvial inputs of pollutants in Guadalquivir River were identified. > Point (tributary rivers) and non-point sources (rains) were studied. > Nature and extension of anthropogenic pollution in the river were established. - By combining trace environmental analysis and selected chemometric tools atmospheric and fluvial inputs of pollutants in rivers may be identified. The extension of the pollution originated by each anthropic activity developed along the River may be established, as well as the identification of the pollution introduced into the river by the tributary rivers (point sources) and by rains (non-point sources).

  20. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    The current global climate change is determined by changes in the structure of weather conditions, whose impact on the health of various regions of the planet has not been studied sufficiently. To study this effect on the low-altitude mountains resort of Kislovodsk (southern Russia) multi-factor assessment of the impact of the environment on human health is carried out. There were taking in account atmosphere condition, atmospheric aerosol pollution relationship with atmospheric circulation, the level of pollution matching with different types of weather, and, on the base of analysis of meteopathic reactions (MPR), the extent of their biotropism was revealed. Two sides of weather-climatic influences - specific and nonspecific - are interconnected. They manifest themselves differently in humans with different levels of regulation of vital activity and the adaptive capacity of the organism to the complex environmental effects. This complicates the precise physiological basis of quantitative criteria for the prediction of "biotropic" (adverse) weathers. Nevertheless, clinical observations have shown the existence of the "limiting" physiological bound on the size of medical-meteorological modules (MMM). The reactions of the organism to unfavorable weather factors on the results of a questionnaire monitoring surveillance of patients treated in clinics of Federal State Institution "Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Curortology, FMBA of Russia" (PSRIC), in comparison with clinical data, have identified various MPR of the organism, the clinical manifestation of which depends on age, sex of the patient, the availability of principal and attendant pathology, reactivity, etc. Analysis of the results of clinical observation, cases of medical aid appealability to the station an ambulance at the sudden ill health, as well as the uptake of advice of sick people among immigrants during their short stay at the resort, and the local population, allowed the first approximation

  1. A joint prevention and control mechanism for air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in china based on long-term and massive data mining of pollutant concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun

    2018-02-01

    China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region suffers from the country's worst air pollution. The problem has caused widespread concern both at home and abroad. Based on long-term and massive data mining of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration, we found that these pollutants showed similar variations in four seasons, but the most severe pollution was in winter. Through cluster analysis of the winter daily average concentration (DAC) of the two pollutants, we defined regions with similar variations in pollutant concentrations in winter. For the most polluted cities in BTH, the relationship between correlation coefficients for winter DAC and the distance between cities revealed that PM2.5 has regional, large-scale characteristics, with concentrated outbreaks, whereas PM10 has local, small-scale characteristics, with outbreaks at multiple locations. By selecting the key cities with the strongest linear relationship between the pollutant's DAC of each city and the daily individual air quality index values of the BTH region and through cluster analysis on the correlations between the pollutant DACs of the key cities, we defined regional divisions suitable for Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program to control PM2.5 and PM10. Comprehensively considering the degree of influence of regional atmospheric pollution control (RAPC) on air quality in BTH, as well as the elasticity and urgency of RAPC, we defined the control grades of the JPCAP regions. We found both the regions and corresponding control grades were consistent for PM2.5 and PM10. The thinking and methods of atmospheric pollution control we proposed will have broad significance for implementation of RAPC in other regions around the world.

  2. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  3. Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Atmospheric Cr Pollution as a Factor to Accelerated Corrosion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dereje Homa; Ermias Haile; Alemayehu P. Washe

    2017-01-01

    The effect of Cr(VI) pollution on the corrosion rate of corrugated iron roof samples collected from tanning industry areas was investigated through simulated laboratory exposure and spectrophotometric detection of Cr(III...

  4. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  5. Modelling of pollution dispersion in atmosphere; Modelowanie procesow propagacji skazen w atmosferze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Stankiewicz, R.

    1994-12-31

    The paper contains the review of the mathematical foundation of atmospheric dispersion models. The atmospheric phenomena relevant to atmospheric dispersion model are discussed. In particular the parametrization of processes with time and space scales smaller than numerical grid size, limited by available computer power, is presented. The special attention was devoted to similarity theory and parametrization of boundary layer. The numerical methods are analysed and the drawbacks of the method are presented. (author). 99 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  6. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution: a novel approach for the evaluation of natural and anthropogenic contribution to atmospheric aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Rosa; Calamita, Giuseppe; Sabia, Serena; Trippetta, Serena

    2017-03-01

    The investigation of the potential natural and anthropogenic contribution to atmospheric aerosol particles by using lichen-bag technique was performed in the Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). This is an area of international concern since it houses one of the largest European on-shore reservoirs and the biggest oil/gas pre-treatment plant (i.e., Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA)) within an anthropized context. In particular, the concentrations of 17 trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti, and Zn) were measured in lichen bags exposed in 59 selected monitoring points over periods of 6 months (from October 2011 to April 2012) and 12 months (from October 2011 to October 2012). The general origin of the main air masses affecting the sampling site during the study period was assessed by the back trajectories clustering calculated using the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. The results allowed the identification and characterization of the crustal material, smoke, sea salt, sulfate, and anthropogenic trace element contributions to the atmospheric aerosol particles in the study area. Finally, the application of the trend surface analysis (TSA) allowed the study of the spatial distribution of the considered contributions highlighting the existence of a continuous broad variation of these contributions in the area of interest.

  7. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  8. Ensemble-based Experimental Atmospheric Reanalysis using a Global Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, N.; Enomoto, T.; Miyoshi, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Kuwano-Yoshida, A.; Taguchi, B.

    2016-02-01

    To enhance the capability of the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with the Atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) for the Earth Simulator (AFES), a new system has been developed by replacing AFES with the Coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM for the Earth Simulator (CFES). An initial test of the prototype of the CFES-LETKF system has been completed successfully, assimilating atmospheric observational data (NCEP PREPBUFR archived at UCAR) every 6 hours to update the atmospheric variables, whereas the oceanic variables are kept unchanged throughout the assimilation procedure. An experimental retrospective analysis-forecast cycle with the coupled system (CLERA-A) starts on August 1, 2008, and the atmospheric initial conditions (63 members) are taken from the second generation of AFES-LETKF experimental ensemble reanalysis (ALERA2). The ALERA2 analyses are also used as forcing of stand-alone 63-member ensemble simulations with the Ocean GCM for the Earth Simulator (EnOFES), from which the oceanic initial conditions for the CLERA-A are taken. The ensemble spread of SST is larger in CLERA-A than in EnOFES, suggesting positive feedback between the ocean and the atmosphere. Although SST in CLERA-A suffers from the common biases among many coupled GCMs, the ensemble spreads of air temperature and specific humidity in the lower troposphere are larger in CLERA-A than in ALERA2. Thus replacement of AFES with CFES successfully contributes to mitigate an underestimation of the ensemble spread near the surface resulting from the single boundary condition for all ensemble members and the lack of atmosphere-ocean interaction. In addition, the basin-scale structure of surface atmospheric variables over the tropical Pacific is well reconstructed from the ensemble correlation in CLERA-A but not ALERA2. This suggests that use of a coupled GCM rather than an atmospheric GCM could be important even for atmospheric reanalysis with an ensemble-based data assimilation system.

  9. Atmospheric Pollution from Shipping and Oil platforms of West Africa (APSOWA) observed during the airborne DACCIWA campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak-Tong, Gisèle; Brocchi, Vanessa; Catoire, Valéry; Stratmann, Greta; Sauer, Daniel; Deroubaix, Adrien; Deetz, Konrad; Schlager, Hans

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the European DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project, the airborne study APSOWA (Atmospheric Pollution from Shipping and Oil platforms of West Africa) has been conducted in July 2016 to study emissions from oil rigs and maritime traffic in the Gulf of Guinea. The measurements were performed during four flights of about 3-4 hours including meandering transects through emission plumes in the planetary boundary layer (around 300 m asl) off the coast of West Africa from Ivory Coast to Togo. Several instruments have been used on-board the DLR Falcon-20, providing measurements of the pollutants O3, CO, NO2, SO2, aerosol content and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local air pollution. The first part of our study is focused on the FPSO Kwame Nkrumah facility operating in the Jubilee oil field off the coast of Ghana. Aircraft observations have been combined with a nested-grid regional scale Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) to estimate surface emission fluxes from this platform. A simplified inverse method is used and repeated until the modelling output and aircraft observations converged. The estimated fluxes of CO, SO2, NO2 are compared to global (EDGAR, MACCity) and regional (Deetz and Vogel, 2017, in press) inventories. A second part of the study provides the first results of the APSOWA flights for the study of the impact of shipping emissions on the regional air quality. Using data from Marine Traffic, ship positions during the campaign are identified. Then, FLEXPART is used to quantify the contributions of the ship emissions to the aircraft observations. Finally, direct measurements in the MBL around 4°N latitude along the Ghana coast show no strong evidence of the presence of an atmospheric pollution maritime corridor simulated by MACCity.

  10. Upconversion-based lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Fix, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2016-01-01

    For the first time an upconversion based detection scheme is demonstrated for lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2-concentrations, with a hard target at a range of 3 km and atmospheric backscatter from a range of similar to 450 m. The pulsed signals at 1572 nm are upconverted to 635 nm...

  11. Using high-frequency sampling to detect effects of atmospheric pollutants on stream chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; Elizabeth W. Boyer

    2009-01-01

    We combined information from long-term (weekly over many years) and short-term (high-frequency during rainfall and snowmelt events) stream water sampling efforts to understand how atmospheric deposition affects stream chemistry. Water samples were collected at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT, a temperate upland forest site that receives elevated atmospheric...

  12. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  13. Source apportionment of gaseous atmospheric pollutants by means of an absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, P.; Caselli, M.; de Gennaro, G.; Traini, A. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Bari (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    A multivariate statistical method has been applied to apportion the atmospheric pollutant concentrations measured by automatic gas analyzers placed on a mobile laboratory for air quality monitoring in Taranto (Italy). In particular, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by Absolute Principal Component Scores (APCS) technique was performed to identify the number of emission sources and their contribution to measured concentrations of CO, NO{sub x}, benzene toluene m+p-Xylene (BTX). This procedure singled out two different sources that explain about 85% of collected data variance. (orig.)

  14. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in speleothems as proxies for atmospheric metal pollution since the Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Mohammed; Fagel, Nathalie; Van Rampelbergh, Maïte; Baldini, James; Riotte, Jean; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Lawrence; Gillikin, David; Quinif, Yves; Verheyden, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Lead concentrations and isotope ratios from two speleothems from the Han-sur-Lesse cave in southern Belgium were measured in order to study the ability of speleothems to act as archives of atmospheric pollution. To address this aim we analyzed trace elemental Al and Pb compositions by LA-ICP-MS and ICP-MS as well as Pb isotopes by MC-ICP-MS. The results help to identify three intervals characterized by particularly high enrichment of Pb: from 1880 to 1905 AD, from 1945 to 1965 AD, and from 19...

  15. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  16. Pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a new urban district of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Zhonghuan; Wu, Minmin; Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Shiqi; Yin, Jing; Zhou, Yanchi; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focused on the pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a new urban district of Nanjing, China. Gaseous and aerosol PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5μm) samples were collected in spring of 2015. Sixteen PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. Firstly, arithmetic mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq (benzo[a]pyrene equivalent) were calculated. The mean concentrations of PAHs were 29.26±14.13, 18.14±5.37 and 48.47±16.03ng/m3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. The mean concentrations of BaPeq were 0.87±0.51, 2.71±2.17 and 4.06±2.31ng/m3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. Secondly, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis were adopted to identify the sources of PAHs and the outcomes were the same: traffic exhaust was the predominant source followed by fuel combustion and industrial process. Finally, incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure to PAHs for population groups of different age and gender were estimated based on a Monte Carlo simulation. ILCR values caused by particle phase PAHs were greater than those caused by gas phase PAHs. ILCR values for adults were greater than those for other age groups. ILCR values caused by total (gas+particle) PAHs for diverse groups were all greater than the significant level (l0-6), indicating high potential lung cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis results showed that cancer slope factor for BaP inhalation exposure and BaPeq concentration had greater impact than body weight and inhalation rate on the ILCR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The IPAC-NC field campaign: a pollution and oxidization pool in the lower atmosphere over Huabei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, regional air pollution characterized by photochemical smog and grey haze-fog has become a severe environmental problem in China. To investigate this, a field measurement campaign was performed in the Huabei region, located between 32–42° N latitude in eastern China, during the period 2 April–16 May 2006 as part of the project "Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China" (IPAC-NC. It appeared that strong pollution emissions from urban and industrial centers tend to accumulate in the lower atmosphere over the central area of Huabei. We observed widespread, very high SO2 mixing ratios, about 20–40 ppbv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude and 10–30 ppbv at 1.5–3.0 km altitude. Average CO mixing ratios were 0.65–0.7 ppmv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude, and very high CO around 1 ppmv was observed during some flights, and even higher levels at the surface. We find the high pollution concentrations to be associated with enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals, calculated with a chemical box model constrained by the measurements. In the upper part of the boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere, high CO and SO2 compete with relatively less NO2 in reacting with OH, being efficiently recycled through HO2, preventing a net loss of HOx radicals. In addition to reactive hydrocarbons and CO, the oxidation of SO2 causes significant ozone production over Huabei (up to ~13% or 2.0 ppbv h−1 at 0.8 km altitude. Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere over Huabei is not only strongly polluted but also acts as an oxidation pool, with pollutants undergoing very active photochemistry over this part of China.

  18. Horizontal Advection and Mixing of Pollutants in the Urban Atmospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, S. P.; Entekhabi, D.; Britter, R.; Norford, L.; Fernando, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Although urban air quality and its impacts on the public health have long been studied, the increasing urbanization is raising concerns on how to better control and mitigate these health impacts. A necessary element in predicting exposure levels is fundamental understanding of flow and dispersion in urban canyons. The complex topology of building structures and roads requires the resolution of turbulence phenomena within urban canyons. The use of dense and low porosity construction material can lead to rapid heating in response to direct solar exposure due to large thermal mass. Hence thermal and buoyancy effects may be as important as mechanically-forced or shear-induced flows. In this study, the transport of pollutants within the urban environment, as well as the thermal and advection effects, are investigated. The focus is on the horizontal transport or the advection effects within the urban environment. With increased urbanization and larger and more spread cities, concern about how the upstream air quality situation can affect downstream areas. The study also examines the release and the dispersion of hazardous material. Due to the variety and complexity of urban areas around the world, the urban environment is simplified into adjacent two-dimensional urban street canyons. Pollutants are released inside each canyon. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are applied to evaluate and quantify the flow rate out of each canyon and also the exchange of pollutants between the canyons. Imagine a row of ten adjacent urban street canyons of aspect ratio 1 with horizontal flow perpendicular to it as shown in the attached figure. C is the concentration of pollutants. The first digit indicates in what canyon the pollutant is released and the second digit indicates the location of that pollutant. For example, C3,4 is the concentration of pollutant released inside canyon 3 measured in canyon 4. The same amount of pollution is released inside the ten street canyons

  19. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulfert, G.

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  20. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei

    2013-05-15

    Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to diffuse pollution in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianlin; Liu, Jieyun; Li, Yong; Li, Yuyuan; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Jinshui

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is currently high and meanwhile diffuse N pollution is also serious in China. The correlation between N deposition and riverine N export and the contribution of N deposition to riverine N export were investigated in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China over a two-year period. N deposition was as high as 26.1 to 55.8kgN/(ha·yr) across different land uses in the studied catchment, while the riverine N exports ranged from 7.2 to 9.6kgN/(ha·yr) in the forest sub-catchment and 27.4 to 30.3kgN/(ha·yr) in the agricultural sub-catchment. The correlations between both wet N deposition and riverine N export and precipitation were highly positive, and so were the correlations between NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N wet deposition and riverine NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N exports except for NH4(+)-N in the agricultural sub-catchment, indicating that N deposition contributed to riverine N export. The monthly export coefficients of atmospheric deposited N from land to river in the forest sub-catchment (with a mean of 14%) presented a significant positive correlation with precipitation, while the monthly contributions of atmospheric deposition to riverine N export (with a mean of 18.7% in the agricultural sub-catchment and a mean of 21.0% in the whole catchment) were significantly and negatively correlated with precipitation. The relatively high contribution of N deposition to diffuse N pollution in the catchment suggests that efforts should be done to control anthropogenic reactive N emissions to the atmosphere in hilly red soil regions in southern China. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Atmospheric depositions of persistent pollutants: methodological aspects and values from case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Settimo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deposition monitoring, already in use by government control organizations of various countries, contributes to an important increase in experimental knowledge on pollutant deposition fluxes, on their environmental fate and on the possible effects on human health. At the European level, the necessity to consider with extreme attention the environmental contamination due to deposition, has brought to adopt a series of legislative measures and recommendations; this has contributed to set up environmental surveillance systems and monitoring campaigns for a series of pollutants which may accumulate in the environment as persistent organic pollutants (POPs and for metals. More recently, with DL.vo 155/2010, the necessity to consider, in the development of monitoring stations, the possibility to detect also data on deposition rates which represent a non-direct exposure of the population through the food chain. For sampling the Decree considers only two types of depositions: for total deposition (bulk and Bergerhoff and wet only deposition.

  3. Online vehicle and atmospheric pollution monitoring using GIS and wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordova-Lopez, L E; Mason, A; Cullen, J D; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma' a, A I [Liverpool John Moores University General Engineering Research Institute, RF and Microwave Group, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer system designed to integrate, store, edit, analyse, share and display geographically referenced data. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. This paper presents the integration of these two technologies to create a system able to detect measure and transmit information regarding the presence and quantities of internal combustion derived pollution and the geographical location in real time with the aim of creating pollution maps in urban environments.

  4. 1-hour time resolution data of PM2.5 composition and gaseous precursors in background Milan: pollution sources and atmospheric processes, and their implications for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Alessandro; Bianchi, Federico; De Gennaro, Gianluigi; Di Gilio, Alessia; Fermo, Paola; Ghermandi, Grazia; Prévôt, André; Urbani, Monia; Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta; Piazzalunga, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Aim of this study is the investigation of processes leading to atmospheric pollutants formation and ageing in Milan, Po valley, i.e. one of the main hotspot region in Europe. Few 1-hour time resolution campaigns were accomplished in Milan urban area and none of these dealt with simultaneous characterization of atmospheric pollutants in both gas and particle phase. The present study is based on a thorough analysis of hourly data of atmospheric pollutants and of main PM2.5 compounds, and it includes several soluble inorganic aerosols (Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, NH4+), gases (HCl, HNO2, HNO3, NH3, NO, NO2, O3, SO2) organic, elemental and black carbon and meteorological parameters. The data proceed from an intensive sampling campaign in urban background Milan in summer 2012 (Bigi et al., 2017). Data analysis methods used include mean diurnal pattern on weekdays and Sundays, pollution roses, bivariate polar plots and statistical models using backtrajectories. Results show how nitrous acid (HONO) was mainly formed heterogeneously at nighttime, with a dependence of its formation rate on NO2 consistent with observations during the last HONO campaign in Milan in summer 1998, although since 1998 a drop in HONO levels occurred following to the decrease of its precursors. Nitrate showed two main formation mechanisms: one occurring through N2O5 at nighttime and leading to nitrate formation onto existing particles; another occurring both daytime and nighttime following the homogeneous reaction of ammonia gas with nitric acid gas. Air masses reaching Milan influenced nitrate formation depending on their content in ammonia and the timing of arrival. Notwithstanding the low level of SO2 in Milan, its peaks were associated to point source emissions in the Po valley or shipping and power plant emissions SW of Milan, beyond the Apennines. A distinctive pattern for HCl was observed, featured by an afternoon peak and a morning minimum, and best correlated to

  5. Atmospheric processes of organic pollutants over a remote lake on the central Tibetan Plateau: implications for regional cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Chuanfei; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric processes (air-surface exchange, and atmospheric deposition and degradation) are crucial for understanding the global cycling and fate of organic pollutants (OPs). However, such assessments over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remain uncertain. More than 50 % of Chinese lakes are located on the TP, which exerts a remarkable influence on the regional water, energy, and chemical cycling. In this study, air and water samples were simultaneously collected in Nam Co, a large lake on the TP, to test whether the lake is a secondary source or sink of OPs. Lower concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed in the atmosphere and lake water of Nam Co, while the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were relatively higher. Results of fugacity ratios and chiral signatures both suggest that the lake acted as the net sink of atmospheric hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), following their long-range transport driven by the Indian monsoon. Different behaviours were observed in the PAHs, which primarily originated from local biomass burning. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and fluorene showed volatilization from the lake to the atmosphere, while other PAHs were deposited into the lake due to the integrated deposition process (wet/dry and air-water gas deposition) and limited atmospheric degradation. As the dominant PAH compound, phenanthrene exhibited a seasonal reversal of air-water gas exchange, which was likely related to the melting of the lake ice in May. The annual input of HCHs from the air to the entire lake area (2015 km2) was estimated as 1.9 kg yr-1, while input estimated for ∑ 15PAHs can potentially reach up to 550 kg yr-1. This study highlights the significance of PAH deposition on the regional carbon cycling in the oligotrophic lakes of the TP.

  6. Atmospheric pollution maps to aid policy-making and focus research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olbrich, K

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address and integrate the three main components of the air pollution problem in South Africa: assessment and measurement of air quality, evaluation of the effects of poor air quality, and management of air quality....

  7. Laser technology to monitor atmospheric pollution. Tecnologia laser para medicion de la contaminacion atmosferica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerao, A.; Caceci, M.

    1993-01-01

    Air quality and pollution can be monitored in a reliable way using LIDAR. Light detection and measurement by using a Laser beam can identify gases, particles, smoke, water vapor and other contaminants. Radiance and directionality of the laser beam are useful for this application. Activities of CISE in this field are presented.

  8. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  9. [Pollution Level and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particles PM₂.₅ in Southwest Suburb of Chengdu in Spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Yang, Huai-jin; Zhang, Ju; Yin, Wei-wen; Li, Xiao-fen

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics of PM₂.₅ pollution in the atmosphere of Chengdu southwest suburb, PM₂.₅ particles in Chengdu southwest suburb were collected and analyzed from March 18 to March 31st, 2015. The results showed that the daily average concentration of PM₂.₅ in the southwest suburb of Chengdu reached 121.21 µg · m⁻³, and the average daily concentration of 24 samples in 31 PM₂.₅ samples was over 75 µg · m⁻³, the daily excessive rate was 77%, indicating the PM₂.₅ pollution in the study area was serious in March. When studying the relationship between atmospheric and meteorological factors, it was found that there was a significant index correlation between PM₂.₅ concentration and atmospheric visibility, and it had a positive correlation with temperature and humidity, but the correlation was not obvious. NH₄⁺ (16.24%), SO₄²- (12.58%) and NO₃⁻ (9.91%) were dominant in PM₂.₅ The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ was 0.77, which indicated that the pollution of stationary sources in the southwest suburb was more severe than that of mobile sources. Organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) ratios were higher than 2, which indicated the existence of second organic carbon (SOC). Using OC/EC ratio method to estimate the concentration of SOC, it was found that the average concentration of SOC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu in March was 3.49 µ · m⁻³, and the contribution rate of OC was 20.6%, which showed that the main source of OC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu was primary discharge. The correlation analysis of OC and EC showed that the correlation coefficient reached 0.95, indicating that the OC and EC sources were similar and relatively stable, and there was a great impact of local source emissions on Chengdu southwest suburb in spring, and primary discharge played a dominant role, while the contribution of SOC to OC was relatively small, which was consistent with the SOC characteristics obtained

  10. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, Susanna; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and phenology. On a global scale, our results show that global land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse) by ˜ 9 %. At a regional scale, GPP and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols in regions where forested canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Eurasia, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources) enhance GPP by +5-8 % on an annual average. In the northwestern Amazon Basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2-5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the northwestern Amazon Basin during the dry-fire season (+5-8 %). The prevailing mechanism varies across regions: light scattering dominates in eastern North America, while a reduction in direct radiation dominates in Europe and China. Aerosol-induced GPP productivity increases in the Amazon and central Africa include an additional positive feedback from reduced canopy temperatures in response to increases in canopy conductance. In Eurasia and northeastern China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of -2 to -12 % on an annual average. Future research needs to incorporate the indirect effects of aerosols and possible feedbacks from dynamic carbon allocation and phenology.

  11. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and phenology. On a global scale, our results show that global land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse by  ∼ 9 %. At a regional scale, GPP and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols in regions where forested canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Eurasia, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources enhance GPP by +5–8 % on an annual average. In the northwestern Amazon Basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2–5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the northwestern Amazon Basin during the dry-fire season (+5–8 %. The prevailing mechanism varies across regions: light scattering dominates in eastern North America, while a reduction in direct radiation dominates in Europe and China. Aerosol-induced GPP productivity increases in the Amazon and central Africa include an additional positive feedback from reduced canopy temperatures in response to increases in canopy conductance. In Eurasia and northeastern China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of −2 to −12 % on an annual average. Future research needs to incorporate the indirect effects of aerosols and possible feedbacks from dynamic carbon allocation and phenology.

  12. Integrated assessment modeling of atmospheric pollutants in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Part I: hourly and seasonal ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, James W; Odman, Mehmet T; Wilkinson, James G; Russell, Armistead G; Doty, Kevin G; Norris, William B; McNider, Richard T

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a comprehensive air quality modeling system was developed as part of the Southern Appalachians Mountains Initiative (SAMI) with the ability to simulate meteorology, emissions, ozone, size- and composition-resolved particulate matter, and pollutant deposition fluxes. As part of SAMI, the RAMS/EMS-95/URM-1ATM modeling system was used to evaluate potential emission control strategies to reduce atmospheric pollutant levels at Class I areas located in the Southern Appalachians Mountains. This article discusses the details of the ozone model performance and the methodology that was used to scale discrete episodic pollutant levels to seasonal and annual averages. The daily mean normalized bias and error for 1-hr and 8-hr ozone were within U.S. Environment Protection Agency guidance criteria for urban-scale modeling. The model typically showed a systematic overestimation for low ozone levels and an underestimation for high levels. Because SAMI was primarily interested in simulating the growing season ozone levels in Class I areas, daily and seasonal cumulative ozone exposure, as characterized by the W126 index, were also evaluated. The daily ozone W126 performance was not as good as the hourly ozone performance; however, the seasonal ozone W126 scaled up from daily values was within 17% of the observations at two typical Class I areas of the SAMI region. The overall ozone performance of the model was deemed acceptable for the purposes of SAMI's assessment.

  13. Stellar Atmospheric Parameterization Based on Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ru-yang; Li, Xiang-ru

    2017-07-01

    Deep learning is a typical learning method widely studied in the fields of machine learning, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. This work investigates the problem of stellar atmospheric parameterization by constructing a deep neural network with five layers, and the node number in each layer of the network is respectively 3821-500-100-50-1. The proposed scheme is verified on both the real spectra measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the theoretic spectra computed with the Kurucz's New Opacity Distribution Function (NEWODF) model, to make an automatic estimation for three physical parameters: the effective temperature (Teff), surface gravitational acceleration (lg g), and metallic abundance (Fe/H). The results show that the stacked autoencoder deep neural network has a better accuracy for the estimation. On the SDSS spectra, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) are 79.95 for Teff/K, 0.0058 for (lg Teff/K), 0.1706 for lg (g/(cm·s-2)), and 0.1294 dex for the [Fe/H], respectively; On the theoretic spectra, the MAEs are 15.34 for Teff/K, 0.0011 for lg (Teff/K), 0.0214 for lg(g/(cm · s-2)), and 0.0121 dex for [Fe/H], respectively.

  14. Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Gross-Davis, Carol Ann; May, Katlyn; Davis, Lauren O; Johnson, Tyiesha; Mallard, Mable; Gabbadon, Alice; Sherrod, Claudia; Branas, Charles C

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a proposal for air monitoring. We present a framework of place-based elements of risk perception that includes place identity, stigma and social control. Our findings indicate that air pollution contributes to physical and psychosocial conditions that act as community-level social stressors. Findings also suggest that programs which seek to change behaviors and gather or spread information on issues such as pollution and other environmental concerns will be challenged unless they directly address: (1) the public׳s identification with a place or industry, (2) immediate environmental stressors such as abandonment, waste and odors, and (3) public perceptions of lack of social control and fear of displacement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walna, Barbara; Kurzyca, Iwona; Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2013-07-01

    A 2-year study (2010-2011) of fluorides in atmospheric precipitation in the open area and in throughfall in Wielkopolski National Park (west-central Poland) showed their high concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 2 mg/l under the tree crowns. These high values indicate substantial deposition of up to 52 mg/m(2)/year. In 2011, over 51% of open area precipitation was characterized by fluoride concentration higher than 0.10 mg/l, and in throughfall such concentrations were found in more than 86% of events. In 2010, a strong connection was evident between fluoride and acid-forming ions, and in 2011, a correlation between phosphate and nitrite ions was seen. Analysis of available data on F(-) concentrations in the air did not show an unequivocal effect on F(-) concentrations in precipitation. To find reasons for and source areas of high fluoride pollution, the cases of extreme fluoride concentration in rainwater were related to atmospheric circulation and weather patterns. Weather conditions on days of extreme pollution were determined by movement of weather fronts over western Poland, or by small cyclonic centers with meteorological fronts. Macroscale air advection over the sampling site originated in the western quadrant (NW, W, and SW), particularly in the middle layers of the troposphere (2,500-5,000 m a.s.l.). Such directions indicate western Poland and Germany as possible sources of the pollution. At the same time in the lower troposphere, air inflow was frequently from the north, showing short distance transport from local emitters, and from the agglomeration of Poznań.

  16. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  17. Flux rates of atmospheric lead pollution within soils of a small catchment in northern Sweden and their implications for future stream water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin; Emteryd, Ove; Renberg, Ingemar

    2006-08-01

    It is not well-known how the accumulated pool of atmospheric lead pollution in the boreal forest soil will affect the groundwater and surface water chemistry in the future as this lead migrates through the soil profile. This study uses stable lead isotopes (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios) to trace the transport of atmospheric lead pollution within the soil of a small catchment and predict future lead level changes in a stream draining the catchment. Low 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios for the lead in the soil water (1.16 +/- 0.02; 2.43 +/- 0.03) and streamwater (1.18 +/- 0.03; 2.42 +/- 0.03) in comparison to that of the mineral soil (>1.4; >2.5) suggest that atmospheric pollution contributes by about 90% (65-100%) to the lead pool found in these matrixes. Calculated transport rates of atmospheric lead along a soil transect indicate that the mean residence time of lead in organic and mineral soil layers is at a centennial to millennial time scale. A maximum release of the present pool of lead pollution in the soil to the stream is predicted to occur within 200-800 years. Even though the uncertainty of the prediction is large, it emphasizes the magnitude of the time lag between the accumulation of atmospheric lead pollution in soils and the subsequent response in streamwater quality.

  18. Melanism in Adalia bipunctata L. (Col. , Coccinellidae) and its relationship to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggleton, J.; Lonsdale, D.; Benham, B.R.

    1975-08-01

    The evidence for the suggestion that smoke pollution is the main selective factor determining melanic frequencies of the polymorphic ladybird Adalia bipunctata in Great Britain is reviewed and discussed in relation to an alternative hypothesis that the species exhibits thermal melanism. A highly significant negative correlation is shown between annual hours of bright sunshine and melanic frequency. It is suggested that the melanic morphs will have a selective advantage over the non-melanics because of a greater ability to absorb solar radiation. This advantage may be important in cooler and less sunny conditions, including those where smoke reduces sunshine levels. Experiments show that the melanic morphs have higher internal temperatures and greater activity than the typical morphs when illuminated at the same ambient temperature. It is concluded that A. bipunctata exhibits thermal melanism and cannot be used as a biological indicator of smoke pollution. 35 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  19. [Pollution of Halogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Particulate Matters of Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-lin; Chang, Wen-jing; Chen, Zheng-xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( HPAHs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected from Shenzhen were determined using GC-MS. Total concentrations of nine HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 118 to 1,476 pg · m(-3) and 89 to 407 pg · m(-3), respectively. In PM10 and PM(2.5) samples, the concentration of 9-BrAnt was the highest, followed by 7-BrBaA and 9, 10-Br2Ant. Seasonal levels of total HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples in Shenzhen decreased in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer, whereas concentrations of individual HPAHs showed different seasonal levels. Meteorological conditions, including temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity, might be important factors affecting the seasonal levels of HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 In addition, there were significant correlations between concentrations of HPAHs and parent PAHs. Finally, the toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) of HPAHs were estimated. The TEQs of HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 17.6 to 86.2 pg · m(-3) and 14.6 to 70.4 pg · m(-3), respectively. Among individual HPAHs, 7-BrBaA contributed greatly to the total TEQs of HPAHs. Our results indicated that the total TEQs of HPAHs were lower than parent PAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples in Shenzhen.

  20. Assessment of atmospheric pollution level using Asclepias procera leaves as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Ahmad, S. [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Iqbal, J. [University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    The potential of Asclepias procera plant leaves as biomonitor for air pollution monitoring has been explored by analyzing 36 elements in the leaf samples employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in summer and winter seasons from urban areas of Islamabad with different anthropogenic activities as well as from a rural area as a reference site. The soil samples of the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the methods used was established by analyzing the certified reference materials under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values, which are in quite good agreement with each other. Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements was computed and is discussed accordingly. The uptake of metals from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been investigated by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results suggest that the leaves of Asclepias procera plant have a good potential to indicate the air pollution levels both in the vicinity of industrial as well as near roadside areas. (orig.)

  1. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lidar Monitoring of Mexico City's Atmosphere During High Air Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Archuleta, F. L.; Hof, D. E.; Karl, R. R., Jr.; Tiee, J. J., Jr.; Eichinger, W. E.; Holtkamp, D. B.; Tellier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Mexico City, like many large industrial and populous urban areas, has developed a serious air pollution problem, especially during the winter months when there are frequent temperature inversions and weak winds. The deteriorating air quality is the result of several factors. The basin within which Mexico City lies in Mexico's center of political, administrative and economic activity, generating 34 percent of the gross domestic product and 42 percent of the industrial revenue, and supporting a population which is rapidly approaching the 20 million mark. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides which end up preventing rapid dispersal of pollutants. Emissions from the transportation fleet (more than 3 million vehicles) are one of the primary pollution sources, and most are uncontrolled. Catalytic converters are just now working their way into the fleet. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative in an international collaboration project between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are dedicated to the investigation of the air quality problem in Mexico City. The main objective of the project is to identify and assess the cost and benefits of major options being proposed to improve the air quality. The project is organized into three main activity areas: (1) modeling and simulation; (2) characterization and measurements; and (3) strategic evaluation.

  3. Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, A. B. A.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. Consequently, it is important that the current real-time air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), should be adapted or extended to aid in alleviating this problem. Nanotechnology has been applied to several industrial and domestic fields, for example, applications for gas monitoring systems, gas leak detectors in factories, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors, and the like. Here we report an application example of studying air quality monitoring based on nanotechnology `solid state gas sensors'. So as to carry out air pollution monitoring over an extensive area, a combination of ground measurements through inexpensive sensors and wireless GIS will be used for this purpose. This portable device, comprising solid state gas sensors integrated to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) linked through Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System (GPS), will allow rapid dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites simultaneously.

  4. Impact of atmospheric pollution inputs and climate change on dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes in karst aquifers: evidences from a 36 years past monitoring of karstic watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, Stephane; Probst, Jean-Luc; Batiot-Guilhe, Christelle; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Emblanch, Christophe; Peyraube, Nicolas; Mangin, Alain; Bakalowicz, Michel; Probst, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric pollution is known to modify the soil CO2 consumption associated with carbonate bedrock weathering. To evidence the long term feedbacks of atmospheric pollution and climate change on this chemical reaction, we investigated the inorganic carbon fluxes monitored weekly from 1979 to 2006 in a small forested karstic watershed in the Pyrénées Mountains, characterized by a large precipitation variability, a 0.025 °C air temperature increase per year and a low agricultural pressure. The yearly average concentrations of [Ca + Mg] and dissolved inorganic carbon increases of about 0.057 meq.L-1.yr-1 and the 0.1 meq.L-1.yr-1, respectively. The gap relative to the 1:2 relationship between [Ca + Mg] and HCO3 (in mmole. L-1), noted Delta-HCO3, was founded to be driven by the atmospheric pollution inputs, producing strong acids that inhibit the consumption of carbon from soil during the carbonate dissolution processes. In addition, atmospheric temperature increase is correlated with the [Ca +Mg] change, whereas the decrease of the atmospheric acid inputs observed since the seventies, is linked with a + 0.0022 meq.L-1.yr-1 increase in Delta-HCO3. Similar trends in Delta-HCO3 change were found over other karstic watersheds monitored more recently in the framework of the SNO KARST, one the observatory networks from the OZCAR Research Infrastructure, highlighting that Delta-HCO3 changes over time were partially controlled by atmospheric pollution inputs. The re-interpretation of hydrochemical databases using this Delta-HCO3 indicator enables to evaluate better the impact of atmospheric pollution load and climate change on surface waters. In an indirect way, the dephasing between atmospheric loads recorded in precipitation and Delta-HCO3 observed in groundwater could be a new tracer method to estimate groundwater residence times.

  5. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  6. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  7. [Atmospheric Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Eight Cities of China: Pollution Characteristics and Human Exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-tao; Li, Qi-lu; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    The gas and particle samples of eight cities were collected by high flow active air sampler in the Eastern and Western China and eight congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of BDE-28 (tri-BDE) in the gas-phase (three bromide components) was the highest, which was different from previous studies where BDE-99 and-47 were the predominant homologues in the gas-phase while the concentration of BDE-209 [(25.4 ± 124) pg · m⁻³] in particle-phase was the highest. The atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs in Beijing and Guangzhou were relatively higher, especially the BDE-209 concentration in particle phases of Guangzhou was two orders higher than those of other cities. However, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs declined significantly when compared with the data from previous studies. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the gas-phase concentrations decreased slowly and the particle-phase concentrations decreased rapidly. Combined with the results of correlation analysis, this phenomenon might be ascribed to the ceased commercial production of penta- and octa-BDE, the light degradation of high bromide components and reduced concentrations of atmospheric particles in urban area. Inhalation exposure for infants was about 2-3 times higher than that of adults. This reflected that the potential health risk of atmospheric PBDEs in city for residents, especially infants and young children, should not be ignored.

  8. Modified technique for processing multiangle lidar data measured in clear and moderately polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2011-01-01

    We present a modified technique for processing multiangle lidar data that is applicable for relatively clear atmospheres, where the utilization of the conventional Kano-Hamilton method meets significant issues. Our retrieval algorithm allows computing the two-way transmission and the corresponding extinction-coefficient profile in any slope direction searched during...

  9. Atmospheric aerosol characteristics retrieved using ground based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fractional asymmetry factor is more negative in summer due to enhanced tourists' arrival and also in autumn months due to the monthlong International Kullu Dussehra fair. The AOD values given by MWR and satellite-based moderate resolution imaging spectro-radiometer have good correlation of 0.76, 0.92 and 0.97 ...

  10. Public Transportation Based Dynamic Urban Pollution Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando LOPEZ-PEÑA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and results of a mobile sensor based opportunistic urban pollution monitoring network that uses public transportation buses as platforms for its deployment. This work is an extended and improved version of the paper presented to the IDAACS’09 conference. It reports some aspects of the implementation of a single pollution sensor based sensing node prototype which was used for testing an opportunistic communications network and which was reported in depth elsewhere. More emphasis is given to the description of the basic sensing unit and its modular conversion into a sensing system able to acquire data on several pollutants as well as temperature, humidity and geo-location information. The software architecture developed around it in order to process the huge amounts of data the system produces is also described. The different prototypes were tested on the public transportation system of the city of Vigo and on multiple test runs around the city of A Coruña in the north-west of Spain producing very promising results.

  11. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  12. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.martinez.cortizas@usc.es [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); López-Merino, Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.lopez-merino@brunel.ac.uk [Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, UB8 3PH Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Mighall, Tim, E-mail: t.mighall@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Kylander, Malin E., E-mail: malin.kylander@geo.su.se [Department of Geological Sciences and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~ 3500–3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (> 2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35–100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~ 8000 to ~ 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g{sup −1}; {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios occurred from ~ 4980 to ~ 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~ 4980–3700 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~ 3700–3500 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~ 3500–2800 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~ 2800–2470 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the

  13. CALCULATION OF AIR POLLUTION IN CASE OF AN ACCIDENT BASED ON THE MODEL CONVECTIVE AND DIFFUSION OF THE POLLUTANT TRANSFER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Radkevich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3D CFD model to simulate the pollutant transfer after accidents was developed. The model is based on the transport gradient model. The results of numerical experiments are presented.

  14. Atmospheric correction for superconducting gravimeters based on operational weather models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbon, M.; Boehm, J.; Meurers, B.; Schuh, H.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure fluctuations are a major source of noise in precise gravimetric measurements and must be corrected carefully. This is usually done by using the local air pressure, which reduces up to 90-95 % of the atmospheric signal. However, modern superconducting gravimeters require an even better atmospheric correction if small signals are to be identified. For this task the use of 3-dimensional modeling of atmospheric mass attraction based on operational numerical weather models has shown promising results. Similar strategies are realized and applied successfully for de -aliasing measurements of satellite gravity missions, such as GRACE and GOCE. For example, within the project GGOS Atmosphere at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of TU Vienna a service was established providing atmospheric gravity corrections in form of global spherical harmonic coefficients (AGC). In this study we show that these products, originally dedicated to correct the gravity mission data, can also be used to correct the atmospheric effects on superconducting gravimeters (SG), i.e., the global contribution of the effect is obtained directly from the AGC. Furthermore, it will be examined if the additional effort of implementing high resolution regional models as well as analytical models in the near field is justified. The Conrad Observatory near Vienna is taken as example station for the SG corrections.

  15. L'IIASA and the integrated simulation of the trans-border atmospheric pollution assessment and evaluation; L'IIASA et la modelisation integree de la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere. Bilan et evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Farret, R.; Landrieu, G.; Le Gall, A.C.; Rouil, L

    2003-09-15

    The RAINS model is an integrated evaluation model for many pollutants and many effects, developed by he IIASA. This model studies the emissions of 4 atmospheric pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds) and the necessary costs to reduce them and the dispersion of these pollutants and their effects (tropospheric ozone formation, acidification and eutrophication). The model can be used in activities scenario mode (energy, agriculture, transports...) to calculate the emissions and their effects or in optimization mode to calculate strategies of emissions control from environmental constraints. (A.L.B.)

  16. Role of atmospheric pollution on the natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesé, Lucile; Nunes, Hilario; Cottin, Vincent; Sanyal, Shreosi; Didier, Morgane; Carton, Zohra; Israel-Biet, Dominique; Crestani, Bruno; Cadranel, Jacques; Wallaert, Benoit; Tazi, Abdellatif; Maître, Bernard; Prévot, Grégoire; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Guillot-Dudoret, Stéphanie; Nardi, Annelyse; Dury, Sandra; Giraud, Violaine; Gondouin, Anne; Juvin, Karine; Borie, Raphael; Wislez, Marie; Valeyre, Dominique; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-08-10

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has an unpredictable course corresponding to various profiles: stability, physiological disease progression and rapid decline. A minority of patients experience acute exacerbations (AEs). A recent study suggested that ozone and nitrogen dioxide might contribute to the occurrence of AE. We hypothesised that outdoor air pollution might influence the natural history of IPF. Patients were selected from the French cohort COhorte FIbrose (COFI), a national multicentre longitudinal prospective cohort of IPF (n=192). Air pollutant levels were assigned to each patient from the air quality monitoring station closest to the patient's geocoded residence. Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the impact of air pollution on AE, disease progression and death. Onset of AEs was significantly associated with an increased mean level of ozone in the six preceding weeks, with an HR of 1.47 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.92) per 10 µg/m3 (p=0.005). Cumulative levels of exposure to particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were above WHO recommendations in 34% and 100% of patients, respectively. Mortality was significantly associated with increased levels of exposure to PM10 (HR=2.01, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.77) per 10 µg/m3 (p=0.03), and PM2.5 (HR=7.93, 95% CI 2.93 to 21.33) per 10 µg/m3 (ppollution has a negative impact on IPF outcomes, corroborating the role of ozone on AEs and establishing, for the first time, the potential role of long-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 on overall mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Investigating the evolution of summertime secondary atmospheric pollutants in urban Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongsheng; Gao, Wenkang; Zhang, Junke; Morino, Yu; Zhou, Luxi; Yu, Pengfei; Li, Ying; Sun, Jiaren; Ge, Baozhu; Tang, Guiqian; Sun, Yele; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the formation of tropospheric ozone (O3) and secondary particulates is essential for controlling secondary pollution in megacities. Intensive observations were conducted to investigate the evolution of O3, nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-) and oxygenated organic aerosols ((OOAs), a proxy for secondary organic aerosols) and the interactions between O3, NOx oxidation products (NOz) and OOA in urban Beijing in August 2012. The O3 concentrations exhibited similar variations at both the urban and urban background sites in Beijing. Regarding the O3 profile, the O3 concentrations increased with increasing altitude. The peaks in O3 on the days exceeding the 1h or 8h O3 standards (polluted days) were substantially wider than those on normal days. Significant increases in the NOz mixing ratio (i.e., NOy - NOx) were observed between the morning and early afternoon, which were consistent with the increasing oxidant level. A discernable NO3- peak was also observed in the morning on the polluted days, and this peak was attributed to vertical mixing and strong photochemical production. In addition, a SO42- peak at 18:00 was likely caused by a combination of local generation and regional transport. The OOA concentration cycle exhibited two peaks at approximately 10:00 and 19:00. The OOA concentrations were correlated well with SO42- ([OOA]=0.55×[SO42-]+2.1, r2=0.69) because they both originated from secondary transformations that were dependent on the ambient oxidization level and relative humidity. However, the slope between OOA and SO42- was only 0.35, which was smaller than the slope observed for all of the OOA and SO42- data, when the RH ranged from 40 to 50%. In addition, a photochemical episode was selected for analysis. The results showed that regional transport played an important role in the evolution of the investigated secondary pollutants. The measured OOA and Ox concentrations were well correlated at the daily scale, whereas the hourly OOA and Ox

  18. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This report describes the development of a monitor which can measure concentrations of hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. The system consists of a carbon dioxide laser combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter.

  19. Numerical Approach to the Evaluation of Atmospheric Pollution by Combustion Products of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdyakov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the results of mathematical modeling of acid rain formation and its fallout in the areas adjacent to the site of the energy complex. Four thermal periods that are typical for regions of sharply continental climate has been considered. The influence of convective parameters on the formation mechanism of atmospheric precipitation has been estimated. The contribution of solar energy flux to the research process has been analyzed.

  20. Atmospheric phenanthrene pollution modulates carbon allocation in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desalme, Dorine, E-mail: dorine.desalme@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Binet, Philippe [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Epron, Daniel [Nancy Universite, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Faculte des Sciences, BP 70239, F- 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); INRA, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Centre INRA de Nancy, F- 54280 Champenoux (France); Bernard, Nadine; Gilbert, Daniel; Toussaint, Marie-Laure [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Plain, Caroline [Nancy Universite, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Faculte des Sciences, BP 70239, F- 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); INRA, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Centre INRA de Nancy, F- 54280 Champenoux (France); Chiapusio, Genevieve, E-mail: genevieve.chiapusio@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The influence of atmospheric phenanthrene (PHE) exposure (160 {mu}g m{sup -3}) during one month on carbon allocation in clover was investigated by integrative (plant growth analysis) and instantaneous {sup 13}CO{sub 2} pulse-labelling approaches. PHE exposure diminished plant growth parameters (relative growth rate and net assimilation rate) and disturbed photosynthesis (carbon assimilation rate and chlorophyll content), leading to a 25% decrease in clover biomass. The root-shoot ratio was significantly enhanced (from 0.32 to 0.44). Photosynthates were identically allocated to leaves while less allocated to stems and roots. PHE exposure had a significant overall effect on the {sup 13}C partitioning among clover organs as more carbon was retained in leaves at the expense of roots and stems. The findings indicate that PHE decreases root exudation or transfer to symbionts and in leaves, retains carbon in a non-structural form diverting photosynthates away from growth and respiration (emergence of an additional C loss process). - Highlights: > Atmospheric PHE decreased growth, biomass partitioning and C allocation in clover. > C allocation was modified in favor of leaves but at the expense of roots and stems. > In roots, a decreased carbon exudation or allocation to symbionts was proposed. > In leaves, carbon was retained in a non-structural form as secondary metabolites. > BVOC emission was suggested as another loss process than respiration and exudation. - Exposure of clover to atmospheric PHE affected not only its growth, but also biomass partitioning and C allocation among its organs.

  1. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L.; Vautard, R.; Flamant, P.H. [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C.; Beekmann, M.; Megie, G.; Sicard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C.; Lefebvre, M.P.; Lossec, B. [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P.; Martin, D. [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D. [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D. [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P.; Toupance, G. [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  2. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of pollen as an indicator for atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepponi, G. E-mail: pepponi@itc.it; Lazzeri, P.; Coghe, N.; Bersani, M.; Gottardini, E.; Cristofolini, F.; Clauser, G.; Torboli, A

    2004-08-31

    The viability of pollen is affected by environmental pollution and its use as a bio-indicator is proposed. Such effects can be observed and quantified by biological tests. However, a more accurate identification of the agents affecting the viability is required in order to validate the biological assay for environmental monitoring. The chemical analysis of pollen is meant to ascertain the existence of a correlation between its reduced biological functions and the presence of pollutants. Moreover, such biological systems act as accumulators and allow the detection and quantification of species present in the environment at low concentrations. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) has been chosen for the investigation due to its high sensitivity, multielement capability and wide dynamic range. Corylus avellana L. (hazel) pollen has been collected in areas with different anthropic impact in the province of Trento, Italy. For the TXRF measurements, a liquid sample is needed, especially if a quantitative analysis is required. In the present work, the analysis after a microwave digestion has been compared with the analysis of a suspension of the pollen samples. In both cases, an internal standard has been used for the quantification. The concentrations of 17 elements ranging from Al to Pb have been determined in 13 samples. Analysis of the suspensions showed to be comparable to that of digested samples in terms of spectral quality, but the latter preparation method gave better reproducibility. Sub-ppm lowest limits of detection were obtained for iron and heavier elements detected.

  3. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Cerena, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maguas, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, Universidade Atlantica, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-08-15

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO{sub 2} and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species.

  4. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  5. Impact of the regional climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Semeena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A global multicompartment model which is based on a 3-D atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5 coupled to 2-D soil, vegetation and sea surface mixed layer reservoirs, is used to simulate the atmospheric transports and total environmental fate of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane. Emissions into the model world reflect the substance's agricultural usage in 1980 and 1990 and same amounts in sequential years are applied. Four scenarios of DDT usage and atmospheric decay and one scenario of γ-HCH are studied over a decade. The global environment is predicted to be contaminated by the substances within ca. 2a (years. DDT reaches quasi-steady state within 3-4a in the atmosphere and vegetation compartments, ca. 6a in the sea surface mixed layer and near to or slightly more than 10a in soil. Lindane reaches quasi-steady state in the atmosphere and vegetation within 2a, in soils within 8 years and near to or slightly more than 10a and in the sea surface mixed layer. The substances' differences in environmental behaviour translate into differences in the compartmental distribution and total environmental residence time, τoverall. τoverall≈0.8a for γ-HCH's and ≈1.0-1.3 a for the various DDT scenarios. Both substances' distributions are predicted to migrate in northerly direction, 5-12° for DDT and 6.7° for lindane between the first and the tenth year in the environment. Cycling in various receptor regions is a complex superposition of influences of regional climate, advection, and the substance's physico-chemical properties. As a result of these processes the model simulations show that remote boreal regions are not necessarily less contaminated than tropical receptor regions. Although the atmosphere accounts for only 1% of the total contaminant burden, transport and transformation in the atmosphere is key for the distribution in other compartments. Hence, besides the physico

  6. Characteristics of the Transport of a Typical Pollution Event in the Chengdu Area Based on Remote Sensing Data and Numerical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A heavy air pollution event occurred in Chengdu between 7 May 2014 and 8 May 2014. The present study established tracer sources based on HJ-1 satellite data, micropulse light detection and ranging (LiDAR remote sensing data, and backward trajectories simulated using the hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT model. Additionally, the present study analyzed the diffusion conditions for the sources and characteristics of the pollutant transport in this pollution event through simulation using a mesoscale atmospheric chemistry transport model—the weather research forecasting model with chemistry (WRF–CHEM. The results show that the change in the boundary-layer height over Chengdu had a relatively large effect on the vertical diffusion of pollutants. During the pollution event, Chengdu, Meishan, and Leshan were areas of significantly low mean ventilation coefficients ( V H . In Chengdu, the V H was extremely low at night, and there was a temperature inversion near the ground, resulting in the continuous accumulation of pollutants at night and a continuous worsening of the pollution. During the period of heavy pollution, there were straw-burning sites in Meishan, Ziyang, Neijiang, Zigong, and Deyang. On 7 May 2014, the pollutants in Chengdu mainly originated from Meishan. The accumulation in Chengdu of pollutants originating in Meishan and Deyang led to highly concentrated pollution on 8 May 2014, to which the pollutants originating in Deyang were the main contributor. The transport of pollutants resulting from straw burning in the study area and the relatively poor conditions for the pollutant diffusion in Chengdu collectively led to the heavy air pollution event investigated in the present study.

  7. Atmospheric pollutant and other data from the TRIDENT and tower as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 February 1972 to 01 September 1972 (NODC Accession 7300574)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atmospheric pollutant and other data were collected from the TRIDENT and tower from 01 February 1972 to 01 September 1972. Data include trace metals in the...

  8. Clusia hilariana and Eugenia uniflora as bioindicators of atmospheric pollutants emitted by an iron pelletizing factory in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; Siqueira-Silva, Advanio Inácio; Pereira, Tiago Augusto Rodrigues; Castro, Letícia Nalon; Silva, Eduardo Chagas; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate if the pollution emitted by the pelletizing factory causes visual symptoms and/or anatomical changes in exposed Eugenia uniflora and Clusia hilariana, in active biomonitoring, at different distances from a pelletizing factory. We characterize the symptomatology, anatomical, and histochemistry alterations induced in the two species. There was no difference in the symptomatology in relation to the different distances of the emitting source. The foliar symptoms found in C. hilariana were chlorosis, necrosis, and foliar abscission and, in E. uniflora, were observed necrosis punctuais, purple spots in the leaves, and increase in the emission of new leaves completely purplish. The two species presented formation of a cicatrization tissue. E. uniflora presented reduction in the thickness of leaf. In C. hilariana, it was visualized hyperplasia of the cells and the adaxial epidermis did not appear collapsed due to thick cuticle and cuticular flanges. Leaves of C. hilariana showed positive staining for iron, protein, starch, and phenolic compounds. E. uniflora showed positive staining for total phenolic compounds and starch. Micromorphologically, there was accumulation of particulate matter on the leaf surface, obstruction of the stomata, and scaling of the epicuticular wax in both species. It was concluded that the visual and anatomical symptoms were efficient in the diagnosis of the stress factor. C. hilariana and E. uniflora showed to be good bioindicators of the atmospheric pollutants emitted by the pelletizing factory.

  9. Development of a passive doas system to retrieve atmospheric pollution columns in the 200 to 355 nm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía Rubén Galicia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years several techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the pollution of the air. Among these techniques, remote sensing using optical methods stands out due to several advantages for air quality control applications. A Passive Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy system that uses the ultraviolet region from 200 to 355 nm of the solar radiation is presented. The developed system is portable; therefore it is practical for real time and in situ measurements. The enhanced wavelength range of the system is intended to detect the ultraviolet light penetration in the Mexican Valley considering the solar zenith angle and the altitude. The system was applied to retrieve atmospheric SO2 columns emitted either by anthropogenic (power plant or natural sources (volcano, reaching a detection limit of about 1 ppm. The measurement of the penetrating solar radiation on the earth surface at the UVC range is presented and the possibility to measure pollution traces of some contaminants as O3, NO2 and aromatic compounds in real time and in situ in the ultraviolet region is discussed.

  10. Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tiantian; Leveque, Thibault; Shahid, Muhammad; Foucault, Yann; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2014-09-01

    When plants are exposed to airborne particles, they can accumulate metals in their edible portions through root or foliar transfer. There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of plant exposure conditions on human bioaccessibility of metals, which is of particular concern with the increase in urban gardening activities. Lettuce, radish, and parsley were exposed to metal-rich ultrafine particles from a recycling factory via field atmospheric fallouts or polluted soil. Total lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in of the edible plant parts and their human bioaccessibility were measured, and Pb translocation through the plants was studied using Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb and Cd bioaccessibility measured for consumed parts of the different polluted plants was significantly higher for root exposure (70% for Pb and 89% for Cd in lettuce) in comparison to foliar exposure (40% for Pb and 69% for Cd in lettuce). The difference in metal bioaccessibility could be linked to the metal compartmentalization and speciation changes in relation to exposure conditions. Metal nature strongly influences the measured bioaccessibility: Cd presents higher bioaccessibility in comparison to Pb. In the case of foliar exposure, a significant translocation of Pb from leaves toward the roots was observed. To conclude, the type of pollutant and the method of exposure significantly influences the phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility of metals, especially in relation to the contrasting phenomena involved in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. The conditions of plant exposure must therefore be taken into account for environmental and health risk assessment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric PM2.5 loads during air pollution episodes in Giza, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salwa K.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.

    2017-02-01

    Several types of pollution episodes, including dust storm (DSs), haze dust (HDs), straw rice combustions (SRCs) are common phenomena and represent severe environmental hazard in Egypt. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the chemical characteristics of aerosol during air pollution episodes at an urban area in Giza, Egypt. PM2.5 samples during various PM episodes during 2013-2014 were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that the highest PM2.5 mass concentrations were found during DSs (250 μg/m3), followed by HDs (130 μg/m3) and SRCs (103 μg/m3). Average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 1.91, 3.68 and 1.68 times higher than on normal days (NDs) during HDs, DSs and SRCs, respectively. The highest total water-soluble ions concentration was 61.1 μg/m3 during HDs, followed by SRCs (41.9 μg/m3) and DSs (35.2 μg/m3). SO42- is the most abundant chemical components on the three PM episodes. Secondary inorganic ions (NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+) were enriched during HDs. The total secondary inorganic ions concentrations were 3.17, 1.39 and 1.75 times higher than NDs during HDs days, DSs days and SRCs days, respectively. PM from SRCs showed high K+ and Cl-. SO42-/K+, NO3-/SO42- and Cl-/K+ ratios proved effective as indicators for different pollution episodes. A Ca2+/Al ratio indicates that soil dust was dominant during DSs. Ion balance calculations indicated that PM2.5 from HDs was acidic, while the DSs and SRCs particles were alkaline and the NDs particle's was nearly neutral. The total crustal and anthropogenic metals concentrations were higher in DSs than other PM episodes and normal days. The enrichment factors values in PM episodes and normal days indicate that Fe and Mn in NDs, HDs, DSs and SRCs as well as Cr and Ni in DSs come mainly from crustal sources, whereas Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in PM episodes and NDs are anthropogenic.

  12. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Artuñedo; Raúl M del Toro; Rodolfo E Haber

    2017-01-01

    .... The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks...

  13. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over China based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Wen; Liu, Xuejun; Li, Yi; Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Yuehan; Zhang, Wuting

    2017-08-01

    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr). Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are the most important precursors for Nr compounds (including N2O5, HNO3, HONO and particulate NO3- and NH4+) in the atmosphere. Understanding the changes in NH3 and NO2 has important implications for the regulation of anthropogenic Nr emissions and is a requirement for assessing the consequence of environmental impacts. We conducted the temporal trend analysis of atmospheric NH3 and NO2 on a national scale since 1980 based on emission data (during 1980-2010), satellite observation (for NH3 since 2008 and for NO2 since 2005) and atmospheric chemistry transport modeling (during 2008-2015).Based on the emission data, during 1980-2010, significant continuous increasing trends in both NH3 and NOx were observed in REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia, for NH3 0.17 and for NOx 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-2) and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, for NH3 0.24 and for NOx 0.17 kg N ha-1 yr-2) over China. Based on the satellite data and atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM) MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4), the NO2 columns over China increased significantly from 2005 to 2011 and then decreased significantly from 2011 to 2015; the satellite-retrieved NH3 columns from 2008 to 2014 increased at a rate of 2.37 % yr-1. The decrease in NO2 columns since 2011 may result from more stringent strategies taken to control NOx emissions during the 12th Five Year Plan, while no control policy has focused on NH3 emissions. Our findings provided an overall insight into the temporal trends of both NO2 and NH3 since 1980 based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling. These findings can provide a scientific background for policy makers that are attempting to control atmospheric pollution in China. Moreover, the multiple datasets

  14. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over China based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling since 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr. Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 are the most important precursors for Nr compounds (including N2O5, HNO3, HONO and particulate NO3− and NH4+ in the atmosphere. Understanding the changes in NH3 and NO2 has important implications for the regulation of anthropogenic Nr emissions and is a requirement for assessing the consequence of environmental impacts. We conducted the temporal trend analysis of atmospheric NH3 and NO2 on a national scale since 1980 based on emission data (during 1980–2010, satellite observation (for NH3 since 2008 and for NO2 since 2005 and atmospheric chemistry transport modeling (during 2008–2015.Based on the emission data, during 1980–2010, significant continuous increasing trends in both NH3 and NOx were observed in REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia, for NH3 0.17 and for NOx 0.16 kg N ha−1 yr−2 and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, for NH3 0.24 and for NOx 0.17 kg N ha−1 yr−2 over China. Based on the satellite data and atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4, the NO2 columns over China increased significantly from 2005 to 2011 and then decreased significantly from 2011 to 2015; the satellite-retrieved NH3 columns from 2008 to 2014 increased at a rate of 2.37 % yr−1. The decrease in NO2 columns since 2011 may result from more stringent strategies taken to control NOx emissions during the 12th Five Year Plan, while no control policy has focused on NH3 emissions. Our findings provided an overall insight into the temporal trends of both NO2 and NH3 since 1980 based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling. These findings can provide a scientific background for policy makers that are attempting to control atmospheric

  15. Atmospheric influence on the distribution of organic pollutants in the Guadalquivir River estuary, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gómez, Cristal; López-López, José Antonio; Matamoros, Victor; Díez, Sergi; García-Vargas, Manuel; Moreno, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the lower Guadalquivir river basin, a system stressed by a wide variety of anthropogenic activities, eight pesticides (four triazines, two chloroacetanilide herbicides, one organochlorine, and one organophosphorus insecticide); and four emerging pollutants (two personal care products, one organophosphorous flame retardant, and one xanthine alkaloid) were analyzed in river water during a 2-year monitoring program, and after rain episodes. Samples were extracted using the solid phase extraction (SPE) technique prior to determination of compounds using gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer detector. Except for caffeine, recoveries were mostly above 80 %, while limits of detection and quantification were in the low nanograms per liter level (except for dimethoate). Terbuthylazine, simazine (triazine herbicides), and dimethoate (organophosphorus insecticide), present in agrochemicals, were predominant in the river water, although concentrations were below the quality standards established by the EU Water-Framework-Directive. A general trend to increase concentration was observed after rain events, in particular for pesticides, possibly as a consequence of surface runoff.

  16. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  17. Effects-based integrated assessment modelling for the support of European air pollution abatement policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh, J.P.; Posch, M.; Slootweg, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.; Gall, Le A.; Maas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Critical load and exceedance based indicators for effects of air pollution are used to define and compare air pollution abatement scenarios, thus assisting in the framing of policies and strategies, of emission abatement options. In this chapter the effects-based support of European air pollution

  18. Temporal correlation measurements of pulsed dual CO2 lidar returns. [for atmospheric pollution detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyuk, N.; Killinger, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed dual-laser direct-detection differential-absorption lidar DIAL system, operating near 10.6 microns, is used to measure the temporal correlation and statistical properties of backscattered returns from specular and diffuse topographic targets. Results show that atmospheric-turbulence fluctuations can effectively be frozen for pulse separation times on the order of 1-3 msec or less. The diffuse target returns, however, yielded a much lower correlation than that obtained with the specular targets; this being due to uncorrelated system noise effects and different statistics for the two types of target returns.

  19. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Nursyairah, E-mail: nursyairah1990@gmail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  20. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) as indicators of atmospherically deposited pollutants in North African wetlands of conservation importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N. L.; Flower, R. J.; Appleby, P. G.

    Wetlands and lowland lakes in the coastal region of North Africa are being lost at an alarming rate as a result of increasing human demands for water and land. Those remaining wetlands, which have not been severely degraded, support high value ecosystems that not only contribute to regional biodiversity but also provide important resources for local human populations. However, information on the current status of these sites and the rates and directions of trends in environmental change over recent decades is generally lacking. In particular, regional data on the inputs of atmospheric pollutants to these important sites are absent. As part of the EU (INCO-MED) funded CASSARINA project, sediment cores were taken from eight coastal lakes in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt. Chronologies for these cores were produced primarily using radionuclides and all were analysed for spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs). SCPs are produced only from high temperature fossil-fuel combustion and are thus unambiguous indicators of atmospheric deposition from industrial sources. SCP contamination trends appear to show a combination of influences from European and, more recently (post-1980), local North African sources. Contemporary data indicate contamination equivalent to that found in heavily impacted European mountain lakes or moderately impacted lowland lakes in the UK. Such levels of impact raise particular concerns over the future of Moroccan wetland lakes downwind of a recently expanded major coal-fired power station at Jorf Lasar.

  1. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) as indicators of atmospherically deposited pollutants in North African wetlands of conservation importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, N.L.; Flower, R.J.; Appleby, P.G. [University College of London, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-04-01

    Wetlands and lowland lakes in the coastal region of North Africa are being lost at an alarming rate as a result of increasing human demands for water and land. Those remaining wetlands, which have not been severely degraded, support high value ecosystems that not only contribute to regional biodiversity but also provide important resources for local human populations. However, information on the current status of these sites and the rates and directions of trends in environmental change over recent decades is generally lacking. In particular, regional data on the inputs of atmospheric pollutants to these important sites are absent. As part of the EU (INCO-MED) funded CASSARINA project, sediment cores were taken from eight coastal lakes in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt. Chronologies for these cores were produced primarily using radionuclides and all were analysed for spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs). SCPs are produced only from high temperature fossil-fuel combustion and are thus unambiguous indicators of atmospheric deposition from industrial sources. SCP contamination trends appear to show a combination of influences from European and, more recently (post-1980), local North African sources. Contemporary data indicate contamination equivalent to that found in heavily impacted European mountain lakes or moderately impacted lowland lakes in the UK. Such levels of impact raise particular concerns over the future of Moroccan wetland lakes downwind of a recently expanded major coal-fired power station at Jorf Lasar.

  2. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20-50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3-1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The application of magnetic measurements for the characterization of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Richardson, N; Bennett, M; Hoon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry.The aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tire wear residues have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. Samples have been analyzed utilizing a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tires) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

  4. Pollution Load Estimation Based on Characteristic Section Load Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing

    2017-12-01

    Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads-Characteristic Section Load Method(CSLM) is proposed and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are discharged stably, the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section change greatly, the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD are gradually decreased in the rainy, normal and wet periods.

  5. The atmospheric pollution in the context of the environmental education: experiences and challenges in the interdisciplinary work at a private school in Contagem-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Ângelo Silva Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims, as its general objective, to raise, by means of interviews with the teachers involved, issues on the obstacles of the application of the interdisciplinary project of environmental education with emphasis on atmospheric pollution, at a private school in Contagem, in Minas Gerais State. The development was based on methodological procedures performed by means of a bibliographical research and case study, having as subject of the research high school teachers and the pedagogic coordinator who work in the morning at a downtown school in the municipal district of Contagem. The techniques used for the collection of data were the semi-structuralized interviews and reports derived from the interdisciplinary project developed. The results have demonstrated that the development of projects that have the interdisciplinary as their goal, even being a theme of the teachers' general knowledge, still faces a series of challenges that go from the absence of schools infrastructure and the directors' general support, to issues related to the absence of a more complete pedagogic political project which, in fact, contemplates subjects of the students' real interest. Keywords: Environment; Pollution; Interdisciplinary; Projects; Environmental Education

  6. Atmospheric impacts of the 2010 Russian wildfires: integrating modelling and measurements of an extreme air pollution episode in the Moscow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Konovalov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous wildfires provoked by an unprecedented intensive heat wave caused continuous episodes of extreme air pollution in several Russian cities and densely populated regions, including the Moscow region. This paper analyzes the evolution of the surface concentrations of CO, PM10 and ozone over the Moscow region during the 2010 heat wave by integrating available ground based and satellite measurements with results of a mesoscale model. The CHIMERE chemistry transport model is used and modified to include the wildfire emissions of primary pollutants and the shielding effect of smoke aerosols on photolysis. The wildfire emissions are derived from satellite measurements of the fire radiative power and are optimized by assimilating data of ground measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM10 into the model. It is demonstrated that the optimized simulations reproduce independent observations, which were withheld during the optimisation procedure, quite adequately (specifically, the correlation coefficient of daily time series of CO and PM10 exceeds 0.8 and that inclusion of the fire emissions into the model significantly improves its performance. The model results show that wildfires are the principal factor causing the observed air pollution episode associated with the extremely high levels of daily mean CO and PM10 concentrations (up to 10 mg m−3 and 700 μg m−3 in the averages over available monitoring sites, respectively, although accumulation of anthropogenic pollution was also favoured by a stagnant meteorological situation. Indeed, ozone concentrations were simulated to be episodically very large (>400 μg m−3 even when fire emissions were omitted in the model. It was found that fire emissions increased ozone production by providing precursors for ozone formation (mainly VOC, but also inhibited the photochemistry by absorbing and scattering

  7. An integrated simulation and optimization approach for managing human health risks of atmospheric pollutants by coal-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Cai, X H; Cai, Y P; Guo, H C; Sun, W; Tan, Q; Huang, G H

    2014-06-01

    This research developed a simulation-aided nonlinear programming model (SNPM). This model incorporated the consideration of pollutant dispersion modeling, and the management of coal blending and the related human health risks within a general modeling framework In SNPM, the simulation effort (i.e., California puff [CALPUFF]) was used to forecast the fate of air pollutants for quantifying the health risk under various conditions, while the optimization studies were to identify the optimal coal blending strategies from a number of alternatives. To solve the model, a surrogate-based indirect search approach was proposed, where the support vector regression (SVR) was used to create a set of easy-to-use and rapid-response surrogates for identifying the function relationships between coal-blending operating conditions and health risks. Through replacing the CALPUFF and the corresponding hazard quotient equation with the surrogates, the computation efficiency could be improved. The developed SNPM was applied to minimize the human health risk associated with air pollutants discharged from Gaojing and Shijingshan power plants in the west of Beijing. Solution results indicated that it could be used for reducing the health risk of the public in the vicinity of the two power plants, identifying desired coal blending strategies for decision makers, and considering a proper balance between coal purchase cost and human health risk. A simulation-aided nonlinear programming model (SNPM) is developed. It integrates the advantages of CALPUFF and nonlinear programming model. To solve the model, a surrogate-based indirect search approach based on the combination of support vector regression and genetic algorithm is proposed. SNPM is applied to reduce the health risk caused by air pollutants discharged from Gaojing and Shijingshan power plants in the west of Beijing. Solution results indicate that it is useful for generating coal blending schemes, reducing the health risk of the public

  8. Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Likun; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xinfeng; Saunders, Sandra; Blake, Donald; Louie, Peter K. K.; Luk, Connie W. Y.; Simpson, Isobel; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Zhe; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shuncheng; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    We analyze a photochemical smog episode to understand the oxidative capacity and radical chemistry of the polluted atmosphere in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) is constrained by an intensive set of field observations to elucidate the budgets of ROx (ROx = OH+HO2+RO2) and NO3 radicals. Highly abundant radical precursors (i.e. O3, HONO and carbonyls), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) facilitate strong production and efficient recycling of ROx radicals. The OH reactivity is dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), followed by aromatics, alkenes and alkanes. Photolysis of OVOCs (except for formaldehyde) is the dominant primary source of ROx with average daytime contributions of 34-47 %. HONO photolysis is the largest contributor to OH and the second-most significant source (19-22 %) of ROx. Other considerable ROx sources include O3 photolysis (11-20 %), formaldehyde photolysis (10-16 %), and ozonolysis reactions of unsaturated VOCs (3.9-6.2 %). In one case when solar irradiation was attenuated, possibly by the high aerosol loadings, NO3 became an important oxidant and the NO3-initiated VOC oxidation presented another significant ROx source (6.2 %) even during daytime. This study suggests the possible impacts of daytime NO3 chemistry in the polluted atmospheres under conditions with the co-existence of abundant O3, NO2, VOCs and aerosols, and also provides new insights into the radical chemistry that essentially drives the formation of photochemical smog in the high-NOx environment of Hong Kong and the PRD region.

  9. Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a photochemical smog episode to understand the oxidative capacity and radical chemistry of the polluted atmosphere in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD region. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2 is constrained by an intensive set of field observations to elucidate the budgets of ROx (ROx =  OH+HO2+RO2 and NO3 radicals. Highly abundant radical precursors (i.e. O3, HONO and carbonyls, nitrogen oxides (NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs facilitate strong production and efficient recycling of ROx radicals. The OH reactivity is dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs, followed by aromatics, alkenes and alkanes. Photolysis of OVOCs (except for formaldehyde is the dominant primary source of ROx with average daytime contributions of 34–47 %. HONO photolysis is the largest contributor to OH and the second-most significant source (19–22 % of ROx. Other considerable ROx sources include O3 photolysis (11–20 %, formaldehyde photolysis (10–16 %, and ozonolysis reactions of unsaturated VOCs (3.9–6.2 %. In one case when solar irradiation was attenuated, possibly by the high aerosol loadings, NO3 became an important oxidant and the NO3-initiated VOC oxidation presented another significant ROx source (6.2 % even during daytime. This study suggests the possible impacts of daytime NO3 chemistry in the polluted atmospheres under conditions with the co-existence of abundant O3, NO2, VOCs and aerosols, and also provides new insights into the radical chemistry that essentially drives the formation of photochemical smog in the high-NOx environment of Hong Kong and the PRD region.

  10. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  11. Urban atmospheric pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean : lessons from the TRANSEMED initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, Agnes; Salameh, Therese; Gaimoz, Cecile; Sauvage, Stephane; Locoge, Nadine; Oztürk, Fatma; Cetin, Banu; Keles, Melek; Afif, Charbel

    2016-04-01

    The East Mediterranean Basin (EMB) is a highly sensitive environment under considerable pressures. Future decadal projections point to the EMB as a possible hot spot of poor air quality and predict a continual and gradual warming in the region, much stronger than other regions. The increase and accumulation of anthropogenic emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from surrounding urban areas, are suspected as one of the key compounding factors of those environmental impacts. The quantification of emission distribution is a challenge, and even more in cities of the EMB where local emission data are sparse. While some highly resolved inventories have been developed at the regional scale in the EMB area for Beirut and Istanbul, their uncertainties are unknown. The paucity of observations in this region, especially for VOCs and PM composition, is a strong limitation to the achievement of evaluated and accurate emission inventories. As part of the TRANSEMED initiative (https://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/index.php/sister-projects/transemed.html), one of our objectives is to develop a systematic source-receptor methodology for emission inventory evaluation. We combine existing and newly collected observations and complementary source-receptor approaches (ie., urban enhancement emission ratios, multivariate models like PMF) in representative areas of the EMB: Beirut (Lebanon), Istanbul (Turkey), Cairo (Egypt) and, more recently, Athens (Greece). Over the past five years a very detailed database of ambient and near-source observations has been built-up especially regarding the composition of gaseous organic carbon. Results show (i) the extremely high levels of pollution for organics, (ii) the dominance of traffic emissions on VOC concentration levels, (iii) the relative poor spatial variability of speciated hydrocarbon traffic emissions regardless of the region, and (iv) the high uncertainty on global emission inventories when compared to observations. For the latter, and

  12. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  13. Modeling Atmospheric Emission for CMB Ground-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Elleflot, T.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Feeney, S.; Gilbert, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Leon, D.; Linder, E.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N. J.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K. M.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takakura, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Whitehorn, N.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.

    2015-08-01

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  14. Enzyme Based Biosensors for Detection of Environmental Pollutants--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Vinod Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2015-11-01

    Environmental security is one of the major concerns for the safety of living organisms from a number of harmful pollutants in the atmosphere. Different initiatives, legislative actions, as well as scientific and social concerns have been discussed and adopted to control and regulate the threats of environmental pollution, but it still remains a worldwide challenge. Therefore, there is a need for developing certain sensitive, rapid, and selective techniques that can detect and screen the pollutants for effective bioremediation processes. In this perspective, isolated enzymes or biological systems producing enzymes, as whole cells or in immobilized state, can be used as a source for detection, quantification, and degradation or transformation of pollutants to non-polluting compounds to restore the ecological balance. Biosensors are ideal for the detection and measurement of environmental pollution in a reliable, specific, and sensitive way. In this review, the current status of different types of microbial biosensors and mechanisms of detection of various environmental toxicants are discussed.

  15. Reconstruction of atmospheric trace metals pollution in Southwest China using sediments from a large and deep alpine lake: Historical trends, sources and sediment focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qi; Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Nath, Bibhash; Shen, Ji; Yuan, Hezhong; Wang, Rong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution, one of the leading environmental problems in South and East Asia, and its impact on the terrestrial environmental quality remain poorly understood particularly in alpine areas where both historical and present-day mining and smelting operations might leave an imprint. Here, we reconstructed atmospheric trace metals pollution during the past century using core sediments from a large and deep alpine lake in Southwest China. The implication of in lake and/or in watershed sediment focusing in pollution quantification is discussed by analyzing 15 sediment cores. Factor analysis and enrichment factor indicated Cd, Pb and Sb as the typical pollutants. Distinct peaks of Pb and Sb pollution were observed around the 1920s, but little Pb pollution was detected in recent decades, different from other studies in similar regions. Cadmium pollution was observed until the mid-1980s synchronized with Sb. The distinctive variations in atmospheric trace metal pollution process in Southwest China highlight the regional and sub-regional sources of metal pollutants, which should be primarily attributed to non-ferrous metal smelting emissions. Both natural and anthropogenic metals showed wide concentration ranges though exhibited similar temporal trends in the 15 cores. Spatial variations of anthropogenic metals were influenced by the in-watershed pollutants remobilization, whereas, natural metals were regulated by the detrital materials in the sub-basin. In-lake sediment focusing had little influence on the spatial distributions of all metals, different from the traditional sediment focusing pattern observed in small lakes. Anthropogenic Cd accumulation in sediments ranged from 1.5 to 10.1mgm-2 in a specific core with an average of 6.5mgm-2 for the entire lake, highlighting that a reliable whole-lake pollutant budget requires an analysis of multiple cores. Our study suggests that the management of aquatic ecosystem health should take the remobilization of in

  16. Applications of Ground-based Mobile Atmospheric Monitoring: Real-time Characterization of Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. Douglas

    Gas and particle phase atmospheric pollution are known to impact human and environmental health as well as contribute to climate forcing. While many atmospheric pollutants are regulated or controlled in the developed world uncertainty still remains regarding the impacts from under characterized emission sources, the interaction of anthropogenic and naturally occurring pollution, and the chemical and physical evolution of emissions in the atmosphere, among many other uncertainties. Because of the complexity of atmospheric pollution many types of monitoring have been implemented in the past, but none are capable of perfectly characterizing the atmosphere and each monitoring type has known benefits and disadvantages. Ground-based mobile monitoring with fast-response in-situ instrumentation has been used in the past for a number of applications that fill data gaps not possible with other types of atmospheric monitoring. In this work, ground-based mobile monitoring was implemented to quantify emissions from under characterized emission sources using both moving and portable applications, and used in a novel way for the characterization of ambient concentrations. In the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania two mobile platforms were used to estimate emission rates from infrastructure associated with the production and transmission of natural gas using two unique methods. One campaign investigated emissions of aerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from natural gas wells, well development practices, and compressor stations using tracer release ratio methods and a developed fenceline tracer release correction factor. Another campaign investigated emissions of methane from Marcellus Shale gas wells and infrastructure associated with two large national transmission pipelines using the "Point Source Gaussian" method described in the EPA OTM-33a. During both campaigns ambient concentrations

  17. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  18. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  19. pH of Aerosols in a Polluted Atmosphere: Source Contributions to Highly Acidic Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoliang; Xu, Jiao; Peng, Xing; Xiao, Zhimei; Chen, Kui; Tian, Yingze; Guan, Xinbei; Feng, Yinchang; Yu, Haofei; Nenes, Athanasios; Russell, Armistead G

    2017-04-18

    Acidity (pH) plays a key role in the physical and chemical behavior of PM2.5. However, understanding of how specific PM sources impact aerosol pH is rarely considered. Performing source apportionment of PM2.5 allows a unique link of sources pH of aerosol from the polluted city. Hourly water-soluble (WS) ions of PM2.5 were measured online from December 25th, 2014 to June 19th, 2015 in a northern city in China. Five sources were resolved including secondary nitrate (41%), secondary sulfate (26%), coal combustion (14%), mineral dust (11%), and vehicle exhaust (9%). The influence of source contributions to pH was estimated by ISORROPIA-II. The lowest aerosol pH levels were found at low WS-ion levels and then increased with increasing total ion levels, until high ion levels occur, at which point the aerosol becomes more acidic as both sulfate and nitrate increase. Ammonium levels increased nearly linearly with sulfate and nitrate until approximately 20 μg m-3, supporting that the ammonium in the aerosol was more limited by thermodynamics than source limitations, and aerosol pH responded more to the contributions of sources such as dust than levels of sulfate. Commonly used pH indicator ratios were not indicative of the pH estimated using the thermodynamic model.

  20. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollution: the Far-Reaching Impact of Burning in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Neil, Doreen O.; Creilson, John K.; Severance, Kurt; Thomason, Larry W.; Edwards, David R.

    2008-01-01

    When the first observations of a tropospheric trace gas were obtained in the 1980s, carbon monoxide enhancements from tropical biomass burning dominated the observed features. In 2005, an active remote-sensing system to provide detailed information on the vertical distribution of aerosols and clouds was launched, and again, one of the most imposing features observed was the presence of emissions from tropical biomass burning. This paper presents a brief overview of space-borne observations of the distribution of trace gases and aerosols and how tropical biomass burning, primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, has provided an initially surprising picture of the distribution of these species and how they have evolved from prevailing transport patterns in that hemisphere. We also show how interpretation of these observations has improved significantly as a result of the improved capability of trajectory modeling in recent years and how information from this capability has provided additional insight into previous measurements form satellites. Key words: pollution; biomass burning; aerosols; tropical trace gas emissions; Southern Hemisphere; carbon monoxide.

  2. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  3. Modelling atmospheric chemistry and long-range transport of emerging Asian pollutants

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Modeling is a very important tool for scientific processes, requiring long-term dedication, desire, and continuous reflection. In this work, we discuss several aspects of modeling, and the reasons for doing it. We discuss two major modeling systems that have been built by us over the last 10 years. It is a long and arduous process but the reward of understanding can be enormous, as demonstrated in the examples shown in this work. We found that long-range transport of emerging Asian pollutants can be interpreted using a Lagrangian framework for wind analysis. More detailed processes still need to be modeled but an accurate representation of the wind structure is the most important thing above all others. Our long-term chemistry integrations reveal the capability of the IMS model in simulating tropospheric chemistry on a climate scale. These long-term integrations also show ways for further model development. Modeling is a quantitative process, and the understanding can be sustained only when theories are vigor...

  4. The spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents during the period 2000-2005 in the Urban Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hermes U Ramírez; García, María D Andrade; Bejaran, Rubén; Guadalupe, Mario E García; Vázquez, Antonio Wallo; Toledano, Ana C Pompa; Villasenor, Odila de la Torre

    2009-06-15

    In the large cities, the disordered urban development, the industrial activities, and the transport, have caused elevated concentrations of polluting agents and possible risks to the health of the population. The metropolises located in valleys with little ventilation (such as the Urban Area of Guadalajara: UAG) present low dispersion of polluting agents can cause high risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particles smaller than 10 microns (microm) (PM(10)) and ozone (O(3)) in the UAG during the period 2000-2005. A spatial-temporal distribution analysis was made by means of graphic interpolation (Kriging method) of the statistical parameters of CO, NO(2), SO(2), PM(10) and O(3) with the collected data from eight stations of atmospheric monitoring in the UAG. The results show that the distributions of the atmospheric polluting agents are variable during the analyzed years. The polluting agent with highest concentration is PM(10) (265.42 microg/m(3)), followed by O(3) (0.11 ppm), NO(2) (0.11 ppm), CO (9.17 ppm) and SO(2) (0.05 ppm). The most affected zone is the southeast of the UAG. The results showed that an important percentage of days exceed the Mexican norms of air quality (93-199 days/year).

  5. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar eHAYAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  6. Integrating atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Bout, Bastian Van den; Jetten, V.G.; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, this paper develops an integrated and spatially-distributed modelling approach, linking atmospheric deposition, soil erosion and sewer transport models, to assess the transfer of traffic-related pollutants in urban areas. The modelling system is applied to a small urban catchment

  7. Electromagnetism based atmospheric ice sensing technique - A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mughal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic and vibrational properties of ice can be used to measure certain parameters such as ice thickness, type and icing rate. In this paper we present a review of the dielectric based measurement techniques for matter and the dielectric/spectroscopic properties of ice. Atmospheric Ice is a complex material with a variable dielectric constant, but precise calculation of this constant may form the basis for measurement of its other properties such as thickness and strength using some electromagnetic methods. Using time domain or frequency domain spectroscopic techniques, by measuring both the reflection and transmission characteristics of atmospheric ice in a particular frequency range, the desired parameters can be determined.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MEANS FOR ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL LOSSES FROM POLLUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN ZONES OF TECHNOGENIC OBJECTS IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. POPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the solution of one of the most important problems of rational use of natural resources. Modern mathematical tools for damage estimation, which are caused by atmospheric pollution to natural objects, and also methods for calculation of the cost for their renewal were developed. The solution of problem was divided into 3 stages. At the first stage it was defined basic anthropogenic sources of pollution, was illustrated conceptual behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere emitted by technological stationary point source. Choice of mathematical model that allows to determine the distribution of pollutants concentration in the air in zones of pollution by point stationary sources in the short-term discharges was proved. At the second stage it was developed mathematical tools to determine the level of objects damage, which were in the zone of pollution, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure of technogenic sources. At the third stage it was developed mathematical models to determine the recoverable amount of natural objects depending on their level of damage. Model example of developed means usage was described. Advantages of developed means over existed analogs were noticed.

  9. A rights-based approach to indoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jamie; Petersen, Stephen; Schwarz, Dan; Schwarz, Ryan; Maru, Duncan

    2013-12-12

    Household indoor air pollution from open-fire cookstoves remains a public health and environmental hazard which impacts negatively on people's right to health. Technologically improved cookstoves designed to reduce air pollution have demonstrated their efficacy in laboratory studies. Despite the tremendous need for such stoves, in the field they have often failed to be effective, with low rates of long-term adoption by users, mainly due to poor maintenance of the stoves. In poor, rural, isolated communities, there is unlikely to be a single behavioral or technological "fix" to this problem. In this paper, we suggest that improved cookstoves are an important health intervention to which people have a right, as they do to family planning, vaccination, and essential primary care medicines. Like these other necessary elements in the fulfillment of the right to health, access to clean indoor air should be incorporated into state health strategies, policies, and plans. State infrastructure and health systems should support public and private sector delivery of improved cookstove services, and ensure that such services reach all communities, even those that are poor, located remotely, and likely not to be served by the market. We suggest that community health workers could play a critical role in creating demand for, implementing facilitation and delivery of, and monitoring these cookstoves and related services. Through this approach, improved cookstoves could become an appealing, available, and sustainable option for the rural poor. In this paper, we adopt a human rights-based approach to overcome the problem of indoor air pollution, and we use Nepal as an example. Copyright © 2013 Lim, Petersen, Schwarz, Schwarz, Maru. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any

  10. NO2 pollution of the atmosphere and the influence of industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kula Petr

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Among nitrogen oxides in atmosphere, the concentration of N2O is the highest (about 306 ppm and due to the high global warming potential (GWP = 320 nitrous oxide belongs to important greenhouse gases. Moreover, N2O contributes also to the ozone layer depletion. Nitrous oxide is produced by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities, where combustion plays an important role. Two analytical methods ( IR spectrophotometry and gas chromatography have been used for the analysis of N2O emissions from various industrial sources. Carbon monooxide at the concentration above 500 ppm interferes the IR analysis. The emission factors for combustion processes typical for Czech Republic have been calculated. Emission concentrations depend on the type of the combustion process (the highest is for the fluid-bed combustion as well as on the output of the combustion unit. In an identical unit, the emission factor increases when the output decreases. A high concentration of nitrous oxide have been found in emissions from the chemical industry where catalytic denitrification is used.

  11. Urban light pollution - The effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joachim H.; Mekler, Yuri; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth less than 0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert, and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an urban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.

  12. Study of atmospheric metallic elements pollution in Asia during 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Liang; Huang, Jun-Han

    2010-08-15

    The main purpose of this study is to observe the concentration variations for metallic elements in the atmosphere in Asian countries during 2000-2007. These metallic elements typically generated by human activities are directly or indirectly detrimental to human health. The results show that the highest average metallic elements concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn in total suspended particles (TSP) were in China, while the lowest average concentrations were in Japan. For metallic elements Cr and Ni, the highest average concentrations in Japan. The highest average concentrations for metallic element Pb were in China while the lowest average concentrations were in Hong-Kong. These analytical results show that the highest average metallic elements concentrations of Pb, Mn, Cr and Ni in PM(10) occurred in Hong-Kong while the lowest average concentrations were in India. In addition, the lowest average concentrations for Zn and Fe occurred in India. These analytical results demonstrate that the highest average concentrations of Pb in PM(2.5) occurred in Hong-Kong while the lowest average concentration was in Japan. The lowest average concentrations for Cu, Mn, Cr and Ni, the average lowest concentrations occurred in Bangladesh. Taiwan had the lowest average concentrations of Cu and Ni among all Asian countries studied during 2000-2007. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hadoop-Based Distributed System for Online Prediction of Air Pollution Based on Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Z.; Farnaghi, M.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The critical impact of air pollution on human health and environment in one hand and the complexity of pollutant concentration behavior in the other hand lead the scientists to look for advance techniques for monitoring and predicting the urban air quality. Additionally, recent developments in data measurement techniques have led to collection of various types of data about air quality. Such data is extremely voluminous and to be useful it must be processed at high velocity. Due to the complexity of big data analysis especially for dynamic applications, online forecasting of pollutant concentration trends within a reasonable processing time is still an open problem. The purpose of this paper is to present an online forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the air quality one day in advance. In order to overcome the computational requirements for large-scale data analysis, distributed computing based on the Hadoop platform has been employed to leverage the processing power of multiple processing units. The MapReduce programming model is adopted for massive parallel processing in this study. Based on the online algorithm and Hadoop framework, an online forecasting system is designed to predict the air pollution of Tehran for the next 24 hours. The results have been assessed on the basis of Processing Time and Efficiency. Quite accurate predictions of air pollutant indicator levels within an acceptable processing time prove that the presented approach is very suitable to tackle large scale air pollution prediction problems.

  14. An effective chaos-geometric computational approach to analysis and prediction of evolutionary dynamics of the environmental systems: Atmospheric pollution dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyadzhi, V. V.; Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Bunyakova, Yu Ya; Florko, T. A.; Agayar, E. V.; Solyanikova, E. P.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper concerns the results of computational studying dynamics of the atmospheric pollutants (dioxide of nitrogen, sulphur etc) concentrations in an atmosphere of the industrial cities (Odessa) by using the dynamical systems and chaos theory methods. A chaotic behaviour in the nitrogen dioxide and sulphurous anhydride concentration time series at several sites of the Odessa city is numerically investigated. As usually, to reconstruct the corresponding attractor, the time delay and embedding dimension are needed. The former is determined by the methods of autocorrelation function and average mutual information, and the latter is calculated by means of a correlation dimension method and algorithm of false nearest neighbours. Further, the Lyapunov’s exponents spectrum, Kaplan-Yorke dimension and Kolmogorov entropy are computed. It has been found an existence of a low-D chaos in the time series of the atmospheric pollutants concentrations.

  15. Client Server Model Based DAQ System for Real-Time Air Pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Vetrivel. P

    2014-01-01

    The proposed system consists of client server model based Data-Acquisition Unit. The Embedded Web Server integrates Pollution Server and DAQ that collects air Pollutants levels (CO, NO2, and SO2). The Pollution Server is designed by considering modern resource constrained embedded systems. In contrast, an application server is designed to the efficient execution of programs and scripts for supporting the construction of various applications. While a pollution server mainly dea...

  16. Suitability of selected bioindicators of atmospheric pollution in the industrialised region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-08-29

    This study is a continuation of our preceding research identifying suitable environmental samples for the tracing of atmospheric pollution in industrial areas. Three additional types of environmental samples were used to characterise contamination sources in the industrial area of Ostrava city, Czech Republic. The region is known for its extensive metallurgical and mining activities. Fingerprinting of stable Pb isotopes was applied to distinguish individual sources of anthropogenic Pb. A wide range of 206Pb/207Pb ratios was observed in the investigated samples: 206Pb/207Pb = 1.168-1.198 in mosses; 206Pb/207Pb = 1.167-1.215 in soils and 206Pb/207Pb = 1.158-1.184 in tree cores. Black and brown coal combustion, as well as metallurgical activities, is the two main sources of pollution in the area. Fossil fuel burning in industry and households seems to be a stronger source of Pb emissions than from the metallurgical industry. Concentration analyses of tree rings showed that a significant increase in As concentrations occurred between 1999 and 2016 (from 0.38 mg kg-1 to 13.8 mg kg-1). This shift corresponds to the use of brown coal from Bílina, Czech Republic, with an increased As concentration. The burning of low-quality fuels in households remains a problem in the area, as small ground sources have a greater influence on the air quality than do industrial sources.

  17. Fundamental understanding of the thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires and their air pollutant generation in a N2 atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann; Castaldi, Marco J

    2009-08-01

    The thermal decomposition of waste tires has been characterized via thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) tests, and significant mass loss has been observed between 300 and 500 degrees C. A series of gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) measurements, in which the instrument was coupled to a TGA unit, have been carried out to investigate the thermal degradation mechanisms as well as the air pollutant generation including volatile organic carbons (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a nitrogen atmosphere. In order to understand fundamental information on the thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires, the main constituents of tires, poly-isoprene rubber (IR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), have been studied under the same conditions. All of the experimental work indicated that the bond scission on each monomer of the main constituents of tires was followed by hydrogenation and gas phase reactions. This helped to clarify the independent pathways and species attributable to IR and SBR during the pyrolysis process. To extend that understanding to a more practical level, a flow-through reactor was used to test waste tire, SBR and IR samples in the temperature range of 500-800 degrees C at a heating rate of approximately 200 degrees C. Lastly, the formation of VOCs (approximately 1-50 PPMV/10 mg of sample) and PAHs (approximately 0.2-7 PPMV/10 mg of sample) was observed at relatively low temperatures compared to conventional fuels, and its quantified concentration was significantly high due to the chemical structure of SBR and IR. The measurement of chemicals released during pyrolysis suggests not only a methodology for reducing the air pollutants but also the feasibility of petrochemical recovery during thermal treatment.

  18. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Krecl

    2011-11-01

    LAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background sites.

    To decrease pollution levels at kerbside and urban background locations in Stockholm, we recommend abatement strategies that target reductions of vehicle exhaust emissions, which are the main contributors to MLAC and NOx concentrations.

  19. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Molina, Ricardo; Schikora, Hendrik; Müller, Michael; Bayona, Josep M

    2013-11-15

    Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1-5 mg L(-1)) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min(-1) for atrazine; 0.567 min(-1) for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min(-1) for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min(-1) for atrazine; 0.523 min(-1) for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min(-1) for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for atrazine; 447 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for c hlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by -products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min(-1) for atrazine; k = 0.061 min(-1) for lindane). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Summer atmospheric composition over the Mediterranean basin: investigation on transport processes and pollutant export to the free troposphere by observations at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofanelli, Paolo; Cristian Landi, Tony; Rinaldi, Matteo; Calzolari, Francesopiero; Duchi, Rocco; Marinoni, Angela; Roccato, Fabrizio; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we analysed reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx) and aerosol properties (eqBC, s and particle number concentration) collected at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy) during the summer of 2012 in the framework of PEGASOS project. The major aim of this experiment is providing a characterization of the variability of summer atmospheric composition over the central Mediterranean basin, which is considered as a global "hot-spot" for atmospheric pollution and climate change. The atmospheric tracers have been analysed as a function of (i) meteorological parameters, (ii) synoptic-scale circulation and (iii) anthropogenic emission source proximity as estimated by O3/NOx ratio variability. In particular, we identified three O3/NOx regimes which tagged the distance of anthropogenic sources: near outflow (23% of hourly data), far-outflow (38% of data) and background (39% of data). The highest levels of anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. O3, CO, eqBC, accumulation particles) were concomitant with fresh emissions from northern Italy under near-outflow conditions: once injected to the free troposphere, these air-masses, rich in pollutants and climate-forcers (i.e. O3, eqBC) and soil dust, can be spread over a large region, thus significantly affecting regional climate. Moreover, based on the anthropogenic source proximity, atmospheric tracer variability and synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation, we categorized and characterised four types of atmospheric regimes associated with (1) air-mass transport from the free troposphere, (2) transport of fresh emitted pollutants from the PBL, (3) transport at regional/continental scale of aged anthropogenic (4) transport of air-mass rich in mineral dust from northern Africa (i.e. coming from more than 1000 km). Lastly, by analysing the probability density functions (PDFs) of trace gases and aerosol properties, "fingerprints" of the mentioned atmospheric regimes were pointed out. Such information is useful for the

  1. Nucleation and growth of sub-3 nm particles in the polluted urban atmosphere of a megacity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distribution down to 1.4 nm was measured in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing, China, in spring, summer, and winter during 2014–2015. Sub-3 nm particle event, which is equivalent to nucleation event, occurred on 42 out of total 90 observation days, but new particles could grow to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN-active sizes on only 9 days. In summer, infrequent nucleation was limited by both unfavorable meteorological conditions (high temperature and relative humidity – RH and reduced anthropogenic precursor availability due to strict emission control measures during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. The limiting factors for nucleation in winter and spring were meteorological conditions (radiation, temperature, and RH and condensation sink, but for the further growth of sub-3 nm particles to CCN-active sizes, anthropogenic precursors again became limiting factors. Nucleation events were strong in the polluted urban atmosphere. Initial J1.4 at the onset and peak J1.4 at the noontime could be up to 2.1 × 102 and 2.5 × 103 cm−3 s−1, respectively, during the eight nucleation events selected from different seasons. Time-dependent J1.4 usually showed good linear correlations with a sulfuric acid proxy for every single event (R2 = 0.56–0.86, excluding a day with significant nocturnal nucleation, but the correlation among all eight events deteriorated (R2 =  0.17 due to temperature or season change. We observed that new particle growth rate (GR did not increase monotonically with particle size, but had a local maximum up to 25 nm h−1 between 1 and 3 nm. The existence of local maxima GR in sub-3 nm size range, though sensitive to measurement uncertainties, gives new insight into cluster dynamics in polluted environments. In this study such growth rate behavior was interpreted as the solvation effect of organic activating vapor in newly formed inorganic nuclei.

  2. Evaluation of the pollution and human health risks posed by heavy metals in the atmospheric dust in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwailil, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Fengqing, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a large amount of research assessing pollution levels and the related health risks posed by atmosphere dust has been undertaken worldwide. However, little work has been done in the oases of the arid regions of Northwest China. In this paper, we studied the pollution and health risks over a year of seven heavy metals in the atmospheric dust of Ebinur Basin, a typical oasis in Northwest China. The results showed the following: (1) The annual amount of atmospheric deposition in Ebinur Basin was 298.23 g m(-2) and the average monthly atmospheric deposition was 25.06 g m(-2). The average and maximum values of the seven heavy metals measured were all below the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (2nd). (2) Heavy metals of Cu, Cr, and As in the atmospheric deposition mainly originated from the natural geological background, while Zn came from human activity. This study also showed that among the seven measured heavy metals, the ratios of the no-pollution status of Pb, Cd, and Hg were higher than those of others with moderate degrees of pollution also accounting for a certain ratio. (3) The carcinogenic risks from As, Cd, and Cr were all lower than the corresponding standard limit values, and these metals are considered not harmful to the health of the basin. However, there is a relatively high risk of exposure for children from hand-to-mouth intake, which is worthy of attention. This research showed that both human activity and natural factors, such as wind and altitude, influenced the heavy metal contents in the atmospheric dust of the study area. Furthermore, recent human activity in the study area had the most negative influence on the accumulation of the heavy metals and the corresponding health risks, especially for Hg, Pb, and Cd, which is worthy of attention.

  3. Application of a Lagrangian modeling to the atmospheric pollution; Aplicacion de una modelizacion Lagrangiana a la contaminacion atmosferica transfronteriza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rua, A.; Hernandez, E. [Departamento de Fisica del Aire, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, L. [Centro de Formacion del Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INM), Madrid (Spain)

    1998-04-01

    In this article, a physical modeling of the atmospheric pollution was considered. The objective was to determine the concentrations of pollutants in a receptor station reproducing the way followed by the air mass and simulating the physical and chemical processes involved during this way. To do that we used a Lagrangian model. To estimate the quality of the model a comparison between the theoretical concentration from the model and the observed concentrations is done. The model uses the air mass trajectories arriving at the receptor station calculated from the Limited Area Model (LAM). These trajectories let us know the air mass position each 6 hours. Once the initial model had been run, several parameters were modified with the aim of reproducing letter the conditions of The Iberian Peninsula. The considered pollutants were the SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2}- and the chosen station was Logrono (Spain). [Spanish] En este articulo se planteo una modelizacion de la contaminacion atmosferica transfronteriza desde un punto de vista fisico. Asi, reproduciendo el camino seguido por las masas de aire que transportan los contaminantes y simulando lo mejor posible los procesos fisico-quimicos existentes durante ese camino, pretendimos determinar cual fue la concentracion final registrada de tales contaminantes en una estacion receptora. Un modelo fisico de tipo Lagrangiano se uso en este trabajo. Para estimar la bondad de tal modelizacion se realizo una comparacion entre la concentracion final estimada mediante la modelizacion y la observada. Se partio de las trayectorias de las masas de aire que llegan hasta esa estacion receptora, calculadas a partir del Modelo de Area Limitada (LAM), y que permite conocer la posicion de la masa de aire cada 6 horas. Fueron modificados algunos parametros del modelo fisico inicialmente propuestos, adecuandolos mas a la realidad fisica de la Peninsula Iberica, lograndose una mejora en los resultados obtenidos en un primer momento. Los

  4. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2017-07-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  5. Effect of Pollution Controls on Atmospheric PM2.5 Composition during Universiade in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Dewan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 16th Universiade, an international multi-sport event, was hosted in Shenzhen, China from 12 to 23 August 2011. During this time, officials instituted the Pearl River Delta action plan in order to enhance the air quality of Shenzhen. To determine the effect of these controls, the current study examined the trace elements, water-soluble ions, and stable lead isotopic ratios in atmospheric particulate matter (PM collected during the controlled (when the restrictions were in place and uncontrolled periods. Fine particles (PM2.5 were collected at two sampling sites in Shenzhen: “LG”—a residential building in the Longgang District, with significant point sources around it and “PU”—Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School in the Nanshan District, with no significant point sources. Results from this study showed a significant increase in the concentrations of elements during the uncontrolled periods. For instance, samples at the LG site showed (controlled to uncontrolled periods concentrations (in ng·m−3 of: Fe (152 to 290, As (3.65 to 8.38, Pb (9.52 to 70.8, and Zn (98.6 to 286. Similarly, samples at the PU site showed elemental concentrations (in ng·m−3 of: Fe (114 to 301, As (0.634 to 8.36, Pb (4.86 to 58.1, and Zn (29.5 to 259. Soluble Fe ranged from 7%–15% for the total measured Fe, indicating an urban source of Fe. Ambient PM2.5 collected at the PU site has an average 206Pb/204Pb ratio of 18.257 and 18.260 during controlled and uncontrolled periods, respectively. The LG site has an average 206Pb/204Pb ratio of 18.183 and 18.030 during controlled and uncontrolled periods, respectively. The 206Pb/204Pb ratios at the PU and the LG sites during the controlled and uncontrolled periods were similar, indicating a common Pb source. To characterize the sources of trace elements, principal component analysis was applied to the elements and ions. Although the relative importance of each component varied, the major sources for both

  6. Pollution Assessment of Rice Agriculture in the Taihu Lake Watershed Based on the Pollution Footprint: A Case Study of Changzhou City and Yixing City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; MIN Qing-wen; Li, Wen-hua; JIAO Wen-jun; Yuan, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Rice agriculture has been proved to make a great contribution to the food quantity security, but farmers are driven by economic in-terests to overuse the pesticides and chemical fertilizers. The water environment is getting worse and worse. Based on the first national census of pollution data and the production and drainage coefficient of the pollutants, this paper calculated pollutant (COD, TN and TP)quantity in-lets into river from rice agriculture. The pollution footprint based on the poll...

  7. Emissions to the Atmosphere from Amine-Based Post Combustion CO2 Capture Plant – Regulatory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzi Merched

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amine-based Post Combustion Capture (PCC of CO2 is a readily available technology that can be deployed to reduce CO2 emissions from coal fired power plants. However, PCC plants will likely release small quantities of amine and amine degradation products to the atmosphere along with the treated flue gas. The possible environmental effects of these emissions have been examined through different studies carried out around the world. Based on flue gas from a 400 MW ultra-supercritical coal fired power plant Aspen-Plus PCC process simulations were used to predict the potential atmospheric emissions from the plant. Different research initiatives carried out in this area have produced new knowledge that has significantly reduced the risk perception for the release of amine and amine degradation products to the atmosphere. In addition to the reduction of the CO2 emissions, the PCC technology will also help in reducing SOx and NO2 emissions. However, some other pollutants such as NH3 and aerosols will increase if appropriate control technologies are not adopted. To study the atmospheric photo-oxidation of amines, attempts are being made to develop chemical reaction schemes that can be used for air quality assessment. However, more research is still required in this area to estimate the reactivity of amino solvents in the presence of other pollutants such as NOx and other volatile organic compounds in the background air. Current air quality guidelines may need to be updated to include limits for the additional pollutants such as NH3, nitrosamines and nitramines once more information related to their emissions is available. This paper focuses on describing the predicted concentrations of major pollutants that are expected to be released from a coal fired power plant obtained by ASPEN-Plus PCC process simulations in terms of current air quality regulations and other regulatory aspects.

  8. Atmospheric pollution, eco-products, wastes management: some opinions and attitudes at the beginning of 2002; Pollution atmospherique, eco-produits, gestion des dechets: quelques opinions et attitudes au debut 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents the results (statistical data) to the questions asked by the ADEME in the inquiry of the CREDOC concerning the ''French way of life and aspirations'' and realized in the beginning of the year 2002. The questions dealt with the following five topics: the french attitude facing the atmospheric pollution; the renouncing of the vehicle during the days of high urban pollution; the French and the remote-working; the consumption and the environment control. (A.L.B.)

  9. Opinions of the French on the atmospheric pollution, the wastes management and the eco-products; Opinions des francais sur la pollution atmospherique, la gestion des dechets et les eco-produits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Five main opinions can be presented from the answers analysis to the inquiry realized in 1999 by the ADEME on the French way of life and aspirations. The French think that the atmospheric pollution is dangerous for the health and that they are badly informed about the air quality of their town. 87% of the motorists are ready to leave their vehicles the days of high urban pollution level. In less of two years the green products credibility is worsening. Nevertheless the consumer believes sensitive to the ecological arguments. Finally the French are very favorable to the domestic wastes control. (A.L.B.)

  10. Assessing Light Pollution in China Based on Nighttime Light Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and economic development inevitably lead to light pollution, which has become a universal environmental issue. In order to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns and evolvement rules of light pollution in China, images from 1992 to 2012 were selected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS and systematically corrected to ensure consistency. Furthermore, we employed a linear regression trend method and nighttime light index method to demonstrate China’s light pollution characteristics across national, regional, and provincial scales, respectively. We found that: (1 China’s light pollution expanded significantly in provincial capital cities over the past 21 years and hot-spots of light pollution were located in the eastern coastal region. The Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regions have formed light pollution stretch areas; (2 China’s light pollution was mainly focused in areas of north China (NC and east China (EC, which, together, accounted for over 50% of the light pollution for the whole country. The fastest growth of light pollution was observed in northwest China (NWC, followed by southwest China (SWC. The growth rates of east China (EC, central China (CC, and northeast China (NEC were stable, while those of north China (NC and south China (SC declined; (3 Light pollution at the provincial scale was mainly located in the Shandong, Guangdong, and Hebei provinces, whereas the fastest growth of light pollution was in Tibet and Hainan. However, light pollution levels in the developed provinces (Hong Kong, Macao, Shanghai, and Tianjin were higher than those of the undeveloped provinces. Similarly, the light pollution heterogeneities of Taiwan, Beijing, and Shanghai were higher than those of undeveloped western provinces.

  11. [Methodology of the description of atmospheric air pollution by nitrogen dioxide by land use regression method in Ekaterinburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropov, K M; Varaksin, A N

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the description of Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling and the result of its application in the study of nitrogen dioxide air pollution in Ekaterinburg. The paper describes the difficulties of the modeling for air pollution caused by motor vehicles exhaust, and the ways to address these challenges. To create LUR model of the NO2 air pollution in Ekaterinburg, concentrations of NO2 were measured, data on factors affecting air pollution were collected, a statistical analysis of the data were held. A statistical model of NO2 air pollution (coefficient of determination R2 = 0.70) and a map of pollution were created.

  12. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M. E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375806407; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A C; Krol, M. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410; Visschedijk, A. J H; Schaap, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333175; Röckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we

  13. Atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutant concentrations in Bucharest area using first datasets from the city AQ monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaceanu, Cristina; Iorga, Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    City of Bucharest is the largest and most populated (about 2.8 million inhabitants) city in the Romanian Plain and encounters environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in southeastern Europe. City environment includes intense emissions arising from traffic (about 1 million cars per day), five thermo-electrical power-generation stations, that use both natural gas and oil derivatives for power generation and domestic heating, and from industrial sources (more than 800 small and medium plants). In the present work we performed an extensive analysis of the air pollution state for the Bucharest area (inside and outside the city) using filter measurement aerosol data PM10 and PM2.5. Data spanning over first year of continuous sampling (2005) were taken from the city Air Quality Monitoring Network, which consists of eight sampling stations: three industrial and two traffic, one EPA urban background, one suburban and one regional station located outside of Bucharest. The objective was to assess the PM10 recorded levels and their degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standards and to provide a statistical investigation of the factors controlling seasonal and spatial variations of PM levels. PM10 relationships with other measured air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction) were investigated by statistical analysis. Back trajectory modeling and wind direction frequency distributions were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Contribution of combustion (slopes) and non-combustion (intercepts) sources to PM10 recorded levels was quantified by linear analysis, for two seasonal periods: cold (15 October-14 April) and warm (15 April-14 October). PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were compared with corresponding values in other European urban areas. Main conclusions are as follows: Traffic and industrial sites contribute to the

  14. PM source apportionment and trace metallic aerosol affinities during atmospheric pollution episodes: a case study from Puertollano, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; García do Santos, Saúl; Fernández Patier, Rosalia; Artiñano, Begoña; Gibbons, Wes

    2006-10-01

    Source apportionment study was performed, applying principal component analysis to the results of 221 chemical analyses of PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected daily from the industrial (but low traffic) Spanish town of Puertollano over a 14-month period during 2004-2005. Results reveal compositional variations attributable to different mixtures of natural and anthropogenic materials, mainly soil and rock dust (crustal), marine salt (only in PM10), petrochemical refinery emissions, and particles attributed to the combustion of local coal, which is unusually rich in Pb and Sb. During the study period there were 34 pollution episodes when PM10 exceeded 50 tg m(-3), mostly due to winter air temperature inversions, regional atmospheric stagnation, or African dust incursions (North African, NAF days: usually in summer). Whereas the crustal component during NAF episodes averaged 52% with a PM2.5/PM10 ratio of 0.54, this dropped to 29% and a PM2.5/PM10 of 0.67 during non-NAF days when anthropogenic materials predominated. Abnormally enhanced concentrations of pathfinder metallic trace elements provide additional evidence for source apportionment: thus aerosols with raised levels of Pb and Sb are associated with local coal combustion, Ni and V can be linked to petrochemical PM emissions, and Ti, Mn, Rb, and Ce are particularly characteristic of crustal dust incursions.

  15. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of hydrophobic treatments applied to stones used in andalusian cathedrals. III.-Accelerated weathering test with polluted atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Sánchez, R.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In this work we study the weathering resistance of samples of five types of stone used in Andalusian Cathedrals, treated with six water repellent products, by subjecting the samples to a SO2 polluted atmosphere. To evaluate the alteration of the samples, besides visual observation of macroscopic aspect, changes in weight and the quantity of sulfate that remains on the surface have been measured. Also properties related with water have been measured after the test to determine if there have been any changes in the hydrophobic characteristics.

    En el presente artículo se estudia el comportamiento de muestras de cinco tipos de piedra utilizados en catedrales andaluzas, tratadas con seis productos hidrófugos, sometiéndolas a un ensayo acelerado de alteración en atmósfera contaminada con SO2 . Para evaluar la alteración, además de la observación visual de las manifestaciones macroscópicas, se ha medido la variación de peso de las muestras expuestas y la cantidad de sulfato que permanece en la superficie tras el ensayo. Así mismo, se han detectado los cambios experimentados en las propiedades hidrófugas conferidas por los tratamientos, mediante la medida de propiedades relacionadas con el movimiento del agua.

  17. Pollution Assessment of Rice Agriculture in the Taihu Lake Watershed Based on the Pollution Footprint: A Case Study of Changzhou City and Yixing City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jing

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice agriculture has been proved to make a great contribution to the food quantity security, but farmers are driven by economic in-terests to overuse the pesticides and chemical fertilizers. The water environment is getting worse and worse. Based on the first national census of pollution data and the production and drainage coefficient of the pollutants, this paper calculated pollutant (COD, TN and TPquantity in-lets into river from rice agriculture. The pollution footprint based on the pollution footprint model and the pressure index of pollution based on the pollution pressure model were also calculated. The results showed that the river discharge of COD and TN took the most part in that of COD, TN and TP. The river discharge of COD, TN and TP was 792.96 t·a-1, 605.28 t·a-1 and 27.16 t·a-1 respectively. The pollution footprint of TN was the largest, which was 3 944.50 hm2, the second was the pollution footprint of TP, which was 2 578.95 hm2, the smallest was the pollution footprint of COD, which was 523.52 hm2. The pollution pressure index of rice agriculture was 2.10, indicating that the river is in a moderate pollution stress condition. So the pollutant river discharge of the rice agriculture is beyond the carrying capacity of the local waters.

  18. Analysis of atmospheric pollutant metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with a radial line-scan dried-droplet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoxing; Qian, Yuan; Guo, Yanchuan; Wei, Nannan; Li, Yulan; Yao, Jian; Wang, Guanghua; Ma, Jifei; Liu, Wei

    2017-12-01

    A novel method has been improved for analyzing atmospheric pollutant metals (Be, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Cd, and Pb) by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In this method, solid standards are prepared by depositing droplets of aqueous standard solutions on the surface of a membrane filter, which is the same type as used for collecting atmospheric pollutant metals. Laser parameters were optimized, and ablation behaviors of the filter discs were studied. The mode of radial line scans across the filter disc was a representative ablation strategy and can avoid error from the inhomogeneous filter standards and marginal effect of the filter disc. Pt, as the internal standard, greatly improved the correlation coefficient of the calibration curve. The developed method provides low detection limits, from 0.01 ng m- 3 for Be and Co to 1.92 ng m- 3 for Fe. It was successfully applied for the determination of atmospheric pollutant metals collected in Lhasa, China. The analytical results showed good agreement with those obtained by conventional liquid analysis. In contrast to the conventional acid digestion procedure, the novel method not only greatly reduces sample preparation and shortens the analysis time but also provides a possible means for studying the spatial distribution of atmospheric filter samples.

  19. Inverse modeling for the optimization of primary sources of atmospheric pollution at a regional scale; Modelisation inverse pour l'optimisation des sources primaires de pollution atmospherique a l'echelle regionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pison, I.

    2005-12-15

    Atmospheric pollution at a regional scale is the result of various interacting processes: emissions, chemistry, transport, mixing and deposition of gaseous species. The forecast of air quality is then performed by models, in which the emissions are taken into account through inventories. The simulated pollutant concentrations depend highly on the emissions that are used. Now inventories that represent them have large uncertainties. Since it would be difficult today to improve their building methodologies, there remains the possibility of adding information to existing inventories. The optimization of emissions uses the information that is available in measurements to get the inventory that minimizes the difference between simulated and measured concentrations. A method for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a regional scale, using network measurements and based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint, was developed and validated. A kriging technique allows us to optimize the use of the information available in the concentration space. Repeated kriging-optimization cycles increase the quality of the results. A dynamical spatial aggregation technique makes it possible to further reduce the size of the problem. The NO{sub x} emissions from the inventory elaborated by AIRPARIF for the Paris area were inverted during the summers of 1998 and 1999, the events of the ESQUIF campaign being studied in detail. The optimization reduces large differences between simulated and measured concentrations. Generally, however, the confidence level of the results decreases with the density of the measurement network. Therefore, the results with the higher confidence level correspond to the most intense emission fluxes of the Paris area. On the whole domain, the corrections to the average emitted mass and to the matching time profiles are consistent with the estimate of 15% obtained during the ESQUIF campaign. (author)

  20. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  1. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  2. New insight into PM2.5pollution patterns in Beijing based on one-year measurement of chemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianyi; Hu, Min; Li, Mengren; Guo, Qingfeng; Wu, Yusheng; Fang, Xin; Gu, Fangting; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhijun

    2018-04-15

    In recent years, air pollution has become a major concern in China, especially in the capital city of Beijing. Haze events occur in Beijing over all four seasons, exhibiting distinct characteristics. In this study, the typical evolution patterns of atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5μm (PM 2.5 ) in each season were illustrated by episode-based analysis. In addition, a novel method was developed to elucidate the driving species of pollution, which is the largest contributor to the incremental PM 2.5 (ΔPM 2.5 ), not PM 2.5 . This method revealed a temporal variation of the driving species throughout the year: nitrate-driven spring, sulfate-driven summer, nitrate-driven early fall, and organic matters (OM)-driven late fall and winter. These results suggested that primary organic particles or volatile organic compounds emissions were dominant in the heating season due to residential heating, while NOx and SO 2 emissions dominated in the other seasons. Besides, nitrate formation seemed more significant than sulfate formation during severe pollution episodes. It was also found that the pollution formation mechanism in the winter showed some unique features in comparison with the other seasons: aqueous reactions were more important in the winter, while multiple pathways coexisted in the other seasons. Furthermore, this study confirmed that the PM 2.5 in Beijing was moderately acidic despite a fully neutralized system. In addition, the acidity variation during pollution episodes displayed different patterns between seasons and was driven by both the variation of aerosol water and chemical compositions. These results provide a new perspective to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, more accurate measurements are necessary for effective air pollution control that depends on the seasonal variation of fine particle formation in Beijing and the surrounding areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. 21St Century Atmospheric Forecasting for Space Based Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliss, R.; Felton, B.; Craddock, M.; Kiley, H.; Mason, M.

    2016-09-01

    Many space based applications from imaging to communications are impacted by the atmosphere. Atmospheric impacts such as optical turbulence and clouds are the main drivers for these types of systems. For example, in space based optical communications, clouds will produce channel fades on the order of many hundreds of decibels (dB) thereby breaking the communication link. Optical turbulence can also produce fades but these can be compensated for by adaptive optics. The ability to forecast the current and future location and optical thickness of clouds for space to ground Electro Optical or optical communications is therefore critical in order to achieve a highly reliable system. We have developed an innovative method for producing such forecasts. These forecasts are intended to provide lead times on the order of several hours to days so that communication links can be transferred from a currently loudy ground location to another more desirable ground site. The system uses high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) along with a variational data assimilation (DA) scheme to improve the initial conditions and forecasts. DA is used to provide an improved estimate of the atmospheric state by combining meteorological observations with NWP products and their respective error statistics. Variational DA accomplishes this through the minimization of a prescribed cost function, whereby differences between the observations and analysis are damped according to their perceived error. The NWP model is a fully three-dimensional (3D) physics-based model of the atmosphere initialized with gridded atmospheric data obtained from a global scale model. The global model input data has a horizontal resolution of approximately 25km, which is insufficient for the desired atmospheric forecasts required at near 1km resolution. Therefore, a variational DA system is used to improve the quality and resolution of the initial conditions first prescribed by the global model. Data used by the

  4. Multistate atmospheric power production pollution study - MAP3S. Progress report for FY 1977 and FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, Michael C.; Ballantine, David S.

    1979-07-01

    Research progress on the transport, transformation, and fate of pollutants released by energy-related activities is summarized. Information is reported under the following section headings: power production emissions; non-power production emissions; measuring pollutants and their properties; regional pollutant distribution; transport; pollutant transformation; surface removal processes; wet removal processes; weather and climate modification; numerical modeling and analysis; special activities; and, MAP3S research directions. (JGB)

  5. Study of Water Pollution Early Warning Framework Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengfang, H.; Xiao, X.; Dingtao, S.; Bo, C.; Xiongfei, W.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  6. STUDY OF WATER POLLUTION EARLY WARNING FRAMEWORK BASED ON INTERNET OF THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chengfang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  7. Characterization of atmospheric black carbon and co-pollutants in urban and rural areas of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Valle, M.; Coz, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Močnik, G.; Pandis, S. N.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Díaz, E.; Pérez, R. M.; Artíñano, B.

    2017-11-01

    A one-year black carbon (BC) experimental study was performed at three different locations (urban traffic, urban background, rural) in Spain with different equivalent BC (eBC) source characteristics by means of multi-wavelength Aethalometers. The Aethalometer model was used for the source apportionment study, based on the difference in absorption spectral dependence of emissions from biomass burning (bb) and fossil fuel (ff) combustion. Most studies use a single bb and ff absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) pair (AAEbb and AAEff), however in this work we use a range of AAE values associated with fossil fuel and biomass burning based on the available measurements, which represents more properly all conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the source specific AAE was carried out to determine the most appropriate AAE values, being site dependent and seasonally variable. Here we present a methodology for the determination of the ranges of AAEbb and AAEff by evaluating the correlations between the source apportionment of eBC using the Aethalometer model with four biomass burning tracers measured at the rural site. The best combination was AAEbb = [1.63-1.74] and AAEff = [0.97-1.12]. Mean eBC values (±SD) obtained during the period of study were 3.70 ± 3.73 μg m-3 at the traffic urban site, 2.33 ± 2.96 μg m-3 at the urban background location, and 2.61 ± 5.04 μg m-3 in the rural area. High contributions of eBC to the PM10 mass were found (values up to 21% in winter), but with high eBC/PM10 variability. The hourly mean eBCff and eBCbb concentrations varied from 0 to 51 μg m-3 and from 0 to 50 μg m-3 at the three sites, respectively, exhibiting distinct seasonal and daily patterns. The fossil fuel combustion was the dominant eBC source at the urban sites, while biomass burning dominated during the cold season (88% of eBCbb) in the rural area. Daily PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume air samplers and analyzed for OC and EC. Analysis of biomass

  8. Determination of the atmospheric optical depth due to the El Chichon stratospheric aerosol cloud in the polluted atmosphere of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, Ignacio [Centro Universitario de Investigaciones en Ciencia del Ambiente, Universidad de Colima, Colima, Colima, (Mexico); Kondratyev, Kirill Ya. [Academician, Counsellor Center for Ecological Safety, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zenteno, Gerardo [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    Direct solar radiation measurements were used to determine the aerosol optical depth (AOD) increase associated with the presence of aerosol and large particles (ash) originating from the 28 March to 4 April 1982 El Chichon eruptions (17.5 degrees N, 93.3 degrees W; Mexico) on Mexico City's polluted atmospheric aerosol layer. The results are compared with those obtained at Vancouver, British Columbia, revealing that a first AOD increase occurred in both locations during May, June, and July 1982, the Mexico City AOD decay is more extended, not reaching normal climatological values until February 1983. Meanwhile, Vancouver's AOD reached minimum values in September 1982, which subsequently increased over a period from October 1982 to September 1983. This secondary maximum was recorded in Mexico City from March to August 1983. Results suggest that the first AOD increases in May, June and July 1982, both at Vancouver and Mexico City, are due chiefly to short life-time volcanic ash particles being located near the surface. However, the second AOD increases, associated with anomalously colored twilights, corresponds to stratospheric volcanic aerosols. [Spanish] Se utilizaron mediciones de radiacion solar directa para determinar el incremento de la profundidad optica del aerosol (AOD) asociada a la presencia de aerosoles y particulas grandes (cenizas) organizadas por las erupciones de El Chichon (17.5 grados N, 93.3 grados W; Mexico) del 28 de marzo al 4 de abril de 1982 sobre la capa atmosferica contaminada de la Ciudad de Mexico. Los resultados se comparan con los obtenidos en Vancouver, Colombia Britanica, relevando que un primer aumento de AOD ocurrio en ambos lugares durante mayo, junio y julio de 1982. Sin embargo, la AOD decayo en Ciudad de Mexico mas lentamente, alcanzando los valores climatologicos normales hasta febrero de 1983. Mientras tanto la AOD para Vancouver alcanzo valores minimos en septiembre de 1982; estos subsecuentemente se incrementaron en

  9. Opinions and attitudes on the wastes management, the eco-products consumption and the atmospheric pollution; Opinions et attitudes sur la gestion des dechets, sur la consommation des eco-produits et sur la pollution atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This document presents the results of the inquiry on the ''way of life and french aspiration'' concerning the energy. The inquiry was realized at the beginning of 2001 on a sample of 2000 people. The questions dealt with the three following topics: the french attitude facing the atmospheric pollution, consumption and the environment preservation, the opinion on the wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  10. Development and Validation of a UAV Based System for Air Pollution Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Salimi, Farhad; Morton, Kye; Morawska, Lidia; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2016-12-21

    Air quality data collection near pollution sources is difficult, particularly when sites are complex, have physical barriers, or are themselves moving. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer new approaches to air pollution and atmospheric studies. However, there are a number of critical design decisions which need to be made to enable representative data collection, in particular the location of the air sampler or air sensor intake. The aim of this research was to establish the best mounting point for four gas sensors and a Particle Number Concentration (PNC) monitor, onboard a hexacopter, so to develop a UAV system capable of measuring point source emissions. The research included two different tests: (1) evaluate the air flow behavior of a hexacopter, its downwash and upwash effect, by measuring air speed along three axes to determine the location where the sensors should be mounted; (2) evaluate the use of gas sensors for CO₂, CO, NO₂ and NO, and the PNC monitor (DISCmini) to assess the efficiency and performance of the UAV based system by measuring emissions from a diesel engine. The air speed behavior map produced by test 1 shows the best mounting point for the sensors to be alongside the UAV. This position is less affected by the propeller downwash effect. Test 2 results demonstrated that the UAV propellers cause a dispersion effect shown by the decrease of gas and PN concentration measured in real time. A Linear Regression model was used to estimate how the sensor position, relative to the UAV center, affects pollutant concentration measurements when the propellers are turned on. This research establishes guidelines on how to develop a UAV system to measure point source emissions. Such research should be undertaken before any UAV system is developed for real world data collection.

  11. Development and Validation of a UAV Based System for Air Pollution Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Francesco Villa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data collection near pollution sources is difficult, particularly when sites are complex, have physical barriers, or are themselves moving. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs offer new approaches to air pollution and atmospheric studies. However, there are a number of critical design decisions which need to be made to enable representative data collection, in particular the location of the air sampler or air sensor intake. The aim of this research was to establish the best mounting point for four gas sensors and a Particle Number Concentration (PNC monitor, onboard a hexacopter, so to develop a UAV system capable of measuring point source emissions. The research included two different tests: (1 evaluate the air flow behavior of a hexacopter, its downwash and upwash effect, by measuring air speed along three axes to determine the location where the sensors should be mounted; (2 evaluate the use of gas sensors for CO2, CO, NO2 and NO, and the PNC monitor (DISCmini to assess the efficiency and performance of the UAV based system by measuring emissions from a diesel engine. The air speed behavior map produced by test 1 shows the best mounting point for the sensors to be alongside the UAV. This position is less affected by the propeller downwash effect. Test 2 results demonstrated that the UAV propellers cause a dispersion effect shown by the decrease of gas and PN concentration measured in real time. A Linear Regression model was used to estimate how the sensor position, relative to the UAV center, affects pollutant concentration measurements when the propellers are turned on. This research establishes guidelines on how to develop a UAV system to measure point source emissions. Such research should be undertaken before any UAV system is developed for real world data collection.

  12. Place-based stressors associated with industry and air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Carol Ann Gross-Davis; Katlyn May; Lauren O. Davis; Tyiesha Johnson; Mable Mallard; Alice Gabbadon; Claudia Sherrod; Charles C. Branas

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution and its sources is increasingly viewed as a psychosocial stress, however its nature is not understood. This article explores the role of the concept of place on risk perception and community stress within data collected from eight focus groups in Philadelphia, USA. Discussions focused on air pollution, a nearby oil refinery, health, and a...

  13. The Nittany Atmospheric Trailer and Integrated Validation Experiment (NATIVE)and Pollution Events at Yellowknife, NT, During the Summer 08 ARCTAS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. K.; Thompson, A. M.; Doughty, D. C.; Luzik, A. M.; Bryan, A. M.; Shelow, D. M.; Walker, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Nittany Atmospheric Trailer and Integrated Validation Experiment (hereafter NATIVE) is designed for mobile research into air quality, pollution transport, and satellite validation. It is equipped with surface trace gas sensors and a suite of meteorological instruments, as well as several sun photometers and an aerosol lidar. NATIVE also serves as a ground station for ozonesonde launches. During the ARCTAS field campaign, NATIVE was located in Yellowknife, NT (62.48N, 114.48W) where we conducted ozonesonde launches and trace gas measurements of local pollution and forest fire impacts on local air quality and tropospheric ozone. We combine meteorological data with trace gas measurements to better understand the fire and pollution dynamics that occur during the summer of 2008 in Yellowknife, NT. On June 29, elevated pollution levels and significant smoke were observed at the measurement location. This may be related to forest fires sparked by a recent thunderstorm. Additionally, back trajectory analysis suggests that pollutants from fires were transported over long distances in the free troposphere, which were entrained into the boundary layer. On July 1, with no local fires, elevated pollution levels are again observed in Yellowknife, which may be related to more local sources. During this event, ozone mixing ratios increased from ˜10 to ˜20 ppb over the course of two hours.

  14. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: human impact on a regional to global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, François; Gérard, Laëtitia; Goormaghtigh, Catherine; Mattielli, Nadine; Le Roux, Gaël; Fagel, Nathalie

    2007-05-15

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with (14)C and (210)Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles.

  15. Characterization of atmospheric air pollutants at two sites in northern Kyushu, Japan - chemical form, and chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimohara, Takaaki; Oishi, Okihiro; Utsunomiya, Akira; Mukai, Hitoshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Eun-Suk, Jang; Uno, Itsushi; Murano, Kentaro

    Airborne gaseous and particulate matter in winter was measured over for 37 days in January and December 1997 at 2 sampling sites in northern Kyushu, Japan. One sampling site, Goto Island (an isolated island in the East China Sea), was about 200 km southwest of the other sampling site, Dazaifu city. In winter, acidic sulfates generated over the East Asian continent were transported to northwest Kyushu, to places such as Goto Island and the inland Kyushu area, and high sulfate concentrations were observed at the 2 sampling sites when strong NW winds blew. Acidity around Goto was mainly influenced by particulate NH 4HSO 4. The concentrations of NH 3 at Goto Island were lower than at Dazaifu city. The difference in NH 3 levels at the 2 sampling sites plays an important role in the chemical forms and sizes of the particulate matter. Nitrates at Goto Island were mostly present as NaNO 3 and Ca(NO 3) 2 in coarse-size particles. During the process of long-range transport of air pollutants from the Asian continent to Goto, gaseous HNO 3 was produced by a photochemical reactions of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, and particulate NaNO 3 and gaseous HCl were formed by a chlorine-loss reaction between NaCl and gaseous HNO 3. When strong NW winds blew, acidic sulfates together with some of the NaNO 3 and/or Ca(NO 3) 2 and some of gaseous HCl and HNO 3, which exist in the sea to the west of Kyushu and Goto Island, were transported to inland Kyushu such as Dazaifu city. During the process of transport, most of the acidic sulfates and acidic gases were mixed with regional air pollutants such as chlorides and nitrates existing around Dazaifu city, and neutralized forming (NH 4) 2SO 4, NH 4Cl and NH 4NO 3 in an environment of excess NH 3. Therefore, the main chemical forms of NO 3- at Dazaifu city varied day-by-day from fine-sized NH 4NO 3 to coarse-sized NaNO 3 and/or Ca(NO 3) 2. The appearance of NO 3- in coarse-size particles at Dazaifu city was due to the transport of NO 3

  16. Establishment of a database of emission factors for atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, S.X.; Nielsen, C.P.; Li, X.H.; Hao, J.M. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). School of Engineering & Applied Science

    2010-04-15

    Field measurements and data investigations were conducted for developing an emission factor database for inventories of atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants. Gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) of different size fractions were measured using a gas analyzer and an electric low-pressure impactor (ELPI), respectively, for ten units in eight coal-fired power plants. Combining results of field tests and literature surveys, emission factors with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by boiler type, fuel quality and emission control devices using bootstrap and Monte Carlo simulations. The emission factor of uncontrolled SO{sub 2} from pulverized combustion (PC) boilers burning bituminous or anthracite coal was estimated to be 18.0S kg t{sup -1} with a 95% CI of 17.25-18.5S. NOX emission factors for pulverized-coal boilers ranged from 4.0 to 11.2 kg t{sup -1}, with uncertainties of 14-45% for different unit types. The emission factors of uncontrolled PM2.5, PM10, and total PM emitted by PC boilers were estimated to be 0.4A where A is the percentage ash content of coal, 1.5A and 6.9A kg t{sup -1}, respectively, with 95% CIs of 03A-0.5A, 1.1A-1.9A and 5.8A-7.9A. The analogous PM values for emissions with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) controls were 0.032A (95% CI: 0.021A-0.046A), 0.065A (0.039A-0.092A) and 0.094A (0.0656A-0.132A) kg t{sup -1}, and 0.0147A (0.0092-0.0225A), 0.0210A (0.0129A-0.0317A), and 0.0231A (0.0142A-0.0348A) for those with both ESP and wet flue-gas desulfurization. SO{sub 2} and NOx emission factors for Chinese power plants were smaller than those of US EPA AP-42 database, due mainly to lower heating values of coals in China. PM emission factors for units with ESP, however, were generally larger than AP-42 values, because of poorer removal efficiencies of Chinese dust collectors.

  17. Establishment of a database of emission factors for atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Shuxiao; Nielsen, Chris P.; Li, Xinghua; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Field measurements and data investigations were conducted for developing an emission factor database for inventories of atmospheric pollutants from Chinese coal-fired power plants. Gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) of different size fractions were measured using a gas analyzer and an electric low-pressure impactor (ELPI), respectively, for ten units in eight coal-fired power plants across the country. Combining results of field tests and literature surveys, emission factors with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by boiler type, fuel quality, and emission control devices using bootstrap and Monte Carlo simulations. The emission factor of uncontrolled SO 2 from pulverized combustion (PC) boilers burning bituminous or anthracite coal was estimated to be 18.0S kg t -1 (i.e., 18.0 × the percentage sulfur content of coal, S) with a 95% CI of 17.2S-18.5S. NO X emission factors for pulverized-coal boilers ranged from 4.0 to 11.2 kg t -1, with uncertainties of 14-45% for different unit types. The emission factors of uncontrolled PM 2.5, PM 10, and total PM emitted by PC boilers were estimated to be 0.4A (where A is the percentage ash content of coal), 1.5A and 6.9A kg t -1, respectively, with 95% CIs of 0.3A-0.5A, 1.1A-1.9A and 5.8A-7.9A. The analogous PM values for emissions with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) controls were 0.032A (95% CI: 0.021A-0.046A), 0.065A (0.039A-0.092A) and 0.094A (0.0656A-0.132A) kg t -1, and 0.0147A (0.0092-0.0225A), 0.0210A (0.0129A-0.0317A), and 0.0231A (0.0142A-0.0348A) for those with both ESP and wet flue-gas desulfurization (wet-FGD). SO 2 and NO X emission factors for Chinese power plants were smaller than those of U.S. EPA AP-42 database, due mainly to lower heating values of coals in China. PM emission factors for units with ESP, however, were generally larger than AP-42 values, because of poorer removal efficiencies of Chinese dust collectors. For units with advanced emission control technologies, more field

  18. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, D [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Laurent, O [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Filleul, L [CIRE Aquitaine, Bordeaux (France); Havard, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Deguen, S [Ecole Nationale de la Sante Publique, Rennes (France); Segala, C [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Pedrono, G [Sepia-Sante, Melrand (France); Riviere, E [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Schillinger, C [ASPA, Schiltigheim (France); Rouil, L [INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Arveiler, D [Registre des Cardiopathies Ischemiques du Bas-Rhin, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie et de sante publique-EA 1801, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France); Eilstein, D [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Saint Maurice (France)

    2007-10-15

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes-asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction-at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics-INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000-2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

  19. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, D.; Laurent, O.; Filleul, L.; Havard, S.; Deguen, S.; Segala, C.; Pedrono, G.; Rivière, E.; Schillinger, C.; Rouïl, L.; Arveiler, D.; Eilstein, D.

    2007-10-01

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes—asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction—at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics—INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000 2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

  20. Efficiently Evaluating Heavy Metal Urban Soil Pollution Using an Improved Entropy-Method-Based Topsis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chun; Han, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Urban soil pollution is evaluated utilizing an efficient and simple algorithmic model referred to as the entropy method-based Topsis (EMBT) model. The model focuses on pollution source position to enhance the ability to analyze sources of pollution accurately. Initial application of EMBT to urban soil pollution analysis is actually implied. The pollution degree of sampling point can be efficiently calculated by the model with the pollution degree coefficient, which is efficiently attained by first utilizing the Topsis method to determine evaluation value and then by dividing the evaluation value of the sample point by background value. The Kriging interpolation method combines coordinates of sampling points with the corresponding coefficients and facilitates the formation of heavy metal distribution profile. A case study is completed with modeling results in accordance with actual heavy metal pollution, proving accuracy and practicality of the EMBT model.

  1. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005-2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter) in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 86% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 48% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from weakly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM forms most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A decrease of alkaline base cations as

  2. A new approach to the problem of removal of soluble gaseous pollutants from the atmosphere and its correspondence with the existing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumitra Chattopadhyay

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been developed using the kinetic theory for the dissolution of gaseous pollutants in cloud droplets. The existing theory, using the diffusion approach, assumes dissolving gas to be a continuous medium. This approach may not always be suitable; especially, as the mean free paths of the pollutant gases at the existing concentrations available at the atmosphere are of the same order as the diameter of the cloud droplets. We develop an equation by considering the mass of the gas molecules striking per unit area of the droplets. Equations are also developed for the rate of dissolution of gaseous air pollutants and an attempt has been made to find out the correspondence with the classical approach and the mass transfer process.

  3. The lichen Parmelia physodes (L. Ach. as indicator for determination of the degree of atmospheric air pollution in the area contaminated by flourine and sulphur dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.

  4. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-22

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  5. Slash fire atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo Fritschen; Harley Bovee; Konrad Buettner; Robert Charlson; Lee Monteith; Stewart Pickford; James. Murphy

    1970-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, as in many other parts of the country, burning is the standard method for disposal of undesirable waste including logging debris and agricultural residue. About 81,000 hectares (200,000 acres) of logging slash are burned annually west of the Cascade Range in the States of Washington and Oregon. In addition, 101,000 hectares (250,000 acres) of...

  6. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Li, X.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Li, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Zhu, T.

    2014-10-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008 two months' emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observation evidence has been reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e. NMHCs) by 30-40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission control on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were decreased by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive hydrocarbons attributed to vehicular emissions did not present obvious difference. A zero-dimensional box model based on Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2) was applied to evaluate how OVOCs productions respond to the reduced precursors during the emission controlled period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%), isoprene (30%) and aromatics (15%). The importance of biogenic source for the total HCHO formation was almost on a par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modelled aldehydes, methyl vinyl ketone and

  7. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Li, X.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Li, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, Z.; Hu, W.; Huang, X.; He, L.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-03-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone-forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008, 2 months of emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observational evidence reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e., NMHCs) by 30-40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission controls on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were reduced by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive alkenes and aromatics closely related to automobile sources did not present much difference (zero-dimensional box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2) was applied to evaluate how OVOC production responds to the reduced precursors during the emissions control period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%), isoprene (30%) and aromatics (15%). The importance of biogenic sources for the total HCHO formation was almost on par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modeled HCHO, CH3CHO, methyl vinyl ketone

  8. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Key

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  9. Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System-Based Pollution Severity Prediction of Polymeric Insulators in Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Muniraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the prediction of pollution severity of the polymeric insulators used in power transmission lines using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS model. In this work, laboratory-based pollution performance tests were carried out on 11 kV silicone rubber polymeric insulator under AC voltage at different pollution levels with sodium chloride as a contaminant. Leakage current was measured during the laboratory tests. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of leakage current, such as mean value, maximum value, standard deviation, and total harmonics distortion (THD, have been extracted, which jointly describe the pollution severity of the polymeric insulator surface. Leakage current characteristics are used as the inputs of ANFIS model. The pollution severity index “equivalent salt deposit density” (ESDD is used as the output of the proposed model. Results of the research can give sufficient prewarning time before pollution flashover and help in the condition based maintenance (CBM chart preparation.

  10. POLLUTANT EMISSION TO THE ATMOSPHERE AND HIGH-TECHNOLOGY ON THE EX AMPLE OF JAWORZNO III POWER STATION IN JAWORZNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wierzbińska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper technologies of pollution elimination from waste gases in Jaworzno Power Station III are presented. Mixture of coal and biomass (9:1 is combusted there. In waste gases there are dust and gaseous pollutants which are eliminated using high-technology filters and technologies of desulfurization, NOx elimination and deslagging. Changes in pollution quantities before and after Power Station modernization are presented on graphs.

  11. Assessing Light Pollution in China Based on Nighttime Light Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Jiang; Guojin He; Tengfei Long; Chen Wang; Yuan Ni; Ruiqi Ma

    2017-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic development inevitably lead to light pollution, which has become a universal environmental issue. In order to reveal the spatiotemporal patterns and evolvement rules of light pollution in China, images from 1992 to 2012 were selected from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) and systematically corrected to ensure consistency. Furthermore, we employed a linear regression trend method and nighttime light index method...

  12. Dynamics of the health status of children in an area with atmospheric pollution, as compared with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, A.; Coasan, A.; Vicas, T.; Balasoiu, I.; Horvath, V.; Sabau, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on children was studied in two areas of Romania. Development, psychometric aspects, and morphological aspects were studied. Vital capacity, maximum expiratory volume, and muscular strength were examined. Adaptability and learning performance were studied in children from 7 to 14 years old. In polluted areas containing high concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, lead, and carbon black, the health of the children was impaired. Respiratory diseases were frequent, and pleurobronchopulmonary diseases, anemia, and rachitis also occurred. Scholarly performance was poorer in polluted areas than in control areas. Children in polluted areas were also shorted than in control areas.

  13. Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System-Based Pollution Severity Prediction of Polymeric Insulators in Power Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Muniraj, C.; Chandrasekar, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the prediction of pollution severity of the polymeric insulators used in power transmission lines using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model. In this work, laboratory-based pollution performance tests were carried out on 11 kV silicone rubber polymeric insulator under AC voltage at different pollution levels with sodium chloride as a contaminant. Leakage current was measured during the laboratory tests. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of leak...

  14. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  15. Some Observational and Modeling Studies of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Mississippi Gulf Coast for Air Pollution Dispersion Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal atmospheric conditions widely vary from those over inland due to the land-sea interface, temperature contrast and the consequent development of local circulations. In this study a field meteorological experiment was conducted to measure vertical structure of boundary layer during the period 25-29 June, 2007 at three locations Seabee base, Harrison and Wiggins sites in the Mississippi coast. A GPS Sonde along with slow ascent helium balloon and automated weather stations equipped with slow and fast response sensors were used in the experiment. GPS sonde were launched at three specific times (0700 LT, 1300 LT and 1800 LT during the experiment days. The observations indicate shallow boundary layer near the coast which gradually develops inland. The weather research and forecasting (WRF meso-scale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (HYSPLIT are used to simulate the lower atmospheric flow and dispersion in a range of 100 km from the coast for 28-30 June, 2007. The simulated meteorological parameters were compared with the experimental observations. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of development of sea breeze flow, its coupling with the large scale flow field and the ensuing alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. Simulated ground-level concentrations of SO2 from four elevated point sources located along the coast indicate diurnal variation and impact of the local sea-land breeze on the direction of the plume. Model concentration levels were highest during the stable morning condition and during the sea-breeze time in the afternoon. The highest concentrations were found up to 40 km inland during sea breeze time. The study illustrates the application of field meteorological observations for the validation of WRF which is coupled to HYSPLIT for dispersion assessment in the coastal region.

  16. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS standard, a technology that has gained increased attention in meteorology in recent years. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python. In the present article, we describe the architecture of the tool. As an example application, we discuss a case study research flight planned for the scenario of the 2010 Eyjafjalla volcano eruption. Usage and implementation details are provided as Supplement.

  17. Pb isotopes in sediments of Lake Constance, Central Europe constrain the heavy metal pathways and the pollution history of the catchment, the lake and the regional atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, B. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ., Heidelberg (Germany). Lab. of Geochronology; Wessels, M. [Univ. of Konstanz (Germany). Limnological Inst.; Bollhoefer, A.; Mangini [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1999-05-01

    Pb isotope ratios and Pb concentrations of well-dated sediments of Lake Constance, Central Europe have been analyzed using thermal ion mass spectrometry. Sequential extraction studies indicated isotope homogeneity of the leachable Pb components within the investigated layers. Since the middle of the 19th century a significant anthropogenic Pb component appeared in the lake sediments, and rapidly approaches concentration levels similar to that of the geogenic Pb background (20 ppm) at the beginning of the 20th century. Anthropogenic Pb was predominantly transferred to the lake sediments via the atmosphere. Pb sources were coal combustion, industrial ore processing and leaded gasoline. The flux of a fluvial Pb component to the lake sediments, additive to atmospheric Pb deposition, peaked in about 1960. This flux is attributed to (re)mobilization of Pb from polluted parts of the lake catchment, and indicates the change of catchment soils from a pollution sink to a heavy metal source. The strong reduction of anthropogenic Pb in the uppermost lake sediments since the 1960s has been caused by advances of environmental protection. The lake sediments record the changing fluxes and the isotope composition of the deposited aeolian Pb pollution. During the 20th century aeolian Pb fluxes to the lake sediments were in the range of 1--4 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}/a. During peak emission periods of gasoline Pb to the atmosphere (1960--1990) the aerosol Pb isotope composition was rather constant ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb: 1.12--1.13) and probably a mixture of Canadian and Australian with Russian and Central European Pb types. Aeolian Pb isotope and Pb flux trends in the lake sediments as a whole agree well with the trends found in Alpine glaciers (Doering et al., 1997a,b) and in ombrotrophic peat bogs of Switzerland (Shotyk et al., 1996). However, different industrial Pb components were deposited in the archives of aeolian pollution during the early 20th century.

  18. Abatement of organic pollutants using fly ash based adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Kayode Adesina; Oyewole, Rhoda Oyeladun; Lasisi, Bukola Morenike; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2017-11-01

    The presence of organic pollutants in the environment is of major concern because of their toxicity, bio-accumulating tendency, threat to human life and the environment. It is a well-known fact that, these pollutants can damage nerves, liver, and bones and could also block functional groups of essential enzymes. Conventional methods for removing dissolved pollutants include chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation or reduction, filtration, ion-exchange, electrochemical treatment, application of membrane technology, evaporation recovery and biological treatment. Although all the pollutant treatment techniques can be employed, they have their inherent advantages and limitations. Among all these methods, adsorption process is considered better than other methods because of convenience, easy operation and simplicity of design. A fundamentally important characteristic of good adsorbents is their high porosity and consequent larger surface area with more specific adsorption sites. This paper presents a review of adsorption of different pollutants using activated carbon prepared from fly ash sources and the attendant environmental implications. Also, the ways of overcoming barriers to fly ash utilization together with regeneration studies are also discussed.

  19. Application of an integrated WRF/CALPUFF modeling tool for source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants for air quality management: a case study in the urban area of Benxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Qi; Ma, Weichun

    2017-10-11

    framework has credibility for effectively improving urban air quality, based on the source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants. Implication statement We endeavored to build up an effective framework based on the integrated WRF/CALPUFF to improve the air quality in many cities on meso-micro scales in China. Via this framework, the integrated modeling tool is accurately used to study the characteristics of meteorological fields, concentration fields and source apportionments of pollutants in target area. The impacts of classified sources on air quality together with the industrial characteristics can provide more effective control measures for improving air quality. Through the case study, the technical framework developed in this study, particularly the source apportionment, could provide important data and technical support for policy makers to assess air pollution on the scale of a city in China or even the word.

  20. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C.

    2003-06-01

    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  1. Assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution to the coastal zone of the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area of Ghana was conducted by making an emission inventory from information on industrial, commercial and domestic activities. Three sources of air pollution were analysed, viz, emission from ...

  2. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...

  3. Non-isothermal scavenging of highly soluble gaseous pollutants by rain in the atmosphere with non-uniform vertical concentration and temperature distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elperin, Tov; Fominykh, Andrew; Krasovitov, Boris

    2014-08-01

    We suggest a non-isothermal one-dimensional model of precipitation scavenging of highly soluble gaseous pollutants in inhomogeneous atmosphere. When gradients of soluble trace gases' concentrations and temperature in the atmosphere are small, scavenging of gaseous pollutants is governed by two linear wave equations that describe propagation of a scavenging and temperature waves in one direction. If wash-down front velocity is much larger than the velocity of the temperature front, scavenging is determined by propagating scavenging front in the atmosphere with inhomogeneous temperature distribution. We solved the derived equation by the method of characteristics and determined scavenging coefficient and the rates of precipitation scavenging for wet removal of sulfur dioxide using measured initial distributions of trace gases and temperature in the atmosphere. It is shown that in the case of exponential initial distribution of soluble trace gases and linear temperature distribution in the atmosphere, scavenging coefficient in the region between the ground and the position of a scavenging front is proportional to rainfall rate, solubility parameter in the under-cloud region, adjacent to a bottom of a cloud and to the growth constant in the formula for the initial profile of a soluble trace gas in the atmosphere. The derived formula yields the same value of scavenging coefficient for sulfur dioxide scavenging by rain as field estimates presented by McMahon and Denison (Atmos Environ 13:571-585, 1979). It is demonstrated that in the case when the altitude variation of temperature in the atmosphere is determined by the environmental lapse rate, scavenging coefficient increases with height in the region between the scavenging front and the ground. In the case when altitude temperature variation in the atmosphere is determined by temperature inversion, scavenging coefficient decreases with height in a region between the scavenging front and the ground. Theoretical

  4. Observations of the vertical distributions of summertime atmospheric pollutants and the corresponding ozone production in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS and lidar measurements were performed in Shanghai, China, during May 2016 to investigate the vertical distribution of summertime atmospheric pollutants. In this study, vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and formaldehyde (HCHO concentrations were retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements using the Heidelberg Profile (HEIPRO algorithm, while vertical distribution of ozone (O3 was obtained from an ozone lidar. Sensitivity study of the MAX-DOAS aerosol profile retrieval shows that the a priori aerosol profile shape has significant influences on the aerosol profile retrieval. Aerosol profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements with Gaussian a priori profile demonstrate the best agreements with simultaneous lidar measurements and vehicle-based tethered-balloon observations among all a priori aerosol profiles. Tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs measured with MAX-DOAS show a good agreement with OMI satellite observations with a Pearson correlation coefficient (R of 0.95. In addition, measurements of the O3 vertical distribution indicate that the ozone productions do not only occur at surface level but also at higher altitudes (about 1.1 km. Planetary boundary layer (PBL height and horizontal and vertical wind field information were integrated to discuss the ozone formation at upper altitudes. The results reveal that enhanced ozone concentrations at ground level and upper altitudes are not directly related to horizontal and vertical transportation. Similar patterns of O3 and HCHO vertical distributions were observed during this campaign, which implies that the ozone productions near the surface and at higher altitudes are mainly influenced by the abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the lower troposphere.

  5. Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion from land-based sources of pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Anne Cohen,; Yates, Kimberly K.; Storlazzi, Curt; Swarzenski, Peter W.; White, Darla

    2017-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA), the gradual decline in ocean pH and [ ] caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2, poses a significant threat to coral reef ecosystems, depressing rates of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production, and enhancing rates of bioerosion and dissolution. As ocean pH and [ ] decline globally, there is increasing emphasis on managing local stressors that can exacerbate the vulnerability of coral reefs to the effects of OA. We show that sustained, nutrient rich, lower pH submarine groundwater discharging onto nearshore coral reefs off west Maui lowers the pH of seawater and exposes corals to nitrate concentrations 50 times higher than ambient. Rates of coral calcification are substantially decreased, and rates of bioerosion are orders of magnitude higher than those observed in coral cores collected in the Pacific under equivalent low pH conditions but living in oligotrophic waters. Heavier coral nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values pinpoint not only site-specific eutrophication, but also a sewage nitrogen source enriched in 15N. Our results show that eutrophication of reef seawater by land-based sources of pollution can magnify the effects of OA through nutrient driven-bioerosion. These conditions could contribute to the collapse of coastal coral reef ecosystems sooner than current projections predict based only on ocean acidification.