WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric pollutants based

  1. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  2. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  3. Simplified Atmospheric Dispersion Model andModel Based Real Field Estimation System ofAir Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric dispersion model has been well developed and applied in pollution emergency and prediction. Based on thesophisticated air diffusion model, this paper proposes a simplified model and some optimization about meteorological andgeological conditions. The model is suitable for what is proposed as Real Field Monitor and Estimation system. The principle ofsimplified diffusion model and its optimization is studied. The design of Real Field Monitor system based on this model and itsfundamental implementations are introduced.

  4. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  5. Study on the Total Amount Control of Atmospheric Pollutant Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To provide effective environmental management for total amount control of atmospheric pollutants. Methods An atmospheric diffusion model of sulfur dioxide on the surface of the earth was established and tested in Shantou of Guangdong Province on the basis of an overall assessment of regional natural environment, social economic state of development, pollution sources and atmospheric environmental quality. Compared with actual monitoring results in a studied region, simulation values fell within the range of two times of error and were evenly distributed in the two sides of the monitored values. Predicted with the largest emission model method, the largest emission of sulfur dioxide would be 54 279.792 tons per year in 2010. Conclusion The mathematical model established and revised on the basis of GIS is more rational and suitable for the regional characteristics of total amount control of air pollutants.

  6. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry...

  8. Potential biomonitors for atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undesirable influence of air pollution on the human health and the ecosystem has led to an increased interest in toxic emission monitoring programs. To fingerprint the countrywide and regional transboundary pollution profiles, extensive direct monitoring network is needed, which is very expensive and laborious. Plant leaves. Mosses and epiphytic lichens are regarded as potential alternate tools for monitoring levels of atmospheric pollution. Mosses and epiphytic lichens, unlike higher plants have no roots and waxy cuticle nor stomata; hence for mineral nutrition they are largely dependent on wet or dry deposition from the atmosphere. This unique feature has been exploited to predict the pollution levels of the areas in which they are grown by analyzing the embodied toxic elements. Sampling of such naturally growing bioindicators is relatively easier and no sophisticated equipment are needed. The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the response of such plants, when exposed in the vicinity of highly polluted areas and subsequently to confirm the agreement between elemental levels in bioindicators and those measured in atmospheric deposition collected directly with air samplers. INAA and AAS techniques were employed for multielement analysis of exposed samples. Definite influence of pollution on the studied bioindicators was observed for some of the heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Results obtained in this work indicate the feasibility of using Broussonetia Papyrifera levels and moss as bioindicators for environmental pollution monitoring. This pattern was also confirmed by analyzing the air particulate matters (APM) collected on filters using Gent air sampler. (author)

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  10. Atmospheric pollution: How is it in Morocco?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of atmospheric pollution is recognised. Risks are defined by toxicological studies on man and animal and by epidemiological studies based on population in industrial countries. Air pollution due to the economical development and the contamination of the atmosphere by chemical substances (gas and aerosols), has been also increasing around the world. The case here is in Morocco. SO2 emissions has increased from 129 thousand tons per year to 180 tt per year in 1992 and will reach 300 tt per year in 2005. In Morocco today exist a large number of vehicles and industries (chemical industries, refineries, plastic...) emitting pollutants in rural cities and causing toxic products as aerosols and smog. A table concerning the evolution of gas emissions (SO2; NOx; CO and Ozone) in Morocco per thousand tons per year from 1982 until 2020 is given in details. Projects are settled to increase the air quality and reduce air pollution and its impact on public health

  11. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: atmospheric chemistry. 1964-1978 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    Research reports on photochemical air pollution models, smog chemistry and reactivity, and SSt exhaust effects are cited in the bibliography. Auroral and upper atmospheric in chemistry, and photochemistry of naturally occurring nitrogen oxides are excluded. (Contains 247 citations)

  12. Nitrogen oxide air pollution: atmospheric chemistry. 1979-August, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1979-Aug 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    Photochemical air pollution models, smog chemistry and reactivity, and SSt exhaust effects are covered in the bibliography. Auroral and upper atmospheric chemistry, and photochemistry of naturally occurring nitrogen oxides are excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 63 citations, 40 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  13. Multisensor for detection of atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, J.; Sayago, I.; Horrillo, M.C.; Fernandez, M.J.; Ares, L.; Gomez-Espinosa, R.; Otero, L.; Garcia, M.; Aleixandre, M. [Lab. de Sensores, Inst. de Fisica Aplicada (IFA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano, Madrid (Spain); Baluk, S. [Lab. de Sensores, Inst. de Fisica Aplicada (IFA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Serrano, Madrid (Spain)]|[Inst. Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial CITEI, San Martin-Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    A multisensor based on tin oxides has been utilised to detect gas mixtures for the atmospheric pollution control. The multisensor consists of 8 different sensing elements formed by tin oxide thin layers deposited by r.f. reactive sputtering. Some sensors were doped with Pt and Cr by sputtering. The multisensor device was placed in a stainless steel test chamber and it was characterized by DC electrical measurements. The designed system is a portable one and it permits the in situ measurement The pollutants detected are: nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, toluene and propanal. Detections were carried out with single gas and gas mixture (two gases) in dry air at 250 C. The sensitivity and selectivity to these gases were studied. (orig.)

  14. Air pollution tracer studies in the lower atmosphere (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Jan 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    The cited reports cover research on the use of tracers to study lower atmospheric air pollution movements. The tracer used include sulfur hexafluoride, krypton 85, carbon 14, and other radioactive isotopes. The studies cite the results and techniques used, tracer movement from nuclear power plants, industrial stacks, urban areas, and the detectors used in their measurement. (This updated bibliography contains 197 abstracts, 31 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Validation of techniques for simulating long range dispersal and deposition of atmospheric pollutants based upon measurements after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problem specifications and a time schedule for an international study of computerized simulation of transfrontier atmospheric contamination are presented. Started on the initiative of the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy, the study will be based on international measurements after the Chernobyl accident

  16. Optical chemical sensors for atmospheric pollutants based on nano porous materials: application to the formaldehyde and the other carbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaldehyde, a well-identified indoor pollutant, was recently classified as carcinogenic. New regulations for the air quality are expected and therefore there is a need for low-cost sensors, sensitive and selective with a fast response time for the detection of formaldehyde at ppb level. In the present work, we had developed a chemical sensor based on nano-porous matrices doped with Fluoral-P and optical methods of detection. The nano-porous matrices, elaborated via the Sol-Gel process, display nano-pores whose cavity is tailored for the trapping of the targeted pollutant. They provide a first selectivity with the discrimination of the pollutants by their size. A second selectivity is obtained with a molecular probe, Fluoral-P, which reacts specifically with formaldehyde leading to the 3,5- di-acetyl-1,4-dihydro-lutidine (DDL). The kinetics of formation of DDL was studied as function of many parameters such as the concentration of Fluoral-P in the matrix, the pollutant content in gas mixture, the flow rate, the relative humidity of the gas mixtures and interference with other carbonylated compounds. The present chemical sensor can detect, via absorbance measurements, 2 ppb of formaldehyde within 30 min over a O to 60% relative humidity range. Moreover, to detect the total carbonylated compounds, we also explored the potentiality of a chemical sensor using, as a probe molecule, the 2'4-dinitro-phenyl-hydrazine which forms with these compounds the corresponding hydrazones derivatives. A patent was deposited for these two sensors. We have also developed a semi-miniaturized prototype for demonstration, using a flow cell, a miniaturized spectrophotometer, a light source and a lap-top. (author)

  17. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace gas and criteria pollutant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the lower 50 m of the atmosphere has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes; hence data at this level are necessary for addressing carbon-cycle- and public-health-related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We assess the magnitude of known point sources of CH4 and also identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  18. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hopkins, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Lai, C.-T.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  19. Design and application of a mobile ground-based observatory for continuous measurements of atmospheric trace-gas and criteria pollutant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and criteria pollutants are essential for understanding emissions dynamics across space and time. Gas composition in the surface 50 m has the greatest direct impacts on human health as well as ecosystem processes, hence data at this level is necessary for addressing carbon cycle and public health related questions. However, such surface data are generally associated with stationary measurement towers, where spatial representation is limited due to the high cost of establishing and maintaining an extensive network of measurement stations. We describe here a compact mobile laboratory equipped to provide high-precision, high-frequency, continuous, on-road synchronous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O, NOx, O3, aerosol, meteorological, and geospatial position data. The mobile laboratory has been deployed across the western USA. In addition to describing the vehicle and its capacity, we present data that illustrate the use of the laboratory as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial structure of urban trace gas emissions and criteria pollutants at spatial scales ranging from single streets to whole ecosystem and regional scales. We identify fugitive urban CH4 emissions and assess the magnitude of CH4 emissions from known point sources. We illustrate how such a mobile laboratory can be used to better understand emissions dynamics and quantify emissions ratios associated with trace gas emissions from wildfire incidents. Lastly, we discuss additional mobile laboratory applications in health and urban metabolism.

  20. Geoinformation modeling system for analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using space images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polichtchouk, Yuri; Ryukhko, Viatcheslav; Tokareva, Olga; Alexeeva, Mary

    2002-02-01

    Geoinformation modeling system structure for assessment of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution on forest- swamp ecosystems of West Siberia is considered. Complex approach to the assessment of man-caused impact based on the combination of sanitary-hygienic and landscape-geochemical approaches is reported. Methodical problems of analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using geoinformation systems and remote sensing data are developed. Landscape structure of oil production territories in southern part of West Siberia are determined on base of processing of space images from spaceborn Resource-O. Particularities of atmosphere pollution zones modeling caused by gas burning in torches in territories of oil fields are considered. For instance, a pollution zones were revealed modeling of contaminants dispersal in atmosphere by standard model. Polluted landscapes areas are calculated depending on oil production volume. It is shown calculated data is well approximated by polynomial models.

  1. The lacustrine sedimentary records of coal-burning atmospheric pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunfei; HU Shouyun; ZHU Yuxin; YIN Yu; ZHOU Wangping; E. Appel; V. Hoffmann

    2005-01-01

    Based on the studies on diatom, ostracods and magnetism on a core acquired from lacustrine sediments, as well as correlation analysis between concentration of acid diatom and the instantaneous lowest pH value, the processes of environment evolution in Lake Yangzonghai were reconstructed. The lacustrine environment was favorable in the 1950s, and began to be polluted by a coal-burning power plant since 1960. During 1965-1980, the instantaneous lowest pH value of lake water decreased to 5-6 when heavily polluted. There was a decrease trend in the pollution from 1983 to 1999, but coal-burning atmospheric pollution was still a main problem for environmental retrieving. As acid precipitated, acid-tolerant species overspread, and shellfish disappeared, as well as ferromagnetic particulates dissolved because of the consequent change of pH-Eh values in the interface of water and soil, which results in the change of environmental proxies versus depth. Thus, the environmental evolution of Lake Yangzonghai is reconstructed in this paper based on the inferences mentioned above.

  2. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  3. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  4. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aboel Fetouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.

  5. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  6. Tracing organic gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rymen, T.A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of tracing various air pollutants, including low molecular weight hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and aromatics, are discussed. Gas chromatography and flame ionization, or electron capture detection were used to detect the pollutants in ambient air, depending on which method was more sensitive for the pollutant in question. Analysis, calibration procedures, and sampling techniques (both automatic field operation and discontinuous laboratory control), were studied for samples collected near a vinyl chloride plant, and in an area with intensive paint industry. The combination of gas-solid or gas-liquid chromatography with a highly sensitive detector offers a versatile analytic method of measuring organic air pollutants. (6 diagrams, 6 graphs, 16 references, 9 tables)

  7. The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Cinzano, Pierantonio

    2012-01-01

    Methods to map artificial night sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on the computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere which allows a fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. We present here up-to-date Extended Garstang Models (EGM) which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution DMSP-OLS satellite measurements of artificial light emissions and to GTOPO30 digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the World at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atm...

  8. Study and measurement of the atmospheric pollution by 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the importance of eventual long term radiological and synergistic effects of 85Kr pollution from the nuclear energy industry the atmospheric activity was followed and laboratory experiments on the initiation of eventual climatological effects were developed. An EPA method for separating krypton from air and for measuring the radioactivity was applied. The modified experimental set-up for collection, separation and measurement is illustrated. The total collection and separation efficiency is about 55%. The efficiency of the nuclear β-measurement was found to be 72% using a calibrated source. The results of periodic atmospheric measurements in Ghent during 1979 are reported. Comparative calculations based on available source terms are presented. (H.K.)

  9. Atmospheric Pollution and Urban Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guinot, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese cities face the challenge of battling air pollution during a time of rapid urbanisation and rising energy demand. Poor air quality is heightening anxiety over the environment. Given pollution’s economic cost, a real policy of monitoring and control has emerged at the national level. Chinese researchers and industry have come up with technological responses to the enormous challenges. While some showcase cities have boosted their pollution-control measures, the situation in smaller one...

  10. The risks of premature mortality related to atmospheric pollution. Comparison with those related to tobacco and those related to radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas atmospheric pollution is now recognized as one of the most important cause of mortality in the world, this report first notices that these pollutants have mainly an anthropogenic origin. In a first part, the author presents the main harmful atmospheric pollutants, and briefly discusses their origin and their impact on health: carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, persistent organic pollutants, volatile organic compounds, ozone, tars, soot or particles, heavy metals. In a second part, the author discusses the assessment of hazards related to atmospheric pollution, and more particularly the assessment of premature morbidity due to different pollutants according to different organisations and programs. He also discusses health impacts on a short and on a long term, notably in terms of exposure in big cities. In a third part, based on measurements of emissions of primary pollutant, notably primary particles, the author tries to identify the most dangerous sources of atmospheric pollutions

  11. Study of organic pollutants oxidation by atmospheric plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumuchian, Diane; Cavadias, Simeon; Duten, Xavier; Tatoulian, Michael; da Costa, Patrick; Ognier, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    Ozonation is one of the usual steps in water treatment processes. However, some organic molecules (acetic acid) cannot be decomposed during ozonation. In that context, we are developing an Advanced Oxidation Process based on the use of a needle plate discharge at atmospheric pressure. The process is a reactor with a plasma discharge between a high voltage electrode and the solution in controlled atmosphere. Characterizations of the plasma obtained in different atmospheres were carried out (Optical Emission Spectroscopy, iCCD camera observations, etc). The efficiency of the process was evaluated by the percentage of degradation of the model-pollutant, measured by liquid chromatography analysis. Treatments in nitrogen lead to the formation of NOx species that decrease the efficiency of the process. Indeed, NOx lead to the consumption of actives species created. Treatments in argon are the most efficient. Two hypotheses are considered: (i) metastable argon participates to the degradation of acetic acid or to the formation of radicals (ii) discharges in argon lead to the formation of many streamers of low energy that increase the interface plasma/solution.

  12. Atmospheric Pollutions Emissions, environmental challenges of Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ezzatian

    2013-01-01

    stable development and environment. Furthermore, because its rate is higher than acceptable level, it disrupts man’s daily activities. So, it is necessary to study this process. To display a statistical model is the purpose of this study so that surface- ozone rates can be acceptably estimated using atmospheric factors. The main question is this: can an appropriate estimate of surface- ozone rates be determined using a statistical model? It is assumed in this study that climatic factors of land surface play remarkable role in surface- ozone forming. Statistical models using Excel and Spss Software have been used to regionalize pollutant rates. At first, necessary entrance data were adapted from Isfahan Meteorology Station. Data include: A Temperature and soil moisture. B Atmospheric factors including: air temperature, atmospheric humidity, sunshine, wind velocity and precipitation. C Land surface data of pollutants adapted from the Environment Protection Agency including: surface-ozone, so2, Nox. Then, using these data and specific model, a relationship was found to estimate surface concentration. This study has been done in Isfahan. Climatic data and air pollution and atmospheric pollutants data have been taken from measuring station of air quality in five centers of city (Laleh Square, Bozorgmehr Square, Azadi Square. 3– DiscussionData of daily mean temperature during statistical course is 16.7c. Median, variance and standard deviation are 17.9, 95.2 and 9.8, respectively. Minimum and maximum temperatures are -6.6 and 33.4◦ centigrade. Based on skewness test and Kolmogorov – Smirnov Test frequency distribution of temperature data is normal. Mean dew-point temperature is -1.9 during studying course. This factor also has a normal curve like temperature. But Kolmogorov- Smirnov Test shows a contrary result. Range of dew-point temperature is between -25.9 to 14.2. Standard deviation is 5.7 ْ◦ centigrade that is lower than standard deviation of temperature (10

  13. Sampling of Atmospheric Precipitation and Deposits for Analysis of Atmospheric Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    J. Namieśnik; K. Skarżyńska; Ż Polkowska

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews techniques and equipment for collecting precipitation samples from the atmosphere (fog and cloud water) and from atmospheric deposits (dew, hoarfrost, and rime) that are suitable for the evaluation of atmospheric pollution. It discusses the storage and preparation of samples for analysis and also presents bibliographic information on the concentration ranges of inorganic and organic compounds in the precipitation and atmospheric deposit samples.

  14. Copper Corrosion by Atmospheric Pollutants in the Electronics Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Valdez Salas; Michael Schorr Wiener; Roumen Zlatev Koytchev; Gustavo López Badilla; Rogelio Ramos Irigoyen; Monica Carrillo Beltrán; Nicola Radnev Nedev; Mario Curiel Alvarez; Navor Rosas Gonzalez; Jose María Bastidas Rull

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is considered one of the most corrosive atmospheric pollutants. It is a weak, diprotic, reducing acid, readily soluble in water and dispersed into the air by winds when emitted from natural, industrial, and anthropogenic sources. It is a pollutant with a high level of toxicity impairing human health and the environment quality. It attacks copper forming thin films of metallic sulphides or dendrite whiskers, which are cathodic to the metal substrate, enhancing corrosion...

  15. Spatio-temporal modelling of atmospheric pollution based on observations provided by an air quality monitoring network at a regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is devoted to the spatio-temporal modelling of air pollution at a regional scale using a set of statistical methods in order to treat the measurements of pollutant concentrations (NO2, O3) provided by an air quality monitoring network (AIRPARIF). The main objective is the improvement of the pollutant fields mapping using either interpolation methods based on the spatial or spatio-temporal structure of the data (spatial or spatio-temporal kriging) or some algorithms taking into account the observations, in order to correct the concentrations simulated by a deterministic model (Ensemble Kalman Filter). The results show that nitrogen dioxide mapping based only on spatial interpolation (kriging) gives the best results, while the spatial repartition of the monitoring sites is good. For the ozone mapping it is the sequential data assimilation that leads us to a better reconstruction of the plume's form and position for the analyzed cases. Complementary to the pollutant mapping, another objective was to perform a local prediction of ozone concentrations on a 24-hour horizon; this task was performed using Artificial Neural Networks. The performance indices obtained using two types of neural architectures indicate a fair accuracy especially for the first 8 hours of prediction horizon. (author)

  16. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to esti

  17. Transboundary radioactive and chemical pollution simulation using an atmospheric/marine predicting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric models can be used to simulate the transport of contaminants in typical accidental cases and for realistic meteorological conditions. Some numerical models for weather forecast can be used for near to real simulations of propagation of radioactive nuclides or classical chemical pollutants to the atmosphere. The various meteorological parameters are taken into account and various meteorological conditions, even complex ones, can be analyzed. The models can be used for very well assessment of the airborne pollution from energy sources and industrial installations, for comparative studies and for safety analysis. This report describes an proposal for a project of the transboundary pollution simulation, that can be used for the East Mediterranean Region. The project is based on the numerical models developed in the in simulating of the Chernobyl accident and similar hypothetical cases. The study is based on an atmospheric models developed in Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Insular Coastal Dynamics (ICoD), Foundation for International Studies, Valeta, Malta

  18. Atmospheric Pollutions Emissions, environmental challenges of Isfahan City

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ezzatian; S. Hasheminasab

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe recent fatal events with regard to the rise in the atmospheric pollutants levels have suggested that the reason of their occurrence be more identified. The long-term and short-term effects on the environment caused by pollutants that reached unacceptable level are apparent; existence of pollutatnts has led to short-term effects such as appearance and aggravation of cancer and respiratory‚ optic and lung diseases. The sequence of long-term effects is seen on ...

  19. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles. PMID:25400029

  20. Study of laser monitoring techniques of pollutants in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several techniques used as a tool for monitoring the pollutions in the atmosphere, where the laser radiation sending through the sample of atmosphere to be investigated ether transmission or the scattering of the light, all the way through a variety of different techniques for monitoring the air quality. We are showed in this study the comparison of detection techniques through measuring the light scattered in some particular direction, rather than measuring direction the attenuation due to two type of scattering (Rayieh scattering and Mie scattering) during (optical Radar, Roman backscattering and Resonance fluorescence).(Author)

  1. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Aromolo; Valerio Moretti; Luca Salvati

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Tre...

  2. Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO2 concentrations (μg/m3) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 μg/m3). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km2 and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km2. For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  3. Measurements of pollution in the lower layers of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P.; Sylvestre-Baron, M.; Pleyber, G.; Perilhon, P.; Faivre- Pierret, R.; Closson, A.; Nicotra, C.

    1973-06-01

    The measurement of the meteorological parameters and the sampling of pollutants in the lower levels of the atmosphere were made by the use of captive balloons. A 550 m/sup 3/ airship filled with hydrogen was used with apparatus distributed along the anchor cable up to a height of 1,200 m. The meteorological probes used to measure the pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind velocity and to transmit them to the ground are described. The apparatus for air sampling and the chemical analytical methods are described. The results obtained are reported. This experiment made it possible to prove the relations existing between temperature inversion regions and pollution levels. The results show that under the temperature emission layers the profiles for the diffusion of SO/sub 2/, Cl/ sub 2/, and organic pollutants are sharply different. (tr-auth)

  4. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ''multimedia'' model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations

  5. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  6. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. - Highlights: • Magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the heavy mental pollution in sediments. • Accurate age model was obtained using known events of environmental improvement. • Regression equation was obtained among sediment records and monitoring data. • Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed. - Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed using magnetic and chemical records of reservoir sediments combined with atmospheric monitoring data

  7. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. - Highlights: ► Terrestrial mosses are suitable organisms to monitor deposition of POPs. ► They provide a good indication of spatial patterns and temporal trends. ► Mosses have been used as biomonitors of PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs dioxins and furans. ► Few studies have assessed the relationship between concentrations in air and mosses. - Mosses are suitable biomonitors of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  8. Identifing Atmospheric Pollutant Sources Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, F. F.; Campos, H. F.; Luz, E. P.; Carvalho, A. R.

    2008-05-01

    The estimation of the area source pollutant strength is a relevant issue for atmospheric environment. This characterizes an inverse problem in the atmospheric pollution dispersion. In the inverse analysis, an area source domain is considered, where the strength of such area source term is assumed unknown. The inverse problem is solved by using a supervised artificial neural network: multi-layer perceptron. The conection weights of the neural network are computed from delta rule - learning process. The neural network inversion is compared with results from standard inverse analysis (regularized inverse solution). In the regularization method, the inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization approach, whose the objective function is given by the square difference between the measured pollutant concentration and the mathematical models, associated with a regularization operator. In our numerical experiments, the forward problem is addressed by a source-receptor scheme, where a regressive Lagrangian model is applied to compute the transition matrix. The second order maximum entropy regularization is used, and the regularization parameter is calculated by the L-curve technique. The objective function is minimized employing a deterministic scheme (a quasi-Newton algorithm) [1] and a stochastic technique (PSO: particle swarm optimization) [2]. The inverse problem methodology is tested with synthetic observational data, from six measurement points in the physical domain. The best inverse solutions were obtained with neural networks. References: [1] D. R. Roberti, D. Anfossi, H. F. Campos Velho, G. A. Degrazia (2005): Estimating Emission Rate and Pollutant Source Location, Ciencia e Natura, p. 131-134. [2] E.F.P. da Luz, H.F. de Campos Velho, J.C. Becceneri, D.R. Roberti (2007): Estimating Atmospheric Area Source Strength Through Particle Swarm Optimization. Inverse Problems, Desing and Optimization Symposium IPDO-2007, April 16-18, Miami (FL), USA, vol 1, p

  9. Effect of typhoon on atmospheric aerosol particle pollutants accumulation over Xiamen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpei; Chen, Liqi; Lin, Qi; Zhao, Shuhui; Zhang, Miming

    2016-09-01

    Great influence of typhoon on air quality has been confirmed, however, rare data especially high time resolved aerosol particle data could be used to establish the behavior of typhoon on air pollution. A single particle aerosol spectrometer (SPAMS) was employed to characterize the particles with particle number count in high time resolution for two typhoons of Soulik (2013) and Soudelor (2015) with similar tracks. Three periods with five events were classified during the whole observation time, including pre - typhoon (event 1 and event 2), typhoon (event 3 and event 4) and post - typhoon (event 5) based on the meteorological parameters and particle pollutant properties. First pollutant group appeared during pre-typhoon (event 2) with high relative contributions of V - Ni rich particles. Pollution from the ship emissions and accumulated by local processes with stagnant meteorological atmosphere dominated the formation of the pollutant group before typhoon. The second pollutant group was present during typhoon (event 3), while typhoon began to change the local wind direction and increase wind speed. Particle number count reached up to the maximum value. High relative contributions of V - Ni rich and dust particles with low value of NO3(-)/SO4(2-) was observed during this period, indicating that the pollutant group was governed by the combined effect of local pollutant emissions and long-term transports. The analysis of this study sheds a deep insight into understand the relationship between the air pollution and typhoon. PMID:27295441

  10. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed. - Epiphytic lichen diversity differs increasingly between healthy and dead or dying conifers with increasing atmospheric pollutant load

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Pollutants from Combustion Formation and Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This volume is based on the lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute: (ASI) «Pollutants Formation from Combustion. Formation Mechanisms and Impact on th th Atmospheric Chemistry» held in Maratea, Italy, from 13 to 26 september 1998. Preservation of the environment is of increasing concern in individual countries but also at continental or world scales. The structure of a NATO ASI which involve lecturers and participants of different nationalities was thought as especially well suited to address environmental issues. As combustion is known to substantially contribute to the damaging of the atmosphere, it was natural to concentrate the ASI program on reviewing the currently available knowledge of the formation mechanisms of the main pollutants liberated by combustion systems. In most situations, pollutants are present as trace components and their formation and removal is strongly conditioned by the chemical reactions initiated by fuel consumption. Therefore specific lectures were aimed at defi...

  12. Land-Based Marine Pollution in Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Fitsum Gebreselassie

    2014-01-01

    Land-based pollution represents the single most important cause of marine pollution. The threat of land-based pollution to the marine environment is a serious one since it mainly affects coastal waters, which are sites of high biological productivity. The occurrence of high concentrations of pollutants in the Arctic environment has been a concern for many years.. Regional and international actions over the past two decades attempting to manage pollutants in the Arctic environment from land- b...

  13. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map.

  14. The effect of atmospheric pollution on building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C. M.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2002-11-01

    This chapter surveys main effects of atmospheric pollution on building materials. It summarises these effects on stone, bricks, mortar, concrete, glass, metals (iron, zinc, copper, bronze, aluminium, lead and silver), polymers, paints and timber. Special attention is paid to stone because of its extensive use as building material in the cultural heritage. In general, main damaging agent is sulfur dioxide which leads to sulfation of many materials, particularly carbonate-bearing stones. However, the decline of sulfur dioxide in cities means that the recognition of the prime role of this pollutant presents something of a dilemma. It is increasingly necessary to consider other substances that can contribute to material decay e.g. nitrogen oxides, chlorides and ozone, either acting as synergistic to the sulfation reaction or as main decay agents, such as the case of aluminium and polymers. Particulate matter often from diesel vehicles can also accelerate the oxidation of SO2 on the surface (traditionally sulfur dioxide with Fe-rich particles) and blacken the materials surface in the case of soot. These processes contribute to the formation of black-crusts when embedded in the gypsum layer resulting from the material sulfation, but again the rate in the modem atmosphere is a matter of much research.

  15. 基于大气污染扩散模型的空气污染多维动态可视化表达研究%A study on multi-dimensional dynamic visualization of air pollution based on atmospheric pollution dispersion model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚; 朱军; 林珲; 徐丙立; 胡明远

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problems that the existing methods for visualizing air pollution can not effectively integrate geographic information and can not achieve good visual effects and high-dimension information,a research on multi-dimensional dynamic visualization of air pollution in a three-dimensional space was done,based on the simulation results of the atmospheric pollution dispersion model,and a scheme for multi-dimensional dynamic visualization of air pollution was proposed.Five key technologies for visualization of air pollution,named as three-dimensional geographic scene construction for studying of air pollution,color mapping of pollution concentrations,slices-based visualization of air pollution,cubes-based visualization of air pollution and visualization of air pollution based on any vertical line or vertical plane,were described in detail.A prototype system was developed to implement five spatial and temporal visualization approaches for air pollution in the Pearl River Delta.The results prove that with the technologies addressed in this paper,high-precision and large-scale geographic information can be effectively integrated,a good visualization of air pollution can be achieved,the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution can be effectively reflected and effective decision supports for air pollution management can be provided.%针对现有空气污染可视化表达方法不能有效集成地理信息、可视化效果差、信息维度低的问题,基于大气污染扩散模型模拟计算结果进行了三维空间空气污染多维动态可视化表达研究,提出了空气污染的多维动态可视化表达方案,详细论述了空气污染研究区域三维地理场景构建、污染浓度值与颜色的映射、基于切片的空气污染表达、基于立方体的空气污染表达、任意垂直线/面的空气污染表达等5种空间污染可视化表达方法与关键技术.最后以珠三角空气污染扩散模拟为例,

  16. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  17. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  18. Variation of atmospheric air pollution under conditions of rapid economic change—Estonia 1994-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, V.; Tammet, H.; Truuts, T.

    Estonia is an example of a country with economy in transition whose atmospheric air pollution has been remarkably influenced by economic changes. During the period of 1994-1999 GDP increased by one-fourth, while agricultural production, electricity and heat production dropped by one-sixths during the studied period. These processes are reflected in the quantity of emissions and structure of air pollution. The study is based on the measurements of concentrations of pollutants at six Estonian Euroairnet monitoring stations—at three sites in the capital city and at three sites in remote areas. The pollutants concerned are the first-priority pollutants in the European Union legislation—nitrogen oxides, SO 2, O 3, particulate matter, and additionally CO. The study reveals that concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Estonia remain within the EU limit values except for ozone in remote areas. The main trend during the studied period was a significant, up to several times, decrease in concentrations of SO 2 and CO while the decrease of nitrogen oxides was less remarkable. The paper propose ratio of NO x/SO 2 as an index describing increasing transport loads and drop in use of sulphur-rich fuels—thus of structure of economy. The annual variation of pollutants is explained by seasonal variations of anthropogenic activity in conditions where local fuels are widely used for heating during winter. Air pollution in Estonian rural stations mostly originated from transboundary fluxes. The 1-3 day delay of the weekly minimum of pollutant concentrations and the wind roses allow to conclude that essential part of pollutants is imported from West Europe.

  19. Variation of atmospheric air pollution under conditions of rapid economic change - Estonia 1994-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, V.; Tammet, H. [University of Tartu (Estonia). Institute of Environmental Physics; Truuts, T. [Estonian Environmental Research Centre, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2002-09-01

    Estonia is an example of a country with economy in transition whose atmospheric air pollution has been remarkably influenced by economic changes. During the period of 1994-1999 GDP increased by one-fourth, while agricultural production, electricity and heat production dropped by one-sixths during the studied period. These processes are reflected in the quantity of emissions and structure of air pollution. The study is based on the measurements of concentrations of pollutants at six Estonian Euroairnet monitoring stations - at three sites in the capital city and at three sites in remote areas. The pollutants concerned are the first-priority pollutants in the European Union legislation-nitrogen oxides, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, particulate matter, and additionally CO. The study reveals that concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Estonia remain within the EU limit values except for ozone in remote areas. The main trend during the studied period was a significant, up to several times, decrease in concentrations of SO{sub 2} and CO while the decrease of nitrogen oxides was less remarkable. The paper propose ratio of NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} as an index describing increasing transport loads and drop in use of sulphur-rich fuels - thus of structure of economy. The annual variation of pollutants is explained by seasonal variations of anthropogenic activity in conditions where local fuels are widely used for heating during winter. Air pollution in Estonian rural stations mostly originated from transboundary fluxes. The 1-3 day delay of the weekly minimum of pollutant concentrations and the wind roses allow to conclude that essential part of pollutants is imported from West Europe. (author)

  20. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  1. Modeling short-term concentration fluctuations of semi-volatile pollutants in the soil-plant-atmosphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhongwen; Haberer, Christina M; Maier, Uli; Beckingham, Barbara; Amos, Richard T; Grathwohl, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Temperature changes can drive cycling of semi-volatile pollutants between different environmental compartments (e.g. atmosphere, soil, plants). To evaluate the impact of daily temperature changes on atmospheric concentration fluctuations we employed a physically based model coupling soil, plants and the atmosphere, which accounts for heat transport, effective gas diffusion, sorption and biodegradation in the soil as well as eddy diffusion and photochemical oxidation in the atmospheric boundary layer of varying heights. The model results suggest that temperature-driven re-volatilization and uptake in soils cannot fully explain significant diurnal concentration fluctuations of atmospheric pollutants as for example observed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This holds even for relatively low water contents (high gas diffusivity) and high sorption capacity of the topsoil (high organic carbon content and high pollutant concentration in the topsoil). Observed concentration fluctuations, however, can be easily matched if a rapidly-exchanging environmental compartment, such as a plant layer, is introduced. At elevated temperatures, plants release organic pollutants, which are rapidly distributed in the atmosphere by eddy diffusion. For photosensitive compounds, e.g. some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), decreasing atmospheric concentrations would be expected during daytime for the bare soil scenario. This decline is buffered by a plant layer, which acts as a ground-level reservoir. The modeling results emphasize the importance of a rapidly-exchanging compartment above ground to explain short-term atmospheric concentration fluctuations. PMID:27341116

  2. 基于被动差分吸收光谱技术对大气污染物的监测研究%Atmospheric pollutants monitoring research based on the technology of passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李礼; 刘敏; 李昂

    2013-01-01

    Passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy was a new developed technology of atmospheric optical observation . It can be used for atmospheric monitoring of regional pollution and vertical composition .A MAX -DOAS instrument based on this technology was used for SO 2 and NO2 vertical column density monitoring during May to August of 2011 ,on the atmospheric integrated observation super -site of Chongqing urban area .The results showed that NO2 vertical column density changing trend was almost the same with local API index .NO2 and SO2 vertical column density showed apparent diurnal changing characteristics .Then a comparison between MAX -DOAS monitoring result and OMI satellite data was made ,as its correlation coefficient been 0 .759 .%被动差分吸收光谱技术是一种新兴发展的大气光学探测技术,可用于区域大气污染监测和大气成分垂直探测。基于被动差分吸收光谱分析技术,利用重庆大气超级站MAX-DOAS监测仪,于2011年5至8月对重庆主城区大气中的SO2、NO2垂直柱浓度进行了监测分析,研究得出:NO2垂直柱浓度变化趋势与当地API指数基本一致;NO2、SO2垂直柱浓度有明显日变化特征;MAX-DOAS监测结果与OMI卫星数据对比的相关系数为0.759。

  3. Study on wet scavenging of atmospheric pollutants in south Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Flavio; Pereira, Felipe Norte; Teixeira, Elba Calesso

    2011-09-01

    The present paper presents the study of in-cloud and below-cloud SO 2 and SO 42-scavenging processes by applying numerical models in the Candiota region, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil. The BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) model was applied to simulate the vertical structure of the clouds, and the B.V.2 (Below-Cloud Beheng Version 2) scavenging model was applied to simulate in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging processes of the pollutants SO 2 and SO 42-. Five events in 2004 were selected for this study and were sampled at the Candiota Airport station. The concentrations of SO 2 and SO 42- sampled in the air and the simulated meteorological parameters of rainfall episodes were used as input data in the B.V.2, which simulates raindrop interactions associated with the scavenging process. Results for the Candiota region showed that in-cloud scavenging processes were more significant than below-cloud scavenging processes for two of the five events studied, with a contribution of approximately 90-100% of SO 2 and SO 42- concentrations in rainwater. A few adjustments to the original version of B.V.2 were made to allow simulation of scavenging processes in several types of clouds, not only cumulus humilis and cumulus congestus.

  4. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  5. Concentrations and {delta}{sup 13}C values of atmospheric CO{sub 2} from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico [Univ. of Parma (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo [C.N.R., ISMAR, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Marine Geology

    2005-11-01

    CO{sub 2} is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose {delta}{sup 13}C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its {delta}{sup 13}C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO{sub 2} from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO{sub 2} concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative {delta}{sup 13}C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where {delta}{sup 13}C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at

  6. Concentrations and (delta){sup 13}C values of atmospheric CO{sub 2} from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico [Univ. of Parma (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo [C.N.R., ISMAR, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Marine Geology

    2005-11-15

    CO{sub 2} is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta){sup 13}C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta){sup 13}C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO{sub 2} from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO{sub 2} concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta){sup 13}C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta){sup 13}C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at

  7. Concentrations and (delta)13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CO2 is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta)13C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta)13C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO2 from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO2 concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta)13C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO2 concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta)13C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO2 over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at the end of 1996 to about 373 ppmv at the end of 2003 (mean growth rate of about 1

  8. Concentrations and δ13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo; Selmo, Enrico

    2005-11-01

    CO2 is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose δ13C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its δ13C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO2 from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO2 concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative δ13C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO2 concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where δ13C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO2 over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at the end of 1996 to about 373 ppmv at the end of 2003 (mean growth rate of about 1.7 ppmv yr1 in

  9. Numerical modelling of pollution dispersion in 3D atmospheric boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benes, L.; Bodnar, T.; Kozel, K. [Czech Technical Univ. of Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Technical Mathematics; Fraunie, Ph. [Univ. de Toulon et du Var, La Garde (France). Lab. de Sondages Electromagnetiques et Environnemental Terrestre

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to present the applicable models and numerical methods for solution of flow and pollution dispersion in 3D atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Mathematical models are based on the system of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations and its simplifications. The sets of governing equations are completed by the transport equations for passive impurities and potential temperature. A simple algebraic turbulent closure model is used. The thermal stability phenomenon is taken into account. For each mathematical model a numerical scheme based on finite-difference or finite-volume discretization is proposed and discussed. Some results of numerical tests are presented for pollution dispersion from point sources and flows over simple geometries. (orig.)

  10. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants. PMID:26760713

  11. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants.

  12. Risk based inspection for atmospheric storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agus; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is an attack that occurs on a metallic material as a result of environment's reaction.Thus, it causes atmospheric storage tank's leakage, material loss, environmental pollution, equipment failure and affects the age of process equipment then finally financial damage. Corrosion risk measurement becomesa vital part of Asset Management at the plant for operating any aging asset.This paper provides six case studies dealing with high speed diesel atmospheric storage tank parts at a power plant. A summary of the basic principles and procedures of corrosion risk analysis and RBI applicable to the Process Industries were discussed prior to the study. Semi quantitative method based onAPI 58I Base-Resource Document was employed. The risk associated with corrosion on the equipment in terms of its likelihood and its consequences were discussed. The corrosion risk analysis outcome used to formulate Risk Based Inspection (RBI) method that should be a part of the atmospheric storage tank operation at the plant. RBI gives more concern to inspection resources which are mostly on `High Risk' and `Medium Risk' criteria and less on `Low Risk' shell. Risk categories of the evaluated equipment were illustrated through case study analysis outcome.

  13. Pollutants transport and atmospheric variability of CO2 over Siberia: contribution of airborne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presented here intends to characterize the variations of atmospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, O3 and ultrafine particles, over a large scale aircraft transect above Siberia, during three intensive YAK-AEROSIB campaigns in April 2006, September 2006 and August 2007, respectively. Pollutant and greenhouse gases distribution in this poorly studied region is needed to model atmospheric long range transport. I show here that CO concentrations at the time of the campaigns is broadly affected by (1) advection of Chinese pollutants through baro-clinic perturbations, (2) advection (diffuse or not) of European pollutants at various altitudes, (3) and of biomass burning from Central Asia. This set of factors is analyzed through a novel statistical technique based on clustering of backward transport simulated by the FLEXPART Lagrangian model. Large observed CO2 gradients in summer are matched against vertical mixing in GCM simulated CO2. At last I present ultrafine particle measurements, and a possible nucleation summer maximum in the clean, continental mid-troposphere. (author)

  14. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  15. Trans boundary transport of pollutants by atmospheric mineral dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Yigal; Dayan, Uri; Rabi, Reut; Rudich, Yinon; Stein, Mordechai

    2006-05-01

    The transport of anthropogenic pollution by desert dust in the Eastern Mediterranean region was studied by analyzing major and trace element composition, organic species, and Pb isotope ratios in suspended dust samples collected in Jerusalem, Israel. Dust storms in this region are associated with four distinct synoptic conditions (Red Sea Trough (RS), Eastern High (EH), Sharav Cyclone (SC), and Cold Depression (Cyprus low, CD)) that carry dust mostly from North African (SC, CD, EH) and Arabian and Syrian (RS, EH) deserts. Substantial contamination of dust particles by Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni is observed, while other elements (Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, Rb, REE, U, and Th) display natural concentrations. Sequential extraction of the abovementioned elements from the dust samples shows that the carbonate and sorbed fractions contain most of the pollution, yet the Al-silicate fraction is also contaminated, implying that soils and sediments in the source terrains of the dust are already polluted. We identified the pollutant sources by using Pb isotopes. It appears that before the beginning of the dust storm, the pollutants in the collected samples are dominated by local sources but with the arrival of dust from North Africa, the proportion of foreign pollutants increases. Organic pollutants exhibit behavior similar and complementary to that of the inorganic tracers, attesting to the importance of anthropogenic-pollutant addition en route of the dust from its remote sources. Pollution of suspended dust is observed under all synoptic conditions, yet it appears that easterly winds carry higher proportions of local pollution and westerly winds carry pollution emitted in the Cairo basin. Therefore, pollution transport by mineral dust should be accounted for in environmental models and in assessing the health-related effects of mineral dust.

  16. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  17. An Important Supplement to NAA in Study on Atmosphere Pollution:Determination of Black Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Light absorption in the atmosphere is dominated by elemental carbon (EC), sometimes called black carbon (BC). Black carbon is an important indication of man-made pollution in airborne particulate matter

  18. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, Cecilia

    1999-04-01

    The load of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is considered high in the Baltic ecosystem. The Baltic Sea spans over 12 latitudes and the regional differences in climate affect the behavior of POPs. Therefore spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of POPs in air and precipitation within this area has been investigated at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990-1993. In addition, the deposition of gaseous and particulate associated POPs to the Baltic Sea is estimated from empirical data. This atmospheric input of POPs is compared with the input from rivers. Additionally, data from Ross Island, Antarctica and Lake Kariba, Zimbabve, Africa is presented, and all results are discussed and explained using the `global fractionation hypothesis` as a framework. In the Baltic Sea, concentration of individual POPs in air were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient air temperature and location. A latitudinal gradient, with higher levels in the south was found for PCBs and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners in air increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentration increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic, or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites. The concentrations of individual congeners in precipitation were found to be influenced by atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, ambient temperature, precipitation volume and

  19. The atmospheric pollution in a few words; La pollution atmospherique en bref

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper takes stock briefly on the different pollution sources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, VOC, methane...), the mechanisms (acidification, photochemical pollution, eutrophication, greenhouse effect, ozone...) and the effects on the health. (A.L.B.)

  20. Remote sensing of atmospheric urban pollutants with DOAS in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, A.; Poblete, F. J.; Mucientes, A. E.; Maigler, F. J.; Notario, A.; Martínez, E.; Albaladejo, J.

    Urban air pollution is one of the main environmental problems, owing to implications for public health and physical environment. In urban areas, the sources of atmospheric pollutants are distributed very inhomogeneously. Trace gas concentrations measured by conventional air quality monitoring stations are always influenced by small sources in their direct vicinity and surface effects like dry deposition and small-scale wind systems. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a field-oriented monitoring technique that allows very fast and continuous measurements of different airborne pollutants along an open light path. Remote sensing techniques like DOAS can avoid the problems of local influences and surface effects, as DOAS can use light paths with range from several hundred of meters to several kilometres, thus the measured concentrations are averaged over the light path and barely influenced by small-scale variances. The technique is based on the fact that all trace gases absorb electromagnetic radiation in some part of the spectrum. If the radiation of the appropriate frequency is transmitted through the atmosphere the features of absorption of each molecule in that spectral region allow the identification and quantification of the gas concentrations. Up to date, only a few long term DOAS measurements of urban air pollution have been reported, and to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one in the South of Spain. We present here some results obtained in a long term study performed in Ciudad Real and Puertollano, where the daily, weekly and seasonal variation of the concentrations of minor important tropospheric constituents as ozone, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide, have been continuously monitored.

  1. Advection of pollutants by internal solitary waves in oceanic and atmospheric stable stratifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Haarlemmer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available When a pollutant is released into the ocean or atmosphere under turbulent conditions, even a steady release is captured by large eddies resulting in localized patches of high concentration of the pollutant. If such a cloud of pollutant subsequently enters a stable stratification-either a pycnocline or thermocline-then internal waves are excited. Since large solitary internal waves have a recirculating core, pollutants may be trapped in the sclitary wave, and advected large distances through the waveguide provided by the stratification. This paper addresses the mechanisms, through computer and physical simulation, by which a localized release of a dense pollutant results in solitary waves that trap the pollutant or disperse the pollutant faster than in the absence of the waves.

  2. Spatial structure and scale feature of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiangde; ZHOU Xiuji; SHI Xiaohui

    2005-01-01

    The spatial structure and multi-scale feature of the atmospheric pollution influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas (a rapidly developed city agglomeration) is dissected and analyzed in this paper on the basis of the atmospheric pollution dynamic-chemical process observation data of the urban building ensemble boundary layer of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter (February) and summer (August) 2003, and relevant meteorological elements and satellite retrieval aerosol optical depth (AOD), etc. comprehensive data with the dynamic-statistical integrated analysis of "point-surface" spatial structure. Results show that there existed significant difference in the contribution of winter/summer different pollution emission sources to the component character of atmospheric pollution, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results of statistical model also indicate that SO2 and NOX dominated in the component structure of winter aerosol particle; instead, CO and NOX dominated in summer. Surface layer atmospheric dynamic and thermal structures and various pollutant species at the upper boundary of building ensembles at urban different observational sites of Beijing in winter and summer showed an "in-phase" variation and its spatial scale feature of "influence domain". The power spectrum analysis (PSA) shows that the period spectrum of winter/summer particle concentration accorded with those of atmospheric wind field: the longer period was dominative in winter, but the shorter period in summer, revealing the impact of the seasonal scale feature of winter/summer atmospheric general circulation on the period of atmospheric pollution variations. It is found that from analyzing urban area thermal heterogeneity that the multiscale effect of Beijing region urban heat island (UHI) was associated with the heterogeneous expansion of tall buildings area. In urban atmospheric dynamical and thermal characteristic spatial structures, the

  3. Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS

    OpenAIRE

    Elba C. Teixeira; Mattiuzi, Camila D. P.; Sabrina Feltes; Flavio Wiegand; Eduardo R.R. Santana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM) in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA). The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The result...

  4. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  5. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    (p<0.07). Exploratory models indicated linear uptake of the three metals by Hylocomium splendens moss and nonlinear uptake of sulfur from sulfate.Our results provided useful preliminary models for several of the targeted substances; however, our ability to characterize relations between concentrations in moss and loadings for many of the metals was precluded by several factors. The few test sites, small concentration gradients, and generally low concentrations hampered model developments. In addition, the weather was unusually warm throughout Alaska during the winter of 2013–14, which caused intermittent melting of the snowpack at some of the test sites; consequently, our measurements of overwinter loads based on snowpack samples (obtained in late March) probably underestimated the actual loads. Regardless of these potential limitations, these studies have established a foundation to support further studies that can improve our understanding of how mosses accumulate inorganic substances and ultimately how mosses might be used as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants; moreover, the successful development and validation of the IECs during this research documents how the methodology can be used for future monitoring efforts in remote regions of Alaska and elsewhere.

  6. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions.

  7. Mathematical models for atmospheric pollutants. Appendix A. Elements of meteorology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meteorological elements that are important in the transport and fate of airborne pollutants are summarized. The summary consists of descriptions of the thermal, water, kinematic and dynamic structures of the atmosphere, the time and space scale classifications of atmospheric motions, and modifications of pollutant plumes as they pass over nonhomogeneous surface conditions and complex terrain. The discussions consider the atmospheric thermal layers and their stability, formation of clouds and the production of rain and snow, the movement of air masses and weather fronts, the horizontal winds in the planetary boundary layer, and wind profiles over transition zones and complex terrain

  8. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  9. Contribution to the modeling of atmospheric pollution in cities; Contribution a la modelisation de la pollution atmospherique dans les villes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glockmer, St.

    2000-07-01

    Pollution generated by urban traffic and by industry at its periphery is a serious problem of our cities. Once emitted in the atmosphere, pollutants undergo two types of constraints: on one side they react chemically one with another and, on the other side, they are transported by the wind. We have chosen to work on the dynamical, thermal and chemical aspects of the pollution at different scales of the phenomena: local scale (around a group of buildings) and meso-scale (a whole city). Our ambition is not to realize a complete model but to advance step by step on each aspect. We have contributed to the realization of a numerical tool that will be completed and used for concrete pollution episodes. The first chapter is a description of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapters two and three present models and results of numerical simulations. We stress on k-{epsilon}, RNG and v{sup 2}-f turbulence models, radiative heat transfer models and dynamical and thermal wall laws that allow to take in consideration surface roughness. The last chapter is dedicated to atmospheric chemistry. We have moreover developed a general solver of any number of transport equations coupled by a stiff chemistry and simplified ozone kinetics. (author)

  10. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.P.; Dews, J.; Harris, F.C. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D.J. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  11. Variational approach to direct and inverse problems of atmospheric pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present the development of a variational approach for solving interrelated problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry concerning air pollution transport and transformations. The proposed approach allows us to carry out complex studies of different-scale physical and chemical processes using the methods of direct and inverse modeling [1-3]. We formulate the problems of risk/vulnerability and uncertainty assessment, sensitivity studies, variational data assimilation procedures [4], etc. A computational technology of constructing consistent mathematical models and methods of their numerical implementation is based on the variational principle in the weak constraint formulation specifically designed to account for uncertainties in models and observations. Algorithms for direct and inverse modeling are designed with the use of global and local adjoint problems. Implementing the idea of adjoint integrating factors provides unconditionally monotone and stable discrete-analytic approximations for convection-diffusion-reaction problems [5,6]. The general framework is applied to the direct and inverse problems for the models of transport and transformation of pollutants in Siberian and Arctic regions. The work has been partially supported by the RFBR grant 14-01-00125 and RAS Presidium Program I.33P. References: 1. V. Penenko, A.Baklanov, E. Tsvetova and A. Mahura . Direct and inverse problems in a variational concept of environmental modeling //Pure and Applied Geoph.(2012) v.169: 447-465. 2. V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, and A. V. Penenko Development of variational approach for direct and inverse problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 311-319, DOI: 10.1134/S0001433815030093. 3. V.V. Penenko, E.A. Tsvetova, A.V. Penenko. Methods based on the joint use of models and observational data in the framework of variational approach to forecasting weather and atmospheric composition

  12. PIXE analysis: an option for the study of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several techniques have been utilized in studying atmospheric contamination samples. However, each lack some characteristics required for these studies. Spectroscopy of X-rays particularly where excitation models are produced using charged particles (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE), for its high sensitivity, is the one that best fitting itself to the scheme of analysis required. In this paper we report some qualitative results of the atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Mexico City. (Author)

  13. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to Bjørnøya (Bear island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenborn, Roland; Christensen, Guttorm; Evenset, Anita; Schlabach, Martin; Stohl, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    A first medium term monitoring of atmospheric transport and distribution for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Bjørnøya (Bear island) air samples has been performed in the period between week 51/1999 and week 28/2003. A total of 50 single compounds consisting of polychlorinated biphenyls (33 congeners), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (alpha-, beta-, gamma-HCH), alpha-endosulfan, cyclodiene pesticides (chlordanes, nonachlor-isomers, oxy-chlordane, heptachlor and chlordane) as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) derivatives were analysed and quantified. Atmospheric transport of POPs was identified as an important contamination source for the island. PCBs, HCB and HCH isomers were the predominant POP groups, contributing with 70-90% to the overall POP burden quantified in the Bjørnøya air samples. The highest concentration levels for a single compound were found for HCB (25-35 pg m(-3)). However, the sum of 33 PCB congeners was found to be in the same concentration range (annual means between 15 and 30 pg m(-3)). Cyclodiene pesticides, DDT derivatives and alpha-endosulfan were identified as minor contaminants. Several atmospheric long-range transport episodes were identified and characterised. Indications for industrial emissions as well as agricultural sources were found for the respective atmospheric transport episodes. A first simple statistical correlation assessment showed that for long-range transport of pollution, the local meteorological situation is not as important as the air mass properties integrated over the time period of the transport event. The local weather situation, on the other hand, is important when investigating deposition rates and up-take/accumulation properties in the local ecosystem. Based upon chemical data interpretation, valuable information about the influence of primary and secondary sources on the air mass contamination with chlorinated insecticides (e.g., HCHs) was found and discussed. The

  14. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sénéchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  15. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon, with an analysis of sources of pollution, their impact on local and global environment and their control.Local causes of pollution are mainly: -Thermal power plants of electric power production which produce 75% SO2 emission and 60% dust - Industries, especially cement industry - Land transportation which produces 70% NOX emission and 50% CO2 A description of air pollution caused by these three sectors is revealed. Pollutants derived from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, Co2 emission will reach 5204450 tons, SO2 emission will be 136470 tons, NOX emissions 96870 and dust estimated to 4130 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal Protocol are described. Recommendations for control of air pollution in Lebanon within a national policy are presented

  16. Atmospheric Pollutants Monitoring by Analysis of Epiphytic Lichen Hypogymnia physodes in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memić, M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability of lichens to accumulate levels of elements in excess of physiological requirements in close correlation with atmospheric elemental levels has led to their wide-scale application as practical biomonitors of inorganic atmospheric contamination. The advantages of using lichens over conventional air sampling techniques are that lichens are perennial and can be found in most terrestrial habitats. The epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes was used to monitor atmospheric pollution in the Sarajevo city region, Bosnia and Herzegovina. H. physodes is a very common epiphytic lichen on trees with a slightly acidic or neutral bark. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS has been used for the determination of 14 elements (Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr and Zn in lichen samples from five locations in the Sarajevo area. Achieved results have been compared with literary data from northwestern countries of Europe and Slovenia.A detailed analysis of air pollution with toxic metals and other elements has not yet been made in the area of Sarajevo. So far, analyses of the air quality in Sarajevo have been based on determining the fraction of: SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, O3, smoke, PM 10. This motivated us (especially after the war 1992-1995 to conduct multi-elemental analyses of epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes.The results show that the mass fraction of Cr, Pb and Zn in our samples significantly differ from data on the fraction of these elements in samples of lichen in Northwestern European countries.

  17. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss and 2 species of epiphytic moss. The concentrations of 32 elements have been determined in moss samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA and atom emission spectrometry (AES. Interspecies and intraspecies comparison revealed significant differences in accumulation properties. The accumulation capacity of Dicranum polysetum was higher than other terrestrial mosses and Aulacomnium palustre had higher accumulation capacity than other paludal mosses. These moss species have been used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory, particularly for research of transboundary transfer of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation property of epiphytic moss was higher than others. The epiphytic moss could be found on the bark of old trees (aspens, poplars, birch that are of frequent occurrence in urban areas. Therefore, epiphytic moss can be used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory and for research of atmospheric pollution in industrial centers, inhabited locations as well as assessment of atmospheric contamination in local pollution source. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.5566

  18. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  19. The effects of air pollution and climatic factors on atmospheric corrosion of marble under field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric corrosion of marble was evaluated in terms of SO2 concentration as air pollution and climatic factors such as rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and so on under the field exposure. Marble of calcite type (CaCO3) was exposed to outdoor atmospheric environment with and without a rain shelter at four test sites in the southern part of Vietnam for 3-month, 1- and 2-year periods from July 2001 to September 2003. The thickness loss of marble was investigated gravimetrically. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescent methods were applied to study corrosion products on marble. The corrosion product of marble was only gypsum (CaSO4 . 2H2O) and was washed out by rain under the unsheltered exposure condition. It was found that the most substantial factors influencing the corrosion of marble were rainfall, SO2 concentration in the air and relative humidity. Based on the results obtained, we estimated the dose-response functions for the atmospheric corrosion of marble in the southern part of Vietnam

  20. Study of atmospheric dynamics and pollution in the coastal area of English Channel using clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmenten, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The problem of atmospheric contamination by principal air pollutants was considered in the industrialized coastal region of English Channel in Dunkirk influenced by north European metropolitan areas. MESO-NH nested models were used for the simulation of the local atmospheric dynamics and the online calculation of Lagrangian backward trajectories with 15-minute temporal resolution and the horizontal resolution down to 500 m. The one-month mesoscale numerical simulation was coupled with local pollution measurements of volatile organic components, particulate matter, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Principal atmospheric pathways were determined by clustering technique applied to backward trajectories simulated. Six clusters were obtained which describe local atmospheric dynamics, four winds blowing through the English Channel, one coming from the south, and the biggest cluster with small wind speeds. This last cluster includes mostly sea breeze events. The analysis of meteorological data and pollution measurements allows relating the principal atmospheric pathways with local air contamination events. It was shown that contamination events are mostly connected with a channelling of pollution from local sources and low-turbulent states of the local atmosphere.

  1. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  2. Air pollution forecasting by coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF and SFIRE with WRF-Chem

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Clements, Craig B

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution regulations have emerged as a dominant obstacle to prescribed burns. Thus, forecasting the pollution caused by wildland fires has acquired high importance. WRF and SFIRE model wildland fire spread in a two-way interaction with the atmosphere. The surface heat flux from the fire causes strong updrafts, which in turn change the winds and affect the fire spread. Fire emissions, estimated from the burning organic matter, are inserted in every time step into WRF-Chem tracers at the lowest atmospheric layer. The buoyancy caused by the fire then naturally simulates plume dynamics, and the chemical transport in WRF-Chem provides a forecast of the pollution spread. We discuss the choice of wood burning models and compatible chemical transport models in WRF-Chem, and demonstrate the results on case studies.

  3. Long Term Atmospheric and Erosional Pollution As Recorded in Lake Sediments from Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, A. L.; Abbott, M. B.; Yu, J.; Bain, D.; Chiou-Peng, T.

    2014-12-01

    Human activities including agriculture, metallurgy (e.g. mining, processing, smelting), and deforestation have altered cycles of erosion and sedimentation in lake environments for thousands of years. In the Yunnan province of southwestern China, where written records are incomplete, it is unclear when, where, and how much disturbance occurred. Lake sediments offer a means to investigate a wide variety of human activities. Here, we present a lake sediment record from Erhai (25°43'N, 100°12'E) based on trace metal concentrations that reveals substantial atmospheric and erosional pollution to the lake environment over the last 4,000 years. Sediments indicate the initiation of copper-based metallurgy at 3,600 years BP, the existence of which has been debated amongst archaeologists. Beginning 2,000 years BP, sedimentation rates increase and concentrations of metals such as aluminum, titanium, lead, and zinc increase. This is likely linked to increased sediment flux to the lake associated with the initiation of terraced agriculture according to historical documents. The most prominent feature of the record is an abrupt and intense increase in lead, silver, cadmium, and zinc beginning at 700 years BP. The peak of this increase occurs at 600 years BP and is consistent with historical records that the Mongols established the first government operated silver mine in Yunnan. Notably, the concentrations of lead during this time are an order of magnitude greater than modern day levels of pollution.

  4. A study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery. [pollution transport over the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of the smoke plumes which originated in eastern Cabo Frio, Brazil and crossed over into the Atlantic Ocean, are analyzed to illustrate how high resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of three empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume from the LANDSAT imagery. The vertical diffusion coefficient in stable conditions is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of meso scale atmospheric diffusion models.

  5. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  6. Is Distant Pollution Contaminating Local Air? Analyzing the Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols

    OpenAIRE

    David Geng

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the origin of aerosols in the atmosphere is important because of visual pollution, climate impacts, and deleterious health effects due to the inhalation of fine particles. This research analyzed aerosols characterized by their chloride, sulfate, and nitrate content as a function of size over a 3-month period. Due to wind patterns over coal-burning power plants, a higher concentration of local sulfate pollution was expected. Aerosols were harvested on the Purdue University campus...

  7. Saving the atmosphere. International law, developing countries and air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F.

    1995-08-01

    The protection of global ecological systems which are threatened by human activities has evolved into one of the most dynamic and important areas of international law and politics. Most prominently, the chemical composition of the Earth`s atmosphere has increasingly been modified by human interference, followed by regular `holes` in the stratospheric ozone layer, possible change of the global climate and various other damages. Since the 1970s, the international community has reacted by negotiating several binding agreements on environmental policies and by establishing new rules of general customary law binding upon all States. This emerging Law of the Atmosphere is the subject of this study, thereby paying special attention to the differences in the legal status of industrialised and developing countries according to their distinct responsibilities and economic and social capabilities. (orig./KW)

  8. Nitrate contamination of groundwater as a factor of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High nitrate concentrations of ground water in agricultural regions not only enhance denitrification in gravel pit lakes but also increase the proportion of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the gaseous products released to the atmosphere. Thereby they contribute to the greenhouse effect and destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer. However, due to the present small area of the lakes, their effect may be considered as important at the global scale

  9. Development and consequences of atmospheric CO2 pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the use of fossil fuels and a number of trace gases have changed the composition of the atmosphere and, in this way, the radiation balance within the atmosphere. The influence on the climate of the rising atmospheric content of carbon dioxide (CO2) has become an important problem, which constitutes the background to energy policy. This problem has become more and more topical and multi-faceted over the past decade. Extreme climatic anomalies occur in various regions of the earth, which had not previously been experienced in this intensity in our century. Even more extreme weather and climatic events must be expected to occur in the future. From the most recent data climatologists conclude that the development will be different than had initially been assumed. For instance, the role of water vapor seems to have been underestimated. A change in climate, starting from the tropics, seems to be under way. The modeling results, which must be used as a starting point for specific predictions in any field, are still highly contradictory and do not at present permit a forecast to be made for a region such as Central Europe. It can only be said with some reliability that the process of warming up will continue, perhaps even at an increasing pace. (orig.)

  10. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter haze pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter haze pollution (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship with the atmospheric circulations at middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter haze pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. In the raw (unfiltered) correlations, the correlation coefficients between the six indices and the winter visibility (number of hazy days) varied from 0.57 (0.47) to 0.76 (0.6) with an average of 0.65 (0.54); in the high-frequency ( pollution in BTH winter, and vice versa. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter haze pollution in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take action in advance in dealing with probably severe haze pollution in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  11. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter hazy pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2015-08-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter hazy pollutions (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship to the atmospheric circulations in middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter hazy pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. Both the visibility and number of hazy days can be estimated well by using the six indices and fitting and the cross-validation with leave-N-out method, respectively. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter hazy pollutions in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. However, we also noted that the statistic estimation models would be largely influenced by the artificial control of a pollutant discharge. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take actions in advance in dealing with probably severe hazy pollutions in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  12. An estimation of the total atmospheric pollution in Quetta (Pakistan) using solar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyas, Syed Z.; Nasir, S.M. [University of Balochistan, Group of Renewable Energy, Department of Physics, Quetta (Pakistan); Veziroglu, T.N. [University of Miami, Clean Energy Institute, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Miami, FL (United States)

    2007-11-15

    A new approach for the estimation of the total atmospheric pollution is suggested by using solar energy data. The dispersion of global solar radiation is relatively large during summer (June, July and August) and autumn (September, October, November) seasons for Quetta. A continuous relative attenuation of the order of 6-14% is due to presence of fine dust particles and pollutants throughout the year in the lower atmosphere at Quetta. Our results indicate an increased difference in the relative attenuation of global solar radiation for winter when compared with summer due to combustion of natural gas and mined coal for heating of buildings. (orig.)

  13. Environmental epidemiology applied to urban atmospheric pollution: a contribution from the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory (LPAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Paulo Afonso de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigation on the effects of human exposure to environmental pollution using scientific methodology only began in the 20th century as a consequence of several environmental accidents followed by an unexpected mortality increase above expected mortality and as a result of observational epidemiological and toxicological studies conducted on animals in developed countries. This article reports the experience of the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory at the School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, concerning the respiratory system and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in responses to exposure to pollution using toxicological and experimental procedures, complemented by observational epidemiological studies conducted in the city of São Paulo. It also describes these epidemiological studies, pointing out that air pollution is harmful to public health, not only among susceptible groups but also in the general population, even when the concentration of pollutants is below the limits set by environmental legislation. The study provides valuable information to support the political and economic decision-making processes aimed at preserving the environment and enhancing quality of life.

  14. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  15. Atmospheric sulphur dioxide pollution in Malta : a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Alfred J.; Caruana, S.; Demanuele, J.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a preliminary survey of the air quality in Malta during May-December 1990 with respect to sulphur dioxide are presented. One-hour-average S02 concentrations as high as 320 ug m-3 have been measured from areas proximate to the Marsa power station. The concentration of S02 in ambient air was found to be strongly dependent on atmospheric conditions and especially on wind direction. At Paola, measured concentrations varied from below the detection limit of 25 ug m-3 to about 160 ug...

  16. Interception of wet deposited atmospheric pollutants by herbaceous vegetation: Data review and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, M-A; Sy, M M

    2016-09-15

    Better understanding and predicting interception of wet deposited pollutants by vegetation remains a key issue in risk assessment studies of atmospheric pollution. We develop different alternative models, following either empirical or semi-mechanistic descriptions, on the basis of an exhaustive dataset consisting of 440 observations obtained in controlled experiments, from 1970 to 2014, for a wide variety of herbaceous plants, radioactive substances and rainfall conditions. The predictive performances of the models and the uncertainty/variability of the parameters are evaluated under Hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework. It is demonstrated that the variability of the interception fraction is satisfactorily explained and quite accurately modelled by a process-based alternative in which absorption of ionic substances onto the foliage surfaces is determined by their electrical valence. Under this assumption, the 95% credible interval of the predicted interception fraction encompasses 81% of the observations, including situations where either plant biomass or rainfall intensity are unknown. This novel approach is a serious candidate to challenge existing empirical relationships in radiological or chemical risk assessment tools. PMID:27156215

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere - spatial and temporal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backe, Cecilia

    2001-05-01

    In this thesis I have studied the spatial and temporal variations of PCBs in the atmosphere and in precipitation in southern Sweden. Further, soil-air exchange processes of PCBs were investigated. Finally, the long-range transport of PCBs and DDT was studied in the Baltic Sea region and in a tropical vs. a temporal region. On the regional scale there were significant differences in PCB concentration in the atmosphere, in precipitation and in soil between nearby sampling-areas. Differences in PCB concentrations between areas probably originated from varying geographical and meteorological conditions that affected exchange processes between air and soil/vegetation surfaces. Temporal variations in PCB concentration in atmosphere and precipitation were also found. For PCBs in the air, a systematic pattern in the deviation from the yearly median value for the region was observed. Wind direction played an important role for PCB concentration in precipitation in coastal areas, while at the inland sites this variable seemed to have a minor influence. To examine the intensity of precipitation scavenging, the total washout ratios were calculated and the highest ratios were observed at the two sites where PCB concentration in the air was high. Further, high concentrations of PCB in precipitation correlated with a composition of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, as shown by principal component analysis. For most of the sites there was a significant negative relationship between PCB concentration and rain volume. Soil type and soil organic matter content was found to be important for the variations in PCB concentration between nearby areas. Highest concentrations were found at two sites with sandy soils, one with an extremely high organic carbon content. Soils with similar soil textures (i.e. sandy silt moraine) did not show any significant differences in PCB concentrations. PCB congener composition was shown to differ between sites, with site-specific congener patterns. No

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of some concepts for engineered intervention into large-scale pollution problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the era of global change approaches, serious debate has begun on the merits of regional and global-scale atmospheric engineering enterprises to repair pollution damage. Post hoc mitigation schemes often prove to be inordinately expensive, and are sometimes dangerous. Here, chemical ramifications are discussed for three engineering concepts the authors are involved in assessing. Two of their projects regard global ozone depletion. It has been proposed that additions of small quantities of the light alkanes to the ozone hole could suppress massive springtime losses over Antarctica by scavenging chlorine atoms. A newly discovered heterogeneous reaction, however, implies that hydrogen atoms released during organic oxidation will activate the scavenged chlorine and more. Alkane injections could thus deepen the hole instead of plugging it. Ground based infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation has been suggested as a means for removing chlorofluorocarbons from the atmosphere before they can reach the ozone layer and cause depletions. The process would release chlorine atoms into the tropospheric system, and might lead to localized ozone production and smog-like plumes downwind of the laser assemblages. The third engineering proposal the authors are evaluating focuses on urban pollution. Reverse convection towers can generate electricity by channeling the cooling from evaporation of water droplets into controlled downdrafts. It has been noted that if the towers were constructed in cities, the falling drops within them would sweep out visibility-degrading particles. However, alterations in NOx could increase the intensity of midday ozone episodes. Their overall experience indicates that the direction and magnitude of potential chemical side effects of post hoc environmental engineering will be difficult to predict. 99 refs

  19. Do N-isotopes in atmospheric nitrate deposition reflect air pollution levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyn, Fabian; Matthias, Volker; Aulinger, Armin; Dähnke, Kirstin

    2015-04-01

    Dry and wet deposition of atmospheric reactive nitrogen compounds mostly originate from anthropogenic NH3 and NOX sources. Regarding land-borne pollutants, coastal environments usually have a lower pollution level than terrestrial/urban areas, which have a greater anthropogenic imprint. To investigate this spatial characteristic, we measured NO3- and NH4+ deposition and N isotopes of NO3-(δ15N-NO3-) in 94 and 88 wet and dry deposition samples, respectively, at a coastal (List on Sylt) and a terrestrial/urban site (Geesthacht) in Germany from May 2012 to May 2013. A higher total N deposition rate was observed in Geesthacht (10.4 vs. 8.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1) due to higher NH4+ deposition, which can be explained by more agricultural influence. Surprisingly, overall NO3- fluxes were higher at the coastal site than at the terrestrial/urban site. We assume that sea-salt aerosols and the increased influence of NOX emissions from ships in most recent times compensate the higher terrestrial/urban pollution level and thus lead to higher NO3- fluxes in dry and comparable fluxes in wet deposition at the coastal site, despite a much lower impact of land-based sources. In line with this, overall mean N isotopes values of NO3- show higher values in List than in Geesthacht in dry (+3.1 vs. +1.9‰) as well as in wet deposition (-0.1 vs. -1.0‰). This surprising result can mainly be attributed to an emerging source of NOX, ship emissions, which have a distinctly higher impact at the coastal site. The usage of heavy oil and possibly new technologies in marine engines, which emit more enriched 15N in comparison to older engines, caused the spatial isotopic differences.

  20. Organics in the atmosphere: From air pollution to biogeochemical cycles and climate (Vilhelm Bjerknes Medal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Organics are key players in the biosphere-atmosphere-climate interactions. They have also a significant anthropogenic component due to primary emissions or interactions with pollution. The organic pool in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of compounds of variable reactivity and properties, variable content in C, H, O, N and other elements depending on their origin and their history in the atmosphere. Multiphase atmospheric chemistry is known to produce organic acids with high oxygen content, like oxalic acid. This water soluble organic bi-acid is used as indicator for cloud processing and can form complexes with atmospheric Iron, affecting Iron solubility. Organics are also carriers of other nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. They also interact with solar radiation and with atmospheric water impacting on climate. In line with this vision for the role of organics in the atmosphere, we present results from a global 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model on the role of gaseous and particulate organics in atmospheric chemistry, accounting for multiphase chemistry and aerosol ageing in the atmosphere as well as nutrients emissions, atmospheric transport and deposition. Historical simulations and projections highlight the human impact on air quality and atmospheric deposition to the oceans. The results are put in the context of climate change. Uncertainties and implications of our findings for biogeochemical and climate modeling are discussed.

  1. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjun; DENG; Yan; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this paper analyzed content of heavy metals,including arsenic(As),mercury(Hg),lead(Pb),cadmium(Cd),and chromium(Cr) in soil.After Pb,Cd,Cr,Hg and As content in soil is determined,it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard for soil pollution.Analysis results indicate that As,Hg,Pb,Cd,Cr content is different in pollution-free agricultural product bases,but all conform to related standards and there is no standard exceeding problem.It is concluded that the quality of soil in pollution-free agricultural product bases is excellent,not polluted and completely meet requirements of evaluation standards,and suitable for developing pollution-free agricultural products.

  2. Atmospheric Particulate Matter Pollution During The 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Primbs, T.; Tao, S.; Zhu, T.; Simonich, S. M.

    2009-05-01

    To assess the particulate matter (PM) pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympic games, size fractionated PM samples of >PM10, PM2.5-PM10, and Olympics, during the 2 week period of the Olympics, and for a 4 week time period following the Olympics. These time periods included 6 weeks with source control and 2 weeks without source control measures. Our SumPM10 (PM2.5-PM10 + Olympic time period and 93.9 ± 50.2 μg/ m3 and 124.5 ± 65.8 μg/ m3 outside of the Olympic time period, respectively, and were statistically different between the two time periods. In addition, the mean Olympic time period, the PM10 concentrations in Beijing were 2.9, 3.5, and 1.9 times higher than PM10 concentrations during the Olympic time periods in Atlanta, Sydney and Athens. In addition, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations during the Olympic time period exceeded the WHO guideline 81% and 100% of the time, respectively. Finally, compared to October, November, and December 2007, the PM10 concentrations were reduced by 9% to 27% during the same months in 2008, suggesting that the source control efforts (and possibly a down turn in the economy) have resulted in lower PM10 concentrations in Beijing.

  3. Effect of Atmospheric Pollutants on the Air Quality in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bouchlaghem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evolution of Saharan dust advection when the PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 μm concentration exceeds standard limits in different Tunisian sites. Meteorological and concentration data (from 2004 to 2010 obtained from several monitoring stations and in situ measurements were used to identify African dust change in seasonal occurrence, their source origin, and their impact on surface PM10 concentrations. We pointed out that the Saharan dust contribution caused frequently the surpassing of the maximum number of days in excess of EU standard limits as well as of the maximum yearly average in the Mediterranean Tunisian coasts. The maximum daily concentration reaches 439 μg/m3 during the Saharan events. The decrease in particulate levels recorded at the end of each event is due to the injection of European air masses and rainfalls. Primary pollutants peaks were much higher in winter than in summer which can be explained on the basis of the lower ventilation and mixing.

  4. Spatial structure and scale feature of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Xiangde; ZHOU; Xiuji; SHI; Xiaohui

    2005-01-01

    The spatial structure and multi-scale feature of the atmospheric pollution influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas (a rapidly developed city agglomeration) is dissected and analyzed in this paper on the basis of the atmospheric pollution dynamic-chemical process observation data of the urban building ensemble boundary layer of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter (February) and summer (August) 2003, and relevant meteorological elements and satellite retrieval aerosol optical depth (AOD), etc. comprehensive data with the dynamic-statistical integrated analysis of "point-surface" spatial structure. Results show that there existed significant difference in the contribution of winter/summer different pollution emission sources to the component character of atmospheric pollution, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results of statistical model also indicate that SO2 and NOX dominated in the component structure of winter aerosol particle; instead, CO and NOX dominated in summer. Surface layer atmospheric dynamic and thermal structures and various pollutant species at the upper boundary of building ensembles at urban different observational sites of Beijing in winter and summer showed an "in-phase" variation and its spatial scale feature of "influence domain". The power spectrum analysis (PSA) shows that the period spectrum of winter/summer particle concentration accorded with those of atmospheric wind field: the longer period was dominative in winter, but the shorter period in summer, revealing the impact of the seasonal scale feature of winter/summer atmospheric general circulation on the period of atmospheric pollution variations. It is found that from analyzing urban area thermal heterogeneity that the multiscale effect of Beijing region urban heat island (UHI) was associated with the heterogeneous expansion of tall buildings area. In urban atmospheric dynamical and thermal characteristic spatial structures, the

  5. Laser systems for stand-off detection of contamination and pollution of atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczyk, Zygmunt

    2007-02-01

    The paper presents selected laser systems used for remote detection of contamination and pollution of atmosphere. Having in view a way of taking samples for analysis, the methods used for atmosphere monitoring can be divided into two groups: sampling at the place of existing pollution and remote detection, identification, and measurement of concentration. "Stand-off" and "remote" systems of atmosphere monitoring are described here. The "stand-off" systems provide detection of pollution (gas, aerosol, smoke, dust) at long distances, without the contact with a contaminated area. These systems are active laser systems (lidars) or passive thermal systems with narrow filters matched to the bands of gas absorption and imaging the transmission changes of radiation absorbed along the path of gas presence. A single "stand-off" station can cover significant area, the size of which depends on the range of sampling radiation, field of view, and scanning speed. "Remote" systems employ various types of small point sensors and the data from these sensors are transmitted by wire or wireless connections to alarm centres. It should be pointed out that in this case, a contact between sensor and analysed area is necessary and remote detection is performed by the transmission systems of measurement data. The paper presents construction, principle of operation, and basic analytical characteristics of the chosen "standoff" and "remote" measuring systems developed at Military University of Technology, devoted to continuous monitoring of contaminations and pollution of atmosphere.

  6. Atmospheric pollution in thermal power plants; Contaminacion atmosferica en centrales termicas convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre Diaz, A.

    1997-04-01

    The author presents the atmospheric pollution by fossil-fuel power plants. The state of the art is developed in 4 chapters: Legislation, Sulfur dioxide: reduction of SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxides: reduction of emissions, particulates: reduction of particulates and new technologies. (Author)

  7. Influence of the atmospheric aerosol and air pollution on solar albedo of the earth. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of increasing atmospheric aerosol and air pollutant concentration on the solar albedo and consequently upon the heat budget near the earth's surface is studied. The magnitude of aerosol absorption coefficient to back-scattering coefficient Bab/Bbs is calculated. This study will be used to estimate atmospheric stability categories and other meteorological parameters which are affected by thermal state radiation balance of the atmosphere as mixing and inversion height of Inshas nuclear reactor site. Consequently, concentration distribution of radioactive release from Inshas can be evaluated.. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Urban Climate Effects on Air Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoul, Tara; Bloss, William; Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone, adversely affects the environment and human health. The presence of chlorine nitrate (ClNO2) in the troposphere can enhance ozone (O3) formation as it undergoes photolysis, releasing chlorine reactive atoms (Cl) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), both of which enhance tropospheric ozone formation. The importance of new sources of tropospheric ClNO2 via heterogeneous processes has recently been highlighted. This study employed a box model, using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM version 3.2) to assess the effect of ClNO2 on air quality in urban areas within the UK. The model updated to include ClNO2 production, photolysis, a comprehensive parameterisation of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) uptake, and ClNO2 production calculated from bulk aerosol composition. The model simulation revealed the presence of ClNO2 enhances the formation of NO2, organic peroxy radical (CH3O2), O3, and hydroxyl radicals (OH) when compared with simulations excluding ClNO2. In addition, the study examined the effect of temperature variation upon ClNO2 formation. The response of ClNO2 to temperature was analysed to identify the underlying drivers, of particular importance when assessing the response of atmospheric chemistry processes under potential future climates.

  9. Climate Warming and Atmospheric Pollution Effects on Denitrification Rates from Forested Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enanga, E. M.; Creed, I. F.

    2013-12-01

    Climate controlled biome experiments were conducted to explore the interactive effects of climate warming and changing atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates on gaseous nitrogen (N) loss from forested landscapes. Previous field-based studies showed substantial differences in gaseous N2O efflux among the three topographic positions (upland, ecotone, and wetland) based on gas measurements using static chambers with wetland areas exporting substantially more gaseous N2O than upland areas. We hypothesized that (1) N2O production occurs mainly in the litter-fibric layer of the wetland soil that has a lower carbon to nitrogen (C:N) quotient and more labile carbon than the deeper hemic/peat deposits; and (2) climate warming and atmospheric pollution will have additive or multiplicative effects on N2O effluxes from the wetland soils. Wetland soils were collected and separated into three depths: the litter-fibric layer; 0--30 cm (with C:N quotients 25, promoting immobilization). A factorial experiment of 2 (+/- labile carbon 0.015 kg/ha/yr) × 3 (0, 15, 30 kg N/ha/yr) was conducted on each of three wetland soil depths. Each 2 × 3 factorial experiment was conducted across a range of temperatures: 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 30 degrees C. For the highest temperature (30 degrees C), we also examined the potential effect of CO2, by examining ambient versus a doubling of the ambient carbon dioxide (i.e., 750 ppm CO2). The highest N2O efflux was observed in the litter-fibric layer. When all treatments were considered together, the litter-fibric layer had the highest median N2O effluxes (19 kg N2O-N/ha/yr); 0--30 cm depth samples had intermediate effluxes (9 kg N2O-N/ha/yr); and 30--60 cm depth samples had the lowest effluxes (7 kg N2O-N/ha/yr). When the treatments were considered individually, the highest N2O efflux (228 kg N2O-N/ha/yr) was observed at the coolest temperatures (10 degrees C), when amended with labile carbon and 30 kg/ha/yr N

  10. Modelling of anthropogenic pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere and applications to civil protection monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Tessarotto, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A basic feature of fluid mechanics concerns the frictionless phase-space dynamics of particles in an incompressible fluid. The issue, besides its theoretical interest in turbulence theory, is important in many applications, such as the pollutant dynamics in the atmosphere, a problem relevant for civil protection monitoring of air quality. Actually, both the numerical simulation of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) portion of the atmosphere and that of pollutant dynamics may generally require the correct definition of the Lagrangian dynamics which characterizes arbitrary fluid elements of incompressible thermofluids. We claim that particularly important for applications would be to consider these trajectories as phase-space trajectories. This involves, however, the unfolding of a fundamental theoretical problem up to now substantially unsolved: {\\it namely the determination of the exact frictionless dynamics of tracer particles in an incompressible fluid, treated either as a deterministic or a turbulent (i....

  11. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. PMID:26969058

  12. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  13. Gaseous atmospheric pollution. Gas measurement; Pollution atmospherique gazeuse. Mesure des gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toupance, G. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France); Person, A. [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Le Moullec, Y.; Masclet, P.; Perros, P.E.

    2004-09-01

    This article deals with the majority of pollutants which are present in gaseous phase in the low layer of the troposphere, of the proximity of sources to the distant areas where are in weak traces persisting substances or sub-products induced by photochemical reactions. The compounds described in this article are of interest for various reasons: either they are source tracers, or they draw attention for their impact on health or/and ecosystem. Their follow-up can also be in other approaches such as the understanding of reactional mechanisms and the support to modeling of the phenomena. Thereby, the range of the covered concentrations is very large: if the preoccupations are in most of the cases to answer to detection limits of about the ppb, for some substances, the requirements can be harder and we have then to orient oneself to techniques able to quantify at the level of ppt, sometimes less. Some pollutants are qualified of 'semi-volatile', that is to say they are the property to be present in gaseous phase and in particles in suspension in air. (O.M.)

  14. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  15. Pollution characteristics of atmospheric fine particles and their secondary components in the atmosphere of Shenzhen in summer and in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Yuwen; HE Lingyan; HU Min; ZHANG Jing; ZHAO Yunliang

    2006-01-01

    Two field measurements for atmospheric fine particles were conducted in Baoan district of Shenzhen during the summer and winter in 2004. Totally 30 sets of 24 h samples were collected, and then the mass concentrations and chemical compositions were determined. The seasonal variations and secondary pollution characteristics of fine particles during the sampling periods were discussed with meteorological factors. The results show that seasonal variations of atmospheric particles are significant in Shenzhen. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in summer were 35 μg·m-3 and 57 μg·m-3, respectively, and those in winter were 99 μg·m-3 and 135 μg·m-3, respectively. The concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 in winter increased 184% and 137%, respectively, compared to those in summer. PM2.5 accounted for 61% and 75% of PM10 in summer and in winter, respectively, indicating severe fine particle pollution in Shenzhen. During the summer and winter sampling periods, the mean OC/EC ratios were 3.4 and 1.6, respectively. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) averagely accounted for 56% and 6% of the total OC in summer and in winter, respectively, which implies a major contribution of SOC to OC in summer. During the continuous high temperature period in summer, both the concentrations and fractions of secondary aerosol components in PM2.5 were highly elevated, suggesting severe secondary pollution again. The prevailing wind was from South China Sea in summer, and the air quality was good. The prevailing wind in winter was from Mainland China to the north, and the polluted air mass led to poor air quality.

  16. Some results of CO and aerosols atmospheric pollution investigations in Moscow and Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, Vadim; Wang, Gengchen; Wang, Pusai; Grechko, Evgeny; Dzhola, Anatoly; Emilenko, Alexander; Fokeeva, Ekaterina; Kopeikin, Vladimir; Safronov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Results of the CO total column (TC) and submicron (sbm) and soot concentrations measurements in Moscow and Beijing for period from 1992 to 2013 years are presented. The rate of decrease of CO TC Moscow anthropogenic portion is 1.4 % per year for 1992-2013 years in spite of multiple increase of the motor vehicles number. There are no significant changes in CO TC over Beijing for whole period of measurements (1992-2013 years). Soot concentration in Beijing has decreased while sbm aerosol has increased since 2006 year. Level of atmospheric CO and aerosols pollution in Beijing is 2-5 times stronger in comparison with Moscow ones. Reasonably typical of atmospheric pollution events for Beijing with extreme values of CO TC and aerosols concentrations were observed in Moscow during wild fires of 2002 and 2010 years only. Trajectory cluster analysis using has allowed studying the location of sources of CO and aerosols emissions. Relatively stronger atmospheric pollution of Beijing partially due to the atmospheric transportation from industry regions of China located to south, south-east and east from the city.

  17. Contribution to the study of characteristics of Pelargonium resistance to an atmospheric pollutant, sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, J.; Bonte, C.; de Cormis, L.; Louguet, P.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven varieties of Pelargonium, subjected simultaneously to similar conditions of sulfur dioxide pollution, are arranged in ascending order of sensitivity. There is no relation between the relative susceptibility of the varieties to SO/sub 2/, the stomatal frequency and the dimensions of the stomatal apparatus. Nevertheless, a statistical comparative study of the stomatal movements of 2 Pelargonium, one resistant, the other sensitive, has shown that the closing rate of stomata and the reduction percentage of stomatal diffusive capacity are significantly different. These characteristics might be taken into consideration in the selection of varieties resistant to atmospheric pollution.

  18. Emission of pollutants in the atmosphere according to oil products quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the comparison of the environmental protection legal regulations as well as pollutants emission in atmosphere in a most European countries is shown. The air pollution directly depends on both fuel consumption and fuel quality. The fuel quality in Republic of Macedonia gradually is performing and incorporating with anchors European countries. On the other side, energy potentials have no rights to ignore environmental protection, neither environmental protection should be dominated under energy plants. Reciprocal antagonisms should be overtaken through corresponding legislation. (Author)

  19. Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relations are shown used for calculating air and surface pollution in the METEO-2 computer programme. The programme may be used for computing both short-term and long-term stack emissions of conventional and radioactive industrial wastes into the atmosphere and their deposition in the neighbouring environment. The factors for pollution computation comprise vertical plume dynamics and heat capacity. Methods of dispersion data determination are given. The practical choice of a mesh point system used in the computations is discussed. (J.B.)

  20. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    DENG, Minjun; Luo, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, this paper analyzed content of heavy metals, including arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in soil. After Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As content in soil is determined, it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard ...

  1. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside.

  2. Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-Qian; Liu, Yan-Ju; Chen, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Zhu, Ming-Hao; Li, Yi-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Various plant species of green belt in urban traffic area help to reduce air pollution and beautify the city environment. Those plant species growing healthily under long-term atmospheric pollution environment are considered to be resilient. This study aims to identify plant species that are more tolerant to air pollution from traffic and to give recommendations for future green belt development in urban areas. Leaf samples of 47 plant species were collected from two heavy traffic roadside sites and one suburban site in Beijing during summer 2014. Four parameters in leaves were separately measured including relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content (TCH), leaf-extract pH (pH), and ascorbic acid (AA). The air pollution tolerance index (APTI) method was adopted to assess plants' resistance ability based on the above four parameters. The tolerant levels of plant species were classified using two methods, one by comparing the APTI value of individual plant to the average of all species and another by using fixed APTI values as standards. Tolerant species were then selected based on combination results from both methods. The results showed that different tolerance orders of species has been found at the three sampling sites due to varied air pollution and other environmental conditions. In general, plant species Magnolia denudata, Diospyros kaki, Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Rosa chinensis were identified as tolerant species to air pollution environment and recommend to be planted at various location of the city, especially at heavy traffic roadside. PMID:27326901

  3. Dust pollution of the atmosphere in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant (Omsk City, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Raputa, Vladimir F.; Litay, Victoriya V.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.; Mikhailova, Kseniya Y.; Parygina, Irina A.; Lonchakova, Anna D.; Tretykova, Mariya I.

    2015-11-01

    The article shows the results of dust pollution level of air in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant of Omsk city on the base of study snow cover pollution. The samples were collected west-, east- and northeastwards at a distance of 0,75-6 km from the chimney for range-finding of dust emission transfer. The research findings have shown the dust load changes from 53 till 343 mg•(m2·day)-1 in the vicinity of power plant. The ultimate dust load was detected at a distance of 3-3,5 km. On the basis of asymptotics of equation solution for impurity transfer, we have made numerical analysis of dust load rate. With the usage of ground-based facilities and satellites we have determined the wind shifts in the atmospheric boundary layer have a significant impact on the field forming of long-term dustfall.

  4. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  5. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl3F (CF4) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level

  6. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  7. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  8. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. PMID:27058127

  9. Differential Optical-absorption Spectroscopy (doas) System For Urban Atmospheric-pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Edner, H; Ragnarson, P; Spannare, S; Svanberg, Sune

    1993-01-01

    We describe a fully computer-controlled differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric air pollution monitoring. A receiving optical telescope can sequentially tune in to light beams from a number of distant high-pressure Xe lamp light sources to cover the area of a medium-sized city. A beam-finding servosystem and automatic gain control permit unattended long-time monitoring. Using an astronomical code, we can also search and track celestial sources. Selected wavelength ...

  10. Toxic hazards of the industrial atmospheric pollutant sulphur dioxide on tree crops

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, B Dr

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of the industrial atmospheric pollutant, sulphur dioxide on tree crops such as coconut. The area around the Travancore Titanium Products at Trivandrum district of Kerala State, India, concerned with the manufacture of titanium dioxide was selected as the experimental site. Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.)was selected as the test crop since it dominates the tree crops in the area. Chemical analysis of leaves and nuts were made to assess the extent of...

  11. Atmospheric deposition in an urban area: Implications for assessing the effects of hazardous air pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Bouzonville, Adrien; Elsass, Philippe; Elsass, Francoise; Atkins, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants emitted to the atmosphere in urban areas have indirect effects through deposition onto the ground, which, over time, could negatively affect the quality of soil, plants, water and groundwater. In this baseline study, evaluation of topsoil contamination in an urban area of France has been carried out to correlate concentrations observed in the soil with the local air emission sources. The analytical program is an extensive study carried out over a 200 km2 area and the results confir...

  12. Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

  13. Laser system for remote sensing monitoring of air pollution and quality control of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the atmosphere and determination of the types and amounts of pollutants is becoming more important issue in complex and global monitoring of the environment. On the geocomponent and geocomplex level problem of monitoring the environment is attracting the attention of the scientific experts of different profiles (chemists, physicists, geographers, biologists, meteorologists, both in the national and international projects. Because of the general characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere (Dynamically Ballanced Instability DBI and the potential contribution to climate change solutions air-pollution monitoring has become particularly important field of environmental research. Control of aerosol distribution over Europe is enabled by EARLINET systems (European Aerosol Lidar NETwork. Serbia’s inclusion into these European courses needs development of the device, the standardization of methods and direct activity in determining the type, quantity and location of aerosol. This paper is analyzing the first step in the study of air-pollution, which is consisted of the realization of a functional model of LIDAR remote sensing devices for the large particle pollutants.

  14. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  15. Atmospheric pollution due to mobile sources and effects on human health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, J

    1994-10-01

    Following the rapid economic growth after World War II, diseases associated with environmental pollution frequently occurred due to delayed implementation of countermeasures against environmental pollution. These diseases are exemplified by Minamata disease, Itai-itai disease, chronic arsenic poisoning, and Yokkaichi asthma. After multiple episodes of these pollution-related diseases were experienced, the government and the private sector made joint efforts to reduce environmental pollution. As a result of these efforts and because of changes in the industrial structure, pollution-related diseases have declined. Instead, however, air pollution from automobile exhaust and the health effects of automobile exhaust on people living along roads with heavy traffic began to attract the public's attention after an increase in the use of automobiles. The epidemiological surveys carried out by the Environmental Agency and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government also have suggested unfavorable effects of automobile-caused air pollution on people living in large cities or along major roads. To solve this problem, it seems imperative to promote the reasonable use of automobiles and to work toward more efficient transportation of goods based on analyses of city structure, the life-styles of city dwellers, and the socioeconomic composition of cities. In addition, the discharge of pollutants from automobiles could be controlled.

  16. Lead in atmospheric precipitation: Analysis of atmospheric precipitation pollution monitoring data for location “Kamenički vis”, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović Aleksandar R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of data collected during monitoring of lead content in atmospheric precipitation on GAW/EMEP (Global Atmosphere Watch/European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme station “Kamenicki Vis”, Serbia from 2000 to 2010 is given. Annual arithmetic mean concentrations, weighted arithmetic mean concentrations, and median of week samples are presented. Obtained data was compared with results of analysis of atmospheric precipitation collected on experimental EMEP station “Zeleno brdo“, Serbia and discussed in scope of European average levels of lead content in precipitation and air. Significant increase of average annual lead content in precipitation was observed in 2003 and 2007. Observed peaks can not be seen on average European trends thus lead to conclusion that recorded increases are characteristic for local region. In order to further discuss nature and direction of possible sources of detected lead pollution short analysis of lead emission data was performed. An effort was made to gather data from the counties that lay in directions from which dominant winds blow as well as for Serbia. For this purpose total national emissions from LRTAP (Long-range transboudary air pollution Convention emission inventory report and EMEP emission inventory were used as well as data published by relevant national authorities. According to these emission levels, majority of surrounding countries couldn’t have contributed much to the recorded increases of lead content in precipitation. However, several possible sources were revealed. In all studied countries emission levels steadily dropped during the analyzed period, whereas only for Serbia different trend was observed. Presented data leads to conclusion that recorded increase of lead content in precipitation in 2003 probably originates from trans-boundary contributions, while increases in 2007 and onwards may come from Serbia’s own emissions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  17. Reduction of air pollutants-a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most urban areas in Europe and Northern American serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NO2 and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programmes i. e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of construction in the atmosphere. (Author) 12 refs

  18. Atmospheric Composition Monitoring with MOPITT and IASI: CO, a Tracer of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Bouarar, I.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P. F.; Edwards, D. P.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Inness, A.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas for understanding air quality and atmospheric composition. It is a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics. In this presentation we analyse the global and regional CO distributions as seen by remote sensors onboard of satellites, in particular the nadir-looking thermal infrared MOPITT/Terra and IASI/MetOp instruments. Since several years of data are now available, we show CO distributions over polluted and clean regions for the period 2008-2013, and we discuss their evolution with time. A detailed analysis was performed to compare both datasets and we show the influence of the a priori assumptions in the retrieval process. We did a retrieval experience where the MOPITT retrieval code was run on the MOPITT dataset using the IASI a priori profile and covariance matrix. The agreement for total columns and profiles distributions is discussed, and the retrieved profiles are validated with aircraft IAGOS data. Finally, we will also describe how MOPITT and IASI data are routinely assimilated in the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) system (the pre-operational Copernicus Atmosphere Service of the European Union), which provides analyses and forecasts of global CO distributions.

  19. Diurnal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Atmosphere over the Remote Southern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Gioia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A diel (24-h cycle with daytime atmospheric concentrations higher than nighttime concentrations by a factor of 1.5–3 was observed for several low molecular weight polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in remote areas of the tropical South Atlantic during a cruise in October–November 2005. In contrast, high molecular weight PCBs and PAHs did not display diurnal variability. A model which has successfully explained diel variability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs over land could not reproduce the observed diel cycle by considering variability in temperature, atmospheric OH radical concentrations, atmospheric boundary layer height and wind speed as causal factors. We used the model to conduct two bounding scenarios to explore the possibility that phytoplankton biomass turn-over in the surface ocean drives the observed variability in air concentrations. The model could only qualitatively reproduce the field observations of diel variability for low chlorinated PCB congeners when the ocean acts as a source of pollutants to the atmosphere, and when variability in biomass drives variability in the capacity of the surface ocean.

  20. Remote sensing applications for diagnostics of the radioactive pollution of the ground surface and in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Boyarchuk, Kirill; Laverov, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive pollution due to its air ionization activity can drastically change the atmospheric boundary layer conductivity (what was experimentally proved during period of nuclear tests in atmosphere) and through the global electric circuit produce anomalous variations in atmosphere. As additional effect the ions created due to air ionization serve as centers of water vapor condensation and nucleation of aerosol-size particles. This process is accompanied by latent heat release. Both anomalies (ionospheric and thermal) can be controlled by remote sensing technique both from satellites (IR sensors and ionospheric probes) and from ground (GPS receivers, ground based ionosondes, VLF propagation sounding, ground measurements of the air temperature and humidity). We monitored the majority of transient events (Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant emergencies) and stationary sources such as Gabon natural nuclear reactor, sites of underground nuclear tests, etc. and were able to detect thermal anomalies and for majority of cases - the ionospheric anomalies as well. Immediately after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan we started to continuously survey the long-wavelength energy flux (10-13 microns) measurable at top of the atmosphere from POES/NOAA/AVHRR polar orbit satellites. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of energy flux in atmosphere started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network. We were able to detect with ground based ionosonde the ionospheric anomaly associated with the largest radioactive release on March

  1. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  2. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic, today and in a future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are of great concern because of their long residence time and long-range transport potential in the environment and because they are readily bioaccumulated along food chains and toxic for wildlife and humans. A multicompartment model is used to study global-scale and long term chemodynamics of anthropogenic organic substances in the Earth system. Model components are the atmosphere (ECHAM5) and ocean general circulation models (MPIOM), which include dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry, two-dimensional surface compartments (topsoil, vegetation surfaces, ice, and temporal snow cover) and intercompartmental mass exchange process parameterisations [1-3]. The transports into and out of the Arctic (66° N) are characterized for 1950-2000 under one realisation of present-day climate [4-5] and for 2001-2100 under one realisation of future climate (greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B of IPCC-AR4). Despite decaying primary emissions (since decades) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodimephenyltrichloromethane (DDT) are continuing to accumulate in the Arctic, which is fed by atmospheric transports. The main regions of import (and export) are identified and the vertical distribution and seasonalities are characterized. Changes by the end of the 21st century are discussed in the context of a major teleconnection, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. References [1] Guglielmo F, Lammel G, Maier-Reimer E: Global environmental cycling of DDT and ?-HCH in the 1980s - a study using a coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model. Chemosphere 76 (2009) 1509-1517 [2] Stemmler I, Lammel G: Cycling of DDT in the global oceans 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (2009) L24602 [3] Hofmann L, Stemmler I, Lammel G: The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on their global distributions and fate - 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover. Environ. Pollut. 162 (2012) 482

  3. Protection of the atmosphere from pollution in the emission of hazardous substances in railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    Biliaev, M. M.; Muntyan, L. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The development of numerical models for the prediction of air pollution in the emission of chemical hazardous substances in rail transport in the case of emergencies.Methodology. To solve this problem developed numerical models based on the use of the equations of mass transfer and potential flow. The equations for potential flow are used to determine the velocity field of the wind flow near the carriages and buildings. For the numerical simulations of mass transfer of the pollutant ...

  4. Composition and effects of inhalable size fractions of atmospheric aerosols in the polluted atmosphere: part I. PAHs, PCBs and OCPs and the matrix chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landlová, Linda; Cupr, Pavel; Franců, Juraj; Klánová, Jana; Lammel, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) abundance, mass size distribution (MSD) and chemical composition are parameters relevant for human health effects. The MSD and phase state of semivolatile organic pollutants were determined at various polluted sites in addition to the PM composition and MSD. The distribution pattern of pollutants varied from side to side in correspondence to main particle sources and PM composition. Levels of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were 1-30 ng m(-3) (corresponding to 15-35 % of the total, i.e., gas and particulate phase concentrations), of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were 2-11 pg m(-3) (4-26 % of the total) and of DDT compounds were 2-12 pg m(-3) (4-23 % of the total). The PM associated amounts of other organochlorine pesticides were too low for quantification. The organics were preferentially found associated with particles matrix composition, amount of contaminants and toxicological effects occur. Legislative regulation based on gravimetric determination of PM mass can clearly be insufficient for assessment.

  5. Composition and effects of inhalable size fractions of atmospheric aerosols in the polluted atmosphere: part I. PAHs, PCBs and OCPs and the matrix chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landlová, Linda; Cupr, Pavel; Franců, Juraj; Klánová, Jana; Lammel, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) abundance, mass size distribution (MSD) and chemical composition are parameters relevant for human health effects. The MSD and phase state of semivolatile organic pollutants were determined at various polluted sites in addition to the PM composition and MSD. The distribution pattern of pollutants varied from side to side in correspondence to main particle sources and PM composition. Levels of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were 1-30 ng m(-3) (corresponding to 15-35 % of the total, i.e., gas and particulate phase concentrations), of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were 2-11 pg m(-3) (4-26 % of the total) and of DDT compounds were 2-12 pg m(-3) (4-23 % of the total). The PM associated amounts of other organochlorine pesticides were too low for quantification. The organics were preferentially found associated with particles contaminants and toxicological effects occur. Legislative regulation based on gravimetric determination of PM mass can clearly be insufficient for assessment. PMID:24488522

  6. Diurnal Variations of Air Pollution and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structure in Beijing During Winter 2000/2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; XU Xiangde; DING Guoan; ZHOU Mingyu; CHENG Xinghong

    2005-01-01

    The diurnal variations of gaseous pollutants and the dynamical and thermodynamic structures of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in the Beijing area from January to March 2001 are analyzed in this study using data from the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX). A heavy pollution day (22 February) and a good air quality day (24 February) are selected and individually analyzed and compared to reveal the relationships between gaseous pollutants and the diurnal variations of the ABL. The results show that gaseous pollutant concentrations exhibit a double-peak-double-valley-type diurnal variation and have similar trends but with different magnitudes at different sites in Beijing. The diurnal variation of the gaseous pollutant concentrations is closely related to (with a 1-2 hour delay of)changes in the atmospheric stability and the mean kinetic energy in the ABL.

  7. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P magnetic parameters of urban park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  8. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35–50% of THg concentration and 50–70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. - Highlights: • China's anthropogenic mercury emission was 643.1 t in 2007. • GEOS-Chem model well reproduces the background Hg concentrations. • Anthropogenic emissions contribute 35–50% of Hg concentrations in polluted regions. • The priorities for mercury control in polluted regions are identified. - Anthropogenic Hg emissions are updated and their impacts on atmospheric mercury concentrations and depositions are quantified for China

  9. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use

  10. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P < 0.05), which suggested that magnetic parameters of urban park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic. PMID:27011970

  11. Investigation of chemical properties and transport phenomena associated with pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Heather A.

    Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to determine which air pollutants are harmful to human health, then regulate, monitor and establish criteria levels for these pollutants. To accomplish this and for scientific advancement, integration of knowledge from several disciplines is required including: engineering, atmospheric science, chemistry and public health. Recently, a shift has been made to establish interdisciplinary research groups to better understand the atmospheric processes that govern the transport of pollutants and chemical reactions of species in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The primary reason for interdisciplinary collaboration is the need for atmospheric processes to be treated as a coupled system, and to design experiments that measure meteorological, chemical and physical variables simultaneously so forecasting models can be improved (i.e., meteorological and chemical process models). This dissertation focuses on integrating research disciplines to provide a more complete framework to study pollutants in the ABL. For example, chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) and the physical processes governing PM distribution and mixing are combined to provide more comprehensive data for source apportionment. Data from three field experiments were utilized to study turbulence, meteorological and chemical parameters in the ABL. Two air quality field studies were conducted on the U.S./Mexico border. The first was located in Yuma, AZ to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PM in an urban environment and relate chemical properties of ambient aerosols to physical findings. The second border air quality study was conducted in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico to investigate the relationship between indoor and outdoor air quality in order to better correlate cooking fuel types and home activities to elevated indoor PM concentrations. The final study was executed in southern Idaho and focused on

  12. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  13. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  14. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management.

  15. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management. PMID:22527002

  16. Resonance Raman imaging as a tool to assess the atmospheric pollution level: carotenoids in Lecanoraceae lichens as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrondo, I; Prieto-Taboada, N; Martínez-Arkarazo, I; Madariaga, J M

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy differentiation of carotenoids has traditionally been based on the ν 1 position (C = C stretching vibrations in the polyene chain) in the 1500-1600 cm(-1) range, using a 785 nm excitation laser. However, when the number of conjugated double bonds is similar, as in the cases of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, this distinction is still ambiguous due to the closeness of the Raman bands. This work shows the Raman results, obtained in resonance conditions using a 514 mm laser, on Lecanora campestris and Lecanora atra species, which can be used to differentiate and consequently characterize carotenoids. The presence of the carotenoid found in Lecanoraceae lichens has been demonstrated to depend on the atmospheric pollution level of the environment they inhabit. Astaxanthin, a superb antioxidant, appears as the principal xanthophyll in highly polluted sites, usually together with the UV screening pigment scytonemin; zeaxanthin is the major carotenoid in medium polluted environments, while β-carotene is the major carotenoid in cleaner environments. Based on these observations, an indirect classification of the stress suffered in a given environment can be assessed by simply analysing the carotenoid content in the Lecanoraceae lichens by using resonance Raman imaging. PMID:26620863

  17. Magnetic Study on Environmental Samples from Guadalajara Mexico for Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, B.; Cejudo, R.; Bogalo, M. F.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Quintana, P.; Bautista, F.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Morales, J.

    2013-05-01

    Guadalajara is the second bigger city in Mexico, catalogued as critical zone because of atmospheric pollution levels. The magnetic methodology has been largely used as an alternative way to evaluate the pollution levels as well as identify the critical points in a given area. In this work, results from chemical analyses and magnetic measurements are presented in order to show the correlation between magnetic signal and the pollution level. We analyzed three kinds of environmental samples: urban soils, urban dust and leaves from ficus benjamina. Samples were taken in 30 sites distributed along a main avenue and two secondary avenues, including three points with very poor traffic influence. We determined a ferromagnetic carrier in most of samples, magnetite probably, since the Tc calculated from the thermomagnetic curves is around 580 °C. The magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) as well as the Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) correlate well with the heavy metals content, specially Pb in urban dusts. These results allowed us to identify the most affected points, by vehicular traffic and industrial emissions. Furthermore, the values obtained for these magnetic parameters are above of those found in other studies for polluted cities in Europe and Asia.

  18. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  19. Skill in forecasting extreme ozone pollution episodes with a global atmospheric chemistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Schnell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From the ensemble of stations that monitor surface air quality over the United States and Europe, we identify extreme ozone pollution events and find that they occur predominantly in clustered, multi-day episodes with spatial extents of more than 1000 km. Such scales are amenable to forecasting with current global atmospheric chemistry models. We develop an objective mapping algorithm that uses the heterogeneous observations of the individual surface sites to calculate surface ozone averaged over 1° by 1° grid cells, matching the resolution of a global model. Air quality extreme (AQX events are identified locally as statistical extremes of the ozone climatology and not as air quality exceedances. With the University of California, Irvine chemistry-transport model (CTM we find there is skill in hindcasting these extreme episodes, and thus identify a new diagnostic using global chemistry-climate models (CCM to identify changes in the characteristics of extreme pollution episodes in a warming climate.

  20. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  1. Source regions of some Persistent Organic Pollutants measured in the atmosphere at Birkenes, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants is their potential for long-range atmospheric transport. In order to better understand and predict atmospheric source-receptor relationships of POPs, we have modified an existing Lagrangian transport model (FLEXPART to include some of the key processes that control the atmospheric fate of POPs. We also present four years (2004–2007 of new atmospheric measurement data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs obtained at Birkenes, an EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme site in Southern Norway. The model overestimates measured PCB-28 and γ-HCH concentrations by factors of 2 and 8, respectively, which is most likely because the emissions used as input to the model are overestimated. FLEXPART captures the temporal variability in the measurements very well and, depending on season, explains 31–67% (14–62% of the variance of measured PCB-28 (γ-HCH concentrations. FLEXPART, run in a time-reversed (adjoint mode, was used to identify the source regions responsible for the POP loading at the Birkenes station. Emissions in Central Europe and Eastern Europe contributed 32% and 24%, respectively, to PCB-28 at Birkenes, while Western Europe was found to be the dominant source (50% for γ-HCH. Intercontinental transport from North America contributed 13% γ-HCH. While FLEXPART has no treatment of the partitioning of POPs between different surface media, it was found a very useful tool for studying atmospheric source-receptor relationships for POPs and POP-like chemicals that do not sorb strongly to atmospheric particles and whose atmospheric levels are believed to be mainly controlled by primary sources.

  2. Condition of Retrieving Vertical Column Density of Atmospheric Pollution Gases by Using Scattered Solar Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Sao-Yi

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to monitor the vertical column density (VCD) of atmospheric pollution gases by using the scattered solar radiation. The necessary condition of capturing the useful scattered solar radiation is achieved. The condition is only dependent on the solar elevation angle, while independent of the solar azimuth angle, which could greatly simply the capturing equipment and procedure. Under the condition, the VCD of tropospheric NO2 in Chengdu, China is retrieved from the scattered solar radiation, which is dose to that from the direct solar radiation.

  3. Aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of some plants existing under the influence of atmosphere pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, A.; Grou, E.

    1971-01-01

    The vegetation of the Copsa Mica(Romania) zone is often visibly affected by the noxious elements existing in the atmosphere, especially sulfur dioxide. Comparative investigations were undertaken to examine some physiological and biochemical processes in plants from polluted as well as control zones. Water content (total and fractions of free and bound water), stomata condition and hydrogen ion concentration in cellular sap were analyzed; the results of these analyses showed that at the level of all the studied processes, modifications occur, which are sometimes substantial. In laboratory experiments with Pelargonium plants grown in an atmosphere containing sulfur dioxide, a foliar symptomatology was obtained, as well as a chromatogram of free amino acids different to that of controls

  4. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g-1 levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at μg g-1 and Ca at mg g-1. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental composition. It was also

  5. Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain. Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB, one traffic (T and one heavy traffic (HT location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn showed the largest REs (>70%. Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd showed lower but still consistent REs (25–40%, similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30–40%. The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%, suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear.

    Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes.

  6. Mossbauer study of iron-containing atmospheric aerosol in relation to the air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcewicz, B.; Kopcewicz, M.

    2003-04-01

    Observation and monitoring of the aerosol background in the troposphere is very important for atmospheric physics. It is the first step in studying antropogenic components and their impact on the climate. Iron (both Fe(II) and Fe(III)) plays an important role in the multiphase atmospheric chemistry of S(IV) as a catalyst as well as an oxidant, and a photolytic source of OH radical. In order to assess the extent in which the iron content in the troposphere may change and to which extent that change may be attributed to human activity, it is necessary to have a complete picture of the distribution of iron concentration and its variation. For these purposes the Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to analyze the iron compounds present in atmospheric aerosol. In this presentation we show results of measurements performed on the atmospheric aerosol collected in Poznan and Lodz (industrial cites in central Poland), Mikolajki (lake district, North-East Poland) and Kasprowy Wierch (mountain observatory, 1985 m a.s.l.). Depending to the sampling period and sampling site the significant changes in the iron concentration and chemical properties of the collected aerosol were observed. As a significant part of air pollution, especially in winter months, iron appeared in the form of iron sulfides, which were products of coal combustion. Also, iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxides, mostly hematite (bulk) and in the form of ultra fine particles in superparamagnetic state were observed. Results obtained from Mössbauer measurements were discussed in relation to the concentration of general air pollution.

  7. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota

  8. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  9. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements

  10. Mass identification of the neutral products generated in the plasma treatment of polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, David

    2013-09-01

    Plasmas produced using Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) devices are very effective in the abatement of air pollution resulting from, for example, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VCOs) by a range of industrial and agricultural processes. The development and monitoring of effective DBD systems can be investigated by advanced mass spectrometric methods specifically configured for analysis at high and atmospheric pressures The present work involves the operation of a small DBD reactor which uses either a helium or nitrogen carrier gas to sustain the plasma to which may be added reactive gases, such as oxygen, as well as samples of pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a specially configured system manufactured by Hiden Analytical Ltd. The DBD source may also be combined with a catalyst for plasma-enhanced catalysis. The neutral products of the reactions proceeding in the plasma at atmospheric pressure are sampled through the capillary sampling system which also reduces the pressure of the gas mixture delivered to the ionisation source of the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ions produced are subsequently mass identified. We describe typical data and comment on the advantages of this technique.

  11. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  12. Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to the Eastern Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A permanent stations has been established in the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey for continuous monitoring of aerosols and precipitation. The station is part of the MED-POL programme which includes all countries that have coasts in the Mediterranean Sea and attempts to determine the role of the atmospheric fluxes of pollutants on the pollution of the Mediterranea Sea. Aerosol and deposition samples have been collected since early 1992. Concentrations of SO4, NO3, Cl, Li, Pb, K, Ca, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn and Na were determined by ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. Daily samples will be screened to select the ones which correspond to transport from Europe and will be analyzed for a larger number of parameters using INAA. Method development took most of the time in 1992, and analysis are still in progress. Available data have shown that concentrations of anthropogenic elements are smaller in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere compared to other rural sites in the Europe. (author). 21 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  14. Limestone surfaces in built-up environment as indicators of atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, A J; Camilleri, A; Tabone Adami, J P

    1996-12-01

    The concentration of sulphate on limestone surfaces of the external walls of churches in Malta is shown to be related to their position and distance from a power station, the main local point source of sulphur dioxide pollution. Limestone powder collected from these surfaces was examined for the presence of particles which, under low-power optical microscopy, appear as shiny black amorphous bodies which were interpreted as soot particles; the abundance of these bodies was expressed as a 'black particle count' (BPC). The degree of sulphation and BPC were shown to be correlated with each other and both appeared to be strongly dependent on the prevailing wind. The BPC contour map indicated an important contribution to the parameter from vehicular traffic. It is suggested that the degree of sulphation and BPC of limestone surfaces from the built environment should function as environmental indicators of the relative air quality with respect to SO2 and soot pollution. This data is possibly more accurately representative of the relative long-term air-quality status of different areas of habitation than that deduced from single or episodic measurements of atmospheric pollutant levels. PMID:24194411

  15. Deposition and retention of air pollutants on vegetation and other atmospheric interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the deposition of aerosols and gases are applied to biological and ecological problems concerning the filtering aspect of atmospheric interfaces, especially vegetation, with respect to air pollution, and also the resulting pollutant effect. In order to determine the deposition of aerosols, numerous field experiments were carried out. The deposition of gases was treated on the basis of current literature data. The experiments indicate that the deposition of aerosols on grass largely depends on aerosol diameter, dry weight per unit area and the wind velocity or turbulence of the air layer near the ground. Of the interfaces studied, namely soil without vegetation, water, filter paper, smooth and structured metals, grass, clover and trees, the latter had the greatest dust collecting capability. It is recommended that in the afforestation of areas in the close proximity of industrial regions the common beech, silver birch and Japanese larch should be taken into particular consideration due to their great deposition effectiveness with respect to dusts and their comparatively high resistance to pollutant gases. Silver birch and moreover red horse chestnut should be considered for filtering the air in urban regions because of the high aerosol deposition. (orig./HP)

  16. Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution is the main objective of this work. For that a better insight into the availability and location of heavy metals in lichens subjected to polluted conditions both under laboratory and field conditions was attained. The data in this work supported the hypothesis that the absence of the lichen Ramalina fastigiata near a copper mine site, located in the south of Portugal, was related with toxic levels of Cu-dust near the centre of the mine. Lichen biodiversity, measured by the parameter number of lichen species, reflected the impact of the copper-mine dust emissions. The extent of the impact was more widespread towards cast, which appears to be correlated with the frequency of the winds. The chemical analysis of in-situ samples of R. fastigiata collected at different distances and in different directions from the mine showed that Cu, K and Mg were emitted from the centre of the mine site, confirming that major sources of atmospheric dust were located there. Total inhibition of PSII (photosystem II) photochemical reactions occurred in R. fastigiata both under field and controlled conditions, when intracellular Cu concentrations exceeded a threshold of ca. 2.0 μmol g-1. No samples of this species were found under field conditions beyond the Cu threshold, suggesting that the absence of the lichen R. fastigiata might be used as an indicator of intracellular Cu concentrations above 2.0 μmol g-1 in the surroundings of the copper-mine. The fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm proved to be a good estimator of the survival capacity of R. fastigiata under field conditions and thus a useful parameter in determining the sensitivity of the lichens (photobiont) to Cu pollution. The intracellular location of Cu, K and Mg allowed to explain the physiological changes and the survival of the species in the surroundings of the copper-mine. (author)

  17. Lateral Dispersion of Pollutants in a Very Stable Atmosphere - The Effect of Meandering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1981-01-01

    A model based on single particle diffusion is introduced to account for the effect of “meandering” on lateral plume dispersion in a very stable atmosphere. It is assumed that small scale atmospheric turbulence is absent, so that only large horizontal eddies are effective. A formula for the lateral....... Meteorological data from Risø and the small island Sprogø have been analysed in order to identify all situations in which the atmosphere is so stable that small scale turbulence cannot exist. The purpose is to see in how many of these situations meandering is also absent. The results show that, as a rule...

  18. Atmospheric pollutants in alpine peat bogs record a detailed chronology of industrial and agricultural development on the Australian continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two peat bogs from remote alpine sites in Australia were found to contain detailed and coherent histories of atmospheric metal pollution for Pb, Zn, Cu, Mo, Ag, As, Cd, Sb, Zn, In, Cr, Ni, Tl and V. Dramatic increases in metal deposition in the post-1850 AD portion of the cores coincide with the onset of mining in Australia. Using both Pb isotopes and metals, pollutants were ascribed to the main atmospheric pollution emitting sources in Australia, namely mining and smelting, coal combustion and agriculture. Results imply mining and metal production are the major source of atmospheric metal pollution, although coal combustion may account for up to 30% of metal pollutants. A novel finding of this study is the increase in the otherwise near-constant Y/Ho ratio after 1900 AD. We link this change to widespread and increased application of marine phosphate fertiliser in Australia's main agricultural area (the Murray Darling Basin). - Detailed records of atmospheric metal pollution accumulation in Australia are presented and are shown to trace the industrial and agricultural development of the continent.

  19. AN AIR POLLUTION PREDICTION TECHNIQUE FOR URBAN DISTRICTS BASED ON MESO-SCALE NUMERICAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jing-hua; XU Jian-ping

    2005-01-01

    Taking Shenzhen city as an example, the statistical and physical relationship between the density of pollutants and various atmospheric parameters are analyzed in detail, and a space-partitioned city air pollution potential prediction scheme is established based on it. The scheme considers quantitatively more than ten factors at the surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL), especially the effects of anisotropy of geographical environment, and treats wind direction as an independent impact factor. While the scheme treats the prediction equation respectively for different pollutants according to their differences in dilute properties, it considers as well the possible differences in dilute properties at different districts of the city under the same atmospheric condition, treating predictions respectively for different districts. Finally, the temporally and spatially high resolution predictions for the atmospheric factors are made with a high resolution numerical model, and further the space-partitioned and time-variational city pollution potential predictions are made. The scheme is objective and quantitative, and with clear physical meaning, so it is suitable to use in making high resolution air pollution predictions.

  20. Impacts of atmospheric pollution on the plant communities of British acid grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Richard J., E-mail: r.payne@mmu.ac.uk [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Geography, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stevens, Carly J. [Faculty of Science, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dise, Nancy B. [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Gowing, David J. [Faculty of Science, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pilkington, Michael G.; Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Emmett, Bridget A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Ashmore, Michael R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollutants are recognised as important agents of ecosystem change but few studies consider the effects of multiple pollutants and their interactions. Here we use ordination, constrained cluster analysis and indicator value analyses to identify potential environmental controls on species composition, ecological groupings and indicator species in a gradient study of UK acid grasslands. The community composition of these grasslands is related to climate, grazing, ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition, with evidence for an interaction between the ecological impacts of base cation and nitrogen deposition. Ozone is a key agent in species compositional change but is not associated with a reduction in species richness or diversity indices, showing the subtly different drivers on these two aspects of ecosystem degradation. Our results demonstrate the effects of multiple interacting pollutants, which may collectively have a greater impact than any individual agent. - Highlights: > Ozone exposure, N and base cation deposition modify UK acid grassland composition. > Ozone influences community composition without reducing species richness. > Nitrogen and base cation deposition have interacting impacts. > Distinct species responses to pollutants suggest potential for bioindication. - Ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition have distinct but additive impacts on the plant communities of British acid grasslands.

  1. 基于扩散模型京津冀大气污染源的管控研究%Control Research Based on Diffusion Model of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Atmospheric Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彦文; 殷仕淑; 江虹

    2016-01-01

    针对我国目前由于粗放式发展造成的地区城市系统性空气污染,选取京津冀地区为研究对象,通过建立分担率模型得出该地区主要污染源的种类和性质;建立点源扩散模型研究以工厂烟囱为典型代表的高浓度点源污染规律,并结合模糊-物元综合评价模型给出不同半径范围内的空气质量等级,从而给出直观判断;建立面源扩散模型研究以城市交通为代表的机动车尾气排放污染规律。研究表明,北京城区二环内污染气体最难扩散消释、六环外易扩散。%In view of the current problems due to the extensive development of urban areas caused by the systematic air pollution, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region selected for the study, through the establishment of share ratio model yields the type and nature of the region's major sources; establishing point source diffusion model with factory chimneys high concentration typical point source pollution laws, combined with fuzzy-matter element model for comprehensive evaluation of air quality levels are given in different radius, giving intuitive judgments; the establishment of non-point source diffusion model for urban traffic as the representative of the machine EMU exhaust emission pollution rules. This study indicate that pollution gas within the second ring in Beijing city is the most difficult to spread and dispel, and easy to spread outside the ring six.

  2. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  3. Change of the dynamics of heavy metals concentration in atmospheric precipitation in chatkal nature reservation of the republic of uzbekistan as anthropogenic index of the atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, T.; Tolkacheva, G.

    2003-04-01

    At present the investigation of the chemical composition of precipitation is a very actual task in the monitoring of environmental pollution. It is known that heavy metals can be the indices of the anthropogenic atmospheric pollution. The emissions from the mining enterprises, of non-ferrous metallurgy, of chemical industry, from heat-and-power production plants, from transport vehicles fare the sources of the heavy metals ingress into the atmosphere. Their emissions in atmosphere form fine-disperse aerosol fractions and afterwards they fall down together with precipitation onto the underlying surface. Heavy metals have the property of accumulation in environmental objects, which disturbs its ecological balance. One of the problems of the study of the influence of heavy metals pollution on the environment is their travel with the air masses of different origin on large distance. In this concern it is interesting to study the content of the heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols and precipitation in the background zones. Chatkal nature reservation on the territory of Tashkent province presents such background point. For the estimation of the level of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and evaluation of the possible impact on the background level of air pollution of Chatkal nature reservation by anthropogenic sources (industrial cities of the capital province of Uzbekistan) the data analysis was carried out by the Administration of Environment Pollution Monitoring (AEPM) of hydrometeorological service of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is necessary to mention that Chatkal biospheric nature reservation is situated in 100 km from Tashkent (the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan) and in 60 km from Almalyk (the biggest centre of mining-metallurgical and chemical industry of the republic). The station of the complex background monitoring of atmospheric pollution (SCBM) is situated on the territory of this nature reservation. This area is characterized by a typical

  4. An analytical model for radioactive pollutant release simulation in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weymar, Guilherme J.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J., E-mail: guicefetrs@gmail.com, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com, E-mail: bejbodmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Buske, Daniela; Quadros, Regis, E-mail: danielabuske@gmail.com, E-mail: quadros99@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica

    2013-07-01

    Simulations of emission of radioactive substances in the atmosphere from the Brazilian nuclear power plant Angra 1 are a necessary tool for control and elaboration of emergency plans as a preventive action for possible accidents. In the present work we present an analytical solution for radioactive pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere, solving the time-dependent three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The experiment here used as a reference in the simulations consisted of the controlled releases of radioactive tritiated water vapor from the meteorological tower close to the power plant at Itaorna Beach. The wind profile was determined using experimental meteorological data and the micrometeorological parameters were calculated from empirical equations obtained in the literature. We report on a novel analytical formulation for the concentration of products of a radioactive chain released in the atmospheric boundary layer and solve the set of coupled equations for each chain radionuclide by the GILTT solution, assuming the decay of all progenitors radionuclide for each equation as source term. Further we report on numerical simulations, as an explicit but fictitious example and consider three radionuclides in the radioactive chain of Uranium 235. (author)

  5. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  6. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available China's atmospheric mercury (Hg emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD and selective catalyst reduction (SCR systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an

  7. The model SIRANE for atmospheric urban pollutant dispersion; part I, presentation of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulhac, Lionel; Salizzoni, Pietro; Cierco, F.-X.; Perkins, Richard

    2011-12-01

    In order to control and manage urban air quality, public authorities require an integrated approach that incorporates direct measurements and modelling of mean pollutant concentrations. These have to be performed by means of operational modelling tools, that simulate the transport of pollutants within and above the urban canopy over a large number of streets. The operational models must be able to assess rapidly a large variety of situations and with limited computing resources. SIRANE is an operational urban dispersion model based on a simplified description of the urban geometry that adopts parametric relations for the pollutant transfer phenomena within and out of the urban canopy. The streets in a city district are modelled as a network of connected street segments. The flow within each street is driven by the component of the external wind parallel to the street, and the pollutant is assumed to be uniformly mixed within the street. The model contains three main mechanisms for transport in and out of a street: advection along the street axis, diffusion across the interface between the street and the overlying air flow and exchanges with other streets at street intersections. The dispersion of pollutants advected or diffused out of the streets is taken into account using a Gaussian plume model, with the standard deviations σ y and σ z parameterised by the similarity theory. The input data for the final model are the urban geometry, the meteorological parameters, the background concentration of pollutants advected into the model domain by the wind and the emissions within each street in the network.

  8. Market-Based Policies for Pollution Control in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah West; Ann Wolverton

    2003-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increased industrialization have led to high pollution levels throughout Latin America. Economists tout policies based on market-based economic incentives as the most cost-effective methods for addressing a wide variety of environmental problems. This chapter examines market-based incentives and their applicability to Latin America. We first review the market-based incentives traditionally used to address pollution – emissions taxes, environmental subsidies, tax and sub...

  9. Methodological approach to determine of small spatial units in a highly complex terrain in atmospheric pollution research: the case of Zasavje region in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Kukec; Marija Z. Boznar; Primoz Mlakar; Bostjan Grasic; Andrej Herakovic; Vesna Zadnik; Lijana Zaletel-Kragelj; Jerneja Farkas; Ivan Erzen

    2014-01-01

    The study of atmospheric air pollution research in complex terrains is challenged by the lack of appropriate methodology supporting the analysis of the spatial relationship between phenomena affected by a multitude of factors. The key is optimal design of a meaningful approach based on small spatial units of observation. The Zasavje region, Slovenia, was chosen as study area with the main objective to investigate in practice the role of such units in a test environment. The process consisted ...

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in the equatorial atmosphere over the open Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurl, Oliver; Potter, John Robert; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Durville, Caroline

    2006-03-01

    Twelve air samples collected over the Indian Ocean by a high volume air sampler between August 2004 and August 2005 were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides. The region of the Indian Ocean and adjacent countries is likely to be acting as a source of selected POPs to the global environment. Data were compared with those reported for the last 30 years to examine historical trends of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Indian Ocean. Compound concentrations were influenced by the proximity to land and air mass origins. Higher concentrations of atmospheric sigmaPCBs (50-114 pg m(-3)) were found on the remote islands of Chagos Archipelago and Gan, Maldives, and in the proximity of Jakarta, Indonesia, and Singapore. Military activities and unregulated waste combustion were identified as possible sources for atmospheric PCB contaminations at the more remote areas. The highest concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were found adjacent to the coastline of Sumatra and Singapore, where sigmaDDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and sigmaHCHs (hexacyclohexanes) were as high as 30 and 100 pg m(-3), respectively. A comparison study for the last 30 years over six regions of the Indian Ocean showed that the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides have declined significantly, by a magnitude of two, since the mid 1970s, but were highest at the beginning of the 1990s. The time trend of PCB contamination in the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean is less apparent. The decline of atmospheric POPs over the Indian Ocean may be due to international regulation of the use of these compounds. PMID:16568756

  11. A Review of Atmospheric Chemistry Research in China: Photochemical Smog, Haze Pollution, and Gas-Aerosol Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jianzhong; XU Xiaobin; ZHAO Chunsheng; YAN Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of atmospheric chemistry research in China over the period 2006-2010,focusing on tropospheric ozone,aerosol chemistry,and the interactions between trace gases and aerosols in the polluted areas of China.Over the past decade,China has suffered severe photochemical smog and haze pollution,especially in North China,the Yangtze River Delta,and the Pearl River Delta.Much scientific work on atmospheric chemistry and physics has been done to address this large-scale,complex environmental problem.Intensive field experiments,satellite data analyses,and model simulations have shown that air pollution is significantly changing the chemical and physical characters of the natural atmosphere over these parts of China.In addition to strong emissions of primary pollutants,photochemical and heterogeneous reactions play key roles in the formation of complex pollution.More in-depth research is recommended to reveal the formation mechanism of photochemical smog and haze pollution and their climatic effects at the urban,regional,and global scales.

  12. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B; Hao, Jiming

    2014-07-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. PMID:24768744

  13. assessment of concentration of air pollutants using analytical and numerical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical formulation of numerous physical problems a results in differential equations actually partial or ordinary differential equations.In our study we are interested in solutions of partial differential equations.The aim of this work is to calculate the concentrations of the pollution, by solving the atmospheric diffusion equation(ADE) using different mathematical methods of solution. It is difficult to solve the general form of ADE analytically, so we use some assumptions to get its solution.The solutions of it depend on the eddy diffusivity profiles(k) and the wind speed u. We use some physical assumptions to simplify its formula and solve it. In the present work, we solve the ADE analytically in three dimensions using Green's function method, Laplace transform method, normal mode method and these separation of variables method. Also, we use ADM as a numerical method. Finally, comparisons are made with the results predicted by the previous methods and the observed data.

  14. Assessment of the Atmospheric Suspended Particles Pollution in the Madrid Air Quality Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspended particles are a very complex type of atmospheric pollution because of their chemical composition and size. In fact, there are a quite high number of particles sources which are linked to different physicochemical processes that determine their size. At present particles smaller than 10 μm are considered the most dangerous, as has been recently pointed out by numerous epidemiologic studies. In this way, more restrictive concentration limit values have been approved in the EU countries, so an assessment of present airborne concentration values and the sources apportionment in their most representative areas is needed. In the Madrid Community a first approaching of these and other aims, has been carried out from an analysis of the Madrid Air Quality networks data. This will contribute to the establishment of concentration levels abatement strategies. (Author) 111 refs

  15. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dürr; R. Jaffe

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  16. An evaluation of atmospheric Nr pollution and deposition in North China after the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. S.; Liu, P.; Tang, A. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Zong, X. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kou, C. L.; Zhang, L. J.; Fowler, D.; Fangmeier, A.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2013-08-01

    North China is known for its large population densities and rapid development of industry and agriculture. Air quality around Beijing improved substantially during the 2008 Summer Olympics. We measured atmospheric concentrations of various Nr compounds at three urban sites and three rural sites in North China from 2010 to 2012 and estimated N dry and wet deposition by inferential models and the rain gauge method to determine current air conditions with respect to reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds and nitrogen (N) deposition in Beijing and the surrounding area. NH3, NO2, and HNO3 and particulate NH4+ and NO3-, and NH4+-N and NO3--N in precipitation averaged 8.2, 11.5, 1.6, 8.2 and 4.6 μg N m-3, and 2.9 and 1.9 mg N L-1, respectively, with large seasonal and spatial variability. Atmospheric Nr (especially oxidized N) concentrations were highest at urban sites. Dry deposition of Nr ranged from 35.2 to 60.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with wet deposition of Nr of 16.3 to 43.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and total deposition of 54.4-103.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The rates of Nr dry and wet deposition were 36.4 and 33.2% higher, respectively, at the urban sites than at the rural sites. These high levels reflect the occurrence of a wide range of Nr pollution in North China and suggest that further strict air pollution control measures are required.

  17. Macro Impact of the Law on Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution on Power Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志轩

    2001-01-01

    The newly revised and enlarged main contents of the Law ofPrevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution are described. The macro impacts of the law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in respects to power demand and readjustment of power structure and layout, clean production and pollution control level, scientific management of environmental protection, in accordance with law as well as changes of construction and operation costs. And finally, several questions worthy to be noted in course of implementation of the new law are enumerated.%阐述大气污染防治法新修订的主要内容;重点从电力需求、结构和布局调整、生产和污染控制水平、依法对环境保护进行科学管理、建设和运行成本变化等方面分析大气法对电力发展的宏观影响;提出电力企业在贯彻大气法中应注意的事项。

  18. Extreme abundance ratios in the polluted atmosphere of the cool white dwarf NLTT19868

    CERN Document Server

    Kawka, Adela

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of intermediate-dispersion spectra and photometric data of the newly identified cool, polluted white dwarf NLTT19868. The spectra obtained with X-shooter on the Very Large Telescope (VLT)-Melipal show strong lines of calcium, and several lines of magnesium, aluminium and iron. We use these spectra and the optical-to-near infrared spectral energy distribution to constrain the atmospheric parameters of NLTT19868. Our analysis shows that NLTT19868 is iron poor with respect to aluminium and calcium. A comparison with other cool, polluted white dwarfs shows that the Fe to Ca abundance ratio (Fe/Ca) varies by up to approximately two orders of magnitudes over a narrow temperature range with NLTT19868 at one extremum in the Fe/Ca ratio and, in contrast, NLTT888 at the other extremum. The sample shows evidence of extreme diversity in the composition of the accreted material: In the case of NLTT888, the inferred composition of the accreted matter is akin to iron-rich planetary core composition, w...

  19. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  20. Hydrocarbon status of soils under atmospheric pollution from a local industrial source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zhidkin, A. P.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Contents and compositions of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and free and retained hydrocarbon gases in soils along a transect at different distances from the local industrial source of atmospheric pollution with soot emissions have been studied. The reserves of PAHs progressively decrease when the distance from the source increases. Among the individual PAHs, the most significant decrease is observed for benzo[ a]pyrene, tetraphene, pyrene, chrysene, and anthracene. On plowlands, the share of heavy PAHs—benzo[ ghi]perylene, benzo[ a]pyrene, perylene, etc.—is lower than in the forest soils. In automorphic soils of the park zone adjacent to the industrial zone, the penetration depth of four-, five-, and sixring PAHs from the atmosphere is no more than 25 cm. In soils under natural forest vegetation, heavy PAHs do not penetrate deeper than 5 cm; in tilled soils, their penetration depth coincides with the lower boundary of plow horizons. Analysis of free gases in the soil air revealed hydrocarbons only under forest. From the quantitative and qualitative parameters of the content, reserves, and compositions of different hydrocarbons, the following modification types of hydrocarbon status in the studied soils were revealed: injection, atmosedimentation-injection, atmosedimentation-impact, atmosedimentation-distant, and biogeochemical types.

  1. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects in priority watersheds to reduce the impacts of land based sources of pollution on corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to work on understanding and reducing the impacts of land based sources pollution on corals: Input of Sediments and...

  2. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.pombal@usc.es [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  3. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 125Sb, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 226Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  4. Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba C. Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA. The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The results showed a decrease for emissions PM, CO, and HC, and a slight increase for NOX. The characterization of atmospheric pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre showed that they are influenced by mobile sources, particularly diesel vehicles. The diagnosis of ratios analysis that was applied to facilitate the identification of sources of PAHs, indicated an influence of diesel oil.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar as emissões de alguns poluentes (CO, NOX, HC, SOX e MP na frota diesel devido à adição de biodiesel em diferentes misturas, bem como avaliar as concentrações de poluentes atmosféricos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre (MAPA. A metodologia foi fundamentada em inventários de fontes móveis baseados em relatórios técnicos da US EPA. Em relação à qualidade do ar foram determinado os seguintes parâmetros: PM10, MP2,5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC e HPAs. Os resultados mostraram uma diminuição das emissões de PM, CO e HC e um ligeiro aumento de NOX. A caracterização dos poluentes atmosféricos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre mostrou que eles são influenciados por fontes móveis, principalmente, por veículos a diesel. A análise de diagnóstico das razões, que foi aplicada para facilitar a identificação das fontes de HPAs, indicou influência de óleo diesel.

  5. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  6. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some organisms accumulate atmospheric contaminants over certain periods of time and concentrate them, thus allowing reliable analytical measurements if the organisms are suitably chosen. Measurements of contaminants accumulated by such organisms (biomonitors) provide information on the integrated exposure over an extended period of time. They may also be present in remote areas, and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Therefore, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact human health, and one of the main emphases is on studying air contaminants. The idea of organizing a workshop on biomonitoring atmospheric pollution arose during an IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Monitoring of Trace Element Air Pollution, carried out at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Portugal, with substantial technical support by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Netherlands. The International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (With Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21 to 24 September 1997. The meeting was organized in co-operation with the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear

  7. Evolution of atmospheric pollutants in the city of Sfax (Tunisia) (October 1996-June 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, C. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Sfax (Tunisia)]. E-mail: chafai_azri@yahoo.fr; Maalej, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Departement de Physique, Sfax (Tunisia); Medhioub, K. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), Sfax (Tunisia); Rosset, R. [Laboratoire d' Aerologie UMR CNRS/UPS 5560, Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-15

    The descriptive study related to the evolution of O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NMHC and PM10 concentrations in downtown Sfax showed, during the period October 1996-June 1997, that the city is significantly influenced by many sources and meteorological factors. The diurnal average concentrations of these species let appear at times some peculiarities due to the population local customs and also to particular meteorological conditions associated with predominant strong cyclonic situations (cut-off lows). Based on NO and CH{sub 4}, two species selected respectively as local and synoptic tracers, this descriptive study which is refined by a principal component analysis showed, out from these particular meteorological conditions, three components of the atmospheric pollution: a first component formed by CH{sub 4} and in less degree NMHC showing the impact of synoptic sources, a second component containing NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and in less degree PM10 and NMHC displaying the impact of local sources (vehicle and industrial sources), and finally a third component constituted by O{sub 3} and in less degree PM10 presenting the impact of regional sources. Under the above quoted cyclonic situations, the distribution of such components was shown considerably modified. [Spanish] El estudio descriptivo con relacion a la evolucion de las concentraciones de los compuestos O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NMHC y de los PM10 en la ciudad de Sfax senalo, durante el periodo de octubre 1996 hasta junio 1997, que la ciudad esta fuertemente influenciada por varias fuentes y factores meteorologicos. Las concentraciones diurnas medias de dichas especies mostraron algunas particularidades debidas a las costumbres locales de los habitantes y tambien a las particulares condiciones meteorologicas asociadas a las fuertes situaciones ciclonicas (bajas segregadas). Con base en NO y CH{sub 4}, dos especies seleccionadas como trazadores local y

  8. Air pollution tracer studies in the lower atmosphere. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of tracers to study lower atmospheric air pollution movements. Citations discuss project descriptions and results, techniques, and tracer materials. Tracer movement from nuclear power plants, industrial stacks, and urban areas is discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Detection of Atmospheric Composition Based on Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinye; Tong Yala; Yang Xiaoling; Gong Jiaoli [School of science, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China); Gong Wei, E-mail: yezi.zh@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A summary overview about the types of lidar and their own applications on atmosphere detection is presented. Measurement of atmospheric aerosols by Mie lidar and Raman lidar is focused. The vertical profiles of aerosols in the atmosphere are retrieved. And at the same time, through analyzing aerosol vertical content distribution, the atmosphere boundary layer and the cloud are also observed. All the results show that the lidar has good performance on detecting the atmospheric composition.

  10. 基于地衣植物监测法的我国西南高山地区大气铅污染研究%Atmospheric Pb pollution in the alpine area of southwest China based on the lichens (Usnea longissima) analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕婷; 刘恩峰; 张恩楼; 朱育新

    2015-01-01

    通过对我国西南(云南、四川)13个高山地区地衣植物-长松萝(Usnea longissima)中铅(Pb)含量及其稳定同位素组成(208Pb/206Pb和207Pb/206Pb)的测定与分析,并且与土壤Pb含量进行对比,探讨了该地区大气Pb污染及其来源特征.结果表明,各地区长松萝中Pb的含量范围为 1.5~64.5mg/kg,在临近城市及有色金属产区含量较高,与土壤中 Pb 含量(7.6~113.9mg/kg)空间变化一致;不同采样区长松萝与土壤中 Pb含量呈典型正相关关系(r=0.919, P<0.01),长松萝Pb含量反映了区域大气Pb污染程度差异.长松萝中 208Pb/206Pb和 207Pb/206Pb同位素比值范围分别为2.099~2.123和0.852~0.874.通过与主要潜在污染源Pb同位素对比分析,认为我国西南高山地区大气Pb污染主要源自该地区铅锌矿冶炼释放,并且还可能受到来自缅甸含铅汽油源的影响.%Concentrations and the isotopic compositions of Pb (208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb) in the Usnea longissima from 13 regions in the alpine area of southwest China were analyzed. Atmospheric Pb pollution and the potential sources were discussed based on the chemical data as well as the Pb concentrations in the soils. Mean Pb concentrations varied between 1.5 and 64.5mg/kg in theUsnea longissima samples, which all showed high values in the regions near the city and non-ferrous metal production area, similar to the spatial variations of Pb concentrations in the soils. Concentrations of Pb in theUsnea longissima and soil showed positive correlation (r=0.919,P<0.01), implying the Pb concentrations in the Usnea longissima indicate the atmospheric Pb pollution levels. The208Pb/206Pb and207Pb/206Pb ratios were 2.099~2.123 and 0.852~0.874 in theUsnea longissima, respectively. Combining the results of Pb isotopic compositions in theUsnea longissima and in potential sources, we deduced that atmospheric Pb pollution in the alpine area of southwest China should primarily be attributed to regional emissions from

  11. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK

    OpenAIRE

    Tallis, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence creat...

  12. [Nitrogen non-point source pollution identification based on ArcSWAT in Changle River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ou-Ping; Sun, Si-Yang; Lü, Jun

    2013-04-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35%, 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources. PMID:23798104

  13. Is Distant Pollution Contaminating Local Air? Analyzing the Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin of aerosols in the atmosphere is important because of visual pollution, climate impacts, and deleterious health effects due to the inhalation of fine particles. This research analyzed aerosols characterized by their chloride, sulfate, and nitrate content as a function of size over a 3-month period. Due to wind patterns over coal-burning power plants, a higher concentration of local sulfate pollution was expected. Aerosols were harvested on the Purdue University campus using a high-volume air sampler with glass fiber filters and a five-stage impactor that separates the aerosols into five sizes. The filters were extracted in water to dissolve anions and the solution was analyzed using high-pressure liquid ion chromatography. Only trace amounts of chloride with no distinct patterns in size were detected. In total, nitrate content ranged from 0.12 to 2.10 μg/m3 and sulfate content ranged from 0.44 to 6.45 μg/m3 over a 3-month period. As for fine particles, a higher concentration of sulfate was observed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model determines air mass origin, and in this study, higher total sulfate content was observed when the air mass moved out of the southwest, and higher total nitrate content was observed when the air mass originated from the southeast. The author concluded that small particles resulted in sulfate from sulfur dioxide, typically from gas to particle conversion. High sulfur dioxide levels are directly correlated with coal-burning power plant density. Small particulate sulfate found in West Lafayette, Indiana, was determined to originate primarily from power plants in southwest Indiana. Though the results do show a significant amount of potentially harmful aerosols in West Lafayette, there is still further research to be done concerning isotopic composition of those particles in attempts to better explain the chemical pathways.

  14. Research on sudden environmental pollution public service platform construction based on WebGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, T. P.; Gao, D. Y.; Zhong, X. Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to actualize the social sharing and service of the emergency-response information for sudden pollution accidents, the public can share the risk source information service, dangerous goods control technology service and so on, The SQL Server and ArcSDE software are used to establish a spatial database to restore all kinds of information including risk sources, hazardous chemicals and handling methods in case of accidents. Combined with Chinese atmospheric environmental assessment standards, the SCREEN3 atmospheric dispersion model and one-dimensional liquid diffusion model are established to realize the query of related information and the display of the diffusion effect under B/S structure. Based on the WebGIS technology, C#.Net language is used to develop the sudden environmental pollution public service platform. As a result, the public service platform can make risk assessments and provide the best emergency processing services.

  15. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-12-01

    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  16. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  17. Investigation of trace element atmospheric pollution by nuclear analytical techniques at a global scale: Harmonized approaches supported by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are two conceptually different approaches for assessing trace element atmospheric pollution: (1) compositional analysis of directly collected APM, precipitation, and/or total deposit, and (2) the analysis of suitable air pollution bio indicators. In both approaches, multielement databases should be generated for subsequent emission source identification and apportionment. Nuclear analytical techniques are very suitable for the analysis of such kind of samples because they are multielement and non-destructive, having a high degree of sensitivity and selectivity for a large number of elements. For these reasons the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been systematically supporting air pollution research since 1992. As part of general support to improving analytical performance of laboratories in its Member States (MS) the IAEA has carried out several interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests on filters loaded with particulate matter, lichens and mosses. The results obtained over the years has showed a definite performance improvement in the laboratories carrying out such analyses. Some typical results are summarised and presented in the paper. The IAEA has been supporting its MS' activities aimed at identifying major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries and obtaining comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution and low pollution. For these purposes an appropriate APM sampler was selected (about 100 such samplers have been distributed to nearly 50 countries worldwide), detailed sampling and sample preparation procedures elaborated, and data evaluation/interpretation procedures harmonized. The obtained results evidence that the levels of several pollutants (e.g. mass, S, Pb) in many countries exceed the United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribed limits. The IAEA has also been co-ordinating development of biomonitoring metrology for assessing (trace) element atmospheric

  18. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of hazardous air pollutant emissions from USDOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities. Volume 1, Independent Assessment conducted from April 1994 to December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments addresses the emissions of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and mandates that EPA develop technology-based [Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)] standards for the control of these pollutants from approximately 174 source categories. After implementation of technology-based standards, EPA is required to further evaluate ''residual risk'' from HAP emissions, and, if required, develop more stringent standards to protect human health and the environment with an ''adequate margin of safety''. Recognizing that EPA will be issuing risk-based regulations after MACT standards have been implemented, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) has conducted an evaluation of ambient air impacts of HAP emissions from its installations located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This report provides results of atmospheric dispersion modeling conducted to determine ambient air impacts of HAP emissions from facilities located on the ORR

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MEANS FOR ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL LOSSES FROM POLLUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN ZONES OF TECHNOGENIC OBJECTS IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, O.; O. BLIASHENKO; V. KOVACH; K. SMETANIN

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the solution of one of the most important problems of rational use of natural resources. Modern mathematical tools for damage estimation, which are caused by atmospheric pollution to natural objects, and also methods for calculation of the cost for their renewal were developed. The solution of problem was divided into 3 stages. At the first stage it was defined basic anthropogenic sources of pollution, was illustrated conceptual behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere e...

  20. The polluted atmosphere of the white dwarf NLTT 25792 and the diversity of circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vennes, S

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted, hydrogen-rich white dwarf NLTT 25792. The spectra show strong lines of calcium (Ca H&K, near-infrared calcium triplet, and Ca I 4226 and numerous lines of iron along with magnesium and aluminum lines from which we draw the abundance pattern. Moreover, the photospheric Ca H&K lines are possibly blended with a circumstellar component shifted by -20 km/s relative to the photosphere. A comparison with a sample of four white dwarfs with similar parameters show considerable variations in their abundance patterns, particularly in the calcium to magnesium abundance ratio that varies by a factor of five within this sample. The observed variations, even after accounting for diffusion effects, imply similar variations in the putative accretion source. Also, we find that silicon and sodium are significantly underabundant in the atmosphere of NLTT 25792, a fact that may offer some clues on the nature of the accretion source.

  1. Bjerknes Lecture "Atmospheric Pollution and Climate Change, A Local and Global Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    About half of the world's population is now living in urban areas, exposing millions of residents to harmful levels of air pollutants caused mainly by emissions from motor vehicles and industries. Slash-and-burn agricultural practices and forests fires also contribute to worsening air quality on broad regional scales. Emissions from all these fossil fuel and bio-mass burning activities have lead to increases in the amount of atmospheric particulate matter, as well as in the concentration of species such as nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide. Emissions of these relatively short-lived compounds in turn lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, which together with particulate matter may also contribute to regional climate change. This deteriorating air quality problem is expected to reach global proportions in the coming decades, with potentially detrimental effects on ecological systems and on human health. On the other hand, improving air quality effectively anywhere in the world requires a holistic approach involving not only science and technology, but also a consideration of economic, social, and political factors.

  2. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot. PMID:26352643

  3. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMap II. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain types of organisms integrate pollution over time, reducing the need for continuous chemical monitoring, thus avoiding the difficulty of interpreting 'snapshot' measurements and offering the potential of retrospective monitoring. Such organisms enrich the substance to be determined so that the analytical accessibility is improved and the measurement uncertainty reduced. By observing and measuring the changes in an appropriately selected organism, a conclusion as to the kind of pollution, its source, and its intensity can be drawn. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact on human health, and one of the main emphasis is on studying air contaminants. The IAEA has been systematically supporting biomonitoring atmospheric pollution for 10 years in the framework of its project on Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Research Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques. The objective of this project is to identify the source and evaluate the fate of key non-radioactive environmental contaminants and provide the basis for improved health for human populations. The project has been implemented through a Coordinated Research Project on Validation and Application of Plants as Biomonitors of Trace Element Atmospheric Pollution Analysed by Nuclear and Related Techniques, several technical co-operation projects, and some dedicated analytical quality control activities. Within the scope of these efforts, the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was organized as a follow-up to the 1997 BioMAP workshop held in Lisbon, Portugal. The proceedings of the first workshop were published in IAEA-TECDOC-1152. The second workshop was held in Praia da Vitoria, Azores Islands, Portugal, from 28 August to 3 September 2000. It was organized in co-operation with the

  4. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric pollutants and visibility with a Long-Path DOAS system in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Soon; Kim, Young J; Kuk, Bongjae; Geyer, Andreas; Platt, Ulrich

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the applicability of a Long-Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) system was checked for the feasibility of the simultaneous measurement of trace gases (such as 03, NO2, SO2, and HCHO) and atmospheric visibility (light extinction by aerosols) in Asian urban areas. Field studies show that an LP-DOAS system can simultaneously measure the key pollutants (such as O3, NO2, SO2, and HCHO) at detection limits in the ppb/sub-ppb range as well as the Mie extinction coefficient with an uncertainty of approximately 0.1 km(-1) at time resolution of a few minutes. It is thus concluded that the use of LP-DOAS system is feasible for simultaneous measurement of gaseous pollutants as well as an atmospheric extinction coefficient which is tightly bound to fine particulate concentration. PMID:15931992

  5. Model assessment of atmospheric pollution control schemes for critical emission regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shixian; An, Xingqin; Liu, Zhao; Sun, Zhaobin; Hou, Qing

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the atmospheric environment in portions of China has become significantly degraded and the need for emission controls has become urgent. Because more international events are being planned, it is important to implement air quality assurance targeted at significant events held over specific periods of time. This study sets Yanqihu (YQH), Beijing, the location of the 2014 Beijing APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) summit, as the target region. By using the atmospheric inversion model FLEXPART, we determined the sensitive source zones that had the greatest impact on the air quality of the YQH region in November 2012. We then used the air-quality model Models-3/CMAQ and a high-resolution emissions inventory of the Beijing-Tianjian-Hebei region to establish emission reduction tests for the entire source area and for specific sensitive source zones. This was achieved by initiating emission reduction schemes at different ratios and different times. The results showed that initiating a moderate reduction of emissions days prior to a potential event is more beneficial to the air quality of Beijing than initiating a high-strength reduction campaign on the day of the event. The sensitive source zone of Beijing (BJ-Sens) accounts for 54.2% of the total source area of Beijing (BJ), but its reduction effect reaches 89%-100% of the total area, with a reduction efficiency 1.6-1.9 times greater than that of the entire area. The sensitive source zone of Huabei (HuaB-Sens.) only represents 17.6% of the total area of Huabei (HuaB), but its emission reduction effect reaches 59%-97% of the entire area, with a reduction efficiency 4.2-5.5 times greater than that of the total area. The earlier that emission reduction measures are implemented, the greater the effect they have on preventing the transmission of pollutants. In addition, expanding the controlling areas to sensitive provinces and cities around Beijing (HuaB-sens) can significantly accelerate the reduction

  6. Study on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant in the presence and absence of a hill for BARC, Trombay site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocking effects generated by topographical features leads to complex flow patterns that might generate mean concentration distributions significantly different from those that might be expected from the mean flow in the absence of the complex terrain features for atmospheric releases of pollutants. The present paper deals with one such study of the effect of a hill on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant for BARC, Trombay site. The study of wind flow as well as the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant in the presence of 130 m hill behind PP is found to be important to gauge the radiological consequences on population residing beyond this hill. The results of study of the effect of this hill on the wind flow and the concentration distribution of pollutants on the upwind and downwind side of the hill are presented in the paper. It is seen that the wind flow gets modified leading to deceleration in the upwind side of the hill due to terrain blocking, speed up at the top of the hill and deceleration behind the hill. In the absence of hill, flow remains uniform in the downwind direction. It is also found that in the presence of the hill, the released pollutant disperses more as compared to the absence of the hill. Because of the additional dispersion provided by the hill and also because of the elevated topography, the peak concentration value in the presence of hill is obtained at shorter distance when compared with the other case. The peak ground level concentration value found in the presence of hill is relatively higher; however, for the population residing at farther distances, the additional dilution provided by the hill reduces the ground level concentration. (author)

  7. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution - Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition ((13)C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ(13)C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ(13)C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  8. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution – Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition (13C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ13C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ13C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  9. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20–50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3–1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. -- Highlights: • Atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta is modeled and evaluated. • Responses of visibility changes to various emission reduction scenarios are compared. • Sulfate aerosol will increase if only NOx emission is reduced. • The multi-pollutant control strategy is most efficient for improving visibility. -- Responses of visibility changes to various emission reduction scenarios are compared. The multi-pollutant control strategy is most efficient for improving visibility in YRD, China

  10. Levels, sources and chemical fate of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere and snow along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The Antarctic continent is among the most pristine regions; yet various organic contaminants have been measured there routinely. Air and snow samples were collected during the austral spring (October-November, 2010) along the western Antarctic Peninsula and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to assess the relative importance of long-range transport versus local primary or secondary emissions. Highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and DDTs were observed in the glacier's snow sample, highlighting the importance of melting glaciers as a possible secondary source of legacy pollutants to the Antarctic. In the atmosphere, contaminants were mainly found in the vapor phase (>65%). Hexachlorobenzene (33.6 pg/m(3)), PCBs (11.6 pg/m(3)), heptachlor (5.64 pg/m(3)), PBDEs (4.22 pg/m(3)) and cis-chlordane (2.43 pg/m(3)) were the most abundant contaminants. In contrast to other compounds, PBDEs seem to have originated from local sources, possibly the research station itself. Gas-particle partitioning for analytes were better predicted using the adsorption partitioning model than an octanol-based absorption approach. Diffusive flux calculations indicated that net deposition is the dominant pathway for PBDEs and chlordanes, whereas re-volatilization from snow (during melting or metamorphosis) was observed for PCBs and some OCPs.

  11. IBA methods for characterisation of fine particulate atmospheric pollution: a local, regional and global research problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IBA techniques of PIXE, PIGE, RBS and PESA have been used simultaneously to analyse fine particle pollution collected on Teflon filters. This provided a suite of 23 elements from hydrogen to lead which can be used to characterisation and fingerprint pollution sources and estimate their contributions to the total mass loading. These methods have been demonstrated to be applicable for aerosol pollution studies on a local, regional and even globe scale on time frames from a few days to decades

  12. Long distance atmospheric pollution: assessment, risks, management and decision. Collection of abstracts of research works. Synthesis of results of researches performed within the framework of the PRIMEQUAL programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief presentation of the PRIMEQUAL programme, an inter-agency and institution research programme for a better air quality (275 supported research actions since the programme creation), an introduction presents the context of research works within this programme on long distance pollution. Various research works are then briefly presented. They address three main themes: 1) determining factors and atmospheric processes (role of organic nitrates in nitrogen transport, source and evolution of organic carbonated pollution in the atmosphere, modelling of long distance pollution, a miniature and autonomous station for atmospheric composition monitoring), 2) the regional evidence of pollutants transport (local and long distance pollution in Ile-de-France, pollutant transport and air quality in Mediterranean Sea, measurement and modelling of the deposition of Saharan dusts, relationship between forest fires and air quality), and 3) long term impacts on ecosystems, health and economy (peat lands as markers of atmospheric contamination, 20 years of measurements of atmospheric depositions in France and trends on the long term, vulnerability of ecosystems to atmospheric nitrogen, a cost-benefit approach to the relationship between long distance pollution and climate change). An appendix contains the call for research propositions which resulted in the above-mentioned researches

  13. Atmospheric mercury deposition and its contribution of the regional atmospheric transport to mercury pollution at a national forest nature reserve, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Wang, Dingyong; Du, Hongxia; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Zheng; Wei, Shiqing

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition by wet and dry processes contributes to the transformation of mercury from atmosphere to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Factors influencing the amount of mercury deposited to subtropical forests were identified in this study. Throughfall and open field precipitation samples were collected in 2012 and 2013 using precipitation collectors from forest sites located across Mt. Jinyun in southwest China. Samples were collected approximately every 2 weeks and analyzed for total (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg). Forest canopy was the primary factor on THg and MeHg deposition. Simultaneously, continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were carried out from March 2012 to February 2013 at the summit of Mt. Jinyun. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 3.8 ± 1.5 ng m(-3), which was elevated compared with global background values. Sources identification indicated that both regional industrial emissions and long-range transport of Hg from central, northeast, and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM levels. Precipitation deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Jinyun were slightly higher than those reported in Europe and North America, whereas total fluxes of MeHg and THg under forest canopy on Mt. Jiuyun were 3 and 2.9 times of the fluxes of THg in wet deposition in the open. Highly elevated litterfall deposition fluxes suggest that even in remote forest areas of China, deposition of atmospheric Hg(0) via uptake by vegetation leaf may be a major pathway for the deposition of atmospheric Hg. The result illustrates that areas with greater atmospheric pollution can be expected to have greater fluxes of Hg to soils via throughfall and litterfall.

  14. Atmospheric organochlorine pollutants and air-sea exchange of hexachlorocyclohexane in the Bering and Chukchi seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Daniel A.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Rice, Clifford P.

    1991-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been found in Arctic fish, marine mammals, birds, and plankton for some time. The lack of local sources and remoteness of the region imply long-range transport and deposition of contaminants into the Arctic from sources to the south. While on the third Soviet-American Joint Ecological Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (August 1988), high-volume air samples were taken and analyzed for Organochlorine pesticides. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated camphenes, and chlordane (listed in order of abundance, highest to lowest) were quantified. The air-sea gas exchange of HCH was estimated at 18 stations during the cruise. Average α-HCH concentrations in concurrent atmosphere and surface water samples were 250 pg m-3 and 2.4 ng L-1, respectively, and average γ-HCH concentrations were 68 pg m-3 in the atmosphere and 0.6 ng L-1 in surface water. Calculations based on experimentally derived Henry's law constants showed that the surface water was undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere at most stations (α-HCH, average 79% saturation; γ-HCH, average 28% saturation). The flux for α-HCH ranged from -47 ng m-2 day-1 (sea to air) to 122 ng m-2 d-1 (air to sea) and averaged 25 ng m-2 d-1 air to sea. All fluxes of γ-HCH were from air to sea, ranged from 17 to 54 ng m-2 d-1, and averaged 31 ng m-2 d-1.

  15. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  16. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María, E-mail: mhijv@unileon.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Molina, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.molina@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Química Avanzada de Cataluña (IQAC), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Schikora, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.schikora@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Michael, E-mail: michael.mueller@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bayona, Josep M., E-mail: josep.bayona@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • DBD plasma reactors were used to remove pollutants from aqueous solutions. • Atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol and lindane were studied. • First-order degradation kinetics were observed for all the compounds. • Degradation by-products were identified by GC–MS. • Treatment efficiencies were lower in industrial wastewater than in pure water. -- Abstract: Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1–5 mg L{sup −1}) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.567 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min{sup −1} for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.523 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min{sup −1} for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for atrazine; 447 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by-products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min{sup −1} for atrazine; k = 0.061 min{sup −1} for lindane)

  17. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  18. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  19. GLANCE - calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Leif; Faria, Sérgio; Markandya, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Current annual global estimates of premature deaths from poor air quality are estimated in the range of 2.6-4.4 million, and 2050 projections are expected to double against 2010 levels. In Europe, annual economic burdens are estimated at around 750 bn €. Climate change will further exacerbate air pollution burdens; therefore, a better understanding of the economic impacts on human societies has become an area of intense investigation. European research efforts are being carried out within the MACC project series, which started in 2005. The outcome of this work has been integrated into a European capacity for Earth Observation, the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). In MACC/CAMS, key pollutant concentrations are computed at the European scale and globally by employing chemically-driven advanced transport models. The project GLANCE (calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE) aims at developing an integrated assessment model for calculating the health impacts and damage costs of air pollution at different physical scales. It combines MACC/CAMS (assimilated Earth Observations, an ensemble of chemical transport models and state of the art ECWMF weather forecasting) with downscaling based on in-situ network measurements. The strengthening of modelled projections through integration with empirical evidence reduces errors and uncertainties in the health impact projections and subsequent economic cost assessment. In addition, GLANCE will yield improved data accuracy at different time resolutions. This project is a multidisciplinary approach which brings together expertise from natural sciences and socio economic fields. Here, its general approach will be presented together with first results for the years 2007 - 2012 on the European scale. The results on health impacts and economic burdens are compared to existing assessments.

  20. Status and trend of NO2 pollution in Indian cities from space based remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARYA RAMACHANDRAN NAIR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available NO2 pollution in Indian cities is a well-known problem requiring adequate analysis and implementation of appropriate control strategies. Advanced space-borne instrument ‘ SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY(SCI AMACHY ’- measurements are proved to be helpful in estimating the tropospheric concentration of NO2 which can meaningfully relate to the ground level pollution. Here, these satellite data are explored to analyse the status and trend in NO2 pollution at ten selected metro cities of India. The appropriate geospatial and statistical methods are employed for the processing and analysis of data. The observed results indicated the status of NO2 pollution in these cities as well as its trend throughout the period 2002 to 2012. This study reports, statistically significant increasing trends in NO2 level at all these cities except one. Also, the influence of climatic seasons on modulating the ambient NO2 level is reflected in all cities. For ensuring the validity of results based on satellite data, a comparison is made between the SCIAMACHY NO2 and ground stations measurements which yielded an agreeable correlation of 0.5.This study demonstrates the applicability of satellite remote sensing for urban air quality monitoring and suggest its usability for other parts of the world where ground station measurements are scarce or not available.

  1. Assessment of the variability of atmospheric pollution in National Parks of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M.; Lozano, A.; Hierro, J.; Tapia, O.; del Valle, J.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Anzano, J.; Querol, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Air quality in nine National Parks in mainland Spain was assessed analysing SO2, NOx, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 data from background stations. As emissions in and around parks are limited, the levels of primary pollutants are low. Concentrations of secondary pollutants are high especially in summer due to photochemical production. The geographical variability of pollutants responds to regional emission patterns and the dominant circulation regimes in different regions resulting in west-east gradients for O3 and PM. Seasonal variability of pollutants was also interpreted in virtue of transport scenarios, changes in photochemical activity and emissions variability. NOx and SO2, maximize in winter due to higher emissions while O3 and PM do it in summer due to photochemical production, lower precipitation and, in the case of PM, the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. The diurnal evolution was interpreted in virtue of variability in emissions and changes in the Planetary Boundar Layer height.

  2. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  3. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (all anthropogenic, biomass burning and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. On the global scale, our results show that land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols...

  4. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    PLATIKANOVA, Magdalena; PENKOVA-RADICHEVA, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. Methods: A five year study (2009–2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal...

  5. Vertical Distribution of Atmospheric Pollution Lead in Swedish Boreal Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the fate of anthropogenic lead (Pb)pollution in boreal forest soils, and to predict future trends, it is important to know where in the soil the pollution Pb is accumulated and how large the pollution and natural Pb inventories are in different soil horizons. We combined stable Pb isotope (206Pb/207Pb ratios) and concentration analyses to study Pb in podzol profiles and mor samples from old-growth forest stands at seven sites distributed from southern to northern Sweden. Additional samples were taken from managed forests, and from an agricultural field, to give some idea of the effects of land-use. Pb concentrations are typically 60-100 μg g-1 dry mass in the mor layer in southern Sweden and about 30 μg g-1 in northern Sweden. Pb isotope analyses show that virtually all of this Pb is pollution Pb. The isotope composition also shows that pollution Pb has penetrated downwards between 20-60 cm in the forest soils. The total pollution Pb inventories vary between 0.7-3.0 g m-2 ground surface, with larger inventories in southern compared to northern Sweden. Although the highest Pb concentrations occur in the mor layer, the largest inventories of pollution Pb are found in the Bs-horizon. The limited investigation of Pb distribution and inventories in soils from managed forests did not point to any major difference compared to the old-growth forests. The agricultural field revealed, however, a completely deviating Pb profile with all pollution Pb evenly distributed in the 20 cm thick top-soil

  6. Monitoring atmospheric pollutants in the biosphere reserve Wienerwald by a combined approach of biomonitoring methods and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krommer, Viktoria; Zechmeister, Harald G; Roder, Ingrid; Scharf, Sigrid; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    In this study a combined approach of bioindication results correlated with an extensive set of data on air pollution and climate was used to assess the pollution status of the Man and Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald (Austria). Bryophytes served as impact indicators (via the Index of Atmospheric Purity-method IAP) at 30 sites as well as accumulation monitors for airborne trace elements (Al, Pb, V, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Cd, As, Sb and 16 EPA-PAHs) at 10 sites within the reserve. The results of these bioindication methods were subsequently correlated with further pollution (NO(2), SO(2) and dust) and climate data (precipitation, temperature and humidity). The findings obtained clearly indicate the following: Bryophyte distribution is solely influenced by the status of air quality, without interference by climatic or site-related factors, which is in contrast to several previous investigations. IAP-values correlated significantly with NO(2) (0.553; P=0.004), SO(2) winter values (0.511; P=0.013) and PM10 (dust) (0.561; P=0.013). The results obtained via chemical analyses revealed a strong correlation with data derived from the IAP methodology. In terms of the overall air quality within the biosphere reserve Wienerwald, the north-eastern part appears to be the most affected one with a most likely pollution contribution emitted by the capital city Vienna, agriculture and neighbouring countries.

  7. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  8. Modelling of pollution dispersion in atmosphere; Modelowanie procesow propagacji skazen w atmosferze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Stankiewicz, R.

    1994-12-31

    The paper contains the review of the mathematical foundation of atmospheric dispersion models. The atmospheric phenomena relevant to atmospheric dispersion model are discussed. In particular the parametrization of processes with time and space scales smaller than numerical grid size, limited by available computer power, is presented. The special attention was devoted to similarity theory and parametrization of boundary layer. The numerical methods are analysed and the drawbacks of the method are presented. (author). 99 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  9. Photodegradation of pharmaceutical persistent pollutants using hydroxyapatite-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Brazón, E; Piccirillo, C; Moreira, I S; Castro, P M L

    2016-11-01

    Pharmaceutical persistent pollutants pose a serious threat to the environment. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials as photocatalysts to degrade micropollutants. Diclofenac and fluoxetine were selected for these initial tests. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)(OH)2, HAp) is one of the most commonly used biomaterials/bioceramics, being a major constituent of bone. In this work sustainable HAp-based materials of marine origin, obtained from cod fish bones, were used; these photocatalysts were previously fully studied and characterised. Both single-phase HAp and HAp-titania multicomponent materials (1 wt% TiO2) were employed as UV light photocatalysts, the latter showing better performance, indicated by higher degradation rates of both compounds. The HAp-titania photocatalyst showed excellent degradation of both persistent pollutants, the maximum degradation performance being 100% for fluoxetine and 92% for diclofenac, with pollutant and photocatalyst concentrations of 2 ppm and 4 g/L, respectively. Variations in features such as pollutant and photocatalyst concentrations were investigated, and results showed that generally fluoxetine was degraded more easily than diclofenac. The photocatalyst's crystallinity was not affected by the photodegradation reaction; indeed the material exhibited good photostability, as the degradation rate did not decrease when the material was reused. Tests were also performed using actual treated wastewater; the photocatalyst was still effective, even if with lower efficiency (-20% and -4% for diclofenac and fluoxetine, respectively). TOC analysis showed high but incomplete mineralisation of the pollutants (maximum 60% and 80% for DCF and FXT, respectively). PMID:27526086

  10. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  11. [Physical process based risk assessment of groundwater pollution in the mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fa-Sheng; Cheng, Pin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Case studies of groundwater pollution risk assessment at home and abroad generally start from groundwater vulnerability, without considering the influence of characteristic pollutants on the consequences of pollution too much. Vulnerability is the natural sensitivity of the environment to pollutants. Risk assessment of groundwater pollution should reflect the movement and distribution of pollutants in groundwater. In order to improve the risk assessment theory and method of groundwater pollution, a physical process based risk assessment methodology for groundwater pollution was proposed in a mining area. According to the sensitivity of the economic and social conditions and the possible distribution of pollutants in the future, the spatial distribution of risk levels in aquifer was ranged before hand, and the pollutant source intensity corresponding to each risk level was deduced accordingly. By taking it as the criterion for the classification of groundwater pollution risk assessment, the groundwater pollution risk in the mining area was evaluated by simulating the migration of pollutants in the vadose zone and aquifer. The result show that the risk assessment method of groundwater pollution based on physical process can give the concentration distribution of pollutants and the risk level in the spatial and temporal. For single punctuate polluted area, it gives detailed risk characterization, which is better than the risk assessment method that based on aquifer intrinsic vulnerability index, and it is applicable to the risk assessment of existing polluted sites, optimizing the future sites and providing design parameters for the site construction.

  12. Atmospheric pollution in the mediterranean area: geochemical studies of aerosols and rain waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now recognised that the atmosphere is a major pathway for the transport of material to the oceans. The material in the atmosphere is present as gaseous and particulate (aerosol) phases. Aerosols may be removed from the atmosphere by a combination of 'dry' (i.e. not involving an atmospheric aqueous phase) and 'wet' (precipitation scavenging) processes. Thus, aerosols are intimately related to rain waters, and interactions between the two are discusses below in relation to the input of material to the Mediterranean Sea

  13. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  14. Magnetic response to atmospheric heavy metal pollution recorded by dust-loaded leaves in Shougang industrial area, western Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShouYun; DUAN XueMei; SHEN MingJie; U BLAHA; W ROESLER; YAN HaiTao; E APPEL; V HOFFMANN

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-five evergreen tree's leaves growing less than one year were collected from Shougang industrial area in western suburb of Beijing, including steel plants and its ambient residential areas, recreational parks and farmlands. Rook magnetic properties and heavy metal contents were studied. The results show that the magnetic properties of leaf samples are predominated by Iow-coercivity magnetite, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the distance from the main pollution source increases. Moreover, there is a significant linear relationship between mag-netic parameters (the low-field magnetic susceptibility, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization and anhysteretic remanent magnetization) and heavy metals contents (Fe, Pb, V, Cr and Zn) (0.73≤R≤0.88). Hence, the magnetic parameters of leaves can serve as a proxy for quick detecting of the recent atmospheric metallic pollution.

  15. Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

    2014-02-01

    In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk. PMID:24194413

  16. A Study on Regional Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants in Chongqing based on Technology of Passive Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy%基于被动差分吸收光谱技术对重庆市大气污染物区域输送的探测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 李礼; 余家燕; 翟崇治; 许丽萍; 刘芮伶

    2014-01-01

    在重庆市大气污染区域输送通道上设置龙市站、超级站、南坪站三个观测站点,利用基于被动DOAS技术的MAX-DOAS地基多轴差分吸收光谱仪对SO2和NO2垂直柱浓度进行连续探测,实时获取两种大气污染物的时空分布和区域性输送过程,并将MAX-DOAS探测结果与当地API数据进行了对比分析。探测结果显示,龙市站、超级站、南坪站NO2垂直柱浓度均值分别为5.90×1015、18.96×1015、17.82×1015 molec./cm2,超级站最高,龙市站最低;SO2垂直柱浓度均值分别为16.46×1015、18.35×1015、55.56×1015 molec./cm2,南坪站最高,龙市站最低;分析研究表明,NO2受本地交通排放源影响为主,SO2则受周边工业污染源排放的影响较大。%Three monitoring sites, namely Longshi site, supersite, Nanping site, were arranged in the transport pathway of atmospheric pollutants in Chongqing. Vertical column concentration of SO2 and NO2 was detected contin-uously with MAX-DOAS ground-based multi-axis differential absorption spectrometer and results were compared to local API data. Real-time spatial and temporal distributions of both pollutants as well as their regional transport pro-cess were observed. It was found that the average vertical column concentration of NO2 at Longshi site, supersite and Nanping site was 5.90 × 1015、18.96 × 1015、17.82 × 1015 molec./cm2, respectively, with supersite having the highest NO2 concentration and Longshi site the lowest. In comparison, the average vertical column concentration of SO2 was 16.46 × 1015、18.35 × 1015、55.56 × 1015 molec./cm2 at sites in the same order and the highest and lowest SO2 concentra-tion appeared at Nanping site and Longshi site, respectively. Analysis indicated that NO2 mainly come from local traf-fic emissions, while SO2 was greatly influenced by surrounding industrial emissions.

  17. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  18. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulfert, G.

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  19. Lead concentrations and isotope ratios in speleothems as proxies for atmospheric metal pollution since the Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Mohammed; Fagel, Nathalie; Van Rampelbergh, Maïte; Baldini, James; Riotte, Jean; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Lawrence; Gillikin, David; Quinif, Yves; Verheyden, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Lead concentrations and isotope ratios from two speleothems from the Han-sur-Lesse cave in southern Belgium were measured in order to study the ability of speleothems to act as archives of atmospheric pollution. To address this aim we analyzed trace elemental Al and Pb compositions by LA-ICP-MS and ICP-MS as well as Pb isotopes by MC-ICP-MS. The results help to identify three intervals characterized by particularly high enrichment of Pb: from 1880 to 1905 AD, from 1945 to 1965 AD, and from 19...

  20. 苔藓监测空气重金属污染技术的研究进展%Research Advances in Bryophyte Monitoring Technology to Heavy Metal Pollution in the Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱霞; 方炎明

    2011-01-01

    苔藓是最敏感的大气污染指示植物之一,利用其可识别污染源,揭示大气重金属沉降随时间的变化规律及污染的时空变化格局,进而评价某地区的环境状况.从国内外发展概况入手,综述苔藓植物对大气重金属污染指示作用的研究进展.%Bryophyte is a group of the most sensitive indicator plants for air pollution monitoring. The application of bryophyte could help identify the pollution sources, indicate the deposition role of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere and reflect the temporal and spatial change of the heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere. Based on the generalization of relevant researches both at home and in the world, this article summarized the studies on the indicating function of bryophyte to monitor heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere.

  1. Horizontal Advection and Mixing of Pollutants in the Urban Atmospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, S. P.; Entekhabi, D.; Britter, R.; Norford, L.; Fernando, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Although urban air quality and its impacts on the public health have long been studied, the increasing urbanization is raising concerns on how to better control and mitigate these health impacts. A necessary element in predicting exposure levels is fundamental understanding of flow and dispersion in urban canyons. The complex topology of building structures and roads requires the resolution of turbulence phenomena within urban canyons. The use of dense and low porosity construction material can lead to rapid heating in response to direct solar exposure due to large thermal mass. Hence thermal and buoyancy effects may be as important as mechanically-forced or shear-induced flows. In this study, the transport of pollutants within the urban environment, as well as the thermal and advection effects, are investigated. The focus is on the horizontal transport or the advection effects within the urban environment. With increased urbanization and larger and more spread cities, concern about how the upstream air quality situation can affect downstream areas. The study also examines the release and the dispersion of hazardous material. Due to the variety and complexity of urban areas around the world, the urban environment is simplified into adjacent two-dimensional urban street canyons. Pollutants are released inside each canyon. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are applied to evaluate and quantify the flow rate out of each canyon and also the exchange of pollutants between the canyons. Imagine a row of ten adjacent urban street canyons of aspect ratio 1 with horizontal flow perpendicular to it as shown in the attached figure. C is the concentration of pollutants. The first digit indicates in what canyon the pollutant is released and the second digit indicates the location of that pollutant. For example, C3,4 is the concentration of pollutant released inside canyon 3 measured in canyon 4. The same amount of pollution is released inside the ten street canyons

  2. Atmospheric transport of pollutants to the Eastern Mediterranean Basin. Appendix 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine and coarse aerosol samples were collected between February 9 and June 8, 1993, using the GENT stack filter sampler. Samples were collected on polycarbonate filters and analyzed for a host of elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), for Pb and Ni by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and for SO4, NO3 and Cl ions by ion chromatography (IC). Results have demonstrated that the concentrations of pollution derived elements decrease from start to the end of the sampling period. Concentrations of soil related elements have increased in the same time period due to the dry soil which can easily become airborne during summer months. The main parameters which effect the observed concentrations of elements are the meteorological parameters, particularly the mixing height and wind speed, and the variations in the strengths of sources. Since the wind speed is very low in the city of Ankara, dispersion of elements are determined by diffusion mechanism rather than the mass transport by winds. Six factors were identified and retained in the principal component analysis. Three of these six factors retained were related with the crustal elements. Different crustal sources were differentiated based on their enrichments with non-crustal elements. These three crustal components were identified as 'surface soil' which is enriched by an number of anthropogenic elements, 'road dust' which is enriched by Na and Cl plus Pb and 'subsurface soil' which is enriched with the same anthropogenic elements, but not as much as in the first crustal factor. In addition to these crustal components, a 'coal combustion' factor which included most of the chalchphilic elements, a 'motor vehicle' component which included Pb, Br, particulate-Hg and an oil combustion component which included V and Ni were identified. (author)

  3. Using magnetic and chemical measurements to detect atmospherically-derived metal pollution in artificial soils and metal uptake in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, B; Cioppa, M T

    2012-11-01

    Quantification of potential effects of ambient atmospheric pollution on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plants requires precise experimental studies. A controlled growth experiment assessing magnetic and chemical parameters was conducted within (controls) and outside (exposed) a greenhouse setting. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements showed that while initial MS values were similar for the sample sets, the overall MS value of exposed soil was significantly greater than in controls, suggesting an additional input of Fe-containing particles. Scanning electron microscope images of the exposed soils revealed numerous angular magnetic particles and magnetic spherules typical of vehicular exhaust and combustion processes, respectively. Similarly, chemical analysis of plant roots showed that plants grown in the exposed soil had higher concentrations of Fe and heavy (toxic) metals than controls. This evidence suggests that atmospheric deposition contributed to the MS increase in exposed soils and increased metal uptake by plants grown in this soil.

  4. 被动DOAS/CT在大气污染气体监测中的应用%Detection of the atmospheric pollutant by using passive DOAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦民红; 童敏明; 魏明生; 李素文

    2013-01-01

    为了对大气污染气体的空间分布进行实时监测,有效防治大气环境污染,设计了被动差分吸收光谱层析系统,通过差分吸收光谱技术(DOAS)获取大气污染气体的积分体积分数,再采用联合迭代重构算法(SIRT)得到其空间分布信息,通过数值模拟的方式加以验证.数值模拟结果表明,实践与理论相符,满足预期指标,且投影误差基本不影响重构图像的质量.试验结果表明,系统可以实现大气污染气体的二维空间分布监测.%This paper is aimed to present our method for finding the atmospheric pollutant by using passive DOAS.For this purpose,we have introduced an optical tomography system based on the passive difference optical absorption spectrum (DOAS),that is,how to do real-time monitoring activities with the spatial distribution of pollution gases in the atmosphere so as to prevent the atmosphere from being polluted effectively.The goal of the system is to employ the concentration profiles,rather than just a point value,of the pollutant gases concentrations.However,the reconstruction area (20 × 20 pixels) of the concentration of the pollutant gases are to be scanned while doing on-line monitoring activities by using two sets of passive difference optical absorption spectrum (DOAS) rather than one.In addition,36 light paths are needed to be adopted in the form of the fan projection scheme to scan the area of the polluted gases.At the same time,it is to apply a novel image reconstruction algorithm,known as the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT),to extract the data and information from the two passive DOAS systems.The disadvantage of the SIRT is slow in speed though some improvements have already been made by adding different relax factors to reduce the relative errors.The new system of ours can work out the integrated concentration of the gases with the difference optical absorption spectrum (DOAS) algorithm.Besides,we have also introduced the

  5. The horizontal transport of pollutants from a slope wind layer into the valley core as a function of atmospheric stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukauf, Daniel; Gohm, Alexander; Rotach, Mathias W.; Posch, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Slope winds provide a mechanism for the vertical exchange of air between the valley and the free atmosphere aloft. By this means, heat, moisture and pollutants are exported or imported. However, it the static stability of the valley atmosphere is strong, one part of the up-slope flow is redirected towards the valley center and pollutants are recirculated within the valley. This may limit the venting potential of slope winds severely. The main objective of this study is to quantify the horizontal transport of pollutants from the slope wind layer into the stable valley core and to determine the dependency of this flux as a function of the initial stability of the atmosphere. For this purpose, we conducted large eddy simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for a quasi-two-dimensional valley. The valley geometry consists of two slopes with constant slope angle rising to a crest height of 1500 m and a 4 km wide flat valley floor in between. The valley is 20 km long and homogeneous in along-valley direction. Hence, only slope winds but no valley winds can evolve. The surface sensible heat flux is prescribed by a sine function with an amplitude of 125 W m-2. The initial sounding characterized by an atmosphere at rest and by a constant Brunt-Väisälä frequency which is varied between 0.006 s-1 and 0.02 s-1. A passive tracer is released with an arbitrary but constant rate at the valley floor. As expected, the atmospheric stability has a strong impact on the vertical and horizontal transport of tracer mass. A horizontal intrusion forms at the top of the mixed layer due to outflow from the slope wind layer. Tracer mass is transported from the slope towards the center of the valley. The efficiency of this mechanism increases with increasing stability N. For the lowest value of N, about 70% of the tracer mass released at the valley bottom is exported out of the valley. This value drops to about 12% in the case of the strongest stability. Hence, most

  6. Atmospheric depositions of persistent pollutants: methodological aspects and values from case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimo, Gaetano; Viviano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Deposition monitoring, already in use by government control organizations of various countries, contributes to an important increase in experimental knowledge on pollutant deposition fluxes, on their environmental fate and on the possible effects on human health.At the European level, the necessity to consider with extreme attention the environmental contamination due to deposition, has brought to adopt a series of legislative measures and recommendations; this has contributed to set up environmental surveillance systems and monitoring campaigns for a series of pollutants which may accumulate in the environment as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and for metals.More recently, with DL.vo 155/2010, the necessity to consider, in the development of monitoring stations, the possibility to detect also data on deposition rates which represent a non-direct exposure of the population through the food chain. For sampling the Decree considers only two types of depositions: for total deposition (bulk and Bergerhoff) and wet only deposition. PMID:26783216

  7. Atmospheric depositions of persistent pollutants: methodological aspects and values from case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Settimo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deposition monitoring, already in use by government control organizations of various countries, contributes to an important increase in experimental knowledge on pollutant deposition fluxes, on their environmental fate and on the possible effects on human health. At the European level, the necessity to consider with extreme attention the environmental contamination due to deposition, has brought to adopt a series of legislative measures and recommendations; this has contributed to set up environmental surveillance systems and monitoring campaigns for a series of pollutants which may accumulate in the environment as persistent organic pollutants (POPs and for metals. More recently, with DL.vo 155/2010, the necessity to consider, in the development of monitoring stations, the possibility to detect also data on deposition rates which represent a non-direct exposure of the population through the food chain. For sampling the Decree considers only two types of depositions: for total deposition (bulk and Bergerhoff and wet only deposition.

  8. The polluted atmospheres of cool white dwarfs and the magnetic field connection

    CERN Document Server

    Kawka, A

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (DAZ) NLTT 888 and NLTT 53908. The spectra of NLTT 53908 show strong, Zeeman-split calcium lines (CaII H&K and Ca I $\\lambda 4226$) and the star appears to be a close relative of the polluted magnetic white dwarf (DAZH) NLTT 10480, while the spectra of NLTT 888 show narrow lines of calcium and iron. A comparison of the DAZ NLTT 888 and the DAZH NLTT 53908 with other class members illustrates the diversity of environment and formation circumstances surrounding these objects. In particular, we find that the incidence of magnetism in old, polluted white dwarfs significantly exceeds that found in the general white dwarf population which suggests an hypothetical link between a crowded planetary system and magnetic field generation.

  9. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hezhong, E-mail: hztian@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Gao, Jiajia [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Hao, Jiming [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Air pollution problems generated in MSW management processes in China are presented. ► Both quantity and composition of MSW generation in China are identified. ► The status of different methods for MSW treatment and disposal are reviewed. ► Some comprehensive control proposals for improving MSW management are proposed. -- Abstract: Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward.

  10. Online vehicle and atmospheric pollution monitoring using GIS and wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer system designed to integrate, store, edit, analyse, share and display geographically referenced data. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. This paper presents the integration of these two technologies to create a system able to detect measure and transmit information regarding the presence and quantities of internal combustion derived pollution and the geographical location in real time with the aim of creating pollution maps in urban environments

  11. Online vehicle and atmospheric pollution monitoring using GIS and wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordova-Lopez, L E; Mason, A; Cullen, J D; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma' a, A I [Liverpool John Moores University General Engineering Research Institute, RF and Microwave Group, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a computer system designed to integrate, store, edit, analyse, share and display geographically referenced data. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. This paper presents the integration of these two technologies to create a system able to detect measure and transmit information regarding the presence and quantities of internal combustion derived pollution and the geographical location in real time with the aim of creating pollution maps in urban environments.

  12. Microdimensional pollution of the atmosphere of small settlements of the Far East of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper is devoted to research of atmospheric suspensions of the small cities and settlements of the Far East with the population to 100 thousand persons: Magadan, Belogorsk, Partizansk, Solovyevsk, Orotukan by means of methods of a laser granulometry and scanning electronic microscopy. Atmospheric suspensions were studied in the dropped-out snow which gathered in the different cities at the time of snowfalls from March, 2010 to January, 2013. It is shown that the studied settlements, considering dimension of fractions of atmospheric suspensions and their morphometric characteristics, it is possible to place in the following order on extent of increase of potential health hazard: Orotukan, Solovyevsk, Partizansk, Belogorsk, Magadan

  13. Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, A. B. A.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. Consequently, it is important that the current real-time air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), should be adapted or extended to aid in alleviating this problem. Nanotechnology has been applied to several industrial and domestic fields, for example, applications for gas monitoring systems, gas leak detectors in factories, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors, and the like. Here we report an application example of studying air quality monitoring based on nanotechnology `solid state gas sensors'. So as to carry out air pollution monitoring over an extensive area, a combination of ground measurements through inexpensive sensors and wireless GIS will be used for this purpose. This portable device, comprising solid state gas sensors integrated to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) linked through Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System (GPS), will allow rapid dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites simultaneously.

  14. Automobile air pollution: Atmospheric motion. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the modeling, diffusion, and motion of motor vehicle exhaust. The citations cover the prediction of pollution from motor vehicles at specific locations and its impact at locations removed from the source. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Laser technology to monitor atmospheric pollution. Tecnologia laser para medicion de la contaminacion atmosferica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerao, A.; Caceci, M.

    1993-01-01

    Air quality and pollution can be monitored in a reliable way using LIDAR. Light detection and measurement by using a Laser beam can identify gases, particles, smoke, water vapor and other contaminants. Radiance and directionality of the laser beam are useful for this application. Activities of CISE in this field are presented.

  16. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, Susanna; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and phenology. On a global scale, our results show that global land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse) by ˜ 9 %. At a regional scale, GPP and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols in regions where forested canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Eurasia, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources) enhance GPP by +5-8 % on an annual average. In the northwestern Amazon Basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2-5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the northwestern Amazon Basin during the dry-fire season (+5-8 %). The prevailing mechanism varies across regions: light scattering dominates in eastern North America, while a reduction in direct radiation dominates in Europe and China. Aerosol-induced GPP productivity increases in the Amazon and central Africa include an additional positive feedback from reduced canopy temperatures in response to increases in canopy conductance. In Eurasia and northeastern China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of -2 to -12 % on an annual average. Future research needs to incorporate the indirect effects of aerosols and possible feedbacks from dynamic carbon allocation and phenology.

  17. Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tiantian; Leveque, Thibault; Shahid, Muhammad; Foucault, Yann; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2014-09-01

    When plants are exposed to airborne particles, they can accumulate metals in their edible portions through root or foliar transfer. There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of plant exposure conditions on human bioaccessibility of metals, which is of particular concern with the increase in urban gardening activities. Lettuce, radish, and parsley were exposed to metal-rich ultrafine particles from a recycling factory via field atmospheric fallouts or polluted soil. Total lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in of the edible plant parts and their human bioaccessibility were measured, and Pb translocation through the plants was studied using Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb and Cd bioaccessibility measured for consumed parts of the different polluted plants was significantly higher for root exposure (70% for Pb and 89% for Cd in lettuce) in comparison to foliar exposure (40% for Pb and 69% for Cd in lettuce). The difference in metal bioaccessibility could be linked to the metal compartmentalization and speciation changes in relation to exposure conditions. Metal nature strongly influences the measured bioaccessibility: Cd presents higher bioaccessibility in comparison to Pb. In the case of foliar exposure, a significant translocation of Pb from leaves toward the roots was observed. To conclude, the type of pollutant and the method of exposure significantly influences the phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility of metals, especially in relation to the contrasting phenomena involved in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. The conditions of plant exposure must therefore be taken into account for environmental and health risk assessment. PMID:25603245

  18. Integrated assessment modeling of atmospheric pollutants in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Part I: hourly and seasonal ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, James W; Odman, Mehmet T; Wilkinson, James G; Russell, Armistead G; Doty, Kevin G; Norris, William B; McNider, Richard T

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a comprehensive air quality modeling system was developed as part of the Southern Appalachians Mountains Initiative (SAMI) with the ability to simulate meteorology, emissions, ozone, size- and composition-resolved particulate matter, and pollutant deposition fluxes. As part of SAMI, the RAMS/EMS-95/URM-1ATM modeling system was used to evaluate potential emission control strategies to reduce atmospheric pollutant levels at Class I areas located in the Southern Appalachians Mountains. This article discusses the details of the ozone model performance and the methodology that was used to scale discrete episodic pollutant levels to seasonal and annual averages. The daily mean normalized bias and error for 1-hr and 8-hr ozone were within U.S. Environment Protection Agency guidance criteria for urban-scale modeling. The model typically showed a systematic overestimation for low ozone levels and an underestimation for high levels. Because SAMI was primarily interested in simulating the growing season ozone levels in Class I areas, daily and seasonal cumulative ozone exposure, as characterized by the W126 index, were also evaluated. The daily ozone W126 performance was not as good as the hourly ozone performance; however, the seasonal ozone W126 scaled up from daily values was within 17% of the observations at two typical Class I areas of the SAMI region. The overall ozone performance of the model was deemed acceptable for the purposes of SAMI's assessment. PMID:16111143

  19. GIS-based source identification and apportionment of diffuse water pollution: perfluorinated compound pollution in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2011-11-01

    To efficiently reduce perfluorinated compound (PFC) pollution, it is important to have an understanding of PFC sources and their contribution to the pollution. In this study, source identification of diffuse water pollution by PFCs was conducted using a GIS-based approach. Major components of the source identification were collection of the monitoring data and preparation of the corresponding geographic information that was extracted from a constructed GIS database. The spatially distributed pollution factors were then explored by multiple linear regression analysis, after which they were visually expressed using GIS. Among the 35 PFC homologues measured in a survey of the Tokyo Bay basin, 18 homologues were analyzed. Pollution by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was explained well by the percentage of arterial traffic area in the basin, and the 84% variance of the measured PFOS concentration was explained by two geographic variables, arterial traffic area and population. Source apportionment between point and nonpoint sources was conducted based on the results of the analysis. The contribution of PFOS from nonpoint sources was comparable to that from point sources in several major rivers flowing into Tokyo Bay. Source identification and apportionment using the GIS-based approach was shown to be effective, especially for ubiquitous types of pollution, such as PFC pollution. PMID:21885084

  20. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  1. Atmospheric impacts of the 2010 Russian wildfires: integrating modelling and measurements of the extreme air pollution episode in the Moscow megacity region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Konovalov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous wildfires provoked by an unprecedented intensive heat wave caused continuous episodes of extreme air pollution in several Russian cities and densely pullulated regions, including the Moscow megacity region. This paper analyzes the chemical evolution of the atmosphere over the Moscow region during the 2010 heat wave by integrating available ground based and satellite measurements with results of meso-scale modeling. The state-of-the-art CHIMERE CTM is used, which is modified to take into account air pollutant emissions from wildfires and the shielding effect of smoke aerosols. The wild fire emissions are derived from satellite measurements of the fire radiative power and are optimized by assimilating data of ground measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM10 into the model. It is demonstrated that the optimized simulations reproduce independent observations, which were withheld during the optimisation procedure, quite adequately (specifically, the correlation coefficient of daily time series of CO and PM10 exceeds 0.8 and that inclusion of the fire emissions into the model significantly improves its performance. The results of the analysis show that wildfires were a principal factor causing the observed air pollution episodes associated with the extremely high level of daily mean CO and PM10 concentrations (up to 10 mg m−3 and 700 μg m−3 in the averages over available monitoring sites, respectively in the Moscow region, although accumulation of anthropogenic pollution was also favoured by a stagnant meteorological situation. In contrast, diagnostic model runs indicate that ozone concentrations could reach very high values even without fire emissions which provide "fuel" for ozone formation, but, at the same time, inhibit it as a result of absorption and scattering of solar radiation by smoke aerosols. The analysis of MOPITT CO measurements and of

  2. Quantifying the uncertainties of a bottom-up emission inventory of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties of a national, bottom-up inventory of Chinese emissions of anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM of different size classes and carbonaceous species are comprehensively quantified, for the first time, using Monte Carlo simulation. The inventory is structured by seven dominant sectors: coal-fired electric power, cement, iron and steel, other industry (boiler combustion, other industry (non-combustion processes, transportation, and residential. For each parameter related to emission factors or activity-level calculations, the uncertainties, represented as probability distributions, are either statistically fitted using results of domestic field tests or, when these are lacking, estimated based on foreign or other domestic data. The uncertainties (i.e., 95% confidence intervals around the central estimates of Chinese emissions of SO2, NOx, total PM, PM10, PM2.5, black carbon (BC, and organic carbon (OC in 2005 are estimated to be −14%~12%, −10%~36%, −10%~36%, −12%~42% −16%~52%, −23%~130%, and −37%~117%, respectively. Variations at activity levels (e.g., energy consumption or industrial production are not the main source of emission uncertainties. Due to narrow classification of source types, large sample sizes, and relatively high data quality, the coal-fired power sector is estimated to have the smallest emission uncertainties for all species except BC and OC. Due to poorer source classifications and a wider range of estimated emission factors, considerable uncertainties of NOx and PM emissions from cement production and boiler combustion in other industries are found. The probability distributions of emission factors for biomass burning, the largest source of BC and OC, are fitted based on very limited domestic field measurements, and special caution should thus be taken interpreting these emission uncertainties. Although Monte

  3. A hydrogeochemical study of rain water to characterize the source of atmospheric pollutants at Jodhpur - desert city of India (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken has been conducted to determined the physical parameters and chemical species in the first precipitants of the season at desert city of Jodhpur to understand firstly, the degree of pollutants in the atmosphere and secondly to identity the minerals/pollutants of the atmosphere to characterize its possible source of origin. The precipitate samples for cations and other physical and chemical parameters by standard analytical methods. The results obtained on turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids and the ratio of total dissolved solids and conductivity, show a moderate degree of pollutants at all the four sites, A, B, C and D but slightly higher at C and D sites. The concentration of various water-soluble chemical species present in the precipitates, specially a balance between acidic and basic constituents decides its pH value. Hydrogen ions are mainly responsible for acidification of rain waters and are derived chiefly from oxidation of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ to from H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ respectively. Hence a correlation study carried out between H/sup */and SO/sub 4//sup --/, NO/sub 3/ and Cl. Result shows no strong correlation between H/sup +/ and Cl/up -/. A group of strongly corrected elements Cl, Na/sup +/,K/sup +/ and Mg/sup ++/ were observed representing a similar source of their origin. The atmospheric desert dust components chiefly consist of quartz, mica flakes, clays like illite, kaolinite etc., and especially clays, may neutralize the acidity of precipitates via H/sup +/ exchange. Some minerals like Halite, Gypsum, Dolomite, Calcite may get slightly dissolved in the rainwater to replace H/sup +/ ions and so, impart alkalinity. Thus, it is logical to believe that the cations may have been derived originally from some of the geological source. Some rations like Cl/Na, Mg/Na, Ca/Na are known to have been used in characterization of the source. As expected in the atmosphere of desert city, like Jodhpur, the solid

  4. Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walna, Barbara; Kurzyca, Iwona; Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2013-07-01

    A 2-year study (2010-2011) of fluorides in atmospheric precipitation in the open area and in throughfall in Wielkopolski National Park (west-central Poland) showed their high concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 2 mg/l under the tree crowns. These high values indicate substantial deposition of up to 52 mg/m(2)/year. In 2011, over 51% of open area precipitation was characterized by fluoride concentration higher than 0.10 mg/l, and in throughfall such concentrations were found in more than 86% of events. In 2010, a strong connection was evident between fluoride and acid-forming ions, and in 2011, a correlation between phosphate and nitrite ions was seen. Analysis of available data on F(-) concentrations in the air did not show an unequivocal effect on F(-) concentrations in precipitation. To find reasons for and source areas of high fluoride pollution, the cases of extreme fluoride concentration in rainwater were related to atmospheric circulation and weather patterns. Weather conditions on days of extreme pollution were determined by movement of weather fronts over western Poland, or by small cyclonic centers with meteorological fronts. Macroscale air advection over the sampling site originated in the western quadrant (NW, W, and SW), particularly in the middle layers of the troposphere (2,500-5,000 m a.s.l.). Such directions indicate western Poland and Germany as possible sources of the pollution. At the same time in the lower troposphere, air inflow was frequently from the north, showing short distance transport from local emitters, and from the agglomeration of Poznań. PMID:23114919

  5. Atmospheric Pb-pollution by pre-medieval mining detected in the sediments of the brackish karst lake An Loch Mor, western Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of geochemical investigations of lake sediments from the karst lake An Loch Mor, Aran Islands, including the first highly resolved record of atmospheric Roman Pb pollution for Ireland. The natural Pb influx into the lake is largely contributed by 3 Pb components, which differ in their isotopic composition: detrital influx of Pb from the siliciclastic input, dissolved influx of Pb released by weathering of the local limestone, and dissolved influx of seawater Pb. The balance between the 3 Pb components varies in concert with the hydrological evolution of the lake. The influx of Pb in dissolved form is estimated by geochemical mass balance assuming that the siliciclastic influx is characterised by the Pb/Al-ratio of the Late Glacial clastic sediments. It typically accounts for 50-80% of total Pb input in the Holocene sediments of An Loch Mor. The natural dissolved influxes of Pb, Sc, and Y reach a similar order of magnitude. Normalisation with Sc and Y is applied to quantify contributions from anthropogenic Pb. Based on continuous sampling of 1 cm sample slices, variations in the influx of Roman Pb could be reconstructed at a time resolution of c. 5 a. Combined geochemical and Pb isotope mass balance is used to characterise the isotopic composition of anthropogenic Pb. Distinctly enhanced influx of anthropogenic Pb occurs in the 1st and 2nd century AD and shows high variability on decadal scale. This is in contrast to central European Pb records, which document a gradual increase and decrease in ancient atmospheric pollution by Roman Pb. The reconstructed high variability in the influx of Roman Pb in An Loch Mor documents variations in the wind regime of western Europe, temporarily favouring the transport of atmospheric Pb to western Ireland

  6. Melanism in Adalia bipunctata L. (Col. , Coccinellidae) and its relationship to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muggleton, J.; Lonsdale, D.; Benham, B.R.

    1975-08-01

    The evidence for the suggestion that smoke pollution is the main selective factor determining melanic frequencies of the polymorphic ladybird Adalia bipunctata in Great Britain is reviewed and discussed in relation to an alternative hypothesis that the species exhibits thermal melanism. A highly significant negative correlation is shown between annual hours of bright sunshine and melanic frequency. It is suggested that the melanic morphs will have a selective advantage over the non-melanics because of a greater ability to absorb solar radiation. This advantage may be important in cooler and less sunny conditions, including those where smoke reduces sunshine levels. Experiments show that the melanic morphs have higher internal temperatures and greater activity than the typical morphs when illuminated at the same ambient temperature. It is concluded that A. bipunctata exhibits thermal melanism and cannot be used as a biological indicator of smoke pollution. 35 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Study of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol samples were collected to study the characteristics of marine aerosols in the different western Pacific ocean areas. During the first cruise from 15 October to 25 November 1989, aerosol samples were collected with a kA-200 Andersen cascade impactor and a kB-120 sampler. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of the aerosols. The concentrations of crustal and pollution elements in aerosols were higher over the ocean area close to the China coast and decreased very rapidly with increasing distance from land. The morphology and elemental composition of aerosol particles showed that the seasalt particles may conglomerate with small crustal and pollution particles from land to form large particles. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  8. Lead Isotopic Tracing of Coal-Based Anthropogenic Pollution in Agricultural Soils in Jianghan Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J. N.; Ying, S.; Zhao, R.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Weiss, D. J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese demand for energy is one of the greatest in the world, and the vast majority of it is generated through coal combustion - a process by which diverse pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Due to the relative proximity of croplands to power plants in much of China, these pollutants can be deposited onto agricultural soils via atmospheric transport. Relative amounts of lead (Pb) isotopes in airborne anthropogenic coal-based contaminants (fly ash) are currently understood. However, contaminants' effects on agricultural soil composition are less clear. We investigate the prevalence of anthropogenic contaminants in cropland soils using lead (Pb) isotope ratios as a tracer. Surface soil samples and deep core samples, taken from Chinese field sites in proximity to a coal combustion plant, undergo an acid extraction process and lead (Pb) isotope concentrations are measured. The results of this study illustrate the extent to which airborne contaminants have entered cropland soils and integrated themselves into the chemical processes at work. They further expand our understanding of the impacts of human coal combustion activities on the biogeochemistry of agricultural soils.

  9. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Strada, Susanna; Unger, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and ph...

  10. Atmospheric depositions of persistent pollutants: methodological aspects and values from case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Settimo; Giuseppe Viviano

    2015-01-01

    Deposition monitoring, already in use by government control organizations of various countries, contributes to an important increase in experimental knowledge on pollutant deposition fluxes, on their environmental fate and on the possible effects on human health. At the European level, the necessity to consider with extreme attention the environmental contamination due to deposition, has brought to adopt a series of legislative measures and recommendations; this has contributed to set up envi...

  11. Atmospheric Pollution in Rapidly Growing Urban Centers: Spatial Policies and Land Use Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Efthymia Kyriakopoulou; Anastasios Xepapadeas

    2014-01-01

    We study the optimal and equilibrium distribution of industrial and residential land in a given region. The trade-off between the agglomeration and dispersion forces, in the form of pollution from stationary forces, production externalities, and commuting costs, determines the emergence of industrial and residential clusters across space. In this context, we define two kinds of spatial policies that can be used in order to close the gap between optimal and market allocations. More specificall...

  12. Atmospheric lead pollution in fine particulate matter in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaolin; ZHANG Yuanxun; TAN Mingguang; LIU Jiangfeng; BAO Liangman; ZHANG Guilin; LI Yan; IIDA Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    The Pb-monitoring program was extended for 6 years from 2002 to 2007 at 17 representative urban sites (6 traffic, 5 industrial, and 6 residential sites), and 3 suburban sites to assess the lead pollution in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) after phasing out leaded gasoline in Shanghai. Compared with Pb levels reported in other places, the Pb pollution in Shanghai still serious after phasing out leaded gasoline, which remains at high concentration range (213--176 ng/m3) in PM2.5 in winter. Significant spatial variation of Pb concentrations and strong seasonal variation of higher Pb concentration in winter than that in summer were detected. The size distribution of Pb in particulate matter has a unimodal mode that peaks at approximately 0.154--1.59 mm particle diameter, indicating that Pb is mainly concentrated in fine fraction. Lead in the fine fraction is enriched by a factor of 103--104 relative to Pb abundance in crust. Eight categories of Pb pollution sources were identified in the PM2.5 in the winter of 2007 in Shanghai. The important emission sources among them are vehicle exhaust derived from combustion of unleaded gasoline, metallurgic industry emission, and coal combustion emission.

  13. Some discussions on micrometeorology and atmospheric diffusion of classic and radioactive industrial pollutions. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental static equations are given describing the atmosphere. Relations are derived for the description of dynamic phenomena, such as changes in temperature, pressure and density of the air in the lower part of the atmosphere. The effect of wind is considered and the expressions are presented for the vertical profile of wind velocity. The properties of flow are discussed in the fully developed boundary layer, such as stress, viscous stress and dynamic viscosity. The concept of surface roughness and its significance for micrometeorology is dealt with. (L.O.)

  14. Effects of ascorbate feeding on chlorophyll fluorescence and xanthophyll cycle components in the lichen Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vainio exposed to atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, A.; Deltoro, V.I.; Barreno, E. [Univ. de Valencia, Inst. `Cavanilles` de Biodiversitat y Biologia Evolutiva, Burjassot (Spain); Abadia, A. [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei, CSIC, Dept. of Plant Nutrition, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    The effects of environmental stresses on photosynthetic responses, ascorbate levels and pigment composition were investigated in samples of Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vainio from control and polluted regions of the northern Castellon area (Valencia, Spain). In response to sustained pollutant stress in the field, lichen thalli has closed PSII traps and exhibited lower rates of electron transport and non-radiative energy dissipation. The xanthophyll concentration was not affected by exposure to atmospheric pollutants. The ascorbate concentration was lower in samples exposed to ambient air pollutants compared to control thalli. Ascorbate feeding of thalli from polluted sites stimulated electron flow, photochemical quenching and non-raditive energy dissipation. Additionally, ascorbate feeding enhances the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll pool in polluted thalli. The partial recovery for non-radiative energy dissipation was presumabley due to the interaction between the increased thylakoid pH gradient and de-epoxidized xanthophylls. Furhtermore, ascorbate feeding descreased photon excess in thalli from polluted sites owing to the stimulation of linear electron flow and non-radiative energy dissipation. The present study suggests that atmospheric pollutants besides their intrinsic toxicity, put on an additional burden by hampering the operation of photoprotective mechanisms. (au)

  15. [Atmospheric Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Eight Cities of China: Pollution Characteristics and Human Exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-tao; Li, Qi-lu; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    The gas and particle samples of eight cities were collected by high flow active air sampler in the Eastern and Western China and eight congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of BDE-28 (tri-BDE) in the gas-phase (three bromide components) was the highest, which was different from previous studies where BDE-99 and-47 were the predominant homologues in the gas-phase while the concentration of BDE-209 [(25.4 ± 124) pg · m⁻³] in particle-phase was the highest. The atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs in Beijing and Guangzhou were relatively higher, especially the BDE-209 concentration in particle phases of Guangzhou was two orders higher than those of other cities. However, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs declined significantly when compared with the data from previous studies. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the gas-phase concentrations decreased slowly and the particle-phase concentrations decreased rapidly. Combined with the results of correlation analysis, this phenomenon might be ascribed to the ceased commercial production of penta- and octa-BDE, the light degradation of high bromide components and reduced concentrations of atmospheric particles in urban area. Inhalation exposure for infants was about 2-3 times higher than that of adults. This reflected that the potential health risk of atmospheric PBDEs in city for residents, especially infants and young children, should not be ignored. PMID:27078934

  16. Air pollution and stroke - an overview of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Ravi

    2016-08-01

    Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke. A conceptual framework linking air pollution exposure and stroke is proposed. It links acute and chronic exposure to air pollution with pathways to acute and chronic effects on stroke risk. Current evidence regarding potential mechanisms mainly relate to particulate air pollution. Whilst further evidence would be useful, there is already sufficient evidence to support consideration of reduction in air pollution as a preventative measure to reduce the stroke burden globally.

  17. Research on Change Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollutants in Anqing City from 2007 to 2013%安庆市2007~2013年大气污染物变化特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余光明; 王磊; 安乐生; 顾洪亮

    2015-01-01

    以安庆市2007~2013年空气污染日值资料为基础,分析了3种大气污染物( PM10、SO2、NO2)不同时间尺度的变化特征,并结合安庆市地面气象日观测资料,研究了污染物浓度与气象因子的变化关系。结果表明:2007~2013年,安庆市首要大气污染物为PM10,3种主要大气污染物的载荷顺序为PM10(82.77μg/m3)>SO2(47.61μg/m3)>NO2(33.95μg/m3);冬季和春季大气污染物浓度较高,夏季最低;相关分析表明风、降水、气温和湿度等是与安庆大气污染物浓度呈显著线性相关的气象因子。%Based on the monitoring data of atmospheric pollution ( daily average concentration of PM10 , SO2 and NO2 ) in An-qing city during 2007~2013, we analyzed the change characteristics of these atmospheric pollutants in different time scales.Combi-ning with the daily observation data of ground meterological factors in Anqing city, the author studied the relationship between pollu-tant concentration and meterological factors.The results indicated that:from 2007 to 2013, the chief atmospheric pollutant in An-qing city was PM10, and the concentration of 3 main atmospheric pollutants revealed the order of PM10 (82.77 μg/m3) >SO2 (47.61 μg/m3)>NO2(33.95 μg/m3).The concentration of atmospheric pollutant was higher in winter and spring, and was the lowest in summer.The results of correlation analysis showed that the concentration of atmospheric pollutant in Anqing city was sig-nificantly linearly correlated with the following meterological factors:wind, rainfall, air temperature and humidity.

  18. L'IIASA and the integrated simulation of the trans-border atmospheric pollution assessment and evaluation; L'IIASA et la modelisation integree de la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere. Bilan et evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S.; Brignon, J.M.; Farret, R.; Landrieu, G.; Le Gall, A.C.; Rouil, L

    2003-09-15

    The RAINS model is an integrated evaluation model for many pollutants and many effects, developed by he IIASA. This model studies the emissions of 4 atmospheric pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds) and the necessary costs to reduce them and the dispersion of these pollutants and their effects (tropospheric ozone formation, acidification and eutrophication). The model can be used in activities scenario mode (energy, agriculture, transports...) to calculate the emissions and their effects or in optimization mode to calculate strategies of emissions control from environmental constraints. (A.L.B.)

  19. Upconversion-based lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Fix, Andreas; Wirth, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    For the first time an upconversion based detection scheme is demonstrated for lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2-concentrations, with a hard target at a range of 3 km and atmospheric backscatter from a range of similar to 450 m. The pulsed signals at 1572 nm are upconverted to 635 nm, and dete......For the first time an upconversion based detection scheme is demonstrated for lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2-concentrations, with a hard target at a range of 3 km and atmospheric backscatter from a range of similar to 450 m. The pulsed signals at 1572 nm are upconverted to 635 nm......, and detected by a photomultiplier tube, to test how the upconversion technology performs in a long range detection system. The upconversion approach is compared to an existing direct detection scheme using a near-IR detector with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and quantum efficiency. It is for the first time...

  20. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  1. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  2. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar eHAYAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  3. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-06-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  4. Tolerance Levels of Roadside Trees to Air Pollutants Based on Relative Growth Rate and Air Pollution Tolerance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULISTIJORINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicles release carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and particulate matters to the air as pollutants. Vegetation can absorb these pollutants through gas exchange processes. The objective of this study was to examine the combination of the relative growth rate (RGR and physiological responses in determining tolerance levels of plant species to air pollutants. Physiological responses were calculated as air pollution tolerance index (APTI. Eight roadside tree species were placed at polluted (Jagorawi highway and unpolluted (Sindangbarang field area. Growth and physiological parameters of the trees were recorded, including plant height, leaf area, total ascorbate, total chlorophyll, leaf-extract pH, and relative water content. Scoring criteria for the combination of RGR and APTI method was given based on means of the two areas based on two-sample t test. Based on the total score of RGR and APTI, Lagerstroemia speciosa was categorized as a tolerant species; and Pterocarpus indicus, Delonix regia, Swietenia macrophylla were categorized as moderately tolerant species. Gmelina arborea, Cinnamomum burmanii, and Mimusops elengi were categorized as intermediate tolerant species. Lagerstroemia speciosa could be potentially used as roadside tree. The combination of RGR and APTI value was better to determinate tolerance level of plant to air pollutant than merely APTI method.

  5. Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; SaïD, F.; Ancellet, G.; Arteta, J.; Augustin, P.; Bastin, S.; Brut, A.; Caccia, J. L.; Campistron, B.; Cautenet, S.; Colette, A.; Coll, I.; Corsmeier, U.; Cros, B.; Dabas, A.; Delbarre, H.; Dufour, A.; Durand, P.; GuéNard, V.; Hasel, M.; Kalthoff, N.; Kottmeier, C.; Lasry, F.; Lemonsu, A.; Lohou, F.; Masson, V.; Menut, L.; Moppert, C.; Peuch, V. H.; Puygrenier, V.; Reitebuch, O.; Vautard, R.

    2007-07-01

    In the French Mediterranean basin the large city of Marseille and its industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources that cause frequent and hazardous pollution episodes, especially in summer when intense solar heating enhances the photochemical activity and when the sea breeze circulation redistributes pollutants farther north in the countryside. This paper summarizes the findings of 5 years of research on the sea breeze in southern France and related mesoscale transport and dilution of pollutants within the Field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE) program held in June and July 2001. This paper provides an overview of the experimental and numerical challenges identified before the ESCOMPTE field experiment and summarizes the key findings made in observation, simulation, and theory. We specifically address the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation to local ozone vertical distribution and the mesoscale processes driving horizontal advection of pollutants and vertical transport and mixing via entrainment at the top of the sea breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial importance of the interactions between processes of various spatial and temporal scales is thus highlighted. The advances in numerical modeling and forecasting of sea breeze events and ozone pollution episodes in southern France are also underlined. Finally, we conclude and point out some open research questions needing further investigation.

  6. Concentrations of PAHs and other gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere of a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Ivana; Pehnec, Gordana; Šišović, Anica; Vađić, Vladimira; Davila, Silvije; Godec, Ranka

    2016-07-28

    In this study, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to PM10 particles were measured in a Croatian rural area. Considering that by now only a limited number of studies have provided data on pollutant concentrations for rural areas, our aim was to do so by determining the PAH levels, their mutagenic effect and relationship with meteorological conditions and other gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, NH3). In this investigation, samples of PM10 particles were collected on quartz filters for 1 month in the cold period and 1 month in the warm period of the year, 24 h a day. Diagnostic PAH concentration ratios and factor analysis were used as tools to identify and characterize the PAH sources. The PAHs found in the warm period of the year were characteristic for car exhaust emissions while the predominant source of these pollutants in the cold period was wood burning. The measurements showed much higher average concentrations of all PAHs in the cold period, most pronounced for fluoranthene 0.347 ng m(-3) and pyrene 0.223 ng m(-3). Mass concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in the cold period ranged from 0.057 to 1.526 ng m(-3), while in the warm period they varied from 0.009 to 0.111 ng m(-3). Mutagenicity related to BaP (BaPMeq) was significantly higher during the cold period (1.095 ng m(-3)) than in the warm period (0.101 ng m(-3)). PMID:27128984

  7. Overview of receptor-based source apportionment studies for speciated atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I.; Xu, X.; Zhang, L.

    2015-07-01

    Receptor-based source apportionment studies of speciated atmospheric mercury are not only concerned with source contributions but also with the influence of transport, transformation, and deposition processes on speciated atmospheric mercury concentrations at receptor locations. Previous studies applied multivariate receptor models including principal components analysis and positive matrix factorization, and back trajectory receptor models including potential source contribution function, gridded frequency distributions, and concentration-back trajectory models. Combustion sources (e.g., coal combustion, biomass burning, and vehicular, industrial and waste incineration emissions), crustal/soil dust, and chemical and physical processes, such as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) oxidation reactions, boundary layer mixing, and GEM flux from surfaces were inferred from the multivariate studies, which were predominantly conducted at receptor sites in Canada and the US. Back trajectory receptor models revealed potential impacts of large industrial areas such as the Ohio River valley in the US and throughout China, metal smelters, mercury evasion from the ocean and the Great Lakes, and free troposphere transport on receptor measurements. Input data and model parameters specific to atmospheric mercury receptor models are summarized and model strengths and weaknesses are also discussed. Multivariate models are suitable for receptor locations with intensive air monitoring because they require long-term collocated and simultaneous measurements of speciated atmospheric Hg and ancillary pollutants. The multivariate models provide more insight about the types of Hg emission sources and Hg processes that could affect speciated atmospheric Hg at a receptor location, whereas back trajectory receptor models are mainly ideal for identifying potential regional Hg source locations impacting elevated Hg concentrations. Interpretation of the multivariate model output to sources can be

  8. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages). PMID:18288228

  9. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  10. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This report describes the development of a monitor which can measure concentrations of hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. The system consists of a carbon dioxide laser combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter.

  11. Determination of chemical pollutants in the atmosphere of the Valley of Toluca by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies about the presence of contaminants in the atmosphere of diverse cities have been increased widely because to the problems that those cause to public health. Because of this in 1986 was made an Atmospheric Monitoring Program in the Valley of Toluca including the city of Toluca and Toluca- Lerma industrial corridor. That program consist of a preliminary net of sampling for the recollection of total suspended particles on glass-fiber filters, the sampling was performed two times a week in five different zones. To date have been analyzed some of these filters by atomic absorption in the Chemistry School of the Mexico's State University. In this work, is showed the establishment of chemical treatment technique and the results of quantitative analysis through neutron activation in filters of recent monitoring. (Author)

  12. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; HAO Ze-jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial pattern.

  13. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  14. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova; Rogova, Natalia S.; Borisenko, Alex L.

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss an...

  15. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Hijosa-Valsero, M.; Molina, R.; Schikora, H.; Müller, M.; Bayona, J M

    2013-01-01

    Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1-5 mg L-1) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants ...

  16. Numerical Approach to the Evaluation of Atmospheric Pollution by Combustion Products of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdyakov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the results of mathematical modeling of acid rain formation and its fallout in the areas adjacent to the site of the energy complex. Four thermal periods that are typical for regions of sharply continental climate has been considered. The influence of convective parameters on the formation mechanism of atmospheric precipitation has been estimated. The contribution of solar energy flux to the research process has been analyzed.

  17. Numerical Approach to the Evaluation of Atmospheric Pollution by Combustion Products of Solid Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdyakov Dmitry; Gubin Vladimir; Shvab Svetlana; Tanishev Anton

    2016-01-01

    This research presents the results of mathematical modeling of acid rain formation and its fallout in the areas adjacent to the site of the energy complex. Four thermal periods that are typical for regions of sharply continental climate has been considered. The influence of convective parameters on the formation mechanism of atmospheric precipitation has been estimated. The contribution of solar energy flux to the research process has been analyzed.

  18. Atmospheric influences and local variability of air pollution close to a motorway in an Alpine valley during winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, K.; Emeis, S.; Hoffmann, M.; Suppan, P. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Inst. for Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research (IMK-IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Vergeiner, J.; Wittig, J.; Obleitner, F. [Innsbruck Univ. (AT). Dept. of Meteorology and Geophysics (IMGI)

    2008-06-15

    Air quality is mainly determined by traffic, industrial and urban emissions as well as by specific meteorological and topographic conditions. Focussing on nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, the temporal and spatial differences in air pollution in a deep Alpine valley with a major motorway were studied by a measurement campaign between November 2005 and February 2006 near Schwaz, Austria. The variation of air pollutant concentrations near the motorway was determined on the basis of path-averaged (DOAS) and in situ measurements. The layering of the valley atmosphere and the mixing-layer height were observed continuously by SODAR and ceilometer measurements. The winter-time weather conditions were characterized by exceptionally low temperature and high amount of snow in the valley. This resulted in the development of very stable cold pools with low wind speeds and an accordingly high air pollution burden. During several periods the air pollutants accumulated from day to day and frequent exceedances of NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} thresholds were detected. Furthermore it could be concluded that the emission situation was not unusually high during these periods, at least concerning road traffic as the dominant source for nitrogen oxides. Analysis confirmed that the typical weather phenomena associated with stable high-pressure regimes were the main factor for the observed pollution burden. During foehn and cold front passages, which interrupted these high pressure periods, concentration levels generally decreased at the valley ground and increased at the slope. Analysis revealed that this is a consequence of vertical mixing due to the influence of mountain specific wind systems, like thermally driven and quasi-periodic valley or slope winds. NO{sub 2} concentration levels are a matter of concern regarding annual mean values as well as - previously not recorded - exceedances of the half-hourly threshold in severe winter conditions. Compared to previous investigations an

  19. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at μg g-1 levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g-1 levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  20. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L.; Vautard, R.; Flamant, P.H. [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C.; Beekmann, M.; Megie, G.; Sicard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C.; Lefebvre, M.P.; Lossec, B. [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P.; Martin, D. [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D. [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D. [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P.; Toupance, G. [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  1. Modelling pollutants dispersion and plume rise from large hydrocarbon tank fires in neutrally stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, C. D.; Sideris, G. M.; Christolis, M. N.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Markatos, N. C.

    2010-02-01

    Petrochemical industries normally use storage tanks containing large amounts of flammable and hazardous substances. Therefore, the occurrence of a tank fire, such as the large industrial accident on 11th December 2005 at Buncefield Oil Storage Depots, is possible and usually leads to fire and explosions. Experience has shown that the continuous production of black smoke from these fires due to the toxic gases from the combustion process, presents a potential environmental and health problem that is difficult to assess. The goals of the present effort are to estimate the height of the smoke plume, the ground-level concentrations of the toxic pollutants (smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs, VOCs) and to characterize risk zones by comparing the ground-level concentrations with existing safety limits. For the application of the numerical procedure developed, an external floating-roof tank has been selected with dimensions of 85 m diameter and 20 m height. Results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that for all scenarios considered, the ground-level concentrations of smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs and VOCs do not exceed the safety limit of IDLH and there are no "death zones" due to the pollutant concentrations.

  2. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of pollen as an indicator for atmospheric pollution*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepponi, G.; Lazzeri, P.; Coghe, N.; Bersani, M.; Gottardini, E.; Cristofolini, F.; Clauser, G.; Torboli, A.

    2004-08-01

    The viability of pollen is affected by environmental pollution and its use as a bio-indicator is proposed. Such effects can be observed and quantified by biological tests. However, a more accurate identification of the agents affecting the viability is required in order to validate the biological assay for environmental monitoring. The chemical analysis of pollen is meant to ascertain the existence of a correlation between its reduced biological functions and the presence of pollutants. Moreover, such biological systems act as accumulators and allow the detection and quantification of species present in the environment at low concentrations. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) has been chosen for the investigation due to its high sensitivity, multielement capability and wide dynamic range. Corylus avellana L. (hazel) pollen has been collected in areas with different anthropic impact in the province of Trento, Italy. For the TXRF measurements, a liquid sample is needed, especially if a quantitative analysis is required. In the present work, the analysis after a microwave digestion has been compared with the analysis of a suspension of the pollen samples. In both cases, an internal standard has been used for the quantification. The concentrations of 17 elements ranging from Al to Pb have been determined in 13 samples. Analysis of the suspensions showed to be comparable to that of digested samples in terms of spectral quality, but the latter preparation method gave better reproducibility. Sub-ppm lowest limits of detection were obtained for iron and heavier elements detected.

  3. Atmospheric phenanthrene pollution modulates carbon allocation in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desalme, Dorine, E-mail: dorine.desalme@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Binet, Philippe [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Epron, Daniel [Nancy Universite, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Faculte des Sciences, BP 70239, F- 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); INRA, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Centre INRA de Nancy, F- 54280 Champenoux (France); Bernard, Nadine; Gilbert, Daniel; Toussaint, Marie-Laure [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France); Plain, Caroline [Nancy Universite, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Faculte des Sciences, BP 70239, F- 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); INRA, UMR 1137, Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestieres, Centre INRA de Nancy, F- 54280 Champenoux (France); Chiapusio, Genevieve, E-mail: genevieve.chiapusio@univ-fcomte.fr [Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, UMR 6249, Chrono-environnement, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The influence of atmospheric phenanthrene (PHE) exposure (160 {mu}g m{sup -3}) during one month on carbon allocation in clover was investigated by integrative (plant growth analysis) and instantaneous {sup 13}CO{sub 2} pulse-labelling approaches. PHE exposure diminished plant growth parameters (relative growth rate and net assimilation rate) and disturbed photosynthesis (carbon assimilation rate and chlorophyll content), leading to a 25% decrease in clover biomass. The root-shoot ratio was significantly enhanced (from 0.32 to 0.44). Photosynthates were identically allocated to leaves while less allocated to stems and roots. PHE exposure had a significant overall effect on the {sup 13}C partitioning among clover organs as more carbon was retained in leaves at the expense of roots and stems. The findings indicate that PHE decreases root exudation or transfer to symbionts and in leaves, retains carbon in a non-structural form diverting photosynthates away from growth and respiration (emergence of an additional C loss process). - Highlights: > Atmospheric PHE decreased growth, biomass partitioning and C allocation in clover. > C allocation was modified in favor of leaves but at the expense of roots and stems. > In roots, a decreased carbon exudation or allocation to symbionts was proposed. > In leaves, carbon was retained in a non-structural form as secondary metabolites. > BVOC emission was suggested as another loss process than respiration and exudation. - Exposure of clover to atmospheric PHE affected not only its growth, but also biomass partitioning and C allocation among its organs.

  4. Detection Method of Atmospheric Pollution and Pollution Control Measures%大气污染源的检测方法及污染物控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鹏

    2014-01-01

    Industry is developing rapidly in our country, the air polution geting worse, seriously affects the safety of peo- ple’s health. The main measures to control the air pollution is to accurately find sources of polution, and effective control polutant, its the only way to fundamentaly reduce the air polution degree. Thus, in this paper, the atmospheric polution source detection method and polutant control measures were analyzed, for reference.%我国工业迅速发展,空气污染不断加重,严重影响了人们的健康安全。治理空气污染的主要措施是,准确找到污染源,并对污染物进行有效控制,只有这样才能从根本上降低空气污染程度。以此,本文就大气污染源的检测方法及污染物控制措施进行分析,以供参考。

  5. 大气污染源的检测方法及污染物控制措施%Detection Method of Atmospheric Pollution and Pollution Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鹏

    2014-01-01

    Industry is developing rapidly in our country, the air polution geting worse, seriously affects the safety of peo- ple’s health. The main measures to control the air pollution is to accurately find sources of polution, and effective control polutant, its the only way to fundamentaly reduce the air polution degree. Thus, in this paper, the atmospheric polution source detection method and polutant control measures were analyzed, for reference.%我国工业迅速发展,空气污染不断加重,严重影响了人们的健康安全。治理空气污染的主要措施是,准确找到污染源,并对污染物进行有效控制,只有这样才能从根本上降低空气污染程度。以此,本文就大气污染源的检测方法及污染物控制措施进行分析,以供参考。

  6. Study of occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at an iron and steel complex by using neutron activation analysis of scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken. (author)

  7. EFFECT OF CHLORIDE ON THE ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION OF SIMULATED ARTIFACT IRON IN NO3-BEARING POLLUTANT ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. Cao; C.C. Xu

    2006-01-01

    The effect of chloride in nitrogen-bearing pollutant on the atmospheric corrosion of cast iron was investigated by using periodic wet-dry test, electrochemical experiment and surface tension test.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse atomic X-ray (EDAX) was used to identify the corrosion processes and products. The results of the weight loss measurement showed that the whole corrosion kinetics can be approximately described by: AW=AtB. With the addition of NaC1, B increases. The result presented that Cl- accelerated the corrosion rate obviously during the whole corrosion process. The initial corrosion process was investigated from the viewpoint of surface tension. At the initial corrosion period, the corrosion rate was proportion to the adsorption of anions contained the solutions. And as corrosion went on, the penetration effect of anions and different characteristics of the corrosion products began to dominant the corrosion process, which led to the accelerated effect.

  8. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species

  9. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  10. Actuality research on base of non-pollution agricultural products in Yilan county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jun; LIU Jianping; BAI Xin; ZHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The base of non-pollution agricultural products is a prerequisite for the non-pollution agricultural production. Based on two factors, i.e., irrigation water and soil, the environmental quality of Yilan county's base of non-pollution agricultural products was evaluated by single pollution index. The main monitoring items included the content of Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, fluoride, and so on, and the evaluating results showed Pi<1 which indicated that this area was fit for developing not only non-pollution products but also greenfood of A level.

  11. Nucleation and growth of sub-3 nm particles in the polluted urban atmosphere of a megacity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Zhou, Luyu; Dai, Liang; Shen, Wenchao; Dai, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yan; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    Particle size distribution down to 1.4 nm was measured in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing, China, in spring, summer, and winter during 2014-2015. Sub-3 nm particle event, which is equivalent to nucleation event, occurred on 42 out of total 90 observation days, but new particles could grow to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)-active sizes on only 9 days. In summer, infrequent nucleation was limited by both unfavorable meteorological conditions (high temperature and relative humidity - RH) and reduced anthropogenic precursor availability due to strict emission control measures during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. The limiting factors for nucleation in winter and spring were meteorological conditions (radiation, temperature, and RH) and condensation sink, but for the further growth of sub-3 nm particles to CCN-active sizes, anthropogenic precursors again became limiting factors. Nucleation events were strong in the polluted urban atmosphere. Initial J1.4 at the onset and peak J1.4 at the noontime could be up to 2.1 × 102 and 2.5 × 103 cm-3 s-1, respectively, during the eight nucleation events selected from different seasons. Time-dependent J1.4 usually showed good linear correlations with a sulfuric acid proxy for every single event (R2 = 0.56-0.86, excluding a day with significant nocturnal nucleation), but the correlation among all eight events deteriorated (R2 = 0.17) due to temperature or season change. We observed that new particle growth rate (GR) did not increase monotonically with particle size, but had a local maximum up to 25 nm h-1 between 1 and 3 nm. The existence of local maxima GR in sub-3 nm size range, though sensitive to measurement uncertainties, gives new insight into cluster dynamics in polluted environments. In this study such growth rate behavior was interpreted as the solvation effect of organic activating vapor in newly formed inorganic nuclei.

  12. Development of a Passive Doas System to Retrieve Atmospheric Pollution Columns in the 200 to 355 nm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Galicia Mejía

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years several techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the pollution of the air. Among these techniques, remote sensing using optical methods stands out due to several advantages for air quality control applications. A Passive Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy system that uses the ultraviolet region from 200 to 355 nm of the solar radiation is presented. The developed system is portable; therefore it is practical for real time and in situ measurements. The enhanced wavelength range of the system is intended to detect the ultraviolet light penetration in the Mexican Valley considering the solar zenith angle and the altitude. The system was applied to retrieve atmospheric SO2 columns emitted either by anthropogenic (power plant or natural sources (volcano, reaching a detection limit of about 1 ppm. The measurement of the penetrating solar radiation on the earth surface at the UVC range is presented and the possibility to measure pollution traces of some contaminants as O3, NO2 and aromatic compounds in real time and in situ in the ultraviolet region is discussed.

  13. Development of a passive doas system to retrieve atmospheric pollution columns in the 200 to 355 nm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía Rubén Galicia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years several techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the pollution of the air. Among these techniques, remote sensing using optical methods stands out due to several advantages for air quality control applications. A Passive Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy system that uses the ultraviolet region from 200 to 355 nm of the solar radiation is presented. The developed system is portable; therefore it is practical for real time and in situ measurements. The enhanced wavelength range of the system is intended to detect the ultraviolet light penetration in the Mexican Valley considering the solar zenith angle and the altitude. The system was applied to retrieve atmospheric SO2 columns emitted either by anthropogenic (power plant or natural sources (volcano, reaching a detection limit of about 1 ppm. The measurement of the penetrating solar radiation on the earth surface at the UVC range is presented and the possibility to measure pollution traces of some contaminants as O3, NO2 and aromatic compounds in real time and in situ in the ultraviolet region is discussed.

  14. Development of a passive doas system to retrieve atmospheric pollution columns in the 200 to 355 nm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Rubén Galicia; Vázquez, Josémanueldelarosa; Isakina, Suren Stolik; García, Edgard Moreno; Iglesias, Gustavo Sosa

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the pollution of the air. Among these techniques, remote sensing using optical methods stands out due to several advantages for air quality control applications. A Passive Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy system that uses the ultraviolet region from 200 to 355 nm of the solar radiation is presented. The developed system is portable; therefore it is practical for real time and in situ measurements. The enhanced wavelength range of the system is intended to detect the ultraviolet light penetration in the Mexican Valley considering the solar zenith angle and the altitude. The system was applied to retrieve atmospheric SO2 columns emitted either by anthropogenic (power plant) or natural sources (volcano), reaching a detection limit of about 1 ppm. The measurement of the penetrating solar radiation on the earth surface at the UVC range is presented and the possibility to measure pollution traces of some contaminants as O3, NO2 and aromatic compounds in real time and in situ in the ultraviolet region is discussed. PMID:23369629

  15. Hadoop-Based Distributed System for Online Prediction of Air Pollution Based on Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Z.; Farnaghi, M.; Alimohammadi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The critical impact of air pollution on human health and environment in one hand and the complexity of pollutant concentration behavior in the other hand lead the scientists to look for advance techniques for monitoring and predicting the urban air quality. Additionally, recent developments in data measurement techniques have led to collection of various types of data about air quality. Such data is extremely voluminous and to be useful it must be processed at high velocity. Due to the complexity of big data analysis especially for dynamic applications, online forecasting of pollutant concentration trends within a reasonable processing time is still an open problem. The purpose of this paper is to present an online forecasting approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the air quality one day in advance. In order to overcome the computational requirements for large-scale data analysis, distributed computing based on the Hadoop platform has been employed to leverage the processing power of multiple processing units. The MapReduce programming model is adopted for massive parallel processing in this study. Based on the online algorithm and Hadoop framework, an online forecasting system is designed to predict the air pollution of Tehran for the next 24 hours. The results have been assessed on the basis of Processing Time and Efficiency. Quite accurate predictions of air pollutant indicator levels within an acceptable processing time prove that the presented approach is very suitable to tackle large scale air pollution prediction problems.

  16. Atmospheric contamination for CMB ground-based observations

    CERN Document Server

    Errard, J; Akiba, Y; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Baccigalupi, C; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Cukierman, A; Delabrouille, J; Dobbs, M; Ducout, A; Elleflot, T; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Feeney, S; Gilbert, A; Goeckner-Wald, N; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Hill, C; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A H; Jeong, O; Katayama, N; Kaufman, J; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leon, D; Linder, E; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Miller, N J; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Okamura, T; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Puglisi, G; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K M; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Tajima, O; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Whitehorn, N; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O

    2015-01-01

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3d-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive an analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the POLARBEAR-I project first season data set. We compare our results to previous st...

  17. Model atmospheres for Mercury based on a lunar analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Similarities in daytime spectral reflectivities and nighttime infrared emission from Mercury and the moon are shown to imply that the atmosphere of Mercury must be tenuous, like that of the moon. The theory of formation, transport, and loss in the lunar atmosphere is applied to Mercury. Models of the Hermian atmosphere at perihelion and aphelion are presented, based on the solar wind as the dominant source of gases. Only the noncondensable species - hydrogen, helium and neon - are considered. Of these, helium is the most abundant atmospheric gas, with maximum concentration of about 40,000,000 per cu cm at the nighttime surface. The maximum concentration of H2 is 6,000,000 per cu cm, and that of neon is 700,000 per cu cm.

  18. Atmospheric pollutant and other data from the TRIDENT and tower as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) from 01 February 1972 to 01 September 1972 (NODC Accession 7300574)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atmospheric pollutant and other data were collected from the TRIDENT and tower from 01 February 1972 to 01 September 1972. Data include trace metals in the...

  19. HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN PINE (Pinus eldarica Medw. TREE BARKS AS INDICATORS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Kord

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-monitoring of air quality in TehranCity was investigated by analyzing 36 pine tree (Pinus eldarica Medw. barks. The samples were taken from different locations with different degrees of metal pollution (urban, industrial, highway, and control sites. Then, the concentrations of lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, and chromium (Cr were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that the highest and lowest metal concentrations were found in the heavy traffic sites and the control site, respectively. Lead content was found to be the highest in high traffic density areas. The industrial part of the city was characterized by high Zn, Cr, and Ni contents. Variation in heavy metal concentrations between sites was observed and attributed to differences in traffic density and anthropogenic activities. The research also confirms the suitability of Pinus eldarica Medw barks as a suitable bio-indicator of aerial fallout of heavy metals.

  20. The chemistry of the global atmosphere; International Symposium of the Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution of IAMAP, 7th, Chamrousse, France, Sept. 5-11, 1990, Selected Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buat-Menard, P. (Editor); Delmas, R. J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics presented include the adsorption and reaction of trichlorofluoromethane on various particles, equilibria of the marine multiphase ammonia system, a novel ozone sensor for direct eddy flux measurements, and characterization of the carbonate content of atmospheric aerosols. Also presented are variations in heavy metals concentrations in Antarctic snows, sources of continental dust over Antarctica during the last glacial cycle, an inventory of anthropogenic emissions and air pollution in the USSR, and atmospheric nuclei in the remote free-troposphere.

  1. The application of magnetic measurements for the characterization of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Richardson, N; Bennett, M; Hoon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry.The aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tire wear residues have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. Samples have been analyzed utilizing a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tires) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

  2. Dietary intake of pollutant aerosols via vegetables influenced by atmospheric deposition and wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Richa; Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-02-01

    Pot culture experiments were conducted to study dietary intake of heavy metals via vegetables, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) grown under the influence of atmospheric deposition and wastewater irrigation. The results indicated substantial accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables, which contribute significantly to dietary intake of total heavy metals ranging from 1.34 to 110.40 μg g⁻¹ through leaves (spinach), 1.04 to 105.86 μg g⁻¹ through root (radish) and 0.608 to 82.19 μg g⁻¹ through fruits (tomato). Concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb in vegetables exceeded the safe limits of Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954. Health risk index for Cd and Pb exceeded the safe limits set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The study indicated that the atmospheric depositions as well as wastewater irrigation have significantly elevated the levels of heavy metals in dietary vegetables presenting a significant threat for the health of users. PMID:22019253

  3. New insights on the role of sea ice in intercepting atmospheric pollutants using 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 129I content was measured in sea ice collected in 2007 in the Arctic Ocean. • The 129I inventory in the sea ice was estimated to be (6.5 ± 4.5) × 1012 atoms m−2. • Atmospheric transport from Sellafield and La Hague is the main source of 129I. • This source provides 98.4% of the total 129I present in the Arctic sea ice. - Abstract: Measurements of 129I carried out on sea ice samples collected in the central Arctic Ocean in 2007 revealed relatively high levels in the range of 100–1400 × 107 at L−1 that are comparable to levels measured in the surface mixed layer of the ocean at the same time. The 129I/127I ratio in sea ice is much greater than that in the underlying water, indicating that the 129I inventory in sea ice cannot be supported by direct uptake from seawater or by iodine volatilization from proximal (nearby) oceanic regimes. Instead, it is proposed that most of the 129I inventory in the sea ice is derived from direct atmospheric transport from European nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield and Cap La Hague. This hypothesis is supported by back trajectory simulations indicating that volume elements of air originating in the Sellafield/La Hague regions would have been present at arctic sampling stations coincident with sampling collection

  4. Simulation of atmospheric corrosion in different metals in the presence SO2 as the main pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents information about the kinetics of corrosion and the characterization of the products formed on zinc, copper, aluminum and low carbon steel, submitted to the following experimental conditions in trials that simulate industrial atmospheres: two alternative temperatures (30oC and 50oC), high relative humidity, constant incidence of short wave UV radiation (254 nm) and a SO2 concentration below 50 ppm. An experimental device to control the different atmospheric variables was used. Among the products of corrosion that were found, aside from the usual oxides and oxohydroxides, were sulfates and sulfites with different compositions and degrees of hydration, distributed in discrete phases. The temperature variation produced an increased weight loss in all the metals tested and did not modify the proportions of the compounds formed in the internal and external phases. In the case of Cu, the same anomalies occurred as for the other metals tested, but its composition also changed after modifying the test temperature (CW)

  5. Pollutant source identification model for water pollution incidents in small straight rivers based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-ping; Xin, Xiao-kang

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pollutant sources for river pollution incidents is an important and difficult task in the emergency rescue, and an intelligent optimization method can effectively compensate for the weakness of traditional methods. An intelligent model for pollutant source identification has been established using the basic genetic algorithm (BGA) as an optimization search tool and applying an analytic solution formula of one-dimensional unsteady water quality equation to construct the objective function. Experimental tests show that the identification model is effective and efficient: the model can accurately figure out the pollutant amounts or positions no matter single pollution source or multiple sources. Especially when the population size of BGA is set as 10, the computing results are sound agree with analytic results for a single source amount and position identification, the relative errors are no more than 5 %. For cases of multi-point sources and multi-variable, there are some errors in computing results for the reasons that there exist many possible combinations of the pollution sources. But, with the help of previous experience to narrow the search scope, the relative errors of the identification results are less than 5 %, which proves the established source identification model can be used to direct emergency responses.

  6. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20-50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3-1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons.

  7. Urban deciduous tree leaves as biomonitors of trace element (As, V and Cd atmospheric pollution in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARINA M. ŠUĆUR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of common deciduous trees: horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum and linden (Tilia spp. from three parks within the urban area of Belgrade were studied as biomonitors of trace element (As, V, and Cd atmospheric pollution. The May–September trace element accumulation in the leaves, and their temporal trends, were assayed in a multi-year period (2002–2006. Significant accumulation in the leaves was evident for As and V, but not so regularly for Cd. Slightly decreasing temporal trends of V and As ac-cumulated in the leaf tissues were observed over the years. During the time span, the concentrations of Cd remained approximately on the same level, except in May 2002 and September 2005, when a rapid increase was observed. The May–September accumulations of As and V were higher in horse chestnut than in linden, although both may be used as biomonitors for these elements, and optionally for Cd in conditions of its high atmospheric loadings.

  8. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Nursyairah, E-mail: nursyairah1990@gmail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  9. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  10. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area

  11. Oxidative capacity and radical chemistry in the polluted atmosphere of Hong Kong and Pearl River Delta region: analysis of a severe photochemical smog episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Likun; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xinfeng; Saunders, Sandra; Blake, Donald; Louie, Peter K. K.; Luk, Connie W. Y.; Simpson, Isobel; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Zhe; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shuncheng; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-08-01

    We analyze a photochemical smog episode to understand the oxidative capacity and radical chemistry of the polluted atmosphere in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. A photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) is constrained by an intensive set of field observations to elucidate the budgets of ROx (ROx = OH+HO2+RO2) and NO3 radicals. Highly abundant radical precursors (i.e. O3, HONO and carbonyls), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) facilitate strong production and efficient recycling of ROx radicals. The OH reactivity is dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), followed by aromatics, alkenes and alkanes. Photolysis of OVOCs (except for formaldehyde) is the dominant primary source of ROx with average daytime contributions of 34-47 %. HONO photolysis is the largest contributor to OH and the second-most significant source (19-22 %) of ROx. Other considerable ROx sources include O3 photolysis (11-20 %), formaldehyde photolysis (10-16 %), and ozonolysis reactions of unsaturated VOCs (3.9-6.2 %). In one case when solar irradiation was attenuated, possibly by the high aerosol loadings, NO3 became an important oxidant and the NO3-initiated VOC oxidation presented another significant ROx source (6.2 %) even during daytime. This study suggests the possible impacts of daytime NO3 chemistry in the polluted atmospheres under conditions with the co-existence of abundant O3, NO2, VOCs and aerosols, and also provides new insights into the radical chemistry that essentially drives the formation of photochemical smog in the high-NOx environment of Hong Kong and the PRD region.

  12. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  13. Urban atmospheric pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean : lessons from the TRANSEMED initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, Agnes; Salameh, Therese; Gaimoz, Cecile; Sauvage, Stephane; Locoge, Nadine; Oztürk, Fatma; Cetin, Banu; Keles, Melek; Afif, Charbel

    2016-04-01

    The East Mediterranean Basin (EMB) is a highly sensitive environment under considerable pressures. Future decadal projections point to the EMB as a possible hot spot of poor air quality and predict a continual and gradual warming in the region, much stronger than other regions. The increase and accumulation of anthropogenic emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from surrounding urban areas, are suspected as one of the key compounding factors of those environmental impacts. The quantification of emission distribution is a challenge, and even more in cities of the EMB where local emission data are sparse. While some highly resolved inventories have been developed at the regional scale in the EMB area for Beirut and Istanbul, their uncertainties are unknown. The paucity of observations in this region, especially for VOCs and PM composition, is a strong limitation to the achievement of evaluated and accurate emission inventories. As part of the TRANSEMED initiative (https://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/index.php/sister-projects/transemed.html), one of our objectives is to develop a systematic source-receptor methodology for emission inventory evaluation. We combine existing and newly collected observations and complementary source-receptor approaches (ie., urban enhancement emission ratios, multivariate models like PMF) in representative areas of the EMB: Beirut (Lebanon), Istanbul (Turkey), Cairo (Egypt) and, more recently, Athens (Greece). Over the past five years a very detailed database of ambient and near-source observations has been built-up especially regarding the composition of gaseous organic carbon. Results show (i) the extremely high levels of pollution for organics, (ii) the dominance of traffic emissions on VOC concentration levels, (iii) the relative poor spatial variability of speciated hydrocarbon traffic emissions regardless of the region, and (iv) the high uncertainty on global emission inventories when compared to observations. For the latter, and

  14. [Pollution characteristics and source of the atmospheric fine particles and secondary inorganic compounds at Mount Dinghu in autumn season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Rui; Wang, Yue-Si; Liu, Quan; Liu, Lu-Ning; Zhang, De-Qiang

    2011-11-01

    Real-time measurements of PM2.5, secondary inorganic compounds in PM2.5 (SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-)) and related gaseous pollutants were conducted at Mount Dinghu, a regional background station of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), in October and November 2008 by using a conventional R&P TEOM and a system of rapid collection of fine particles and ion chromatography (RCFP-IC). Sources and transportation of atmospheric particles during the experiment were discussed with principal component analysis and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The average daily mass concentrations of PM2.5 were 76.9 microg x m(-3) during sampling period, and average daily mass concentrations of SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-) were 20.0 microg x m(-3), 6.8 microg x m(-3) and 2.6 microg x m(-3), respectively. The sum of these three secondary inorganic compounds accounted for more than one third of the PM2.5 mass concentration, which had become the major source of atmospheric fine particles at Mount Dinghu. The diurnal variation of PM2.5, SO4(2-), and NH4(+) all showed a "bimodal" distribution with two peaks appeared at 10:00 am and at 16:00 pm, respectively, whereas NO3(-s) howed "single peak" distribution peaked at 10:00 am. The mass concentrations of SO4(2-) in PM2.5 had the similar diurnal variation with that of SO2, SO4(2-) in PM2.5 was mainly transformed from SO2, whereas NO3(-) showed difference diurnal variation with that of NO2, and the second conversion rate of NO2 was far lower than that of SO2. NH4(+) in PM2.5 existed mainly in the form of sulfate, nitrate and chloride. Both of principal component analysis and back trajectory analysis showed that the variations of PM2.5 and secondary inorganic compounds at Mount Dinghu were mainly affected by the long-range transport air mass passed over Guangzhou, Huizhou and other highly industrialized areas which carried air pollutants to the observation site, at the same time local sulfate originated from secondary formation also

  15. Numerical simulation and variational data assimilation for atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has led to the development of a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model Polair3D which simulates photochemistry. Model-to-data comparison of ozone and nitrogen oxides measurements over the city of Lille in 1998 has proven its reliability at regional scale. 4-dimensional-variational data assimilation has been implemented. It relies on the adjoint model of Polair3D obtained through automatic differentiation. An application of inverse modelling of emissions over Lille city with real measurements has been performed. It has proven that the inversion of temporal parameters of nitrogen oxides emissions leads to a significant improvement of forecasts. The so-called second-order sensitivity allows the study of the sensitivity of the inversion with respect to the data assimilation system itself by computing its conditioning. This is illustrated by two test cases: short-range dispersion of radionuclides and gas-phase atmospheric chemistry characterized by a wide range of timescales. (author)

  16. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  17. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  18. Modelling atmospheric chemistry and long-range transport of emerging Asian pollutants

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Modeling is a very important tool for scientific processes, requiring long-term dedication, desire, and continuous reflection. In this work, we discuss several aspects of modeling, and the reasons for doing it. We discuss two major modeling systems that have been built by us over the last 10 years. It is a long and arduous process but the reward of understanding can be enormous, as demonstrated in the examples shown in this work. We found that long-range transport of emerging Asian pollutants can be interpreted using a Lagrangian framework for wind analysis. More detailed processes still need to be modeled but an accurate representation of the wind structure is the most important thing above all others. Our long-term chemistry integrations reveal the capability of the IMS model in simulating tropospheric chemistry on a climate scale. These long-term integrations also show ways for further model development. Modeling is a quantitative process, and the understanding can be sustained only when theories are vigor...

  19. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas.

  20. The spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents during the period 2000-2005 in the Urban Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hermes U Ramírez; García, María D Andrade; Bejaran, Rubén; Guadalupe, Mario E García; Vázquez, Antonio Wallo; Toledano, Ana C Pompa; Villasenor, Odila de la Torre

    2009-06-15

    In the large cities, the disordered urban development, the industrial activities, and the transport, have caused elevated concentrations of polluting agents and possible risks to the health of the population. The metropolises located in valleys with little ventilation (such as the Urban Area of Guadalajara: UAG) present low dispersion of polluting agents can cause high risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particles smaller than 10 microns (microm) (PM(10)) and ozone (O(3)) in the UAG during the period 2000-2005. A spatial-temporal distribution analysis was made by means of graphic interpolation (Kriging method) of the statistical parameters of CO, NO(2), SO(2), PM(10) and O(3) with the collected data from eight stations of atmospheric monitoring in the UAG. The results show that the distributions of the atmospheric polluting agents are variable during the analyzed years. The polluting agent with highest concentration is PM(10) (265.42 microg/m(3)), followed by O(3) (0.11 ppm), NO(2) (0.11 ppm), CO (9.17 ppm) and SO(2) (0.05 ppm). The most affected zone is the southeast of the UAG. The results showed that an important percentage of days exceed the Mexican norms of air quality (93-199 days/year).

  1. Effect of the nanocrystallization of amorphous soft magnetic Fe-P-Nb alloys on corrosion resistance in a damp SO2-polluted atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilova, V. V.; Zabolotnyi, V. T.; Korneev, V. P.; Anosova, M. O.; Baldokhin, Yu. V.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of the nanocrystallization of amorphous soft magnetic Fe-P-Nb alloys on their electrochemical behavior in a damp SO2-polluted industrial atmosphere is studied. It is shown that their electro-chemical characteristics shit toward positive values when the phosphorus content in the Fe-P-Nb alloys increases and when they undergo nanocrystallization from an amorphous state.

  2. The curious case of the date of introduction of leaded fuel to Australia: Implications for the history of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric lead pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. E.; Gale, S. J.

    By comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, the history of atmospheric lead pollution in the Southern Hemisphere is still poorly understood. Until recently, the main source of atmospheric lead fallout in the Southern Hemisphere was tetraethyl lead from motor fuel and for most of the 20th century the most important single source of this pollutant was Australia. Yet there is little agreement over when leaded fuel made its first appearance in Australia. Reported dates range from the early 1920s to the late 1940s. A study of oil company advertisements and reports in motoring and oil company journals shows that leaded petrol first became available in Australia in August 1932. This date is important both for the reconstruction of lead pollution histories and in the use of lead stratigraphies to determine chronology.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MEANS FOR ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL LOSSES FROM POLLUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN ZONES OF TECHNOGENIC OBJECTS IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. POPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the solution of one of the most important problems of rational use of natural resources. Modern mathematical tools for damage estimation, which are caused by atmospheric pollution to natural objects, and also methods for calculation of the cost for their renewal were developed. The solution of problem was divided into 3 stages. At the first stage it was defined basic anthropogenic sources of pollution, was illustrated conceptual behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere emitted by technological stationary point source. Choice of mathematical model that allows to determine the distribution of pollutants concentration in the air in zones of pollution by point stationary sources in the short-term discharges was proved. At the second stage it was developed mathematical tools to determine the level of objects damage, which were in the zone of pollution, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure of technogenic sources. At the third stage it was developed mathematical models to determine the recoverable amount of natural objects depending on their level of damage. Model example of developed means usage was described. Advantages of developed means over existed analogs were noticed.

  4. Urban light pollution - The effect of atmospheric aerosols on astronomical observations at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joachim H.; Mekler, Yuri; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of diffuse city light from a localized source through a dust-laden atmosphere with optical depth less than 0.5 has been analyzed in the source-observer plane on the basis of an approximate treatment. The effect on several types of astronomical observation at night has been studied, considering different size distributions and amounts as well as particle shapes of the aerosols. The analysis is made in terms of the signal-to-noise ratios for a given amount of aerosol. The model is applied to conditions at the Wise Astronomical Observatory in the Negev desert, and limiting backgrounds for spectroscopy, photometry, and photography of stars and extended objects have been calculated for a variety of signal-to-noise ratios. Applications to observations with different equipment at various distances from an urban area of any size are possible. Due to the use of signal-to-noise ratios, the conclusions are different for the different experimental techniques used in astronomy.

  5. Fire risk and air pollution assessment during the 2007 wildfire events in Greece using the COSMO-ART atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, E.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Vogel, H.; Rieger, D.; Knote, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Vogel, B.; Karali, A.

    2012-04-01

    During 2007, Greece experienced an extreme summer and the worst natural hazard in its modern history. Soil dehydration, following a prolonged dry period in combination with hot temperatures and strong winds, yielded favorable conditions for the ignition and spread of wild fires that burnt approximately 200,000 ha of vegetated land (Founda and Gianakopoulos, 2009; Sifakis et al., 2011). The relationship between meteorology and fire potential can be provided by the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), which is already found applicable in the fire activity of the Mediterranean region (Carvalho et al., 2008). However, lack of meteorological data or remote fire spots can be sources of uncertainties for fire risk estimation. In addition to the direct fire damage, these fires produced large quantities of gaseous air pollutants and particles (PM10) dispersed over the area of Greece. Indeed, PM10 concentration measurements showed two pollution episodes over Athens during late August and early September, 2007 (Liu et al., 2009). Nevertheless, these measurements neither show the large spatial extent of fire effects nor reveal its important role on atmospheric chemistry. In the current study, the application of the atmospheric model COSMO-ART is used to investigate the issues addressed above. COSMO-ART (Vogel et al. 2009) is a regional chemistry transport model (ART stands for Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) online-coupled to the COSMO regional numerical weather prediction and climate model (Baldauf et al. 2011). The current simulations are performed between August 15 and September 15 over Greece with a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km and a vertical extend up to 20 km. The initial and boundary meteorological conditions are derived from a coarser COSMO simulation performed by the German Weather Service. Fire emissions are retrieved from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (van der Werf et al., 2010). The anthropogenic emission database used is the TNO/MACC (Kuenen et

  6. The Paris Convention for the prevention of marine pollution from land-based sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paris Convention of 1974 which entered into force at an international level in 1978 is an important instrument to protect the North Sea and the North Atlantic against pollution from land-based sources. Contracting Parties are practically all riparian states of its scope of application - 13 states on the whole - as well as the EC. There is a survey of the functions, organization and working method, the instruments and results so far achieved in the framework of the Convention. Priority was so far given to the following substances or, respectively, groups of substances: oil, mercury, cadmium, drines, PCB's and PCT's as well as titanium dioxide. In this respect, it was above all agreed on: emission and immission standards (or guide values, respectively), recommendations for measures reducing emissions and a number of obligations to report. Studies and discussions on organosilicone compounds, radioactivity, water pollution through the atmosphere and eutrophication phenomena are relatively new. The opportunities offered by the Paris Convention have not yet been fully used. (orig.)

  7. Summer atmospheric composition over the Mediterranean basin: Investigation on transport processes and pollutant export to the free troposphere by observations at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofanelli, P.; Landi, T. C.; Calzolari, F.; Duchi, R.; Marinoni, A.; Rinaldi, M.; Bonasoni, P.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we analysed reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx) and aerosol properties (eqBC, σs and particle number concentration) collected at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone station (2165 m a.s.l., Italy) during the summer of 2012 in the framework of PEGASOS project. The major aim of this experiment is providing a characterization of the variability of summer atmospheric composition over the central Mediterranean basin, which is considered as a global "hot-spot" for atmospheric pollution and climate change. The atmospheric tracers have been analysed as a function of (i) meteorological parameters, (ii) synoptic-scale circulation and (iii) anthropogenic emission source proximity as estimated by O3/NOx ratio variability. In particular, we identified three O3/NOx regimes which tagged the distance of anthropogenic sources: near outflow (23% of hourly data), far-outflow (38% of data) and background (39% of data). The highest levels of anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. O3, CO, eqBC, accumulation particles) were concomitant with fresh emissions from northern Italy under near-outflow conditions: once injected to the free troposphere, these air-masses, rich in pollutants and climate-forcers (i.e. O3, eqBC) and soil dust, can be spread over a large region, thus significantly affecting regional climate. Moreover, based on the anthropogenic source proximity, atmospheric tracer variability and synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation, we categorized and characterised four types of atmospheric regimes associated with (1) air-mass transport from the free troposphere, (2) transport of fresh emitted pollutants from the PBL, (3) transport at regional/continental scale of aged anthropogenic (4) transport of air-mass rich in mineral dust from northern Africa (i.e. coming from more than 1000 km). Lastly, by analysing the probability density functions (PDFs) of trace gases and aerosol properties, "fingerprints" of the mentioned atmospheric regimes were pointed out. Such information is useful for the

  8. Study of Water Pollution Early Warning Framework Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengfang, H.; Xiao, X.; Dingtao, S.; Bo, C.; Xiongfei, W.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, with the increasing world environmental pollution happening, sudden water pollution incident has become more and more frequently in China. It has posed a serious threat to water safety of the people living in the water source area. Conventional water pollution monitoring method is manual periodic testing, it maybe miss the best time to find that pollution incident. This paper proposes a water pollution warning framework to change this state. On the basis of the Internet of things, we uses automatic water quality monitoring technology to realize monitoring. We calculate the monitoring data with water pollution model to judge whether the water pollution incident is happen or not. Water pollution warning framework is divided into three layers: terminal as the sensing layer, it with the deployment of the automatic water quality pollution monitoring sensor. The middle layer is the transfer network layer, data information implementation is based on GPRS wireless network transmission. The upper one is the application layer. With these application systems, early warning information of water pollution will realize the high-speed transmission between grassroots units and superior units. The paper finally gives an example that applying this pollution warning framework to water quality monitoring of Beijing, China, it greatly improves the speed of the pollution warning responding of Beijing.

  9. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Molina, Ricardo; Schikora, Hendrik; Müller, Michael; Bayona, Josep M

    2013-11-15

    Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1-5 mg L(-1)) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min(-1) for atrazine; 0.567 min(-1) for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min(-1) for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min(-1) for atrazine; 0.523 min(-1) for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min(-1) for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for atrazine; 447 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for c hlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by -products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min(-1) for atrazine; k = 0.061 min(-1) for lindane). PMID:24121639

  10. Analysis of the relationship between economic growth and environmental pollution in Iran (evidence from three sections of land, water and atmosphere)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Taghvaee, Vahid; Khodaparast Shirazi, Jalil

    2014-01-01

    Never in the history of concerns about environmental pollution caused by economic growth is not as much today. Economically, the country where production is mainly based on the polluting industries of oil, gas and petrochemical projects those are not exempt from this. Environment of a desert country with a different climate, the sea and the forest, which can be affected by the polluting industry so both economically and environmentally suitable case for examining the relationship bet...

  11. Evaluation of the pollution and human health risks posed by heavy metals in the atmospheric dust in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwailil, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Fengqing, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a large amount of research assessing pollution levels and the related health risks posed by atmosphere dust has been undertaken worldwide. However, little work has been done in the oases of the arid regions of Northwest China. In this paper, we studied the pollution and health risks over a year of seven heavy metals in the atmospheric dust of Ebinur Basin, a typical oasis in Northwest China. The results showed the following: (1) The annual amount of atmospheric deposition in Ebinur Basin was 298.23 g m(-2) and the average monthly atmospheric deposition was 25.06 g m(-2). The average and maximum values of the seven heavy metals measured were all below the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (2nd). (2) Heavy metals of Cu, Cr, and As in the atmospheric deposition mainly originated from the natural geological background, while Zn came from human activity. This study also showed that among the seven measured heavy metals, the ratios of the no-pollution status of Pb, Cd, and Hg were higher than those of others with moderate degrees of pollution also accounting for a certain ratio. (3) The carcinogenic risks from As, Cd, and Cr were all lower than the corresponding standard limit values, and these metals are considered not harmful to the health of the basin. However, there is a relatively high risk of exposure for children from hand-to-mouth intake, which is worthy of attention. This research showed that both human activity and natural factors, such as wind and altitude, influenced the heavy metal contents in the atmospheric dust of the study area. Furthermore, recent human activity in the study area had the most negative influence on the accumulation of the heavy metals and the corresponding health risks, especially for Hg, Pb, and Cd, which is worthy of attention.

  12. Application of a Lagrangian modeling to the atmospheric pollution; Aplicacion de una modelizacion Lagrangiana a la contaminacion atmosferica transfronteriza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rua, A.; Hernandez, E. [Departamento de Fisica del Aire, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, L. [Centro de Formacion del Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INM), Madrid (Spain)

    1998-04-01

    In this article, a physical modeling of the atmospheric pollution was considered. The objective was to determine the concentrations of pollutants in a receptor station reproducing the way followed by the air mass and simulating the physical and chemical processes involved during this way. To do that we used a Lagrangian model. To estimate the quality of the model a comparison between the theoretical concentration from the model and the observed concentrations is done. The model uses the air mass trajectories arriving at the receptor station calculated from the Limited Area Model (LAM). These trajectories let us know the air mass position each 6 hours. Once the initial model had been run, several parameters were modified with the aim of reproducing letter the conditions of The Iberian Peninsula. The considered pollutants were the SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2}- and the chosen station was Logrono (Spain). [Spanish] En este articulo se planteo una modelizacion de la contaminacion atmosferica transfronteriza desde un punto de vista fisico. Asi, reproduciendo el camino seguido por las masas de aire que transportan los contaminantes y simulando lo mejor posible los procesos fisico-quimicos existentes durante ese camino, pretendimos determinar cual fue la concentracion final registrada de tales contaminantes en una estacion receptora. Un modelo fisico de tipo Lagrangiano se uso en este trabajo. Para estimar la bondad de tal modelizacion se realizo una comparacion entre la concentracion final estimada mediante la modelizacion y la observada. Se partio de las trayectorias de las masas de aire que llegan hasta esa estacion receptora, calculadas a partir del Modelo de Area Limitada (LAM), y que permite conocer la posicion de la masa de aire cada 6 horas. Fueron modificados algunos parametros del modelo fisico inicialmente propuestos, adecuandolos mas a la realidad fisica de la Peninsula Iberica, lograndose una mejora en los resultados obtenidos en un primer momento. Los

  13. Nucleation and growth of sub-3 nm particles in the polluted urban atmosphere of a megacity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distribution down to 1.38 nm was measured in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing, China in spring, summer and winter during 2014–2015. Nucleation event occurred on 42 out of total 90 observation days, but new particles could grow to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN-active sizes on only 9 days. In summer, infrequent nucleation was limited by both unfavorable meteorological conditions (high temperature and RH and reduced anthropogenic precursor availability due to strict emission control measures during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. The limiting factors for nucleation in winter and spring were meteorological conditions (radiation, temperature, and RH and condensation sink, but for the further growth of sub-3 nm particles to CCN-active sizes, anthropogenic precursors again became limiting factors. Nucleation events were strong in the polluted urban atmosphere. Initial J1.38 at the onset and peak J1.38 at the noontime could be up to 2.1 × 102 and 2.5 × 103 cm−3 s−1, respectively, during the 8 nucleation events selected from different seasons. Time-dependent J1.38 usually showed good linear correlations with a sulfuric acid proxy for every single event (R2 = 0.56–0.86, excluding a day with significant nocturnal nucleation, but the correlation among all the 8 events deteriorated (R2 = 0.17 due to temperature or season change. We observed that new particle growth rate did not increase monotonically with particle size, but had a local maximum up to 25 nm h−1 between 1–3 nm. The growth rate behavior was interpreted in this study as the solvation effect of organic activating vapor in newly formed inorganic nuclei using nano-Köhler theory.

  14. Client Server Model Based DAQ System for Real-Time Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrivel. P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system consists of client server model based Data-Acquisition Unit. The Embedded Web Server integrates Pollution Server and DAQ that collects air Pollutants levels (CO, NO2, and SO2. The Pollution Server is designed by considering modern resource constrained embedded systems. In contrast, an application server is designed to the efficient execution of programs and scripts for supporting the construction of various applications. While a pollution server mainly deals with sending HTML for display in a web browser on the client terminal, an application server provides access to server side logic for pollutants levels to be use by client application programs. The Embedded Web Server is an arm mcb2300 board with internet connectivity and acts as air pollution server as this standalone device gathers air pollutants levels and as a Server. Embedded Web server is accessed by various clients.

  15. Emissions to the Atmosphere from Amine-Based Post Combustion CO2 Capture Plant – Regulatory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzi Merched

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amine-based Post Combustion Capture (PCC of CO2 is a readily available technology that can be deployed to reduce CO2 emissions from coal fired power plants. However, PCC plants will likely release small quantities of amine and amine degradation products to the atmosphere along with the treated flue gas. The possible environmental effects of these emissions have been examined through different studies carried out around the world. Based on flue gas from a 400 MW ultra-supercritical coal fired power plant Aspen-Plus PCC process simulations were used to predict the potential atmospheric emissions from the plant. Different research initiatives carried out in this area have produced new knowledge that has significantly reduced the risk perception for the release of amine and amine degradation products to the atmosphere. In addition to the reduction of the CO2 emissions, the PCC technology will also help in reducing SOx and NO2 emissions. However, some other pollutants such as NH3 and aerosols will increase if appropriate control technologies are not adopted. To study the atmospheric photo-oxidation of amines, attempts are being made to develop chemical reaction schemes that can be used for air quality assessment. However, more research is still required in this area to estimate the reactivity of amino solvents in the presence of other pollutants such as NOx and other volatile organic compounds in the background air. Current air quality guidelines may need to be updated to include limits for the additional pollutants such as NH3, nitrosamines and nitramines once more information related to their emissions is available. This paper focuses on describing the predicted concentrations of major pollutants that are expected to be released from a coal fired power plant obtained by ASPEN-Plus PCC process simulations in terms of current air quality regulations and other regulatory aspects.

  16. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A C; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J H; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemente

  17. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    The current global climate change is determined by changes in the structure of weather conditions, whose impact on the health of various regions of the planet has not been studied sufficiently. To study this effect on the low-altitude mountains resort of Kislovodsk (southern Russia) multi-factor assessment of the impact of the environment on human health is carried out. There were taking in account atmosphere condition, atmospheric aerosol pollution relationship with atmospheric circulation, the level of pollution matching with different types of weather, and, on the base of analysis of meteopathic reactions (MPR), the extent of their biotropism was revealed. Two sides of weather-climatic influences - specific and nonspecific - are interconnected. They manifest themselves differently in humans with different levels of regulation of vital activity and the adaptive capacity of the organism to the complex environmental effects. This complicates the precise physiological basis of quantitative criteria for the prediction of "biotropic" (adverse) weathers. Nevertheless, clinical observations have shown the existence of the "limiting" physiological bound on the size of medical-meteorological modules (MMM). The reactions of the organism to unfavorable weather factors on the results of a questionnaire monitoring surveillance of patients treated in clinics of Federal State Institution "Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Curortology, FMBA of Russia" (PSRIC), in comparison with clinical data, have identified various MPR of the organism, the clinical manifestation of which depends on age, sex of the patient, the availability of principal and attendant pathology, reactivity, etc. Analysis of the results of clinical observation, cases of medical aid appealability to the station an ambulance at the sudden ill health, as well as the uptake of advice of sick people among immigrants during their short stay at the resort, and the local population, allowed the first approximation

  18. Inverse modeling for the optimization of primary sources of atmospheric pollution at a regional scale; Modelisation inverse pour l'optimisation des sources primaires de pollution atmospherique a l'echelle regionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pison, I.

    2005-12-15

    Atmospheric pollution at a regional scale is the result of various interacting processes: emissions, chemistry, transport, mixing and deposition of gaseous species. The forecast of air quality is then performed by models, in which the emissions are taken into account through inventories. The simulated pollutant concentrations depend highly on the emissions that are used. Now inventories that represent them have large uncertainties. Since it would be difficult today to improve their building methodologies, there remains the possibility of adding information to existing inventories. The optimization of emissions uses the information that is available in measurements to get the inventory that minimizes the difference between simulated and measured concentrations. A method for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a regional scale, using network measurements and based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint, was developed and validated. A kriging technique allows us to optimize the use of the information available in the concentration space. Repeated kriging-optimization cycles increase the quality of the results. A dynamical spatial aggregation technique makes it possible to further reduce the size of the problem. The NO{sub x} emissions from the inventory elaborated by AIRPARIF for the Paris area were inverted during the summers of 1998 and 1999, the events of the ESQUIF campaign being studied in detail. The optimization reduces large differences between simulated and measured concentrations. Generally, however, the confidence level of the results decreases with the density of the measurement network. Therefore, the results with the higher confidence level correspond to the most intense emission fluxes of the Paris area. On the whole domain, the corrections to the average emitted mass and to the matching time profiles are consistent with the estimate of 15% obtained during the ESQUIF campaign. (author)

  19. Evaluation of hydrophobic treatments applied to stones used in andalusian cathedrals. III.-Accelerated weathering test with polluted atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Sánchez, R.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY In this work we study the weathering resistance of samples of five types of stone used in Andalusian Cathedrals, treated with six water repellent products, by subjecting the samples to a SO2 polluted atmosphere. To evaluate the alteration of the samples, besides visual observation of macroscopic aspect, changes in weight and the quantity of sulfate that remains on the surface have been measured. Also properties related with water have been measured after the test to determine if there have been any changes in the hydrophobic characteristics.

    En el presente artículo se estudia el comportamiento de muestras de cinco tipos de piedra utilizados en catedrales andaluzas, tratadas con seis productos hidrófugos, sometiéndolas a un ensayo acelerado de alteración en atmósfera contaminada con SO2 . Para evaluar la alteración, además de la observación visual de las manifestaciones macroscópicas, se ha medido la variación de peso de las muestras expuestas y la cantidad de sulfato que permanece en la superficie tras el ensayo. Así mismo, se han detectado los cambios experimentados en las propiedades hidrófugas conferidas por los tratamientos, mediante la medida de propiedades relacionadas con el movimiento del agua.

  20. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inventory of atmospheric pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in France. Sectoral series and extended analyses - SECTEN Format, April 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supplies an update of emissions into the atmosphere in mainland France under the SNIEPA in accordance with the 'SECTEN' format defined by CITEPA. This report aims to reconstitute emissions broken down in accordance with the traditional economic sectors such as industry, residential/tertiary sector, agriculture, etc. (cf. Annex 2 for the corresponding links between SECTEN sectors and sub-sectors, and the SNAP nomenclature). Unless otherwise indicated, the results cover the period 1990-2010 (estimations for 2010 are preliminary), but also go back further in time: to 1980 for certain substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. For other substances traditionally monitored by CITEPA for many years, the results go back to 1960 (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO). Data are presented for 28 different substances in total and various indicators such as those concerning acidification or the greenhouse effect. The report shows that for most substances, emissions have been drastically reduced over the last 10 or 20 years, especially during the period 1990-2009: Very sharp decrease (over 40%) SO2, NMVOCs, CO, SF6, PFCs in CO2 equivalent, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, dioxins and furans, PAHs, HCB, PCBs, PM2.5 and PM1.0, Sharp decrease (between 20 and 40%) NOx, N2O, Se, TSP, PM10 and acid equivalent index, Considerable decrease (between 5 and 20%) NH3, CH4 without LULUCF, CO2 without LULUCF, Cu and the global warming potential index without LULUCF, Stabilisation (between -5 and +5%) No substance, Very sharp increase (over 40%) HFCs in CO2 equivalent. For more than 2/3 of substances, emission levels in 2009 were the lowest since records began (1960 to 1990 depending on the substances). For the most part of atmospheric pollutants (except the greenhouse gases), the preliminary estimations for year 2010 look rather favorable as far as the estimated level is below than observed in 2009. Regarding the

  2. Multistate atmospheric power production pollution study - MAP3S. Progress report for FY 1977 and FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, Michael C.; Ballantine, David S.

    1979-07-01

    Research progress on the transport, transformation, and fate of pollutants released by energy-related activities is summarized. Information is reported under the following section headings: power production emissions; non-power production emissions; measuring pollutants and their properties; regional pollutant distribution; transport; pollutant transformation; surface removal processes; wet removal processes; weather and climate modification; numerical modeling and analysis; special activities; and, MAP3S research directions. (JGB)

  3. Probabilistic infrasound propagation using ensemble based atmospheric perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Pieter; Evers, Läslo

    2015-04-01

    The state of the atmosphere is of utmost importance for infrasound propagation. In propagation modelling, still, the true state of the atmosphere is mainly represented by the analysis. The analysis is the best deterministic estimate of the atmosphere using a data assimilation system existing of a General Circulation Model (GCM). However, the analysis excludes error variances of both model and observations. In addition, the coarse resolution of GCM results in averaging of, e.g., clouds or gravity waves, over larger regions known as parameterisation. Consequentially, arrivals due to fine-scale structure in wind and temperature can be missing. Therefore, infrasound propagation including the atmospheric best-estimate error variances based on the ensemble model is proposed. The ensemble system exists of model perturbations with an amplitude comparable to analysis error estimates to obtain a probability density function rather than one specific state as obtained from a deterministic system. The best-estimate analysis error variances are described by a set of perturbations using the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Ensemble Data Assimilation (EDA) system. Probabilistic infrasound propagation using 3-D ray tracing is demonstrated by one year of mining activity, e.g., blasting, in Gällivare, northern Sweden, observed at infrasound array IS37 in Norway, part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Probabilistic infrasound propagation is compared with the standard deterministic result obtained using the analysis.

  4. Atmospheric Refraction Path Integrals in Ground-Based Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mathar, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The basic effect of the earth's atmospheric refraction on telescope operation is the reduction of the true zenith angle to the apparent zenith angle, associated with prismatic aberrations due to the dispersion in air. If one attempts coherent superposition of star images in ground-based interferometry, one is in addition interested in the optical path length associated with the refracted rays. In a model of a flat earth, the optical path difference between these is not concerned as the transl...

  5. Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System-Based Pollution Severity Prediction of Polymeric Insulators in Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Muniraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the prediction of pollution severity of the polymeric insulators used in power transmission lines using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS model. In this work, laboratory-based pollution performance tests were carried out on 11 kV silicone rubber polymeric insulator under AC voltage at different pollution levels with sodium chloride as a contaminant. Leakage current was measured during the laboratory tests. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of leakage current, such as mean value, maximum value, standard deviation, and total harmonics distortion (THD, have been extracted, which jointly describe the pollution severity of the polymeric insulator surface. Leakage current characteristics are used as the inputs of ANFIS model. The pollution severity index “equivalent salt deposit density” (ESDD is used as the output of the proposed model. Results of the research can give sufficient prewarning time before pollution flashover and help in the condition based maintenance (CBM chart preparation.

  6. The role of volatile organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere of Bristol, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Rivett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a field campaign carried out from early spring through to the late summer of 2000, in Bristol, England, are presented. Continuous measurements of over 40 hydrocarbons have been made at an urban background site, located at Bristol University, for approximately nine months using a Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionisation Detection (GC-FID system and for a selection of halocarbons for approximately one month using a Gas Chromatography - Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD system. In this paper we present the time-series of the nine halocarbons and selected hydrocarbons. Daytime and night-time hydroxyl radical concentrations have been estimated based on the diurnal variations of a selection of the measured hydrocarbons. The average summer daytime concentration of OH was found to be 2.5x106 molecules cm-3 and the night-time concentration to be in the range 104 to 105 molecules cm-3. In addition, the role played by certain VOCs in the formation of ozone is assessed using the POCP (Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential concept.

  7. Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, E.; Donateo, A.; Gambaro, A.; Cesari, D.; Gregoris, E.; Barbaro, E.; Dinoi, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Masieri, S.; Contini, D.

    2016-08-01

    Ship emissions are a growing concern, especially in coastal areas, for potential impacts on human health and climate. International mitigation strategies to curb these emission, based on low-sulphur content fuels, have proven useful to improve local air quality. However, the effect on climate forcing is less obvious. Detailed information on the influence of shipping to particles of different sizes is needed to investigate air quality and climate interaction. In this work, the contributions of maritime emissions to atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and of particles (sizes from 0.009 μm to 30 μm) were investigated considering manoeuvring (arrival and departure of ships) and hotelling phases (including loading/unloading activities). Results showed that the size distributions of shipping contributions were different for the two phases and could be efficiently described, using measured data, considering four size-ranges. The largest contribution to particles concentration was observed for Dp < 0.25 μm, however, a secondary maximum was observed at Dp = 0.35 μm. The minimum contribution was observed at Dp around 0.8-0.9 μm with a negligible contribution from hotelling for size range 0.4-1 μm. The comparison of 2012 and 2014 datasets showed no significant changes of gaseous and particulate pollutant emissions and of the contribution to particle mass concentration. However, an increase of the contribution to particle number concentration (PNC) was observed. Results suggested that harbour logistic has a relevant role in determining the total impact of shipping on air quality of the nearby coastal areas. Additionally, future policies should focus on PNC that represents an important fraction of emissions also for low-sulphur fuels. DOAS remote sensing proved a useful tool to directly measure NO2 and SO2 ship emissions giving estimates comparable with those of emission inventory approach.

  8. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vleeschouwer, Francois de [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail: fdevleeschouwer@student.ulg.ac.be; Gerard, Laetitia [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium); Goormaghtigh, Catherine [Unite de recherche: ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Mattielli, Nadine [Unite de recherche: ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 B-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Fagel, Nathalie [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with {sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles.

  9. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia. Human impact on a regional to global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois; Gerard, Laetitia; Fagel, Nathalie [URAP, Departement de Geologie, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout B18 Sart Tilman B4000 - Liege (Belgium); Goormaghtigh, Catherine; Mattielli, Nadine [Unite de recherche: ' ' Isotopes, Petrologie et Environnement' ' , Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, CP 160/02 Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue FD. Roosevelt, 50, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Le Roux, Gael [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 B-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with {sup 14}C and {sup 210}Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles. (author)

  10. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with 14C and 210Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles

  11. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster

  12. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 86% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 48% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from weakly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM forms most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A decrease of alkaline

  13. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005-2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter) in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster decrease of alkaline base

  14. Probing Pluto's Atmosphere Using Ground-Based Stellar Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Rio de Janeiro Occultation Team, Granada Team, International Occultation and Timing Association, Royal Astronomical Society New Zealand Occultation Section, Lucky Star associated teams

    2016-10-01

    Over the last three decades, some twenty stellar occultations by Pluto have been monitored from Earth. They occur when the dwarf planet blocks the light from a star for a few minutes as it moves on the sky. Such events led to the hint of a Pluto's atmosphere in 1985, that was fully confirmed during another occultation in 1988, but it was only in 2002 that a new occultation could be recorded. From then on, the dwarf planet started to move in front of the galactic center, which amplified by a large factor the number of events observable per year.Pluto occultations are essentially refractive events during which the stellar rays are bent by the tenuous atmosphere, causing a gradual dimming of the star. This provides the density, pressure and temperature profiles of the atmosphere from a few kilometers above the surface up to about 250 km altitude, corresponding respectively to pressure levels of about 10 and 0.1 μbar. Moreover, the extremely fine spatial resolution (a few km) obtained through this technique allows the detection of atmospheric gravity waves, and permits in principle the detection of hazes, if present.Several aspects make Pluto stellar occultations quite special: first, they are the only way to probe Pluto's atmosphere in detail, as the dwarf planet is far too small on the sky and the atmosphere is far too tenuous to be directly imaged from Earth. Second, they are an excellent example of participative science, as many amateurs have been able to record those events worldwide with valuable scientific returns, in collaboration with professional astronomers. Third, they reveal Pluto's climatic changes on decade-scales and constrain the various seasonal models currently explored.Finally, those observations are fully complementary to space exploration, in particular with the New Horizons (NH) mission. I will show how ground-based occultations helped to better calibrate some NH profiles, and conversely, how NH results provide some key boundary conditions

  15. Enviormental Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Saini; Dr. Sona Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Environment Pollution is one of the greatest problems today which is increasing with every passing year and causing crucial and severe damage to the earth. It has become a real problem since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It is the contamination of physical and biological components of the Earth / atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are harmed. Pollution of the environment consists of five main types of pollution, namely air, water,...

  16. 英国防治大气污染的经验启示%On prevention and control of atmospheric pollution in britain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜仓宇

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, as many cities frequently enveloped in smog, atmospheric pollution is becoming a hot topic in China. Preventing and controlling atmospheric pollution is a serious social problem that Chinese government must face. Britain, once as“World Factory”, starts to solve the same problem almost half century ago. Learning their experience could help us in solving the problem.%目前,随着工业化的发展,雾霭天气在我国各大城市频繁出现,防治大气污染已刻不容缓。借鉴西方发达国家在防治大气污染方面的先进经验,可以使我国在大气污染的防治过程中少走弯路。

  17. Modelling impact of climate change on atmospheric transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Hansen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM was applied to investigate how projected climate changes will affect the atmospheric transport of 13 persistent organic pollutants (POPs to the Artic and their environmental fate within the Arctic. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with initial environmental concentrations from a 20 year spin-up simulation and one with initial environmental concentrations set to zero. Each set of simulations consisted of two ten-year time slices representing the present (1990–2000 and future (2090–2100 climate conditions. The same POP emissions were applied in all simulations to ensure that the difference in predicted concentrations for each set of simulations only arises from the difference in climate input. DEHM was driven using meteorological input from the global circulation model, ECHAM/MPI-OM, simulating the SRES A1B climate scenario. Under the applied climate and emission scenarios, the total mass of all compounds was predicted to be up to 20% higher across the Northern Hemisphere. The mass of HCHs within the Arctic was predicted to be up to 39% higher, whereas the change in mass of the PCBs was predicted to range from 14% lower to 17% higher depending on the congener and the applied initial environmental concentrations. The results of this study also indicate that contaminants with no or a short emission history will be more rapidly transported to and build up in the arctic environment in a future warmer climate. The process that dominates the environmental behaviour of POPs in the Arctic under a future warmer climate scenario is the shift in mass of POPs from the surface media to the atmosphere induced by the higher mean temperature. This is to some degree counteracted by higher degradation rates also following the higher mean temperature. The more dominant of these two processes depend on the physical-chemical properties of the compounds. Previous model studies have predicted that the effect of

  18. A new approach to the problem of removal of soluble gaseous pollutants from the atmosphere and its correspondence with the existing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumitra Chattopadhyay

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been developed using the kinetic theory for the dissolution of gaseous pollutants in cloud droplets. The existing theory, using the diffusion approach, assumes dissolving gas to be a continuous medium. This approach may not always be suitable; especially, as the mean free paths of the pollutant gases at the existing concentrations available at the atmosphere are of the same order as the diameter of the cloud droplets. We develop an equation by considering the mass of the gas molecules striking per unit area of the droplets. Equations are also developed for the rate of dissolution of gaseous air pollutants and an attempt has been made to find out the correspondence with the classical approach and the mass transfer process.

  19. Knowledge base to develop expert system prototype for predicting groundwater pollution from nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An expert system for prediction the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on groundwater pollution potential was established by using CLIPS (NASA's Jonson Space Centre). The knowledge base could be extracted from FAO reports, ministry of agriculture and rural development Malaysia report, established literature and domain expert for preparing an expert system skeleton. An expert system was used to correlate the availability of nitrogen fertilizer with the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Peninsula Malaysia and to identify potential groundwater quality problems. An n-fertilizer groundwater pollution potential index produced b using the vulnerability of groundwater to pollution yields a more accurate screening toll for identifying potential pollution problems than by considering vulnerability alone. An expert system can predict the groundwater pollution potential under several conditions of agricultural activities and existing environments. (authors)

  20. Traffic-related atmospheric pollutants levels during pregnancy and offspring's term birth weight: a study relying on a land-use regression exposure model.

    OpenAIRE

    Slama, Rémy; Morgenstern, Verena; Cyrys, Josef; Zutavern, Anne; Herbarth, Olf; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim; Study Group, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that particulate matter (PM) levels during pregnancy may be associated with birth weight. Road traffic is a major source of fine PM (PM with aero-dynamic diameter < 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)). OBJECTIVE: We determined to characterize the influence of maternal exposure to atmospheric pollutants due to road traffic and urban activities on offspring term birth weight. METHODS: Women from a birth cohort [the LISA (Influences of Lifestyle...

  1. The lichen Parmelia physodes (L. Ach. as indicator for determination of the degree of atmospheric air pollution in the area contaminated by flourine and sulphur dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.

  2. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Li, X.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Li, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, Z.; Hu, W.; Huang, X.; He, L.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-03-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone-forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008, 2 months of emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observational evidence reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e., NMHCs) by 30-40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission controls on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were reduced by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive alkenes and aromatics closely related to automobile sources did not present much difference (< 30%). A zero-dimensional box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2) was applied to evaluate how OVOC production responds to the reduced precursors during the emissions control period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%), isoprene (30%) and aromatics (15%). The importance of biogenic sources for the total HCHO formation was almost on par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modeled HCHO, CH3CHO, methyl

  3. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008 two months' emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observation evidence has been reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e. NMHCs by 30–40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO, acetaldehyde (CH3CHO, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission control on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were decreased by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive hydrocarbons attributed to vehicular emissions did not present obvious difference. A zero-dimensional box model based on Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2 was applied to evaluate how OVOCs productions respond to the reduced precursors during the emission controlled period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%, isoprene (30% and aromatics (15%. The importance of biogenic source for the total HCHO formation was almost on a par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modelled aldehydes, methyl vinyl

  4. Development of multivariate and multi-sensors systems for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants; Developpement de systemes multicapteurs et multivariables pour la mesure en continu de polluants atmospheriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamionka, M.

    2005-04-15

    The purpose of this work was to measure the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants using sensors based on a metal semiconductor, tin dioxide. These sensors were tested with two reducing gases which are carbon monoxide (0-20 ppm), a mixture of hydrocarbons (0-10 ppm) and two oxidizing gases which is ozone (0-500 ppb) and nitrogen dioxide (0-500 ppb). One of the major disadvantages of this type of sensor is their lack of selectivity. Thus the association of several different sensors in multi-sensors system can be a solution. We have developed an automated test bench able to generate the suitable gas concentrations with a controlled humidity. It is then possible to carry out the acquisition of four devices (mono or multi-sensors) with cycles of temperature. We followed the evolution with their age of the performances of various sensors worked out by serigraphy. At the end of these experiments, we showed the interest of the use of some of these sensors for the evaluation of two major components of pollution: ozone and hydrocarbons. We could not prove that the capacitive effects and the effects of electrode were useful parameters for our application. Nevertheless, the measurement with increasing temperature give additional information. Thus, two multi-sensors systems were carried out. One associates three independent sensors and the other consists of three layers deposited on the same heating substrate. These three layers are initially identical (tin dioxide) but two are covered with a thin film, platinum for one and silica for the other. Moreover, one system made up of three commercial sensors used with a constant temperature was also tested. For each studied system, we built behavior models using a Neural Network algorithm. Whereas the models carried out using synthetic gas mixtures appeared unusable for measurements in real pollution, it was shown that a model calibrated directly with air bled in urban environment appears effective for the measurement of

  5. A laser based procedure for the detection of atmospheric NOx gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been known for some time that the combustion of fossil fuels, biomass burning and the automobile, have principally lead to the increased presence of NOX (x=1,2) in the atmosphere especially in the urban environment. The average concentrations of NOX in American, European cities and specifically in Glasgow is about 35 ppb. A laser based procedure, using ionization chambers, has been developed, which will detect NO down to sub ppb levels and NO2 to a few parts per billion. A number of wavelengths can be used but a three photon process at 380 nm is likely to be the most sensitive and selective wavelength for this analysis. This procedure can also be used for a number of other urban pollutants with a single laser operating in the range 200-400 nm

  6. Repercussões clínicas da exposição à poluição atmosférica Clinical repercussions of exposure to atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Delfini Cançado

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A poluição atmosférica é um assunto exaustivamente discutido mundialmente. As repercussões clínicas decorrentes das exposições aos principais poluentes atmosféricos são apresentadas resumidamente. Os padrões de qualidade do ar para esses agentes, segundo a Agência de Proteção Ambiental Americana, estão descritos em relação aos seus valores primários e tempo médio. Os efeitos respiratórios conseqüentes à queima de combustíveis fósseis e de biomassa são apresentados de forma sucinta visando, essencialmente, a alertar os profissionais da saúde para o aumento da morbidade relacionada com a poluição ambiental.Atmospheric pollution is a topic of extensive discussion the world over. The clinical repercussions of exposure to the principal atmospheric pollutants are summarized herein. According to the American Environmental Protection Agency, air quality standards for these agents are set based on their primary and half-life values. The respiratory effects of the burning of fossil fuels and biomass are succinctly presented, with a special focus on alerting health care professionals of the increased morbidity related to environmental pollution.

  7. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China: estimation based on native moss analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, G Geoff; Fang, Yan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We studied atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China, using moss (Haplocladium microphyllum and H. angustifolium) as a biomonitoring agent. Moss samples were collected from 49 sites determined by a systematic sampling method. The top layer of soil on each site was also sampled. No significant correlation (P ArcGIS 9.0. A total pollution coefficient was calculated for each sampling site to identify the seriously polluted areas in the region.

  8. Development of Management System for Regional Pollution Source Based on SuperMap Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the integration of C#.net and SuperMap Objects(tool software of component GIS),the management system of regional pollution source is developed.It mainly includes the demand analysis of system,function design,database construction,program design and concrete realization in the management aspect of pollution source.

  9. Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, E.; Donateo, A.; Gambaro, A.; Cesari, D.; Gregoris, E.; Barbaro, E.; Dinoi, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Masieri, S.; Contini, D.

    2016-08-01

    Ship emissions are a growing concern, especially in coastal areas, for potential impacts on human health and climate. International mitigation strategies to curb these emission, based on low-sulphur content fuels, have proven useful to improve local air quality. However, the effect on climate forcing is less obvious. Detailed information on the influence of shipping to particles of different sizes is needed to investigate air quality and climate interaction. In this work, the contributions of maritime emissions to atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and of particles (sizes from 0.009 μm to 30 μm) were investigated considering manoeuvring (arrival and departure of ships) and hotelling phases (including loading/unloading activities). Results showed that the size distributions of shipping contributions were different for the two phases and could be efficiently described, using measured data, considering four size-ranges. The largest contribution to particles concentration was observed for Dp logistic has a relevant role in determining the total impact of shipping on air quality of the nearby coastal areas. Additionally, future policies should focus on PNC that represents an important fraction of emissions also for low-sulphur fuels. DOAS remote sensing proved a useful tool to directly measure NO2 and SO2 ship emissions giving estimates comparable with those of emission inventory approach.

  10. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, D.; Stihle, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Bonnet, C.; Depernon, L.; Liu, O.; Kennedy, S.; Latimer, R.; Burgoyne, M.; Wanger, D.; Webster, A.; Casunuran, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Thomas, M.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv), as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  11. Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, D.; Stihle, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Bonnet, C.; Depernon, L.; Liu, O.; Kennedy, S.; Latimer, R.; Burgoyne, M.; Wanger, D.; Webster, A.; Casunuran, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Thomas, M.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace atmospheric nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  12. Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Key

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace atmospheric nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  13. Some Observational and Modeling Studies of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Mississippi Gulf Coast for Air Pollution Dispersion Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Yerramilli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal atmospheric conditions widely vary from those over inland due to the land-sea interface, temperature contrast and the consequent development of local circulations. In this study a field meteorological experiment was conducted to measure vertical structure of boundary layer during the period 25-29 June, 2007 at three locations Seabee base, Harrison and Wiggins sites in the Mississippi coast. A GPS Sonde along with slow ascent helium balloon and automated weather stations equipped with slow and fast response sensors were used in the experiment. GPS sonde were launched at three specific times (0700 LT, 1300 LT and 1800 LT during the experiment days. The observations indicate shallow boundary layer near the coast which gradually develops inland. The weather research and forecasting (WRF meso-scale atmospheric model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (HYSPLIT are used to simulate the lower atmospheric flow and dispersion in a range of 100 km from the coast for 28-30 June, 2007. The simulated meteorological parameters were compared with the experimental observations. The meso-scale model results show significant temporal and spatial variations in the meteorological fields as a result of development of sea breeze flow, its coupling with the large scale flow field and the ensuing alteration in the mixing depth across the coast. Simulated ground-level concentrations of SO2 from four elevated point sources located along the coast indicate diurnal variation and impact of the local sea-land breeze on the direction of the plume. Model concentration levels were highest during the stable morning condition and during the sea-breeze time in the afternoon. The highest concentrations were found up to 40 km inland during sea breeze time. The study illustrates the application of field meteorological observations for the validation of WRF which is coupled to HYSPLIT for dispersion assessment in the coastal region.

  14. 中国城市大气污染区域影响空间溢出效应研究%Study on Spatial Spill-Over Effect of Regional Impacts of Atmospheric Pollution in Chinese Urban

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓雨; 刘金平; 杨贺

    2015-01-01

    当前大气污染治理已从控制局地污染向区域联防联控转变,准确界定大气污染空间扩散范围对于提高联防联控有效性尤为重要。基于2012年全国113个重点监测城市每日空气质量指数,采用空间计量方法,探究大气污染区域影响的空间扩散范围及溢出特征,并解析大气污染主要污染源。研究发现,大气污染空间扩散呈“内城-外城”两级圈层结构,内城层是区域联防联控的责任主体;工业二氧化硫是大气污染主要污染物,生活烟尘是重要影响因素。以京津冀为例,提出联防联控的具体建议。%At present ,air‐pollution treatment has been changed from the control of local pollution to the regional joint prevention and control ,so it would be very important for improving the effectiveness of joint prevention and control to define the spatial diffusion range accurately .Based on the daily air quality index in 2012 of the 113 main monitoring cities ,this paper explores diffusion range and spatial spillover characteristics of regional atmospheric pollution using spatial econometric methods as well as analyzes the main pollution source of atmospheric pollution .The results find that air pollution spatial diffusion is of two layer structure ,which shows the inner‐outer city and the inner layer will be responsible for regional joint prevention and control;the industrial sulfur dioxide is the main pollutant and the dust of life has an important effect on it .At last ,taking Beijing Tianjin and Hebei as an example ,this paper puts forward specific suggestions of regional joint prevention and control .

  15. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C.

    2003-06-01

    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  16. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS standard, a technology that has gained increased attention in meteorology in recent years. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python. In the present article, we describe the architecture of the tool. As an example application, we discuss a case study research flight planned for the scenario of the 2010 Eyjafjalla volcano eruption. Usage and implementation details are provided as Supplement.

  17. A web service based tool to plan atmospheric research flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a web service based tool for the planning of atmospheric research flights. The tool provides online access to horizontal maps and vertical cross-sections of numerical weather prediction data and in particular allows the interactive design of a flight route in direct relation to the predictions. It thereby fills a crucial gap in the set of currently available tools for using data from numerical atmospheric models for research flight planning. A distinct feature of the tool is its lightweight, web service based architecture, requiring only commodity hardware and a basic Internet connection for deployment. Access to visualisations of prediction data is achieved by using an extended version of the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS standard, a technology that has gained increased attention in meteorology in recent years. With the WMS approach, we avoid the transfer of large forecast model output datasets while enabling on-demand generated visualisations of the predictions at campaign sites with limited Internet bandwidth. Usage of the Web Map Service standard also enables access to third-party sources of georeferenced data. We have implemented the software using the open-source programming language Python. In the present article, we describe the architecture of the tool. As an example application, we discuss a case study research flight planned for the scenario of the 2010 Eyjafjalla volcano eruption. Usage and implementation details are provided as Supplement.

  18. Carry-over of pollutants from the atmosphere and on forest soil pollution in the ARGE ALP and ALPEN-ADRIA countries. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of the pollution of the alpine region, especially the mountain forest ecosystem which, - together with some additional subject matters and issues constitutes the main issue of this conference and is, of course an ecological and economical issue of some urgency and an area where several problems compete with one another. This ecosystem is very sensitive both in terms of location and climate and in terms of the additional loads created by road traffic, tourism, agriculture and forestry. High precipitation in form of rain, fog and snow in the alpine regions means that air-borne pollutants from other areas can be deposited in large amounts. Higher mountaineous regions are especially prone to the generation of photooxidants which represent another potential of stress and danger for the forests. (orig./EW)

  19. GIS-based emergency response system for sudden water pollution accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yikang; Shen, Dingtao; Khalid, Shoaib; Yang, Zaigui; Wang, Jiechen

    The frequent occurrence of sudden water pollution accidents brings enormous risks to water environment safety. Therefore, there is great need for the modeling and development of early warning systems and rapid response procedures for current water pollution situation in China. This paper proposes an emergency response system based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and a hydraulic/water-quality model. Using the spatial analysis and three-dimensional visualization capabilities of GIS technology, we calculated pollutant diffusion measures, and visualized and analyzed the simulation results, in order to provide the services of early warning and emergency response for sudden water pollution accidents in the Xiangjia Dam area on the Yangtze River. The results show that the proposed system offers reliable technological support for emergency response to sudden water pollution events, and it shows good potential for wide applications in various aspects of water resources protection.

  20. Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world--over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf--and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr-1, or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  1. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  2. Earth-atmosphere evolution based on new determination of Devonian atmosphere Ar isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Finlay M.; Mark, Darren F.; Gandanger, Pierre; McConville, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The isotopic composition of the noble gases, in particular Ar, in samples of ancient atmosphere trapped in rocks and minerals provides the strongest constraints on the timing and rate of Earth atmosphere formation by degassing of the Earth's interior. We have re-measured the isotopic composition of argon in the Rhynie chert from northeast Scotland using a high precision mass spectrometer in an effort to provide constraints on the composition of Devonian atmosphere. Irradiated chert samples yield 40Ar/36Ar ratios that are often below the modern atmosphere value. The data define a 40Ar/36Ar value of 289.5 ± 0.4 at K/36Ar = 0. Similarly low 40Ar/36Ar are measured in un-irradiated chert samples. The simplest explanation for the low 40Ar/36Ar is the preservation of Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar in the chert, with the intercept value in 40Ar-39Ar-36Ar space representing an upper limit. In this case the Earth's atmosphere has accumulated only 3% (5.1 ± 0.4 ×1016 mol) of the total 40Ar inventory since the Devonian. The average accumulation rate of 1.27 ± 0.09 ×108 mol40Ar/yr overlaps the rate over the last 800 kyr. This implies that there has been no resolvable temporal change in the outgassing rate of the Earth since the mid-Palaeozoic despite the likely episodicity of Ar degassing from the continental crust. Incorporating the new Devonian atmosphere 40Ar/36Ar into the Earth degassing model of Pujol et al. (2013) provides the most precise constraints on atmosphere formation so far. The atmosphere formed in the first ∼100 Ma after initial accretion during a catastrophic degassing episode. A significant volume of 40Ar did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until after 4 Ga which implies that stable K-rich continental crust did not develop until this time.

  3. Atmospheric Refraction Path Integrals in Ground-Based Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mathar, R J

    2004-01-01

    The basic effect of the earth's atmospheric refraction on telescope operation is the reduction of the true zenith angle to the apparent zenith angle, associated with prismatic aberrations due to the dispersion in air. If one attempts coherent superposition of star images in ground-based interferometry, one is in addition interested in the optical path length associated with the refracted rays. In a model of a flat earth, the optical path difference between these is not concerned as the translational symmetry of the setup means no net effect remains. Here, I evaluate these interferometric integrals in the more realistic arrangement of two telescopes located on the surface of a common earth sphere and point to a star through an atmosphere which also possesses spherical symmetry. Some focus is put on working out series expansions in terms of the small ratio of the baseline over the earth radius, which allows to bypass some numerics which otherwise is challenged by strong cancellation effects in building the opti...

  4. New experience in atmospheric monitoring in Moscow city on the base of WSN technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Litvinov, Artur; Baskakov, Sergey; Chesalova, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this report is to present the gas emission of H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Moscow city. We start the project at the beginning of 2015 year in two Moscow academicals organization -Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry and Moscow Geological State Museum. One place is in the center of Moscow, near the Kremlin and other one is in the most clear zone of Moscow - Moscow State University place, Vorobyevy Mountains (high point of Moscow). We plan to compare these regions by the concentration of H2 and other gases (CH4, SO2) for green gas pollution. Application network of monitoring is composed of gas sensors (H2, CH4), complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer the technical solutions for monitoring network on the base of WSN (wireless sensor network) technology and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. Gas sensors for monitoring system were developed on the base of MIS-structures (metal-insulator-semiconductor). MIS-sensors are suitable for measuring the concentrations of the following gases: hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen dioxide, ethylmercaptan, chlorine and ammonia. The basis of the sensor is MIS - structure Pd-Ta2O5-SiO2-Si,), which capacitance changes when reaction with gases occurs. The sensor fabrication technology is based on the microelectronics device fabrication technologies and the thin film laser deposition technique. Sensor can be used for measuring the concentration of any gas among noted before, in ambient temperature range -30..+40°C and RH 30-90% (30°C).Three gas sensors with analog interface were made for our experimental monitoring system. Original calibration was made using calibration by special standard mixture of H2 and atmosphere. There are 10-15 points

  5. Effects of changes in the UK energy demand and environmental legislation on atmospheric pollution by sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-nine percent of the sulphur dioxide generated over the period 1970 to 1994 arose from the combustion of fossil fuels in the energy sector. The annual mass emission of sulphur dioxide has fallen by 58% over this period, due to the reductions in outputs from coal and petroleum fired plants. The influence of natural-gas power generation has played an important part in this reduction. Four major pieces of environmental legislation have been enacted to control sulphur-dioxide emissions: the Control of Pollution Act 1974, and three EEC Directives are discussed. The UK emissions in 1994 were 49% below the 1980 baseline and 9% ahead of the 1998 EU target level. The protocol on the reduction of sulphur-dioxide emissions, adopted in 1985, required a cut in the total SO2 emissions of 30% by 1993, based on 1980 levels. The UK achieved a reduction of 37% by the end of 1993. Sulphur-dioxide emissions are predicted to fall according to the six scenarios in Energy paper 65 as a reference case. The predicted decline is in line with the UNECE targets set for 2010. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Rapid On-site Qualitative and Quantitative Measure Characteristics Atmospheric Pollutants of Sources by GCMS%污染源大气中特征污染物的现场快速质谱定性、定量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉建国

    2013-01-01

    The quality improvement of environment air is not only depended on controlling the content of fine particles in the atmosphere,but also reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds.How to control and reduce volatile organic compounds is based on the data about the types of characteristics atmospheric pollutants in sources and emission volume.Because the concentration and type of pollutants in the atmosphere are influenced by the type of climate,wind,light and other weather conditions,rapid sample collection and rapid on-site qualitative and quantitative analysis by GCMS in the pollutant source sites are very important for the environmental monitoring department and pollution sources controlling department.This article explores how the mobile GC-MS and its associated technologies on fast sampling are applied in rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis applications for characteristics source pollutants in chemical zone.%环境空气质量的改善不但要控制大气中细微颗粒的含量,同时要减少挥发性有机污染物的排放;而控制和减少挥发性有机物的措施实施是基于对污染源特征污染物种类和排放量的理解.鉴于污染源大气中的污染物浓度和种类受气候、风速、光照等气象条件的影响,在污染源现场进行样品的快速采集、快速质谱定性、定量的分析对环保监测部门和污染源的治理部门都有非常重要的现实意义.本文探讨了基于移动式车载气质联用仪和与其相关的各种快速采样技术对化工区污染源特征污染物的快速定性、定量分析应用.

  7. Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    Fortelli, Alberto; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and 500 hpa geopotential heights and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic parameter was the 850 hPa geopotential height, which is located about 1500 m of altitude. We compared local meteorological conditions (specifically wind stress, rain amount and thermal inversion) against the urban air pollution levels from 2009 to 2013. We found several empirical criteria for forecasting high daily PM10 air pollution levels in Naples. Pollution crises occurred when (a) the wind stress was between 1 and 2 m/s, (b) the thermal inversion between two strategic locations was at least 3{\\deg}C/200m and (c) it did not significantly rain for at least 7 days. Beside these meteorological conditions, severe pollution crises occurred also during festivals when fir...

  8. Consideration of emerging pollutants in groundwater-based reuse concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiehm, A; Schmidt, N; Lipp, P; Zawadsky, C; Marei, A; Seder, N; Ghanem, M; Paris, S; Zemann, M; Wolf, L

    2012-01-01

    Elimination of pathogens and emerging pollutants represents a key factor in integrated water resources management in arid regions. Within the SMART Jordan Valley project it is the objective of this study to assess the occurrence and examine the elimination of selected emerging pollutants and pathogens in waste water treatment and aquifer recharge. In batch and soil column studies non-chlorinated organophosphorous compounds (tri-n-butylphosphate, triphenylphosphate) and endocrine disruptors (e.g. 17-ß-estradiol, bisphenol A) proved to be biodegradable, while the X-ray contrast agents iomeprol and iopromide were eliminated in the soil columns only, and the chlorinated trialkylphosphates showed persistency. Treating waste water in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination with powdered activated carbon (PAC) resulted in considerable removal rates also for the more persistent compounds such as the antiepileptic carbamazepine. Viruses were shown to be present in most of the Jordan Valley surface water samples. MBR treatment resulted in a decrease of MS2 bacteriophages used as model viruses. PMID:22828305

  9. Quality control of INAA-k0 and ICP-MS as bio-monitoring analysis techniques - Application to Moroccan atmospheric pollution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Many studies have been conducted to study atmospheric pollution using different techniques to determine the quality and quantity of pollutant elements. Those techniques differ in their capability of analysing as large spectrum of elements as possible, their sensibility to the presence of trace elements and their accuracy. In this study the interest turns on the INAA-k0 and ICP-MS techniques due to their adequate characteristics to analyse accurately a wide number of elements interesting the bio monitoring. To check the measurement reliability and accuracy of those two techniques, we have analysed samples of reference materials and compared analysis results of divers elements in lichens, mosses and tree barks. The results given by reference materials analysis and bio-monitor comparisons let us conclude that INAA-k0 and ICP-MS are very suitable for the bio-monitoring task, complementary and they can be substituted for analysis of the majority of elements. (author)

  10. Evaluation of AirGIS: a GIS-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim; Hvidberg, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    This study describes in brief the latest extensions of the Danish Geographic Information System (GIS)-based air pollution and human exposure modelling system (AirGIS), which has been developed in Denmark since 2001 and gives results of an evaluation with measured air pollution data. The system...... shows, in general, a good performance for both long-term averages (annual and monthly averages), short-term averages (hourly and daily) as well as when reproducing spatial variation in air pollution concentrations. Some shortcomings and future perspectives of the system are discussed too....

  11. Methodology for risk analysis based on atmospheric dispersion modelling from nuclear risk sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Sørensen, J. H.; Rigina, O.

    2003-04-01

    The main purpose of this multidisciplinary study is to develop a methodology for complex nuclear risk and vulnerability assessment, and to test it on example of estimation of nuclear risk to the population in the Nordic countries in case of a severe accident at a nuclear risk site (NRS). The main focus of the paper is the methodology for the evaluation of the atmospheric transport and deposition of radioactive pollutants from NRSs. The method developed for this evaluation is derived from a probabilistic point of view. The main question we are trying to answer is: What is the probability for radionuclide atmospheric transport and impact to different neighbouring regions and countries in case of an accident at an NPP? To answer this question we applied a number of different tools: (i) Trajectory Modelling - to calculate multiyear forward trajectories originating over the locations of selected risk sites; (ii) Dispersion Modelling - for long-term simulation and case studies of radionuclide transport from hypothetical accidental releases at NRSs; (iii) Cluster Analysis - to identify atmospheric transport pathways from NRSs; (iv) Probability Fields Analysis - to construct annual, monthly, and seasonal NRS impact indicators to identify the most impacted geographical regions; (v) Specific Case Studies - to estimate consequences for the environment and the populations after a hypothetical accident; (vi) Vulnerability Evaluation to Radioactive Deposition - to describe its persistence in the ecosystems with a focus to the transfer of certain radionuclides into the food chains of key importance for the intake and exposure for a whole population and for certain population groups; (vii) Risk Evaluation and Mapping - to analyse socio-economical consequences for different geographical areas and various population groups taking into account social-geophysical factors and probabilities, and using demographic databases based on GIS analysis.

  12. Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortelli, Alberto; Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and 500 hpa geopotential heights and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic parameter was the 850 hPa geopotential height, which is located about 1500 m of altitude. We compared local meteorological conditions (specifically wind stress, rain amount and thermal inversion) against the urban air pollution levels from 2009 to 2013. We found several empirical criteria for forecasting high daily PM10 air pollution levels in Naples. Pollution crises occurred when (a) the wind stress was between 1 and 2 m/s, (b) the thermal inversion between two strategic locations was at least 3°C/200 m and (c) it did not significantly rain for at least 7 days. Beside these meteorological conditions, severe pollution crises occurred also during festivals when fireworks and bonfires are lighted, and during anomalous breeze conditions and severe fire accidents. Finally, we propose a basic model to predict PM10 concentration levels from local meteorological conditions that can be easily forecast a few days in advance. The synthetic PM10 record predicted by the model was found to correlate with the PM10 observations with a correlation coefficient close to 0.80 with a confidence level greater than 99%. The proposed model is expected to provide reliable information to city officials to carry out practical strategies to mitigate air pollution effects. Although the proposed model equation is calibrated on the topographical and meteorological conditions of Naples, it should be easily adaptable to alternative locations.

  13. High-sensitivity remote detection of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases at low ppm levels using near-infrared tunable diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Arup Lal

    2016-05-01

    The concentration of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases needs to be precisely monitored for sustainable industrial development and to predict the climate shifts caused by global warming. Such measurements are made on a continuous basis in ecologically sensitive and urban areas in the advanced countries. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is the most versatile non-destructive technology currently available for remote measurements of multiple gases with very high selectivity (low cross-sensitivity), very high sensitivity (on the order of ppm and ppb) and under hazardous conditions. We demonstrate absolute measurements of acetylene, methane and carbon dioxide using a fielddeployable fully automated TDLS system that uses calibration-free 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2f WMS) techniques with sensitivities of low ppm levels. A 40 mW, 1531.52 nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, a 10 mW, 1650 nm DFB laser and a 1 mW, 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) are used in the experiments to probe the P9 transition of acetylene, R4 transition of methane and R16 transition of carbon dioxide respectively. Data acquisition and on-board analysis comprises a Raspberry Pi-based embedded system that is controllable over a wireless connection. Gas concentration and pressure are simultaneously extracted by fitting the experimental signals to 2f WMS signals simulated using spectroscopic parameters obtained from the HITRAN database. The lowest detected concentration is 11 ppm for acetylene, 275 ppm for methane and 285 ppm for carbon dioxide using a 28 cm long single-pass gas cell.

  14. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanwen; MOU, Xinli; Xie, Hui; Lu, Hong; YAN, Xingyun

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model, for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index system model framework, combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues, we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system, and then study the agricultural system pressure, agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories, develope an agricultural non-p...

  15. A New Laser Based Approach for Measuring Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Dobler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of ±0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.

  16. Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-20

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  17. [Analysis of an Air Pollution Process Using LiDAR in Nanjing, Spring of 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qing; He, Jun-liang; Zha, Yong; Cheng, Feng; Li, Qian-nan

    2015-04-01

    Based on environmental monitoring data, meteorological data and the results of numerical simulation, a typical air pollution process in Nanjing, from 26th May to 1st June, 2014 was deeply analyzed combining aerosol extinction coefficient derived from LiDAR system. Experimental results showed that the entire pollution process was affected by both local pollution and exogenous inputs including dust and smoke. Meteorological factors played a significant role in the generation and elimination of pollutants. Low pressure and temperature inversion also hindered the diffusion of pollutants, while strong rainfall terminated the pollution process. During the pollution, the height of atmospheric boundary layer was lower than normal situation and changed little during the pollution period, which provided a poor diffusion condition for pollutants. LiDAR could accurately detect aerosol vertical structure which was able to capture the temporal and spatial variation of pollutant distributions. Therefore, LiDAR can be of great significance for the atmospheric pollution monitoring. PMID:26164889

  18. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents.

  19. Risk analysis of emergent water pollution accidents based on a Bayesian Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To guarantee the security of water quality in water transfer channels, especially in open channels, analysis of potential emergent pollution sources in the water transfer process is critical. It is also indispensable for forewarnings and protection from emergent pollution accidents. Bridges above open channels with large amounts of truck traffic are the main locations where emergent accidents could occur. A Bayesian Network model, which consists of six root nodes and three middle layer nodes, was developed in this paper, and was employed to identify the possibility of potential pollution risk. Dianbei Bridge is reviewed as a typical bridge on an open channel of the Middle Route of the South to North Water Transfer Project where emergent traffic accidents could occur. Risk of water pollutions caused by leakage of pollutants into water is focused in this study. The risk for potential traffic accidents at the Dianbei Bridge implies a risk for water pollution in the canal. Based on survey data, statistical analysis, and domain specialist knowledge, a Bayesian Network model was established. The human factor of emergent accidents has been considered in this model. Additionally, this model has been employed to describe the probability of accidents and the risk level. The sensitive reasons for pollution accidents have been deduced. The case has also been simulated that sensitive factors are in a state of most likely to lead to accidents. PMID:26433361

  20. Cloud Based GIS Approach for Monitoring Environmental Pollution in the Coastal Zone of Kalutara, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.P.M. Sirirwardane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS can be used as a powerful tool in many aspects of handling geospatial data. By considering the modern geospatial approaches, this research is focused on monitoring environmental pollution in the coastal zone of Kalutara area, with the objective of identification of existing natural resources. Green vegetation patches, water bodies and beech areas were detected using remote sensing techniques. A detailed GPS field survey was conducted and identified minor environmental resources with various pollution incidents. This information was used to improve the available data sets. The types of pollution incidents were categorised according to the severity level by considering the relationship to each natural resource. Maps were created and data was uploaded to the ArcGIS online cloud platform. Web services were hosted using this cloud infrastructure. Pollution incidents data layer has been given web based editing capabilities for field monitoring using GPS enabled mobiles. Field observations were conducted and locations of the pollution effects were uploaded into web maps from the field with related attributes. The hot spots were used to get better understanding and awareness of the environmental pollution. As the results, pollution incidents were identified and there was a significant effect to the minor environmental elements. The cloud infrastructure, helped to bring down the barriers of data sharing and the incident reporting mechanism became more convenient during the field observations.

  1. Towards protecting the Great Barrier Reef from land-based pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Thorburn, Peter; Schaffelke, Britta; Whitten, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an iconic coral reef system extending over 2000 km along the north-east coast of Australia. Global recognition of its Outstanding Universal Value resulted in the listing of the 348 000 km(2) GBR World Heritage Area (WHA) by UNESCO in 1981. Despite various levels of national and international protection, the condition of GBR ecosystems has deteriorated over the past decades, with land-based pollution from the adjacent catchments being a major and ongoing cause for this decline. To reduce land-based pollution, the Australian and Queensland Governments have implemented a range of policy initiatives since 2003. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of existing initiatives to reduce discharge of land-based pollutants into the waters of the GBR. We conclude that recent efforts in the GBR catchments to reduce land-based pollution are unlikely to be sufficient to protect the GBR ecosystems from declining water quality within the aspired time frames. To support management decisions for desired ecological outcomes for the GBR WHA, we identify potential improvements to current policies and incentives, as well as potential changes to current agricultural land use, based on overseas experiences and Australia's unique potential. The experience in the GBR may provide useful guidance for the management of other marine ecosystems, as reducing land-based pollution by better managing agricultural sources is a challenge for coastal communities around the world.

  2. Towards protecting the Great Barrier Reef from land-based pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Thorburn, Peter; Schaffelke, Britta; Whitten, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an iconic coral reef system extending over 2000 km along the north-east coast of Australia. Global recognition of its Outstanding Universal Value resulted in the listing of the 348 000 km(2) GBR World Heritage Area (WHA) by UNESCO in 1981. Despite various levels of national and international protection, the condition of GBR ecosystems has deteriorated over the past decades, with land-based pollution from the adjacent catchments being a major and ongoing cause for this decline. To reduce land-based pollution, the Australian and Queensland Governments have implemented a range of policy initiatives since 2003. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of existing initiatives to reduce discharge of land-based pollutants into the waters of the GBR. We conclude that recent efforts in the GBR catchments to reduce land-based pollution are unlikely to be sufficient to protect the GBR ecosystems from declining water quality within the aspired time frames. To support management decisions for desired ecological outcomes for the GBR WHA, we identify potential improvements to current policies and incentives, as well as potential changes to current agricultural land use, based on overseas experiences and Australia's unique potential. The experience in the GBR may provide useful guidance for the management of other marine ecosystems, as reducing land-based pollution by better managing agricultural sources is a challenge for coastal communities around the world. PMID:26922913

  3. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  4. An AIS-based approach to calculate atmospheric emissions from the UK fishing fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Jonathan; Williams, Ian; Hudson, Dominic A.; Kemp, Simon

    2015-08-01

    The fishing industry is heavily reliant on the use of fossil fuel and emits large quantities of greenhouse gases and other atmospheric pollutants. Methods used to calculate fishing vessel emissions inventories have traditionally utilised estimates of fuel efficiency per unit of catch. These methods have weaknesses because they do not easily allow temporal and geographical allocation of emissions. A large proportion of fishing and other small commercial vessels are also omitted from global shipping emissions inventories such as the International Maritime Organisation's Greenhouse Gas Studies. This paper demonstrates an activity-based methodology for the production of temporally- and spatially-resolved emissions inventories using data produced by Automatic Identification Systems (AIS). The methodology addresses the issue of how to use AIS data for fleets where not all vessels use AIS technology and how to assign engine load when vessels are towing trawling or dredging gear. The results of this are compared to a fuel-based methodology using publicly available European Commission fisheries data on fuel efficiency and annual catch. The results show relatively good agreement between the two methodologies, with an estimate of 295.7 kilotons of fuel used and 914.4 kilotons of carbon dioxide emitted between May 2012 and May 2013 using the activity-based methodology. Different methods of calculating speed using AIS data are also compared. The results indicate that using the speed data contained directly in the AIS data is preferable to calculating speed from the distance and time interval between consecutive AIS data points.

  5. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  6. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  7. Forum on impact of radioactive materials on the atmospheric pollutant inventory and on the radioactivity uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains 6 separately documented lectures about the following topics of the meeting: 1) Radiation exposure of plants caused by the reactor accident of Chernobyl; 2) Tritium and radiocarbon concentrations in trees; 3) Energetics of the atmospheric trace materials cycle; 4) Phenomenology of formation and decomposition of ozone in the lower atmosphere, and 5) Comparison of radioactivity levels and trace materials in the air. (PW)

  8. A user experience-based approach to home atmosphere control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vastenburg, M.H.; Ross, P.R.; Keyson, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    The complex control problem of creating home atmospheres using light, music, and projected wall-art can be reduced by focusing on desired expe- rience, rather than product functions and features. A case study is described in which subjective interpreta- tions of living room atmospheres were measured

  9. Potential pollutant sources in a Choptank River subwatershed: Influence of agricultural and residential land use and aqueous and atmospheric sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture and animal feeding operations have been implicated as sources of water pollution along the Choptank River, an estuary and tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. This study examined a subwatershed within the Choptank River watershed for effects of land use on water quality. Water and sediment...

  10. Air ion and pollution index variation for indoor and outdoor atmosphere at rural station Ramanandnagar (17° 4′N, 74° 25′) India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Pawar

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the observation of indoor air ion concentration at a rural site has been carried out for the first time. These indoor observations are compared with outdoor air ion concentration. Net charge can be introduced into the atmosphere by processes such as combustion, rainfall and ultraviolet radiation. As compared to indoors, average air ions of both the polarities at outdoors are higher. Moreover, the air ion concentrations, experience large fluctuations during daytime, as compared to nighttime values. Positive and negative air ion concentrations are lower and uniform throughout the night both for indoor and outdoor conditions. Pollution index is more or less unity for outdoors in all-the-time period, which is good for human health. Due to limited sources of air ions indoors, it is observed that pollution index decreases from 00:00–02:00 hours and minimum is reached during 12:00–14:00 hours for indoors. During 00:00–02:00 hours, the indoor pollution index is 1.55, which is very harmful to human health.

  11. Determination of radiation doses caused by release into the atmosphere by nuclear power plants, based on measurement of emission and immission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation impact of nuclear facilities, and the nuclear power plants as well, can be determined by using two methods. The first one calculates the dose of critical group of population based on the release, meteorological and hydrological parameters. The second method gives an estimate of the additional dose caused by the nuclear facility from the radiological measurements in the environment. This article compares this two methods for the release in the atmosphere, and gives an estimate of the relative error. The comparison can be applied for cases when the atmospheric pollution is released from a point type source, so for the conventional power plants as well. (author)

  12. Ice core based Pb pollution from gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000 year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is highly neurotoxic and, in contrast to many other heavy metals including cobalt, copper, and zinc, it has no beneficial effects to humans even at low concentrations. The introduction of leaded gasoline in the 1920s initiated a period of unabated growth in the global emissions of Pb. Prior to the onset of leaded gasoline phase-out in the 1970s, atmospheric Pb levels increased dramatically. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that emissions from leaded gasoline within the Northern Hemisphere are dominant compared to that from metallurgy and coal combustion during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Although exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since pre-colonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on ice core records of Pb concentrations, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and Pb isotope ratios from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Complementary to local air pollution recorded in lake sediments, ice cores from mid latitude glaciers provide information about more extended source areas. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb EFs due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s 208Pb/207Pb ratios decreased significantly, whereas Pb EFs increased by a factor of three compared to the emission level

  13. Accuracy analysis on Rayleigh lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature based on spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Liang; Yong Ma; Fei Cheng; Hongyuan Wang

    2009-01-01

    We make a detailed analysis on the linearity and accuracy of the relationship between the full-width at half-height (FWHH) of the atmosphere molecules Rayleigh scattering spectrum and the square root of the atmospheric temperature. A simulation of the FWHH of the atmosphere molecules Rayleigh scattering spectrum is made based on the S6 Atmosphere Model and U.S. Standard Atmosphere Model. The calcu-lated temperature is compared with the initial simulation temperature. The result shows that the FWHH of the atmosphere molecules Rayleigh scattering spectrum is nearly proportional to the atmospheric tem-perature. The goodness-of-fit index of the fitting curve is 0.9977 and the maximum absolute error of measured atmospheric temperature is about 2 K.

  14. Atmospheric echo sounding. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-09-01

    s pertaining to equipment, design, and use of acoustic sounders are presented. Use of the sounders to sense the atmosphere for weather changes, temperature inversions, aircraft wakes, ionospheric properties, and other characteristics is discussed.

  15. Exoplanet Atmospheres and Giant Ground-Based Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Crossfield, I J M

    2016-01-01

    The study of extrasolar planets has rapidly expanded to encompass the search for new planets, measurements of sizes and masses, models of planetary interiors, planetary demographics and occurrence frequencies, the characterization of planetary orbits and dynamics, and studies of these worlds' complex atmospheres. Our insights into exoplanets dramatically advance whenever improved tools and techniques become available, and surely the largest tools now being planned are the optical/infrared Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). Two themes summarize the advantages of atmospheric studies with the ELTs: high angular resolution when operating at the diffraction limit and high spectral resolution enabled by the unprecedented collecting area of these large telescopes. This brief review describes new opportunities afforded by the ELTs to study the composition, structure, dynamics, and evolution of these planets' atmospheres, while specifically focusing on some of the most compelling atmospheric science cases for four qua...

  16. Model-based guidance and control for atmospheric guided entry

    OpenAIRE

    Canuto, Enrico; Ospina, Jose Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a solution of the translational control for a biconic atmospheric entry capsule using the bank angle as a command. The control algorithm is separated into path planning and reference-path tracking. The path-planning algorithm computes the entry trajectory from the navigated state at the Entry Interface Point until the desired Parachute Deployment Point. The algorithm aims to recover the landing site uncertainty caused by Entry Interface Point dispersions. Atmospheric and a...

  17. Recent development of VUV-based processes for air pollutants degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As air pollution become more and more serious nowadays, it is essential to find out a way to efficiently degrade the air pollutants. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV-based processes are an emerging and promising technologies for environmental remediation such as air cleaning, wastewater treatment and air/water disinfection. With VUV irradiation, photolysis, photocatalyst is and ozone-assisted oxidation are involved at the same time, resulting in the fast degradation of air pollutants because of their strong oxidizing capacity. The mechanisms of how the oxidants are produced and reacted are discussed in this review. This paper mainly focuses on the three VUV-based oxidation processes including VUV photolysis, VUV combined with ozone-assisted oxidation and VUV-PCO with emphasis on their mechanisms and applications. Also, the outlooks of these processes are outlined in this paper.

  18. Pollutant exposures from unvented gas cooking burners: A Simulation-based Assessment for Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group and Residential Building Systems Group; Klepeis, Neil E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; San Diego Univ., CA (United States). Center for Behavioral Epidemiology and Community Health; Lobscheid, Agnes B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group; Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group and Residential Building Systems Group

    2014-01-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. In this study, LBNL researchers quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes.The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods -- 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. The study recommends that reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  19. Fluctuation analysis-based risk assessment for respiratory virus activity and air pollution associated asthma incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Hsieh, Nan-Hung; Chio, Chia-Pin

    2011-08-15

    Asthma is a growing epidemic worldwide. Exacerbations of asthma have been associated with bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections and air pollution. We correlated the asthma admission rates with fluctuations in respiratory virus activity and traffic-related air pollution, namely particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM₁₀), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and ozone (O₃). A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed based on a detrended fluctuation analysis to predict future respiratory virus and air pollutant associated asthma incidence. Results indicated a strong association between asthma admission rate and influenza (r=0.80, pinfluenza to below 0.9. We concluded that fluctuation analysis based risk assessment provides a novel predictor of asthma incidence. PMID:21663946

  20. Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2012-01-01

    Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15

  1. Application of an acoustic noise removal method to aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Nowlin, Scott R.; Hahn, Ila L.; Eaton, Frank D.; McCrae, Kim A.

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic noise removal method is used to reject engine acoustical disturbances from aircraft-based atmospheric temperature measurements. Removal of engine noise from atmospheric temperature measurements allows a larger wave number range to be fit while quantifying the magnitude of atmospheric temperature turbulence. The larger wave number range was found to result in a more statistically certain spectral slope estimate, with up to a 50% reduction in the standard deviation of measured spectral slopes. The noise removal technique was found to break down under conditions of weak atmospheric temperature turbulence where the engine acoustical disturbance can be several orders of magnitude larger than atmospheric temperature turbulence.

  2. Design of atmospheric composition monitor based on ultraviolet optical absorption technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-jun

    2011-01-01

    An open path atmospheric composition monitor is designed based on ultraviolet differential absorption technology.Dark current correction and diode response correction are used to improve the detection limit and Savitzky-Golay filter is used to improve the measurement accuracy.The experimental results show that the designed system has the ability to measure NO and NO2 in real time with reasonable accuracy.The detection limit of the system is about 0.25 ppm for NO and 0.28 ppm for NOr When the concentration level of the target gases is below 100 ppm,the system has good linearity and high measurement accuracy,i.e.,the measurement accuracy is about 2% for NO and about 4% for NO2.The detection limit of dark current can be improved by about 5 to 10 ppb,and the correction of diode response can improve the detection limit by around 30 ppb.Moving window average can improve the detection limit at low concentration levels but will generate more errors at higher concentration leveis.Generally,the designed system meets the requirement of measuring multi-species air pollutants in real time and accurately.

  3. Indoor biology pollution control based on system-based humidity priority control strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚昱; 谢慧; 石博强

    2009-01-01

    Indoor biological contamination and HVAC system secondary contamination problems caused wide public concerns. Biological contamination control will be the next step to achieve better IAQ. The most efficient and safe way to control biological contamination was to limit relative humidity in HVAC system and conditioned environment in the range that is more unsuitable for microorganism to survive. In this paper,by referring to bio-clean project experiences,a system-based humidity priority control manner came into being by lowering outdoor air humidity ratio to eliminate all indoor latent load and using self recirculation units to bear indoor sensible load. Based on the whole-course residue humidity contaminant control concept,dynamic step models for coil and conditioned zone were developed to describe mass and energy conservation and transformation processes. Then,HVAC system and conditioned zone dynamic models were established on LabVIEW+Matlab platform to investigate optimized regulation types,input signatures and control logics. Decoupling between cooling and dehumidification processes can be achieved and a more simplified and stable control system can be acquired by the system-based humidity priority control strategy. Therefore,it was a promising way for controlling biological pollution in buildings in order to achieve better IAQ.

  4. 77 FR 23481 - State Program Requirements; Approval of Maine's Base National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... FR 65052 (Nov. 18, 2003). This action generally authorized the state to administer the NPDES program... State to issue NPDES permits for all discharges within the Indian territories of the Penobscot Nation... AGENCY State Program Requirements; Approval of Maine's Base National Pollutant Discharge...

  5. 76 FR 29747 - State Program Requirements; Proposal To Approve Maine's Base National Pollutant Discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... 28, 2001. 66 FR 12791. As described in the Federal Register, EPA approved the state's application to... state to regulate cooling water intake structures under CWA section 316(b) (33 U.S.C. 1326(b)). 66 FR at... AGENCY State Program Requirements; Proposal To Approve Maine's Base National Pollutant...

  6. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  7. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  8. Pollution characterization and diurnal variation of PBDEs in the atmosphere of an E-waste dismantling region