WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric pollutant concentrations

  1. Concentrations and {delta}{sup 13}C values of atmospheric CO{sub 2} from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico [Univ. of Parma (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo [C.N.R., ISMAR, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Marine Geology

    2005-11-01

    CO{sub 2} is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose {delta}{sup 13}C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its {delta}{sup 13}C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO{sub 2} from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO{sub 2} concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative {delta}{sup 13}C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where {delta}{sup 13}C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at

  2. Concentrations and (delta){sup 13}C values of atmospheric CO{sub 2} from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico [Univ. of Parma (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo [C.N.R., ISMAR, Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Marine Geology

    2005-11-15

    CO{sub 2} is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta){sup 13}C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta){sup 13}C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO{sub 2} from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO{sub 2} concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta){sup 13}C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta){sup 13}C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at

  3. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  4. Change of the dynamics of heavy metals concentration in atmospheric precipitation in chatkal nature reservation of the republic of uzbekistan as anthropogenic index of the atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, T.; Tolkacheva, G.

    2003-04-01

    extremely continental climate, by the abundance of days with sunshine during a year, excessive solar radiation, high mean annual temperature trend, complex orography, remoteness from the sea. The peculiar features of the mountain-and-valley circulation can cause the increase of content of different pollutants in the atmosphere (including heavy metals). In the background zone during precipitation the increase of the heavy metals concentration is possible due to the impact of anthropogenic emissions from the above-mentioned sources. The analysis of precipitation samples was made with the method of the atomic adsorption. The investigation of the dynamics of heavy metals concentrations in precipitation for the mentioned period has shown that the maximum concentration of heavy metals in precipitation is recorded during June - September, when the amount of monthly precipitation is minimum. In November when precipitation amount is minimum, the concentration of heavy metals is minimum.

  5. Pollutant concentrations in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, O.; Kiviranta, H.; Karjalainen, A. K.;

    2013-01-01

    information for conducting contaminant risk assessments for the prenatal period. Out of the 117 individual persistent organic pollutants or metals assayed, 46 could be detected in more than half of the placentas. Moreover, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was found in all placentas. The data...... congeners of persistent organic pollutants, seven organotin compounds, five heavy metals, and methylmercury in 130 randomly selected placentas. Additionally, we examined similarities between pollutant concentrations by analyzing correlations between their placental concentrations. Our results yield new...

  6. Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Gou, Yan-Yu; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and Σdi-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport.

  7. Atmospheric aerosol and gaseous pollutant concentrations in Bucharest area using first datasets from the city AQ monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaceanu, Cristina; Iorga, Gabriela

    2010-05-01

    City of Bucharest is the largest and most populated (about 2.8 million inhabitants) city in the Romanian Plain and encounters environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in southeastern Europe. City environment includes intense emissions arising from traffic (about 1 million cars per day), five thermo-electrical power-generation stations, that use both natural gas and oil derivatives for power generation and domestic heating, and from industrial sources (more than 800 small and medium plants). In the present work we performed an extensive analysis of the air pollution state for the Bucharest area (inside and outside the city) using filter measurement aerosol data PM10 and PM2.5. Data spanning over first year of continuous sampling (2005) were taken from the city Air Quality Monitoring Network, which consists of eight sampling stations: three industrial and two traffic, one EPA urban background, one suburban and one regional station located outside of Bucharest. The objective was to assess the PM10 recorded levels and their degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standards and to provide a statistical investigation of the factors controlling seasonal and spatial variations of PM levels. PM10 relationships with other measured air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx) and meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction) were investigated by statistical analysis. Back trajectory modeling and wind direction frequency distributions were used to identify the origin of the polluted air masses. Contribution of combustion (slopes) and non-combustion (intercepts) sources to PM10 recorded levels was quantified by linear analysis, for two seasonal periods: cold (15 October-14 April) and warm (15 April-14 October). PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were compared with corresponding values in other European urban areas. Main conclusions are as follows: Traffic and industrial sites contribute to the

  8. [Current data on atmospheric pollutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festy, B; Petit-Coviaux, F; Le Moullec, Y

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutions (AP) are very important for human health and ecological equilibrium. They may be natural or anthropogenic and in this later case they can appear outdoor or indoor. Urban air pollution is the most known form of AP. Its main sources are industries, individual and collective heating and now mainly automobile traffic in most cities. Classical AP indicators are SO2, particles, NOx, CO and Pb measured in networks. Important factors of AP are amounts of pollutants emitted and local climatic and meteorological characteristics. Health effects of AP peaks and of AP background levels are not well known. But generally, mean AP levels of SO2 and particles decreased in the last years in most towns as the consequence of collective actions on the three main sources of AP and on fuels, emission and immission levels; but more is wanted about motor-cars. Progress are necessary for limitation of three major ecological risks: "acid-rain" (SO2 and NOx derivatives, ozone,...) which participates in lake and forest attacks; "green house" effects whose air CO2 concentration increase is the main responsible, and stratospheric ozone depletion mainly due to freons (CFC); the consequences of these two last phenomena are not well known but ecological and health risk exist. Besides, indoor air pollution (IAP) is very important because we live more than 20 h a day indoor. IAP may be occupational (a lot of chemical or biological agents) or not. In the later case air pollutants are very various: CO, NOx and particles from heating or cooking, formaldehyde from wood glue, plywood or urea-formol foams, radon and derivatives in some granitic countries, odd jobs products, cosmetics, aero-allergens of chemical or biological origins, microbes,... Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is also an important pollutant complex. Risks of IAP are real or potential: acute risk is obvious for CO, aero-allergens, formaldehyde, NOx,...); irritations are produced by ETS, formaldehyde, solvants

  9. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  10. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µm

  11. Observations of ambient trace gas and PM10 concentrations at Patna, Central Ganga Basin during 2013-2014: The influence of meteorological variables on atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S.; Tunved, P.; Hopke, Philip K.; Srivastava, A. K.; Bisht, D. S.; Pandey, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric pollutants including ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and inhalable particulate matter (PM10) were measured in the central Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) at Patna, India, from 1st March 2013 to 31st December 2014, and significant variability was observed in the temporal patterns of these pollutant concentrations. The mean O3, SO2, NO, NO2, CO (trace gases: TG), and PM10 (PM) concentrations were 14.5 ± 4.8, 5.9 ± 4.8, 23.1 ± 22, 20.6 ± 14.6 ppb, 1.5 ± 0.7 ppm, and 192.0 ± 132.8 μg/m3, respectively, over the study period. The highest concentrations of these species were during the post-monsoon and winter seasons except O3 and SO2 that showed the highest concentrations during the pre-monsoon. The lowest concentrations of TG and PM were observed during the monsoon season as a result of scavenging by rain. NO and NO2 along with PM concentrations decreased by ~ 76, 19, and 63% when the wind speed (WS) was > 0.5 m/s. However, for O3, an opposite trend was observed with ~ 14% higher concentrations. The WS was negatively correlated with PM during the winter (- 0.48) and post-monsoon (- 0.32) seasons. In order to investigate the source region of TG and PM, 5-day air mass back trajectories were computed. The dominance of the air masses (92, 53, and 49%) were from the IGB is highly polluted during the winter, pre-monsoon, and post-monsoon, respectively. The TG and PM were observed much higher during these periods. During the biomass burning period (post-monsoon), the trajectory analysis showed that the TG and PM concentrations were around three-fold higher (flow from the IGB) than the other seasons. To improve air quality over IGB, the mitigation measures should be designed to reduce emissions from both local and regional sources.

  12. MODA - A hybrid atmospheric pollutant dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favaron, M.; Oliveti Selmi, O. [Servizi Territorio srl, Milan (Italy); Sozzi, R. [Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente (ARPA) Lazio, Rieti (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    MODA is a Gaussian-hybrid atmospheric dispersion model, intended for regulatory applications, and designed to meet the following requirements: ability to operate in complex terrain, standard use of a refined description of turbulence, operational efficiency (in terms of both speed and ease to change simulation parameters), ease of integration in modelling interfaces, output compatibility with the widely-used ISC3. MODA can operate in two modes: a standard mode, in which the pollutant dispersion is treated as Gaussian, and an advanced mode, in which the hybrid relations are used to compute the pollutant concentrations. (orig.)

  13. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  14. Long-memory property in air pollutant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper, long-memory in air pollutant concentrations is reviewed and outcome of the past studies is analyzed to provide the possible mechanism behind temporal evolution of air pollutant concentrations. It is observed that almost all the studies show air pollutant concentrations over time possess persistence up to a certain limit. Self-organized criticality of air pollution, multiplicative process of pollutant concentrations, and uniformity in emission sources leading to self-organized criticality are few of the phenomena behind the persistent property of air pollutant concentrations. The self-organized criticality of air pollution is linked to atmosphere's self-cleansing mechanism. This demonstrates that inspite of increasing anthropogenic emissions, self-organized criticality of air pollution is sustained and has low influence of human interventions. In the future, this property may, however, be perturbed due to continuous air pollution emissions, which may influence the accuracy in predictions.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of the atmospheric pollutants in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City (MZMC) is a serious problem with social, economical and political consequences, in virtue that it is the region which concentrates both the greatest country population and a great part of commercial and industrial activities. According to the World Health Organization, maximum permissible concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are exceeded frequently. In the MZMC, the environmental monitoring has been limited to criteria pollutants, named in this way due to when their levels are measured in the atmosphere, they indicate in a precise way the air quality. The Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network monitors and registers the values of pollutants concentration in air in the MZMC. Actually, it is integrated by approximately 35 automatic-equipped remote stations, which report an every-hour register. Local and global invariant quantities have been widely used to describe the fractal properties of diverse time series. In the study of certain time series, many times it is assumed that they are monofractal, which means that they can be described only with one fractal dimension. But this hypothesis is unrealistic because a lot of time series are heterogeneous and non stationary, so their scaling properties are not the same throughout time and therefore they may require more fractal dimensions for their description. Complexity of the atmospheric pollutants dynamics suggests us to analyze its time series of hourly concentration registers with the multifractal formalism. So, in this work, air concentration time series of MZMC criteria pollutants were studied with the proposed method. The chosen pollutants to perform this analysis are ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and PM10 (particles less than 10 micrometers). We found that pollutants air concentration time series are multifractal. When we calculate the degree of multifractality for each time series we know that while more

  16. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y.N. [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  17. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  18. Identifing Atmospheric Pollutant Sources Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, F. F.; Campos, H. F.; Luz, E. P.; Carvalho, A. R.

    2008-05-01

    The estimation of the area source pollutant strength is a relevant issue for atmospheric environment. This characterizes an inverse problem in the atmospheric pollution dispersion. In the inverse analysis, an area source domain is considered, where the strength of such area source term is assumed unknown. The inverse problem is solved by using a supervised artificial neural network: multi-layer perceptron. The conection weights of the neural network are computed from delta rule - learning process. The neural network inversion is compared with results from standard inverse analysis (regularized inverse solution). In the regularization method, the inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization approach, whose the objective function is given by the square difference between the measured pollutant concentration and the mathematical models, associated with a regularization operator. In our numerical experiments, the forward problem is addressed by a source-receptor scheme, where a regressive Lagrangian model is applied to compute the transition matrix. The second order maximum entropy regularization is used, and the regularization parameter is calculated by the L-curve technique. The objective function is minimized employing a deterministic scheme (a quasi-Newton algorithm) [1] and a stochastic technique (PSO: particle swarm optimization) [2]. The inverse problem methodology is tested with synthetic observational data, from six measurement points in the physical domain. The best inverse solutions were obtained with neural networks. References: [1] D. R. Roberti, D. Anfossi, H. F. Campos Velho, G. A. Degrazia (2005): Estimating Emission Rate and Pollutant Source Location, Ciencia e Natura, p. 131-134. [2] E.F.P. da Luz, H.F. de Campos Velho, J.C. Becceneri, D.R. Roberti (2007): Estimating Atmospheric Area Source Strength Through Particle Swarm Optimization. Inverse Problems, Desing and Optimization Symposium IPDO-2007, April 16-18, Miami (FL), USA, vol 1, p

  19. The lacustrine sedimentary records of coal-burning atmospheric pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Yunfei; HU; Shouyun; ZHU; Yuxin; YIN; Yu; ZHOU; Wangp

    2005-01-01

    Based on the studies on diatom, ostracods and magnetism on a core acquired from lacustrine sediments, as well as correlation analysis between concentration of acid diatom and the instantaneous lowest pH value, the processes of environment evolution in Lake Yangzonghai were reconstructed. The lacustrine environment was favorable in the 1950s, and began to be polluted by a coal-burning power plant since 1960. During 1965-1980, the instantaneous lowest pH value of lake water decreased to 5-6 when heavily polluted. There was a decrease trend in the pollution from 1983 to 1999, but coal-burning atmospheric pollution was still a main problem for environmental retrieving. As acid precipitated, acid-tolerant species overspread, and shellfish disappeared, as well as ferromagnetic particulates dissolved because of the consequent change of pH-Eh values in the interface of water and soil, which results in the change of environmental proxies versus depth. Thus, the environmental evolution of Lake Yangzonghai is reconstructed in this paper based on the inferences mentioned above.

  20. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  1. Epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution in Slovenian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeran, Z. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: zvonka.jeran@ijs.si; Mrak, T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jacimovic, R. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Batic, F. [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kastelec, D. [Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mavsar, R. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-03-15

    Two country-wide surveys using epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollution carried out during 2000 and 2001 in Slovenia were compared with surveys in 1991 and 1992. In the first survey, epiphytic lichen cover was studied in more than 500 plots of the 4 x 4 km national grid carried out within the framework of forest decline inventories. In the second survey, the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., was collected on a 16 x 16 km bioindication grid and analysed for S, N, As, Br, Ce, Cd, Cr, K, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Th, U and Zn contents. Only 'forested area' sampling points were included in the present study. Lichen cover was low, with about 70% of plots with less than 10% foliose lichen cover. No relationship was found between Hypogymnia trace element, N and S concentrations and foliose epiphytic lichen cover. - No relationship between Hypogymnia element concentrations and foliose epiphytic lichen cover was found.

  2. Atmospheric Pollutions Emissions, environmental challenges of Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ezzatian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe recent fatal events with regard to the rise in the atmospheric pollutants levels have suggested that the reason of their occurrence be more identified. The long-term and short-term effects on the environment caused by pollutants that reached unacceptable level are apparent; existence of pollutatnts has led to short-term effects such as appearance and aggravation of cancer and respiratory‚ optic and lung diseases. The sequence of long-term effects is seen on DNA‚ intelligence and physiology. The air pollution results in water and soil pollution. Of course, aquatics and plants are under the influence of these pollutions. Men are not safe from them because they enter man’s food chain too. The statistical model represented in this research can estimate the acceptable rate of surface- ozone by measuring the climatic data of synoptic meteorology of Isfahan Station and evaluating surface pollution rate of station of the Environment Protection Agency. This research shows that equations that profited from two variables including square sunshine and square carbon monoxide concentration could explain %35 of concentration changes in surface- ozone during a day. Even though multivariable regression models can explain dramatical concentration changes in surface– ozone and protector concentration, practical use of these models is limited because of numerous entrance variables. Ozone as one of the most significant secondary pollutants not only influences general health but also has a considerable effect on agriculture. Surface – ozone is in ppm or ppb and it comprises the number of ozone molecules per million and per billion of air molecule.2- Theoretical basis As regards exceptional importance and poisonous state of ozone special in agriculture, it is essential to measure the rate of this gas for quantitative and qualitative survey of garden products and birds and livestock’s health. In general pollutants threat

  3. Influence of emissions on regional atmospheric mercury concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieser J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a global pollutant that is rapidly transported in the atmosphere. Unlike the majority of air pollutants the background concentrations of mercury play a major role for the atmospheric concentrations on a hemispheric scale. In this study the influence of regional anthropogenic emissions in comparison to the global emissions on mercury concentrations over Europe are investigated. For this purpose an advanced threedimensional model system is used that consists of three components. The emission model SMOKE-EU, the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, and the chemistry transport model (CTM CMAQ. A variety of sensitivity runs is performed in order to determine the influence of different driving factors (i.e. boundary conditions, anthropogenic and natural emissions, emission factors, meteorological fields on the atmoshperic concentrations of different mercury species. This study is part of the European FP7 project GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System. The aim is to identify the most important drivers for atmospheric mercury in order to optimize future regional modelling studies in the course of the GMOS project. Moreover, the model results are used to determine areas of interest for air-plane based in-situ measurements which are also part of GMOS.

  4. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  5. Application of computational fluid mechanics to atmospheric pollution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Smith, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most noticeable effects of air pollution on the properties of the atmosphere is the reduction in visibility. This paper reports the results of investigations of the fluid dynamical and microphysical processes involved in the formation of advection fog on aerosols from combustion-related pollutants, as condensation nuclei. The effects of a polydisperse aerosol distribution, on the condensation/nucleation processes which cause the reduction in visibility are studied. This study demonstrates how computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer modeling can be applied to simulate the life cycle of the atmosphereic pollution problems.

  6. Advection of pollutants by internal solitary waves in oceanic and atmospheric stable stratifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Haarlemmer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available When a pollutant is released into the ocean or atmosphere under turbulent conditions, even a steady release is captured by large eddies resulting in localized patches of high concentration of the pollutant. If such a cloud of pollutant subsequently enters a stable stratification-either a pycnocline or thermocline-then internal waves are excited. Since large solitary internal waves have a recirculating core, pollutants may be trapped in the sclitary wave, and advected large distances through the waveguide provided by the stratification. This paper addresses the mechanisms, through computer and physical simulation, by which a localized release of a dense pollutant results in solitary waves that trap the pollutant or disperse the pollutant faster than in the absence of the waves.

  7. Estimating atmospheric mercury concentrations with lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Nicolardi, Valentina; Bargagli, Roberto; Loppi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The uptake kinetics of elemental gaseous Hg (Hg(0)) in three species of epiphytic lichens (Pseudevernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, and Xanthoria parietina) were investigated under four different Hg concentrations (10, 15, 30, and 45 μg/m(3)) and three different temperatures (10, 20, and 30 °C) with the aim of evaluating the lichen efficiency for Hg(0) accumulation and their potential use in the estimate of atmospheric concentrations of this metal in the field. The results showed that under our experimental conditions the lichens accumulated Hg according to exposure time and that the metal is not released back to the atmosphere after Hg(0) was removed from the air (clearance). Pseudevernia furfuracea showed the highest Hg accumulation capacity and Evernia prunastri showed the lowest, but in these species the metal uptake kinetics was affected by temperature. Xanthoria parietina showed an intermediate metal accumulation capacity and a Hg accumulation rate independent of temperature (in the range 10-30 °C). The use of first-order kinetics equations for Hg uptake in X. parietina and available field data on Hg bioaccumulation in this species allowed reliable estimates of atmospheric Hg concentrations in the environment.

  8. The relationships between air pollutants, meteorological parameters and concentration of airborne fungal spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka, E-mail: agofr@univ.szczecin.p [Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Szczecin, Waska 13 Street, 71-415 Szczecin (Poland); Strzelczak, Agnieszka [Department of Food Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Wolski, Tomasz [Physical Oceanography Laboratory, University of Szczecin (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    Fungal spores are an important component of bioaerosol and also considered to act as indicator of the level of atmospheric bio-pollution. Therefore, better understanding of these phenomena demands a detailed survey of airborne particles. The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of two the most important allergenic taxa of airborne fungi - Alternaria and Cladosporium - on meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations during three consecutive years (2006-2008). This study is also an attempt to create artificial neural network (ANN) forecasting models useful in the prediction of aeroallergen abundance. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and environmental parameters as well as pollutants, confirmed by the Spearman's correlation rank analysis and high performance of the ANN models obtained. The concentrations of Cladosporium and Alternaria spores can be predicted with quite good accuracy from meteorological conditions and air pollution recorded three days earlier. - ANN models predict airspore contents from weather conditions and air pollutant.

  9. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  10. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  11. Spatial structure and scale feature of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Xiangde; ZHOU; Xiuji; SHI; Xiaohui

    2005-01-01

    The spatial structure and multi-scale feature of the atmospheric pollution influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas (a rapidly developed city agglomeration) is dissected and analyzed in this paper on the basis of the atmospheric pollution dynamic-chemical process observation data of the urban building ensemble boundary layer of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter (February) and summer (August) 2003, and relevant meteorological elements and satellite retrieval aerosol optical depth (AOD), etc. comprehensive data with the dynamic-statistical integrated analysis of "point-surface" spatial structure. Results show that there existed significant difference in the contribution of winter/summer different pollution emission sources to the component character of atmospheric pollution, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results of statistical model also indicate that SO2 and NOX dominated in the component structure of winter aerosol particle; instead, CO and NOX dominated in summer. Surface layer atmospheric dynamic and thermal structures and various pollutant species at the upper boundary of building ensembles at urban different observational sites of Beijing in winter and summer showed an "in-phase" variation and its spatial scale feature of "influence domain". The power spectrum analysis (PSA) shows that the period spectrum of winter/summer particle concentration accorded with those of atmospheric wind field: the longer period was dominative in winter, but the shorter period in summer, revealing the impact of the seasonal scale feature of winter/summer atmospheric general circulation on the period of atmospheric pollution variations. It is found that from analyzing urban area thermal heterogeneity that the multiscale effect of Beijing region urban heat island (UHI) was associated with the heterogeneous expansion of tall buildings area. In urban atmospheric dynamical and thermal characteristic spatial structures, the

  12. Rebuilding sources of linear tracers after atmospheric concentration concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of widespread sources of passive tracers out of atmospheric concentration measurements has become an important challenge of modern meteorology. The paper proposes some mathematical tracks to address this reconstruction of the complex space-time geometry of the sources. The methods are based upon the use of retroplumes. The inverse problem is addressed in a deterministic non statistical frame. The information obtained by local measurements is spread by introducing the concept of illumination. The constraint that the source to be rebuilt is non negative is also addressed. The experimental source ETEX1 is rebuilt in order to evaluate an impulse response of the algorithms.

  13. Structuro-functional changes in the placenta as a result of exposure to atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonashevskaia, T.I.; Lamentova, T.G.; Shmakov, G.S.; Nikolaeva, E.G.; Suslova, V.M.

    1985-02-01

    Under the influence of atmospheric pollutions certain structural-functional changes take place in placenta: terminal villi per stipulated square unite, villi with desquamated epithelium, with dilated vessels, with deposition of fibrinoid masses, with plasmodial buds increase in number; section area occupied by epithelial layer decreases; RNA concentration and histoenzymatic activity change in the latter.

  14. Statistical distributions of air pollution concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1982-07-01

    Methodologies and limitations in describing air quality through statistical distributions of pollutant are discussed, and the use of extreme statistics in the evaluation of different forms of air quality standards are explained. In addition, the interpretation of rollback calculations with regard to air quality standards is discussed. (JMT)

  15. Research of Mosses Accumulation Properties Used for Assessment of Regional and Local Atmospheric Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda K. Ryzhakova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of atmospheric heavy metal and other toxic element depositions by using widespread bryophytes as biomonitors has been widely used. Choosing most appropriate moss species in relation to their accumulation properties is the main goal of this research. The accumulation of heavy metals and other toxic elements by widespread mosses of midland have been studied. The research is focused on assessing accumulation properties of 4 species of terrestrial moss, 4 species of paludal moss and 2 species of epiphytic moss. The concentrations of 32 elements have been determined in moss samples by neutron activation analysis (NAA and atom emission spectrometry (AES. Interspecies and intraspecies comparison revealed significant differences in accumulation properties. The accumulation capacity of Dicranum polysetum was higher than other terrestrial mosses and Aulacomnium palustre had higher accumulation capacity than other paludal mosses. These moss species have been used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory, particularly for research of transboundary transfer of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation property of epiphytic moss was higher than others. The epiphytic moss could be found on the bark of old trees (aspens, poplars, birch that are of frequent occurrence in urban areas. Therefore, epiphytic moss can be used for monitoring atmospheric pollutants in an immense territory and for research of atmospheric pollution in industrial centers, inhabited locations as well as assessment of atmospheric contamination in local pollution source. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.5566

  16. Connection between ozone concentration and atmosphere circulation at peak Moussala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter; Ivanov, Peter; Kalapov, Ivo; Penev, Ilia; Drenska, Mirolujba

    2009-09-01

    Connection between ozone concentration and atmosphere circulation is investigated based on measurements at BEO station, peak Moussala (2,925 m a.s.l.), for the period 09 August 2006 to 29 January 2008. Ozone concentration data are collected with UV-analyzer “Environnement O3 42” and meteo data with weather station “Vaisala”. There are measurements of 7Be. Data from NOAA HYSPLIT model for particle trajectories are also used. Eight wind directions and three ranges of wind velocities are employed in the analysis. A comparison of ozone concentrations in upward and downward air transport according to HYSPLIT model is made. The number of cases with ozone concentration above 63 ppb has been counted. Mann-Whitney nonparametric test is employed as a basic statistical method. Correlation between atmosphere pressure and tropospheric ozone content is made. The same is done for 7Be and ozone. The main conclusion is that there is not any local or regional pollution effect detectable at peak Moussala, but most of the ozone measured is due to emissions of hydrocarbons and NO x over a larger region. There could be some regional sources of ozone building substances in southwest direction from peak Moussala. Air transported from the north quarter has higher ozone concentrations compared to the south quarter. In vertical direction, upward transport of air masses shows higher values of ozone concentration. Higher wind velocity is associated with low ozone concentrations at peak Moussala. The annual course of ozone concentration has summer maximum and winter minimum. There is right connection between air pressure and ozone concentration. The same is valid for the correlation between 7Be and ozone. Diurnal ozone course shows daytime maximum in winter and nighttime maximum in summer.

  17. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to esti

  18. Model for Predicting Roadside Concentrations of Traffic Pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhongzhen; MIAO Guoqiang; WANG Lu

    2007-01-01

    An analytical model is presented to estimate traffic pollutant concentrations based on an artificial neural network (ANN) approach. The model can analyze the highly nonlinear relationship between the traffic flow attributes, meteorological conditions, road spatial characteristics, and the traffic pollutant concentrations.This study analyzes the multiple factors that affect the pollutant concentration and establishes the model structure using the ANN technique. Collected data for the pollutant concentrations as functions of variant factors was used to train the ANN model. A method was developed to automatically measure the traffic flow attributes, such as traffic flow, vehicle speed, and flow composition from video data. The results indicate that the model can reliably forecast CO2 concentrations along the roads.

  19. Spectral estimation of global levels of atmospheric pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Macho, Javier

    2011-10-01

    Underlying levels of atmospheric pollutants, assumed to be governed by smoothing mechanisms due to atmospheric dispersion, can be estimated from global emissions source databases on greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting compounds. However, spatial data may be contaminated with noise or even missing or zero-valued at many locations. Therefore, a problem that arises is how to extract the underlying smooth levels. This paper sets out a structural spatial model that assumes data evolve across a global grid constrained by second-order smoothing restrictions. The frequency-domain approach is particularly suitable for global datasets, reduces the computational burden associated with two-dimensional models and avoids cumbersome zero-inflated skewed distributions. Confidence intervals of the underlying levels are also obtained. An application to the estimation of global levels of atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic emissions illustrates the technique which may also be useful in the analysis of other environmental datasets of similar characteristics.

  20. Application of cascade lasers to detection of trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczuga, Marcin; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the impact of gaseous pollutants on the earth's atmosphere, as well as more and more felt by mankind negative effects of its contamination, result in increasing the level of environmental awareness and contribute to the intensification of actions aimed at reducing the emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere. At the same time, the extensive studies are conducted in order to continuously monitor the level of air contamination with harmful gases and the industry compliance with the standards limited the amount of emitted pollutants. Over recent years, there has been increasing use of cascade lasers and multi-pass cells in optical systems detecting the gaseous atmospheric pollutants and measuring the gas concentrations. The paper presents the use of a tunable quantum cascade laser as a source of the IR radiation in an advanced detection system enabling the trace gaseous atmospheric pollutants to be identified. Apart from the laser, the main elements of the system are: a multi-pass cell, an IR detector and a module for control and analysis. Operation of the system is exemplified by measuring the level of the air pollution with ammonia, carbon oxide and nitrous oxide.

  1. Diurnal Variations of Air Pollution and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structure in Beijing During Winter 2000/2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; XU Xiangde; DING Guoan; ZHOU Mingyu; CHENG Xinghong

    2005-01-01

    The diurnal variations of gaseous pollutants and the dynamical and thermodynamic structures of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in the Beijing area from January to March 2001 are analyzed in this study using data from the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX). A heavy pollution day (22 February) and a good air quality day (24 February) are selected and individually analyzed and compared to reveal the relationships between gaseous pollutants and the diurnal variations of the ABL. The results show that gaseous pollutant concentrations exhibit a double-peak-double-valley-type diurnal variation and have similar trends but with different magnitudes at different sites in Beijing. The diurnal variation of the gaseous pollutant concentrations is closely related to (with a 1-2 hour delay of)changes in the atmospheric stability and the mean kinetic energy in the ABL.

  2. Assessment of the spatial and temporal distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Nordic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Pia; Brorström-Lundén, Eva; Hansson, Katarina; Hakola, Hannele; Vestenius, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Long-term atmospheric monitoring data (1994-2011) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assembled from a rural site in southern Sweden, Råö, and a remote, sub-Arctic site in Finland, Pallas. The concentration levels, congener profiles, seasonal and temporal trends, and projections were evaluated in order to assess the status of POPs in the Scandinavian atmosphere. Our data include atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), altogether comprising a selection of 27 different compounds. The atmospheric POP levels were generally higher in the south, closer to the sources (primary emissions) of the pollutants. The levels of low-chlorinated PCBs and chlordanes were equal at the two sites, and one of the studied POPs, α-HCH, showed higher levels in the north than in the south. Declining temporal trends in the atmospheric concentrations for the legacy POPs - PCBs (2-4% per year), HCHs (6-7% per year), chlordanes (3-4% per year) and DTTs (2-5% per year) - were identified both along Sweden's west coast and in the sub-Arctic area of northern Finland. Most of PAHs did not show any significant long-term trends. The future projections for POP concentrations suggest that in Scandinavia, low-chlorinated PCBs and p,p‧-DDE will remain in the atmospheric compartment the longest (beyond 2030). HCH's and PCB180 will be depleted from the Nordic atmosphere first, before 2020, whereas chlordanes and rest of the PCBs will be depleted between the years 2020 and 2025. PCBs tend to deplete sooner and chlordanes later from the sub-Arctic compared to the south of Sweden. This study demonstrates that the international bans on legacy POPs have successfully reduced the concentrations of these particular substances in the Nordic atmosphere. However, the most long-lived compounds may continue in the atmospheric cycle for another couple of decades.

  3. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, Cecilia

    1999-04-01

    The load of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is considered high in the Baltic ecosystem. The Baltic Sea spans over 12 latitudes and the regional differences in climate affect the behavior of POPs. Therefore spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of POPs in air and precipitation within this area has been investigated at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990-1993. In addition, the deposition of gaseous and particulate associated POPs to the Baltic Sea is estimated from empirical data. This atmospheric input of POPs is compared with the input from rivers. Additionally, data from Ross Island, Antarctica and Lake Kariba, Zimbabve, Africa is presented, and all results are discussed and explained using the `global fractionation hypothesis` as a framework. In the Baltic Sea, concentration of individual POPs in air were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient air temperature and location. A latitudinal gradient, with higher levels in the south was found for PCBs and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners in air increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentration increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic, or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites. The concentrations of individual congeners in precipitation were found to be influenced by atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, ambient temperature, precipitation volume and

  4. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Pollutants from Combustion Formation and Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This volume is based on the lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute: (ASI) «Pollutants Formation from Combustion. Formation Mechanisms and Impact on th th Atmospheric Chemistry» held in Maratea, Italy, from 13 to 26 september 1998. Preservation of the environment is of increasing concern in individual countries but also at continental or world scales. The structure of a NATO ASI which involve lecturers and participants of different nationalities was thought as especially well suited to address environmental issues. As combustion is known to substantially contribute to the damaging of the atmosphere, it was natural to concentrate the ASI program on reviewing the currently available knowledge of the formation mechanisms of the main pollutants liberated by combustion systems. In most situations, pollutants are present as trace components and their formation and removal is strongly conditioned by the chemical reactions initiated by fuel consumption. Therefore specific lectures were aimed at defi...

  5. Measurements of pollution in the lower layers of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P.; Sylvestre-Baron, M.; Pleyber, G.; Perilhon, P.; Faivre- Pierret, R.; Closson, A.; Nicotra, C.

    1973-06-01

    The measurement of the meteorological parameters and the sampling of pollutants in the lower levels of the atmosphere were made by the use of captive balloons. A 550 m/sup 3/ airship filled with hydrogen was used with apparatus distributed along the anchor cable up to a height of 1,200 m. The meteorological probes used to measure the pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind velocity and to transmit them to the ground are described. The apparatus for air sampling and the chemical analytical methods are described. The results obtained are reported. This experiment made it possible to prove the relations existing between temperature inversion regions and pollution levels. The results show that under the temperature emission layers the profiles for the diffusion of SO/sub 2/, Cl/ sub 2/, and organic pollutants are sharply different. (tr-auth)

  6. Model JC-1 Laser System for Monitoring Atmospheric Pollution,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    differential absorption mode atmospheric pollution laser monitoring system, in which a phase locking technique and single board computer are used for...amplification 1 3. synchronous demodulation 2 4. phase locking amplification 2 5. single board computer 6. function logging Instrument 7. oscillator...were then fed into a DBJ-Z80 single - board computer to undergo a multiple averaging process before going through functional operation, and were logged

  7. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мagdalena PLATIKANOVA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe, the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region.Methods: A five year study (2009-2013 followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format.Results: Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009-2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%, the respiratory system (17.34% and the genitourinary system (9.76%. The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%, the cardiovascular system (11.85%, respiratory system (10.86% and the genitourinary system (8.88%.Conclusion: The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization. Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies. Keywords: Atmospheric pollution, Morbidity, Industrial region, Bulgaria

  8. Development of Indoor Air Pollution Concentration Prediction by Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyati Pradini Yudison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available People living near busy roads are potentially exposed to traffic-induced air pollutants. The pollutants may intrude into the indoor environment, causing health risks to the occupants. Prediction of pollutant exposure therefore is of great importance for impact assessment and policy making related to environmentally sustainable transport. This study involved the selection of spatial interpolation methods that can be used for prediction of indoor air quality based on outdoor pollutant mapping without indoor measurement data. The research was undertaken in the densely populated area of Karees, Bandung, Indonesia. The air pollutant NO2 was monitored in this area as a preliminary study. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured by passive diffusion tube. Outdoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 94 locations, consisting of 30 roadside and 64 outdoor locations. Residential indoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 64 locations. To obtain a spatially continuous air quality map, the spatial interpolation methods of inverse distance weighting (IDW and Kriging were applied. Selection of interpolation method was done based on the smallest root mean square error (RMSE and standard deviation (SD. The most appropriate interpolation method for outdoor NO2 concentration mapping was Kriging with an SD value of 5.45 µg/m3 and an RMSE value of 5.45 µg/m3, while for indoor NO2 concentration mapping the IDW was best fitted with an RMSE value of 5.92 µg/m3 and an SD value of 5.92 µg/m3.

  9. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map.

  10. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  11. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  12. Pollution characteristics of atmospheric fine particles and their secondary components in the atmosphere of Shenzhen in summer and in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU; Yuwen; HE; Lingyan; HU; Min; ZHANG; Jing; ZHAO; Yunliang

    2006-01-01

    Two field measurements for atmospheric fine particles were conducted in Baoan district of Shenzhen during the summer and winter in 2004. Totally 30 sets of 24 h samples were collected, and then the mass concentrations and chemical compositions were determined. The seasonal variations and secondary pollution characteristics of fine particles during the sampling periods were discussed with meteorological factors. The results show that seasonal variations of atmospheric particles are significant in Shenzhen. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in summer were 35 μg·m-3 and 57 μg·m-3, respectively, and those in winter were 99 μg·m-3 and 135 μg·m-3, respectively. The concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 in winter increased 184% and 137%, respectively, compared to those in summer. PM2.5 accounted for 61% and 75% of PM10 in summer and in winter, respectively, indicating severe fine particle pollution in Shenzhen. During the summer and winter sampling periods, the mean OC/EC ratios were 3.4 and 1.6, respectively. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) averagely accounted for 56% and 6% of the total OC in summer and in winter, respectively, which implies a major contribution of SOC to OC in summer. During the continuous high temperature period in summer, both the concentrations and fractions of secondary aerosol components in PM2.5 were highly elevated, suggesting severe secondary pollution again. The prevailing wind was from South China Sea in summer, and the air quality was good. The prevailing wind in winter was from Mainland China to the north, and the polluted air mass led to poor air quality.

  13. The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Cinzano, Pierantonio

    2012-01-01

    Methods to map artificial night sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on the computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere which allows a fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. We present here up-to-date Extended Garstang Models (EGM) which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution DMSP-OLS satellite measurements of artificial light emissions and to GTOPO30 digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the World at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atm...

  14. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aboel Fetouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.

  15. Pollutant concentrations and pollution loads in stormwater runoff from different land uses in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shumin Wang; Qiang He; Hainan Ai; Zhentao Wang; Qianqian Zhang

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of pollutant concentrations and pollution loads in stormwater runoff in Chongqing,six typical land use types were selected and studied from August 2009 to September 2011.Statistical analysis on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in all water samples shows that pollutant concentrations fluctuate greatly in rainfall-runoff,and the concentrations of the same pollutant also vary greatly in different rainfall events.In addition,it indicates that the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from urban traffic roads (UTR) are significantly higher than those from residential roads (RR),commercial areas (CA),concrete roofs (CR),tile roofs (TRoof,and campus catchment areas (CCA); and the EMCs of total phosphorus (TP) and NH3-N from UTR and CA are 2.35-5 and 3 times of the class-Ⅲ standard values specified in the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002).The EMCs of Fe,Pb and Cd are also much higher than the class-Ⅲ standard values.The analysis of pollution load producing coefficients (PLPC) reveals that the main pollution source of TSS,COD and TP is UTR.The analysis of correlations between rainfall factors and EMCs/PLPC indicates that rainfall duration is correlated with EMCs/PLPC of TSS for TRoof and TP for UTR,while rainfall intensity is correlated with EMCs/PLPC of TP for both CR and CCA.The results of this study provide a reference for better management of non-point source pollution in urban regions.

  16. Spatial structure and scale feature of the atmospheric pollution source impact of city agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiangde; ZHOU Xiuji; SHI Xiaohui

    2005-01-01

    The spatial structure and multi-scale feature of the atmospheric pollution influence domain of Beijing and its peripheral areas (a rapidly developed city agglomeration) is dissected and analyzed in this paper on the basis of the atmospheric pollution dynamic-chemical process observation data of the urban building ensemble boundary layer of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter (February) and summer (August) 2003, and relevant meteorological elements and satellite retrieval aerosol optical depth (AOD), etc. comprehensive data with the dynamic-statistical integrated analysis of "point-surface" spatial structure. Results show that there existed significant difference in the contribution of winter/summer different pollution emission sources to the component character of atmospheric pollution, and the principal component analysis (PCA) results of statistical model also indicate that SO2 and NOX dominated in the component structure of winter aerosol particle; instead, CO and NOX dominated in summer. Surface layer atmospheric dynamic and thermal structures and various pollutant species at the upper boundary of building ensembles at urban different observational sites of Beijing in winter and summer showed an "in-phase" variation and its spatial scale feature of "influence domain". The power spectrum analysis (PSA) shows that the period spectrum of winter/summer particle concentration accorded with those of atmospheric wind field: the longer period was dominative in winter, but the shorter period in summer, revealing the impact of the seasonal scale feature of winter/summer atmospheric general circulation on the period of atmospheric pollution variations. It is found that from analyzing urban area thermal heterogeneity that the multiscale effect of Beijing region urban heat island (UHI) was associated with the heterogeneous expansion of tall buildings area. In urban atmospheric dynamical and thermal characteristic spatial structures, the

  17. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  18. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, A.; Senhou, A.; Chouak, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Moutia, Z.; Lferde, M.; Elyahyaoui, A.; El Khoukhi, T.; Bounakhla, M.; Embarch, K.; Ayrault, S.; Moskura, M.

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the accumulation sensitivities of trace elements in six types of air pollution biomonitors (lichens, tree barks and a moss) are compared. Three analytical methods were used:14MeV neutron activation analysis, thermal neutron activation analysis method and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Studies of the local concentration variations versus the sizes of lichen and of their altitude of collection from grounds, revealed that a standardisation of the procedures for collecting samples was necessary.

  19. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  20. Atmospheric pollution: a case study of degrading urban air quality over Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehra, Parmjit Singh

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study of urban air quality over a densely populated city Ludhiana situated in Punjab, India, in the form of monthly and annual average concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), NO2 and SO2 for the periods 1988-1989, 1994-1999 and 2001-2005 which is generally found to be increasing with time and thus requires immediate corrective measures lest the situation becomes totally uncontrollable. The present situation is as bad as in other metropolitan Indian cities, although it seems to have somewhat improved as indicated by the latest 2001-2005 data in comparison with the past 1988-1989 and 1994-1999 data, but much more still needs to be done. In addition to the industrial and vehicular pollution, the agricultural pollution due to the burning of wheat and rice straws by the farmers should also be checked because it also creates tremendous pollution in the atmosphere.

  1. The effect of atmospheric pollution on building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C. M.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2002-11-01

    This chapter surveys main effects of atmospheric pollution on building materials. It summarises these effects on stone, bricks, mortar, concrete, glass, metals (iron, zinc, copper, bronze, aluminium, lead and silver), polymers, paints and timber. Special attention is paid to stone because of its extensive use as building material in the cultural heritage. In general, main damaging agent is sulfur dioxide which leads to sulfation of many materials, particularly carbonate-bearing stones. However, the decline of sulfur dioxide in cities means that the recognition of the prime role of this pollutant presents something of a dilemma. It is increasingly necessary to consider other substances that can contribute to material decay e.g. nitrogen oxides, chlorides and ozone, either acting as synergistic to the sulfation reaction or as main decay agents, such as the case of aluminium and polymers. Particulate matter often from diesel vehicles can also accelerate the oxidation of SO2 on the surface (traditionally sulfur dioxide with Fe-rich particles) and blacken the materials surface in the case of soot. These processes contribute to the formation of black-crusts when embedded in the gypsum layer resulting from the material sulfation, but again the rate in the modem atmosphere is a matter of much research.

  2. The linear accumulation of atmospheric mercury by vegetable and grass leaves: Potential biomonitors for atmospheric mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Ci, Zhijia; Kong, Xiangrui; Wang, Zhangwei

    2013-09-01

    One question in the use of plants as biomonitors for atmospheric mercury (Hg) is to confirm the linear relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves. To explore the origin of Hg in the vegetable and grass leaves, open top chambers (OTCs) experiment was conducted to study the relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The influence of Hg in soil on Hg accumulation in leaves was studied simultaneously by soil Hg-enriched experiment. Hg concentrations in grass and vegetable leaves and roots were measured in both experiments. Results from OTCs experiment showed that Hg concentrations in leaves of the four species were significantly positively correlated with those in air during the growth time (p  0.05). Thus, Hg in grass leaves is mainly originated from the atmosphere, and grass leaves are more suitable as potential biomonitors for atmospheric Hg pollution. The effect detection limits (EDLs) for the leaves of alfalfa and ryegrass were 15.1 and 22.2 ng g(-1), respectively, and the biological detection limit (BDL) for alfalfa and ryegrass was 3.4 ng m(-3).

  3. Chromatographic air analyser microsystem for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Lahlou, Houda; Mohsen, Yehya; Berger, Franck [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Rayonnements, Alain Chambaudet, UMR CEA E4 UFR ST, Universite de Franche Comte, 25000 Besancon (France); Vilanova, Xavier; Correig, Xavier, E-mail: jbsanche@univ-fcomte.fr [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, Electrica i Automatica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Paisos Catalans 26, 43007, Tarragona (Spain)

    2011-08-17

    The development of industry and automotive trafic produces Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) whose toxicity can affect seriously human health and environment. The level of those contaminants in air must be as low as possible. In this context, there is a need for in situ systems that could monitor selectively the concentration of these compounds. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficiency of a system build with a pre-concentrator, a chromatographic micro-column and a tin oxide-based gas sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, this study is focused on the selective detection of benzene and 1,3 butadiene.

  4. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Robert A; Muller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were unhealthy. China's population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was 52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to 1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7-2.2 million deaths/year at 95% confidence], roughly 17% of all deaths in China.

  5. Atmospheric relative concentrations in building wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the ARCON96 computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation for potential use in control room habitability assessments. It includes a user`s guide to the code, a description of the technical basis for the code, and a programmer`s guide to the code. The ARCON96 code uses hourly meteorological data and recently developed methods for estimating dispersion in the vicinity of buildings to calculate relative concentrations at control room air intakes that would be exceeded no more than five percent of the time. The concentrations are calculated for averaging periods ranging from one hour to 30 days in duration. ARCON96 is a revised version of ARCON95, which was developed for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Changes in the code permit users to simulate releases from area sources as well as point sources. The method of averaging concentrations for periods longer than 2 hours has also been changed. The change in averaging procedures increases relative concentrations for these averaging periods. In general, the increase in concentrations is less than a factor of two. The increase is greatest for relatively short averaging periods, for example 0 to 8 hours and diminishes as the duration of the averaging period increases.

  6. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants.

  7. Detecting industrial pollution in the atmospheres of earth-like exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Henry W; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Detecting biomarkers, such as molecular oxygen, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biomarker for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We estimate that for an Earth-mass planet in the habitable zone of a white dwarf, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be detected at earth-like concentrations with an integration time of ~1.5 hrs and 12 hrs respectively. Detecting pollutants that are produced nearly exclusively by anthropogenic activities will be significantly more challenging. Of these pollutants, we focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), which will be the easiest to detect. We estimate that ~1.5 days (~3 days) of total integration time will be sufficie...

  8. Environmental epidemiology applied to urban atmospheric pollution: a contribution from the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory (LPAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Paulo Afonso de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigation on the effects of human exposure to environmental pollution using scientific methodology only began in the 20th century as a consequence of several environmental accidents followed by an unexpected mortality increase above expected mortality and as a result of observational epidemiological and toxicological studies conducted on animals in developed countries. This article reports the experience of the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory at the School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, concerning the respiratory system and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in responses to exposure to pollution using toxicological and experimental procedures, complemented by observational epidemiological studies conducted in the city of São Paulo. It also describes these epidemiological studies, pointing out that air pollution is harmful to public health, not only among susceptible groups but also in the general population, even when the concentration of pollutants is below the limits set by environmental legislation. The study provides valuable information to support the political and economic decision-making processes aimed at preserving the environment and enhancing quality of life.

  9. Investigation of air pollution concentration in Kathmandu valley during winter season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONDO Akira; KAGA Akikazu; IMAMURA Kiyoshi; INOUE Yoshio; SUGISAWA Masahiko; SHRESTHA Manohar Lal; SAPKOTA Balkrishan

    2005-01-01

    The monthly concentrations of NO2, NOx, SO2 and O3 measured by a passive sampler from February 2003 to January 2004showed that the air pollution during the winter season in Kathmandu valley was higher than the summer season. The O3 level was found the highest during April, May and June due to strong radiation. The hourly concentrations of NO2, NOx, O3 and suspended particulate matter(SPM) were also measured by automatic instruments on December 2003. Temperature at the height of 60 m and 400 m at Raniban Mountain in the northwest of Kathmandu valley was measured on February 2001 in the winter season and the average potential temperature gradient was estimated from observed temperature. Wind speed was also measured at the department of hydrology, airport section, from 18 February to 6 March 2001. It was found that the stable layer and the calm condition in the atmosphere strongly affected the appearance of the maximum concentrations of NO2 and SPM in the morning, and that the unstable layer and the windy condition in the atmosphere was considerably relevant to the decrease of air pollution concentrations at daytime. The emission amounts of NOx, HCs and total suspended particle(TSP) from transport sector in 2003 were estimated from the increasing rate of vehicles on the basis of the emission amounts in 1993 to be 3751 t/a, 30570 t/a and 1317 t/a, respectively. The diurnal concentrations in 2003 calculated by the two-layers box model reproduced the characteristics of air pollution in Kathmandu valley such as the maximum value of O3 and its time, the maximum value of NO in the morning, and the decrease of NO and NO2 at daytime. The comparison with the concentrations in 1993 calculated suggested that the main cause of air pollution was the emission from transport sector.

  10. Remote sensing of atmospheric urban pollutants with DOAS in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, A.; Poblete, F. J.; Mucientes, A. E.; Maigler, F. J.; Notario, A.; Martínez, E.; Albaladejo, J.

    Urban air pollution is one of the main environmental problems, owing to implications for public health and physical environment. In urban areas, the sources of atmospheric pollutants are distributed very inhomogeneously. Trace gas concentrations measured by conventional air quality monitoring stations are always influenced by small sources in their direct vicinity and surface effects like dry deposition and small-scale wind systems. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a field-oriented monitoring technique that allows very fast and continuous measurements of different airborne pollutants along an open light path. Remote sensing techniques like DOAS can avoid the problems of local influences and surface effects, as DOAS can use light paths with range from several hundred of meters to several kilometres, thus the measured concentrations are averaged over the light path and barely influenced by small-scale variances. The technique is based on the fact that all trace gases absorb electromagnetic radiation in some part of the spectrum. If the radiation of the appropriate frequency is transmitted through the atmosphere the features of absorption of each molecule in that spectral region allow the identification and quantification of the gas concentrations. Up to date, only a few long term DOAS measurements of urban air pollution have been reported, and to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one in the South of Spain. We present here some results obtained in a long term study performed in Ciudad Real and Puertollano, where the daily, weekly and seasonal variation of the concentrations of minor important tropospheric constituents as ozone, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide, have been continuously monitored.

  11. Concentrations and fate of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Hansen, Kaj M; van Egmond, Roger; Christensen, Jesper H; Skjøth, Carsten A

    2010-07-15

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) is a volatile compound used in personal care products that is released to the atmosphere in large quantities. Although D(5) is currently under consideration for regulation, there have been no field investigations of its atmospheric fate. We employed a recently developed, quality assured method to measure D(5) concentration in ambient air at a rural site in Sweden. The samples were collected with daily resolution between January and June 2009. The D(5) concentration ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng m(-3), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than previous reports. The measured data were compared with D(5) concentrations predicted using an atmospheric circulation model that included both OH radical and D(5) chemistry. The model was parametrized using emissions estimates and physical chemical properties determined in laboratory experiments. There was good agreement between the measured and modeled D(5) concentrations. The results show that D(5) is clearly subject to long-range atmospheric transport, but that it is also effectively removed from the atmosphere via phototransformation. Atmospheric deposition has little influence on the atmospheric fate. The good agreement between the model predictions and the field observations indicates that there is a good understanding of the major factors governing D(5) concentrations in the atmosphere.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere - spatial and temporal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backe, Cecilia

    2001-05-01

    In this thesis I have studied the spatial and temporal variations of PCBs in the atmosphere and in precipitation in southern Sweden. Further, soil-air exchange processes of PCBs were investigated. Finally, the long-range transport of PCBs and DDT was studied in the Baltic Sea region and in a tropical vs. a temporal region. On the regional scale there were significant differences in PCB concentration in the atmosphere, in precipitation and in soil between nearby sampling-areas. Differences in PCB concentrations between areas probably originated from varying geographical and meteorological conditions that affected exchange processes between air and soil/vegetation surfaces. Temporal variations in PCB concentration in atmosphere and precipitation were also found. For PCBs in the air, a systematic pattern in the deviation from the yearly median value for the region was observed. Wind direction played an important role for PCB concentration in precipitation in coastal areas, while at the inland sites this variable seemed to have a minor influence. To examine the intensity of precipitation scavenging, the total washout ratios were calculated and the highest ratios were observed at the two sites where PCB concentration in the air was high. Further, high concentrations of PCB in precipitation correlated with a composition of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, as shown by principal component analysis. For most of the sites there was a significant negative relationship between PCB concentration and rain volume. Soil type and soil organic matter content was found to be important for the variations in PCB concentration between nearby areas. Highest concentrations were found at two sites with sandy soils, one with an extremely high organic carbon content. Soils with similar soil textures (i.e. sandy silt moraine) did not show any significant differences in PCB concentrations. PCB congener composition was shown to differ between sites, with site-specific congener patterns. No

  13. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management.

  14. Predicting indoor pollutant concentrations, and applications to air quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetti, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Because most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors, predicting exposure to airborne pollutants requires models that incorporate the effect of buildings. Buildings affect the exposure of their occupants in a number of ways, both by design (for example, filters in ventilation systems remove particles) and incidentally (for example, sorption on walls can reduce peak concentrations, but prolong exposure to semivolatile organic compounds). Furthermore, building materials and occupant activities can generate pollutants. Indoor air quality depends not only on outdoor air quality, but also on the design, maintenance, and use of the building. For example, ''sick building'' symptoms such as respiratory problems and headaches have been related to the presence of air-conditioning systems, to carpeting, to low ventilation rates, and to high occupant density (1). The physical processes of interest apply even in simple structures such as homes. Indoor air quality models simulate the processes, such as ventilation and filtration, that control pollutant concentrations in a building. Section 2 describes the modeling approach, and the important transport processes in buildings. Because advection usually dominates among the transport processes, Sections 3 and 4 describe methods for predicting airflows. The concluding section summarizes the application of these models.

  15. Estimating accidental pollutant releases in the built environment from turbulent concentration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, N.; Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present an inverse atmospheric model to estimate the mass flow rate of an impulsive source of pollutant, whose position is known, from concentration signals registered at receptors placed downwind of the source. The originality of this study is twofold. Firstly, the inversion is performed using high-frequency fluctuating, i.e. turbulent, concentration signals. Secondly, the inverse algorithm is applied to a dispersion process within a dense urban canopy, at the district scale, and a street network model, SIRANERISK, is adopted. The model, which is tested against wind tunnel experiments, simulates the dispersion of short-duration releases of pollutant in different typologies of idealised urban geometries. Results allow us to discuss the reliability of the inverse model as an operational tool for crisis management and the risk assessments related to the accidental release of toxic and flammable substances.

  16. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Gong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions. In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5. These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  17. Factors affecting pollutant concentrations in the near-road environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Nichole; Gilani, Owais; Raja, Suresh; Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Hopke, Philip; Berrocal, Veronica; Robins, Thomas; Hoogterp, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    An improved understanding of traffic-related air pollutants is needed to estimate exposures and adverse health impacts in traffic corridors and near-road environments. In this study, concentrations of black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, ultrafine particles, and accumulation mode particles, AMP) were measured using a mobile air pollutant laboratory along nine transects across major roads in Detroit, MI in winter 2012. Repeated measurements were taken during rush-hour periods at sites in residential neighborhoods located 50-500 m from both sides of the road. Concentration gradients attributable to on-road emissions were estimated by accounting for traffic volume and mix, wind speed, wind direction, and background concentrations. BC, NO, NOx, and UFP had the strongest gradients, and elevated concentrations of NOx, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10, as well as decreased particle size, were found at the 50 m sites compared to background levels. Exponential models incorporating effects of road size, wind speed, and up- and downwind distance explained from 31 to 53% of the variability in concentration gradients for BC, NO, NOx, UFP and particle size. The expected concentration increments 50 m from the study roads were 17.0 ppb for NO, 17.7 ppb for NOx, 2245 particles/cm3 for UFP, and 0.24 μg/m3 for BC, and the expected distance to decrease increments by half was 89-129 m in the downwind direction, and 14-20 m in the upwind direction. While accounting for portion of the temporal and spatial variability across transects and measurement periods, these results highlight the influence of road-to-road differences and other locally-varying factors important in urban and industrial settings. The study demonstrates a methodology to quantify near-road concentrations and influences on these concentrations while accounting for temporal and spatial variability, and it provides information useful for estimating exposures of

  18. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  19. Effect of Atmospheric Pollutants on the Air Quality in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Bouchlaghem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evolution of Saharan dust advection when the PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter below 10 μm concentration exceeds standard limits in different Tunisian sites. Meteorological and concentration data (from 2004 to 2010 obtained from several monitoring stations and in situ measurements were used to identify African dust change in seasonal occurrence, their source origin, and their impact on surface PM10 concentrations. We pointed out that the Saharan dust contribution caused frequently the surpassing of the maximum number of days in excess of EU standard limits as well as of the maximum yearly average in the Mediterranean Tunisian coasts. The maximum daily concentration reaches 439 μg/m3 during the Saharan events. The decrease in particulate levels recorded at the end of each event is due to the injection of European air masses and rainfalls. Primary pollutants peaks were much higher in winter than in summer which can be explained on the basis of the lower ventilation and mixing.

  20. VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL CONCENTRATION AT XIANGHE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xu; Guangyu Shi; Jun Zhou; Yasunobu Iwasaka

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes atmospheric aerosol concentrations of 5 stratospheric balloon soundings during the period from 1984 to 1994. Aerosol-rich layers in the troposphere were detected and the causes were analyzed. The main results are as follows: (1) the vertical distribution of the atmospheric aerosol is affected by atmospheric dynamic processes, humidity, etc.; (2) the tropospheric column concentrations of aerosol were 72.2×105, 20.2×105, 20.7×105 and 34.4×105 cm-2 and occupying 81%, 61% and 60% of the 0-to-30 km aerosol column, on Aug. 23, 1984, Aug. 22, 1993,Sept. 12, 1993 and Sept. 15, 1994, respectively; (3) the effect of volcano eruption was still evident in the aerosol profiles,28 and 27 months after the El Chichon and Pinatubo eruption; (4) the aerosol concentration in the troposphere did not decrease at all heights as atmospheric aerosol model.

  1. Investigation of chemical properties and transport phenomena associated with pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Heather A.

    Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to determine which air pollutants are harmful to human health, then regulate, monitor and establish criteria levels for these pollutants. To accomplish this and for scientific advancement, integration of knowledge from several disciplines is required including: engineering, atmospheric science, chemistry and public health. Recently, a shift has been made to establish interdisciplinary research groups to better understand the atmospheric processes that govern the transport of pollutants and chemical reactions of species in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The primary reason for interdisciplinary collaboration is the need for atmospheric processes to be treated as a coupled system, and to design experiments that measure meteorological, chemical and physical variables simultaneously so forecasting models can be improved (i.e., meteorological and chemical process models). This dissertation focuses on integrating research disciplines to provide a more complete framework to study pollutants in the ABL. For example, chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) and the physical processes governing PM distribution and mixing are combined to provide more comprehensive data for source apportionment. Data from three field experiments were utilized to study turbulence, meteorological and chemical parameters in the ABL. Two air quality field studies were conducted on the U.S./Mexico border. The first was located in Yuma, AZ to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PM in an urban environment and relate chemical properties of ambient aerosols to physical findings. The second border air quality study was conducted in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico to investigate the relationship between indoor and outdoor air quality in order to better correlate cooking fuel types and home activities to elevated indoor PM concentrations. The final study was executed in southern Idaho and focused on

  2. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P magnetic parameters of urban park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  3. Source regions of some Persistent Organic Pollutants measured in the atmosphere at Birkenes, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants is their potential for long-range atmospheric transport. In order to better understand and predict atmospheric source-receptor relationships of POPs, we have modified an existing Lagrangian transport model (FLEXPART to include some of the key processes that control the atmospheric fate of POPs. We also present four years (2004–2007 of new atmospheric measurement data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs obtained at Birkenes, an EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme site in Southern Norway. The model overestimates measured PCB-28 and γ-HCH concentrations by factors of 2 and 8, respectively, which is most likely because the emissions used as input to the model are overestimated. FLEXPART captures the temporal variability in the measurements very well and, depending on season, explains 31–67% (14–62% of the variance of measured PCB-28 (γ-HCH concentrations. FLEXPART, run in a time-reversed (adjoint mode, was used to identify the source regions responsible for the POP loading at the Birkenes station. Emissions in Central Europe and Eastern Europe contributed 32% and 24%, respectively, to PCB-28 at Birkenes, while Western Europe was found to be the dominant source (50% for γ-HCH. Intercontinental transport from North America contributed 13% γ-HCH. While FLEXPART has no treatment of the partitioning of POPs between different surface media, it was found a very useful tool for studying atmospheric source-receptor relationships for POPs and POP-like chemicals that do not sorb strongly to atmospheric particles and whose atmospheric levels are believed to be mainly controlled by primary sources.

  4. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B; Hao, Jiming

    2014-07-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China.

  5. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  6. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  7. Atmospheric air pollutants: CO in Nitrogen, 5 μmol/mol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Pankratov, V. V.; Pankov, A. A.; Ivahnenko, B. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Bakovec, N. V.; Mironchik, A. M.; Aleksandrov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the report on the COOMET supplementary comparison "Atmospheric air pollutants: CO in Nitrogen, 5 μmol/mol". Carbon monoxide (CO) is present in atmosphere due to different natural and anthropogenic sources. CO is a toxic gas and in concentrations higher than (3-5) μmol/mol it is hazardous to human health. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of some plants existing under the influence of atmosphere pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu, A.; Grou, E.

    1971-01-01

    The vegetation of the Copsa Mica(Romania) zone is often visibly affected by the noxious elements existing in the atmosphere, especially sulfur dioxide. Comparative investigations were undertaken to examine some physiological and biochemical processes in plants from polluted as well as control zones. Water content (total and fractions of free and bound water), stomata condition and hydrogen ion concentration in cellular sap were analyzed; the results of these analyses showed that at the level of all the studied processes, modifications occur, which are sometimes substantial. In laboratory experiments with Pelargonium plants grown in an atmosphere containing sulfur dioxide, a foliar symptomatology was obtained, as well as a chromatogram of free amino acids different to that of controls

  9. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  10. The contributions of high- and low altitude emission sources to the near ground concentrations of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Dragana S.; Šolević, Tatjana M.

    2008-02-01

    The scale of transport through the atmosphere depends on the effective height of an emission source, the meteorological conditions and the physico-chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Atmospheric surface temperature inversions play a significant role in the problem of air pollution since their upper edge acts as a natural barrier to the vertical dispersion of pollutants. When the altitude of an emission source is lower than the edge of the boundary layer, the pollution remains below the upper edge and spreads by advection inside the lower layer towards the ground. However, if the altitude of the emission source is higher than the edge of the boundary layer, then the pollution spreads above the barrier. An analysis of a pollution episode during one month (August 2004) in an urban atmosphere of industrial city, using results of continuous monitoring of minute-by-minute fluctuations of the pollutants' concentrations, is presented. Region of a developed industrial town as a model was investigated. The investigated region is characterized by maximum number of surface temperature inversions during the nights in August and their furlough during the day time. With a combination of local meteorological information, that is the number of surface temperature inversions of the atmosphere, the results showed that the concentrations of pollutants originating from low altitude emission sources, e.g. organic pollutants, were higher at night. The near ground concentrations of SO 2, originating from high-(industrial stacks) and low altitude (traffic) sources, and the PM 10 originating from various sources i.e. from complex mechanisms of formation e.g. traffic emissions, SOA mechanisms and re-suspensions, were the same during the night and during the day. However, concentrations of NH 3 from high altitude sources (fertilizer plant) were higher during the day. Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis showed associations of highest correlation between pollutants, which

  11. Geoinformation modeling system for analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using space images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polichtchouk, Yuri; Ryukhko, Viatcheslav; Tokareva, Olga; Alexeeva, Mary

    2002-02-01

    Geoinformation modeling system structure for assessment of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution on forest- swamp ecosystems of West Siberia is considered. Complex approach to the assessment of man-caused impact based on the combination of sanitary-hygienic and landscape-geochemical approaches is reported. Methodical problems of analysis of atmosphere pollution impact on vegetable biosystems using geoinformation systems and remote sensing data are developed. Landscape structure of oil production territories in southern part of West Siberia are determined on base of processing of space images from spaceborn Resource-O. Particularities of atmosphere pollution zones modeling caused by gas burning in torches in territories of oil fields are considered. For instance, a pollution zones were revealed modeling of contaminants dispersal in atmosphere by standard model. Polluted landscapes areas are calculated depending on oil production volume. It is shown calculated data is well approximated by polynomial models.

  12. Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

    2006-12-01

    Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction.

  13. An integrated Bayesian model for estimating the long-term health effects of air pollution by fusing modelled and measured pollution data: A case study of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guowen; Lee, Duncan; Scott, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The long-term health effects of air pollution can be estimated using a spatio-temporal ecological study, where the disease data are counts of hospital admissions from populations in small areal units at yearly intervals. Spatially representative pollution concentrations for each areal unit are typically estimated by applying Kriging to data from a sparse monitoring network, or by computing averages over grid level concentrations from an atmospheric dispersion model. We propose a novel fusion model for estimating spatially aggregated pollution concentrations using both the modelled and monitored data, and relate these concentrations to respiratory disease in a new study in Scotland between 2007 and 2011.

  14. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  15. Gaseous atmospheric pollution. Gas measurement; Pollution atmospherique gazeuse. Mesure des gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toupance, G. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France); Person, A. [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Le Moullec, Y.; Masclet, P.; Perros, P.E.

    2004-09-01

    This article deals with the majority of pollutants which are present in gaseous phase in the low layer of the troposphere, of the proximity of sources to the distant areas where are in weak traces persisting substances or sub-products induced by photochemical reactions. The compounds described in this article are of interest for various reasons: either they are source tracers, or they draw attention for their impact on health or/and ecosystem. Their follow-up can also be in other approaches such as the understanding of reactional mechanisms and the support to modeling of the phenomena. Thereby, the range of the covered concentrations is very large: if the preoccupations are in most of the cases to answer to detection limits of about the ppb, for some substances, the requirements can be harder and we have then to orient oneself to techniques able to quantify at the level of ppt, sometimes less. Some pollutants are qualified of 'semi-volatile', that is to say they are the property to be present in gaseous phase and in particles in suspension in air. (O.M.)

  16. Spatial character of the gaseous and particulate state compound correlation of urban atmospheric pollution in winter and summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiangde; SHI Xiaohui; XIE Lian; DING Guoan; MIAO Qiuju; MA Jianzhong; ZHENG Xiangdong

    2005-01-01

    The spatial/temporal variation information of atmospheric dynamic-chemical processes at observation site points of the "canopy" boundary of Beijing urban building ensemble and over urban area "surface", as well as the seasonal correlation structure of the gaseous and particulate states of urban atmospheric pollution (UAP) and its seasonal conversion feature at observation points are investigated, using the comprehensive observation data of the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Experiment (BECAPEX) in winter and summer 2003 with a "point-surface" combined research approach. By using "one dimension spatial empirical orthogonal function (EOF)" principal component analysis (PCA) mode, the seasonal change of gaseous and particulate states of atmospheric aerosols and the association feature of pollutant species under the background of the complicated structure of urban boundary layer (UBL) are analyzed. The comprehensive analyses of the principal components of particle concentrations,gaseous pollutant species, and meteorological conditions reveal the seasonal changes of the complex constituent and structure features of the gaseous and particulate states of UAP to further trace the impact feature of urban aerosol pollution surface sources and the seasonal difference of the component structure of UAP. Research results suggest that in the temporal evolution of the gaseous and particulate states of winter/summer UAP, NOx, CO, and SO2 showed an "in-phase" evolution feature, however, O3 showed an "inverse-phase" relation with other species,all possessing distinctive dependent feature. On the whole, summer concentrations of gaseous pollutants CO, SO2, and NOx were obviously lower than winter ones, especially, the reduction in CO concentration was most distinctive, and ones in SO2 and NOx were next. However, the summer O3 concentration was more than twice winter one. Winter/summer differences in PM10and PM2.5 particle concentrations were relatively not obvious, which

  17. Modeling of urban atmospheric pollution and impact on health; Modelisation de la pollution atmospherique urbaine et impact sur la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrto, Valari

    2009-10-15

    The goal of this dissertation, is to develop a methodology that provides an improved knowledge of the associations between atmospheric contaminant concentrations and health impact. The propagation of uncertainties from input data to the output concentrations through a Chemistry Transport Model was first studied. The influence of the resolutions of meteorological parameters and emissions data were studied separately, and their relative role was compared. It was found that model results do not improve linearly with the resolution of emission input. A critical resolution was found, beyond which model error becomes higher and the model breaks down. Based on this first investigation concerning the direct down scaling, further research focused on sub grid scale modeling. Thus, a statistical down scaling approach was adopted for the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability due to heterogeneous surface emissions. Emission fractions released from different types of sources (industry, roads, residential, natural etc.) were calculated from a high-resolution emission inventory. Then emission fluxes were mapped on surfaces emitting source-specific species. Simulations were run independently over the defined micro-environments allowing the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability. Sub grid scale concentrations were therefore combined with demographic and human activity data to provide exposure estimates. The spatial distribution of human exposure was parameterized through a Monte-Carlo model. The new information concerning exposure variability was added to an existing epidemiological model to study relative health risks. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used for this purpose. The principal outcome of the investigation was that a new functionality was added to the regression model which allows the dissociation of the health risk associated with each pollutant (e.g. NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 2.5}). (author)

  18. Long Term Atmospheric and Erosional Pollution As Recorded in Lake Sediments from Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, A. L.; Abbott, M. B.; Yu, J.; Bain, D.; Chiou-Peng, T.

    2014-12-01

    Human activities including agriculture, metallurgy (e.g. mining, processing, smelting), and deforestation have altered cycles of erosion and sedimentation in lake environments for thousands of years. In the Yunnan province of southwestern China, where written records are incomplete, it is unclear when, where, and how much disturbance occurred. Lake sediments offer a means to investigate a wide variety of human activities. Here, we present a lake sediment record from Erhai (25°43'N, 100°12'E) based on trace metal concentrations that reveals substantial atmospheric and erosional pollution to the lake environment over the last 4,000 years. Sediments indicate the initiation of copper-based metallurgy at 3,600 years BP, the existence of which has been debated amongst archaeologists. Beginning 2,000 years BP, sedimentation rates increase and concentrations of metals such as aluminum, titanium, lead, and zinc increase. This is likely linked to increased sediment flux to the lake associated with the initiation of terraced agriculture according to historical documents. The most prominent feature of the record is an abrupt and intense increase in lead, silver, cadmium, and zinc beginning at 700 years BP. The peak of this increase occurs at 600 years BP and is consistent with historical records that the Mongols established the first government operated silver mine in Yunnan. Notably, the concentrations of lead during this time are an order of magnitude greater than modern day levels of pollution.

  19. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  20. The effect of nitrogen additions on oak foliage and herbivore communities at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eatough Jones, Michele [Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: michele.eatough@ucr.edu; Paine, Timothy D. [Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Fenn, Mark E. [USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive. Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    To evaluate plant and herbivore responses to nitrogen we conducted a fertilization study at a low and high pollution site in the mixed conifer forests surrounding Los Angeles, California. Contrary to expectations, discriminant function analysis of oak herbivore communities showed significant response to N fertilization when atmospheric deposition was high, but not when atmospheric deposition was low. We hypothesize that longer-term fertilization treatments are needed at the low pollution site before foliar N nutrition increases sufficiently to affect herbivore communities. At the high pollution site, fertilization was also associated with increased catkin production and higher densities of a byturid beetle that feeds on the catkins of oak. Leaf nitrogen and nitrate were significantly higher at the high pollution site compared to the low pollution site. Foliar nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with abundance of sucking insects, leafrollers and plutellids in all three years of the study. - Nitrogen additions at sites impacted by air pollution were associated with altered foliar herbivore communities and increased densities of a catkin-feeding beetle on Quercus kellogii.

  1. Mass flows of nitrogen-containing pollutants between atmosphere and forest ecosystem. Massenfluesse stickstoffhaltiger Schadstoffe zwischen Atmosphere und Waldoekosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, W.; Grieser, J.; Herrmann, U.; Kessel, M.; Kosiol, W.; Nietzsche, I.; Sattler, T. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung)

    1992-01-01

    In the discussion about the possible causes of novel forest decline, nitrogen-containing components in the atmosphere have received increased interest in recent years. At the Centre for Environmental Research of the University of Frankfurt, a new approach to this problem was tried within the framework of the coordinated research project Frankfurter Stadtwald. A whole number of concentrations and flows of different pollutants were used to make up a balance for the area of investigation. Where possible, all relevant concentrations and flows were to be measured or at least realistically estimated. Therefore several measuring set-ups were realized. From the compiled data, a budget of nitrogen-containing components for the area of investigation was made up. This novel approach gives an idea of the concentrations and flows of a multitude of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem like the Frankfurter Stadtwald. These constitute a necessary basis for impact investigations by botanists to explain novel forest decline. (orig./KW) With 90 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  3. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions.

  4. Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over 1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread, but are particu...

  5. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  6. Interaction of pollution plumes and discontinuous fields in atmospheric chemistry models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana, Mauricio; Brenner, Michael P.; Rastigeyev, Yevgeniy; Jacob, Daniel J.

    2010-11-01

    Atmospheric pollutants originate from concentrated sources such as cities, power plants, and biomass fires. They are injected in the troposphere where eddies and convective motions of various scales act to shear and dilute the pollution plumes as they are advected downwind. Despite this shear and dilution, observations from aircraft, sondes, and satellites show that pollution plumes in the remote free troposphere can preserve their identity as well-defined layers for a week or more as they are transported on intercontinental scales. This structure cannot be reproduced in the standard Eulerian chemical transport models used for global modeling of tropospheric composition, instead, the plumes dissipate far too quickly. In this work, we study how the structure of plumes is modified when they cross discontinuities arising for example: from the moving day-night boundaries or from abrupt unresolved horizontal temperature changes (for example in horizontal ocean-land or ocean-ice transitions). Chemical reactions within the plumes depend strongly on photon availability and temperature, and thus, discontinuities in these variables lead to discontinuous changes in reaction rate constants.

  7. Ozone pollution in China: A review of concentrations, meteorological influences, chemical precursors, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xue, Likun; Brimblecombe, Peter; Lam, Yun Fat; Li, Li; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    High concentrations of ozone in urban and industrial regions worldwide have long been a major air quality issue. With the rapid increase in fossil fuel consumption in China over the past three decades, the emission of chemical precursors to ozone-nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds-has increased sharply, surpassing that of North America and Europe and raising concerns about worsening ozone pollution in China. Historically, research and control have prioritized acid rain, particulate matter, and more recently fine particulate matter (PM2.5). In contrast, less is known about ozone pollution, partly due to a lack of monitoring of atmospheric ozone and its precursors until recently. This review summarizes the main findings from published papers on the characteristics and sources and processes of ozone and ozone precursors in the boundary layer of urban and rural areas of China, including concentration levels, seasonal variation, meteorology conducive to photochemistry and pollution transport, key production and loss processes, ozone dependence on nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, and the effects of ozone on crops and human health. Ozone concentrations exceeding the ambient air quality standard by 100-200% have been observed in China's major urban centers such as Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River delta, and the Pearl River delta, and limited studies suggest harmful effect of ozone on human health and agricultural corps; key chemical precursors and meteorological conditions conductive to ozone pollution have been investigated, and inter-city/region transport of ozone is significant. Several recommendations are given for future research and policy development on ground-level ozone.

  8. Modeling concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish NEAREX project a three-dimensional Eulerian hemispheric air pollution model is used to study the transport and concentrations of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region. The model domain covers the major part of the Northern Hemisphere and currently the model...... source types. Here the model setup and the used parameterizations will be described. The model is validated by comparing the results with atmospheric measurements from four monitoring stations in or close to the northern part of the North Atlantic. Some preliminary model results will be shown and shortly...... includes simple parameterizations of the main sinks and sources for atmospheric CO2. One of the objectives of the project is to study and maybe quantify the relative importance of the various sinks and source types and areas for this region. In order to do so the model has been run with differentiated...

  9. An Important Supplement to NAA in Study on Atmosphere Pollution:Determination of Black Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Light absorption in the atmosphere is dominated by elemental carbon (EC), sometimes called black carbon (BC). Black carbon is an important indication of man-made pollution in airborne particulate matter

  10. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  11. The atmospheric pollution in a few words; La pollution atmospherique en bref

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper takes stock briefly on the different pollution sources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, VOC, methane...), the mechanisms (acidification, photochemical pollution, eutrophication, greenhouse effect, ozone...) and the effects on the health. (A.L.B.)

  12. Fluid mechanics simulation of fog formation associated with polluted atmosphere produced by energy related fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that large quantities of atmospheric aerosols with composition SO4(-2), NO3(-1), and NH4(+1) have been detected in highly industrialized areas. Most aerosol products come from energy-related fuel combustion. Fluid mechanics simulation of both microphysical and macrophysical processes is considered in studying the time dependent evolution of the saturation spectra of condensation nuclei associated with polluted and clean atmospheres during the time periods of advection fog formation. The results demonstrate that the condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere provide more favorable conditions than condensation nuclei associated with a clean atmosphere to produce dense advection fog, and that attaining a certain degree of supersaturation is not necessarily required for the formation of advection fog having condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere.

  13. Atmospheric emissions and pollution from the coal-fired thermal power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

    2014-08-01

    In India, of the 210 GW electricity generation capacity, 66% is derived from coal, with planned additions of 76 GW and 93 GW during the 12th and the 13th five year plans, respectively. Atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired power plants are responsible for a large burden on human health. In 2010-11, 111 plants with an installed capacity of 121 GW, consumed 503 million tons of coal, and generated an estimated 580 ktons of particulates with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2100 ktons of sulfur dioxides, 2000 ktons of nitrogen oxides, 1100 ktons of carbon monoxide, 100 ktons of volatile organic compounds, and 665 million tons of carbon dioxide. These emissions resulted in an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and 20.0 million asthma cases from exposure to PM2.5 pollution, which cost the public and the government an estimated INR 16,000 to 23,000 crores (USD 3.2 to 4.6 billion). The emissions were estimated for the individual plants and the atmospheric modeling was conducted using CAMx chemical transport model, coupled with plume rise functions and hourly meteorology. The analysis shows that aggressive pollution control regulations such as mandating flue gas desulfurization, introduction and tightening of emission standards for all criteria pollutants, and updating procedures for environment impact assessments, are imperative for regional clean air and to reduce health impacts. For example, a mandate for installation of flue gas desulfurization systems for the operational 111 plants could reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by 30-40% by eliminating the formation of the secondary sulfates and nitrates.

  14. Annual variations of atmospheric VOC concentrations in a boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakola, H.; Hellen, H.; Tarvainen, V. (Finnish Meteorological Institute Air Quality Research, Helsinki (Finland)); Baeck, J. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Patokoski, J.; Rinne, J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Ambient atmospheric concentrations of monoterpene compounds were measured above a boreal forest in Hyytiaelae, Finland during 2000-2007. For most of the time, two samples per week were collected, although there are some gaps in the data due to analytical or other issues. The monoterpene concentrations reached their maximum in summer, although they were found to be quite high also during winter. The main compounds found during winter were alpha-pinene, DELTA3-carene, beta-pinene and camphene. In summer 1,8-cineol and sabinene were also present in the samples. The concentrations of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene/myrcene, camphene, DELTA3-carene increased during the measurement period both in winter and in summer. This increase cannot be explained by meteorological conditions. The possible explanations could be human activities in the vicinity of the sampling site in addition to forest growth. The seasonal cycles of daytime concentrations were found to follow emission fluxes modeled using a simple temperature dependent parameterisation. The measured monoterpene concentrations were used, together with emission rate measurements, for estimating ambient atmospheric beta-caryophyllene concentration which cannot be directly measured due to its high reactivity against ozone. (orig.)

  15. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  16. An analytical model for radioactive pollutant release simulation in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weymar, Guilherme J.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J., E-mail: guicefetrs@gmail.com, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com, E-mail: bejbodmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Buske, Daniela; Quadros, Regis, E-mail: danielabuske@gmail.com, E-mail: quadros99@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica

    2013-07-01

    Simulations of emission of radioactive substances in the atmosphere from the Brazilian nuclear power plant Angra 1 are a necessary tool for control and elaboration of emergency plans as a preventive action for possible accidents. In the present work we present an analytical solution for radioactive pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere, solving the time-dependent three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The experiment here used as a reference in the simulations consisted of the controlled releases of radioactive tritiated water vapor from the meteorological tower close to the power plant at Itaorna Beach. The wind profile was determined using experimental meteorological data and the micrometeorological parameters were calculated from empirical equations obtained in the literature. We report on a novel analytical formulation for the concentration of products of a radioactive chain released in the atmospheric boundary layer and solve the set of coupled equations for each chain radionuclide by the GILTT solution, assuming the decay of all progenitors radionuclide for each equation as source term. Further we report on numerical simulations, as an explicit but fictitious example and consider three radionuclides in the radioactive chain of Uranium 235. (author)

  17. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  18. Atmospheric CO{sub 2}, trace gas and CN concentrations in Vaerrioe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, T.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Rannik, U.; Vesala, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Hari, P.; Pohja, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1995-12-31

    The Vaerrioe environmental measurement station is founded in 1991. The aim of the station is to obtain more information on air quality influenced by Kola industrial areas and effects of pollutants on photosynthesis in subarctic climate. In the station air quality and meteorological quantities are measured together with photosynthesis, which makes it quite unique in comparison with other measurement stations located in northern Finland. The measurements also provide information of aerosol and trace gas concentrations in order to study the direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. These measurements also increase the knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and deposition in subarctic conditions

  19. On concentration of $^{42}$Ar in the Earth's atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2016-01-01

    Data from the DBA liquid argon ionization chamber experiment have been used to obtain an estimate on the concentration of $^{42}$Ar in the Earth's atmosphere, $6.8^{+1.7}_{-3.2}\\cdot10^{-21}$ atoms of $^{42}$Ar per atom of $^{40}$Ar corresponding to the $^{42}$Ar activity of $1.2^{+0.3}_{-0.5}$ $\\mu$Bq per cubic meter of air.

  20. On concentration of 42Ar in the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.; Saakyan, R. R.; Umatov, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Data from the DBA liquid argon ionization chamber experiment have been used to obtain an estimate on the concentration of 42Ar in the Earth's atmosphere, 6 .8-3.2+1.7 ·10-21 atoms of 42Ar per atom of 40Ar corresponding to the 42Ar activity of 1 .2-0.5+0.3 μBq per cubic meter of air.

  1. Geostatistical integration and uncertainty in pollutant concentration surface under preferential sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grisotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the focus is on environmental statistics, with the aim of estimating the concentration surface and related uncertainty of an air pollutant. We used air quality data recorded by a network of monitoring stations within a Bayesian framework to overcome difficulties in accounting for prediction uncertainty and to integrate information provided by deterministic models based on emissions meteorology and chemico-physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Several authors have proposed such integration, but all the proposed approaches rely on representativeness and completeness of existing air pollution monitoring networks. We considered the situation in which the spatial process of interest and the sampling locations are not independent. This is known in the literature as the preferential sampling problem, which if ignored in the analysis, can bias geostatistical inferences. We developed a Bayesian geostatistical model to account for preferential sampling with the main interest in statistical integration and uncertainty. We used PM10 data arising from the air quality network of the Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardy Region (Italy and numerical outputs from the deterministic model. We specified an inhomogeneous Poisson process for the sampling locations intensities and a shared spatial random component model for the dependence between the spatial location of monitors and the pollution surface. We found greater predicted standard deviation differences in areas not properly covered by the air quality network. In conclusion, in this context inferences on prediction uncertainty may be misleading when geostatistical modelling does not take into account preferential sampling.

  2. Geostatistical integration and uncertainty in pollutant concentration surface under preferential sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisotto, Laura; Consonni, Dario; Cecconi, Lorenzo; Catelan, Dolores; Lagazio, Corrado; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Baccini, Michela; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-04-18

    In this paper the focus is on environmental statistics, with the aim of estimating the concentration surface and related uncertainty of an air pollutant. We used air quality data recorded by a network of monitoring stations within a Bayesian framework to overcome difficulties in accounting for prediction uncertainty and to integrate information provided by deterministic models based on emissions meteorology and chemico-physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Several authors have proposed such integration, but all the proposed approaches rely on representativeness and completeness of existing air pollution monitoring networks. We considered the situation in which the spatial process of interest and the sampling locations are not independent. This is known in the literature as the preferential sampling problem, which if ignored in the analysis, can bias geostatistical inferences. We developed a Bayesian geostatistical model to account for preferential sampling with the main interest in statistical integration and uncertainty. We used PM10 data arising from the air quality network of the Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardy Region (Italy) and numerical outputs from the deterministic model. We specified an inhomogeneous Poisson process for the sampling locations intensities and a shared spatial random component model for the dependence between the spatial location of monitors and the pollution surface. We found greater predicted standard deviation differences in areas not properly covered by the air quality network. In conclusion, in this context inferences on prediction uncertainty may be misleading when geostatistical modelling does not take into account preferential sampling.

  3. An evaluation of atmospheric Nr pollution and deposition in North China after the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X. S.; Liu, P.; Tang, A. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Zong, X. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kou, C. L.; Zhang, L. J.; Fowler, D.; Fangmeier, A.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2013-08-01

    North China is known for its large population densities and rapid development of industry and agriculture. Air quality around Beijing improved substantially during the 2008 Summer Olympics. We measured atmospheric concentrations of various Nr compounds at three urban sites and three rural sites in North China from 2010 to 2012 and estimated N dry and wet deposition by inferential models and the rain gauge method to determine current air conditions with respect to reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds and nitrogen (N) deposition in Beijing and the surrounding area. NH3, NO2, and HNO3 and particulate NH4+ and NO3-, and NH4+-N and NO3--N in precipitation averaged 8.2, 11.5, 1.6, 8.2 and 4.6 μg N m-3, and 2.9 and 1.9 mg N L-1, respectively, with large seasonal and spatial variability. Atmospheric Nr (especially oxidized N) concentrations were highest at urban sites. Dry deposition of Nr ranged from 35.2 to 60.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with wet deposition of Nr of 16.3 to 43.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and total deposition of 54.4-103.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The rates of Nr dry and wet deposition were 36.4 and 33.2% higher, respectively, at the urban sites than at the rural sites. These high levels reflect the occurrence of a wide range of Nr pollution in North China and suggest that further strict air pollution control measures are required.

  4. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  5. Study of the superficial ozone concentrations in the atmosphere of Comunidad de Madrid using passive samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galán Madruga

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The ozone is a secondary atmospheric pollutant which is generated for photochemical reactions of volatil organic compounds (VOC’s and nitrogen oxides (NOx. In Spain the ozone is a big problem as a consequence of the solar radiation to reach high levels. Exposure over a period of time to elevated ozone concentrations can cause damage in the public health and alterations in the vegetation.The aim of this study is to carry out the development and validation of a measurement method to let asses the superficial ozone levels in the Comunidad de Madrid, by identifing the zones more significants, where to measure with UV photometric monitors (automatics methods this pollutant and where the health and the vegetation can be affected. To such effect, passive samplers are used, which have glass fiber filters coated with a solution of sodium nitrite, potassium carbonate, glycerol and water. The nitrite ion in the presence of ozone is oxidized to nitrato ion, which it is extrated with ultrapure water and analyzed for ion chromatography, by seen proportional to the concentration existing in the sampling point.The results of validation from field tests indicate a excellent correlation between the passive and the automatic method.The higher superficial ozone concentrations are placed in rural zones, distanced of emission focus of primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides and volatil organic compounds... principally in direction soutwest and northwest of the Comunidad of Madrid.

  6. Contribution to the modeling of atmospheric pollution in cities; Contribution a la modelisation de la pollution atmospherique dans les villes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glockmer, St.

    2000-07-01

    Pollution generated by urban traffic and by industry at its periphery is a serious problem of our cities. Once emitted in the atmosphere, pollutants undergo two types of constraints: on one side they react chemically one with another and, on the other side, they are transported by the wind. We have chosen to work on the dynamical, thermal and chemical aspects of the pollution at different scales of the phenomena: local scale (around a group of buildings) and meso-scale (a whole city). Our ambition is not to realize a complete model but to advance step by step on each aspect. We have contributed to the realization of a numerical tool that will be completed and used for concrete pollution episodes. The first chapter is a description of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapters two and three present models and results of numerical simulations. We stress on k-{epsilon}, RNG and v{sup 2}-f turbulence models, radiative heat transfer models and dynamical and thermal wall laws that allow to take in consideration surface roughness. The last chapter is dedicated to atmospheric chemistry. We have moreover developed a general solver of any number of transport equations coupled by a stiff chemistry and simplified ozone kinetics. (author)

  7. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-05-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  8. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  9. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.P.; Dews, J.; Harris, F.C. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D.J. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  10. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  11. Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

  12. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution – Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition (13C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ13C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ13C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  13. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  14. ATMOSPHERE POLLUTION AT STORAGE OF SLAGS OF ALUMINIUM SECONDARY PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Panasyugin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic probability of the processes of the formation of compounds of aluminum (which release in the environment by hydrolysis ammonia, acetylene, propane and hydrogen sulfide is determined. In the article the economic loss from irrecoverable waste of aluminum and fines for emissions of air pollutants is estimated.

  15. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sénéchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  16. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  17. Temporal variation in atmospheric ammonia concentrations above seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackall, T. D.; Wilson, L. J.; Bull, J.; Theobald, M. R.; Bacon, P. J.; Hamer, K. C.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    Recent studies have shown that seabirds are an important source of ammonia (NH 3) emissions in remote coastal ecosystems. Nesting behaviour, which varies between seabird species, is likely to be a major factor in determining the proportion of excreted nitrogen (N) volatilised to the atmosphere as NH 3. A long-term NH 3 monitoring programme was implemented at a Scottish seabird colony with a range of species and associated nesting behaviours. The average monthly NH 3 concentration was measured at 12 locations over a 14-month period, to infer spatial (i.e. species-specific) and temporal (seasonal) changes in NH 3 emissions from different seabird species. An emissions model of seabird NH 3, based on species-specific bioenergetics and behaviour, was applied to produce spatial estimates for input to a dispersion model. Atmospheric NH 3 concentrations demonstrated spatial variability as a result of differing local populations of breeding seabirds, with the highest concentrations measured above cliff nesting species such as Common guillemot Uria aalge, Razorbill Alca torda and Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. NH 3 concentrations above a colony of burrow nesting Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica were low, considering the high number of birds. Emission of NH 3 from excreted N exhibits a time lag of approximately a month. It is likely that all excreted N is lost from the colony by volatilisation as NH 3 or surface run-off between breeding seasons. Modelled NH 3 emissions and concentrations correlated with measured concentrations, but were much higher, reflecting uncertainties in the local turbulent characteristics. The results allow multi-species seabird population data to be used for the calculation of regional and global NH 3 emission inventories, whilst improving understanding of N budgets of remote coastal ecosystems.

  18. Gas sampling method for determining pollutant concentrations in the flame zone of two swirl-can combustor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A gas sampling probe and traversing mechanism were developed to obtain detailed measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations in the primary and mixing regions of combustors in order to better understand how pollutants are formed. The gas sampling probe was actuated by a three-degree-of-freedom traversing mechanism and the samples obtained were analyzed by an on-line gas analysis system. The pollutants in the flame zone of two different swirl-can combustor modules were measured at an inlet-air temperature of 590 K, pressure of 6 atmospheres, and reference velocities of 23 and 30 meters per second at a fuel-air ratio of 0.02. Typical results show large spatial gradients in the gaseous pollutant concentration close to the swirl-can module. Average concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide decrease rapidly in the downstream wake regions of each module. By careful and detailed probing, the effect of various module design features on pollutant formation can be assessed. The techniques presently developed seem adequate to obtain the desired information.

  19. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  20. Study of atmospheric dynamics and pollution in the coastal area of English Channel using clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmenten, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The problem of atmospheric contamination by principal air pollutants was considered in the industrialized coastal region of English Channel in Dunkirk influenced by north European metropolitan areas. MESO-NH nested models were used for the simulation of the local atmospheric dynamics and the online calculation of Lagrangian backward trajectories with 15-minute temporal resolution and the horizontal resolution down to 500 m. The one-month mesoscale numerical simulation was coupled with local pollution measurements of volatile organic components, particulate matter, ozone, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Principal atmospheric pathways were determined by clustering technique applied to backward trajectories simulated. Six clusters were obtained which describe local atmospheric dynamics, four winds blowing through the English Channel, one coming from the south, and the biggest cluster with small wind speeds. This last cluster includes mostly sea breeze events. The analysis of meteorological data and pollution measurements allows relating the principal atmospheric pathways with local air contamination events. It was shown that contamination events are mostly connected with a channelling of pollution from local sources and low-turbulent states of the local atmosphere.

  1. Rebuilding sources of linear tracers after atmospheric concentration measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of widespread sources of passive tracers out of atmospheric concentration measurements has become an important challenge of modern meteorology. The paper proposes some mathematical tracks to address the reconstruction of the complex space-time geometry of the sources of linear tracers. The methods are based upon the use of retroplumes. The inverse problem is addressed in a deterministic non statistical frame. The information obtained by local measurements is spread by introducing the concept of illumination. The constraint that the source is non negative is also addressed. The experimental source ETEX1 is rebuilt in order to evaluate an impulse response of the algorithms.

  2. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.pombal@usc.es [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  3. [Long-distance transportation of atmospheric pollutants and its effects on ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardans, R; Gimeno, B S

    1994-01-01

    It was known, as far back as the nineteenth century, that rain water from industrial areas was more acid than that from rural areas. The potential risks for life in general were discussed, but no further attention was paid to the issue. At the end of the twentieth century, the ecosystems of Europe, Canada and the United States have been severely damaged by pollutants borne by atmospheric winds to places distant from their origin. The main effects of these atmospheric pollutants are due to sulfur and nitrogen oxide dilution and to photochemical reactions. International organizations have been formed and agreements pronounced and ratified by many countries for a universal study on the pollution process, on the transport of pollutants--mostly sulfur, nitrogen and ozone--and on how to collaborate in order to reduce emissions in the respective countries of origin for the worldwide profit.

  4. Air pollution forecasting by coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF and SFIRE with WRF-Chem

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Clements, Craig B

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution regulations have emerged as a dominant obstacle to prescribed burns. Thus, forecasting the pollution caused by wildland fires has acquired high importance. WRF and SFIRE model wildland fire spread in a two-way interaction with the atmosphere. The surface heat flux from the fire causes strong updrafts, which in turn change the winds and affect the fire spread. Fire emissions, estimated from the burning organic matter, are inserted in every time step into WRF-Chem tracers at the lowest atmospheric layer. The buoyancy caused by the fire then naturally simulates plume dynamics, and the chemical transport in WRF-Chem provides a forecast of the pollution spread. We discuss the choice of wood burning models and compatible chemical transport models in WRF-Chem, and demonstrate the results on case studies.

  5. Study on the Total Amount Control of Atmospheric Pollutant Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To provide effective environmental management for total amount control of atmospheric pollutants. Methods An atmospheric diffusion model of sulfur dioxide on the surface of the earth was established and tested in Shantou of Guangdong Province on the basis of an overall assessment of regional natural environment, social economic state of development, pollution sources and atmospheric environmental quality. Compared with actual monitoring results in a studied region, simulation values fell within the range of two times of error and were evenly distributed in the two sides of the monitored values. Predicted with the largest emission model method, the largest emission of sulfur dioxide would be 54 279.792 tons per year in 2010. Conclusion The mathematical model established and revised on the basis of GIS is more rational and suitable for the regional characteristics of total amount control of air pollutants.

  6. Means of atmospheric air pollution reduction during drilling wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkitsa, L.; Yatsyshyn, T.; Lyakh, M.; Sydorenko, O.

    2016-08-01

    The process of drilling oil and gas wells is the source of air pollution through drilling mud evaporation containing hazardous chemical substances. The constructive solution for cleaning device of downhole tool that contains elements covering tube and clean the surface from the mud in the process of rising from the well is offered. Inside the device is filled with magnetic fluid containing the substance neutralizing hazardous substances. The use of the equipment proposed will make it possible to avoid penetration of harmful substances into the environment and to escape the harmful effects of aggressive substances for staff health and increase rig's fire safety.

  7. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  8. An estimation of the total atmospheric pollution in Quetta (Pakistan) using solar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyas, Syed Z.; Nasir, S.M. [University of Balochistan, Group of Renewable Energy, Department of Physics, Quetta (Pakistan); Veziroglu, T.N. [University of Miami, Clean Energy Institute, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Miami, FL (United States)

    2007-11-15

    A new approach for the estimation of the total atmospheric pollution is suggested by using solar energy data. The dispersion of global solar radiation is relatively large during summer (June, July and August) and autumn (September, October, November) seasons for Quetta. A continuous relative attenuation of the order of 6-14% is due to presence of fine dust particles and pollutants throughout the year in the lower atmosphere at Quetta. Our results indicate an increased difference in the relative attenuation of global solar radiation for winter when compared with summer due to combustion of natural gas and mined coal for heating of buildings. (orig.)

  9. Saving the atmosphere. International law, developing countries and air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F.

    1995-08-01

    The protection of global ecological systems which are threatened by human activities has evolved into one of the most dynamic and important areas of international law and politics. Most prominently, the chemical composition of the Earth`s atmosphere has increasingly been modified by human interference, followed by regular `holes` in the stratospheric ozone layer, possible change of the global climate and various other damages. Since the 1970s, the international community has reacted by negotiating several binding agreements on environmental policies and by establishing new rules of general customary law binding upon all States. This emerging Law of the Atmosphere is the subject of this study, thereby paying special attention to the differences in the legal status of industrialised and developing countries according to their distinct responsibilities and economic and social capabilities. (orig./KW)

  10. Is Distant Pollution Contaminating Local Air? Analyzing the Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin of aerosols in the atmosphere is important because of visual pollution, climate impacts, and deleterious health effects due to the inhalation of fine particles. This research analyzed aerosols characterized by their chloride, sulfate, and nitrate content as a function of size over a 3-month period. Due to wind patterns over coal-burning power plants, a higher concentration of local sulfate pollution was expected. Aerosols were harvested on the Purdue University campus using a high-volume air sampler with glass fiber filters and a five-stage impactor that separates the aerosols into five sizes. The filters were extracted in water to dissolve anions and the solution was analyzed using high-pressure liquid ion chromatography. Only trace amounts of chloride with no distinct patterns in size were detected. In total, nitrate content ranged from 0.12 to 2.10 μg/m3 and sulfate content ranged from 0.44 to 6.45 μg/m3 over a 3-month period. As for fine particles, a higher concentration of sulfate was observed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model determines air mass origin, and in this study, higher total sulfate content was observed when the air mass moved out of the southwest, and higher total nitrate content was observed when the air mass originated from the southeast. The author concluded that small particles resulted in sulfate from sulfur dioxide, typically from gas to particle conversion. High sulfur dioxide levels are directly correlated with coal-burning power plant density. Small particulate sulfate found in West Lafayette, Indiana, was determined to originate primarily from power plants in southwest Indiana. Though the results do show a significant amount of potentially harmful aerosols in West Lafayette, there is still further research to be done concerning isotopic composition of those particles in attempts to better explain the chemical pathways.

  11. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  12. Atmospheric black carbon and sulfate concentrations in Northeast Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of Black Carbon (BC in aerosols at the high Arctic field site Villum Research Station (VRS at Station Nord in North Greenland showed a seasonal variation in BC concentrations with a maximum in winter and spring at ground level. The data was obtained using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP. A similar seasonal pattern was found for sulfate concentrations with a maximum level during winter and spring analyzed by ion chromatography. A correlation between BC and sulfate concentrations was observed over the years 2011 to 2013. This finding gives the hint that most likely transport of primary emitted BC particles to the Arctic was accompanied by aging of the aerosols through condensational processes. This process may have led to the formation of secondary inorganic matter and further transport of BC particles as cloud processing and further washout of particles is less likely based on the typically observed transport patterns of air masses arriving at VRS. Additionally, concentrations of EC (elemental carbon based on a thermo-optical method were determined and compared to BC measurements. Model estimates of the climate forcing due to BC in the Arctic are based on contributions of long-range transported BC during spring and summer. The measured concentrations were here compared with model results obtained by the Danish Hemispheric Model, DEHM. Good agreement between measured and modeled concentrations of both BC and sulfate was observed. The dominant source is found to be combustion of fossil fuel with biomass burning as a minor though significant source. During winter and spring the Arctic atmosphere is known to be impacted by long-range transport of BC and associated with the Arctic haze phenomenon.

  13. Concentrations, Deposition, and Effects of Nitrogenous Pollutants in Selected California Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+ from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3– resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95% of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3, drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems.

  14. Concentrations, deposition, and effects of nitrogenous pollutants in selected California ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A; Padgett, P E; Parry, S D; Fenn, M E; Arbaugh, M J

    2001-11-28

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3) and particulate ammonium (NH4+) from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitric acid (HNO3), and particulate nitrate (NO3-) resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95%) of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3), drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems.

  15. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  16. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  17. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-02-01

    Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas) and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %), the English Channel and the North Sea (30-35 %), while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %), where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3) due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to be significant along

  18. Atmospheric pollution in thermal power plants; Contaminacion atmosferica en centrales termicas convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre Diaz, A.

    1997-04-01

    The author presents the atmospheric pollution by fossil-fuel power plants. The state of the art is developed in 4 chapters: Legislation, Sulfur dioxide: reduction of SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxides: reduction of emissions, particulates: reduction of particulates and new technologies. (Author)

  19. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Exposure Devices for In Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of cells to atmospheric pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of attached cells submerged in liquid medium. However, there is still limited understanding of the ideal ALI device design features that permit reproducible a...

  20. Air pollution and associated human mortality: The role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5μm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860) times and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-hour daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8±0.16 μg/m3 and 30±0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5 (O3) to change by +7.5±0.19 μg/m3 (+25±0.30 ppbv), +0.4±0.17 μg/m3 (+0.5±0.28 ppbv), and -0.02±0.01 μg/m3 (+4.3±0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0-2.5) million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129-592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air

  1. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fang

    2012-09-01

    by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3, respectively. However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air pollution globally up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. In addition to driving 13% of the total historical changes in surface O3 and 15% of the associated mortalities, CH4 is the dominant factor driving changes in atmospheric OH and H2O2 since preindustrial time. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

  2. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote oceanic and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North Atlantic is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a powerful measure to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. Planetary-scale interventions of that kind are often portrayed as "last-resort strategies", which need to weigh in if humankind keeps on enhancing the climate-system stock of CO2. Yet even if CDR could restore atmospheric CO2 to substantially lower concentrations, would it really qualify to undo the critical impacts of past emissions? In the study presented here, we employed an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) to investigate how CDR might erase the emissions legacy in the marine environment, focusing on pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Against a background of a world following the RCP8.5 emissions path ("business-as-usual") for centuries, we simulated the effects of two massive CDR interventions with CO2 extraction rates of 5 GtC yr-1 and 25 GtC yr-1, respectively, starting in 2250. We found that the 5 GtC yr-1 scheme would have only minor ameliorative influence on the oceans, even after several centuries of application. By way of contrast, the extreme 25 GtC yr-1 scheme eventually leads to tangible improvements. However, even with such an aggressive measure, past CO2 emissions leave a substantial legacy in the marine environment within the simulated period (i.e., until 2700). In summary, our study demonstrates that anthropogenic alterations of the oceans, caused by continued business-as-usual emissions, may not be reversed on a multi-centennial time scale by the most aspirational geoengineering measures. We also found that a transition from the RCP8.5 state to the state of a strong mitigation scenario (RCP2.6) is not possible, even under the assumption of extreme extraction rates (25 GtC yr-1). This is explicitly demonstrated by simulating additional scenarios, starting CDR already in 2150 and operating until the atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 280 ppm and 180 ppm, respectively. The simulated

  4. Lactation history, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, and maternal risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wang, Xiaobin;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  5. Urban Climate Effects on Air Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoul, Tara; Bloss, William; Pope, Francis

    2016-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone, adversely affects the environment and human health. The presence of chlorine nitrate (ClNO2) in the troposphere can enhance ozone (O3) formation as it undergoes photolysis, releasing chlorine reactive atoms (Cl) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), both of which enhance tropospheric ozone formation. The importance of new sources of tropospheric ClNO2 via heterogeneous processes has recently been highlighted. This study employed a box model, using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM version 3.2) to assess the effect of ClNO2 on air quality in urban areas within the UK. The model updated to include ClNO2 production, photolysis, a comprehensive parameterisation of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) uptake, and ClNO2 production calculated from bulk aerosol composition. The model simulation revealed the presence of ClNO2 enhances the formation of NO2, organic peroxy radical (CH3O2), O3, and hydroxyl radicals (OH) when compared with simulations excluding ClNO2. In addition, the study examined the effect of temperature variation upon ClNO2 formation. The response of ClNO2 to temperature was analysed to identify the underlying drivers, of particular importance when assessing the response of atmospheric chemistry processes under potential future climates.

  6. Modelling of anthropogenic pollutant diffusion in the atmosphere and applications to civil protection monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Tessarotto, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A basic feature of fluid mechanics concerns the frictionless phase-space dynamics of particles in an incompressible fluid. The issue, besides its theoretical interest in turbulence theory, is important in many applications, such as the pollutant dynamics in the atmosphere, a problem relevant for civil protection monitoring of air quality. Actually, both the numerical simulation of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) portion of the atmosphere and that of pollutant dynamics may generally require the correct definition of the Lagrangian dynamics which characterizes arbitrary fluid elements of incompressible thermofluids. We claim that particularly important for applications would be to consider these trajectories as phase-space trajectories. This involves, however, the unfolding of a fundamental theoretical problem up to now substantially unsolved: {\\it namely the determination of the exact frictionless dynamics of tracer particles in an incompressible fluid, treated either as a deterministic or a turbulent (i....

  7. The Influence of Distance and Atmospheric Elements on the Concentration of Odour from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Sakawi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Odour is an environmental element that occurs as varieties of aroma, either pleasant or otherwise to its immediate community. The various sources of odour pollution may come from either natural or of human activities. Odour concentration may change due to environmental factors such as atmosphere, topography, distance and mitigation efforts. This study describes a study on the influence of distance and athmospheric elements on concentration of odour generated by the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF operations. The distribution of odour concentration was measured using Odour concentration meter XP-329 III series per its distance from the RDF operations. The results indicated that distance factors did influence the odour concentration. Results at test stations of distances farther from the RDF showed incrementally higher distribution of odour concentration compared to those nearer to the RDF. In addition, athmosperic elements like temperatures, humidity, wind speed and directions also evidenlty linked to the distribution of odour concentration.

  8. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian

    2016-09-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  9. Atmospheric mercury deposition and its contribution of the regional atmospheric transport to mercury pollution at a national forest nature reserve, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Wang, Dingyong; Du, Hongxia; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Zheng; Wei, Shiqing

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition by wet and dry processes contributes to the transformation of mercury from atmosphere to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Factors influencing the amount of mercury deposited to subtropical forests were identified in this study. Throughfall and open field precipitation samples were collected in 2012 and 2013 using precipitation collectors from forest sites located across Mt. Jinyun in southwest China. Samples were collected approximately every 2 weeks and analyzed for total (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg). Forest canopy was the primary factor on THg and MeHg deposition. Simultaneously, continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were carried out from March 2012 to February 2013 at the summit of Mt. Jinyun. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 3.8 ± 1.5 ng m(-3), which was elevated compared with global background values. Sources identification indicated that both regional industrial emissions and long-range transport of Hg from central, northeast, and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM levels. Precipitation deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Jinyun were slightly higher than those reported in Europe and North America, whereas total fluxes of MeHg and THg under forest canopy on Mt. Jiuyun were 3 and 2.9 times of the fluxes of THg in wet deposition in the open. Highly elevated litterfall deposition fluxes suggest that even in remote forest areas of China, deposition of atmospheric Hg(0) via uptake by vegetation leaf may be a major pathway for the deposition of atmospheric Hg. The result illustrates that areas with greater atmospheric pollution can be expected to have greater fluxes of Hg to soils via throughfall and litterfall.

  10. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  11. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  12. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  13. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-11-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  14. Understanding global cycling of atmosphere-surface exchangeable pollutants and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, N. E.; Giang, A.; Song, S.; Pike-thackray, C.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    We combine modeling approaches with data analysis to provide quantitative constraints on the global biogeochemical cycling of pollutants such as mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These pollutants, released by human activities, continue to cycle between land, ocean, and atmosphere surfaces, extending their effective lifetimes in the environment. Measurement data are limited for all of these substances, providing few constraints on the magnitude of surface-atmosphere fluxes and thus the timescales of their cycling. This limits our ability to trace emissions to impacts for these substances, particularly in the context of both ongoing policies and climate change. We present a suite of modeling and analysis tools, including uncertainty analysis, that can provide quantitative constraints on cycling for these data-limited problems, and we illustrate their applicability through examples of Hg and selected POPs. Specifically, we summarize recent insights from inverse modeling of mercury, polynomial chaos-based methods for PAHs. Finally, we assess how uncertainty in timescales affects the entire emissions-to-impacts pathway for atmosphere-surface exchangeable pollutants. We discuss the implications of this analysis for policies under the Stockholm and Minamata Conventions.

  15. Relationship Between Outdoor and Indoor Ozone Pollution Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiaogang; LIU Junjie

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the changing rule of indoor ozone concentration and its influencing factors. A for-mula of indoor-outdoor concentration ratio(I/O ratio)was deduced based on the indoor ozone mass-balance equa-tion. The ozone I/O ratio in different kinds of buildings was studied. Results show that I/O ratio is much related to air-exchange rate, which is well compatible with the theoretical calculation results.

  16. Assessment of regional air quality by a concentration-dependent Pollution Permeation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Huan; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-10-01

    Although air quality monitoring networks have been greatly improved, interpreting their expanding data in both simple and efficient ways remains challenging. Therefore, needed are new analytical methods. We developed such a method based on the comparison of pollutant concentrations between target and circum areas (circum comparison for short), and tested its applications by assessing the air pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Cheng-Yu, China during 2015. We found the circum comparison can instantly judge whether a city is a pollution permeation donor or a pollution permeation receptor by a Pollution Permeation Index (PPI). Furthermore, a PPI-related estimated concentration (original concentration plus halved average concentration difference) can be used to identify some overestimations and underestimations. Besides, it can help explain pollution process (e.g., Beijing’s PM2.5 maybe largely promoted by non-local SO2) though not aiming at it. Moreover, it is applicable to any region, easy-to-handle, and able to boost more new analytical methods. These advantages, despite its disadvantages in considering the whole process jointly influenced by complex physical and chemical factors, demonstrate that the PPI based circum comparison can be efficiently used in assessing air pollution by yielding instructive results, without the absolute need for complex operations.

  17. The spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents during the period 2000-2005 in the Urban Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hermes U Ramírez; García, María D Andrade; Bejaran, Rubén; Guadalupe, Mario E García; Vázquez, Antonio Wallo; Toledano, Ana C Pompa; Villasenor, Odila de la Torre

    2009-06-15

    In the large cities, the disordered urban development, the industrial activities, and the transport, have caused elevated concentrations of polluting agents and possible risks to the health of the population. The metropolises located in valleys with little ventilation (such as the Urban Area of Guadalajara: UAG) present low dispersion of polluting agents can cause high risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particles smaller than 10 microns (microm) (PM(10)) and ozone (O(3)) in the UAG during the period 2000-2005. A spatial-temporal distribution analysis was made by means of graphic interpolation (Kriging method) of the statistical parameters of CO, NO(2), SO(2), PM(10) and O(3) with the collected data from eight stations of atmospheric monitoring in the UAG. The results show that the distributions of the atmospheric polluting agents are variable during the analyzed years. The polluting agent with highest concentration is PM(10) (265.42 microg/m(3)), followed by O(3) (0.11 ppm), NO(2) (0.11 ppm), CO (9.17 ppm) and SO(2) (0.05 ppm). The most affected zone is the southeast of the UAG. The results showed that an important percentage of days exceed the Mexican norms of air quality (93-199 days/year).

  18. Study of meteorological aspects and urban concentration of SO2 in atmospheric environment of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Gustavo; Videla, Fabián; Almandos, J Reyna; Maronna, Ricardo; Schinca, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    This article presents and discusses SO(2) (ppbv) concentration measurements combined with meteorological data (mainly wind speed and direction) for a five-year campaign (1996 to 2000), in a site near an oil refinery plant close to the city of La Plata and surroundings (aprox. 740.000 inh.), considered one of the six most affected cities by air pollution in the country. Since there is no monitoring network in the area, the obtained results should be considered as medium term accumulated data that enables to determine trends by analyzing together gas concentrations and meteorological parameters. Preliminary characterization of the behaviour of the predominant winds of the region in relation with potential atmospheric gas pollutants from seasonal wind roses is possible to carry out from the data. These results are complemented with monthly averaged SO(2) measurements. In particular, for year 2000, pollutant roses were determined which enable predictions about contamination emission sources. As a general result we can state that there is a clear increase in annual SO(2) concentration and that the selected site should be considered as a key site for future survey monitoring network deployment. Annual SO(2) average concentration and prevailing seasonal winds determined in this work, together with the potential health impact of SO(2) reveals the need for a comprehensive and systematic study involving particulate matter an other basic pollutant gases.

  19. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases from the preindustrial period to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2013-02-01

    precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also contribute to premature mortality associated with air pollution globally (by up to 5% and 15%, respectively). In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

  20. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases from the preindustrial period to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fang

    2013-02-01

    mortalities annually and changes in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592 thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively. However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also contribute to premature mortality associated with air pollution globally (by up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

  1. Background maritime contribution to atmospheric pollution in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    {sup 222}Rn is generally considered as a suitable indicator of the continental influence from which it is then possible to identify the origin of air masses. Otherwise, the measurement of peroxy-acetyl-nitrate (PAN) may constitute an alternative solution. In this aim, simultaneous measurements of {sup 222}Rn activity concentration and PAN were routinely carried out at Porspder, in 1995, in the framework of the EU BOA project. (`Budget of Ozone over North-Atlantic`). Hundred of simulations hourly data of PAN and {sup 222}Rn were collected and compared with the five-day back-trajectories. Their analysis revealed that, in about 80 % of cases, there is a good correlation in the results of measurements depending of the location of couples of data either below 0.8 Bq.m{sup -3} for {sup 222}Rn and 60 ppt for PAN under purely oceanic conditions or above these figures in the other cases. In fact,thanks to this study, it was emphasized that using such tracers in the identification of air mass of oceanic origin is of the highest interest when compared to the systematic use of back-trajectories whose handling is often tedious and costly and moreover can lead to potential inaccuracy. (author)

  2. Effect of atmospheric pollution on Vitis vinifera L. pollen ultrastructure under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirban, M.; Craciun, C.; Bathory, D.; Cipleu, D.

    1984-06-01

    The ultrastructural modification of pollen grains in Vitis vinifera L. variety and hybrids in areas of SO atmospheric pollution (the main polluting SO2 usually reaches 2.72 mg/m3), nitrogen oxide, and other gases derived from noniron metal processing factories have been studied. Strains 1001 and 1002, resistant varieties, do not undergo ultrastructural modifications. Neuburger and Issabelle, medium resistant ones, have a heterogeneity in ultrastructural organization from normal forms to forms having both wall covers as well as the main organelles changed.

  3. Contribution to the study of characteristics of Pelargonium resistance to an atmospheric pollutant, sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, J.; Bonte, C.; de Cormis, L.; Louguet, P.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven varieties of Pelargonium, subjected simultaneously to similar conditions of sulfur dioxide pollution, are arranged in ascending order of sensitivity. There is no relation between the relative susceptibility of the varieties to SO/sub 2/, the stomatal frequency and the dimensions of the stomatal apparatus. Nevertheless, a statistical comparative study of the stomatal movements of 2 Pelargonium, one resistant, the other sensitive, has shown that the closing rate of stomata and the reduction percentage of stomatal diffusive capacity are significantly different. These characteristics might be taken into consideration in the selection of varieties resistant to atmospheric pollution.

  4. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particle-bound mercury (PBM were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China, from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74, 10.1 ± 18.8 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m−3, respectively, about 2–20 times higher than the background concentration of the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in northern China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations, with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m−3 and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m−3. In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed, with peak levels in the late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the the temperature inversion that increases in depth as the night proceeds. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from the east and southwest of the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF model indicate that the atmospheric transport

  5. Composition and effects of inhalable size fractions of atmospheric aerosols in the polluted atmosphere: part I. PAHs, PCBs and OCPs and the matrix chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landlová, Linda; Cupr, Pavel; Franců, Juraj; Klánová, Jana; Lammel, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) abundance, mass size distribution (MSD) and chemical composition are parameters relevant for human health effects. The MSD and phase state of semivolatile organic pollutants were determined at various polluted sites in addition to the PM composition and MSD. The distribution pattern of pollutants varied from side to side in correspondence to main particle sources and PM composition. Levels of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were 1-30 ng m(-3) (corresponding to 15-35 % of the total, i.e., gas and particulate phase concentrations), of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were 2-11 pg m(-3) (4-26 % of the total) and of DDT compounds were 2-12 pg m(-3) (4-23 % of the total). The PM associated amounts of other organochlorine pesticides were too low for quantification. The organics were preferentially found associated with particles matrix composition, amount of contaminants and toxicological effects occur. Legislative regulation based on gravimetric determination of PM mass can clearly be insufficient for assessment.

  6. Long-term climate forcing by atmospheric oxygen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Christopher J.; Tabor, Clay; White, Joseph D.

    2015-06-01

    The percentage of oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere varied between 10% and 35% throughout the Phanerozoic. These changes have been linked to the evolution, radiation, and size of animals but have not been considered to affect climate. We conducted simulations showing that modulation of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), as a result of its contribution to atmospheric mass and density, influences the optical depth of the atmosphere. Under low pO2 and a reduced-density atmosphere, shortwave scattering by air molecules and clouds is less frequent, leading to a substantial increase in surface shortwave forcing. Through feedbacks involving latent heat fluxes to the atmosphere and marine stratus clouds, surface shortwave forcing drives increases in atmospheric water vapor and global precipitation, enhances greenhouse forcing, and raises global surface temperature. Our results implicate pO2 as an important factor in climate forcing throughout geologic time.

  7. Inferring Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentrations from Chinese Social Media Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhu; Kokas, Aynne; Zhang, Rui; Cohan, Daniel S.; Wallach, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Although studies have increasingly linked air pollution to specific health outcomes, less well understood is how public perceptions of air quality respond to changing pollutant levels. The growing availability of air pollution measurements and the proliferation of social media provide an opportunity to gauge public discussion of air quality conditions. In this paper, we consider particulate matter (PM) measurements from four Chinese megacities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu) together with 112 million posts on Weibo (a popular Chinese microblogging system) from corresponding days in 2011–2013 to identify terms whose frequency was most correlated with PM levels. These correlations are used to construct an Air Discussion Index (ADI) for estimating daily PM based on the content of Weibo posts. In Beijing, the Chinese city with the most PM as measured by U.S. Embassy monitor stations, we found a strong correlation (R = 0.88) between the ADI and measured PM. In other Chinese cities with lower pollution levels, the correlation was weaker. Nonetheless, our results show that social media may be a useful proxy measurement for pollution, particularly when traditional measurement stations are unavailable, censored or misreported. PMID:27649530

  8. Simplified Atmospheric Dispersion Model andModel Based Real Field Estimation System ofAir Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric dispersion model has been well developed and applied in pollution emergency and prediction. Based on thesophisticated air diffusion model, this paper proposes a simplified model and some optimization about meteorological andgeological conditions. The model is suitable for what is proposed as Real Field Monitor and Estimation system. The principle ofsimplified diffusion model and its optimization is studied. The design of Real Field Monitor system based on this model and itsfundamental implementations are introduced.

  9. Laser system for remote sensing monitoring of air pollution and quality control of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the atmosphere and determination of the types and amounts of pollutants is becoming more important issue in complex and global monitoring of the environment. On the geocomponent and geocomplex level problem of monitoring the environment is attracting the attention of the scientific experts of different profiles (chemists, physicists, geographers, biologists, meteorologists, both in the national and international projects. Because of the general characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere (Dynamically Ballanced Instability DBI and the potential contribution to climate change solutions air-pollution monitoring has become particularly important field of environmental research. Control of aerosol distribution over Europe is enabled by EARLINET systems (European Aerosol Lidar NETwork. Serbia’s inclusion into these European courses needs development of the device, the standardization of methods and direct activity in determining the type, quantity and location of aerosol. This paper is analyzing the first step in the study of air-pollution, which is consisted of the realization of a functional model of LIDAR remote sensing devices for the large particle pollutants.

  10. Atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-Seine and Alfortville; Pollution atmospherique dans la zone de Vitry-sur-Seine et d'Alfortville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, P.

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this report, demanded by the environmental minister, is the present state and the evolution of the atmospheric pollution in the area of Vitry-sur-seine and Alfortville, near Paris. In the first part the report takes stock of the air quality to show a decrease in the pollution due to fixed sources. A special interest is given in a second part to exhaust gases from the main factory of the area: the EDF power plant. The report concludes on the decrease of the industrial air pollution, the increase of the traffic air pollution and asks for the public information. (A.L.B.)

  11. Assessment of the variability of atmospheric pollution in National Parks of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M.; Lozano, A.; Hierro, J.; Tapia, O.; del Valle, J.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Anzano, J.; Querol, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    Air quality in nine National Parks in mainland Spain was assessed analysing SO2, NOx, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 data from background stations. As emissions in and around parks are limited, the levels of primary pollutants are low. Concentrations of secondary pollutants are high especially in summer due to photochemical production. The geographical variability of pollutants responds to regional emission patterns and the dominant circulation regimes in different regions resulting in west-east gradients for O3 and PM. Seasonal variability of pollutants was also interpreted in virtue of transport scenarios, changes in photochemical activity and emissions variability. NOx and SO2, maximize in winter due to higher emissions while O3 and PM do it in summer due to photochemical production, lower precipitation and, in the case of PM, the occurrence of African dust outbreaks. The diurnal evolution was interpreted in virtue of variability in emissions and changes in the Planetary Boundar Layer height.

  12. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Cerena, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maguas, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, Universidade Atlantica, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-08-15

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO{sub 2} and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species.

  13. Multiple linear regression models of urban runoff pollutant load and event mean concentration considering rainfall variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniquiz, Marla C; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall is an important factor in estimating the event mean concentration (EMC) which is used to quantify the washed-off pollutant concentrations from non-point sources (NPSs). Pollutant loads could also be calculated using rainfall, catchment area and runoff coefficient. In this study, runoff quantity and quality data gathered from a 28-month monitoring conducted on the road and parking lot sites in Korea were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR) to develop equations for estimating pollutant loads and EMCs as a function of rainfall variables. The results revealed that total event rainfall and average rainfall intensity are possible predictors of pollutant loads. Overall, the models are indicators of the high uncertainties of NPSs; perhaps estimation of EMCs and loads could be accurately obtained by means of water quality sampling or a long-term monitoring is needed to gather more data that can be used for the development of estimation models.

  14. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the northern hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  15. Factors influencing the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Hou, Minmin; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Ruize; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2017-02-01

    The diurnal atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China during winter and summer. Total PCB concentrations during winter and summer were 27.6-212 and 368-1704pg/m(3) in the particulate phase and 270-697 and 3000-15,500pg/m(3) in the gaseous phase, respectively. Both gaseous and particulate PCB concentrations and compositions exhibited significant difference between winter and summer samples, but no diurnal variations during the measurement period. The correlation analysis between PCB concentrations and meteorological conditions, including atmospheric temperature, humidity, and mixing layer height, suggested that the seasonal variability of atmospheric PCB concentrations was strongly temperature-dependent, while the diurnal variability was probably source-dependent. The temperature-driven variations can also be proved by the significant linear correlation between ln P and 1/T in the Clausius-Clapeyron plot. Although government has implemented controls to reduce e-waste pollution, both the relatively high concentrations of PCBs and the diurnal variation in the air suggested that emissions from occasional e-waste recycling activities may still exist in this recycling area. These results underline the importance of continuing e-waste recycling site management long after abandonment.

  16. Enhanced Removal of Biogenic Hydrocarbons in Power Plant Plumes Constrains the Dependence of Atmospheric Hydroxyl Concentrations on Nitrogen Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gouw, J. A.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Brown, S. S.; Edwards, P.; Gilman, J.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kim, S. W.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Wolfe, G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the atmosphere provide one of the main chemical mechanisms for the removal of trace gases. OH plays a central role in determining the atmospheric lifetime and radiative forcing of greenhouse gases like methane. OH also plays a major role in the oxidation of organic trace gases, which can lead to formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and PM2.5. Due to its very short atmospheric lifetime of seconds or less, OH concentrations are extremely variable in space and time, which makes measurements and their interpretation very challenging. Several recent measurements have yielded higher than expected OH concentrations. To explain these would require the existence of unidentified, radical recycling processes, but issues with the measurements themselves are also still being discussed. During the NOAA airborne SENEX study in the Southeast U.S., the biogenic hydrocarbons isoprene and monoterpenes were consistently found to have lower mixing ratios in air masses with enhanced nitrogen oxides from power plants. We attribute this to faster oxidation rates of biogenic hydrocarbons due to increased concentrations of OH in the power plant plumes. Measurements at different downwind distances from the Scherer and Harllee Branch coal-fired power plants near Atlanta are used to constrain the dependence of OH on nitrogen oxides. It is found that OH concentrations were highest at nitrogen dioxide concentrations of 1-2 ppbv and decreased at higher and at lower concentrations. These findings agree with the expected dependence of OH on nitrogen oxide concentrations, but do not appear to be consistent with the reports in the literature that have shown high OH concentrations in regions of the atmosphere with high biogenic emissions and low NOx concentrations that would require unidentified radical recycling processes to be explained.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MEANS FOR ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL LOSSES FROM POLLUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN ZONES OF TECHNOGENIC OBJECTS IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. POPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the solution of one of the most important problems of rational use of natural resources. Modern mathematical tools for damage estimation, which are caused by atmospheric pollution to natural objects, and also methods for calculation of the cost for their renewal were developed. The solution of problem was divided into 3 stages. At the first stage it was defined basic anthropogenic sources of pollution, was illustrated conceptual behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere emitted by technological stationary point source. Choice of mathematical model that allows to determine the distribution of pollutants concentration in the air in zones of pollution by point stationary sources in the short-term discharges was proved. At the second stage it was developed mathematical tools to determine the level of objects damage, which were in the zone of pollution, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure of technogenic sources. At the third stage it was developed mathematical models to determine the recoverable amount of natural objects depending on their level of damage. Model example of developed means usage was described. Advantages of developed means over existed analogs were noticed.

  18. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic, today and in a future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are of great concern because of their long residence time and long-range transport potential in the environment and because they are readily bioaccumulated along food chains and toxic for wildlife and humans. A multicompartment model is used to study global-scale and long term chemodynamics of anthropogenic organic substances in the Earth system. Model components are the atmosphere (ECHAM5) and ocean general circulation models (MPIOM), which include dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry, two-dimensional surface compartments (topsoil, vegetation surfaces, ice, and temporal snow cover) and intercompartmental mass exchange process parameterisations [1-3]. The transports into and out of the Arctic (66° N) are characterized for 1950-2000 under one realisation of present-day climate [4-5] and for 2001-2100 under one realisation of future climate (greenhouse gas emission scenario A1B of IPCC-AR4). Despite decaying primary emissions (since decades) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodimephenyltrichloromethane (DDT) are continuing to accumulate in the Arctic, which is fed by atmospheric transports. The main regions of import (and export) are identified and the vertical distribution and seasonalities are characterized. Changes by the end of the 21st century are discussed in the context of a major teleconnection, i.e. the Arctic Oscillation. References [1] Guglielmo F, Lammel G, Maier-Reimer E: Global environmental cycling of DDT and ?-HCH in the 1980s - a study using a coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model. Chemosphere 76 (2009) 1509-1517 [2] Stemmler I, Lammel G: Cycling of DDT in the global oceans 1950-2002: World ocean returns the pollutant. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (2009) L24602 [3] Hofmann L, Stemmler I, Lammel G: The impact of organochlorines cycling in the cryosphere on their global distributions and fate - 2. Land ice and temporary snow cover. Environ. Pollut. 162 (2012) 482

  19. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

  20. [Differential geometry expression and analysis of regionalized variables of typical pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Han-Feng; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan-Hu

    2009-10-01

    Based on the basic concepts of differential geometry in analyzing environmental data and establishing related models, the methodology for differential geometry expression and analysis of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment was presented. As a kind of regionalized variables, the spatial distribution pattern of the pollutants concentration was transformed into 3-dimension form, and fitted with conicoid. This approach made it possible to analyze the quantitative relationships between the regionalized variables and their spatial structural attributes. For illustration purpose, several sorts of typical space fabrics, such as convexity, concavity, ridge, ravine, saddle, and slope, were calculated and characterized. It was suggested that this approach was feasible for analyzing the regionalized variables of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment.

  1. Atmospheric processes of organic pollutants over a remote lake on the central Tibetan Plateau: implications for regional cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Chuanfei; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric processes (air-surface exchange, and atmospheric deposition and degradation) are crucial for understanding the global cycling and fate of organic pollutants (OPs). However, such assessments over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) remain uncertain. More than 50 % of Chinese lakes are located on the TP, which exerts a remarkable influence on the regional water, energy, and chemical cycling. In this study, air and water samples were simultaneously collected in Nam Co, a large lake on the TP, to test whether the lake is a secondary source or sink of OPs. Lower concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed in the atmosphere and lake water of Nam Co, while the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were relatively higher. Results of fugacity ratios and chiral signatures both suggest that the lake acted as the net sink of atmospheric hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), following their long-range transport driven by the Indian monsoon. Different behaviours were observed in the PAHs, which primarily originated from local biomass burning. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and fluorene showed volatilization from the lake to the atmosphere, while other PAHs were deposited into the lake due to the integrated deposition process (wet/dry and air-water gas deposition) and limited atmospheric degradation. As the dominant PAH compound, phenanthrene exhibited a seasonal reversal of air-water gas exchange, which was likely related to the melting of the lake ice in May. The annual input of HCHs from the air to the entire lake area (2015 km2) was estimated as 1.9 kg yr-1, while input estimated for ∑ 15PAHs can potentially reach up to 550 kg yr-1. This study highlights the significance of PAH deposition on the regional carbon cycling in the oligotrophic lakes of the TP.

  2. Dynamic of pollutants concentration in forest stands from Copsa Mica industrial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ianculescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dynamics of pollutants concentrations from nonferrous metallurgical plant in Copsa Mica, considered, between the years 1985 - 1989, as the most polluted area, even in the world, and detected as a large black spot on Landsat satellite imagery. Returning to investigations in this area, after 20-25 years, the pollution activity was changed after 1990, as a consequence of the reduction of industrial capacity, including the black smoke plant decommissioning, and the chimney built for exhaust pollutants over 350 m feet high, resulted some conclusions, necessary for decisions that have to be taken by environmental, forestry, health and agriculture authorities.The litter, soil and vegetation samples were colected from the same permanent sample plots between the years 2006-2009, as between the years 1985-1989, using the same methods, in order to be compared and analyzed. Therefore, returning to investigations in these permanent sample plots, were found the following conclusions: i between the period 1985 - 1989, in all examined cases were revealed high pollutants concentrations, even exceeding the maximum allowable limit (MAL consisting of suphur compounds in synergistic action with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, etc., in vegetation and litter, which was directly correlated with noxious concentrations in the air, and concentrations below MAL in soil samples; ii contrary, regarding the new pollution activity, it has been revealed low noxious concentration, in vegetation, litter and soil samples collected during the period between the years 2006-2008, which are directly related to their low concentration level in the air. Due to pollutants accumulation phenomenon over the years, high pollutants concentrations, ten times higher than MAL, were found in the superior soil layer. In such circumstances the best solution to protect the environment, population and livestock of the damaged area, for tens of thousands of hectares, is the

  3. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshe Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The extreme learning machine for single hidden layer feed-forward neural networks tends to provide good generalization performance at an extremely fast learning speed. The major sources of air pollutants in Hong Kong are mobile, stationary, and from trans-boundary sources. We propose predicting the concentration of air pollutants by the use of trained extreme learning machines based on the data obtained from eight air quality parameters in two monitoring stations, including Sham Shui Po and Tap Mun in Hong Kong for six years. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better on the Hong Kong data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Particularly, our algorithm shows better predictive ability, with R 2 increased and root mean square error values decreased respectively.

  4. Concentration and size distribution of particulate oxalate in marine and coastal atmospheres - Implication for the increased importance of oxalate in nanometer atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianfeng; Li, Kai; Zhu, Yujiao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    In literature, particulate oxalate has been widely studied in the total suspended particles (TSP), particles 100 nm. In this article, we measured oxalate's concentrations in size-segregated atmospheric particles down to 10 nm or 56 nm during eight campaigns performed at a semi-urban coastal site, over the marginal seas of China and from the marginal seas to the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO) in 2012-2015. When the sum of the oxalate's concentration in particles pollution event. Mode analysis results of particulate oxalate and the correlation between oxalate and sulfate suggested that the elevated concentrations of oxalate in PM10 were mainly related to enhanced in-cloud formation of oxalate via anthropogenic precursors. Size distribution data in the total of 136 sets of samples also showed approximately 80% of particulate oxalate's mass existing in atmospheric particles >100 nm. Consistent with previous studies, particulate oxalate in particles >100 nm was a negligible ionic component when comparing to particulate SO42- in the same size range. However, the mole ratios of oxalate/sulfate in particles 100 nm atmospheric particles such as PM2.5, PM10, TSP, etc.

  5. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  6. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Nursyairah, E-mail: nursyairah1990@gmail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  7. Analytical solutions for one-dimensional advection–dispersion equation of the pollutant concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali S Wadi; Mourad F Dimian; Fayez N Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    We present simple analytical solutions for the unsteady advection–dispersion equations describing the pollutant concentration (, ) in one dimension. The solutions are obtained by using Laplace transformation technique. In this study we divided the river into two regions ≤ 0 and ≥0 and the origin at = 0. The variation of (, ) with the time from = 0 up to → ∞ (the steady state case) is taken into account in our study. The special case for which the dispersion coefficient = 0 is studied in detail. The parameters controlling the pollutant concentration along the river are determined.

  8. The lichen Parmelia physodes (L. Ach. as indicator for determination of the degree of atmospheric air pollution in the area contaminated by flourine and sulphur dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.

  9. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  10. Interception of wet deposited atmospheric pollutants by herbaceous vegetation: Data review and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, M.-A., E-mail: marc-andre.gonze@irsn.fr; Sy, M.M.

    2016-09-15

    Better understanding and predicting interception of wet deposited pollutants by vegetation remains a key issue in risk assessment studies of atmospheric pollution. We develop different alternative models, following either empirical or semi-mechanistic descriptions, on the basis of an exhaustive dataset consisting of 440 observations obtained in controlled experiments, from 1970 to 2014, for a wide variety of herbaceous plants, radioactive substances and rainfall conditions. The predictive performances of the models and the uncertainty/variability of the parameters are evaluated under Hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework. It is demonstrated that the variability of the interception fraction is satisfactorily explained and quite accurately modelled by a process-based alternative in which absorption of ionic substances onto the foliage surfaces is determined by their electrical valence. Under this assumption, the 95% credible interval of the predicted interception fraction encompasses 81% of the observations, including situations where either plant biomass or rainfall intensity are unknown. This novel approach is a serious candidate to challenge existing empirical relationships in radiological or chemical risk assessment tools. - Highlights: • Literature data on the interception of atmospheric pollutants by herbs were reviewed • Predictive models were developed and evaluated in the Bayesian modelling framework • Sensitivity of interception to environmental conditions was satisfactorily explained • 81% of the observations were satisfactorily predicted by a semi-mechanistic model • This model challenges empirical relationships currently used in risk assessment tools.

  11. Meteorologia e poluição atmosférica Meteorology and atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Martins Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentam-se os principais aspectos relacionados à meteorologia ligada ao processo de dispersão turbulenta de poluentes atmosféricos. Ressalta-se que a meteorologia desempenha um papel fundamental para o controle da qualidade do ar, pois os eventos meteorológicos guiam a dispersão de poluentes e sua deposição no solo. Discutem-se os recentes melhoramentos da descrição e previsão dos fenômenos que envolvem a poluição atmosférica considerando a melhoria da qualidade de vida da população.This work shows the main aspects related to the meteorology linked to the process of turbulent dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. It is pointed out that meteorology is fundamental to air quality control, and meteorological events guide the pollutant dispersion and its deposition on the soil. Recent improvements on the description and forecast of the phenomena that involve atmospheric pollution, considering the population quality of life, are discussed.

  12. A study of air flow patterns affecting pollutant concentrations in the Central Region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D.; García, Agustín. R.; Ruíz-Suárez, L. Gerardo

    Using a prognostic air quality model that includes actual emissions, air pollution regimes over the central region of Mexico are simulated. It is shown that due to the complex orography, vertical circular patterns develop over the metropolitan area of Mexico City. In this way reactive and non-reactive pollutants can travel near the surface, be transported vertically and land in an area opposite to its initial route due to convective downward currents. This changes the surface pollutant concentrations on the landing area. Also, it is shown that air pollution is transported near the surface from the metropolitan area of Mexico City through Chalco in the South-east corner of the Mexico Valley, to the Valley of Cuautla affecting this area.

  13. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Maria Elena; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn; Krol, Maarten; Visschedijk, Antoon; Röckmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally fuelled road traffic is a major source of greenhouse gases and pollutants. Greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 and CH4) affect the global atmosphere and contribute to global warming. The pollutants emitted by vehicles (e.g. CO, NOx, SO2, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds) are toxic for man and environment and decrease air quality especially in highly populated areas. Burning H2 produces only water, thus H2-powered vehicles are seen as a possibility to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality; because of this, H2 usage as a fuel is foreseen to significantly increase in the future. Large scale usage of H2 as a fuel has the potential to affect the atmospheric composition in different ways. On one hand, emissions associated to fossil fuel burning will decrease. On the other hand, large quantities of H2 used will likely lead to increased H2 emissions from leakages during production, transport and storage. Additional H2 in the atmosphere will affect the chemistry of many species, in principal by decreasing the availability of OH radicals, with the result of increasing the lifetime of greenhouse gases and pollutants. Thus the net effect of H2 vehicles on the atmospheric composition depends on the relative strength of these two contrary effects. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2 road transportation on local and regional air quality, we implemented H2 in the atmospheric transport and chemistry model LOTOS-EUROS. We simulated the future (2020) using emission scenarios with different proportions of H2 vehicles and different H2 leakage rates. The reference future scenario does not include H2 vehicles, and assumes that all present and planned European regulations for emissions are fully implemented. We find that in general the air quality in 2020 will be significantly better than at present in all scenarios, with and without H2 cars. In the future scenario without H2 cars, the pollution is reduced due to the strict

  14. Investigations into formation of atmospheric sulfate under high PM 10 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Kiran, Y. N. V. M.; Shandilya, Kaushik K.

    This study was primarily initiated to understand the consistently low levels of SO 2 in cities in India in spite of rising SO 2 emissions. A literature review suggested the possibility of chemical transformation of SO 2 to SO 4. Thus, the objective of research was to understand the formation of SO 4 as a function of SO 2, and other constituents of atmosphere such as PM 10, water content, Ca (in aerosol) and pH (of aerosol). For this purpose, air quality monitoring was conducted at five locations in the city of Kanpur, India (during October 1999-April 2000) representing various land-use patterns. It was found that the SO 4 levels were considerably high (2.8-43.6 μg m -3) compared to levels in cities in the US (1.9-3.6 μg m -3, Sandberg et al. (J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 26 (1976) 559; 15.7-18.4 μg m -3, Altshuller (J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 26 (1976) 318; 4.0-14.0 μg m -3 Dockery et al. (J. Med. 329 (1993) 1753), UK (3.2-9.0 μg m -3, QUARG, 1996 http://www.environment.detr.gov.uk/airq/consult/naqs/index.htm), and 25 locations in Europe (0.34-1.68 μg m -3 (1991-1999), EMEP website), but were comparable to the levels observed at Agra (14.67 μg m -3, Kulshrestha et al. Indian J. Radio Space Phys. 24 (1995) 178) and at New Delhi (12.9-27.5 μg m -3, Shandilya, M.E. Thesis, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India, 2000). The high SO 4 levels could provide a plausible explanation for low SO 2 concentration levels in the city of Kanpur. It was concluded that high levels of PM 10, Ca and high pH of aerosols in atmosphere provide a conducive environment for conversion of SO 2 to SO 4. It was also concluded that the important migration pathway in study area for the transformation of SO 2 to SO 4 appears to be oxidation of SO 2 on the surfaces (of particulate) available in the ambient atmosphere.

  15. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  16. Magnetic Study on Environmental Samples from Guadalajara Mexico for Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, B.; Cejudo, R.; Bogalo, M. F.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Quintana, P.; Bautista, F.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Morales, J.

    2013-05-01

    Guadalajara is the second bigger city in Mexico, catalogued as critical zone because of atmospheric pollution levels. The magnetic methodology has been largely used as an alternative way to evaluate the pollution levels as well as identify the critical points in a given area. In this work, results from chemical analyses and magnetic measurements are presented in order to show the correlation between magnetic signal and the pollution level. We analyzed three kinds of environmental samples: urban soils, urban dust and leaves from ficus benjamina. Samples were taken in 30 sites distributed along a main avenue and two secondary avenues, including three points with very poor traffic influence. We determined a ferromagnetic carrier in most of samples, magnetite probably, since the Tc calculated from the thermomagnetic curves is around 580 °C. The magnetic susceptibility (Xlf) as well as the Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) correlate well with the heavy metals content, specially Pb in urban dusts. These results allowed us to identify the most affected points, by vehicular traffic and industrial emissions. Furthermore, the values obtained for these magnetic parameters are above of those found in other studies for polluted cities in Europe and Asia.

  17. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  18. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  19. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhai Zhu

    Full Text Available Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2 to 5.3 g m(-2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1 to 652 mg kg(-1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2 = 0.73 and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1. For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1 to 106.8 mg kg(-1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs, produced a prediction (R(2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1 similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  20. Correlations between urban atmospheric light extinction coefficients and fine particle mass concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trier, A.; Cabrini, N.; Ferrer, J. [Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago 2 (Chile); Olaeta, I. [SESMA, Santiago 1 (Chile)

    1997-07-01

    Total horizontal atmospheric light extinction coefficients as well as particle mass concentrations have been measured in downtown areas of Santiago de Chile, a heavily polluted city. Measurement campaigns were carried out in 1994 in 1995. Extinction measurements were made by a telephotometric technique in four wavelength bands; oscillating mass balance type instruments were used to measure PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations. The latter type instrument had not been available heretofore. The extensive continuous PM2.5 measurements are the first for this city. Strong and highly significant statistical correlations were found between extinction coefficients and mass concentrations, especially with the fine respirable or PM2.5 mass concentrations. Angstrom exponents and, in one case, mass extinction coefficients have been estimated. [Spanish] Se ha medido coeficientes atmosfericos totales horizontales de extincion de luz asi como concentraciones de masa de particulas atmosfericas en zonas centricas de Santiago de Chile, una ciudad altamente contaminada. Las campanas de medicion se han hecho en 1994 y en 1995. Las mediciones de extincion se han hecho por un metodo telefotometrico en cuatro bandas espectrales; las concentraciones de masa PM2.5 y PM10 se han medido con instrumentos del tipo de balanzas de masa oscilantes. Tales instrumentos no han estado disponibles durante trabajos anteriores. Las extensas mediciones continuas de concentraciones de masa PM2.5 son las primeras para Santiago de Chile. Se han encontrado fuertes correlaciones estadisticas, altamente significativas, entre coeficientes de extincion y concentraciones de masa, especialmente las concentraciones de particulas finas respirables PM2.5. Se han estimado tambien exponentes de Angstrom y, en un caso, coeficientes masicos de extincion.

  1. The model SIRANE for atmospheric urban pollutant dispersion; part I, presentation of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulhac, Lionel; Salizzoni, Pietro; Cierco, F.-X.; Perkins, Richard

    2011-12-01

    In order to control and manage urban air quality, public authorities require an integrated approach that incorporates direct measurements and modelling of mean pollutant concentrations. These have to be performed by means of operational modelling tools, that simulate the transport of pollutants within and above the urban canopy over a large number of streets. The operational models must be able to assess rapidly a large variety of situations and with limited computing resources. SIRANE is an operational urban dispersion model based on a simplified description of the urban geometry that adopts parametric relations for the pollutant transfer phenomena within and out of the urban canopy. The streets in a city district are modelled as a network of connected street segments. The flow within each street is driven by the component of the external wind parallel to the street, and the pollutant is assumed to be uniformly mixed within the street. The model contains three main mechanisms for transport in and out of a street: advection along the street axis, diffusion across the interface between the street and the overlying air flow and exchanges with other streets at street intersections. The dispersion of pollutants advected or diffused out of the streets is taken into account using a Gaussian plume model, with the standard deviations σ y and σ z parameterised by the similarity theory. The input data for the final model are the urban geometry, the meteorological parameters, the background concentration of pollutants advected into the model domain by the wind and the emissions within each street in the network.

  2. Effect of geocoding errors on traffic-related air pollutant exposure and concentration estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is highest very near roads, and thus exposure estimates are sensitive to positional errors. This study evaluates positional and PM2.5 concentration errors that result from the use of automated geocoding methods and from linearized approx...

  3. Indices of atmospheric purity and fluoride pollution pattern in Arvida, Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, F.; Rao, D.N.; Comeau, G.

    1972-01-01

    Indices of atmospheric purity (IAP) of 42 sites located in all directions from the aluminum factory at Arvida and spread out in about 250-km/sup 2/ area, were determined on the basis of phytosociology of epiphytes of Populus balsamifera. These index values ranging from 0 to 103 were arranged into six groups and the investigated area was accordingly delineated into six IAP zones to represent areas with different levels of fluoride pollution. A relative picture of the approximate limits of fluoride contamination in different zones is obtained by the fluoride accumulation in Parmelia sulcata thalli transplanted at various sites in the area.

  4. Evaluation of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz amd Pav. f. capillaris as biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Wannaz, E.D.; Martinez, M.S.; Caminotti, G. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris, when exposed to atmospheric pollutants, was assessed by measuring chemical parameters indicating foliar damage and the contents of some heavy metals. Samples were transplanted to three sites in the City of Cordoba and were collected back after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. At the same time, samples coming from the collection site were analyzed for each of said exposure times. Chlorophylls, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, water contents, malondialdehyde, sulfur, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in the samples. A Foliar Damage Index was calculated from some of these parameters. (orig.)

  5. Condition of Retrieving Vertical Column Density of Atmospheric Pollution Gases by Using Scattered Solar Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Sao-Yi

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to monitor the vertical column density (VCD) of atmospheric pollution gases by using the scattered solar radiation. The necessary condition of capturing the useful scattered solar radiation is achieved. The condition is only dependent on the solar elevation angle, while independent of the solar azimuth angle, which could greatly simply the capturing equipment and procedure. Under the condition, the VCD of tropospheric NO2 in Chengdu, China is retrieved from the scattered solar radiation, which is dose to that from the direct solar radiation.

  6. Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain. Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB, one traffic (T and one heavy traffic (HT location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn showed the largest REs (>70%. Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd showed lower but still consistent REs (25–40%, similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30–40%. The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%, suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear.

    Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes.

  7. Sensitivity of Oxygen Isotopes of Sulfate in Ice Cores to Past Changes in Atmospheric Oxidant Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofen, E. D.; Alexander, B.; Kunasek, S. A.; Mickley, L.; Murray, L. T.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O) of sulfate from ice cores allows for a quantitative assessment of the past oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, which has implications for the lifetime of pollutants (e.g. CO) and greenhouse gases (e.g. CH4), and changes in the sulfur budget on various timescales. Using Δ17O of sulfate measurements from the WAIS-Divide, Antarctica and Site-A, Greenland ice cores as constraints, we use the GEOS-Chem global three-dimensional chemical transport model to study changes in the concentrations of OH, O3, and H2O2 and their impact on sulfate Δ17O between the preindustrial and present-day. The Greenland ice core sulfate oxygen isotope observations are insensitive to changes in oxidant concentrations on the preindustrial-industrial timescale due to the rising importance of metal catalyzed S(IV) oxidation in mid- to high-northern latitudes resulting from anthropogenic metal emissions. The small change in Antarctic ice core sulfate Δ17O observations on this timescale is consistent with simultaneous increases in boundary layer O3 (32%) and H2O2 (49%) concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere, which have opposing effects on the sulfate O-isotope anomaly. Sulfate Δ17O is insensitive to the relatively small (-12%) decrease in Southern Hemisphere OH concentrations on this timescale due to the dominance of in-cloud versus gas-phase formation of sulfate in the mid-to-high southern latitudes. We find that the fraction of sulfate formed globally through gas-phase oxidation has not changed substantially between preindustrial and present times, however the total amount of sulfate formed in the gas-phase has nearly quadrupled due to rising anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide. Measurements over a glacial-interglacial cycle from the Vostok core indicate dramatic changes in the Δ17O of sulfate on this timescale, which provide a strong constraint for glacial-era atmospheric chemistry modeling efforts. We will present preliminary results of

  8. Increasing surface ozone concentrations in the background atmosphere of southern China, 1994–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Chan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is of great importance with regard to air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. In this paper we report the first continuous record of surface ozone in the background atmosphere of South China. The data were obtained from 1994 to 2007 at a coastal site in Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the outflow of Asian continental air during the winter and the inflow of maritime air from the subtropics in the summer. Overall, the ozone concentration increased by an averaged rate of 0.55 ppbv/yr, with a larger increase in autumn (0.68 ppbv/yr. We also examine the trend in air masses from various source regions in Asia. Using local wind and concurrently measured carbon monoxide (CO data to filter out local emissions, the mean ozone in air masses from eastern China, using the pooled averaging method, increased by 0.64 ppbv/yr, while ozone levels in other air-mass groups showed a positive trend (0.29–0.67 ppbv/yr but with lower levels of statistical significance. An examination of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2 column concentration data obtained from GOME and SCIAMACHY reveals an increase in atmospheric NO2 in the three fastest developing coastal regions of China, whereas NO2 in other parts of Asia decreased during the same period. It is believed that the observed increase in background ozone in Hong Kong is primarily due to the increased emissions of NO2 (and possibly volatile organic compounds (VOCs as well in the upwind coastal regions of mainland China, which is supported by the observed positive CO trend (5.23 ppbv/yr at the site. The increase in background ozone contributed two thirds of the annual increase in ''total ozone'' in the downwind urban areas of Hong Kong, suggesting the need to consider distant sources when developing long-term strategies to mitigate local ozone pollution, although short-term strategies should be aimed at sources in Hong Kong and the adjacent Pearl River Delta.

  9. Sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butu, A.W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper looked at the sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria. The main sources of data for the study were sediment from four different sections of the long profile of the dam. The samples were prepared in the laboratory according to standard methods and the instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique was adopted in the analysis using Nigeria Research Reactor – 1 (NIRR – 1. The results of the analysis showed that 29 metal pollutants; Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Dy, Na, K, As, La, Sm, Yb, U, Br, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Zn,Cs, Ba, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta, Sb and Th currently exist in Kubanni dam in various levels of concentrations. The results showed that most of the metal pollutants in the dam are routed to anthropogenic activities within the dam catchment area while few are routed to geologic formation. The results further revealed that metal pollutants that their sources are traceable to refuse dumps, farmlands, public drains and effluents showed higher levels of concentration in the dam than the ones that are gradually released from the soil regolith system.

  10. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  11. Atmospheric black carbon and sulfate concentrations in Northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massling, A.; Nielsen, I. E.; Kristensen, D.; Christensen, J. H.; Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B.; Nguyen, Q. T.; Nøjgaard, J. K.; Glasius, M.; Skov, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of equivalent black carbon (EBC) in aerosols at the high Arctic field site Villum Research Station (VRS) at Station Nord in North Greenland showed a seasonal variation in EBC concentrations with a maximum in winter and spring at ground level. Average measured concentrations were about 0.067 ± 0.071 for the winter and 0.011 ± 0.009 for the summer period. These data were obtained using a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP). A similar seasonal pattern was found for sulfate concentrations with a maximum level during winter and spring analyzed by ion chromatography. Here, measured average concentrations were about 0.485 ± 0.397 for the winter and 0.112 ± 0.072 for the summer period. A correlation between EBC and sulfate concentrations was observed over the years 2011 to 2013 stating a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.72. This finding gives the hint that most likely transport of primary emitted BC particles to the Arctic was accompanied by aging of the aerosols through condensational processes. BC and sulfate are known to have only partly similar sources with respect to their transport pathways when reaching the high Arctic. Aging processes may have led to the formation of secondary inorganic matter and further transport of BC particles as cloud processing and further washout of particles is less likely based on the typically observed transport patterns of air masses arriving at VRS. Additionally, concentrations of EC (elemental carbon) based on a thermo-optical method were determined and compared to EBC measurements. EBC measurements were generally higher, but a correlation between EC and EBC resulted in a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.64. Model estimates of the climate forcing due to BC in the Arctic are based on contributions of long-range transported BC during spring and summer. The measured concentrations were here compared with model results obtained by the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model, DEHM. Good agreement between measured and

  12. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

    2010-06-01

    The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

  13. Influence of the characteristics of atmospheric boundary layer on the vertical distribution of air pollutant in China's Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Cao, Le

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer is a kind of weather phenomenon which decreases the visibility of the atmosphere and results in poor air quality. Recently, the occurrence of the heavy air pollution events has become more frequent all over Asia, especially in Mid-Eastern China. In December 2015, the most severe air pollution in recorded history of China occurred in the regions of Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. More than 10 days of severe air pollution (Air Quality Index, AQI>200) appeared in many large cities of China such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Baoding. Thus, the research and the management of the air pollution has attracted most attentions in China. In order to investigate the formation, development and dissipation of the air pollutions in China, a field campaign has been conducted between January 1, 2015 and January 28, 2015 in Yangtze River Delta of China, aiming at a intensive observation of the vertical structure of the air pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer during the time period with heavy pollution. In this study, the observation data obtained in the field campaign mentioned above is analyzed. The characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer and the vertical distribution of air pollutants in the city Dongshan located in the center of Lake Taihu are shown and discussed in great detail. It is indicated that the stability of the boundary layer is the strongest during the nighttime and the early morning of Dongshan. Meanwhile, the major air pollutants, PM2.5 and PM10 in the boundary layer, reach their maximum values, 177.1μg m-3 and 285μg m-3 respectively. The convective boundary layer height in the observations ranges from approximately 700m to 1100m. It is found that the major air pollutants tend to be confined in a relatively shallow boundary layer, which represents that the boundary layer height is the dominant factor for controlling the vertical distribution of the air pollutants. In

  14. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the ma

  15. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the m

  16. Mass identification of the neutral products generated in the plasma treatment of polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, David

    2013-09-01

    Plasmas produced using Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) devices are very effective in the abatement of air pollution resulting from, for example, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VCOs) by a range of industrial and agricultural processes. The development and monitoring of effective DBD systems can be investigated by advanced mass spectrometric methods specifically configured for analysis at high and atmospheric pressures The present work involves the operation of a small DBD reactor which uses either a helium or nitrogen carrier gas to sustain the plasma to which may be added reactive gases, such as oxygen, as well as samples of pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a specially configured system manufactured by Hiden Analytical Ltd. The DBD source may also be combined with a catalyst for plasma-enhanced catalysis. The neutral products of the reactions proceeding in the plasma at atmospheric pressure are sampled through the capillary sampling system which also reduces the pressure of the gas mixture delivered to the ionisation source of the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ions produced are subsequently mass identified. We describe typical data and comment on the advantages of this technique.

  17. Performance of sulfation and nitration plates used to monitor atmospheric pollutant deposition in a real environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, D.; Hechler, J.; Roberge, H.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfation and nitration plates were exposed outdoors for various periods of time to evaluate their performance in a real environment. These passive monitors are used to estimate the deposition of pollutants on metallic surfaces, and thus to evaluate the influence of the atmosphere on the corrosion. Single-column ion chromatography was used to determine the quantity of anions absorbed on the plates. This technique is better than other analytical procedures such as turbidimetry or colorimetry because passive monitors exposed in an atmosphere with a low degree of pollution can be analyzed without preconcentration. However, the pH of the sample to be injected on the chromatographic column must be adjusted to between 6.0 and 12.0 in order to obtain reproducible sulfate values. For sulfation plates, the additivity of the deposition process is excellent for a period of exposure up to 3 months, with a reproducibility of about 2%. For nitration plates, the deposition process is not cumulative due to a physical change of the monitor during exposure. The correlation between the amounts of sulfate found on sulfation snd nitration plates was also examined. 16 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. A Pleistocene ice core record of atmospheric O2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, D. A.; Bender, M. L.; Dreyfus, G. B.; Yan, Y.; Higgins, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    The history of atmospheric O2 partial pressures (PO2) is inextricably linked to the coevolution of life and Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Reconstructions of past PO2 rely on models and proxies but often markedly disagree. We present a record of PO2 reconstructed using O2/N2 ratios from ancient air trapped in ice. This record indicates that PO2 declined by 7 per mil (0.7%) over the past 800,000 years, requiring that O2 sinks were ~2% larger than sources. This decline is consistent with changes in burial and weathering fluxes of organic carbon and pyrite driven by either Neogene cooling or increasing Pleistocene erosion rates. The 800,000-year record of steady average carbon dioxide partial pressures (PCO2) but declining PO2 provides distinctive evidence that a silicate weathering feedback stabilizes PCO2 on million-year time scales.

  19. Relationship of atmospheric pollution characterized by gas (NO2) and particles (PM10) to microbial communities living in bryophytes at three differently polluted sites (rural, urban, and industrial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Caroline; Gilbert, Daniel; Gaudry, André; Franchi, Marielle; Nguyen, Hung Viet; Fabure, Juliette; Bernard, Nadine

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a major problem for modern societies owing to its fatal effects on both human health and ecosystems. We studied the relationships of nitrogen dioxide atmospheric pollution and metal trace elements contained in atmospheric particles which were accumulated in bryophytes to microbial communities of bryophytes at three differently polluted sites in France (rural, urban, and industrial) over an 8-month period. The analysis of bryophytes showed an accumulation of Cr and Fe at the rural site; Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, and Pb at the urban site; and Fe, Cr, Pb, Al, Sr, Cu, and Zn at the industrial site. During this study, the structure of the microbial communities which is characterized by biomasses of microbial groups evolved differently according to the site. Microalgae, bacteria, rotifers, and testate amoebae biomasses were significantly higher in the rural site. Cyanobacteria biomass was significantly higher at the industrial site. Fungal and ciliate biomasses were significantly higher at the urban and industrial sites for the winter period and higher at the rural site for the spring period. The redundancy analysis showed that the physico-chemical variables ([NO(2)], relative humidity, temperature, and site) and the trace elements which were accumulated in bryophytes ([Cu], [Sr], [Pb]) explained 69.3% of the variance in the microbial community data. Moreover, our results suggest that microbial communities are potential biomonitors of atmospheric pollution. Further research is needed to understand the causal relationship underlined by the observed patterns.

  20. Progress report for the project: Comparison of the response of mature branches and seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Benes, S.E.; Phelps, S.P.; Loeffler, A.T.

    1990-09-01

    This progress report details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) performance regarding the projects Comparison of the Response of Mature Branches and Seedlings of Pinus ponderosa to Atmospheric Pollution'' and Effects of Ozone, acid Precipitation, and Their Interactions on Mature Branches and Seedlings of Ponderosa Pine'' for the months of November 1989 to June 1990. During the last eight months, we have initiated ozone and acid precipitation exposures, and we began intensive growth, morphological, and physiological measurements. During these major physiological measurement periods, we measured photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, respiration, antioxidant activity, pigmentation, and foliar nutrient concentration. We have also concluded the analysis of our branch autonomy experiment, which we conducted in the fall. We determined that virtually no carbon is exported among branches in close proximity to one another. This conclusion assists in validating the approach of using branches and branch exposure chambers as a means of assessing the effects of air pollution on mature trees of Ponderosa pine. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effect of Wind Speed and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Dust Concentrations in Semi-Arid Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Félix, Omar; Corral-Avitia, Alba Y.; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate have deleterious impacts on human health. Predicting dust and aerosol emission and transport would be helpful to reduce harmful impacts but, despite numerous studies, prediction of dust events and contaminant transport in dust remains challenging. In this work, we show that relative humidity and wind speed are both determinants in atmospheric dust concentration. Observations of atmospheric dust concentrations in Green Valley, AZ, USA, and Juárez, Chihuahua, México, show that PM10 concentrations are not directly correlated with wind speed or relative humidity separately. However, selecting the data for high wind speeds (> 4 m/s at 10 m elevation), a definite trend is observed between dust concentration and relative humidity: dust concentration increases with relative humidity, reaching a maximum around 25% and it subsequently decreases with relative humidity. Models for dust storm forecasting may be improved by utilizing atmospheric humidity and wind speed as main drivers for dust generation and transport. PMID:24769193

  2. Effect of wind speed and relative humidity on atmospheric dust concentrations in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csavina, Janae; Field, Jason; Félix, Omar; Corral-Avitia, Alba Y; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2014-07-15

    Atmospheric particulate have deleterious impacts on human health. Predicting dust and aerosol emission and transport would be helpful to reduce harmful impacts but, despite numerous studies, prediction of dust events and contaminant transport in dust remains challenging. In this work, we show that relative humidity and wind speed are both determinants in atmospheric dust concentration. Observations of atmospheric dust concentrations in Green Valley, AZ, USA, and Juárez, Chihuahua, México, show that PM10 concentrations are not directly correlated with wind speed or relative humidity separately. However, selecting the data for high wind speeds (>4m/s at 10 m elevation), a definite trend is observed between dust concentration and relative humidity: dust concentration increases with relative humidity, reaching a maximum around 25% and it subsequently decreases with relative humidity. Models for dust storm forecasting may be improved by utilizing atmospheric humidity and wind speed as main drivers for dust generation and transport.

  3. A Monte Carlo Method for Summing Modeled and Background Pollutant Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammapala, Ranil; Bowman, Clint; Schulte, Jill

    2017-02-23

    Air quality analyses for permitting new pollution sources often involve modeling dispersion of pollutants using models like AERMOD. Representative background pollutant concentrations must be added to modeled concentrations to determine compliance with air quality standards. Summing 98(th) (or 99(th)) percentiles of two independent distributions that are unpaired in time, overestimates air quality impacts and could needlessly burden sources with restrictive permit conditions. This problem is exacerbated when emissions and background concentrations peak during different seasons. Existing methods addressing this matter either require much input data, disregard source and background seasonality, or disregard the variability of the background by utilizing a single concentration for each season, month, hour-of-day, day-of-week or wind direction. Availability of representative background concentrations are another limitation. Here we report on work to improve permitting analyses, with the development of (1) daily gridded, background concentrations interpolated from 12km-CMAQ forecasts and monitored data. A two- step interpolation reproduced measured background concentrations to within 6.2%; and (2) a Monte Carlo (MC) method to combine AERMOD output and background concentrations while respecting their seasonality. The MC method randomly combines, with replacement, data from the same months, and calculates 1000 estimates of the 98(th) or 99(th) percentiles. The design concentration of background + new source is the median of these 1000 estimates. We found that the AERMOD design value (DV) + background DV lay at the upper end of the distribution of these thousand 99(th) percentiles, while measured DVs were at the lower end. Our MC method sits between these two metrics and is sufficiently protective of public health in that it overestimates design concentrations somewhat. We also calculated probabilities of exceeding specified thresholds at each receptor, better informing

  4. Influence of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions on PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Lonardo, Sara; Tartaglia, Mario; Vagnoli, Carolina; Zaldei, Alessandro; Gioli, Beniamino

    2015-12-01

    The importance of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions as major drivers of urban PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes has been assessed in the city of Florence (Italy) during the winter season. The most significant meteorological variables (wind speed and atmospheric stability) explained 80.5-85.5% of PM10 concentrations variance, while a marginal role was played by major emission sources such as residential heating (12.1%) and road traffic (5.7%). The persistence of low wind speeds and unstable atmospheric conditions was the leading factor controlling PM10 during critical episodes. A specific PM10 critical episode was analysed, following a snowstorm that caused a "natural" scenario of 2-day dramatic road traffic abatement (-43%), and a massive (up to +48%) and persistent (8 consecutive days) increase in residential heating use. Even with such a strong variability in local PM10 emissions, the role of meteorological conditions was prominent, revealing that short-term traffic restrictions are insufficient countermeasures to reduce the health impacts and risks of PM10 critical episodes, while efforts should be made to anticipate those measures by linking them with air quality and weather forecasts.

  5. Equilibrium sampling of environmental pollutants in fish: Comparison with lipid- normalized concentrations and homogenization effects on chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Annika; Mayer, Philipp; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha;

    2011-01-01

    in the homogenates (statistically significant in 18 of 21 cases, ppartition coefficients determined using tissue......Equilibrium sampling of organic pollutants into the silicone polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has recently been applied in biological tissues including fish. Pollutant concentrations in PDMS can then be multiplied with lipid/PDMS distribution coefficients (DLipid,PDMS) to obtain concentrations in fish...

  6. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variational approach to direct and inverse problems of atmospheric pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Penenko, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We present the development of a variational approach for solving interrelated problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry concerning air pollution transport and transformations. The proposed approach allows us to carry out complex studies of different-scale physical and chemical processes using the methods of direct and inverse modeling [1-3]. We formulate the problems of risk/vulnerability and uncertainty assessment, sensitivity studies, variational data assimilation procedures [4], etc. A computational technology of constructing consistent mathematical models and methods of their numerical implementation is based on the variational principle in the weak constraint formulation specifically designed to account for uncertainties in models and observations. Algorithms for direct and inverse modeling are designed with the use of global and local adjoint problems. Implementing the idea of adjoint integrating factors provides unconditionally monotone and stable discrete-analytic approximations for convection-diffusion-reaction problems [5,6]. The general framework is applied to the direct and inverse problems for the models of transport and transformation of pollutants in Siberian and Arctic regions. The work has been partially supported by the RFBR grant 14-01-00125 and RAS Presidium Program I.33P. References: 1. V. Penenko, A.Baklanov, E. Tsvetova and A. Mahura . Direct and inverse problems in a variational concept of environmental modeling //Pure and Applied Geoph.(2012) v.169: 447-465. 2. V. V. Penenko, E. A. Tsvetova, and A. V. Penenko Development of variational approach for direct and inverse problems of atmospheric hydrodynamics and chemistry, Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2015, Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 311-319, DOI: 10.1134/S0001433815030093. 3. V.V. Penenko, E.A. Tsvetova, A.V. Penenko. Methods based on the joint use of models and observational data in the framework of variational approach to forecasting weather and atmospheric composition

  8. Modelling pollutants dispersion and plume rise from large hydrocarbon tank fires in neutrally stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, C. D.; Sideris, G. M.; Christolis, M. N.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Markatos, N. C.

    2010-02-01

    Petrochemical industries normally use storage tanks containing large amounts of flammable and hazardous substances. Therefore, the occurrence of a tank fire, such as the large industrial accident on 11th December 2005 at Buncefield Oil Storage Depots, is possible and usually leads to fire and explosions. Experience has shown that the continuous production of black smoke from these fires due to the toxic gases from the combustion process, presents a potential environmental and health problem that is difficult to assess. The goals of the present effort are to estimate the height of the smoke plume, the ground-level concentrations of the toxic pollutants (smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs, VOCs) and to characterize risk zones by comparing the ground-level concentrations with existing safety limits. For the application of the numerical procedure developed, an external floating-roof tank has been selected with dimensions of 85 m diameter and 20 m height. Results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that for all scenarios considered, the ground-level concentrations of smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs and VOCs do not exceed the safety limit of IDLH and there are no "death zones" due to the pollutant concentrations.

  9. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m(2)/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m(2)/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m(2), more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m(2) used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m(2)) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m(2)/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ((208)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear - even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection.

  10. Can the foliar nitrogen concentration of upland vegetation be used for predicting atmospheric nitrogen deposition? Evidence from field surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, W K; Leith, I D; Woodin, S J; Fowler, D

    2000-03-01

    The deposition of atmospheric nitrogen can be enhanced at high altitude sites as a consequence of cloud droplet deposition and orographic enhancement of wet deposition on hills. The degree to which the increased deposition of nitrogen influences foliar nitrogen concentration in a range of upland plant species was studied in a series of field surveys in northern Britain. A range of upland plant species sampled along altitudinal transects at sites of known atmospheric nitrogen deposition showed marked increases in foliar nitrogen concentration with increasing nitrogen deposition and altitude (and hence with decreasing temperature). For Nardus stricta L., Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin., Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, Erica cinerea L. and Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Br. Eur. on an unpolluted hill, foliar nitrogen increased by 0.07, 0.12, 0.15, 0.08 and 0.04% dry weight respectively for each 1 kg ha(-1) year(-1) increase in nitrogen deposition. Most species showed an approximately linear relationship between foliar nitrogen concentration and altitude but no trend with altitude for foliar phosphorus concentration. This provided evidence that the tissue nutrient status of upland plants reflects nutrient availability rather than the direct effects of climate on growth. However, differences in the relationship between foliar nitrogen concentration and atmospheric nitrogen deposition for N. stricta sampled on hills in contrasting pollution climates show that the possibility of temperature-mediated growth effects on foliar nitrogen concentration should not be ignored. Thus, there is potential to use upland plant species as biomonitors of nitrogen deposition, but the response of different species to nitrogen addition, in combination with climatic effects on growth, must be well characterised.

  11. Atmospheric concentrations, sources and gas-particle partitioning of PAHs in Beijing after the 29th Olympic Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Wanli [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Sun Dezhi [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen Weiguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang Meng [IJRC-PTS, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China); Qi Hong; Liu Liyan; Shen Jimin [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Li Yifan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com [International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario M3H5T4 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    A comprehensive sampling campaign was carried out to study atmospheric concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Beijing and to evaluate the effectiveness of source control strategies in reducing PAHs pollution after the 29th Olympic Games. The sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o})-based model and octanol-air partition coefficient (K{sub oa})-based model were applied based on each seasonal dateset. Regression analysis among log K{sub P}, logP{sub L}{sup o} and log K{sub oa} exhibited high significant correlations for four seasons. Source factors were identified by principle component analysis and contributions were further estimated by multiple linear regression. Pyrogenic sources and coke oven emission were identified as major sources for both the non-heating and heating seasons. As compared with literatures, the mean PAH concentrations before and after the 29th Olympic Games were reduced by more than 60%, indicating that the source control measures were effective for reducing PAHs pollution in Beijing. - Highlights: > This is the first comprehensive study of PAHs in atmosphere after the 29th Olympics in Beijing, China. > The air quality before and after 29th Olympics has attracted much attention worldwide. > The study was helpful for other countries to understand how the Olympics affected PAHs emissions. > The study would act as a case study to know the effects that big events can impose on the host cities. - The source control measures implemented before and during the 29th Olympic Games were effective for reducing the emissions of air pollutants in Beijing.

  12. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  13. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick, E-mail: mark.taylor@mq.edu.au

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m{sup 2}/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m{sup 2}/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m{sup 2}, more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m{sup 2} used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m{sup 2}) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m{sup 2}/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear — even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. - Graphical abstract: Post-play hand wipe, Headland Park, Townsville, Australia. - Highlights: • Bulk mineral port

  14. Free atmospheric phosphine concentrations and fluxes in different wetland ecosystems, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Chao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Geng Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Hong Yuning [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zhang Rui [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Gu Xueyuan; Wang Xiaorong; Gao Shixiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Glindemann, Dietmar [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Atmospheric phosphine (PH{sub 3}) fluxes from typical types of wetlands and PH{sub 3} concentrations in adjacent atmospheric air were measured. The seasonal distribution of PH{sub 3} in marsh and paddy fields were observed. Positive PH{sub 3} fluxes are significantly related to high air temperature (summer season) and increased vegetation. It is concluded that vegetation speeds up the liberation of PH{sub 3} from soils, while water coverage might function as a diffusion barrier from soils or sediments to the atmosphere. The concentrations of atmospheric PH{sub 3} (ng m{sup -3}) above different wetlands decrease in the order of paddy fields (51.8 {+-} 3.1) > marsh (46.5 {+-} 20.5) > lake (37.0 {+-} 22.7) > coastal wetland (1.71 {+-} 0.73). Highest atmospheric PH{sub 3} levels in marsh are found in summer. In paddy fields, atmospheric PH{sub 3} concentrations in flourishing stages are higher than those in slowly growing stages. - Research highlights: P could migrate as PH{sub 3} gas in different wetland ecosystems. Wetlands act as a source and sink of atmospheric PH{sub 3}. Positive PH{sub 3} fluxes are significantly related to high temperature and increased vegetation. Environmental PH{sub 3} concentrations in China are generally higher. - Environmental PH{sub 3} concentrations in China are generally higher compared to other parts of the world.

  15. Atmospheric Concentrations of Captan and Folpet in the Lower Fraser Valley Agricultural Region of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two N-trihalomethylthio fungicides were detected in the atmosphere in the Lower Fraser Valley agricultural region of Canada. Captan was detected in both the particle and gas phase with a dominant particle phase fraction observed in both 2005 and 2006 (only total captan atmospheric concentrations were available for 2004. This provides the first evidence of particle transport as a significant atmospheric transport pathway for captan in an agricultural region in Canada. Weekly captan air concentrations reached maximum levels of 13.2 ng m-3 in June 2006, while for folpet total atmospheric levels were lower with maximum reaching 1.7 ng m-3 in August 2004 and generally <1 ng m3 in 2005 and 2006. Folpet is detected in the atmosphere although not previously reported in usage inventories. In the three years examined (2004–2006 captan concentrations observed a seasonal maximum in atmospheric concentrations during spring to early summer coinciding with expected peak usage period on crops in the Lower Fraser Valley agricultural region located in British Columbia, Canada. No usage data is available in Canada beyond 2003 but these seasonal trends show that captan remains a dominant pesticide used in this agricultural region with no decline in atmospheric concentrations during 2004–2006.

  16. Evolution of atmospheric pollutants in the city of Sfax (Tunisia) (October 1996-June 1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, C. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Sfax (Tunisia)]. E-mail: chafai_azri@yahoo.fr; Maalej, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Departement de Physique, Sfax (Tunisia); Medhioub, K. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), Sfax (Tunisia); Rosset, R. [Laboratoire d' Aerologie UMR CNRS/UPS 5560, Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-15

    The descriptive study related to the evolution of O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NMHC and PM10 concentrations in downtown Sfax showed, during the period October 1996-June 1997, that the city is significantly influenced by many sources and meteorological factors. The diurnal average concentrations of these species let appear at times some peculiarities due to the population local customs and also to particular meteorological conditions associated with predominant strong cyclonic situations (cut-off lows). Based on NO and CH{sub 4}, two species selected respectively as local and synoptic tracers, this descriptive study which is refined by a principal component analysis showed, out from these particular meteorological conditions, three components of the atmospheric pollution: a first component formed by CH{sub 4} and in less degree NMHC showing the impact of synoptic sources, a second component containing NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and in less degree PM10 and NMHC displaying the impact of local sources (vehicle and industrial sources), and finally a third component constituted by O{sub 3} and in less degree PM10 presenting the impact of regional sources. Under the above quoted cyclonic situations, the distribution of such components was shown considerably modified. [Spanish] El estudio descriptivo con relacion a la evolucion de las concentraciones de los compuestos O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NMHC y de los PM10 en la ciudad de Sfax senalo, durante el periodo de octubre 1996 hasta junio 1997, que la ciudad esta fuertemente influenciada por varias fuentes y factores meteorologicos. Las concentraciones diurnas medias de dichas especies mostraron algunas particularidades debidas a las costumbres locales de los habitantes y tambien a las particulares condiciones meteorologicas asociadas a las fuertes situaciones ciclonicas (bajas segregadas). Con base en NO y CH{sub 4}, dos especies seleccionadas como trazadores local y

  17. Study of the atmospheric 85Kr concentration growth in Gent between 1979 and 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauwels, P.; Buysse, J.; Poffijn, A.; Eggermont, G.

    2001-06-01

    Since 1979, the atmospheric 85Kr concentration has been monitored at our laboratory. The extensive data set, obtained in this way, has been statistically analysed to examine the degree of atmospheric 85Kr concentration growth over the past decades. The results were compared with those values found in the literature and with calculations of the 85Kr emission from the reprocessing plant of Cap La Hague.

  18. A Review of Atmospheric Chemistry Research in China: Photochemical Smog, Haze Pollution, and Gas-Aerosol Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jianzhong; XU Xiaobin; ZHAO Chunsheng; YAN Peng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of atmospheric chemistry research in China over the period 2006-2010,focusing on tropospheric ozone,aerosol chemistry,and the interactions between trace gases and aerosols in the polluted areas of China.Over the past decade,China has suffered severe photochemical smog and haze pollution,especially in North China,the Yangtze River Delta,and the Pearl River Delta.Much scientific work on atmospheric chemistry and physics has been done to address this large-scale,complex environmental problem.Intensive field experiments,satellite data analyses,and model simulations have shown that air pollution is significantly changing the chemical and physical characters of the natural atmosphere over these parts of China.In addition to strong emissions of primary pollutants,photochemical and heterogeneous reactions play key roles in the formation of complex pollution.More in-depth research is recommended to reveal the formation mechanism of photochemical smog and haze pollution and their climatic effects at the urban,regional,and global scales.

  19. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This report describes the development of a monitor which can measure concentrations of hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. The system consists of a carbon dioxide laser combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter.

  20. Investigating Incursion of Transboundary Pollution into the Atmosphere of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of particulate matter (PM in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during November 2013 to April 2014 were found 7-8 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value. Probability of contribution of transboundary sources to this PM pollution was investigated through different approaches. Ninety-six-hour backward trajectories with every 3-hour interval were computed and clustered into 06 groups based on angle distance matrix. Probabilities of individual cluster to be associated with different ranges of coarse and fine particles were studied. Gazipur station near Dhaka city was found to have 68% probability of receiving PM10 concentration higher than 150 μg/m3 when air masses followed the route of Middle East through the Himalayan valley to the station. This channel was identified as the main route of PM transport to Bangladesh during dry season. Transboundary source-regions were spotted by concentration weighted trajectory (CWT method and also by the monthly average aerosol optical depths (AOD over South Asia. North-western Indian regions, Nepal and its neighboring areas, and Indian state of West Bengal were identified as the most probable zones that might have contributed to PM pollution in Gazipur, Dhaka. November to January was the high time the station had experienced fine particles from those transboundary regions.

  1. Effective degradation of organic water pollutants by atmospheric non-thermal plasma torch and analysis of degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansode, Avinash S; More, Supriya E; Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Satpute, Shruti; Ahmad, Absar; Bhoraskar, Sudha V; Mathe, Vikas L

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports the use of atmospheric non-thermal plasma torch as a catalyst for degradation of various organic pollutants dissolved in water. A flow of He mixed with air was used to produce the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), at the tip of the torch, using pulsed electric excitation at 12 kV. The torch, operated at a power of 750 mW/mm(2), was seen to completely degrade the aqueous solutions of the pollutants namely methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine-B (RB), at around 10(-4) M concentrations, the concentration of polluants is one order higher than of routinely used heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, within 10 min of irradiation time at room temperature. UV Visible spectra of the organic dye molecules, monitored after different intervals of plasma-irradiation, ranging between 1 and 10 min, have been used as tools to quantify their sequential degradation. Further, instead of using He, only air was used to form plasma plume and used for degradation of organic dye which follow similar trend as that of He plasma. Further, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS) technique has been used to understand degradation pathway of methylene blue (MB) as a representative case. Total organic carbon (TOC) measurements indicates significant decrease in its content as a function of duration of plasma exposure onto methylene blue as a representative case. Toxicity studies were carried out onto Gram negative Escherichia coli. This indicated that methylene blue, without plasma treatment, shows growth inhibition, whereas with plasma treatment no inhibition was observed.

  2. The heavily polluted atmosphere of the DAZ white dwarf GALEX J193156.8+011745

    CERN Document Server

    Vennes, S; Nemeth, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a new heavily polluted white dwarf. The DAZ white dwarf GALEX J193156.8+011745 was identified in a joint GALEX/GSC survey of ultraviolet-excess objects. Optical spectra obtained at ESO NTT show strong absorption lines of magnesium and silicon and a detailed abundance analysis based on VLT-Kueyen UVES spectra reveal super-solar abundances of silicon and magnesium, and near-solar abundances of oxygen, calcium, and iron. The overall abundance pattern bears the signature of ongoing accretion onto the white dwarf atmosphere. The infrared spectral energy distribution shows an excess in the H and K bands likely associated with the accretion source.

  3. A study of atmospheric diffusion from the LANDSAT imagery. [pollution transport over the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Viswanadham, Y.; Torsani, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT multispectral scanner data of the smoke plumes which originated in eastern Cabo Frio, Brazil and crossed over into the Atlantic Ocean, are analyzed to illustrate how high resolution LANDSAT imagery can aid meteorologists in evaluating specific air pollution events. The eleven LANDSAT images selected are for different months and years. The results show that diffusion is governed primarily by water and air temperature differences. With colder water, low level air is very stable and the vertical diffusion is minimal; but water warmer than the air induces vigorous diffusion. The applicability of three empirical methods for determining the horizontal eddy diffusivity coefficient in the Gaussian plume formula was evaluated with the estimated standard deviation of the crosswind distribution of material in the plume from the LANDSAT imagery. The vertical diffusion coefficient in stable conditions is estimated using Weinstock's formulation. These results form a data base for use in the development and validation of meso scale atmospheric diffusion models.

  4. Application of a Lagrangian modeling to the atmospheric pollution; Aplicacion de una modelizacion Lagrangiana a la contaminacion atmosferica transfronteriza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rua, A.; Hernandez, E. [Departamento de Fisica del Aire, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Gimeno, L. [Centro de Formacion del Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INM), Madrid (Spain)

    1998-04-01

    In this article, a physical modeling of the atmospheric pollution was considered. The objective was to determine the concentrations of pollutants in a receptor station reproducing the way followed by the air mass and simulating the physical and chemical processes involved during this way. To do that we used a Lagrangian model. To estimate the quality of the model a comparison between the theoretical concentration from the model and the observed concentrations is done. The model uses the air mass trajectories arriving at the receptor station calculated from the Limited Area Model (LAM). These trajectories let us know the air mass position each 6 hours. Once the initial model had been run, several parameters were modified with the aim of reproducing letter the conditions of The Iberian Peninsula. The considered pollutants were the SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2}- and the chosen station was Logrono (Spain). [Spanish] En este articulo se planteo una modelizacion de la contaminacion atmosferica transfronteriza desde un punto de vista fisico. Asi, reproduciendo el camino seguido por las masas de aire que transportan los contaminantes y simulando lo mejor posible los procesos fisico-quimicos existentes durante ese camino, pretendimos determinar cual fue la concentracion final registrada de tales contaminantes en una estacion receptora. Un modelo fisico de tipo Lagrangiano se uso en este trabajo. Para estimar la bondad de tal modelizacion se realizo una comparacion entre la concentracion final estimada mediante la modelizacion y la observada. Se partio de las trayectorias de las masas de aire que llegan hasta esa estacion receptora, calculadas a partir del Modelo de Area Limitada (LAM), y que permite conocer la posicion de la masa de aire cada 6 horas. Fueron modificados algunos parametros del modelo fisico inicialmente propuestos, adecuandolos mas a la realidad fisica de la Peninsula Iberica, lograndose una mejora en los resultados obtenidos en un primer momento. Los

  5. Odour Pollution Measurement from Refuse Derive Fuel Operations Using Odour Concentration Meter (OCM XP-329

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Sakawi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Odour perception is subjective and difficult to be accurately measured between individuals. Hence many studies on odour issues are more commonly pertain to its intensity, concentration, types, standards, measurement methods, law and impacts on physical and human environments. Nevertheless, odour analysis can be conducted empirically or based on human sensorial. Among major sources of odour pollution are animal rearing, oil palm and rubber mills, dumpsites, industries and sewage treatments. This study attempted to measure odour pollution generated by Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF operation. The analysis was conducted at different times of day (morning, evening and night and weather conditions (normal days and after rains. 10 sampling stations were selected for observations using the Odour Concentration Meter Siri XP-329 III.The results indicated that there existed different level of odour concentrations on normal days and after rains due to the influence of meteorological environment. Distance factors also influenced the odour concentrations, whereby gradually, the stations further from RDF operation recorded higher odour concentrations

  6. The automated system of detection and research of pollution in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Anna I.; Smal, Oksana V.; Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Penin, Sergei T.

    2004-02-01

    In the paper, the automated system of data processing (ASDP) for a hardware complex DAN-2, assigned for registration of emission and absorption of optical and the microwave radiation initiated by gas-aerosol pollution in the atmosphere, is presented. The complex DAN-2 has been developed in the Institute of Atsmospheric Optics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science. In the ASDP, a problem of automation of recording processes, storage and processing of the information measured in experiment has been solved. Using in ASDP subsystems of the forecast of optical noise, the forecast of distribution of an impurity in a plume of gas-aerosol emission from industrial plants allows us to carry out the express-analysis of ecological pollution in the inspection zone. Application of a modular principle has created an opportunity to realize all subsystems ASPD independently from each other, thus, they can operate as independently, and in the general complex of programs. As a tool for creation of the system software, the object-oriented instrument of programming Delphi 5.0 has been chosen. It has a number of advantages and distinctive features such as the convenient graphic interface with displaying of calculation results as uniform scrolling tables and graphics, access to the data files, high speed of mathematical calculations, an opportunity of the further expansion and change of the calculation algorithms. Use of the ASPD has allowed us to improve quality of data recording, their processing, and visualization of the processed results. For the first time in the automated system, the complex estimation of ecological situation with use of experimental data in real time has been realized. The ASPD can be used also by other experimental equipment intended for the solution of problems of the atmospheric optics.

  7. A model employing integral transform method to simulate pollutant dispersion in atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Martins Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An updated version of the semi-analytical model for describing the steady-state concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer is presented here. Two inversion methods of the Laplace transform are tested: the Gaussian Quadrature scheme and the Fixed-Talbot method. The model takes into account settling velocity, removal (wet and dry deposition, and first order chemical reactions. The capability of the model to accurately predict the ground-level concentration is demonstrated qualitative and quantitatively. The results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  8. CO2 background concentra-tion in the atmosphere over the Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the long-term monitoring data on CO2 concentration, variation trend and characteristics of CO2 background concentration in the atmosphere over the Chinese mainland are analyzed. Results show that the increasing trend of CO2 background concentration in the atmosphere over the Chinese mainland has appeared during the period of 1991-2000. The average annual CO2 growth increment is 1.59 μL/L, and the average annual CO2 growth rate is 0.44%. Distinct seasonal variations of CO2 background concentration are observed, and the averaged amplitude of CO2 seasonal variations is 10.35 μL/L. Regional variation characteristics of CO2 background concentration in the atmosphere and possible impact of human activities on these variations over the Chinese mainland are discussed as well.

  9. Lead chromate detected as a source of atmospheric Pb and Cr (VI) pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyeong-Koo; Yu, Soonyoung; Chang, Hye Jung; Cho, Hye Young; Kang, Min-Ju; Chae, Byung-Gon

    2016-10-01

    Spherical black carbon aggregates were frequently observed in dust dry deposition in Daejeon, Korea. They were tens of micrometers in diameter and presented a mixture of black carbon and several mineral phases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) analyses confirmed that the aggregates were compact and included significant amounts of lead chromate (PbCrO4). The compositions and morphologies of the nanosized lead chromate particles suggest that they probably originated from traffic paint used in roads and were combined as discrete minerals with black carbon. Based on Pb isotope analysis and air-mass backward trajectories, the dust in Daejeon received a considerable input of anthropogenic pollutants from heavily industrialized Chinese cities, which implies that long-range transported aerosols containing PbCrO4 were a possible source of the lead and hexavalent chromium levels in East Asia. Lead chromate should be considered to be a source of global atmospheric Pb and Cr(VI) pollution, especially given its toxicity.

  10. Extreme abundance ratios in the polluted atmosphere of the cool white dwarf NLTT19868

    CERN Document Server

    Kawka, Adela

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of intermediate-dispersion spectra and photometric data of the newly identified cool, polluted white dwarf NLTT19868. The spectra obtained with X-shooter on the Very Large Telescope (VLT)-Melipal show strong lines of calcium, and several lines of magnesium, aluminium and iron. We use these spectra and the optical-to-near infrared spectral energy distribution to constrain the atmospheric parameters of NLTT19868. Our analysis shows that NLTT19868 is iron poor with respect to aluminium and calcium. A comparison with other cool, polluted white dwarfs shows that the Fe to Ca abundance ratio (Fe/Ca) varies by up to approximately two orders of magnitudes over a narrow temperature range with NLTT19868 at one extremum in the Fe/Ca ratio and, in contrast, NLTT888 at the other extremum. The sample shows evidence of extreme diversity in the composition of the accreted material: In the case of NLTT888, the inferred composition of the accreted matter is akin to iron-rich planetary core composition, w...

  11. Dynamics of global atmospheric CO2 concentration from 1850 to 2010: a linear approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Nemani, R.

    2014-09-01

    The increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions largely followed an exponential path between 1850 and 2010, and the corresponding increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration were almost constantly proportional to the emissions by the so-called "airborne fraction". These observations suggest that the dynamics of atmospheric CO2 concentration through this time period may be properly approximated as a linear system. We demonstrate this hypothesis by deriving a linear box-model to describe carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and the surface reservoirs under the influence of disturbances such as anthropogenic CO2 emissions and global temperature changes. We show that the box model accurately simulates the observed atmospheric CO2 concentrations and growth rates across interannual to multi-decadal time scales. The model also allows us to analytically examine the dynamics of such changes/variations, linking its characteristic disturbance-response functions to bio-geophysically meaningful parameters. In particular, our results suggest that the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations have significantly promoted the gross carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere. However, such "fertilization" effects are partially offset by enhanced carbon release from surface reservoirs promoted by warmer temperatures. The result of these interactions appears to be a decline in net efficiency in sequestering atmospheric CO2 by ∼30% since 1960s. We believe that the linear modeling framework outlined in this paper provides a convenient tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future changes.

  12. Dynamics of the health status of children in an area with atmospheric pollution, as compared with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, A.; Coasan, A.; Vicas, T.; Balasoiu, I.; Horvath, V.; Sabau, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on children was studied in two areas of Romania. Development, psychometric aspects, and morphological aspects were studied. Vital capacity, maximum expiratory volume, and muscular strength were examined. Adaptability and learning performance were studied in children from 7 to 14 years old. In polluted areas containing high concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, lead, and carbon black, the health of the children was impaired. Respiratory diseases were frequent, and pleurobronchopulmonary diseases, anemia, and rachitis also occurred. Scholarly performance was poorer in polluted areas than in control areas. Children in polluted areas were also shorted than in control areas.

  13. Monitoring atmospheric nitrous oxide background concentrations at Zhongshan Station, east Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenjuan; Bian, Lingen; Wang, Can; Zhu, Renbin; Zheng, Xiangdong; Ding, Minghu

    2016-09-01

    At present, continuous observation data for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations are still lacking, especially in east Antarctica. In this paper, nitrous oxide background concentrations were measured at Zhongshan Station (69°22'25″S, 76°22'14″E), east Antarctica during the period of 2008-2012, and their interannual and seasonal characteristics were analyzed and discussed. The mean N2O concentration was 321.9nL/L with the range of 320.5-324.8nL/L during the five years, and it has been increasing at a rate of 0.29% year(-1). Atmospheric N2O concentrations showed a strong seasonal fluctuation during these five years. The concentrations appeared to follow a downtrend from spring to autumn, and then increased in winter. Generally the highest concentrations occurred in spring. This trend was very similar to that observed at other global observation sites. The overall N2O concentration at the selected global sites showed an increasing annual trend, and the mean N2O concentration in the Northern Hemisphere was slightly higher than that in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result could be representative of atmospheric N2O background levels at the global scale. This study provided valuable data for atmospheric N2O concentrations in east Antarctica, which is important to study on the relationships between N2O emissions and climate change.

  14. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  15. Effect of the Diurnal Variation of the Convective Boundary Layer Height over Metro Manila on Pollutant Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genelita Tubal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollutants are dispersed throughout a very thin layer of the atmosphere called the boundary layer (BL, and concentrations would be influenced by the thickness of the BL. A monostatic, biaxial, vertically-pointing Mie Scattering 532 nm Nd: YAG lidar was used to observe the development of the daytime BL over Metro Manila in May 1999. The data profiles were background-subtracted, energy-normalized, and range-corrected; 20,000 profiles (30-32 minute period files were arranged in arrays in time sequential order. A MatLab program with color enhancement capability was developed to display the range-time indicator (RTI image to visualize the BL.The convective BL height developed with a general pattern; it increased gradually in the early morning, rapidly from mid-morning until noontime, then slowly reaching its maximum height in the early afternoon. (The Maximum height reached by the BL from 1-4 May 1999 was 1635 m. BL height is maintained or lowered very slowly from mid-afternoon until sunset.The BL grew higher when the surface temperature and solar radiation received was greater. Fair-weather active clouds inhibited the growth of the BL. When the relative humidity was higher, the base of the fair-weather cloud field was lower; therefore, the mean BL height was also lower. Prolonged sea breeze modified the convective BL by creating a much lower BL that when there was no sea breeze.Around 75% of the total suspended particulates (TSP in Metro Manila comes from traffic emissions. Traffic volume over most part of Metro Manila including the main thoroughfares near the lidar site, peaks at around 09:00 Local Standard Time (LST and between17:00 – 18:00 LST, although traffic volume is lower than at 09:00 LST. The traffic volume reduces to 80% from its morning peak at around noontime. The morning peak of the pollution concentration occurred earlier that that of the traffic. This could be due to the fact that the BL before 09:00 LST was much lower than

  16. Air ion and pollution index variation for indoor and outdoor atmosphere at rural station Ramanandnagar (17° 4′N, 74° 25′) India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Pawar

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the observation of indoor air ion concentration at a rural site has been carried out for the first time. These indoor observations are compared with outdoor air ion concentration. Net charge can be introduced into the atmosphere by processes such as combustion, rainfall and ultraviolet radiation. As compared to indoors, average air ions of both the polarities at outdoors are higher. Moreover, the air ion concentrations, experience large fluctuations during daytime, as compared to nighttime values. Positive and negative air ion concentrations are lower and uniform throughout the night both for indoor and outdoor conditions. Pollution index is more or less unity for outdoors in all-the-time period, which is good for human health. Due to limited sources of air ions indoors, it is observed that pollution index decreases from 00:00–02:00 hours and minimum is reached during 12:00–14:00 hours for indoors. During 00:00–02:00 hours, the indoor pollution index is 1.55, which is very harmful to human health.

  17. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  18. Composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds polluting the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriyev, M.T.; Rastyannikov, Y.G.; Sotnikov, Y.Y.; Volkov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising method of removal of biologically active compounds such as microorganisms, antibiotics, food and other household waste from industrial waste gases is to destroy them by thermal destruction including burning. In this case, products of thermodestruction enter into the atmosphere along with carbon dioxide and steam and can unfavorably affect the population. Thus, mass spectrometric analyses have determined in the waste gases of antibiotics production aldehydes and ketones (croton- and adipalaldehydes, acetone), alcohols (propanol and butanol), amines, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. The composition of thermodestruction products of biologically active compounds was identified by their pyrolysis at 700/sup 0/C for 2 min. in the presence of air. The main components were proteins and amino acids. The products of pyrolysis were analyzed by chromato-mass-spectrometric and gas-chromatographic methods by means of a two-flame thermionic detector. No significant difference between the thermodestruction products of proteins and amino acids was found. Many of detected substances can be not only toxic but also emit strong unpleasant odors. The studies revealed toxic substances that pollute the atmospheric air during removal of biologically-active compounds from waste gases.

  19. Atmospheric electric field measurements in urban environment and the pollutant aerosol weekly dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H. G.; Conceição, R.; Melgão, M.; Nicoll, K.; Mendes, P. B.; Tlemçani, M.; Reis, A. H.; Harrison, R. G.

    2014-11-01

    The weekly dependence of pollutant aerosols in the urban environment of Lisbon (Portugal) is inferred from the records of atmospheric electric field at Portela meteorological station (38°47‧N, 9°08‧W). Measurements were made with a Bendorf electrograph. The data set exists from 1955 to 1990, but due to the contaminating effect of the radioactive fallout during 1960 and 1970s, only the period between 1980 and 1990 is considered here. Using a relative difference method a weekly dependence of the atmospheric electric field is found in these records, which shows an increasing trend between 1980 and 1990. This is consistent with a growth of population in the Lisbon metropolitan area and consequently urban activity, mainly traffic. Complementarily, using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique the presence of a daily and weekly cycle is also found. Moreover, to follow the evolution of theses cycles, in the period considered, a simple representation in a colour surface plot representation of the annual periodograms is presented. Further, a noise analysis of the periodograms is made, which validates the results found. Two datasets were considered: all days in the period, and fair-weather days only.

  20. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. What Causes Haze Pollution? An Empirical Study of PM2.5 Concentrations in Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many areas of China have suffered from serious haze pollution, which greatly affects human health and daily life. It is of policy importance to understand the factors that influence the spatial concentration of PM2.5. Based on data from 74 cities with PM2.5 monitoring stations in 2013 and 2014, this study presents the overall haze situation in China and explores the determinants of PM2.5 using a random-effects model, as well as a set of OLS regressions. The results indicate that PM2.5 is significantly correlated with the industrial proportion, the number of motor vehicles, and household gas consumption, while public financial expenditure on energy saving and environmental protection does not show statistically significant effects. The analysis implies that China should adjust its economic structure and optimizes environmental governance to effectively respond to haze pollution.

  2. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric PM2.5 loads during air pollution episodes in Giza, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salwa K.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.

    2017-02-01

    Several types of pollution episodes, including dust storm (DSs), haze dust (HDs), straw rice combustions (SRCs) are common phenomena and represent severe environmental hazard in Egypt. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the chemical characteristics of aerosol during air pollution episodes at an urban area in Giza, Egypt. PM2.5 samples during various PM episodes during 2013-2014 were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that the highest PM2.5 mass concentrations were found during DSs (250 μg/m3), followed by HDs (130 μg/m3) and SRCs (103 μg/m3). Average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 1.91, 3.68 and 1.68 times higher than on normal days (NDs) during HDs, DSs and SRCs, respectively. The highest total water-soluble ions concentration was 61.1 μg/m3 during HDs, followed by SRCs (41.9 μg/m3) and DSs (35.2 μg/m3). SO42- is the most abundant chemical components on the three PM episodes. Secondary inorganic ions (NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+) were enriched during HDs. The total secondary inorganic ions concentrations were 3.17, 1.39 and 1.75 times higher than NDs during HDs days, DSs days and SRCs days, respectively. PM from SRCs showed high K+ and Cl-. SO42-/K+, NO3-/SO42- and Cl-/K+ ratios proved effective as indicators for different pollution episodes. A Ca2+/Al ratio indicates that soil dust was dominant during DSs. Ion balance calculations indicated that PM2.5 from HDs was acidic, while the DSs and SRCs particles were alkaline and the NDs particle's was nearly neutral. The total crustal and anthropogenic metals concentrations were higher in DSs than other PM episodes and normal days. The enrichment factors values in PM episodes and normal days indicate that Fe and Mn in NDs, HDs, DSs and SRCs as well as Cr and Ni in DSs come mainly from crustal sources, whereas Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in PM episodes and NDs are anthropogenic.

  3. [Atmospheric pollution and chronic respiratory diseases in the blast-furnace areas of iron-works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, D; Valente, T; Rotunno, R; Giusto, R

    1977-01-01

    An epidemiologic research together with a study on the environmental pollution were carried out in order to evaluate the risk of chronic respiratory diseases of blast furnace workers. The environment study was performed mainly using personal samplers given to workers with different jobs. Observations on 222 work shifts have shown that the total dust concentration to which cast workmen, maintenance men and blast furnace service men were exposed, marginally exceed the TLV values. Furthermore the level of respirable dusts for blast furnace service men was found slightly excessive. The average SO2 concentration was largely below the TLV values. However this gas could be found in excess for very short periods during the work. The epidemiologic study, conducted on a cohort of blast furnace area workers against a control group cohort, indicated a moderate prevalence of pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis amongst blast furnaces workers. The clinic and radiological pictures do not seem to go beyond the initial stages.

  4. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of pollen as an indicator for atmospheric pollution*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepponi, G.; Lazzeri, P.; Coghe, N.; Bersani, M.; Gottardini, E.; Cristofolini, F.; Clauser, G.; Torboli, A.

    2004-08-01

    The viability of pollen is affected by environmental pollution and its use as a bio-indicator is proposed. Such effects can be observed and quantified by biological tests. However, a more accurate identification of the agents affecting the viability is required in order to validate the biological assay for environmental monitoring. The chemical analysis of pollen is meant to ascertain the existence of a correlation between its reduced biological functions and the presence of pollutants. Moreover, such biological systems act as accumulators and allow the detection and quantification of species present in the environment at low concentrations. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) has been chosen for the investigation due to its high sensitivity, multielement capability and wide dynamic range. Corylus avellana L. (hazel) pollen has been collected in areas with different anthropic impact in the province of Trento, Italy. For the TXRF measurements, a liquid sample is needed, especially if a quantitative analysis is required. In the present work, the analysis after a microwave digestion has been compared with the analysis of a suspension of the pollen samples. In both cases, an internal standard has been used for the quantification. The concentrations of 17 elements ranging from Al to Pb have been determined in 13 samples. Analysis of the suspensions showed to be comparable to that of digested samples in terms of spectral quality, but the latter preparation method gave better reproducibility. Sub-ppm lowest limits of detection were obtained for iron and heavier elements detected.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 33 - Certification Standard Atmospheric Concentrations of Rain and Hail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Concentrations of Rain and Hail B Appendix B to Part 33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Part 33—Certification Standard Atmospheric Concentrations of Rain and Hail Figure B1, Table B1, Table... hail for establishing certification, in accordance with the requirements of § 33.78(a)(2)....

  6. Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, Part I: Ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifang; Pudota, Jayanth; Collins, Donald; Allen, David; Clements, Andrea; DenBleyker, Allison; Fraser, Matt; Jia, Yuling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Michel, Edward

    Vehicular emitted air pollutant concentrations were studied near three types of roadways in Austin, Texas: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway dominated by truck traffic. Air pollutants examined include carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO x), and carbonyl species in the gas-phase. In the particle phase, ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations (diameter duty traffic, wind speed, and proximity to the road were found to be the most important factors determining UFP concentrations near the roadways. Since wind directions were not consistent during the sampling periods, distances along wind trajectories from the roadway to the sampling points were used to study the decay characteristics of UFPs. Under perpendicular wind conditions, for all studied roadway types, particle number concentrations increased dramatically moving from the upwind side to the downwind side. The elevated particle number concentrations decay exponentially with increasing distances from the roadway with sharp concentration gradients observed within 100-150 m, similar to previously reported studies. A single exponential decay curve was found to fit the data collected from all three roadways very well under perpendicular wind conditions. No consistent pattern was observed for UFPs under parallel wind conditions. However, regardless of wind conditions, particle concentrations returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Within measured UFP size ranges, smaller particles (6-25 nm) decayed faster than larger ones (100-300 nm). Similar decay rates were observed among UFP number, surface, and volume.

  7. A novel method for measuring the concentration of chloroform based on kinetic parameters at atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguo; Han, Haiyan; Chang, Tao; Liu, Xiuhong; Zhu, Qiaofen; Liu, Feng; Yan, Yongliang; Shen, Chengyin; Chu, Yannan

    2016-06-01

    A novel method is proposed to detect chloroform concentrations based on the kinetic parameters using ion mobility spectrometer with a negative corona discharge ion source operating at atmospheric pressure. Unlike conventional sample introduction mode, in this technique, CHCl3 enters into the drift tube from the end of drift region carried by the drift gas. There are two tails before Cl- and (CHCl3)·Cl- ion peaks, which fit to the ions formed in the drift region. Utilizing the kinetic parameters, concentration for CHCl3 can be calculated. This method not only offers a new way to get concentrations of CHCl3 under atmospheric pressure.

  8. Modelling impact of climate change on atmospheric transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Hansen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM was applied to investigate how projected climate changes will affect the atmospheric transport of 13 persistent organic pollutants (POPs to the Artic and their environmental fate within the Arctic. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with initial environmental concentrations from a 20 year spin-up simulation and one with initial environmental concentrations set to zero. Each set of simulations consisted of two ten-year time slices representing the present (1990–2000 and future (2090–2100 climate conditions. The same POP emissions were applied in all simulations to ensure that the difference in predicted concentrations for each set of simulations only arises from the difference in climate input. DEHM was driven using meteorological input from the global circulation model, ECHAM/MPI-OM, simulating the SRES A1B climate scenario. Under the applied climate and emission scenarios, the total mass of all compounds was predicted to be up to 20% higher across the Northern Hemisphere. The mass of HCHs within the Arctic was predicted to be up to 39% higher, whereas the change in mass of the PCBs was predicted to range from 14% lower to 17% higher depending on the congener and the applied initial environmental concentrations. The results of this study also indicate that contaminants with no or a short emission history will be more rapidly transported to and build up in the arctic environment in a future warmer climate. The process that dominates the environmental behaviour of POPs in the Arctic under a future warmer climate scenario is the shift in mass of POPs from the surface media to the atmosphere induced by the higher mean temperature. This is to some degree counteracted by higher degradation rates also following the higher mean temperature. The more dominant of these two processes depend on the physical-chemical properties of the compounds. Previous model studies have predicted that the effect of

  9. Modelling impact of climate change on atmospheric transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Geels, C.; Silver, J. D.; Brandt, J.

    2015-03-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) was applied to investigate how projected climate changes will affect the atmospheric transport of 13 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the Artic and their environmental fate within the Arctic. Two sets of simulations were performed, one with initial environmental concentrations from a 20 year spin-up simulation and one with initial environmental concentrations set to zero. Each set of simulations consisted of two ten-year time slices representing the present (1990-2000) and future (2090-2100) climate conditions. The same POP emissions were applied in all simulations to ensure that the difference in predicted concentrations for each set of simulations only arises from the difference in climate input. DEHM was driven using meteorological input from the global circulation model, ECHAM/MPI-OM, simulating the SRES A1B climate scenario. Under the applied climate and emission scenarios, the total mass of all compounds was predicted to be up to 20% higher across the Northern Hemisphere. The mass of HCHs within the Arctic was predicted to be up to 39% higher, whereas the change in mass of the PCBs was predicted to range from 14% lower to 17% higher depending on the congener and the applied initial environmental concentrations. The results of this study also indicate that contaminants with no or a short emission history will be more rapidly transported to and build up in the arctic environment in a future warmer climate. The process that dominates the environmental behaviour of POPs in the Arctic under a future warmer climate scenario is the shift in mass of POPs from the surface media to the atmosphere induced by the higher mean temperature. This is to some degree counteracted by higher degradation rates also following the higher mean temperature. The more dominant of these two processes depend on the physical-chemical properties of the compounds. Previous model studies have predicted that the effect of a changed climate on

  10. Air pollution tracer studies in the lower atmosphere. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of tracers to study lower atmospheric air pollution movements. Citations discuss project descriptions and results, techniques, and tracer materials. Tracer movement from nuclear power plants, industrial stacks, and urban areas is discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Serum proteins behavior in the urban population from a center with a lead-polluted atmospheric environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casin, I.; Ghelberg, N.W.

    1974-01-01

    Serum protein behavior was determined in an urban population from a center with a lead polluted atmospheric environment. The following increased amounts of serum proteins are found in 94 adult subjects: haptoglobin 75 percent; ceruloplasmin and transferrin 55 percent; IgA (immunoglobulin A) and IgG 40 percent; Igm and beta lc proteins 25 percent.

  12. Patterns in atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols in China: emission estimates and observed concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available China is experiencing severe carbonaceous aerosol pollution driven mainly by large emissions resulting from intensive use of solid fuels. To gain a better understanding of the levels and trends of carbonaceous aerosol emissions and the resulting ambient concentrations at the national scale, we update an emission inventory of anthropogenic organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC and employ existing observational studies to analyze characteristics of these aerosols including temporal, spatial, and size distributions, and the levels and shares of secondary organic carbon (SOC in total OC. We further use ground observations to test the levels and inter-annual trends of the calculated national and provincial emissions of carbonaceous aerosols, and propose possible improvements in emission estimation for the future. The national OC emissions are estimated to have increased 29% from 2000 (2127 Gg to 2012 (2749 Gg and EC by 37% (from 1356 to 1857 Gg. The residential, industrial, and transportation sectors contributed an estimated 76 ± 2, 19 ± 2 and 5 ± 1% of the total emissions of OC, respectively, and 52 ± 3, 32 ± 2 and 16 ± 2% of EC. Updated emission factors based on the most recent local field measurements, particularly for biofuel stoves, lead to considerably lower emissions of OC compared to previous inventories. Compiling observational data across the country, higher concentrations of OC and EC are found in northern and inland cities, while larger OC/EC and SOC/OC ratios are found in southern cities, due to the joint effects of primary emissions and meteorology. Higher SOC/OC ratios are estimated at rural and remote sites compared to urban ones, attributed to more emissions of OC from biofuel use, more biogenic emissions of volatile organic compound (VOC precursors to SOC, and/or transport of aged aerosols. For most sites, higher concentrations of OC, EC, and SOC are observed in colder seasons, while SOC/OC is reduced, particularly at

  13. Modified Weighting for Calculating the Average Concentration of Non-Point Source Pollutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟瑞芳

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of runoff depends upon that of soil loss and the latter is assumed to be linear to the value of EI that equals the product of total storm energy E times the maximum 30-min intensity I30 for a given rainstorm. Usually, the maximum accumulative amount of rain for a rainstorm might bring on the maximum amount of runoff, but it does not equal the maximum erosion and not always lead the maximum concentration. Thus, the average concentration weighted by amount of runoff is somewhat unreasonable. An improvement for the calculation method of non-point source pollution load put forward by professor Li Huaien is proposed. In replacement of the weight of runoff, EI value of a single rainstorm is introduced as a new weight. An example of Fujing River watershed shows that its application is effective.

  14. Time integrative passive sampling: how well do chemcatchers integrate fluctuating pollutant concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Melanie; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-03-01

    Many environments are subject to periodic fluctuations in pollutant concentrations. Passive samplers, which can provide time weighted average concentrations integrated over the period of deployment, are ideally suited as monitoring tools for these environments. However, the potential for fluctuating concentrations to limit the integrative period of sampling needs to be investigated before sampling data from these environments can be interpreted with confidence. In this study, Chemcatchers using SDB-RPS Empore disks as the sorbent phase were exposed to herbicides for 28 days in a calibration chamber. A pulsed event of 10-fold greater concentrations was introduced on day 5 and returned to background concentrations over a period of 3 days. Observed uptake was compared with that predicted by a first order uptake model and by the reduced form of this model describing a strictly integrative response for samplers deployed with two surfaces exposed (two-sided naked), with one surface exposed (one-sided naked) and with a polyethersulfone membrane. Membrane covered samplers predicted time weighted average water concentrations within a factor 0.7-1.2 after 28 days exposure, while one- and two-sided naked samplers under predicted the average by a factor 1.9-2.2 and 2.4-3.2, respectively. First order modeling predicted uptake in membrane covered and one-sided naked samplers and was therefore applied to predict sampler response to several fluctuating concentration event scenarios.

  15. Plasma concentrations of organohalogenated pollutants in predatory bird nestlings: associations to growth rate and dietary tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bårdsen, Bård J; Herzke, Dorte; Johnsen, Trond V; Eulaers, Igor; Ballesteros, Manuel; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Covaci, Adrian; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Eens, Marcel; Sonne, Christian; Halley, Duncan; Moum, Truls; Nøst, Therese Haugdal; Erikstad, Kjell E; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2013-11-01

    The extent to which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with different physicochemical properties originated from the food (dietary input) was assessed in raptor nestlings. Lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, 1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and protein-bound perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured repeatedly in blood plasma of individual goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings, 1 to 3 wk after hatching and near fledging. Maternally derived POPs dilute as nestlings grow (growth dilution), and increasing plasma concentrations would indicate dietary input. First, plasma concentrations given no dietary input were estimated, and concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB, and notably PFOS were significantly higher than predicted from a growth-dilution scenario (approximately 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold higher; p growth rate. Both δ(15) N and δ(13) C (measured in body feathers) were significantly associated to the accumulation of most POPs, except PFOS. In conclusion, pollutant data acquired in plasma of nestling raptors should be interpreted and further investigated in the light of individual feeding ecology, and the use of raptor nestlings as sentinels for POP monitoring could be optimized by correcting for different factors such as body condition, brood size, and age.

  16. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  17. Fundamental understanding of the thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires and their air pollutant generation in a N2 atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann; Castaldi, Marco J

    2009-08-01

    The thermal decomposition of waste tires has been characterized via thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) tests, and significant mass loss has been observed between 300 and 500 degrees C. A series of gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) measurements, in which the instrument was coupled to a TGA unit, have been carried out to investigate the thermal degradation mechanisms as well as the air pollutant generation including volatile organic carbons (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a nitrogen atmosphere. In order to understand fundamental information on the thermal degradation mechanisms of waste tires, the main constituents of tires, poly-isoprene rubber (IR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), have been studied under the same conditions. All of the experimental work indicated that the bond scission on each monomer of the main constituents of tires was followed by hydrogenation and gas phase reactions. This helped to clarify the independent pathways and species attributable to IR and SBR during the pyrolysis process. To extend that understanding to a more practical level, a flow-through reactor was used to test waste tire, SBR and IR samples in the temperature range of 500-800 degrees C at a heating rate of approximately 200 degrees C. Lastly, the formation of VOCs (approximately 1-50 PPMV/10 mg of sample) and PAHs (approximately 0.2-7 PPMV/10 mg of sample) was observed at relatively low temperatures compared to conventional fuels, and its quantified concentration was significantly high due to the chemical structure of SBR and IR. The measurement of chemicals released during pyrolysis suggests not only a methodology for reducing the air pollutants but also the feasibility of petrochemical recovery during thermal treatment.

  18. Background Concentrations for Use in the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.

    A background model has been developed for application in the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) in context of long-term exposure modelling. The back ground model is based on a semi-empirical method founded on a few monitor stations that estimates standardised one hour time-series of urban...... are based on measurements. The temporal variation is represented as indices for the monthly variation and the monthly diurnal variation. In this way concentration levels can be estimated on an hourly basis from 1960-95....

  19. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in Taraxacum spp. in relation to urban pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.M.; Lanaras, T.; Sgardelis, S.P.; Pantis, J.D. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

    1994-08-01

    The combustion of petroleum fuel and exhaust emissions are major sources of atmospheric pollution in cities which result in the deposition of toxic substances, particularly heavy metals, in the surface layers of soils. Lead in particular enters the environment from the use of tetraethyl lead as an antiknock agent for petrol engines constituting 21% of fine particles emitted from cars burning leaded petrol. Antiwear protectants incorporated in lubricants often contain Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and/or Zn which are also released into the environment by inefficient engines and irresponsible dumping of engine oils. Zn from tyre wear and Cu from diesel engines also add considerably to the environmental metal burden. Lowering of the permitted lead content of petrol and the growing use of unleaded fuel are expected to lead to reductions in the environmental lead burden, however, until unleaded fuel becomes universally accepted lead contamination, particularly of roadside soils and vegetation is a major cause for concern. A direct relationship between car exhaust, the Pb content of needles of Abies alba and reduced growth has been observed and can extend hundreds of metres from major highways. Lead tolerance has been observed in higher plants growing mine waste soils and to a lesser extent on lead-contaminated roadside soils. Automobiles which are responsible for line sources of pollution emissions in rural and suburban areas have a more far-reaching impact on roadside vegetation, already under considerable stress, in urban areas. Information on heavy metal effects on vegetation in urban environments however, are scarce. Modeling and multivariate analysis of a few of the factors involved have provided only limited data related to plant performance in these complex environments. Therefore in this study, the extent of heavy metal pollution by Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in soils and in dandelion plants in the city of Thessaloniki has been examined. 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-11-15

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009-2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9ng·L(-1)). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble>vertical dry deposition soluble>horizontal deposition soluble>vertical wet deposition insoluble>vertical wet deposition soluble>horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia.

  1. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C.

    2003-06-01

    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  2. Mathematical modeling of atmospheric fine particle-associated primary organic compound concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Hildemann, Lynn M.; Mazurek, Monica A.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    1996-08-01

    An atmospheric transport model has been used to explore the relationship between source emissions and ambient air quality for individual particle phase organic compounds present in primary aerosol source emissions. An inventory of fine particulate organic compound emissions was assembled for the Los Angeles area in the year 1982. Sources characterized included noncatalyst- and catalyst-equipped autos, diesel trucks, paved road dust, tire wear, brake lining dust, meat cooking operations, industrial oil-fired boilers, roofing tar pots, natural gas combustion in residential homes, cigarette smoke, fireplaces burning oak and pine wood, and plant leaf abrasion products. These primary fine particle source emissions were supplied to a computer-based model that simulates atmospheric transport, dispersion, and dry deposition based on the time series of hourly wind observations and mixing depths. Monthly average fine particle organic compound concentrations that would prevail if the primary organic aerosol were transported without chemical reaction were computed for more than 100 organic compounds within an 80 km × 80 km modeling area centered over Los Angeles. The monthly average compound concentrations predicted by the transport model were compared to atmospheric measurements made at monitoring sites within the study area during 1982. The predicted seasonal variation and absolute values of the concentrations of the more stable compounds are found to be in reasonable agreement with the ambient observations. While model predictions for the higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are in agreement with ambient observations, lower molecular weight PAH show much higher predicted than measured atmospheric concentrations in the particle phase, indicating atmospheric decay by chemical reactions or evaporation from the particle phase. The atmospheric concentrations of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic polycarboxylic acids greatly exceed the contributions that

  3. Dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to global temperature changes between 1850 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Changes in Earth's temperature have significant impacts on the global carbon cycle that vary at different time scales, yet to quantify such impacts with a simple scheme is traditionally deemed difficult. Here, we show that, by incorporating a temperature sensitivity parameter (1.64 ppm yr-1 °C-1) into a simple linear carbon-cycle model, we can accurately characterize the dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to anthropogenic carbon emissions and global temperature changes between 1850 and 2010 ( r 2 > 0.96 and the root-mean-square error reservoir (~12 year) approximates the long-term temperature sensitivity of global atmospheric CO2 concentration (~15 ppm °C-1), generally consistent with previous estimates based on reconstructed CO2 and climate records over the Little Ice Age. Our results suggest that recent increases in global surface temperatures, which accelerate the release of carbon from the surface reservoirs into the atmosphere, have partially offset surface carbon uptakes enhanced by the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and slowed the net rate of atmospheric CO2 sequestration by global land and oceans by ~30% since the 1960s. The linear modeling framework outlined in this paper thus provides a useful tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future changes.

  4. [Analysis on concentration variety characteristics of atmospheric ozone under the boundary layer in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xue-Mei; Wang, Geng-Chen; Chen, Hong-Bin; Wang, Pu-Cai; Xuan, Yue-Jian

    2007-11-01

    Based on the atmospheric ozone sounding data, the average monthly and seasonal variety principles of atmospheric ozone concentration during six years are analyzed under the boundary layer in Beijing. The results show that the monthly variation of atmospheric ozone are obvious that the minimum values appear in January from less than 10 x 10(-9) on ground to less than 50 x 10(-9) on upper layer (2 km), but the maximum values appear in June from 85 x 10(-9) on ground to more than 90 x 10(-9) on upper layer. The seasonal variation is also clear that the least atmospheric ozone concentration is in winter and the most is in summer, but variety from ground to upper layer is largest in winter and least in summer. According to the type of outline, the outline of ozone concentration is composite of three types which are winter type, summer type and spring-autumn type. The monthly ozone concentration in different heights is quite different. After analyzing the relationship between ozone concentration and meteorological factors, such as temperature and humidity, we find ozone concentration on ground is linear with temperature and the correlation coefficient is more than 85 percent.

  5. Atmospheric concentration characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PCBs in a rural area of eastern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandalakis, Manolis [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)]. E-mail: mandalakis@chemistry.uoc.gr; Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)

    2007-05-15

    Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 14 successive daytime and nighttime air samples collected from Melpitz, a rural site in eastern Germany. The average total concentration of PCBs was 110+/-80pgm{sup -3} and they were predominately present in the gas phase ({approx}95%). Composition of individual congeners closely resembled those of Clophen A30 and Aroclor 1232. Partial vapor pressures of PCBs were well correlated with temperature and the steep slopes obtained from Clausius-Clapeyron plots (-4500 to -8000) indicated that evaporation from adjacent land surfaces still controls the atmospheric levels of these pollutants. Particle-gas partitioning coefficients (K{sub P}) of PCBs were well correlated with the respective sub-cooled vapor pressures (P{sub L}{sup o}), but the slopes obtained from logK{sub P} versus logP{sub L}{sup o} plots (-0.16 to -0.59) deviated significantly from the expected value of -1. Overall, gas-particle partitioning of PCBs was better simulated by Junge-Pankow than octanol/air partition coefficient-based model.

  6. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Carbone, Francesco; Cinnirella, Sergio; Mannarino, Valentino; Landis, Matthew; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Weigelt, Andreas; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Labuschagne, Casper; Martin, Lynwill; Munthe, John; Wängberg, Ingvar; Artaxo, Paulo; Morais, Fernando; Barbosa, Henrique de Melo Jorge; Brito, Joel; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Garcia, Patricia Elizabeth; Dommergue, Aurélien; Angot, Helene; Magand, Olivier; Skov, Henrik; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Read, Katie Alana; Mendes Neves, Luis; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Sena, Fabrizio; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Obolkin, Vladimir; Wip, Dennis; Feng, Xin Bin; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xuewu; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Cossa, Daniel; Knoery, Joël; Marusczak, Nicolas; Nerentorp, Michelle; Norstrom, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg) on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project was funded by the European Commission (gmos.eu" target="_blank">http://www.gmos.eu) and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010-2015), analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  7. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L.; Vautard, R.; Flamant, P.H. [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C.; Beekmann, M.; Megie, G.; Sicard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C.; Lefebvre, M.P.; Lossec, B. [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P.; Martin, D. [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D. [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D. [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P.; Toupance, G. [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  8. Atmospheric mercury concentrations at two sites in the Kyushu Islands, Japan, and evidence of long-range transport from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takami, Akinori

    2015-09-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric gaseous mercury at Fukuoka and Minamata in the Kyushu Islands, western Japan, was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013 to investigate the influence of long-range transport of mercury in the Asian region. Speciation data at Fukuoka indicated that approximately 99% of the atmospheric mercury was in the gaseous elemental form. The average concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Fukuoka was slightly higher than that of total gaseous mercury (TGM) at Minamata. Synchronous pollution events of higher concentrations of both GEM at Fukuoka and TGM at Minamata were frequently observed from late fall to early spring. We infer that these events occurred due to long-range transport of mercury rather than local, domestic emission sources because the two sites are far apart (about 150 km), and local sources would be unlikely to synchronously influence concentrations at both sites over such a long distance. The results of backward trajectory analyses indicated that these events occurred when air masses came from the Asian continent. In addition, the pollution events were often the result of cold fronts or migratory anticyclones that passed over the Kyushu Islands, often accompanied by descending cool and heavy air currents. Thus, these results indicate that, under specific climate conditions, higher concentrations of atmospheric mercury are transported to the Kyushu Islands from the Asian continent, and are evident in ground-based observations there.

  9. Reduction of air pollutants - a tool for control of atmospheric corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucera, V.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas in Europe and Northern America serious corrosion impacts on buildings and cultural monuments have been caused by emissions of pollutants. The rapidly increasing pollution levels in many of the developing countries also exert a serious threat to materials. Beside the very important role of SO2 also the direct or synergistic effect of NOx and O3, the particulates and rain acidity may contribute in an important way to materials degradation. Results from extensive international field exposure programs i.e. within the UN/ECE have enabled development of dose-response relations which describe the effect of dry and wet deposition of pollutants on corrosion of different material groups. In most of the industrialized countries decreasing trends of sulphur and nitrogen pollutants and of acidity of precipitation have resulted in decreased corrosion rates. The concept of acceptable levels of pollutants is a useful tool in planning of abatement strategies and for defining of conditions for a suitable development in the field of corrosion of constructions in the atmosphere.

    La contaminación de la atmósfera ha sido la principal razón del grave deterioro de las edificaciones y de los monumentos en numerosas ciudades de Europa y Norteamérica. De otro lado, el acelerado incremento de los niveles de contaminación en los países menos desarrollados está poniendo en peligro la estabilidad de los materiales utilizados. Además del importante papel que en este sentido juega el SO2, la acción directa o el efecto sinérgico de los NOx y el O3, al igual que el material particulado y las lluvias acidas contribuyen a agravar el problema. Resultados de vastos programas internacionales de investigación como, por ejemplo, el UN/ECE, han permitido desarrollar relaciones dosis-respuesta que describen el efecto de la deposición de los contaminantes sobre la corrosión de

  10. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  11. Levels, sources and chemical fate of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere and snow along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The Antarctic continent is among the most pristine regions; yet various organic contaminants have been measured there routinely. Air and snow samples were collected during the austral spring (October-November, 2010) along the western Antarctic Peninsula and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to assess the relative importance of long-range transport versus local primary or secondary emissions. Highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and DDTs were observed in the glacier's snow sample, highlighting the importance of melting glaciers as a possible secondary source of legacy pollutants to the Antarctic. In the atmosphere, contaminants were mainly found in the vapor phase (>65%). Hexachlorobenzene (33.6 pg/m(3)), PCBs (11.6 pg/m(3)), heptachlor (5.64 pg/m(3)), PBDEs (4.22 pg/m(3)) and cis-chlordane (2.43 pg/m(3)) were the most abundant contaminants. In contrast to other compounds, PBDEs seem to have originated from local sources, possibly the research station itself. Gas-particle partitioning for analytes were better predicted using the adsorption partitioning model than an octanol-based absorption approach. Diffusive flux calculations indicated that net deposition is the dominant pathway for PBDEs and chlordanes, whereas re-volatilization from snow (during melting or metamorphosis) was observed for PCBs and some OCPs.

  12. A Global Modeling View on Long-range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M. G.; Bauer, H.; Brasseur, G. P.; Diehl, T.; Granier, C.

    2002-12-01

    The NASA-GTE TRACE-P intensive field campaign in spring 2001 aimed at the quantification of the export of pollutants from East Asia and an improved understanding of the chemical evolution of Asian outflow. Scientists from MPI-Met have participated in TRACE-P with global model forecasts of carbon monoxide tracer concentrations and tagged tracers, which allow the identification of source regions affecting the North Pacific ocean. We have since developed a new version of the global general circulation model ECHAM, and we performed multi-year simulations with the MOZART-2 chemistry transport model. In our presentation, we will compare results from both models with TRACE-P observations, and we will compare the spring 2001 period with those of other years in the 1990s. Effects of model resolution and specification of emission sources will be considered.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  14. Factors influencing relationships between personal and ambient concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen Ward; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Suh, Helen H; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros

    2009-06-01

    Previous exposure studies have shown considerable inter-subject variability in personal-ambient associations. This paper investigates exposure factors that may be responsible for inter-subject variability in these personal-ambient associations. The personal and ambient data used in this paper were collected as part of a personal exposure study conducted in Boston, MA, during 1999-2000. This study was one of a group of personal exposure panel studies funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory to address areas of exposure assessment warranting further study, particularly associations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants. Twenty-four-hour integrated personal, home indoor, home outdoor and ambient sulfate, elemental carbon (EC), PM(2.5), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide were measured simultaneously each day. Fifteen homes in the Boston area were measured for 7 days during winter and summer. A previous paper explored the associations between personal-indoor, personal-outdoor, personal-ambient, indoor-outdoor, indoor-ambient and outdoor-ambient PM(2.5), sulfate and EC concentrations. For the current paper, factors that may affect personal exposures were investigated, while controlling for ambient concentrations. The data were analyzed using mixed effects regression models. Overall personal-ambient associations were strong for sulfate during winter (ppersonal-ambient mixed model slope for PM(2.5) during winter but was not significant at p=0.10. Personal exposures to most pollutants, with the exception of NO(2), increased with ventilation and time spent outdoors. An opposite pattern was found for NO(2) likely due to gas stoves. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and to traffic-related pollutants, EC and NO(2), were higher for those individuals living close to a major road. Both personal and indoor sulfate and PM(2.5) concentrations were

  15. Concentrations of heavy metals in hair as indicators of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 80 hair samples were collected from 38% males and 62% females in Krakow, Poland. The hairs sampled for the analysis were washed in the water-acetone-water arrangement (three times. Subsequently the hair samples were wet mineralized in a closed system HNO3:H2O2 (6:1 in a microwave furnace. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd were assessed by means of ICP-OES method. Obtained results of analysis of heavy metal concentrations in the hair of tested population of Krakow inhabitants evidence environmental hazard (beside professional hazardWe observed that the hair of females showed higher levels of zinc and cadmium. Hair analysis allows for an assessment of the natural environment contamination, which is particularly important for the research on populations inhabiting areas with different degree of pollution.

  16. Fire risk and air pollution assessment during the 2007 wildfire events in Greece using the COSMO-ART atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, E.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Vogel, H.; Rieger, D.; Knote, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Vogel, B.; Karali, A.

    2012-04-01

    During 2007, Greece experienced an extreme summer and the worst natural hazard in its modern history. Soil dehydration, following a prolonged dry period in combination with hot temperatures and strong winds, yielded favorable conditions for the ignition and spread of wild fires that burnt approximately 200,000 ha of vegetated land (Founda and Gianakopoulos, 2009; Sifakis et al., 2011). The relationship between meteorology and fire potential can be provided by the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), which is already found applicable in the fire activity of the Mediterranean region (Carvalho et al., 2008). However, lack of meteorological data or remote fire spots can be sources of uncertainties for fire risk estimation. In addition to the direct fire damage, these fires produced large quantities of gaseous air pollutants and particles (PM10) dispersed over the area of Greece. Indeed, PM10 concentration measurements showed two pollution episodes over Athens during late August and early September, 2007 (Liu et al., 2009). Nevertheless, these measurements neither show the large spatial extent of fire effects nor reveal its important role on atmospheric chemistry. In the current study, the application of the atmospheric model COSMO-ART is used to investigate the issues addressed above. COSMO-ART (Vogel et al. 2009) is a regional chemistry transport model (ART stands for Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases) online-coupled to the COSMO regional numerical weather prediction and climate model (Baldauf et al. 2011). The current simulations are performed between August 15 and September 15 over Greece with a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km and a vertical extend up to 20 km. The initial and boundary meteorological conditions are derived from a coarser COSMO simulation performed by the German Weather Service. Fire emissions are retrieved from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (van der Werf et al., 2010). The anthropogenic emission database used is the TNO/MACC (Kuenen et

  17. Atmospheric trace element concentrations in total suspended particles near Paris, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Senhou, Abderrahmane; Moskura, Mélanie; Gaudry, André

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate today's trace element atmospheric concentrations in large urban areas, an atmospheric survey was carried out for 18 months, from March 2002 to September 2003, in Saclay, nearby Paris. The total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected continuously on quartz fibre filters. The TSP contents were determined for 36 elements (including Ag, Bi, Mo and Sb) using two analytical methods: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured concentrations were in agreement within the uncertainties with the certified values for the polycarbonate reference material filter SRM-2783 (National Institute for Standard Technology NIST, USA). The measured concentrations were significantly lower than the recommended atmospheric concentrations. In 2003, the Pb atmospheric level at Saclay was 15 ng/m 3, compared to the 500 ng/m 3 guideline level and to the 200 ng/m 3 observed value in 1994. The typical urban background TSP values of 1-2, 0.2-1, 4-6, 10-30 and 3-5 ng/m 3 for As, Co, Cr, Cu and Sb, respectively, were inferred from this study and were compared with the literature data. The typical urban background TSP concentrations could not be realised for Cd, Pb and Zn, since these air concentrations are highly influenced by local features. The Zn concentrations and Zn/Pb ratio observed in Saclay represented a characteristic fingerprint of the exceptionally large extent of zinc-made roofs in Paris and its suburbs. The traffic-related origin of Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sb was demonstrated, while the atmospheric source(s) of Ag was not identified.

  18. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  19. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens; Uso de liquens epifiticos no biomonitoramento da poluicao atmosferica da regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g{sup -1} levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at {mu}g g{sup -1} and Ca at mg g{sup -1}. By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental

  20. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter hazy pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter hazy pollutions (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship to the atmospheric circulations in middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter hazy pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6 were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP, zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850, geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500, zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200, and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200, respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. Both the visibility and number of hazy days can be estimated well by using the six indices and fitting and the cross-validation with leave-N-out method, respectively. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter hazy pollutions in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. However, we also noted that the statistic estimation models would be largely influenced by the artificial control of a pollutant discharge. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take actions in advance in dealing with probably severe hazy pollutions in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  1. Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter haze pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Gong, D.; Kim, S.-J.; Mao, R.; Zhao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Using the daily records derived from the synoptic weather stations and the NCEP/NCAR and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, the variability of the winter haze pollution (indicated by the mean visibility and number of hazy days) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during the period 1981 to 2015 and its relationship with the atmospheric circulations at middle-high latitude were analyzed in this study. The winter haze pollution in BTH had distinct inter-annual and inter-decadal variabilities without a significant long-term trend. According to the spatial distribution of correlation coefficients, six atmospheric circulation indices (I1 to I6) were defined from the key areas in sea level pressure (SLP), zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa (U850, V850), geopotential height field at 500 hPa (H500), zonal wind at 200 hPa (U200), and air temperature at 200 hPa (T200), respectively. All of the six indices have significant and stable correlations with the winter visibility and number of hazy days in BTH. In the raw (unfiltered) correlations, the correlation coefficients between the six indices and the winter visibility (number of hazy days) varied from 0.57 (0.47) to 0.76 (0.6) with an average of 0.65 (0.54); in the high-frequency ( pollution in BTH winter, and vice versa. The high level of the prediction statistics and the reasonable mechanism suggested that the winter haze pollution in BTH can be forecasted or estimated credibly based on the optimized atmospheric circulation indices. Thus it is helpful for government decision-making departments to take action in advance in dealing with probably severe haze pollution in BTH indicated by the atmospheric circulation conditions.

  2. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  3. The polluted atmosphere of the white dwarf NLTT 25792 and the diversity of circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vennes, S

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted, hydrogen-rich white dwarf NLTT 25792. The spectra show strong lines of calcium (Ca H&K, near-infrared calcium triplet, and Ca I 4226 and numerous lines of iron along with magnesium and aluminum lines from which we draw the abundance pattern. Moreover, the photospheric Ca H&K lines are possibly blended with a circumstellar component shifted by -20 km/s relative to the photosphere. A comparison with a sample of four white dwarfs with similar parameters show considerable variations in their abundance patterns, particularly in the calcium to magnesium abundance ratio that varies by a factor of five within this sample. The observed variations, even after accounting for diffusion effects, imply similar variations in the putative accretion source. Also, we find that silicon and sodium are significantly underabundant in the atmosphere of NLTT 25792, a fact that may offer some clues on the nature of the accretion source.

  4. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Humberto; Sosa, Rodolfo; Sánchez, Pablo; Bueno, Emma; González, Laura

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  5. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Sanchez, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Bueno, E.; Gonzalez, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, SEMARNAP, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  6. 被动DOAS/CT在大气污染气体监测中的应用%Detection of the atmospheric pollutant by using passive DOAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦民红; 童敏明; 魏明生; 李素文

    2013-01-01

    为了对大气污染气体的空间分布进行实时监测,有效防治大气环境污染,设计了被动差分吸收光谱层析系统,通过差分吸收光谱技术(DOAS)获取大气污染气体的积分体积分数,再采用联合迭代重构算法(SIRT)得到其空间分布信息,通过数值模拟的方式加以验证.数值模拟结果表明,实践与理论相符,满足预期指标,且投影误差基本不影响重构图像的质量.试验结果表明,系统可以实现大气污染气体的二维空间分布监测.%This paper is aimed to present our method for finding the atmospheric pollutant by using passive DOAS.For this purpose,we have introduced an optical tomography system based on the passive difference optical absorption spectrum (DOAS),that is,how to do real-time monitoring activities with the spatial distribution of pollution gases in the atmosphere so as to prevent the atmosphere from being polluted effectively.The goal of the system is to employ the concentration profiles,rather than just a point value,of the pollutant gases concentrations.However,the reconstruction area (20 × 20 pixels) of the concentration of the pollutant gases are to be scanned while doing on-line monitoring activities by using two sets of passive difference optical absorption spectrum (DOAS) rather than one.In addition,36 light paths are needed to be adopted in the form of the fan projection scheme to scan the area of the polluted gases.At the same time,it is to apply a novel image reconstruction algorithm,known as the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT),to extract the data and information from the two passive DOAS systems.The disadvantage of the SIRT is slow in speed though some improvements have already been made by adding different relax factors to reduce the relative errors.The new system of ours can work out the integrated concentration of the gases with the difference optical absorption spectrum (DOAS) algorithm.Besides,we have also introduced the

  7. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  8. El Nino / Southern Oscillation and beryllium-7 (7Be Concentration in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady F. Batrakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of El Nino / Southern Oscillation (ENSO on the atmospheric concentration of beryllium-7 (7Be in five points situated in South America: Guayaquil, Lima, Anafagasta, Puerto Montt and Punta Arens was investigated. By using correlation analysis it was found that significant statistical relationship between the variability of concentration of 7Be and variability of indices NINO 1+2 and NINO 3 take place in Guayaquil and Puerto Montt. In these cities during the period 1967–1998 yr. there was increased of statistical relationships between the variability of concentration of 7Be and variation of the indices. The results indicate that ENSO most significant effect on the atmospheric concentration of the isotope in the regions located in the subequatorial and subtropical climatic belts. Moreover, such an effect on the time interval 1967–1998 yr., the second half of which corresponds to the period of modern global warming, has increased significantly

  9. Profile of Methane Concentrations in Soil and Atmosphere in Alpine Steppe Ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Zhiyong; Ouyang Hua; Zhou Caiping; Xu Xingliang

    2009-01-01

    The methane concentration profile from -1.5m depth in soil to 32m height in air was measured in alpine steppe located in the permafrost area.Methane concentrations showed widely variations both in air and in soil during the study period.The mean concentrations in atmosphere were all higher than those in soil,and the highest methane concentration was found in air at the height of 16m with the lowest concentration occurring at the depth of 1.5m in soil.The variations of atmospheric methane concentrations did not show any clear pattern both temporally and spatially,although they exhibited a more steady-stable state than those in soil.During the seasonal variations,the methane concentrations at different depths in soil were significantly correlated (R2>0.6) with each other comparing to the weak correlations (R2<0.2) between the atmospheric concentrations at different heights.Mean methane concentrations in soil significantly decreased with depth.This was the compositive influence of the decreasing production rates and the increasing methane oxidation rates,which was caused by the descent soil moisture with depth.Although the methane concentrations at all depths varied widely during the growing season,they showed very distinct temporal variations in the non-growing season.It was indicated from the literatures that methane oxidation rates were positively correlated with soil temperature.The higher methane concentrations in soil during the winter were determined by the lower methane oxidation rates with decreasing soil temperatures,whereas methane production rates had no reaction to the lower temperature.Relations between methane contribution and other environmental factors were not discussed in this paper for lacking of data,which impulse us to carry out further and more detailed studies in this unique area.

  10. Concentric-Ring Patterns in a Helium Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Wan-Li; WANG De-Zhen

    2007-01-01

    We perform the theoretical simulation of the concentric-ring patterns between two parallel electrodes covered with thin dielectric layers within the scope of a two-dimensional diffusion-drift model at atmospheric pressure. The time evolution of the discharge patterns is studied and the concentric-ring patterns with different radii shift alternately. The spatial-temporal evolution of electron density in a cycle at different time scales is performed.

  11. Exploring the processes governing roadside pollutant concentrations in urban street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatioto, Fabio; Bell, Margaret C

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes an in-depth analysis to investigate the huge variation in the measured roadside air-pollutant concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in terms of the traffic flow levels, the orientation of the street to the prevailing wind, the wind speed, temperature and barometric pressure. The work has attempted to develop generic parameters that can be applied to other urban areas. However, in the absence of a measure of congestion at the site in Palermo (Italy), the methodological approach proposed used the simultaneous noise measurements, in units of decibels (B), to help parameterise a generic congestion indicator in terms of the traffic flow. The potential transferability of the approach was demonstrated for a site in Marylebone Road, London (UK), given the similarity of the two study sites, canyon shape, traffic characteristics and road orientation. The results showed that, within the range of data available, noise levels could be used as a proxy for flow change on the shoulders of the peak hour and hence congestion and a generic relationship with factors statistically significant at 99% confidence allows roadside concentrations due to traffic to be estimated with a regression coefficient of R(2) = 0.73 (R = 0.85). The research demonstrates that whilst there are indeed underlying relationships that can explain the roadside concentrations based on traffic and meteorological conditions, evidence is presented that confirms the complexity of the physical and chemical processes that govern roadside concentrations.

  12. Black carbon concentrations in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: a three year monitoring with a dual-spot Aethalometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Maheswar; Drinovec, Luka; Puppala, SivaPraveen; Mahata, Khadak; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Singdan, Pratik; Panday, Arnico; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge about ambient black carbon (BC) in the vast Himalayan region, a region vulnerable to impacts of global warming, is very limited due to unavailability of a long-term ambient monitoring. Here we present results from a continuous monitoring of ambient BC concentrations, with a new generation Aethalometer (AE33), over a three year period (January 2013- January 2016) at a semi-urban site in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley in the foothills of the central Himalaya, one of the most polluted cities in the world. This is the longest time series of BC concentrations that have been monitored with AE33 (which uses the dual-spot technique for a real-time filter loading compensation) in highly polluted ambient environment. The measurements were carried out under the framework of project SusKat (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley). BC concentrations were found to be extremely high, especially in winter and the pre-monsoon period, with the hourly-averaged values often exceeding 50 μg/m3. BC concentrations showed a clear diurnal cycle with a prominent peak around 8-9 am and a second peak around 8-9 pm local time in all four seasons. Night-time BC was also fairly high. The diurnal cycle was driven by a combination of increased emissions from traffic, cooking activities, garbage burning, and lower mixing heights (˜200 m) and reduced horizontal ventilation in the mornings and evenings. BC concentrations showed significant seasonal variations - a maximum in winter season and minimum during the monsoon (rainy) season, with monthly average values in the range 5-30 μg/m3. An increase in emissions from the operation of over 100 brick kilns in winter and spring, and an increase in the use of small but numerous diesel power generators during hours with power cuts contributed significantly to ambient BC concentrations in the valley. Fractional contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion to BC was estimated based on a real-time method for

  13. Impact of particle formation on atmospheric ions and particle number concentrations in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, H. C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Jayaratne, E. R.; Morawska, L.

    2015-04-01

    A measurement campaign was conducted from 3 to 19 December 2012 at an urban site of Brisbane, Australia. Size distribution of ions and particle number concentrations were measured to investigate the influence of particle formation and biomass burning on atmospheric ion and particle concentrations. Overall ion and particle number concentrations during the measurement period were found to be (- 1.2 × 103 cm- 3 | + 1.6 × 103 cm- 3) and 4.4 × 103, respectively. The results of correlation analysis between concentrations of ions and nitrogen oxides indicated that positive and negative ions originated from similar sources, and that vehicle exhaust emissions had a more significant influence on intermediate/large ions, while cluster ions rapidly attached to larger particles once emitted into the atmosphere. Diurnal variations in ion concentration suggested the enrichment of intermediate and large ions on new particle formation event days, indicating that they were involved in the particle formation processes. Elevated total ions, particularly larger ions, and particle number concentrations were found during biomass burning episodes. This could be due to the attachment of cluster ions onto accumulation mode particles or production of charged particles from biomass burning, which were in turn transported to the measurement site. The results of this work enhance scientific understanding of the sources of atmospheric ions in an urban environment, as well as their interactions with particles during particle formation processes.

  14. Research Progress of Atmospheric Pollution Control Measures%大气污染防治措施研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚

    2015-01-01

    Main source and harm of air pollution were discussed from natural pollution and anthropogenic pollution. The present situation of atmospheric pollution was also introduced. By improving production processes and equipment, developing recycled exhaust gas purification technology, improving combustion process and the development of new energy, strengthening environmental supervision, control vehicle exhaust pollution, strengthening urban greening we can control air pollution and improve environmental quality effectively.%从自然污染和人为污染方面论述了大气污染的主要来源和危害,介绍了大气污染的的现状。认为,通过改善生产工艺和设备、开发废气净化回收工艺、改进燃烧方法并开发新能源、加强环境监管力度、控制机动车尾气污染、加强城市绿化建设、做好大气环境宣传教育工作等一系列措施和制度,可以有效治理大气污染,改善环境质量。

  15. On inferring isoprene emission surface flux from atmospheric boundary layer concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Dries, van den K.; Pino, D.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the dependence of the inferred isoprene surface emission flux from atmospheric concentration on the diurnal variability of the convective boundary layer (CBL). A series of systematic numerical experiments carried out using the mixed-layer technique enabled us to study the sensitivity of i

  16. Estimating Terrestrial Wood Biomass from Observed Concentrations of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Peters, W.; Carvalhais, N.; van der Werf, G.; Miller, J.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate terrestrial disequilibrium state and wood biomass from observed concentrations of atmospheric CO2 using the CarbonTracker system coupled to the SiBCASA biophysical model. Starting with a priori estimates of carbon flux from the land, ocean, and fossil fuels, CarbonTracker estimates net c

  17. Future atmospheric CO2 concentration and environmental consequences for the feed market: a consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Hamelin, Lorie; Hinrichsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    With the rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], crops will assimilate more carbon. This will increase yields in terms of carbohydrates but dilute the content of protein and minerals in crops. This consequential life cycle assessment study modelled the environmental consequences...

  18. Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Environmental Consequences for the Feed Market: a Consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Hamelin, Lorie; Hinrichsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    With the rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], crops will assimilate more carbon. This will increase yields in terms of carbohydrates but dilute the content of protein and minerals in crops. This consequential life cycle assessment study modelled the environmental consequences...

  19. Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, E.; Donateo, A.; Gambaro, A.; Cesari, D.; Gregoris, E.; Barbaro, E.; Dinoi, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Masieri, S.; Contini, D.

    2016-08-01

    Ship emissions are a growing concern, especially in coastal areas, for potential impacts on human health and climate. International mitigation strategies to curb these emission, based on low-sulphur content fuels, have proven useful to improve local air quality. However, the effect on climate forcing is less obvious. Detailed information on the influence of shipping to particles of different sizes is needed to investigate air quality and climate interaction. In this work, the contributions of maritime emissions to atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and of particles (sizes from 0.009 μm to 30 μm) were investigated considering manoeuvring (arrival and departure of ships) and hotelling phases (including loading/unloading activities). Results showed that the size distributions of shipping contributions were different for the two phases and could be efficiently described, using measured data, considering four size-ranges. The largest contribution to particles concentration was observed for Dp pollutant emissions and of the contribution to particle mass concentration. However, an increase of the contribution to particle number concentration (PNC) was observed. Results suggested that harbour logistic has a relevant role in determining the total impact of shipping on air quality of the nearby coastal areas. Additionally, future policies should focus on PNC that represents an important fraction of emissions also for low-sulphur fuels. DOAS remote sensing proved a useful tool to directly measure NO2 and SO2 ship emissions giving estimates comparable with those of emission inventory approach.

  20. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  1. Lead Isotopes and Temporal Records of Atmospheric Aerosol and Pollutants in Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, S. R.; Nash, T.; Asmerom, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Lichens are useful receptors of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and pollutants due to their retention of body parts (unlike plants), slow growth rates, fairly uniform morphologies, lack of a vascular system, and sessile character over decades to centuries. Lichen biomonitoring has been used widely to map patterns of aerosol deposition, yet few studies have tested whether lichens can preserve a temporal record of airborne PM and pollutants. We show with U-Pb data that epilithic lichens (rock as host) can retain in their porous structure an integrated, decadal-scale history of changing aerosol inputs to desert ecosystems. Three lichens resided along an 80-km transect from a copper smelter (Douglas, AZ) closed in early 1987, to the ENE into adjacent New Mexico. For the radially growing lichen (Xanthoparmelia sp.), U-Pb data were obtained along cm-scale transects in the growth direction on a single thallus. Profiles from lichen rim to interior show increasing [Pb] and [U], or net accumulation with thallus age. Total lead contents are highest near the smelter. In contrast, each lead isotope profile (206Pb/207Pb) is flat during smelter operation, showing low ratios near the smelter (1.152) and high ratios (1.175) 80 km away. This suggests comparable mixtures of crust and smelter lead per locality over decades. Since smelter closure, lichens 80 km from the smelter show a sharp upturn in lead ratio in the recently grown lichen rim, indicating that smelter lead is either dispersed by aeolian recycling, or suppressed in desert soils. The amplitude and position of the isotope signal suggests a soil recovery "half-life" of about 13 yrs, a radial growth rate of 0.57+/-0.1 mm/yr, and a total lichen age of 105+/-18 yrs. Lichens near the smelter have no upturn in isotope ratio, indicating continued aeolian recylcing of lead from soils about 11 yrs after closure. Results at a far-removed desert site (c. New Mexico) also argue that isotope profiles reflect aerosol deposition

  2. GLANCE - calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Leif; Faria, Sérgio; Markandya, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Current annual global estimates of premature deaths from poor air quality are estimated in the range of 2.6-4.4 million, and 2050 projections are expected to double against 2010 levels. In Europe, annual economic burdens are estimated at around 750 bn €. Climate change will further exacerbate air pollution burdens; therefore, a better understanding of the economic impacts on human societies has become an area of intense investigation. European research efforts are being carried out within the MACC project series, which started in 2005. The outcome of this work has been integrated into a European capacity for Earth Observation, the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS). In MACC/CAMS, key pollutant concentrations are computed at the European scale and globally by employing chemically-driven advanced transport models. The project GLANCE (calculatinG heaLth impActs of atmospheric pollutioN in a Changing climatE) aims at developing an integrated assessment model for calculating the health impacts and damage costs of air pollution at different physical scales. It combines MACC/CAMS (assimilated Earth Observations, an ensemble of chemical transport models and state of the art ECWMF weather forecasting) with downscaling based on in-situ network measurements. The strengthening of modelled projections through integration with empirical evidence reduces errors and uncertainties in the health impact projections and subsequent economic cost assessment. In addition, GLANCE will yield improved data accuracy at different time resolutions. This project is a multidisciplinary approach which brings together expertise from natural sciences and socio economic fields. Here, its general approach will be presented together with first results for the years 2007 - 2012 on the European scale. The results on health impacts and economic burdens are compared to existing assessments.

  3. Air pollution characteristics associated with mesoscale atmospheric patterns in northwest continental Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Saskia; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas; Heinemann, Günther; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2010-12-01

    An impact related daily air quality index (DAQx), calculated for 15 air quality monitoring stations (traffic, background, and industry) in Belgium, France, Germany and Luxembourg, was compared to mesoscale atmospheric patterns between 2001 and 2007. Meteorological conditions were described by the Hess and Brezowsky synoptic weather classification system and gridded data of the EU FP6 ENSEMBLES project of total precipitation and mean surface temperature. DAQx values indicate sufficient to poor air quality in the urban area of Brussels and at urban traffic stations, as well as satisfactory air quality at the background stations. The air quality index refers to more than 90% to the presence of high PM 10, O 3 and NO 2 concentrations. SO 2 and CO play only a minor role. The investigation of weather regimes indicates that zonal and mixed cyclonic circulation regimes are associated with better air quality than meridional and anticyclonic weather regimes. In general, weather regimes with high daily precipitation lead to better air quality than dryer air masses because of lower contribution of PM 10 to the air quality index. A trend analysis of weather regimes from 1978 to 2007 shows significant ( α = 0.05) positive trends for weather classes associated with lower PM 10 concentrations. The results of a case study at a German station examining the relationship between PM 10 concentrations and local meteorological quantities (wind speed and precipitation) confirm the results of the regional analysis.

  4. Cypress tree (Cupressus semervirens L.) bark as an indicator for heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Amman City, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hasan, Tayel; Al-Omari, Hamzeh; Jiries, Anwar; Al-Nasir, Farh

    2002-12-01

    Bio-monitoring of air quality in Amman City was investigated by analyzing 36 cypress tree (Cupressus semervirens L.) bark samples from three sites of different anthropogenic activities at the end of summer season 2001. Cypress barks were found to be a good bio-indicator for air pollution in arid regions. Variation in Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Cu contents between sites was observed due to different types of activities. Traffic emissions were found to be the main source of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of Amman. Lead content was found to be the highest in highly traffic density areas. The industrial part of the city was characterized by high Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Co contents. No significance variations were found in pH values of the bark between the sites. This was attributed to buffering effect of carbonate in the atmosphere originated from soil of the area.

  5. Atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentrations at ten sites with contrasting land use in an arid region of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric concentrations of reactive nitrogen species (Nr from 2009 to 2011 are reported for ten sites in Xinjiang, an arid region in Northwest China. Concentrations of NH3, NO2, particulate ammonium and nitrate (pNH4+ and pNO3 showed large spatial and seasonal variation and averaged 7.71, 9.68, 1.81 and 1.13 μg N m−3, and PM10 concentrations averaged 249.2 μg m−3 across all sites. Lower NH3 concentrations and higher NO2, pNH4+ and pNO3 concentrations were found in winter, reflecting serious air pollution due to domestic heating in winter and other anthropogenic sources such as increased emissions from motor traffic and industry. The order of increasing total concentrations of Nr species was alpine grassland < desert, desert-oasis ecotone < desert in an oasis < farmland < suburban and urban ecosystems. Lower ratios of secondary particles (NH4+ and NO3 were found in the desert and desert-oasis ecotone, while urban and suburban areas had higher ratios, which implies that anthropogenic activities have greatly influenced local air quality and must be controlled.

  6. Quantifying measurement uncertainty in full-scale compost piles using organic micro-pollutant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Bester, Kai

    2014-05-01

    Reductions in measurement uncertainty for organic micro-pollutant concentrations in full scale compost piles using comprehensive sampling and allowing equilibration time before sampling were quantified. Results showed that both application of a comprehensive sampling procedure (involving sample crushing) and allowing one week of equilibration time before sampling reduces measurement uncertainty by about 50%. Results further showed that for measurements carried out on samples collected using a comprehensive procedure, measurement uncertainty was associated exclusively with the analytic methods applied. Application of statistical analyses confirmed that these results were significant at the 95% confidence level. Overall implications of these results are (1) that it is possible to eliminate uncertainty associated with material inhomogeneity and (2) that in order to reduce uncertainty, sampling procedure is very important early in the composting process but less so later in the process.

  7. Study on Application of Novel Flocculating Agent in Treating Refinery Wastewater with High Concentration of Pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Baoji; Qin Bing

    2009-01-01

    After conducting a lot of screening experiments the appropriate flocculating formulations for treating high-con-centration wastewater discharged fi'om a certain refinery were selected. The oil removal rate and COD removal achieved by these flocculating formulations were better than that achieved by the conventional compound formulation consisting of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and polyactylamide (PAA). Addition of an oil/water separating agent to the formulation could improve its oil removal performance to facilitate the oil/water separation of the oil-in-water emulsion in the high-concentra-tion wastewater along with improved adaptability of the formulation to the wastewater containing high concentration of pollutants. This flocculating agent has promising prospects for commercial application.

  8. Model assessment of atmospheric pollution control schemes for critical emission regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shixian; An, Xingqin; Liu, Zhao; Sun, Zhaobin; Hou, Qing

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the atmospheric environment in portions of China has become significantly degraded and the need for emission controls has become urgent. Because more international events are being planned, it is important to implement air quality assurance targeted at significant events held over specific periods of time. This study sets Yanqihu (YQH), Beijing, the location of the 2014 Beijing APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) summit, as the target region. By using the atmospheric inversion model FLEXPART, we determined the sensitive source zones that had the greatest impact on the air quality of the YQH region in November 2012. We then used the air-quality model Models-3/CMAQ and a high-resolution emissions inventory of the Beijing-Tianjian-Hebei region to establish emission reduction tests for the entire source area and for specific sensitive source zones. This was achieved by initiating emission reduction schemes at different ratios and different times. The results showed that initiating a moderate reduction of emissions days prior to a potential event is more beneficial to the air quality of Beijing than initiating a high-strength reduction campaign on the day of the event. The sensitive source zone of Beijing (BJ-Sens) accounts for 54.2% of the total source area of Beijing (BJ), but its reduction effect reaches 89%-100% of the total area, with a reduction efficiency 1.6-1.9 times greater than that of the entire area. The sensitive source zone of Huabei (HuaB-Sens.) only represents 17.6% of the total area of Huabei (HuaB), but its emission reduction effect reaches 59%-97% of the entire area, with a reduction efficiency 4.2-5.5 times greater than that of the total area. The earlier that emission reduction measures are implemented, the greater the effect they have on preventing the transmission of pollutants. In addition, expanding the controlling areas to sensitive provinces and cities around Beijing (HuaB-sens) can significantly accelerate the reduction

  9. Application of α-β-γ filtering to real-time atmosphere methane concentration measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kan Rui-Feng; Liu Wen-Qing; Zhang Yu-Jun; Liu Jian-Guo; Chen Dong; Wang Min

    2006-01-01

    A real time α-β-γ filtering technique is applied to the monitoring of atmosphere CH4 based on a tunable diode laser spectrum system operating at 1.654μm. This technique is developed for improving the sensitivity and precision of CH4 concentration measurement with slow concentration change. The effectiveness of this technique is evaluated by performing CH4 concentration measurement and using it to monitor the varying methane level in the atmosphere. It was proved that signal noise ratio enhancement factor is 4.25. The comparison between this filter and moving average is also included in this article. It indicates the advantage of the α-β-γ real time filter.

  10. Relationship between atmospheric ammonia concentration and nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2014-01-01

    From April 2006 to April 2007, the geographical and seasonal variation in nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa) and atmospheric ammonia concentrations were measured at five heathland sites. The seasonal variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was small, even though...... there was a large seasonal variation in the air concentration of ammonia. A sizable local variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was found even at the scale of a few kilometres. The nitrogen content in the lichen showed a high correlation to the yearly mean value of the measured ammonia concentration...

  11. Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in California women’s serum and residential dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Smith, Sabrina Crispo; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto X.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Metayer, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through various routes, including consumption of contaminated food and accidental ingestion of settled dust. Objectives We aimed to identify key routes of exposure to organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in California women of reproductive age. Methods Blood was collected from 48 mothers participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study from 2006–2007 and analyzed for POPs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression models of natural-log transformed serum concentrations were used to identify determinants of exposure from available questionnaire information on dietary habits, reproductive history, and demographic characteristics, as well as vacuum cleaner dust-POP levels. Results After adjusting for blood lipid levels, age, body mass index, cumulative lactation, and sampling date, serum concentrations of multiple major PCBs were positively associated with fish consumption, but not dust-PCB levels. After adjusting for blood lipid levels, Hispanic ethnicity, country of origin, and household annual income, serum concentrations of multiple major PBDEs were positively associated with dust-PBDE levels. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the relative contribution of specific exposure routes to total POP intake varies by chemical class, with dust being a relatively important source of PBDEs and diet being a relatively important source of PCBs. PMID:25460621

  12. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations before 2.2 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, R.; Kuo, P. H.; Holland, H. D.

    1995-01-01

    The composition of the Earth's early atmosphere is a subject of continuing debate. In particular, it has been suggested that elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide would have been necessary to maintain normal surface temperatures in the face of lower solar luminosity in early Earth history. Fossil weathering profiles, known as palaeosols, have provided semi-quantitative constraints on atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (pO2) before 2.2 Gyr ago. Here we use the same well studied palaeosols to constrain atmospheric pCO2 between 2.75 and 2.2 Gyr ago. The observation that iron lost from the tops of these profiles was reprecipitated lower down as iron silicate minerals, rather than as iron carbonate, indicates that atmospheric pCO2 must have been less than 10(-1.4) atm--about 100 times today's level of 360 p.p.m., and at least five times lower than that required in one-dimensional climate models to compensate for lower solar luminosity at 2.75 Gyr. Our results suggest that either the Earth's early climate was much more sensitive to increases in pCO2 than has been thought, or that one or more greenhouse gases other than CO2 contributed significantly to the atmosphere's radiative balance during the late Archaean and early Proterozoic eons.

  13. Analysis of influence of atmosphere extinction to Raman lidar monitoring CO2 concentration profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pei-Tao; Zhang Yin-Chao; Wang Lian; Zhao Yue-Feng; Su Jia; Fang Xin; Cao Kai-Fa; Xie Jun; Du Xiao-Yong

    2007-01-01

    Lidar (Light detection and ranging) system monitoring of the atmosphere is a novel and powerful technique tool. The Raman lidar is well established today as a leading research tool in the study of numerous important areas in the atmospheric sciences. In this paper, the principle of Raman lidar technique measurement CO2 concentration profile is presented and the errors caused by molecular and aerosol extinction for CO2 concentration profile measurement with Raman lidar are also presented. The standard atmosphere extinction profile and 'real-time' Hefei area extinction profile are used to conduct correction and the corresponding results are yielded. Simulation results with standard atmosphere mode correction indicate that the errors caused by molecule and aerosol extinction should be counted for the reason that they could reach about 8 ppm and 5 ppm respectively. The relative error caused by Hefei area extinction correction could reach about 6%. The errors caused by the two components extinction influence could produce significant changes for CO2 concentration profile and need to be counted in data processing which could improve the measurement accuracies.

  14. Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: the international experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Miquel; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballester, Ferran; Selva, Javier; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Llop, Sabrina; López, Tomàs

    2008-05-01

    Assessing the adverse effects on human health of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the impact of policies aiming to reduce human exposure to POPs warrants monitoring body concentrations of POPs in representative samples of subjects. While numerous ad hoc studies are being conducted to understand POPs effects, only a few countries are conducting nationwide surveillance programs of human concentrations of POPs, and even less countries do so in representative samples of the general population. We tried to identify all studies worldwide that analyzed the distribution of concentrations of POPs in a representative sample of the general population, and we synthesized the studies' main characteristics, as design, population, and chemicals analyzed. The most comprehensive studies are the National Reports on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (USA), the German Environmental Survey, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Population-wide studies exist as well in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Flanders (Belgium) and the Canary Islands (Spain). Most such studies are linked with health surveys, which is a highly-relevant additional strength. Only the German and Flemish studies analyzed POPs by educational level, while studies in the USA offer results by ethnic group. The full distribution of POPs concentrations is unknown in many countries. Knowledge gaps include also the interplay of age, gender, period and cohort effects on the prevalence of exposures observed by cross-sectional surveys. Local and global efforts to minimize POPs contamination, like the Stockholm convention, warrant nationwide monitoring of concentrations of POPs in representative samples of the general population. Results of this review show how such studies may be developed and used.

  15. Effects of nitrate concentration in interstitial water on the bioremediation of simulated oil-polluted shorelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient addition has been proved to be an effective strategy to enhance oil biodegradation in marine shorelines. To determine the optimal range of nutrient concentrations in the bioremediation of oil-polluted beaches, nitrate was added to the simulated shoreline models in the initial concentration of 1, 5 and 10 mg/L. Whenever the NO3-N concentration declined to 70% of its original value, additional nutrients were supplemented to maintain a certain range. Results showed adding nutrients increased the oil biodegradation level, the counts of petroleum degrading bacteria (PDB) and heterotrophic bacteria (HB), and the promoted efficiency varied depending on the concentration of nitrate. Oil degradation level in 5 mg/L (NO3-N) group reached as much as 84.3% accompanied with the consistently highest counts of PDB; while in 1 mg/L group oil removal efficiency was only 35.2%, and the numbers of PDB and HB were relatively low compared to the other groups supplemented with nutrients. Although counts of HB in the 10 mg/L group were remarkable, lower counts of PDB resulted in poorer oil removal efficiency (70.5%) compared to 5 mg/L group. Furthermore, it would need more NO3-N (0.371 mg) to degrade 1 mg diesel oil in the 10 mg/L group than in the 5 mg/L group (0.197 mg). In conclusion, Nitrate concentration in 5 mg/L is superior to 1 and 10 mg/L in the enhancement of diesel oil biodegradation in simulated shorelines.

  16. Atmospheric trace elements at Enewetak Atoll. I Concentrations, sources, and temporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duce, R. A.; Arimoto, R.; Ray, B. J.; Unni, C. K.; Harder, P. J.

    1983-06-01

    The concentrations of 29 elements in aerosol particles collected in 1979 during Searex (Sea/Air Exchange) experiments at Enewetak Atoll (11 deg N, 162 deg E), in the tropical North Pacific, are measured. The concentrations of Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, and Br are dominated by marine sources; the elements have similar mass-size distributions, and their atmospheric concentration ratios (normalized to Na) are similar to the corresponding ratios in bulk seawater. Atmospheric inputs of aluminosilicate particles from crustal weathering are found to control the aerosol particle concentration of Al, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co, Cs, Ba, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta, and Th. The mean concentrations of these crustally derived elements decrease by an average of 91 percent (+ or - 4.1 percent) from the local dry season (April to May) to the wet season (July to August); this general decrease is attributed to the abatement of dust storms in Asia. At times, the influx of dust from Asia dominates the concentrations of V, Cr, Rb, and Cu in aerosol particles, but when dust concentrations decrease, noncrustal sources for these elements manifest themselves.

  17. Radiation and atmospheric circulation controls on carbonyl sulfide concentrations in the marine boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, M.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Cosgrove, A.; Peters, A. J.; Johnson, R.; Hayden, M.; Montzka, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    A potential closure of the global carbonyl sulfide (COS or OCS) budget has recently been attained through a combination of remote sensing, modeling, and extended surface measurements. However, significant uncertainties in the spatial and temporal dynamics of the marine flux still persist. In order to isolate the terrestrial photosynthetic component of the global atmospheric OCS budget, tighter constraints on the marine flux are needed. We present 6 months of nearly continuous in situ OCS concentrations from the North Atlantic during the fall and winter of 2014-2015 using a combination of research vessel and fixed tower measurements. The data are characterized by synoptic-scale ˜100 pmol mol-1 variations in marine boundary layer air during transitions from subtropical to midlatitude source regions. The synoptic OCS variability is shown here to be a linear function of the radiation history along an air parcel's trajectory with no apparent sensitivity to the chlorophyll concentration of the surface waters that the air mass interacted with. This latter observation contradicts expectations and suggests a simple radiation limitation for the combined direct and indirect marine OCS emissions. Because the concentration of OCS in the marine boundary layer is so strongly influenced by an air parcel's history, marine and atmospheric concentrations would rarely be near equilibrium and thus even if marine production rates are held constant at a given location, the ocean-atmosphere flux would be sensitive to changes in atmospheric circulation alone. We hypothesize that changes in atmospheric circulation including latitudinal shifts in the storm tracks could affect the marine flux through this effect.

  18. Effect of atmospheric parameters on fine particulate concentration in suburban Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Yao; Wei Liu; Wangkun Chen; Guanghua Wang; Youshi Zeng; Yu Huang; Jun Lin

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted on the effect of atmospheric parameters,including temperature,wind speed,and relative humidity,on fine particulate mass concentrations measured inJiading District of Shanghai,China,during the period from January 2009 to January 2010.A sensitivity analysis was applied to investigate the interaction between atmospheric parameters and particulate mass concentration.The experiment revealed that the concentration of particulates increased with particle size from 0.1 to 1.0μm,and decreased with the increase of particle size from 1.0 to 2.5 μm.The effects of atmospheric parameters on fine mass concentrations were significantly particle size-dependent.The PM1.0-2.5 may come from the size increase of smaller particulates after moisture absorption.And the variation of concentrations of PM0.1-1.0was mainly attributed to the accumulation of PM0.1.The ventilation index and dilution index were calculated on the basis of data collected in December 2009.A correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant relation between these two indexes and the particulate concentration by examining the three particle size ranges,0.0-0.1,0.1-1.0,and 1.0-2.5 μm.The Spearman correlation coefficients that related the ventilation index to the concentration for the three particle size ranges were-0.45,-0.56 and-0.47,respectively,while the coefficients that related the dilution index to the concentration were-0.36,-0.42and-0.45,respectively.

  19. Control of Sewer systems and Wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    On-line measurements of pollutants in the wastewater combined with grey-box modelling are used to estimate the amount of deposits in the sewer system. The pollutant mass flow at the wastewater treatment plant is found to consist of a diurnal profile minus the deposited amount of pollutants...

  20. Short-term forecast of air pollutants' concentrations over the central European part of Russia on the basis of COSMO-ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, G.; Revokatova, A.; Kirsanov, A.; Rivin, G.

    2012-04-01

    A state-of-the-art chemical-transport model COSMO-ART including a mesoscale nonhydrostatic meteorological model COSMO and a model of atmospheric chemistry ART is used to predict concentration of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over the centre of the European part of Russia under different synoptic conditions and with effect of biomass burning. Data on emissions prepared by TNO and concentrations calculated by MOZART are used as boundary and initial conditions in ART. To specify emissions in Moscow megapolis additionally, we started to develop a technology of assimilation of observed concentration. The results of the numerical experiments show that the model is able to simulate adequately the spatial-temporal features of concentration fields. It gives the perspectives to predict pollution of the Moscow megalopolis, taking into account natural and anthropogenic sources under real weather conditions, to carry out case study on assessing the impact of special pollution sources. We would like to thank Bernhard Vogel, Hieke Vogel and their colleagues as well as Christoph Knot for their kind assistance and regular consultations.

  1. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lauros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We carried out column model simulations to study particle fluxes and deposition and to evaluate different particle formation mechanisms at a boreal forest site in Finland. We show that kinetic nucleation of sulphuric acid cannot be responsible for new particle formation alone as the vertical profile of particle number distribution does not correspond to observations. Instead organic induced nucleation leads to good agreement confirming the relevance of the aerosol formation mechanism including organic compounds emitted by biosphere.

    Simulation of aerosol concentration inside the atmospheric boundary layer during nucleation days shows highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing most important characteristics of particle dynamics inside the atmospheric boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles at the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  2. Atmospheric impacts of the 2010 Russian wildfires: integrating modelling and measurements of the extreme air pollution episode in the Moscow megacity region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Konovalov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous wildfires provoked by an unprecedented intensive heat wave caused continuous episodes of extreme air pollution in several Russian cities and densely pullulated regions, including the Moscow megacity region. This paper analyzes the chemical evolution of the atmosphere over the Moscow region during the 2010 heat wave by integrating available ground based and satellite measurements with results of meso-scale modeling. The state-of-the-art CHIMERE CTM is used, which is modified to take into account air pollutant emissions from wildfires and the shielding effect of smoke aerosols. The wild fire emissions are derived from satellite measurements of the fire radiative power and are optimized by assimilating data of ground measurements of carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM10 into the model. It is demonstrated that the optimized simulations reproduce independent observations, which were withheld during the optimisation procedure, quite adequately (specifically, the correlation coefficient of daily time series of CO and PM10 exceeds 0.8 and that inclusion of the fire emissions into the model significantly improves its performance. The results of the analysis show that wildfires were a principal factor causing the observed air pollution episodes associated with the extremely high level of daily mean CO and PM10 concentrations (up to 10 mg m−3 and 700 μg m−3 in the averages over available monitoring sites, respectively in the Moscow region, although accumulation of anthropogenic pollution was also favoured by a stagnant meteorological situation. In contrast, diagnostic model runs indicate that ozone concentrations could reach very high values even without fire emissions which provide "fuel" for ozone formation, but, at the same time, inhibit it as a result of absorption and scattering of solar radiation by smoke aerosols. The analysis of MOPITT CO measurements and of

  3. Passive Sampler for Measurements of Atmospheric Nitric Acid Vapor (HNO3 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric acid (HNO3 vapor is an important nitrogenous air pollutant responsible for increasing saturation of forests with nitrogen and direct injury to plants. The USDA Forest Service and University of California researchers have developed a simple and inexpensive passive sampler for monitoring air concentrations of HNO3. Nitric acid is selectively absorbed on 47-mm Nylasorb nylon filters with no interference from particulate NO3-. Concentrations determined with the passive samplers closely corresponded with those measured with the co-located honeycomb annular denuder systems. The PVC protective caps of standardized dimensions protect nylon filters from rain and wind and allow for reliable measurements of ambient HNO3 concentrations. The described samplers have been successfully used in Sequoia National Park, the San Bernardino Mountains, and on Mammoth Mountain in California.

  4. Association of lead concentration in colostrum, maternal and cord blood with newborn weight in polluted vs. non-polluted areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadi T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning has proven to be one of the most important environmental health problems among developing countries with both direct and indirect effects on human life. Lead is known to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and accumulates in soft and hard tissues. Lead can be excreted in urine, stool, milk, sweat, nails and saliva. During pregnancy and lactation, lead is released from bones into the blood along with Ca2+. The toxic effects of lead on various human tissues have been studied extensively, but few studies have addressed its impact on fetal development during pregnancy. Blood levels of lead are higher in people living in lead-polluted regions. It has been reported that Tehran (central and southern parts is the most problematic city in terms of lead poisoning.Methods: From 86 sets of mothers and newborns in a non-polluted area of rural Rasht, Iran, we examined specimens of maternal blood, cord blood and colostrum (86×3=258 and specimens from 85 sets of mothers and newborns in a polluted area of Tehran, Iran (85×3=255 for lead levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS and analyzed the results by t-test, SPSS, and linear regression.Results: The mean blood lead concentrations of mothers, cord blood of newborns and colostrum were 7.6±4.1, 5.9±3 and 4.2±2.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the non-polluted area and 9.1±8.4, 6.5±5.2 and 5.8±5.5 μg/dl, respectively, in the polluted area. The mean weights of the newborns in non-polluted and polluted areas were 3.2±0.5 kg and 3.2±4.5 kg, respectively.Conclusions: Our data revealed an association between mean concentrations in blood lead of mothers and newborns and between mean concentrations of colostrum lead and newborn blood lead in both areas (p=0.01. There was no association between mean blood lead concentration of mothers with the weight of their newborns (p=0.89.

  5. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants passive sampling for the protection of historic buildings and monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Santis, F.; Fino, A.; Vazzana, C.; Allegrini, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Inquinamento Atmosferico, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    When considering the various possibilities to assess the effects of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} on historic buildings and monuments, a distinction can be made according to the completeness of the scope of the assessment itself. A first approach can be limited to gathering data as they become available through the official bodies established under air quality legislation. This approach is based on a single point measurement where a general purpose monitoring station is located, often quite far from the monument to protect and often without investigating local and temporal variations. A more comprehensive assessment should include a generalisation that covers the territory. This can be made on the basis of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of concentrations and the knowledge of the causes of air pollution. Passive samplers allow the measurement of air quality in numerous sites and to assess the pollutant spatial distribution over a large area with a high resolution. As an application of the method, the spatial distribution of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} in the city of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, has been studied to identify areas of high deposition fluxes in relation to the protection of buildings and monuments of the historic centre. [Italian] E' noto che gli inquinanti presenti in aria, tra questi in particolare l'SO{sub 2} e l'NO{sub 2}, sono causa di danno sui monumenti e sulle opere d'arte. La valutazione dell'impatto di questi due inquinanti viene solitamente effettuata sulla base del monitoraggio eseguito secondo la legislazione vigente ma spesso lontano dal monumento da proteggere. Cio', evidentemente, non consente di valutare correttamente il grado di rischio al quale un monumento e' esposto poiche' non fornisce informazioni sulle variazioni spaziali e temporali dei due inquinanti in prossimita' del monumento stesso. Allo scopo di raccogliere quindi informazioni complete sulla distribuzione degli inquinanti, e

  6. Concentrations and sources of an emerging pollutant,decabromodiphenylethane(DBDPE), in sewage sludge for land application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De la Torre A; Concejero M A; Martínez M A

    2012-01-01

    The presence of an emerging brominated flame retardant,decabromodiphenylethane(DBDPE),has been confirmed in Spanish sewage sludge.Thirty one samples from different urban wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs)were analyzed for this brominated flame retardant.DBDPE was positively identified and quantified in all samples at lower concentrations(47.0 ± 29.7 ng/g dry weight(dw);mean ± SD)than those obtained for decabromodiphenyl ether(BDE-209)(290 ± 236 ng/g dw; mean ± SD)in a previous study.Influence of the WWTP characteristics in the pollutant levels was evaluated.No significant correlations were obtained between DBDPE concentrations and the population or sewage sludge production rate associated with the plants,neither wastewater treatment method.Sources of DBDPE in the sludge were also evaluated.Data indicate a common origin for DBDPE and BDE-209,which may be related to leaching processes during the use and disposal of consumer products containing these chemicals.Nevertheless,DBDPE contents are not influenced by industrial activities,which suggests that the infusion of DBDPE commercial mixture is not a source of this chemical into the environment,and indicates that the use of DBDPE in the Spanish industry is still low compared to deca-BDE.

  7. Sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice concentration forecasts to different atmospheric forcing:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qinghua; LIU Jiping; ZHANG Zhanhai; SUI Cuijuan; XING Jianyong; LI Ming; LI Chunhua; ZHAO Jiechen; ZHANG Lin

    2014-01-01

    A regional Arctic configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MIT-gcm) is used as the coupled ice-ocean model for forecasting sea ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean at the Na-tional Marine Environmental Forecasting Center of China (NMEFC), and the numerical weather prediction from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP GFS) is used as the atmospheric forcing. To improve the sea ice forecasting, a recently developed Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar WRF) model prediction is also tested as the atmospheric forcing. Their forecasting performances are evaluated with two different satellite-derived sea ice concentration products as initializa-tions: (1) the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and (2) the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E). Three synoptic cases, which represent the typical atmospheric circulations over the Arctic Ocean in summer 2010, are selected to carry out the Arctic sea ice numerical forecasting experiments. The evaluations suggest that the forecasts of sea ice concentrations using the Polar WRF atmo-spheric forcing show some improvements as compared with that of the NCEP GFS.

  8. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  9. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Walters, Stacy; Horowitz, Larry W.; Tao, Shu

    2014-11-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  10. Effects of trans-Eurasian transport of anthropogenic pollutants on surface ozone concentrations over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Emmons, L. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Guo, Y.; Tao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Due to a lack of industrialization in Western China, surface air there was, until recently, believed to be relatively unpolluted. However, recent measurements and modeling studies have found high levels of ozone (O3) there. Based on the state-of-the-science global chemical transport model MOZART-4, we identify the origin, pathway, and mechanism of trans-Eurasian transport of air pollutants to Western China in 2000. MOZART-4 generally simulates well the observed surface O3 over inland areas of China. Simulations find surface ozone concentrations over Western China on average to be about 10 ppbv higher than Eastern China. Using sensitivity studies as well as a fully-tagged approach, we find that anthropogenic emissions from all Eurasian regions except China contribute 10-15 ppbv surface O3 over Western China, superimposed upon a 35-40 ppbv natural background. Transport from European anthropogenic sources to Northwestern China results in 2-6 ppbv O3 enhancements in spring and summer. Indian anthropogenic sources strongly influence O3 over the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon. Transport of O3 originating from emissions in the Middle East occasionally reach Western China and increase surface ozone there by about 1-4 ppbv. These influences are of similar magnitude as trans-Pacific and transatlantic transport of O3 and its precursors, indicating the significance of trans-Eurasian ozone transport in hemispheric transport of air pollution. Our study further indicates that mitigation of anthropogenic emissions from Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East could benefit public health and agricultural productivity in Western China.

  11. Temporal Variation in Air Pollution Concentrations and Preterm Birth—A Population Based Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Forsberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of adverse birth outcomes due to exposure to air pollution during gestation. However, recent negative studies are also reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ozone and vehicle exhaust exposure (NO2 on the length of the gestational period and risk of preterm delivery. We used data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry on all vaginally delivered singleton births in the Greater Stockholm area who were conceived during 1987–1995 (n = 115,588. Daily average levels of NO2 (from three measuring stations and ozone (two stations were used to estimate trimester and last week of gestation average exposures. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the two air pollutants and three exposure windows, while logistic regression models were used when analyzing associations with preterm delivery ( < 37 weeks gestation. Five percent were born preterm. The median gestational period was 40 weeks. Higher levels of ozone during the first trimester were associated with shorter gestation as well as with an elevated risk of preterm delivery, the odds ratio from the most complex model was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00–1.13 per 10 μg/m3 increase in the mean daily 8-h maximum concentration. Higher levels of ozone during the second trimester were associated with shorter gestation but the elevated risk of preterm delivery was not statistically significant. Higher levels of ozone and NO2 during the last week of gestation were associated with a shorter duration of gestation and NO2 also with preterm delivery. There were no significant associations between first and second trimester NO2 exposure estimates and studied outcomes. The effect of first trimester ozone exposure, known to cause oxidative stress, was smallest among women who conceived during autumn when vitamin D status, important for fetal health, in Scandinavian women is the highest.

  12. Inverse estimation of radon flux distribution for East Asia using measured atmospheric radon concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, S; Hayashi, R; Moriizumi, J; Yamazawa, H; Tohjima, Y; Mukai, H

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the (222)Rn flux density distribution at surface was estimated in East Asia with the Bayesian synthesis inversion using measurement data and a long-range atmospheric (222)Rn transport model. Surface atmospheric (222)Rn concentrations measured at Hateruma Island in January 2008 were used. The estimated (222)Rn flux densities were generally higher than the prior ones. The area-weighted mean (222)Rn flux density for East Asia in January 2008 was estimated to be 44.0 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The use of the estimated (222)Rn flux density improved the discrepancy of the model-calculated concentrations with the measurements at Hateruma Island.

  13. Inverse constraints for emission fluxes of atmospheric tracers estimated from concentration measurements and Lagrangian transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Patra, Prabir; Breivik, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Lagrangian transport models based on times series of Eulerian fields provide a computationally affordable way of achieving very high resolution for limited areas and time periods. This makes them especially suitable for the analysis of point-wise measurements of atmospheric tracers. We present an application illustrated with examples of greenhouse gases from anthropogenic emissions in urban areas and biogenic emissions in Japan and of pollutants in the Arctic. We asses the algorithmic complexity of the numerical implementation as well as the use of non-procedural techniques such as Object-Oriented programming. We discuss aspects related to the quantification of uncertainty from prior information in the presence of model error and limited number of observations. The case of non-linear constraints is explored using direct numerical optimisation methods.

  14. Urban atmospheric pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean : lessons from the TRANSEMED initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, Agnes; Salameh, Therese; Gaimoz, Cecile; Sauvage, Stephane; Locoge, Nadine; Oztürk, Fatma; Cetin, Banu; Keles, Melek; Afif, Charbel

    2016-04-01

    The East Mediterranean Basin (EMB) is a highly sensitive environment under considerable pressures. Future decadal projections point to the EMB as a possible hot spot of poor air quality and predict a continual and gradual warming in the region, much stronger than other regions. The increase and accumulation of anthropogenic emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from surrounding urban areas, are suspected as one of the key compounding factors of those environmental impacts. The quantification of emission distribution is a challenge, and even more in cities of the EMB where local emission data are sparse. While some highly resolved inventories have been developed at the regional scale in the EMB area for Beirut and Istanbul, their uncertainties are unknown. The paucity of observations in this region, especially for VOCs and PM composition, is a strong limitation to the achievement of evaluated and accurate emission inventories. As part of the TRANSEMED initiative (https://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/index.php/sister-projects/transemed.html), one of our objectives is to develop a systematic source-receptor methodology for emission inventory evaluation. We combine existing and newly collected observations and complementary source-receptor approaches (ie., urban enhancement emission ratios, multivariate models like PMF) in representative areas of the EMB: Beirut (Lebanon), Istanbul (Turkey), Cairo (Egypt) and, more recently, Athens (Greece). Over the past five years a very detailed database of ambient and near-source observations has been built-up especially regarding the composition of gaseous organic carbon. Results show (i) the extremely high levels of pollution for organics, (ii) the dominance of traffic emissions on VOC concentration levels, (iii) the relative poor spatial variability of speciated hydrocarbon traffic emissions regardless of the region, and (iv) the high uncertainty on global emission inventories when compared to observations. For the latter, and

  15. Late Proterozoic rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration inferred from phylogenetic and sulphur-isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, D. E.; Teske, A.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of non-photosynthetic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria was contemporaneous with a large shift in the isotopic composition of biogenic sedimentary sulphides between 0.64 and 1.05 billion years ago. Both events were probably driven by a rise in atmospheric oxygen concentrations to greater than 5-18% of present levels--a change that may also have triggered the evolution of animals.

  16. Dependence of the solubility of atmospheric oxygen in weakly alkaline aqueous solutions on surfactant concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, G. V.; Koksharov, S. A.; Vladimirova, T. V.

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of atmospheric oxygen in solutions of surfactants of different natures at 293 K and pH 8 is determined by gas chromatography. It is found that additives of nonionic surfactants decrease the oxygen content in the solution in the premicellar region and increase its solubility in the micellar region. It is shown that, for anionic surfactants, a decrease in the solubility of O2 is observed over the entire concentration range.

  17. Temporal variations of concentrations of currently used pesticides in the atmosphere of Strasbourg, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schummer, Claude [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse, Equipe de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere (UMR 7515 CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 1, rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Centre de Recherche Public, Sante/Laboratoire National de Sante, Universite du Luxembourg, Campus Limpertsberg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Mothiron, Elodie [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse, Equipe de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere (UMR 7515 CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 1, rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Appenzeller, Brice M.R. [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Centre de Recherche Public, Sante/Laboratoire National de Sante, Universite du Luxembourg, Campus Limpertsberg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Rizet, Anne-Laure [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse, Equipe de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere (UMR 7515 CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 1, rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Wennig, Robert [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Centre de Recherche Public, Sante/Laboratoire National de Sante, Universite du Luxembourg, Campus Limpertsberg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Millet, Maurice, E-mail: millet@illite.u-strasbg.f [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse, Equipe de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere (UMR 7515 CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 1, rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    Atmospheric samples have been collected in Strasbourg between April 18 and May 29, 2007 and were analyzed for 71 current-use pesticides, of which 38 were detected. Average concentrations ranged from 0.09 ng m{sup -3} for Fenarimol to 110.42 ng m{sup -3} for Dimethachlor, which was slightly higher than the concentrations reported from other, comparable agricultural regions. Significant temporal variations were observed for 30 pesticides, and for most of them it could be shown that these were linked to time, temperature or atmospheric pressure. In several cases this helped to identify pesticide application just before or at the beginning of the sampling period, or ongoing treatment. Humidity, in contrast to previous reports, could not be linked to these variations. For the other 8 pesticides, only very little temporal variations were observed. Generally, these concentrations were low (less than 1 ng m{sup -3}), and it was assumed that they are not in use in Alsace at present. - The paper describes the temporal variations of current-use pesticides in the atmosphere of Strasbourg during pesticide application.

  18. Carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla grown under high atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Marques Dos; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2017-01-06

    Photosynthetic organisms may be drastically affected by the future climate projections of a considerable increase in CO2 concentrations. Growth under a high concentration of CO2 could stimulate carbon assimilation-especially in C3-type plants. We used a proteomics approach to test the hypothesis of an increase in the abundance of the enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla plants grown under conditions of high atmospheric CO2. Our strategy allowed the profiling of all Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and associated protein species. Among the 816 isolated proteins, those involved in carbon fixation were found to be the most abundant ones. An increase in the abundance of six key enzymes out of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation was detected in plants grown at a high CO2 concentration. Proteome changes were corroborated by the detection of a decrease in the stomatal aperture and in the vascular bundle area in Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets grown in an environment of high atmospheric CO2. Our proteomics approach indicates a positive metabolic response regarding carbon fixation in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. The slight but significant increase in the abundance of the Calvin enzymes suggests that stomatal closure did not prevent an increase in the carbon assimilation rates.

  19. Removal of priority pollutants from water by means of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María, E-mail: mhijv@unileon.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Molina, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.molina@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Química Avanzada de Cataluña (IQAC), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Schikora, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrik.schikora@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, Michael, E-mail: michael.mueller@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer IGB, Nobelstraße 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bayona, Josep M., E-mail: josep.bayona@cid.csic.es [Instituto de Diagnóstico Ambiental y Estudios del Agua (IDAEA), CID, CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • DBD plasma reactors were used to remove pollutants from aqueous solutions. • Atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol and lindane were studied. • First-order degradation kinetics were observed for all the compounds. • Degradation by-products were identified by GC–MS. • Treatment efficiencies were lower in industrial wastewater than in pure water. -- Abstract: Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the removal of organic micropollutants (atrazine, chlorfenvinfos, 2,4-dibromophenol, and lindane) from aqueous solutions (1–5 mg L{sup −1}) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other a coaxial thin-falling-water-film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments. The kinetic constants (k) were slightly faster in R1 (0.534 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.567 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.802 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.389 min{sup −1} for lindane) than in R2 (0.104 min{sup −1} for atrazine; 0.523 min{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 0.273 min{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 0.294 min{sup −1} for lindane). However, energy efficiencies were about one order of magnitude higher in R2 (89 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for atrazine; 447 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for chlorfenvinfos; 47 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for 2,4-dibromophenol; 50 mg kW{sup −1} h{sup −1} for lindane) than in R1. Degradation by-products of all four compounds were identified in R1. As expected, when the plasma treatment (R1) was applied to industrial wastewater spiked with atrazine or lindane, micropollutant removal was also achieved, although at a lower rate than with aqueous solutions (k = 0.117 min{sup −1} for atrazine; k = 0.061 min{sup −1} for lindane)

  20. Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Zurich, Switzerland--Atmospheric Concentrations and Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbacher, Pascal S; Bogdal, Christian; Gerecke, Andreas C; Glüge, Juliane; Schmid, Peter; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-08-18

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are of concern due to their potential for adverse health effects, bioaccumulation, persistence, and long-range transport. Data on concentrations of SCCPs in urban areas and underlying emissions are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the levels and spatial distribution of SCCPs in air, based on two separate, spatially resolved sampling campaigns in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. SCCP concentrations in air ranged from 1.8 to 17 ng·m(-3) (spring 2011) and 1.1 to 42 ng·m(-3) (spring 2013) with medians of 4.3 and 2.7 ng·m(-3), respectively. Both data sets show that atmospheric SCCP levels in Zurich can vary substantially and may be influenced by a number of localized sources within this urban area. Additionally, continuous measurements of atmospheric concentrations performed at one representative sampling site in the city center from 2011 to 2013 showed strong seasonal variations with high SCCP concentrations in summer and lower levels in winter. A long-term dynamic multimedia environmental fate model was parametrized to simulate the seasonal trends of SCCP concentrations in air and to back-calculate urban emissions. Resulting annual SCCP emissions in the city of Zurich accounted for 218-321 kg, which indicates that large SCCP stocks are present in urban areas of industrialized countries.

  1. Technical Note: Long-term memory effect in the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varotsos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean values of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration derived from in-situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, USA during 1958–2004 (the longest continuous record available in the world are analyzed by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis to detect scaling behavior in this time series. The main result is that the fluctuations of carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit long-range power-law correlations (long memory with lag times ranging from four months to eleven years, which correspond to 1/f noise. This result indicates that random perturbations in the carbon dioxide concentrations give rise to noise, characterized by a frequency spectrum following a power-law with exponent that approaches to one; the latter shows that the correlation times grow strongly. This feature is pointing out that a correctly rescaled subset of the original time series of the carbon dioxide concentrations resembles the original time series. Finally, the power-law relationship derived from the real measurements of the carbon dioxide concentrations could also serve as a tool to improve the confidence of the atmospheric chemistry-transport and global climate models.

  2. Technical Note: Long-term memory effect in the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Efstathiou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean values of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration derived from in-situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, during 1958–2004 (the longest continuous record available in the world are analyzed by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis to detect scaling behavior in this time series. The main result is that the fluctuations of carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit long-range power-law correlations (long memory with lag times ranging from four months to eleven years, which correspond to 1/f noise. This result indicates that random perturbations in the carbon dioxide concentrations give rise to noise, characterized by a frequency spectrum following a power-law with exponent that approaches to one; the latter shows that the correlation times grow strongly. This feature is pointing out that a correctly rescaled subset of the original time series of the carbon dioxide concentrations resembles the original time series. Finally, the power-law relationship derived from the real measurements of the carbon dioxide concentrations could also serve as a tool to improve the confidence of the atmospheric chemistry-transport and global climate models.

  3. [Study on number concentration distribution of atmospheric ultrafine particles in Hangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Fang; Sun, Zai; Fu, Zhi-Min; Yang, Wen-Jun; Lin, Jian-Zhong

    2013-02-01

    Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) were measured with fast mobility particle sizer(FMPS) in Hangzhou, during March 2011 to February 2012. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs associated with meteorology were studied. The results showed that the number concentration of UFPs was logarithmic bi-modal distribution, and the seasonal levels presented winter > summer > spring> autumn. The highest monthly average concentration was 3.56 x 10(4) cm-3 in December and the lowest was 2.51 x 10(4) cm-3 in October. The seasonal values of count medium diameter(CMD) were spring > winter > autumn > summer. The highest monthly average CMD was 53. 51 nm in April and the lowest was 16.68 nm in June. Meteorological factors had effects on concentration of UFPs.

  4. Temporal variations in elemental concentrations of atmospheric aerosols in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-05-15

    Measurements are reported of elemental concentrations of airborne particulates in Mexico City and their time variation over a one-week period in the spring of 1988. Proton-induced X-ray emission analysis, PIXE, was used to analyse the atmospheric aerosols which were bombarded with 2.5 MeV protons from the 12 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, ININ. Variations in the elemental concentrations were observed over the time period studied. An intercomparison was made in the case of the element lead with PIXE results obtained at the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, CNL, University of California for the same set of samples. Excellent agreement was obtained both for the time variation of the relative concentration and the absolute lead concentrations. These results give added confidence to the protocol adopted at ININ. (Author)

  5. A comparison of strategies for estimation of ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban air pollution monitoring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggente, Matteo; Peters, Jan; Theunis, Jan; Van Poppel, Martine; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Kumar, Prashant

    2015-04-01

    We propose three estimation strategies (local, remote and mixed) for ultrafine particles (UFP) at three sites in an urban air pollution monitoring network. Estimates are obtained through Gaussian process regression based on concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NOx, O3, CO) and UFP. As local strategy, we use local measurements of gaseous pollutants (local covariates) to estimate UFP at the same site. As remote strategy, we use measurements of gaseous pollutants and UFP from two independent sites (remote covariates) to estimate UFP at a third site. As mixed strategy, we use local and remote covariates to estimate UFP. The results suggest: UFP can be estimated with good accuracy based on NOx measurements at the same location; it is possible to estimate UFP at one location based on measurements of NOx or UFP at two remote locations; the addition of remote UFP to local NOx, O3 or CO measurements improves models' performance.

  6. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vorkamp, Katrin; Skov, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (North Greenland) in the period 2008-2013. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs at the same site have been previously reported for the years 2008-2010. The detection frequency and the average concentrations of OCPs have not significantly changed since the previous study. PBDE congeners (∑13PBDEs) were measured for the first time in North Greenland at concentrations similar to those observed for other remote sites, confirming that these compounds are ubiquitous in the Northern Hemisphere. The ∑13PBDEs concentration ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 6.26 pg m(-3). The BDE congeners found in more than 30% of the samples were BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-71, BDE-99 and BDE-100. Also for neutral PFAS we present for the first time a multiyear series of measurements for North Greenland. The average sum of the seven measured neutral PFAS (∑7PFAS) ranged from 1.82 to 32.1 pg m(-3). The most abundant compound was 8:2 FTOH (44% of ∑7PFAS), followed by 6:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanols (FOSE) were also detected but at much lower concentrations than FTOHs. Temporal trends were investigated for all measured compounds but no significant trend in concentration was observed. Monthly average concentrations for the six years were calculated for each compound and the seasonal variation was investigated. Some OCPs and FTOHs showed seasonal variations, and in most cases a maximum was found during summer.

  7. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on somatic and germ cells of Tradescantia pallida (Rose D.R. HUNT cv. purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO A. CRISPIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical alterations in leaves and DNA damage in cells caused by the accumulation of atmospheric pollutants can be measured by epidermal leaf analyses and Tradescantia micronuclei assay with early pollen tetrad cells. The present study examined the feasibility of using somatic and germ cells of Tradescantia pallida for biomonitoring purposes in the city of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, Brazil. Stomatal, micronucleus and epidermal leaf analyses were performed, using standard methodologies, on plants growing at three locations during six different time periods. Tradescantia micronuclei data were analyzed using SAS 9.2 software package and stomatal data were analyzed using SANEST software. Analyses of stomatal characteristics and micronuclei examination in T. pallida were found to be an efficient tool for monitoring atmospheric pollution. The micronucleus assay suggested that the number of micronuclei in early pollen tetrad cells was related to the intensity of vehicular traffic. Increased number of epidermal cells and stomata and increased stomatal density observed at locations with greater vehicular traffic are likely physiological responses of those plants to the increased gas exchange in highly polluted environments.

  8. Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Cooper, D.M., E-mail: cooper@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Mills, G., E-mail: gmi@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.no [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Thoeni, L., E-mail: lotti.thoeni@fub-ag.ch [FUB-Research Group for Environmental Monitoring, Alte Jonastrasse 83, 8640 Rapperswil (Switzerland); Aboal, J.R., E-mail: jesusramon.aboal@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.it [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Carballeira, A., E-mail: alejo.carballeira@usc.es [University of Santiago de Compostela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.be [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Tervuren (Belgium); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.lv [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Riga (Latvia); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.es [Univ. of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In 2005/6, nearly 3000 moss samples from (semi-)natural location across 16 European countries were collected for nitrogen analysis. The lowest total nitrogen concentrations in mosses (<0.8%) were observed in northern Finland and northern UK. The highest concentrations ({>=}1.6%) were found in parts of Belgium, France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia and Bulgaria. The asymptotic relationship between the nitrogen concentrations in mosses and EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition (averaged per 50 km x 50 km grid) across Europe showed less scatter when there were at least five moss sampling sites per grid. Factors potentially contributing to the scatter are discussed. In Switzerland, a strong (r{sup 2} = 0.91) linear relationship was found between the total nitrogen concentration in mosses and measured site-specific bulk nitrogen deposition rates. The total nitrogen concentrations in mosses complement deposition measurements, helping to identify areas in Europe at risk from high nitrogen deposition at a high spatial resolution. - Highlights: > Nitrogen concentrations in mosses were determined at ca. 3000 sites across Europe. > Moss concentrations were compared with EMEP modelled nitrogen deposition. > The asymptotic relationship for Europe showed saturation at ca. 15 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. > Linear relationships were found with measured nitrogen deposition in some countries. > Moss concentrations complement deposition measurements at high spatial resolution. - Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Production Responsibility on the Basis of comparing in Situ and mean CO2 Atmosphere Concentration Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, S Cht; Vachev, B

    2008-01-01

    The method is proposed for estimation of regional CO2 and other greenhouses and pollutants production responcibility. The comparison of CO2 local emissions reduction data with world CO2 atmosphere data will permit easy to judge for overall effect in curbing not only global warming but also chemical polution.

  10. The diversification of Paleozoic fire systems and fluctuations in atmospheric oxygen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew C; Glasspool, Ian J

    2006-07-18

    By comparing Silurian through end Permian [approximately 250 million years (Myr)] charcoal abundance with contemporaneous macroecological changes in vegetation and climate we aim to demonstrate that long-term variations in fire occurrence and fire system diversification are related to fluctuations in Late Paleozoic atmospheric oxygen concentration. Charcoal, a proxy for fire, occurs in the fossil record from the Late Silurian (approximately 420 Myr) to the present. Its presence at any interval in the fossil record is already taken to constrain atmospheric oxygen within the range of 13% to 35% (the "fire window"). Herein, we observe that, as predicted, atmospheric oxygen levels rise from approximately 13% in the Late Devonian to approximately 30% in the Late Permian so, too, fires progressively occur in an increasing diversity of ecosystems. Sequentially, data of note include: the occurrence of charcoal in the Late Silurian/Early Devonian, indicating the burning of a diminutive, dominantly rhyniophytoid vegetation; an apparent paucity of charcoal in the Middle to Late Devonian that coincides with a predicted atmospheric oxygen low; and the subsequent diversification of fire systems throughout the remainder of the Late Paleozoic. First, fires become widespread during the Early Mississippian, they then become commonplace in mire systems in the Middle Mississippian; in the Pennsylvanian they are first recorded in upland settings and finally, based on coal petrology, become extremely important in many Permian mire settings. These trends conform well to changes in atmospheric oxygen concentration, as predicted by modeling, and indicate oxygen levels are a significant control on long-term fire occurrence.

  11. Atmospheric deposition, operational report for air pollution 2003. NOVA 2003; Atmosfaerisk deposition, driftsrapport for Luftforurening i 2003 NOVA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Hertel, O.; Ambelas Skjoeth, C.; Kemp, K.; Monies, C.

    2004-12-01

    This report presents measurements and calculations from the atmospheric part of NOVA 2003 and covers results for 2003. It summarises the main results concerning concentrations and depositions of nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur compounds related to eutrofication and acidification and selected heavy metals. Depositions of atmospheric compounds to Danish marine waters as well as land surface are presented. The measurements in the monitoring programme are supplemented with model calculations of concentrations and depositions of nitrogen and sulphur compounds to Danish land surfaces as well as marine waters, fjords and bays using the ACDEP model (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). The model is a so-called trajectory model and simulates the physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere using meteorological and emission data input. (BA)

  12. Monitoring atmospheric pollutants in the biosphere reserve Wienerwald by a combined approach of biomonitoring methods and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krommer, Viktoria; Zechmeister, Harald G; Roder, Ingrid; Scharf, Sigrid; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    In this study a combined approach of bioindication results correlated with an extensive set of data on air pollution and climate was used to assess the pollution status of the Man and Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald (Austria). Bryophytes served as impact indicators (via the Index of Atmospheric Purity-method IAP) at 30 sites as well as accumulation monitors for airborne trace elements (Al, Pb, V, S, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Mo, Cd, As, Sb and 16 EPA-PAHs) at 10 sites within the reserve. The results of these bioindication methods were subsequently correlated with further pollution (NO(2), SO(2) and dust) and climate data (precipitation, temperature and humidity). The findings obtained clearly indicate the following: Bryophyte distribution is solely influenced by the status of air quality, without interference by climatic or site-related factors, which is in contrast to several previous investigations. IAP-values correlated significantly with NO(2) (0.553; P=0.004), SO(2) winter values (0.511; P=0.013) and PM10 (dust) (0.561; P=0.013). The results obtained via chemical analyses revealed a strong correlation with data derived from the IAP methodology. In terms of the overall air quality within the biosphere reserve Wienerwald, the north-eastern part appears to be the most affected one with a most likely pollution contribution emitted by the capital city Vienna, agriculture and neighbouring countries.

  13. A field study to evaluate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Jianghai

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff and to provide reference data for the engineering design of dual substrate layer green roofs. The data were collected from eight different trays under three kinds of artificial rains. The results showed that except for total phosphorus, dual substrate layer green roofs behaved as a sink for most of the nutrient pollutants (significant at p < 0.05), and the first-flush effect did not occur during the 27 simulated rain events. The results also revealed that the concentration of these nutrient pollutants in the runoff strongly depended on the features of the nutrient substrates used in the green roof and the depth of the adsorption substrates. Compared with the influence of the substrates, the influence of the plant density and drainage systems was small.

  14. Atmospheric speciated mercury concentrations on an island between China and Korea: sources and transport pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-S. Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a global pollutant, mercury (Hg is of particular concern in East Asia where anthropogenic emissions are the largest. In this study, speciated Hg concentrations were measured in the western most island in Korea, located between China and the Korean mainland to identify the importance of local, regional and distant Hg sources. Various tools including correlations with other pollutants, conditional probability function, and back-trajectory based analysis consistently indicated that Korean sources were important for gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM whereas, for total gaseous mercury (TGM and particulate bound mercury (PBM, long-range and regional transport were also important. A trajectory cluster based approach considering both Hg concentration and the fraction of time each cluster was impacting the site was developed to quantify the effect of Korean sources and out-of-Korean source. This analysis suggests that Korean sources contributed approximately 55 % of the GOM and PBM while there were approximately equal contributions from Korean and out-of-Korean sources for the TGM measured at the site. The ratio of GOM / PBM decreased when the site was impacted by long-range transport, suggesting that this ratio may be a useful tool for identifying the relative significance of local sources vs. long-range transport. The secondary formation of PBM through gas-particle partitioning with GOM was found to be important at low temperatures and high relative humidity.

  15. Gaseous elemental mercury concentration in atmosphere at urban and remote sites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhang-wei; CHEN Zuo-shuai; DUAN Ning; ZHANG Xiao-shan

    2007-01-01

    An investigation of gaseous elemental mercury concentration in atmosphere was conducted at Beijing and Guangzhou urban, Yangtze Delta regional sites and China Global Atmosphere Watch Baseline Observatory (CGAWBO) in Mt. Waliguan of remote continental area of China. High temporal resolved data were obtained using automated mercury analyzer RA-915+. Results showed that the overall hourly mean Hg0 concentrations in Mt. Waliguan were 1.7± 1.1 ng/m3 in summer and 0.6±0.08 ng/m3 in winter. The concentration in Yangtze Delta regional site was 5.4±4.1 ng/m3, which was much higher than those in Waliguan continental background area and also higher than that found in North America and Europe rural areas. In Beijing urban area the overall hourly mean Hg0 concentrations were 8.3±3.6 ng/m3 in winter, 6.5±5.2 ng/m3 in spring, 4.9±3.3 ng/m3 in summer, and 6.7±3.5 ng/m3 in autumn, respectively, and the concentration was 13.5±7.1 ng/m3 in Guangzhou site. The mean concentration reached the lowest value at 14:00 and the highest at 02:00 or 20:00 in all monitoring campaigns in Beijing and Guangzhou urban areas, which contrasted with the results measured in Yangtze Delta regional site and Mt. Waliguan. The features of concentration and diurnal variation of Hg0 in Beijing and Guangzhou implied the importance of local anthropogenic sources in contributing to the high Hg0 concentration in urban areas of China. Contrary seasonal variation patterns of Hg0 concentration were found between urban and remote sites. In Beijing the highest Hg0concentration was in winter and the lowest in summer, while in Mt. Waliguan the Hg0 concentration in summer was higher than that in winter. These indicated that different processes and factors controlled Hg0 concentration in urban, regional and remote areas.

  16. The role and importance of ozone for atmospheric chemistry and methods for measuring its concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dragan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on where ozone resides, it can protect or harm life on Earth. The thin layer of ozone that surrounds Earth acts as a shield protecting the planet from irradiation by UV light. When it is close to the planet's surface, ozone is a powerful photochemical oxidant that damage, icons frescos, museum exhibits, rubber, plastic and all plant and animal life. Besides the basic properties of some methods for determining the ozone concentration in working and living conditions, this paper presents a detailed description of the electrochemical method. The basic properties of the electrochemical method are used in the construction of mobile equipment for determining the sum of oxidants in the atmosphere. The equipment was used for testing the determination of the ozone concentration in working rooms, where the concentration was at a high level and caused by UV radiation or electrostatic discharge. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that this equipment for determining the ozone concentration in the atmosphere is very powerful and reproducible in measurements.

  17. Ambient concentrations of atmospheric ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid in an intensive agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbieranowski, Antoni L.; Aherne, Julian

    2013-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of ambient atmospheric gaseous reactive nitrogen (Nr) species concentrations (ammonia [NH3], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and nitric acid [HNO3]) were measured at the field scale in an intensive agricultural region in southern Ontario, Canada. Atmospheric concentrations were measured with the Willems badge diffusive passive sampler (18 sites for NH3, 9 sites for NO2 and HNO3) for one year (April 2010-March 2011; under a two week measurement frequency) within a 15 km × 15 km area. Dry deposition was calculated using the inferential method and estimated across the entire study area. The spatial distribution of emission sources associated with agricultural activity resulted in high spatial variability in annual average ambient NH3 concentrations (8 μg m-3 within a 2 km distance, coefficient of variation ˜50%) and estimated dry deposition (4-13 kg N ha-1 yr-1) between sample sites. In contrast, ambient concentrations and deposition of both NO2 (˜5.2->6.5 μg m-3; 1.0-1.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and HNO3 (0.6-0.7 μg m-3; 0.5-1 kg N ha-1 yr-1) had low variability (coefficient of variation mycorrhiza and ground vegetation within adjacent semi-natural ecosystems (estimated at ˜10% of the study area).

  18. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychloronaphthalenes in Nuuk, South-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Skov, Henrik; Vorkamp, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) were measured for the first time in Nuuk, Greenland in 2004 and 2005. The annual mean concentrations af the measured OCs were: α-HCH 20.2 pg m-3, Υ-HCH (lindane) 5......-HCH, which had maximum concentration in August in both years. The average annual mean for ΣPBDEs was 1.14 ± 0.81 pg m-3. The predominant congeners measured in Nuuk were BDE-47 and BDE-99 followed by BDE-100, -153 and -28, indicating the use of penta-BDE technical products as the main source. A clear seasonal......) and the penta-PCNs (18% of the annual mean). A seasonal trend for ∑PCNs was not observed. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature and anthropogenic CO in order to obtain information about their transport pattern. Positive correlations were found between CO...

  19. Association between the concentration of fine particles in the atmosphere and acute respiratory diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Paula Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between fine particulate matter concentration in the atmosphere and hospital care by acute respiratory diseases in children. METHODS Ecological study, carried out in the region of Grande Vitória, Espírito Santo, in the winter (June 21 to September 21, 2013 and summer (December 21, 2013 to March 19, 2014. We assessed data of daily count for outpatient care and hospitalization by respiratory diseases (ICD-10 in children from zero to 12 years in three hospitals in the Region of Grande Vitória. For collecting fine particulate matter, we used portable samplers of particles installed in six locations in the studied region. The Generalized Additive Model with Poisson distribution, fitted for the effects of predictor covariates, was used to evaluate the relationship between respiratory outcomes and concentration of fine particulate matter. RESULTS The increase of 4.2 µg/m3 (interquartile range in the concentration of fine particulate matter increased in 3.8% and 5.6% the risk of medical care or hospitalization, respectively, on the same day and with six-day lag from the exposure. CONCLUSIONS We identified positive association between outpatient care and hospitalizations of children under 12 years due to acute respiratory diseases and the concentration of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere.

  20. Effect of Pollution Controls on Atmospheric PM2.5 Composition during Universiade in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Dewan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 16th Universiade, an international multi-sport event, was hosted in Shenzhen, China from 12 to 23 August 2011. During this time, officials instituted the Pearl River Delta action plan in order to enhance the air quality of Shenzhen. To determine the effect of these controls, the current study examined the trace elements, water-soluble ions, and stable lead isotopic ratios in atmospheric particulate matter (PM collected during the controlled (when the restrictions were in place and uncontrolled periods. Fine particles (PM2.5 were collected at two sampling sites in Shenzhen: “LG”—a residential building in the Longgang District, with significant point sources around it and “PU”—Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School in the Nanshan District, with no significant point sources. Results from this study showed a significant increase in the concentrations of elements during the uncontrolled periods. For instance, samples at the LG site showed (controlled to uncontrolled periods concentrations (in ng·m−3 of: Fe (152 to 290, As (3.65 to 8.38, Pb (9.52 to 70.8, and Zn (98.6 to 286. Similarly, samples at the PU site showed elemental concentrations (in ng·m−3 of: Fe (114 to 301, As (0.634 to 8.36, Pb (4.86 to 58.1, and Zn (29.5 to 259. Soluble Fe ranged from 7%–15% for the total measured Fe, indicating an urban source of Fe. Ambient PM2.5 collected at the PU site has an average 206Pb/204Pb ratio of 18.257 and 18.260 during controlled and uncontrolled periods, respectively. The LG site has an average 206Pb/204Pb ratio of 18.183 and 18.030 during controlled and uncontrolled periods, respectively. The 206Pb/204Pb ratios at the PU and the LG sites during the controlled and uncontrolled periods were similar, indicating a common Pb source. To characterize the sources of trace elements, principal component analysis was applied to the elements and ions. Although the relative importance of each component varied, the major sources for both

  1. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  2. Inverse modeling for the optimization of primary sources of atmospheric pollution at a regional scale; Modelisation inverse pour l'optimisation des sources primaires de pollution atmospherique a l'echelle regionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pison, I.

    2005-12-15

    Atmospheric pollution at a regional scale is the result of various interacting processes: emissions, chemistry, transport, mixing and deposition of gaseous species. The forecast of air quality is then performed by models, in which the emissions are taken into account through inventories. The simulated pollutant concentrations depend highly on the emissions that are used. Now inventories that represent them have large uncertainties. Since it would be difficult today to improve their building methodologies, there remains the possibility of adding information to existing inventories. The optimization of emissions uses the information that is available in measurements to get the inventory that minimizes the difference between simulated and measured concentrations. A method for the inversion of anthropogenic emissions at a regional scale, using network measurements and based on the CHIMERE model and its adjoint, was developed and validated. A kriging technique allows us to optimize the use of the information available in the concentration space. Repeated kriging-optimization cycles increase the quality of the results. A dynamical spatial aggregation technique makes it possible to further reduce the size of the problem. The NO{sub x} emissions from the inventory elaborated by AIRPARIF for the Paris area were inverted during the summers of 1998 and 1999, the events of the ESQUIF campaign being studied in detail. The optimization reduces large differences between simulated and measured concentrations. Generally, however, the confidence level of the results decreases with the density of the measurement network. Therefore, the results with the higher confidence level correspond to the most intense emission fluxes of the Paris area. On the whole domain, the corrections to the average emitted mass and to the matching time profiles are consistent with the estimate of 15% obtained during the ESQUIF campaign. (author)

  3. Intra-seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 concentrations over India during summer monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, K.; Valsala, Vinu; Tiwari, Yogesh K.; Revadekar, J. V.; Pillai, Prasanth; Chakraborty, Supriyo; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2016-10-01

    In a study based on a data assimilation product of the terrestrial biospheric fluxes of CO2 over India, the subcontinent was hypothesized to be an anomalous source (sink) of CO2 during the active (break) spells of rain in the summer monsoon from June to September (Valsala et al., 2013). We test this hypothesis here by investigating intraseasonal variability in the atmospheric CO2 concentrations over India by utilizing a combination of ground-based and satellite observations and model outputs. The results show that the atmospheric CO2 concentration also varies in synchrony with the active and break spells of rainfall with amplitude of ±2 ppm which is above the instrumental uncertainty of the present day techniques of atmospheric CO2 measurements. The result is also consistent with the signs of the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) flux anomalies estimated in our earlier work. The study thus offers the first observational affirmation of the above hypothesis although the data gap in the satellite measurements during monsoon season and the limited ground-based stations over India still leaves some uncertainty in the robust assertion of the hypothesis. The study highlights the need to capture these subtle variabilities and their responses to climate variability and change since it has implications for inverse estimates of terrestrial CO2 fluxes.

  4. Source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants based on the online data by using PMF and ME2 models at a megacity, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshuang; Yang, Jiamei; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Jiao; Dai, Qili; Li, Tingkun; Bi, Xiaohui; Feng, Yinchang; Xiao, Zhimei; Zhang, Yufen; Xu, Hong

    2017-03-01

    From 1st June to 31st August 2015, the online datasets (the water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), OC and EC in PM2.5, and SO2, NO2, NO) were measured continuously at Tianjin. Source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants was carried out by using PMF and ME2 models based on the online datasets. During summer in Tianjin, the ammonium sulfate/ammonium hydrogen sulfate might be major forms of sulfate in the atmospheric aerosol, while the ammonium nitrate might be major forms of nitrate. The poor correlation between OC and EC might be caused by the changes of emission sources and the production of secondary organic carbon (SOC). Five source-categories that contributed to atmospheric pollutants were extracted by PMF and ME2 models, respectively. The profiles calculated by PMF and ME2 models were consistent, and the source contributions estimated by the two models were also similar. The correlations (R2 = 0.84-0.94) were better on the time series of the contributed concentrations for the same source-category calculated from PMF and ME2 models. The source-categories were identified as secondary sources (the contribution of 25.4-26.1%), vehicle exhaust (23.3-25.4%), coal combustion (16.5-18.2%), crustal dust (13.2-14.0%) and biomass burning (9.1-10.2%). For the same source-category identified from PMF and ME2 models, the differences of profiles might be attributed to the differences of calculated methods from the two models and the uncertainties of the online datasets.

  5. Remote sensing applications for diagnostics of the radioactive pollution of the ground surface and in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar; Boyarchuk, Kirill; Laverov, Nikolay

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive pollution due to its air ionization activity can drastically change the atmospheric boundary layer conductivity (what was experimentally proved during period of nuclear tests in atmosphere) and through the global electric circuit produce anomalous variations in atmosphere. As additional effect the ions created due to air ionization serve as centers of water vapor condensation and nucleation of aerosol-size particles. This process is accompanied by latent heat release. Both anomalies (ionospheric and thermal) can be controlled by remote sensing technique both from satellites (IR sensors and ionospheric probes) and from ground (GPS receivers, ground based ionosondes, VLF propagation sounding, ground measurements of the air temperature and humidity). We monitored the majority of transient events (Three-Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant emergencies) and stationary sources such as Gabon natural nuclear reactor, sites of underground nuclear tests, etc. and were able to detect thermal anomalies and for majority of cases - the ionospheric anomalies as well. Immediately after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan we started to continuously survey the long-wavelength energy flux (10-13 microns) measurable at top of the atmosphere from POES/NOAA/AVHRR polar orbit satellites. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of energy flux in atmosphere started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network. We were able to detect with ground based ionosonde the ionospheric anomaly associated with the largest radioactive release on March

  6. Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortelli, Alberto; Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and 500 hpa geopotential heights and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic parameter was the 850 hPa geopotential height, which is located about 1500 m of altitude. We compared local meteorological conditions (specifically wind stress, rain amount and thermal inversion) against the urban air pollution levels from 2009 to 2013. We found several empirical criteria for forecasting high daily PM10 air pollution levels in Naples. Pollution crises occurred when (a) the wind stress was between 1 and 2 m/s, (b) the thermal inversion between two strategic locations was at least 3°C/200 m and (c) it did not significantly rain for at least 7 days. Beside these meteorological conditions, severe pollution crises occurred also during festivals when fireworks and bonfires are lighted, and during anomalous breeze conditions and severe fire accidents. Finally, we propose a basic model to predict PM10 concentration levels from local meteorological conditions that can be easily forecast a few days in advance. The synthetic PM10 record predicted by the model was found to correlate with the PM10 observations with a correlation coefficient close to 0.80 with a confidence level greater than 99%. The proposed model is expected to provide reliable information to city officials to carry out practical strategies to mitigate air pollution effects. Although the proposed model equation is calibrated on the topographical and meteorological conditions of Naples, it should be easily adaptable to alternative locations.

  7. Development of Land Use Regression models for particulate matter and associated components in a low air pollutant concentration airshed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgawati, Mila; Heyworth, Jane S.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; McCaul, Kieran A.; Blake, David; Boeyen, Jonathon; Cope, Martin; Yeap, Bu Beng; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Brunekreef, Bert; Hinwood, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Perth, Western Australia represents an area where pollutant concentrations are considered low compared with international locations. Land Use Regression (LUR) models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5 Absorbance (PM2.5Abs) along with their elemental components: Fe, K, Mn, V, S, Zn and Si were developed for t

  8. Implications of alternative assumptions regarding future air pollution control in scenarios similar to the Representative Concentration Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuwah, C.; van Noije, T.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hazeleger, W.; Strunk, A.; Deetman, S.; Beltran, A.M.; van Vliet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The uncertain, future development of emissions of short-lived trace gases and aerosols forms a key factor for future air quality and climate forcing. The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) only explore part of this range as they all assume that worldwide ambitious air pollution control pol

  9. Possible future scenarios for atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. A simplified thermodynamic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo-Brown, F.; Sanchez-Salas, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, del IPN Edif. 9, U.P. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barranco-Jimenez, M.A. [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Escuela Superior de Computo, del IPN Av., Miguel Bernard s/n., Esq. Juan de Dios Batiz, U.P. Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosales, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Exhacienda Sta., Catarina Martir, Cholula 72820, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-11-15

    Most of the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This is particularly significant in the case of CO{sub 2}. The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} has systematically increased since the Industrial Revolution (260 ppm), with a remarkable raise after the 1970s until the present day (380 ppm). If this increasing tendency is maintained, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that, for the year 2100, the CO{sub 2} concentration can augment up to approximately 675 ppm. In this work it is assumed that the quantity of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted to the Earth's atmosphere is proportional to the quantity of heat rejected to the environment by internal combustion heat engines. It is also assumed that this increasing tendency of CO{sub 2} due to men's activity stems from a mode of energy production mainly based on a maximum-power output paradigm. With these hypotheses, a thermoeconomic optimization of a thermal engine model under two regimes of performance: the maximum-power regime and the so-called ecological function criterion is presented. This last regime consists in maximizing a function that represents a good compromise between high power output and low entropy production. It is showed that, under maximum ecological conditions, the emissions of thermal energy to the environment are reduced approximately up to 50%. Thus working under this mode of performance the slope of the curves of CO{sub 2} concentration, for instance, drastically diminishes. A simple qualitative criterion to design ecological taxes is also suggested. (author)

  10. Atmospheric pollution in the mediterranean area: geochemical studies of aerosols and rain waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caboi, R. [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra; Chester, R. [Oceanography Lab., Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-12-31

    It is now recognised that the atmosphere is a major pathway for the transport of material to the oceans. The material in the atmosphere is present as gaseous and particulate (aerosol) phases. Aerosols may be removed from the atmosphere by a combination of `dry` (i.e. not involving an atmospheric aqueous phase) and `wet` (precipitation scavenging) processes. Thus, aerosols are intimately related to rain waters, and interactions between the two are discusses below in relation to the input of material to the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Experimental Measurements of Concentration Fluctuations and Scales in a Dispersing Plume in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Obtained Using a Very Fast Response Concentration Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    VOLUME 33 Experimental Measurements of Concentration Fluctuations and Scales in a Dispersing Plume in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Obtained Using a...final form 22 December 1993) ABSTRACT High-frequency fluctuations of concentration in a plume dispersing in the atmospheric surface layer have... layer is of critical importance in many industrial and envi- ronmental fluid mechanics problems, ranging from air quality control and regulation of

  12. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulfert, G.

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  13. Variations in atmospheric concentrations and isotopic compositions of gaseous and particulate boron in Shizuoka City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Phan, Hang Giang; Mitsunobu, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    To clarify the partitioning and isotopic fractionation of boron (B) into the gas and particle phases in the atmosphere, the concentrations and isotopic compositions of gaseous and particulate B were measured concurrently for more than one year at a site in Shizuoka City, Japan. This area has few anthropogenic sources of B, such as coal combustion facilities. Gaseous B concentration showed clearly a seasonal variation, increasing during summer and decreasing during winter. Conversely, particulate B concentration tended to decrease during the warm season and increase during winter. The increase in gaseous B concentration during summer is attributable to the enhanced emissions of B from sea-salt degassing owing to higher temperatures and the predominance of winds from the Pacific Ocean. Moreover, the decrease in gaseous B concentration and the increase in particulate B concentration during winter is probably due to the enhanced condensation of gaseous B on atmospheric particles. The δ11B values of gaseous and particulate B varied largely, and did not indicate a distinctive seasonal variation. A positive correlation was observed between the δ11B values of gaseous and particulate B (R2 = 0.518, P < 0.001). Moreover, the δ11B values of particulate B were approximately 0-20‰ lower than those of gaseous B. There is an isotopic fractionation (ΔB(OH)4- -B(OH)3) of about -20‰ between B(OH)3 and B(OH)4- species in solution (Kakihana et al., 1977). This tends to support the hypotheses that gaseous B is transformed to particulate B through the reaction of condensed B(OH)3 with chemical constituents on particles to precipitate borates, and that the condensed B(OH)3 remaining on particles is unstable and evaporates.

  14. Natural attenuation of high concentrations of organic pollutants by biodegradation in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Wang, B.Y.

    2007-01-01

    In view of its relatively low cost, monitored natural attenuation by biodegradation is increasingly relied upon to clean up pollution of soils caused by landfills, industrial activities and major transport and storage related spills. Current policy tends to aim at reducing soil pollution to levels r

  15. Potential ocean–atmosphere preconditioning of late autumn Barents-Kara sea ice concentration anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. King

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have revealed the importance of the climatic state in November on the seasonal climate of the subsequent winter. In particular, it has been shown that interannual variability of sea ice concentration (SIC over the Barents-Kara (BK seas in November is linked to winter atmospheric circulation anomaly that projects on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Understanding the lead–lag processes involving the different components of the climate system from autumn to winter is therefore important. This note presents dynamical interpretation for the ice-ocean–atmosphere relationships that can affect the BK SIC anomaly in late autumn. It is found that cyclonic (anticyclonic wind anomaly over the Arctic in October, by Ekman drift, can be responsible for positive (negative SIC in the BK seas in November. The results also suggest that ocean heat transport via the Barents Sea Opening in September and October can contribute to BK SIC anomaly in November.

  16. Foliar Uptake of Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen Pollution Along an Urban-Rural Gradient in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) pollution in terrestrial ecosystems, and when soil N is limiting, foliar N uptake can be a source of plant-available N. A proxy for pollution derived N, and in particular foliar assimilated N, would be useful to quantify the impact of the foliar uptake pathway on plant metabolism. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (15N/14N) are practical for this purpose because forms of plant-available N often have varying isotopic compositions. However, the mechanisms driving differences in foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) are still unresolved. Current understanding of foliar δ 15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of the soil water solution δ15N, direct foliar uptake of atmospheric reactive N, within-plant fractionations, and fractionation due to the fungus to root transfer in mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the influence of direct foliar uptake, soil solution δ 15N, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in seedlings of two dominant Northeastern tree species, red maple (Acer rubrum) and red oak (Quercus rubra), along an N deposition gradient in New York State. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we compared foliar δ15N values directly to soil solution δ15N values while controlling for mycorrhizal associations. Both species showed higher foliar δ15N when exposed to fractionation by mycorrhizal associations. Overall, A. rubrum showed higher foliar δ15N than Q. rubra across all sites. In both species, patterns of foliar δ15N values were coupled with soil solution δ15N values across the N deposition gradient. Additionally, increasing atmospheric N deposition was correlated with higher foliar δ15N values in Q. rubra, but not in A. rubrum. Using a mixing model, we estimated that Q. rubra seedlings incorporated up to 7% of their assimilated N via direct foliar uptake of atmospheric N pollution. However, foliar uptake was not detectable in A. rubrum seedlings. Results

  17. Trace contaminant concentration affects mineral transformation and pollutant fate in hydroxide-weathered Hanford sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdrial, Nicolas, E-mail: perdrial@email.arizona.edu [Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, 1177 E. Fourth St., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rivera, Nelson [School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Thompson, Aaron [Department of Crop and Soil Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); O' Day, Peggy A. [School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Chorover, Jon [Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, 1177 E. Fourth St., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fate of Sr, Cs and I tracked during hydroxide-weathering of sediments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer pCO{sub 2} and contaminant concentration affected mineral transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodalite/cancrinite formed at {mu}M levels, chabazite at mM levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of CO{sub 2} resulted in calcite dissolution and straetlingite formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace contaminant concentrations modified their own sequestration path. - Abstract: Prior work has shown that when silicaceous sediments are infused with caustic radioactive waste, contaminant fate is tightly coupled to ensuing mineral weathering reactions. However, the effects of local aqueous geochemical conditions on these reactions are poorly studied. Thus, we varied contaminant concentration and pCO{sub 2} during the weathering of previously uncontaminated Hanford sediments over 6 months and 1 year in a solution of caustic waste (pH 13, high ionic strength). Co-contaminants Sr, Cs and I were added at 'low' (Cs/Sr: 10{sup -5} m; I: 10{sup -7} m) and 'high' (Cs/Sr: 10{sup -3} m; I: 10{sup -5} m) concentrations, and headspace was held at atmospheric or undetectable (<10 ppmv) CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Solid phase characterization revealed the formation of the zeolite chabazite in 'high' samples, whereas feldspathoids, sodalite and cancrinite, were formed preferentially in 'low' samples. Sr, Cs and I were sequestered in all reacted sediments. Native calcite dissolution in the CO{sub 2}-free treatment drove the formation of straetlingite (Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}{center_dot}8H{sub 2}O) and diminished availability of Si and Al for feldspathoid formation. Results indicate that pCO{sub 2} and contaminant concentrations strongly affect contaminant speciation in waste-weathered sediments, and are therefore likely to impact reaction product stability under any remediation scenario.

  18. Differences of near-ground atmospheric Rn-222 concentration between urban and rural area with reference to microclimate diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawczyńska, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    A unique 4-year dataset of hourly near-surface meteorological and atmospheric Radon-222 measurements made simultaneously at adjacent rural and urban sites in central Poland are presented and discussed. The annual, seasonal and diurnal variations of Rn-222 concentration were analysed. The magnitude of the urban heat island effect (UHI: difference in 2 m air temperature between the urban and rural regions) was found to be reasonably well correlated with traditional atmospheric stability indicators (i.e. wind speed and near-surface temperature gradient). To better quantify the influence of the UHI on the strength/depth of nocturnal mixing, the rural radon observations were used to classify the nocturnal mixing state regionally on a nightly basis, enabling a comparison between the rural and urban observations over four stability categories ranging from near-neutral to stable. Averaged over the entire dataset, near-neutral nocturnal conditions were characterised by 2 m wind speeds, U2m, of ˜1.3 m s-1 and 2-0.2 m temperature gradients, ΔT, of ˜0.5 °C in the rural region, compared to U2m = 1.15 m s-1 and ΔT = -0.24 °C in the urban region. By comparison, under regionally stable conditions U2m = 0.6 m s-1 and ΔT = 1.5-2.0 °C in the rural region and U2m = 0.8 m s-1 and ΔT = -0.25 °C in the urban region. Between near-neutral to stable conditions, the nocturnal UHI varied from ˜0.8 to 2.4 °C. The higher wind speeds under regionally stable conditions in the urban centre compared to the rural region (25 km distant) indicate that the slightly unstable conditions and UHI = 2.4 °C are sufficient to sustain a meso-scale circulation cell. The effect that the nocturnal urban heating has locally on the atmosphere's ability to dilute primary pollutants at night is indicated by the contrasting diurnal amplitude of radon concentration at each site under regionally stable conditions: ˜9 Bq m-3 in the rural region and ˜2 Bq m-3 in the urban region.

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry Research in New EU Countries. A survey on atmospheric chemistry research and monitoring of air pollution in some new EU Member States and Candidate Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchvarova, E.; Spassova, T.; Valkov, N.; Iordanova, L. [Department of Composition of the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere, National IInstitute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Hjorth, J. (ed.) [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Historically some of the new EU Member States and the Candidate countries experienced high levels of pollution in the past. Enhanced management measures were and are needed to improve the air quality. The present survey on the ongoing air chemistry research is in support to such measures and the incorporation of the EU environmental legislation in the air quality management of these countries. The aim of the survey is to list the current research activities on atmospheric chemistry in these countries, as well as groups and institutions involved in it. The air chemistry plays essential part of air quality and climate change modelling, energy industry planning and health risk assessments. In addition, the air quality monitoring networks and management are briefly discussed, as well as some information on the air pollution modelling research. The ongoing research (field, laboratory and modelling) in the field of chemical transformation of trace compounds in the atmosphere is discussed here and parallels are drown among 10 of the new EU Member States and Candidate Countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia. Laboratory studies traditionally emphasize on rate and equilibrium processes. Field studies are based on aircraft and surface measurements of reaction chemistry, advective influences on the chemical composition of the atmosphere, and air-surface exchange processes. Both types experimental studies on atmospheric chemistry are demanding concerning equipment and resources. Therefore, most of the studies in the field are coming from international projects, EU, ESF or NATO funded. Modelling efforts address both chemistry and dynamics on regional and global scales. The analysis of research activities in those fields is made with regards of the current EU practice in the field and the historical frames in the ten countries of interest. The unique traditions and achievements in

  20. Intercomparison of measurements of NO2 concentrations in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR during the NO3Comp campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fuchs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available NO2 concentrations were measured by various instruments during the NO3Comp campaign at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, in June 2007. Analytical methods included photolytic conversion with chemiluminescence (PC-CLD, broadband cavity ring-down spectroscopy (BBCRDS, pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS, incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBB\\-CEAS, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF. All broadband absorption spectrometers were optimized for the detection of the main target species of the campaign, NO3, but were also capable of detecting NO2 simultaneously with reduced sensitivity. NO2 mixing ratios in the chamber were within a range characteristic of polluted, urban conditions, with a maximum mixing ratio of approximately 75 ppbv. The overall agreement between measurements of all instruments was excellent. Linear fits of the combined data sets resulted in slopes that differ from unity only within the stated uncertainty of each instrument. Possible interferences from species such as water vapor and ozone were negligible under the experimental conditions.

  1. Intercomparison of measurements of NO2 concentrations in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR during the NO3Comp campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Varma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available NO2 concentrations were measured by various instruments during the NO3Comp campaign at the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, in June 2007. Analytic methods included photolytic conversion with chemiluminescence (PC-CLD, broadband cavity ring-down spectroscopy (BBCRDS, pulsed cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS, incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF. All broadband absorption spectrometers were optimized for the detection of the main target species of the campaign, NO2, but were also capable of detecting NO2 simultaneously with reduced sensitivity. NO2 mixing ratios in the chamber were within a range characteristic of polluted, urban conditions, with a maximum mixing ratio of approximately 75 ppbv. The overall agreement between measurements of all instruments was excellent. Linear fits of the combined data sets resulted in slopes that differ from unity only within the stated uncertainty of each instrument. Possible interferences from species such as water vapor and ozone were negligible under the experimental conditions.

  2. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Jiming; Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei

    2013-05-15

    Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward.

  3. The horizontal transport of pollutants from a slope wind layer into the valley core as a function of atmospheric stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukauf, Daniel; Gohm, Alexander; Rotach, Mathias W.; Posch, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Slope winds provide a mechanism for the vertical exchange of air between the valley and the free atmosphere aloft. By this means, heat, moisture and pollutants are exported or imported. However, it the static stability of the valley atmosphere is strong, one part of the up-slope flow is redirected towards the valley center and pollutants are recirculated within the valley. This may limit the venting potential of slope winds severely. The main objective of this study is to quantify the horizontal transport of pollutants from the slope wind layer into the stable valley core and to determine the dependency of this flux as a function of the initial stability of the atmosphere. For this purpose, we conducted large eddy simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for a quasi-two-dimensional valley. The valley geometry consists of two slopes with constant slope angle rising to a crest height of 1500 m and a 4 km wide flat valley floor in between. The valley is 20 km long and homogeneous in along-valley direction. Hence, only slope winds but no valley winds can evolve. The surface sensible heat flux is prescribed by a sine function with an amplitude of 125 W m-2. The initial sounding characterized by an atmosphere at rest and by a constant Brunt-Väisälä frequency which is varied between 0.006 s-1 and 0.02 s-1. A passive tracer is released with an arbitrary but constant rate at the valley floor. As expected, the atmospheric stability has a strong impact on the vertical and horizontal transport of tracer mass. A horizontal intrusion forms at the top of the mixed layer due to outflow from the slope wind layer. Tracer mass is transported from the slope towards the center of the valley. The efficiency of this mechanism increases with increasing stability N. For the lowest value of N, about 70% of the tracer mass released at the valley bottom is exported out of the valley. This value drops to about 12% in the case of the strongest stability. Hence, most

  4. Impacts of atmospheric pollution on the plant communities of British acid grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard J; Stevens, Carly J; Dise, Nancy B; Gowing, David J; Pilkington, Michael G; Phoenix, Gareth K; Emmett, Bridget A; Ashmore, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    Air pollutants are recognised as important agents of ecosystem change but few studies consider the effects of multiple pollutants and their interactions. Here we use ordination, constrained cluster analysis and indicator value analyses to identify potential environmental controls on species composition, ecological groupings and indicator species in a gradient study of UK acid grasslands. The community composition of these grasslands is related to climate, grazing, ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition, with evidence for an interaction between the ecological impacts of base cation and nitrogen deposition. Ozone is a key agent in species compositional change but is not associated with a reduction in species richness or diversity indices, showing the subtly different drivers on these two aspects of ecosystem degradation. Our results demonstrate the effects of multiple interacting pollutants, which may collectively have a greater impact than any individual agent.

  5. The polluted atmospheres of cool white dwarfs and the magnetic field connection

    CERN Document Server

    Kawka, A

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of X-Shooter spectra of the polluted hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (DAZ) NLTT 888 and NLTT 53908. The spectra of NLTT 53908 show strong, Zeeman-split calcium lines (CaII H&K and Ca I $\\lambda 4226$) and the star appears to be a close relative of the polluted magnetic white dwarf (DAZH) NLTT 10480, while the spectra of NLTT 888 show narrow lines of calcium and iron. A comparison of the DAZ NLTT 888 and the DAZH NLTT 53908 with other class members illustrates the diversity of environment and formation circumstances surrounding these objects. In particular, we find that the incidence of magnetism in old, polluted white dwarfs significantly exceeds that found in the general white dwarf population which suggests an hypothetical link between a crowded planetary system and magnetic field generation.

  6. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape.

  7. Contribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to diffuse pollution in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianlin; Liu, Jieyun; Li, Yong; Li, Yuyuan; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xuejun; Wu, Jinshui

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is currently high and meanwhile diffuse N pollution is also serious in China. The correlation between N deposition and riverine N export and the contribution of N deposition to riverine N export were investigated in a typical hilly red soil catchment in southern China over a two-year period. N deposition was as high as 26.1 to 55.8kgN/(ha·yr) across different land uses in the studied catchment, while the riverine N exports ranged from 7.2 to 9.6kgN/(ha·yr) in the forest sub-catchment and 27.4 to 30.3kgN/(ha·yr) in the agricultural sub-catchment. The correlations between both wet N deposition and riverine N export and precipitation were highly positive, and so were the correlations between NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N wet deposition and riverine NH4(+)-N or NO3(-)-N exports except for NH4(+)-N in the agricultural sub-catchment, indicating that N deposition contributed to riverine N export. The monthly export coefficients of atmospheric deposited N from land to river in the forest sub-catchment (with a mean of 14%) presented a significant positive correlation with precipitation, while the monthly contributions of atmospheric deposition to riverine N export (with a mean of 18.7% in the agricultural sub-catchment and a mean of 21.0% in the whole catchment) were significantly and negatively correlated with precipitation. The relatively high contribution of N deposition to diffuse N pollution in the catchment suggests that efforts should be done to control anthropogenic reactive N emissions to the atmosphere in hilly red soil regions in southern China.

  8. The response of Phanerozoic surface temperature to variations in atmospheric oxygen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Rebecca C.; Britt, Amber V.; Chen, Howard; Kasting, James F.; Catling, David C.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, Poulsen et al. (2015) suggested that O2 has played a major role in climate forcing during the Phanerozoic. Specifically, they argued that decreased O2 levels during the Cenomanian stage of the middle Cretaceous (94-100 Ma) could help explain the extremely warm climate during that time. The postulated warming mechanism involves decreased Rayleigh scattering by a thinner atmosphere, which reduces the planetary albedo and allows greater surface warming. This warming effect is then amplified by cloud feedbacks within their 3-D climate model. This increase in shortwave surface forcing, in their calculations, exceeds any decrease in the greenhouse effect caused by decreased O2. Here we use a 1-D radiative-convective climate model (with no cloud feedback) to check their results. We also include a self-consistent calculation of the change in atmospheric ozone and its effect on climate. Our results are opposite to those of Poulsen et al.: we find that the climate warms by 1.4 K at 35% O2 concentrations as a result of increased pressure broadening of CO2 and H2O absorption lines and cools by 0.8 K at 10% O2 as a result of decreased pressure broadening. The surface temperature changes are only about 1 K either way, though, for reasonable variations in Phanerozoic O2 concentrations (10%-35% by volume). Hence, it seems unlikely that changes in atmospheric O2 account for the warm climate of the Cenomanian. Other factors, such as a higher-than-expected sensitivity of climate to increased CO2 concentrations, may be required to obtain agreement with the paleoclimate data.

  9. Suspended Particulates Concentration (PM10 under Unstable Atmospheric Conditions over Subtropical Urban Area (Qena, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Nouby Adam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the suspended particulates (PM10 in the atmosphere under unstable atmospheric conditions. The variation of PM10 was investigated and primary statistics were employed. The results show that, the PM10 concentrations values ranged from 6.00 to 646.74 μg m−3. The average value of PM10 is equal to 114.32 μg m−3. The high values were recorded in April and May (155.17 μg m−3 and 171.82 μg m−3, respectively and the low values were noted in February and December (73.86 μg m−3 and 74.05 μg m−3, respectively. The average value of PM10 of the hot season (125.35 × 10−6 g m−3 was higher than its value for the cold season (89.27 μg m−3. In addition, the effect of weather elements (air temperature, humidity and wind on the concentration of PM10 was determined. The multiple R between PM10 and these elements ranged from 0.05 to 0.47 and its value increased to reach 0.73 for the monthly average of the database used. Finally, the PM10 concentrations were grouped depending on their associated atmospheric stability class. These average values were equal to 122.80 ± 9 μg m−3 (highly unstable or convective, 109.37 ± 12 μg m−3 (moderately unstable and 104.42 ± 15 μg m−3 (slightly unstable.

  10. Theoretical constraints on oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the Precambrian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    Simple (one-dimensional) climate models suggest that carbon dioxide concentrations during the Archean must have been at least 100-1000 times the present level to keep the Earth's surface temperature above freezing in the face of decreased solar luminosity. Such models provide only lower bounds on CO2, so it is possible that CO2 levels were substantially higher than this and that the Archean climate was much warmer than today. Periods of extensive glaciation during the early and late Proterozoic, on the other hand, indicate that the climate at these times was relatively cool. To be consistent with climate models CO2 partial pressures must have declined from approximately 0.03 to 0.3 bar around 2.5 Ga ago to between 10(-3) and 10(-2) bar at 0.8 Ga ago. This steep decrease in carbon dioxide concentrations may be inconsistent with paleosol data, which implies that pCO2 did not change appreciably during that time. Oxygen was essentially absent from the Earth's atmosphere and oceans prior to the emergence of a photosynthetic source, probably during the late Archean. During the early Proterozoic the atmosphere and surface ocean were apparently oxidizing, while the deep ocean remained reducing. An upper limit of 6 x 10(-3) bar for pO2 at this time can be derived by balancing the burial rate of organic carbon with the rate of oxidation of ferrous iron in the deep ocean. The establishment of oxidizing conditions in the deep ocean, marked by the disappearance of banded iron formations approximately 1.7 Ga ago, permitted atmospheric oxygen to climb to its present level. O2 concentrations may have remained substantially lower than today, however, until well into the Phanerozoic.

  11. A preliminary attempt to identify atmospherically-derived pollution particles in English topsoils from magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K. L.; Dearing, J. A.; Baban, S. M. J.; Loveland, P.

    This study identifies topsoils in England having increased magnetic susceptibility (xlf) values attributable to the presence of anthropogenically produced pollution particles, such as fly-ash. The database consists of 1176 topsoils taken at 10 km intervals across the whole of England, and tested for magnetic susceptibility at low and high frequencies. Soils containing significant concentrations of pollution particles were identified using two criteria; xlf (values > 0.38 10-6m3kg-1) and xfd% (values < 3%). The ‘polluted’ topsoils are located in the south-east around London, the Midlands, the north around the conurbations of Manchester, Merseyside and West Yorkshire, and in the north-east around Newcastle and Teeside. The heavy metal concentration of the soils are elevated above background levels, and have strong positive relationships with magnetic susceptibility and other magnetic parameters.

  12. Atmospheric pollution problems and control proposals associated with solid waste management in China: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hezhong, E-mail: hztian@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Gao, Jiajia [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Hao, Jiming [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Long; Zhu, Chuanyong; Qiu, Peipei [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Air pollution problems generated in MSW management processes in China are presented. ► Both quantity and composition of MSW generation in China are identified. ► The status of different methods for MSW treatment and disposal are reviewed. ► Some comprehensive control proposals for improving MSW management are proposed. -- Abstract: Along with population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization process, the volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China has been increasing sharply in the past 30 years and the total amount of MSW yields will continue to increase. Nowadays, due to global warming warrants particular attention throughout the world, a series of air pollutants (including greenhouse gases, odorous gases, PCDD/Fs, heavy metals, PM, etc.) discharged from waste disposal and treatment processes have become one of the new significant emerging air pollution sources, which arousing great concerns about their adverse effects on surrounding ambient air quality and public health. At present, the overall safely disposed ratio of the collected MSW in China is reported at approximately 78% in 2010, and there are mainly three types of MSW disposal methods practiced in China, including landfill, composting and incineration. The characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases discharge vary substantially among different MSW disposal methods. By presenting a thorough review of MSW generation in China and providing a summarization of the current status of MSW disposal methods practices, this review article makes an integrated overview analysis of existing air pollution problems associated with MSW collection, separation, and disposal processes. Furthermore, some comprehensive control proposals to prevent air pollution for improving MSW management of China in the future are put forward.

  13. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauros, J.; Sogachev, Andrey; Smolander, S.;

    2010-01-01

    profile of particle number distribution does not correspond to observations. Instead organic induced nucleation leads to good agreement confirming the relevance of the aerosol formation mechanism including organic compounds emitted by biosphere. Simulation of aerosol concentration inside the atmospheric......We carried out column model simulations to study particle fluxes and deposition and to evaluate different particle formation mechanisms at a boreal forest site in Finland. We show that kinetic nucleation of sulphuric acid cannot be responsible for new particle formation alone as the vertical...

  14. CONCENTRATION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES REDUCING IN SURFACE LAYER OF ATMOSPHERE AT RHEOSTAT LOCOMOTIVE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bondar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at present an acceptable way of reducing the concentration of harmful substances in the surface layer of the atmosphere at rheostat tests of locomotives is their dispersion in a large volume of air. Channels, installed above an exhaust pipe of diesel locomotive with a break at the gas flow, work as ejectors. We have solved jointly the equation of aerodynamic characteristics of the ejector device and the equation of diffusion of gases; as a result the calculated dependence for determining the necessary height of ejector device has been obtained.

  15. [Multivariate analysis of heavy metal element concentrations in atmospheric deposition in Harbin City, northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Han, Wei-Zheng; Li, Na; Li, Zhao-Yang; Bian, Jian-Min; Li, Hai-Yi

    2011-11-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Harbin City, 46 deposition samples were collected which were taken using bulk deposition samplers during the period of 2008-2009 (about 365 days). The samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentration by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic spectrometry (ICP-AES). The deposition flux was calculated. Sources analysis was made by the method of principal component analysis (PCA), Pearsons and enrichment factor (EF). The following points can be gained through multivariate analysis. Mn and Co are mostly from natural sources while the others may be brought by coal dust, vehicle emissions and metal smelting.

  16. Techniques of low technology sampling of air pollution by metals: a comparison of concentrations and map patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O L; Gailey, F A

    1987-07-01

    During a 17 month survey of air pollution in the town of Armadale, central Scotland, the concentrations of some metals (iron, manganese, zinc, lead, copper, chrome, nickel, cadmium, and cobalt) were measured in seven types of low technology sampler--four indigenous and three transplanted--at 47 sites. The geographical patterns of the concentrations in the samplers were compared on two types of map. For most metals, sites with high concentrations were present close to the foundry and also in the north of the town. The differences between the patterns of pollution shown by the various types of sampler probably reflected differing mechanisms for collection and different affinities for various sizes and types of metal particle.

  17. Contaminant removal from low-concentration polluted river water by the bio-rack wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Lanying; Lu, Shaoyong; Jin, Xiangcan; Gan, Shu

    2012-01-01

    The bio-rack is a new approach for treating low-concentration polluted river water in wetland systems. A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between four plant species in bio-rack wetlands and between a bio-rack system and control system was conducted on a small-scale (500 mm length x 400 mm width x 400 mm height) to evaluate the decontamination effects of four different wetland plants. There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP), but no significant difference in the removal of permanganate index (COD(Mn)) between the bio-rack wetland and control system. Bio-rack wetland planted with Thalia dealbata had higher nutrient removal rates than wetlands planted with other species. Plant fine-root (root diameter plant biomass was related to nutrient removal efficiency. The study suggested that the nutrient removal rates are influenced by plant species, and high fine-root biomass is an important factor in selecting highly effective wetland plants for a bio-rack system. According to the mass balance, the TN and TP removal were in the range of 61.03-73.27 g/m2 and 4.14-5.20 g/m2 in four bio-rack wetlands during the whole operational period. The N and P removal by plant uptake constituted 34.9%-43.81% of the mass N removal and 62.05%-74.81% of the mass P removal. The study showed that the nitrification/denitrification process and plant uptake process are major removal pathways for TN, while plant uptake is an effective removal pathway for TP.

  18. Contaminant removal from low-concentration polluted river water by the bid-rack wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wang; Lanying Zhang; Shaoyong Lu; Xiangcan Jin; Shu Gan

    2012-01-01

    The bio-rack is a new approach for treating low-concentration polluted river water in wetland systems.A comparative study of the efficiency of contaminant removal between four plant species in bio-rack wetlands and between a bio-rack system and control system was conducted on a small-scale (500 mm length × 400 mm width × 400 mm height) to evaluate the decontamination effects of four different wedand plants.There was generally a significant difference in the removal of total nitrogen (TN),ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and total phosphorus (TP),but no significant difference in the removal of permanganate index (CODMn) between the bio-rack wetland and control system.Bio-rack wetland planted with Thalia dealbata had higher nutrient removal rates than wetlands planted with other species.Plant fine-root (root diameter ≤ 3 mm) biomass rather than total plant biomass was related to nutrient removal efficiency.The study suggested that the nutrient removal rates are influenced by plant species,and high fine-root biomass is an important factor in selecting highly effective wetland plants for a bio-rack system.According to the mass balance,the TN and TP removal were in the range of 61.03-73.27 g/m2 and 4.14-5.20 g/m2 in four bio-rack wetlands during the whole operational period.The N and P removal by plant uptake constituted 34.9%-43.81% of the mass N removal and 62.05%-74.81% of the mass P removal.The study showed that the nitrification/denitrification process and plant uptake process are major removal pathways for TN,while plant uptake is an effective removal pathway for TP.

  19. Nondestructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): III. Hair as an indicator of endogenous organochlorine compound concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Havé, Helga; Scheirs, Jan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Verhagen, Ron; De Coen, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine persistent pollutants were investigated in tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). Road kills and carcasses from wildlife rescue centers were used to characterize organochlorine compound tissue distribution and tissue profile dissimilarities (hair, liver, kidney, muscle, and adipose tissue). The most important contaminants were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordanes (CHLs), and DDTs, with median concentrations of 75, 5.1, and 1.4 ng/g liver wet weight, respectively. Median levels for the remaining compounds-hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and octachlorostyrene-were less than 0.5 ng/g liver wet weight. Compared to results with other mammalian wildlife, the present results indicate that hedgehogs may accumulate considerable concentrations of organochlorine compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls and HCB preferably accumulated in liver and muscle tissue. Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were highest in muscle tissue and hair, respectively. Octachlorostyrene and CHL levels were predominant in liver. The observed positive relationships between concentrations in hair and internal tissues for PCBs, DDTs, HCB, HCHs, and CHLs (0.49 hedgehog hair as a nondestructive biomonitoring tool regarding pollution with organochlorine compounds and the promising role of the hedgehog as a mammalian indicator species of pollution in terrestrial environments.

  20. The Effects of Air Pollution and Smoking on Cadmium Concentration in Human Blood and Correlation with Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zeneli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study described the research of the effects that the environment pollution and smoking have in cadmium concentration in human blood, as well as in the correlation between cadmium and the biochemical parameters. Approach: In a comparative study of cadmium concentration in blood of human population of two different environments in Kosovo, one nearby Kosovo Thermo Power Plants (Obiliq, a highly polluted environments (Investigated Group and the other that was considered as relatively clean rural environment Dragash (control group. Results: The results showed that there exists a significant difference in the average concentration of cadmium in human blood between the Investigated Group (IG and the Control Group (CG (t = -3.34, p = 0.0006. The series of determination of cadmium concentration in blood of population that lives in this environment had shown direct effects in biochemical parameters (direct bilirubine, total bilirubine. Conclusion: Air pollution (from coal burning in power plant and smoking were very important factors for the level of cadmium concentration in blood, which had an inhibitory effect in the syntheses of bilirubine.

  1. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves.

  2. Laser technology to monitor atmospheric pollution. Tecnologia laser para medicion de la contaminacion atmosferica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerao, A.; Caceci, M.

    1993-01-01

    Air quality and pollution can be monitored in a reliable way using LIDAR. Light detection and measurement by using a Laser beam can identify gases, particles, smoke, water vapor and other contaminants. Radiance and directionality of the laser beam are useful for this application. Activities of CISE in this field are presented.

  3. Automobile air pollution: Atmospheric motion. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the modeling, diffusion, and motion of motor vehicle exhaust. The citations cover the prediction of pollution from motor vehicles at specific locations and its impact at locations removed from the source. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Impacts of atmospheric pollution on the plant communities of British acid grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Richard J., E-mail: r.payne@mmu.ac.uk [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Geography, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Stevens, Carly J. [Faculty of Science, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dise, Nancy B. [School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Gowing, David J. [Faculty of Science, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pilkington, Michael G.; Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Emmett, Bridget A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Ashmore, Michael R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollutants are recognised as important agents of ecosystem change but few studies consider the effects of multiple pollutants and their interactions. Here we use ordination, constrained cluster analysis and indicator value analyses to identify potential environmental controls on species composition, ecological groupings and indicator species in a gradient study of UK acid grasslands. The community composition of these grasslands is related to climate, grazing, ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition, with evidence for an interaction between the ecological impacts of base cation and nitrogen deposition. Ozone is a key agent in species compositional change but is not associated with a reduction in species richness or diversity indices, showing the subtly different drivers on these two aspects of ecosystem degradation. Our results demonstrate the effects of multiple interacting pollutants, which may collectively have a greater impact than any individual agent. - Highlights: > Ozone exposure, N and base cation deposition modify UK acid grassland composition. > Ozone influences community composition without reducing species richness. > Nitrogen and base cation deposition have interacting impacts. > Distinct species responses to pollutants suggest potential for bioindication. - Ozone exposure and nitrogen deposition have distinct but additive impacts on the plant communities of British acid grasslands.

  5. Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and total cancer risk in an adult cohort from Southern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrebola, Juan P; Fernández, Mariana F; Martín-Olmedo, Piedad;

    2014-01-01

    organic pollutants on total cancer risk, at year 9 in the follow-up of a cohort from Southern Spain. A cohort of 368 participants (median age 51 years) was recruited in 2003. Their historical exposure was estimated by analyzing residues of persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue. Estimation...... of cancer incidence was based on data from a population-based cancer registry. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariable Cox-regression models. In males, PCB 153 concentrations were positively associated with total cancer risk, with an adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.20 (1.......01-1.41) for an increment of 100 ng/g lipid. Our preliminary findings suggest a potential relationship between the historical exposure to persistent organic pollutants and the risk of cancer in men. However, these results should be interpreted with caution and require verification during the future follow-up of this cohort....

  6. Lateral Dispersion of Pollutants in a Very Stable Atmosphere - The Effect of Meandering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1981-01-01

    A model based on single particle diffusion is introduced to account for the effect of “meandering” on lateral plume dispersion in a very stable atmosphere. It is assumed that small scale atmospheric turbulence is absent, so that only large horizontal eddies are effective. A formula for the lateral...... standard deviation σy as function of observation time, distance from source, mean wind speed, lateral turbulence intensity, and scale of the atmospheric motion is derived. Climatological time series of temperature lapse rates, wind speeds, and wind directions can be used as input to calculate σy....... Meteorological data from Risø and the small island Sprogø have been analysed in order to identify all situations in which the atmosphere is so stable that small scale turbulence cannot exist. The purpose is to see in how many of these situations meandering is also absent. The results show that, as a rule...

  7. Background concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric ammonia over a deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.; Pryor, S. C.; Boegh, E.;

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, we present two months of half-hourly NH3 fluxes and concentrations measured using a Relaxed Eddy Accumulation system during late summer and fall 2013 above a remote forest site in the central Midwest in USA. Supplementary nitric acid (HNO3) flux and size-resolved aerosol-N measurements are used.......11 μg NH3-N m−2 s−1. The wetness of the forest surfaces (assessed using a proxy of time since precipitation) was found to be crucial in controlling both deposition and emission of atmospheric NH3. Size resolved aerosol concentrations (of NH4+, NO3−, Cl− and SO42−) indicated that the aerosol and gas...

  8. 欧洲大气颗粒物污染治理%Atmospheric Particulates Pollution Control in Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹盛鑫; 尹军

    2013-01-01

    欧洲历史上曾长期遭受大气颗粒物污染问题的困扰,比如,发生过1930年比利时马斯河谷事件及1952年伦敦烟雾事件。但最近几十年来,经过长期努力,欧洲对大气颗粒物的治理工作取得了显著成绩。目前,我国大气颗粒物来源情况与欧洲存在较大的差异,但欧洲通过在交通和能源等方面对污染源的治理有效减少大气颗粒物排放的经验,对我国治理“雾霾”具有重要的借鉴意义。%Europe has suffered from the air pollution caused by atmospheric particulates for decades, for instance, Smog Incident in Meuse Valley in 1930, and the Great Smog of London in 1952. However, due to its long-term commitment, Europe has made great achievements on control of this pollution in recent decades. This paper analyzed measures taken by Europe to control the emission of particulate matter via its energy use and transport management, which has great signiifcance to the treatment of particulate matter pollution emerging in China.

  9. Resonance Raman imaging as a tool to assess the atmospheric pollution level: carotenoids in Lecanoraceae lichens as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrondo, I; Prieto-Taboada, N; Martínez-Arkarazo, I; Madariaga, J M

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy differentiation of carotenoids has traditionally been based on the ν 1 position (C = C stretching vibrations in the polyene chain) in the 1500-1600 cm(-1) range, using a 785 nm excitation laser. However, when the number of conjugated double bonds is similar, as in the cases of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, this distinction is still ambiguous due to the closeness of the Raman bands. This work shows the Raman results, obtained in resonance conditions using a 514 mm laser, on Lecanora campestris and Lecanora atra species, which can be used to differentiate and consequently characterize carotenoids. The presence of the carotenoid found in Lecanoraceae lichens has been demonstrated to depend on the atmospheric pollution level of the environment they inhabit. Astaxanthin, a superb antioxidant, appears as the principal xanthophyll in highly polluted sites, usually together with the UV screening pigment scytonemin; zeaxanthin is the major carotenoid in medium polluted environments, while β-carotene is the major carotenoid in cleaner environments. Based on these observations, an indirect classification of the stress suffered in a given environment can be assessed by simply analysing the carotenoid content in the Lecanoraceae lichens by using resonance Raman imaging.

  10. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, Susanna; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and phenology. On a global scale, our results show that global land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse) by ˜ 9 %. At a regional scale, GPP and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols in regions where forested canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Eurasia, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources) enhance GPP by +5-8 % on an annual average. In the northwestern Amazon Basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2-5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the northwestern Amazon Basin during the dry-fire season (+5-8 %). The prevailing mechanism varies across regions: light scattering dominates in eastern North America, while a reduction in direct radiation dominates in Europe and China. Aerosol-induced GPP productivity increases in the Amazon and central Africa include an additional positive feedback from reduced canopy temperatures in response to increases in canopy conductance. In Eurasia and northeastern China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of -2 to -12 % on an annual average. Future research needs to incorporate the indirect effects of aerosols and possible feedbacks from dynamic carbon allocation and phenology.

  11. A comparison of principal components using TPCA and nonstationary principal component analysis on daily air-pollutant concentration series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenhua

    2017-02-01

    We applied traditional principal component analysis (TPCA) and nonstationary principal component analysis (NSPCA) to determine principal components in the six daily air-pollutant concentration series (SO2, NO2, CO, O3, PM2.5 and PM10) in Nanjing from January 2013 to March 2016. The results show that using TPCA, two principal components can reflect the variance of these series: primary pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, PM2.5 and PM10) and secondary pollutants (e.g., O3). However, using NSPCA, three principal components can be determined to reflect the detrended variance of these series: 1) a mixture of primary and secondary pollutants, 2) primary pollutants and 3) secondary pollutants. Various approaches can obtain different principal components. This phenomenon is closely related to methods for calculating the cross-correlation between each of the air pollutants. NSPCA is a more applicable, reliable method for analyzing the principal components of a series in the presence of nonstationarity and for a long-range correlation than can TPCA. Moreover, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), the cross-correlation between O3 and NO2 is negative at a short timescale and positive at a long timescale. In hourly timescales, O3 is negatively correlated with NO2 due to a photochemical interaction, and in daily timescales, O3 is positively correlated with NO2 because of the decomposition of O3. In monthly timescales, the cross-correlation between O3 with NO2 has similar performance to those of O3 with meteorological elements. DCCA is again shown to be more appropriate for disclosing the cross-correlation between series in the presence of nonstationarity than is Pearson's method. DCCA can improve our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.

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