WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric pollutant concentrations

  1. Studies of atmospheric pollutants concentration factors from La Reina reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, I.; Alegria, E.

    1983-01-01

    Results of an atmospheric diffusion model for pollutant gases re shown, in which the nuclear reactor of the La Reina Nuclear Centre is considered as the emitting source. The model uses a gaussian shape steady state cloud of concentration of pollutants and actual topographical and meteorological statistics data os the zone. Expected and maximum probable concentration factors are computed in a polar lattice in 16 wind directions. It was found that peaks for expected concentration factors and maximum probable concentration factors at ground level fall within the N and ESE directions at distances where hills or mountains reach the emitted cloud. A discussion of the practical value of these calculations is given. (Author)

  2. Studies of atmospheric pollutants concentration factors from La Reina reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, I; Alegria, E [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago. Div. de Seguridade Nuclear y Radioproteccion

    1983-11-01

    Results of an atmospheric diffusion model for pollutant gases are shown, in which the nuclear reactor of the La Reina Nuclear Centre is considered as the emitting source. The model uses a gaussian shape steady state cloud of concentration of pollutants and actual topographical and meteorological statistics data of the zone. Expected and maximum probable concentration factors are computed in a polar lattice in 16 wind directions. It was found that peaks for expected concentration factors and maximum probable concentration factors at ground level fall within the N and ESE directions at distances where hills or mountains reach the emitted cloud. A discussion of the practical value of these calculations is given.

  3. Atmospheric Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, P.; Edson, J.; Cifuentes, A.; McGillis, W. R.; Zappa, C.

    2008-12-01

    Long-range transport of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) is a global concern. Remote regions such as the Southern Ocean are greatly under-sampled though critical components in understanding POPs cycling. Over 20 high-volume air samples were collected in the Southern Ocean aboard the RV Brown during the GASEX III experiment between Mar 05 to April 9 2008. The relatively stationary platform (51S,38W) enabled the collection of a unique atmospheric time series at this open ocean station. Air sampling was also conducted across transects from Punto Arenas, Chile and to Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were collected using glass sleeves packed with poly-urethane foam plugs and C-18 resin in order to collect target organic pollutants (per-fluorinated compounds, currently and historically used pesticides) in this under-sampled region. Here we present POPs concentrations and trends over the sampled period and compare variations with air parcel back trajectories to establish potential origins of their long-range transport.

  4. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  5. Influence of ship emission on atmospheric pollutant concentration around Osaka Bay, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, A.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nishikawa, E.

    1999-01-01

    Marine traffic in Osaka Bay is very intensified and much atmosphere pollutant (SO x and NO x ) from ships is released but there is no regulation about the ship emission. In this paper, we investigated the emission amounts of SO x NO x and HC from car, factory and ships in Osaka bay area and estimated the influence of the ship emission on the atmospheric pollutant concentration, using both the meteorological prediction model and the atmospheric pollutant concentration prediction model including the dry deposition and the chemical reaction. In Osaka bay area, the emission amounts of SO x and NO x from ships were about 30% of the total emission amounts, respectively. Using these emission data, the atmospheric pollutant concentration was simulated on a summer fine day when high oxidant concentration was measured at several observatories and was compared with the observed data. Though some differences were seen between the simulated results and the observed data, the diurnal variation agreed reasonably. The second simulation was carried out except for the ship emission and we estimated the influence of the ship emission on the atmospheric pollutant concentration. It was found that the ship emission raised SO 2 , NO 2 and NO concentration not only in shore area but also in 40km inland. (Author)

  6. Prediction on long-term mean and mean square pollutant concentrations in an urban atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Lamb, R G; Seinfeld, J H

    1976-01-01

    The general problem of predicting long-term average (say yearly) pollutant concentrations in an urban atmosphere is formulated. The pollutant concentration can be viewed as a random process, the complete description of which requires knowledge of its probability density function, which is unknown. The mean concentration is the first moment of the concentration distribution, and at present there exist a number of models for predicting the long-term mean concentration of an inert pollutant. The second moment, or mean square concentration, indicates additional features of the distribution, such as the level of fluctuations about the mean. In the paper a model proposed by Lamb for the long-term mean concentration is reviewed, and a new model for prediction of the long-term mean square concentration of an inert air pollutant is derived. The properties and uses of the model are discussed, and the equations defining the model are presented in a form for direct application to an urban area.

  7. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  8. Metal concentrations in homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Halbrook, Richard S; Zang, Shuying; Han, Shuang; Li, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution in urban areas is a major worldwide concern with potential adverse impacts on wildlife and humans. Biomonitoring can provide direct evidence of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of toxic metals in the environment that is not available with mechanical air monitoring. The current study continues our evaluation of the usefulness of homing pigeon lung tissue as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution. Homing pigeons (1-2, 5-6, and 9-10+ year old (yo)) collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were necropsied and concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) were measured in lung tissue. Lung Cd and Pb concentrations were significantly greater in 9-10+-year-old pigeons compared with those in other age groups, indicating their bioavailability and bioaccumulation. Lung Pb and Cd concentrations measured in 5-yo pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2015 were significantly lower than concentrations reported in 5-yo homing pigeons collected from Guangzhou during 2011 and correlated with concentrations measured using mechanical air monitoring. In addition to temporal differences, spatial differences in concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Hg reported in ambient air samples and in pigeon lung tissues collected from Beijing and Guangzhou are discussed.

  9. Distribution of air pollutants in the Inn Valley atmosphere during high concentration events in winter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzhofer, R.; Norman, M; Dunkl, J.; Wistaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Neininger, B.; Gohm, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The goal of the INNOX field campaign, which took place during January and February 2006 near the town of Schwaz, was to obtain a three-dimensional picture of the spatial distribution of air pollutants in the Inn Valley during wintertime. For this purpose continuous ground based measurements and, on six chosen days, vertical profiles within the lowest 200 m above ground level (AGL) of the valley atmosphere of certain VOCs (benzene, toluene, etc.) and CO were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry instrument (PTR-MS). For the soundings a 200-m long teflon line was fixed on a tethered balloon through which the air was sucked to the PTR-MS instrument and to a CO analyser. Next to the inlet on the tethered balloon meteorological data, such as air temperature, pressure, wind, were measured as well. Above the lowest 200 m AGL a research aircraft from MetAir AG (Switzerland), equipped with various instruments for in-situ measurements of air pollutants and meteorological data, was operated. A typical flight pattern consisted of five vertical cross sections between about 150 to 2500 m AGL and lasted about three hours. Altogether 25 hours of aircraft measurements were carried out on six different days. The combination of low-level balloon measurements and upper-level aircraft observations yields vertical profiles of various parameters which cover the whole valley atmosphere. Preliminary results which show strong vertical but also horizontal gradients of air pollutant concentrations will be presented. (author)

  10. A study on the environmental behavior of global air pollutants based on the continuous measurements of atmospheric radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    Radon is a useful natural radioactive tracer of air transportation of atmospheric pollution, since radon is a noble gas and chemically inert. The atmospheric radon concentration is usually measured by a high-sensitivity electrostatic collection method or a two-filter method. The variations of radon concentrations observed over a solitary island and in the upper atmosphere are suitable for comparing with those of air pollutants. Some numerical simulation models were used to study the radon global transport in the atmosphere. In East Asia, atmospheric radon and air pollutants are transported with the air stream from the continent of China to the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. It is necessary to clarify the transport mechanism from both radon observations at various locations and numerical simulation. (author)

  11. assessment of concentration of air pollutants using analytical and numerical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmail, S.F.H.

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of numerous physical problems a results in differential equations actually partial or ordinary differential equations.In our study we are interested in solutions of partial differential equations.The aim of this work is to calculate the concentrations of the pollution, by solving the atmospheric diffusion equation(ADE) using different mathematical methods of solution. It is difficult to solve the general form of ADE analytically, so we use some assumptions to get its solution.The solutions of it depend on the eddy diffusivity profiles(k) and the wind speed u. We use some physical assumptions to simplify its formula and solve it. In the present work, we solve the ADE analytically in three dimensions using Green's function method, Laplace transform method, normal mode method and these separation of variables method. Also, we use ADM as a numerical method. Finally, comparisons are made with the results predicted by the previous methods and the observed data.

  12. Concentrations and (delta)13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the primary agents of global climate changes. The increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration is essentially related to human-induced emissions and, particularly, to the burning of fossil fuel whose (delta) 13 C values are quite negative. Consequently, an increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be paralleled by a decrease of its (delta) 13 C. Continuous and/or spot measurements of CO 2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out during the last decade and in the same period of the year along hemispheric courses from Italy to Antarctica on a vessel of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica. During these expeditions, discrete air samples were also collected in 4-l Pyrex flasks in order to carry out precise carbon isotope analyses on atmospheric CO 2 from different areas, including theoretically 'clean' open ocean areas, with the main purpose of comparing these open ocean results with the results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/World Meteorological Organization (NOAA/WMO) at land-based stations. According to the data obtained for these two variables, a relatively large atmospheric pollution is apparent in the Mediterranean area where the CO 2 concentration has reached the value of 384 ppmv while quite negative (delta) 13 C values have been measured only occasionally. In this area, southerly winds probably help to reduce the effect of atmospheric pollution even though, despite a large variability of CO 2 concentrations, these values are consistently higher than those measured in open ocean areas by a few ppmv to about 10 ppmv. A marked, though non-continuous, pollution is apparent in the area of the Bab-el-Mandeb strait where (delta) 13 C values considerably more negative than in the Central and Southern Red Sea were measured. The concentration of atmospheric CO 2 over the Central Indian Ocean increased from about 361 ppmv at the end of 1996 to about 373 ppmv at the end of 2003 (mean growth

  13. Impacts of Mercury Pollution Controls on Atmospheric Mercury Concentration and Occupational Mercury Exposure in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Yan; Xiong, Wuyan

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) and Hg-containing products are used in a wide range of settings in hospitals. Hg pollution control measures were carried out in the pediatric ward of a hospital to decrease the possibility of Hg pollution occurring and to decrease occupational Hg exposure. Total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the pediatric ward and hair and urine Hg concentrations for the pediatric staff were determined before and after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented. A questionnaire survey performed indicated that the pediatric staff had little understanding of Hg pollution and that appropriate disposal techniques were not always used after Hg leakage. TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward and urine Hg (UHg) concentrations for the pediatric staff were 25.7 and 22.2% lower, respectively, after the Hg pollution control measures had been implemented than before, which indicated that the control measures were effective. However, TGM concentrations in the pediatric ward remained significantly higher than background concentrations and UHg concentrations for the pediatric staff were remained significantly higher than the concentrations in control group, indicating continued existence of certain Hg pollution.

  14. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the air pollution concentration and temperature inversion in Sosnowiec. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widawski Artur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sosnowiec is located in the Katowice Region, which is the most urbanized and industrialized region in Poland. Urban areas of such character favor enhancement of pollution concentration in the atmosphere and the consequent emergence of smog. Local meteorological and circulation conditions significantly influence not only on the air pollution level but also change air temperature considerably in their centers and immediate vicinities. The synoptic situation also plays the major role in dispersal and concentration of air pollutants and changes in temperature profile. One of the most important are the near-ground (100 m inversions of temperature revealed their highest values on clear winter days and sometimes stay still for the whole day and night. Air temperature inversions in Sosnowiec occur mainly during anticyclone stagnation (Ca-anticyclone centre and Ka-anticyclonic ridge and in anticyclones with air advection from the south and southwest (Sa and SWa which cause significantly increase of air pollution values. The detailed evaluation of the influence of circulation types on the appearance of a particular concentration of pollutants carried out in this work has confirmed the predominant influence of individual circulation types on the development of air pollution levels at the Katowice region. This paper presents research case study results of the thermal structure of the near-ground atmospheric layer (100 m and air pollution parameters (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2 changes in selected days of 2005 year according to regional synoptic circulation types. The changes in urban environment must be taken into account in analyses of multiyear trends of air temperature and air conditions on the regional and global scales.

  15. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  16. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  17. Simulation of trace metals and PAH atmospheric pollution over Greater Paris: Concentrations and deposition on urban surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouron, L.; Seigneur, C.; Kim, Y.; Legorgeu, C.; Roustan, Y.; Bruge, B.

    2017-10-01

    Urban areas can be subject not only to poor air quality, but also to contamination of other environmental media by air pollutants. Here, we address the potential transfer of selected air pollutants (two metals and three PAH) to urban surfaces. To that end, we simulate meteorology and air pollution from Europe to a Paris suburban neighborhood, using a four-level one-way nesting approach. The meteorological and air quality simulations use urban canopy sub-models in order to better represent the effect of the urban morphology on the air flow, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants to urban surfaces. This modeling approach allows us to distinguish air pollutant deposition among various urban surfaces (roofs, roads, and walls). Meteorological model performance is satisfactory, showing improved results compared to earlier simulations, although precipitation amounts are underestimated. Concentration simulation results are also satisfactory for both metals, with a fractional bias Paris region. The model simulation results suggest that both wet and dry deposition processes need to be considered when estimating the transfer of air pollutants to other environmental media. Dry deposition fluxes to various urban surfaces are mostly uniform for PAH, which are entirely present in fine particles. However, there is significantly less wall deposition compared to deposition to roofs and roads for trace metals, due to their coarse fraction. Meteorology, particle size distribution, and urban morphology are all important factors affecting air pollutant deposition. Future work should focus on the collection of data suitable to evaluate the performance of atmospheric models for both wet and dry deposition with fine spatial resolution.

  18. Atmospheric pollution in our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir, G.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with all the activities of humans. It is becoming a serious problem in coming years so it is relevant to find out how seriously our atmosphere is being polluted and how this pollution affects human and plant life in our environment. Not only the human activities are the source of our pollution but nature causes more pollution. Air pollution that is due to the pressure of foreign substances in air, effects the quality and concentration of air substances. It is not only injurious to property, but also to vegetation and animal life. Air pollution is one of our most serious environmental problems. The sources vary from smoke-stacks and automobiles to noise and foreon containing aerosols. (orig./A.B.)

  19. A revised method to calculate the concentration time integral of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, E.; Schultz, H.

    1980-01-01

    It is possible to calculate the spreading of a plume in the atmosphere under nonstationary and nonhomogeneous conditions by introducing the ''particle-in-cell'' method (PIC). This is a numerical method by which the transport of and the diffusion in the plume is reproduced in such a way, that particles representing the concentration are moved time step-wise in restricted regions (cells) and separately with the advection velocity and the diffusion velocity. This has a systematical advantage over the steady state Gaussian plume model usually used. The fixed-point concentration time integral is calculated directly instead of being substituted by the locally integrated concentration at a constant time as is done in the Gaussian model. In this way inaccuracies due to the above mentioned computational techniques may be avoided for short-time emissions, as may be seen by the fact that both integrals do not lead to the same results. Also the PIC method enables one to consider the height-dependent wind speed and its variations while the Gaussian model can be used only with averaged wind data. The concentration time integral calculated by the PIC method results in higher maximum values in shorter distances to the source. This is an effect often observed in measurements. (author)

  20. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  1. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  2. Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Gou, Yan-Yu; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and Σdi-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An advanced analysis and modelling the air pollutant concentration temporal dynamics in atmosphere of the industrial cities: Odessa city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyadzhi, V. V.; Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Ternovsky, V. B.; Serga, I. N.; Bykowszczenko, N.

    2017-10-01

    Results of analysis and modelling the air pollutant (dioxide of nitrogen) concentration temporal dynamics in atmosphere of the industrial city Odessa are presented for the first time and based on computing by nonlinear methods of the chaos and dynamical systems theories. A chaotic behaviour is discovered and investigated. To reconstruct the corresponding strange chaotic attractor, the time delay and embedding dimension are computed. The former is determined by the methods of autocorrelation function and average mutual information, and the latter is calculated by means of correlation dimension method and algorithm of false nearest neighbours. It is shown that low-dimensional chaos exists in the nitrogen dioxide concentration time series under investigation. Further, the Lyapunov’s exponents spectrum, Kaplan-Yorke dimension and Kolmogorov entropy are computed.

  4. Modeling of atmospheric pollutant transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdain, F.

    2007-01-01

    Modeling is today a common tool for the evaluation of the environmental impact of atmospheric pollution events, for the design of air monitoring networks or for the calculation of pollutant concentrations in the ambient air. It is even necessary for the a priori evaluation of the consequences of a pollution plume. A large choice of atmospheric transfer codes exist but no ideal tool is available which allows to model all kinds of situations. The present day approach consists in combining different types of modeling according to the requested results and simulations. The CEA has a solid experience in this domain and has developed independent tools for the impact and safety studies relative to industrial facilities and to the management of crisis situations. (J.S.)

  5. Interaction of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustueva, K A; Sanotsky, I V

    1975-01-01

    In evaluating the health effects of chemical and physical factors, it is of great importance to know the possible interactions between different pollutants. The biological effects of interactions, when present, may be synergistic, antagonistic or additive. Each type of interaction calls for a different evaluation and different practical measures. As yet the understanding of such effects is not clear, probably because of differing definitions of terminology. For example, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide and particulates is interpreted as a synergistic effect; in the author's opinion, this is an aggravating effect. The type of interaction depends on the levels of concentration observed, for example, the synergism shown at high levels of concentration is not always demonstrated for low levels of concentration. In fact there is little evidence of synergistic effects from ambient air pollutant; the more common type of interaction is additive in effect. 12 references.

  6. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  7. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmwork are expected to cover a lack of reliable information regarding sources of atmospheric pollutants in Portugal and present, for the first time, systematic data of PAHs levels in Lisbon. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under Project PAHLIS (PTDC/AMB/65699/2006) financed by "Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia". C. Oliveira thanks Project PAHLIS his scholarship.

  8. Dispersion and transport of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslik, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the physical mechanisms that govern the dispersion and transport of air pollutant; the influence of the state of the 'carrying fluid', i.e. the role of meteorology; and finally, outlines the different techniques of assessing the process. Aspects of physical mechanisms and meteorology covered include: fate of an air pollutant; turbulence and dispersion; transport; wind speed and direction; atmospheric stability; and the role of atmospheric water. Assessment techniques covered are: concentrations measurements; modelling meteorological observations; and tracer releases. It is concluded that the only way to reduce air pollution is to pollute less. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such pollutants ... spheric transport processes. In rural regions ... response of redox potential: those which are fixed in reducing conditions ... pollution in urban areas of northern Britain in the eighteenth .... adjusting the desired flame condition, the instrument is cali-.

  10. Combining tree-ring metal concentrations and lead, carbon and oxygen isotopes to reconstruct peri-urban atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Doucet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analysed the tree-ring metal concentrations and isotope ratios of five stands located in three contrasted settings to infer the diffuse air pollution history of the northern part of the Windsor–Québec City Corridor in eastern Canada. Tree-ring series show that the Cd and Zn accumulation rates were higher between 1960 and 1986 and that the long-term acidification of the soil (Ca/Al series was likely induced by NOx and SOx deposition (δ15N and δ13C trends as proxy. The Pb concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb ratios indicate that the dominant source of lead from 1880 to the 1920s was the combustion of north-eastern American coal, which was succeeded by the combustion of leaded gasoline from the 1920s to the end of the 1980s. Our modelling approach allows separating the climatic and anthropogenic effects on the tree-ring δ13C and δ18O responses. Diffuse air pollution caused an enrichment in 13C in all stands and a decrease of the δ18O values only in three of the stands. This study indicates that dendrogeochemistry can show contrasted responses to environmental changes and that the combination of several independent indicators constitutes a powerful tool to reconstruct the air pollution history in the complex context of peri-urban regions.

  11. Atmospheric ions and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1977-01-01

    The various types of atmospheric ions are defined, the main sources of natural atmospheric radioactivity inducing the formation of radioactive ions in the air are then recalled. The basic equations governing the formation of these ions are indicated and the most current experimental methods used for detecting them are described (Zeleny tubes, Erikson tubes). The special properties of these ions are examined, they are particularly emphasized for the smaller ones. The existence of a discret spectrum of mobilities is shown and the presence of big negative radioactive ions is investigated. Indicative information are given on the granulometric distribution of the atmospheric radioactivity in the air, from small positive Ra A ion fixation on aerosols [fr

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  13. Atmospheric pollution and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasdale, J K.A.

    1952-03-01

    Although sulfur dioxide is the most common and usually the most abundant polluting agent, experiments with this gas have shown that, under the conditions employed, there is no effect on yield unless the concentration is high enough to cause leaf injury. S23 ryegrass was grown in beds in greenhouses. Treatment with purified air gave, with one exception, a dry weight considerably higher than treatment with polluted air. No sign of leaf damage could be detected in the greenhouse with polluted air. This fact would seem to indicate that pollution decreases the growth rate, even in the absence of visible injury.

  14. Mass concentration coupled with mass loading rate for evaluating PM_2_._5 pollution status in the atmosphere: A case study based on dairy barns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, HungSoo; Park, Kihong; Lee, Kwangyul; Ndegwa, Pius M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated particulate matter (PM) loading rates and concentrations in ambient air from naturally ventilated dairy barns and also the influences of pertinent meteorological factors, traffic, and animal activities on mass loading rates and mass concentrations. Generally, relationships between PM_2_._5 concentration and these parameters were significantly poorer than those between the PM loading rate and the same parameters. Although ambient air PM_2_._5 loading rates correlated well with PM_2_._5 emission rates, ambient air PM_2_._5 concentrations correlated poorly with PM_2_._5 concentrations in the barns. A comprehensive assessment of PM_2_._5 pollution in ambient air, therefore, requires both mass concentrations and mass loading rates. Emissions of PM_2_._5 correlated strongly and positively with wind speed, temperature, and solar radiation (R"2 = 0.84 to 0.99) and strongly but negatively with relative humidity (R"2 = 0.93). Animal activity exhibited only moderate effect on PM_2_._5 emissions, while traffic activity did not significantly affect PM_2_._5 emissions. - Highlights: • Sink PM_2_._5 loading rates correlate well with source PM_2_._5 emission rates. • Sink PM_2_._5 concentrations correlate poorly with source PM_2_._5 concentrations. • Mass loading rate complements mass concentration in appraising sink PM_2_._5 status. • PM_2_._5 emissions is dependent on wind speed, temp, solar strength, and RH. • Cow traffic activity affects PM_2_._5 emissions, while traffic activity does not. - Both PM mass loading rate and concentrations are required for comprehensive assessment of pollution potential of PM released into the atmosphere.

  15. Gas fired boilers and atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaranello, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A general analysis concerning atmospheric pollution is presented: chemical composition and vertical distribution of atmosphere and pollutants, chemical reactions, ozone destruction and production cycles, COx, NOx and SOx pollutions. The gas fired boiler number and repartition in France are presented and the associated pollution is analyzed (CO2, CO, NOx) and quantified. Various pollution control technics concerning gas fired boiler pollutants are described and a pollution criterion for clean gas fired generators is proposed

  16. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  17. Lenticels as indicators of atmospheric smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, F.

    1960-01-01

    The invasion of smoke pollution gets from the atmosphere into the plants only by lenticels and stomata. The most toxic smoke constituents penetrating into the stele are SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/, H/sub 3/AsO/sub 4/, HCl and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/OH. Lenticels are bark stomata filled with merenchym tissue, which hinders the entrance of mechanical smoke particles into the interior tissues of the stele. In autumn, the lenticels are packed by cork slabs formed by the cork cambium. In spring, this cork slab is broken by a new mechanical tissue. Sambucus nigra L. has a merenchym sensitive to the presence of smoke pollution, and the lenticels may serve, therefore, as indicators of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The intensity of damage caused by smoke constituents penetrating into the plants through lenticels depends upon a series of exterior and interior factors. They are the number of lenticels per area unit of bark surface in the whole circumference, the pH of the biocomplex near the lenticel in the interior tissues of stele, and the concentration of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The most effective way of preventing smoke damage is to install pollution control equipment in the industrial works.

  18. Atmospheric dispersion models for environmental pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutants are introduced into the air by many of man's activities. The potentially harmful effects these can cause are, broadly speaking, of two kinds: long-term, possibly large-scale and wide-spread chronic effects, including long-term effects on the earth's climate; and acute, short-term effects such as those associated with urban air pollution. This section is concerned with mathematical cloud or plume models describing the role of the atmosphere, primarily in relation to the second of these, the acute effects of air pollution, i.e., those arising from comparatively high concentration levels. The need for such air pollution modeling studies has increased spectacularly as a result of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1968 and, especially, two key court decisions; the Calvert Cliffs decision, and the Sierra Club ruling on environmental non-degradation

  19. mathematical modelling of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    the main objectives of this thesis are dealing with environmental problems adopting mathematical techniques. in this respect, atmospheric dispersion processes have been investigated by improving the analytical models to realize the realistic physical phenomena. to achieve these aims, the skeleton of this work contained both mathematical and environmental topics,performed in six chapters. in chapter one we presented a comprehensive review study of most important informations related to our work such as thermal stability , plume rise, inversion, advection , dispersion of pollutants, gaussian plume models dealing with both radioactive and industrial contaminants. chapter two deals with estimating the decay distance as well as the decay time of either industrial or radioactive airborne pollutant. further, highly turbulent atmosphere has been investigated as a special case in the three main thermal stability classes namely, neutral, stable, and unstable atmosphere. chapter three is concerned with obtaining maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant. the variable effective height of pollutants has been considered throughout the mathematical treatment. as a special case the constancy of effective height has been derived mathematically and the maximum ground level concentration as well as its location have been established

  20. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  1. The use of nonlinear regression analysis for integrating pollutant concentration measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling for source term estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.; Freis, R.P.; Peters, L.G.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Pitovranov, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on the knowledge of the source term characteristics, which are generally poorly known. The development of an automated numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling for more accurate source term estimation is reported. Often, this process of parameter estimation is performed by an emergency response assessor, who takes an intelligent first guess at the model parameters, then, comparing the model results with whatever measurements are available, makes an intuitive, informed next guess of the model parameters. This process may be repeated any number of times until the assessor feels that the model results are reasonable in terms of the measured observations. A new approach, based on a nonlinear least-squares regression scheme coupled with the existing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models, is to supplement the assessor's intuition with automated mathematical methods that do not significantly increase the response time of the existing predictive models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of the known SF 6 tracer release rates associated with the Mesoscale Atmospheric Transport Studies tracer experiments conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory during 1983. These 19 experiments resulted in 14 successful, separate tracer releases with sampling of the tracer plumes along the cross-plume arc situated ∼30 km from the release site

  2. Mortality, fog and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A E; Bradley, W H

    1960-01-01

    A study was made associating climate and atmospheric pollution with excess mortality in greater London during the winter of 1958 and 1959. It was a particularly foggy winter with 6 major episodes, 4 of which resembled previous dangerous smogs. There were two additional periods of high pollution without fog. Excess mortality during these 8 periods ranged from 70 to 230. During one period, a flu epidemic accompanied the fog. In 4 to 6 foggy periods, morbidity (hospital bed demand) also increased. This small number of observations indicates mortality association: on 2/3 of days with high SO/sub 2/ (2.5 pphM) or high particulate soot (10 mg/m/sup 3/), and on all days with thick fog, there was an increase in mortality (20 deaths more than previous day) on that or the following day. Fifteen-day moving mortality index and bronchitis mortality index were significantly correlated with black suspended matter and SO/sub 2/; association with pneumonia was not significant. Also little or no relation between mortality and humidity, mean temperature, or barometric pressure was found. Rapid response of mortality to air pollution may indicate that pollution affects mostly those already ill.

  3. Atmospheric particulate pollution in Kenitra (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghaid, Mustapha; Noack, Yves; Boukla, Moussa; Benyaich, Fouad

    2009-01-01

    Cities of Morocco are exposed to a high atmospheric particulate pollution due to automobile traffic, industrialization, but also to soil dusts (in relation with aridity and desert proximity). Monitoring networks and data about air pollution still rare. The present study is a preliminary work about particulate and heavy metals pollution in Kenitra city. Aerosols had been collected with a PM10 sampler (Partisol), a dichotomous sampler (P M2.5 and P M2.5-10 fractions) and stacked filter unit (Gent type) with a fine fraction (below 2.5 um) and a coarse fraction. In summer, the average PM10 concentration is near 80 u g/N m 3 , above the EEC rule and OMS recommendations, but similar to some other african towns. The ratio P M2.5/PM 10 is low (below 0.5), with seasonal variation in relation with meteorology. The lead and nickel concentrations are also very low, in relation with the use of leaded gasoline and the oldness of many vehicles. This preliminary work reveals high levels of pollution (especially PM10, Pb and Ni) in the town of Kenitra. The major sources are traffic, soil dusts and resuspension of deposited particles. It is necessary to develop monitoring network and sanitary and and environmental impact studies in these cities [fr

  4. Atmospheric pollution: history, science and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.Z. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The book provides an introduction to the history and science of major air pollution issues. It begins with an introduction to the history of discovery of chemicals in the atmosphere, and moves on to a discussion of the evolution of the earth's atmosphere. It then discusses five major atmospheric pollution topics: urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global climate change. The book contains numerous student examples and problems and over 200 color illustrations and photographs.

  5. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Particulate Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Hong, J.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF), whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  6. POLARIMETRIC REMOTE SENSING OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF, whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  7. Atmospheric pollutants monitoring by analysis of epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko; Marcelli, Marcelo P.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2008-01-01

    The Canoparmelia texana epiphytic lichenized fungi was used to monitor atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, SP, Brazil. The cluster analysis applied to the element concentration values confirmed the site groups of different levels of pollution due to industrial and vehicular emissions. In the distribution maps of element concentrations, higher concentrations of Ba and Mn were observed in the vicinity of industries and of a petrochemical complex. The highest concentration of Co found in lichens from the Sao Miguel Paulista site is due to the emissions from a metallurgical processing plant that produces this element. For Br and Zn, the highest concentrations could be associated both to vehicular and industrial emissions. Exploratory analyses revealed that the accumulation of toxic elements in C. texana may be of use in evaluating the human risk of cardiopulmonary mortality due to prolonged exposure to ambient levels of air pollution. - Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi is a valuable biomonitor for atmospheric pollution

  8. Heavy metal concentrations in forest litter - indicators of pollutant depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angehrn-Bettinazzi, C.; Hertz, J.

    1990-01-01

    By means of a comparison of the heavy metal concentrations in organic litter from different sites it was examined to what extent the heavy metal concentrations correlate with the atmospheric pollution situation. It follows from the variance analyses: The atmospheric pollution situation is the dominating factor for the heavy metal concentration in L litter. The elements Cd and Zn show a pH-sensitivity at the same time. The lead concentration in the L n and L v horizons reflects the atmospheric pollution situation of the corresponding site. Specific pollution patterns, e.g. in the case of hillside sites, are neither detected through the gravitational deposition (open land) nor through the airborne dust concentration; these can be recognized by the monitor 'litter'. Only horizons in the intercrown area with identical tree vegetation, which are characterized in detail, must be used for monitoring. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of atmospheric pollution on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years the incidence of smog episodes and their intensity have gone down considerably and difference in atmospheric pollutant levels between urban and rural areas is very small. Even the sudden moderate elevation of atmospheric pollution during winter months affects the pulmonary function adversely and provokes increased respiratory symptomes. The prevalence of rhinitis and allergy is more frequent both in adults and in children in urban townships than in rural areas. It has also been observed that industrial city dwellers have inferior pulmonary function. Very recent results indicate possible interaction between atmospheric pollutant levels and regeneration process following airways infection in yound children. (orig.) [de

  10. Analysis of local scale tree-atmosphere interaction on pollutant concentration in idealized street canyons and application to a real urban junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buccolieri, R.; Salim, S.M.; Leo, L.S.; Sabatino, Di S.; Chan, A.; Ielpo, P.; Gennaro, de G.; Gromke, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper first discusses the aerodynamic effects of trees on local scale flow and pollutant concentration in idealized street canyon configurations by means of laboratory experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These analyses are then used as a reference modelling study for the

  11. Atmospheric fluoride pollution. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T; Yamazaki, Y

    1969-01-01

    In East Osaka, agricultural crops either died or showed poor growth in the neighborhood of a factory producing white cosmetic bottles. Since fluorite was used as a material and there was no damage before the establishment of the factory, it was suspected that fluorine compounds were causing the damage. Quantitative analysis was performed on the agricultural crops and the exhaust gas as well as the dust particles in order to determine the fluorine content. Gas samplers were used to collect the dusts from the surrounding atmosphere. The fluorine content of dust near the factory was about 93 mg per cubic meter per day, and in some parts, as high as 1.54 mq per cubic meter per day. Relatively larger quantities of fluorine were measured at the southwestern and southeastern area of the factory, corresponding to the general wind pattern. Rice and soy beans from the neighborhood of the factory showed concentrations of fluorine and, especially in the leaves of the damaged crops, the concentrations were several hundred times higher than those of the undamaged leaves.

  12. Effects of atmospheric pollution on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, C R

    1953-10-10

    In September, 1953, two sections of the British Association (Botany and Forestry) jointly discussed the effects of various components of air pollution. Conclusions reached included the position that the symptoms of ill health in plants that have been subjected to a polluted fog are due not so much to reduction in availability of light as to the presence of toxic substances in the atmosphere. Examples of these symptoms include shedding of flowers and leaves, blackening and death of buds and flowers, scorching of foliage, and complete destruction of more sensitive plants. Sulfur dioxide was identified as one of the more important toxic substances. Practical remedies for the problem were discussed, and the currently-known dose-response relationships (concentrations in excess of 0.5 ppm were known to cause lesions on some plants) were defined. Instances of reduced growth of crop plants and the inhibition of development of lichens and mosses were recounted. The complex relationships between soil condition and air pollution of the growth of plants were discussed.

  13. Sampling of Atmospheric Precipitation and Deposits for Analysis of Atmospheric Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Skarżyńska, K.; Polkowska, Ż; Namieśnik, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews techniques and equipment for collecting precipitation samples from the atmosphere (fog and cloud water) and from atmospheric deposits (dew, hoarfrost, and rime) that are suitable for the evaluation of atmospheric pollution. It discusses the storage and preparation of samples for analysis and also presents bibliographic information on the concentration ranges of inorganic and organic compounds in the precipitation and atmospheric deposit samples.

  14. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Development of Chronological Records and Geochemical Monitoring. Rohit Shrivastav. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 62-68 ...

  15. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howton, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on effects of atmospheric pollutants on lipids emphasized effects of nitrogen dioxide on olefinic centers of alveolar fluid surfactant lipids. The finding that NO 2 attacks α-tocopherol much more avidly than olefinic fatty esters indicates that the autoxidation enhancing effects of this atmospheric pollutant may be greatly magnified by destruction of native antioxidants that normally suppress the extensiveness of such lipid oxidation

  16. The nitrogen oxides and the atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this document is to bring information on the acid atmospheric pollution, on the researches and studies in progress, on the european directives and the national regulations, on the processus and burners with low emission of nitrogen oxides and on the rule that the gas, fuel without sulphur, generating little nitrogen oxides, plays in the fight against atmospheric pollution. 20 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmens, H; Foan, L; Simon, V; Mills, G

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of local scale tree-atmosphere interaction on pollutant concentration in idealized street canyons and application to a real urban junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Salim, Salim Mohamed; Leo, Laura Sandra; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Chan, Andrew; Ielpo, Pierina; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Gromke, Christof

    2011-03-01

    This paper first discusses the aerodynamic effects of trees on local scale flow and pollutant concentration in idealized street canyon configurations by means of laboratory experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These analyses are then used as a reference modelling study for the extension a the neighbourhood scale by investigating a real urban junction of a medium size city in southern Italy. A comparison with previous investigations shows that street-level concentrations crucially depend on the wind direction and street canyon aspect ratio W/H (with W and H the width and the height of buildings, respectively) rather than on tree crown porosity and stand density. It is usually assumed in the literature that larger concentrations are associated with perpendicular approaching wind. In this study, we demonstrate that while for tree-free street canyons under inclined wind directions the larger the aspect ratio the lower the street-level concentration, in presence of trees the expected reduction of street-level concentration with aspect ratio is less pronounced. Observations made for the idealized street canyons are re-interpreted in real case scenario focusing on the neighbourhood scale in proximity of a complex urban junction formed by street canyons of similar aspect ratios as those investigated in the laboratory. The aim is to show the combined influence of building morphology and vegetation on flow and dispersion and to assess the effect of vegetation on local concentration levels. To this aim, CFD simulations for two typical winter/spring days show that trees contribute to alter the local flow and act to trap pollutants. This preliminary study indicates that failing to account for the presence of vegetation, as typically practiced in most operational dispersion models, would result in non-negligible errors in the predictions.

  19. Atmospheric pollution: How is it in Morocco?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejjari, Chakib; Mechakra-Tahiri, S.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric pollution is recognised. Risks are defined by toxicological studies on man and animal and by epidemiological studies based on population in industrial countries. Air pollution due to the economical development and the contamination of the atmosphere by chemical substances (gas and aerosols), has been also increasing around the world. The case here is in Morocco. SO 2 emissions has increased from 129 thousand tons per year to 180 tt per year in 1992 and will reach 300 tt per year in 2005. In Morocco today exist a large number of vehicles and industries (chemical industries, refineries, plastic...) emitting pollutants in rural cities and causing toxic products as aerosols and smog. A table concerning the evolution of gas emissions (SO 2 ; NO x ; CO and Ozone) in Morocco per thousand tons per year from 1982 until 2020 is given in details. Projects are settled to increase the air quality and reduce air pollution and its impact on public health

  20. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sportisse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  1. Natural sources of gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altshuller, A P

    1958-01-01

    Various gaseous pollutants including ozone, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, methane, hydrogen, formaldehyde, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, chlorine compounds and free radicals can be formed by natural processes such as ultraviolet photochemical processes in the upper atmosphere and microbiological processes. The modes of formation and destruction of these gases, especially of their concentrations in the atmosphere, and the various reactions in which these gases can participate with each other are discussed in detail. 114 references.

  2. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the city of Naberezhnye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the nature of spatial distribution, two distinctly different groups of pollutants were defined: mainly contained in emissions of industrial enterprises, and coming into the atmospheric air, mainly with emissions from automotive transport. Keywords: emissions fromautomotive transport, maximum permissible concentration, ...

  3. Atmospheric Metal Pollutants-Archives, Methods, and History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the atmosphere with cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) is a consequence of human activities. Natural archives are necessary to reconstruct the long-term history of metal deposition because accurate measurement of atmospheric deposition is a recent accomplishment. Reconstructions require: (1) accurate determination of concentrations of elements and isotopes, (2) accurate chronology of archives, and (3) archives that faithfully record atmosphere deposition. The most useful long-term archives are accumulations of ice and snow, peat, and lake sediment. Quantification of Cd deposition is uncommon because of its low concentration and substantial chemical mobility. Nonetheless, trends in peat and lake sediment are similar to those of Hg and Pb since ca. 1800 a.d. Both Hg and Pb are relatively chemically immobile and thus the peat and lake archives are believed to record historic trends of atmospheric deposition. Isotopic and concentration studies of Pb indicate a history of northern hemisphere atmospheric pollution extending back prior to 0 a.d. Although measurements of Hg concentration are now routine, isotopic measurements are in their infancy. Some Hg pollution sources have unique isotopic ratios, thereby contributing unique signals to the total Hg. Maximum accumulation rates of Hg and Pb occur up to 10 years later than for Cd (1970s versus 1960s in eastern North America, perhaps slightly later in Europe). By 2004, deposition of Cd, Hg, and Pb had declined from peak values in eastern North America more than 75, 75, and 90%, respectively

  4. Medical aspects of atmosphere pollution in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagidze, Lamzira; Matchavariani, Lia; Tsivtsivadze, Nodar; Khidasheli, Nargiz; Paichadze, Nino; Motsonelidze, Nargiz; Vakhtangishvili, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and its impact on ecosystems is one of the main problem of 21st century. Increase in green house gas in the atmosphere was regarded as an important cause. Atmospheric composition had significantly changed due to intensive technogenic pollution. Increase in aerosol (solid, liquid and gas) concentration had serious impact on human health and raised the level of risk factors for longevity of life. Despite, global character of climatic change and its intensity in numerous ways was influenced by local specificity of regions, their geographical location and meteorological factors. A study on the atmospheric quality (quantitative and percentage estimation of aerosols) of Georgia was carried out. Also the assessment of impact of meteorological and ecological conditions on human health was made for Tbilisi city. A relation between contaminants and meteorological factors was evaluated, particularly gas pollutants were strongly correlated with each other due to their photochemical activity; positive correlation (0.65; 0.69) between air temperature and pollutants. All the contaminants showed negative correlation with relative humidity, due to hydrolyzing ability. On the basis of multi-factorial statistical analysis, correlation between ambulance call, weather type, atmosphere pollution index, change in ground ozone quantity and earth magnetic field were determined. Atmospheric pollution due to dust, carbon, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, ground ozone quantity in Tbilisi significantly exceeded maximum permissible level, that effected human health.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of the atmospheric pollutants in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City (MZMC) is a serious problem with social, economical and political consequences, in virtue that it is the region which concentrates both the greatest country population and a great part of commercial and industrial activities. According to the World Health Organization, maximum permissible concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are exceeded frequently. In the MZMC, the environmental monitoring has been limited to criteria pollutants, named in this way due to when their levels are measured in the atmosphere, they indicate in a precise way the air quality. The Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network monitors and registers the values of pollutants concentration in air in the MZMC. Actually, it is integrated by approximately 35 automatic-equipped remote stations, which report an every-hour register. Local and global invariant quantities have been widely used to describe the fractal properties of diverse time series. In the study of certain time series, many times it is assumed that they are monofractal, which means that they can be described only with one fractal dimension. But this hypothesis is unrealistic because a lot of time series are heterogeneous and non stationary, so their scaling properties are not the same throughout time and therefore they may require more fractal dimensions for their description. Complexity of the atmospheric pollutants dynamics suggests us to analyze its time series of hourly concentration registers with the multifractal formalism. So, in this work, air concentration time series of MZMC criteria pollutants were studied with the proposed method. The chosen pollutants to perform this analysis are ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and PM10 (particles less than 10 micrometers). We found that pollutants air concentration time series are multifractal. When we calculate the degree of multifractality for each time series we know that while more

  6. Atmospheric Pollution: Its Origins and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meetham, A. R.

    Although atmospheric pollution can be reduced or eliminated in many different ways, each way involves questions of economics, the time factor, availability of materials, priority over other urgent reforms, and individual and social psychology. To provide a basis for consideration of these questions, this book gives information not only about the…

  7. Urban planning and interactions with atmospheric pollution in Arve valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois de Septenville, William; Cossart, Étienne

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a major concern of urbanised areas and territory managers have to conduct efficient policies to decrease population exposure and vulnerability. Even if pollution peaks are subject to an important mediatisation and to a large part of preventive actions, background pollution remains responsible of the largest sanitary effects. They depend on (1) the concentration and the duration of the exposure and (2) to the kind of pollutants considered. Many sources of pollutants can be identified in urban areas as heating, industry or traffic; and each of them generates specific particles. Currently, the major part of pollution risk studies focuses on modelling particle emissions and their dissemination in the environment. These kinds of studies highlight the hazard intensity and its spatiality, commonly named the hazard exposure. Another part of risk studies, less frequent, considers the vulnerability. Vulnerability is a complex concept that involves a wide range of scales and objects ranging from biophysical parameters to social characteristics. They notably concern accessibility to information, knowledge and perceptions about the risk. The Arve valley (south-east of France) is subject to heavy pollution concentrations. High levels recording in this area have imposed the implementation of an Atmosphere Protection Plan. This type of plan is triggered if a peak occurs and enforces provisional binding measures for polluters, such as highway speed limitation for traffic emissions. These measures are only focused on emissions and have no effect for reducing vulnerability and exposition, for a long- and short-term time scales. An opportunity to ensure this objective is to consider how local urban morphologies can combine exposition and vulnerability situations. Indeed, cities have been planned without taking into account atmospheric pollution and morphologies. This context may conduct to the increase in both of these two risk components and producing

  8. Terrestrial mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmens, H.; Foan, L.; Simon, V.; Mills, G.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide there is concern about the continuing release of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) into the environment. In this study we review the application of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of POPs. Examples in the literature show that mosses are suitable organisms to monitor spatial patterns and temporal trends of atmospheric concentrations or deposition of POPs. These examples include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The majority of studies report on PAHs concentrations in mosses and relative few studies have been conducted on other POPs. So far, many studies have focused on spatial patterns around pollution sources or the concentration in mosses in remote areas such as the polar regions, as an indication of long-range transport of POPs. Very few studies have determined temporal trends or have directly related the concentrations in mosses with measured atmospheric concentrations and/or deposition fluxes. - Highlights: ► Terrestrial mosses are suitable organisms to monitor deposition of POPs. ► They provide a good indication of spatial patterns and temporal trends. ► Mosses have been used as biomonitors of PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs dioxins and furans. ► Few studies have assessed the relationship between concentrations in air and mosses. - Mosses are suitable biomonitors of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  9. Atmospheric transport of pollution to the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, T.

    1984-01-01

    If the atmospheric processes are assumed to be nearly adiabatic, the conclusion is that the possible source areas of Arctic air pollution detected at ground level have to be situated in areas with almost the same temperature as observed in the Arctic itself. Sources south of the polar front system can only contribute to high-altitude (or upper level) Arctic pollution. The amplitude and phase of long, planetary waves are important since they determine the position of the polar front, and provide conditions for meridional transport of air at certain longitudes

  10. Concentration of elements in atmospheric aerosol in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Pavlov, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry in Bratislava. The obtained results confirm the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. (Authors)

  11. Atmospheric pollution and specific tolerance of lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sloover, J

    1968-01-01

    An ecological method has been designed which allows a quantitative estimation of specific sensitivity of lichens to atmospheric pollution. That method is based on a comparison of the ''cortege moyen specifique'' i.e. the mean number of lichens growing with each species in a given area. Four of the obtained sequences are compared (The Dender valley and the area surrounding Gand, Belgium: the Oslo and the Helsinki areas); they show the order to toxiphoby of the related epiphytic lichens.

  12. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y.N. [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  13. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y N [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  14. Potential atmospheric pollution from the Invergordon industrial complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neustein, S A; Danby, N P

    1971-11-01

    The main atmospheric pollutants from the Invergordon complex will be fluorine and hydrogen fluoride from the aluminum smelter and sulfur dioxide and hydrocarbons from the oil refinery. Both acute and chronic tree damage is expected. The effects of F and SO/sub 2/ on the trees via the soil is expected to be insignificant. Acute tree damage results from high concentrations of pollutants as a result of meteorological conditions or industrial cleansing failure. Chronic tree damage results from long term low level pollution. Broad leaved trees are not regarded as susceptible to chronic pollution. All the conifers are susceptible. Clean air sampling has begun in order to provide before and after comparison. Foliage samplers will be taken for a radius of 16,000 m. A survey of lichens has been completed. Lichenology may assist in discrimination between F and SO/sub 2/ injuries.

  15. Atmospheric pollution from the major mobile telecommunication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution from five major mobile telephone companies in Tanzania was investigated. These companies are Airtel, tIGO, Zantel, Sasatel and Vodacom. The parameters measured were the noise levels, NOx concentrations, and Particulate matter. The noise levels and exhaust gases were determined at 10 ...

  16. Tillandsia recurvata L. as a bioindicator of sulfur atmospheric pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Graciano, Corina; Fernández, L V; Caldiz, D O

    2003-01-01

    Tillandsia recurvata L. is an epiphyte that absorbs nutrients from the air, so it could be used as a bioindicator of atmospheric sulfur pollution. In order to test this idea, Tillandsia recurvata samples were seasonally collected for two years at three sites of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in a suburban park and in a rural area 60 km away from the city. Macro- and microscopic observations were carried out and chlorophyll and sulfur concentrations of the tissue were measured to ...

  17. Atmospheric dispersion of pollutants in an industrial area of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Monte de Oca, Feliberto de la; Furet Bridon, Norma Raisa; Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Lorente Vera, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by different chemicals; take a great connotation in the world, given the adverse effects on ecosystems and particularly human health. The urban development, the modification of the land surface and the climate change, phenomena derived from a world population explosion, are altering the composition of the air. The atmosphere deposits pollutants in the water courses and in land, which harms not only the persons, but also to the animals and the plants of the ecosystem. To know as these pollutants are dispersed in the atmosphere it is very important in the establishment of better urban, regional and world predictions of the air quality. The present study aims to assess the local spread of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from an industrial zone. The study was done using the pollutant Gaussian Dispersion Models AERMOD. For the evaluation of contaminants were considered two modeling scenarios: urban and rural. The SO 2 concentrations (μg/m 3 ) were obtained for 1 h, 24 h and all period (1 year), exceeding the permissible limits (500, 50 y 20 μg/m 3 ). It was also recorded for each period the number of times SO 2 concentrations exceeded the reference values in each of the scenarios discussed (urban: 39, 61 y 39; rural: 99, 75 y 25). At the end of modeling in the urban setting, 39 recipients exceeded the reference value, occupying an area of 9.75 km 2 and 25 receivers in the case of the rural setting, for an area of 6.25 km 2 . For NOx and particulate matter concentrations estimated values were always below the reference values. The obtained results in this case show the potentiality of AERMOD system for the evaluation of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  18. Krypton-85 pollution and atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.G.; ApSimon, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    Krypton-86 is a chemically inert radioactive gas present in the atmosphere, concentrations of which have been greatly increased by nuclear reprocessing and weapons testing since 1945. The long half-life (10.7 yr), allows the gas to mix thoroughly in the atmosphere. Ionization caused by krypton-85 increases the electrical conductivity of atmospheric air. Further increases in krypton-85 emissions seem inevitable. The increase in air conductivity due to release of krypton-85 will vary with height, and be larger over the oceans than over the land. Increases in conductivity will produce uncertain effects on atmospheric phenomena, so changes are compared in magnitude with other factors perturbing the conductivity, such as combustion aerosol burdens, volcanic eruptions and nuclear weapons testing. Conductivity changes are expected to have the greatest significance for meteorological phenomena close to the source. (Author)

  19. Metallic corrosion in the polluted urban atmosphere of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Da-Wei; Guo, Hai; Ling, Zhen-Hao; Cheung, Kalam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between air pollutants, particularly acidic particles, and metallic material corrosion. An atmospheric corrosion test was carried out in spring-summer 2012 at a polluted urban site, i.e., Tung Chung in western Hong Kong. Nine types of metallic materials, namely iron, Q235 steel, 20# steel, 16Mn steel, copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, and aluminum alloy, were selected as specimens for corrosion tests. Ten sets of the nine materials were all exposed to ambient air, and then each set was collected individually after exposure to ambient air for consecutive 6, 13, 20, 27, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 days, respectively. After the removal of the corrosion products on the surface of the exposed specimens, the corrosion rate of each material was determined. The surface structure of materials was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the corrosion tests. Environmental factors including temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of gaseous pollutants, i.e., sulfur dioxide (SO₂), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and particulate-phase pollutants, i.e., PM₂.₅ (FSP) and PM₁₀ (RSP), were monitored. Correlation analysis between environmental factors and corrosion rate of materials indicated that iron and carbon steel were damaged by both gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and NO₂) and particles. Copper and copper alloys were mainly corroded by gaseous pollutants (SO₂ and O₃), while corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloy was mainly attributed to NO₂ and particles.

  20. Atmospheric pollution and its implications in the Eastern Transvaal highveld

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tyson, PD

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a review of available information on the dispersion climatology, the degree of atmospheric pollution and the various impacts of that pollution on man and environment in the Eastern Transvaal Highveld (ETH) and adjacent regions...

  1. Laser-excited fluorescence for measuring atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    System measures amount of given pollutant at specific location. Infrared laser aimed at location has wavelength that will cause molecules of pollutant to fluoresce. Detector separates fluorescence from other radiation and measures its intensity to indicate concentration of pollutant.

  2. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that were created...

  3. Biomagnetic Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollution: A Review of Magnetic Signatures from Biological Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Maher, Barbara A; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Wuyts, Karen; Castanheiro, Ana; Samson, Roeland

    2017-06-20

    Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ("sensors") used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes. Our work addresses the following: the range of magnetic properties reported for lichens, mosses, leaves, bark, trunk wood, insects, crustaceans, mammal and human tissues; their associations with atmospheric pollutant species (PM, NO x , trace elements, PAHs); the pros and cons of biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution; current challenges for large-scale implementation of biomagnetic monitoring; and future perspectives. A summary table is presented, with the aim of aiding researchers and policy makers in selecting the most suitable biological sensor for their intended biomagnetic monitoring purpose.

  4. Trends of atmospheric black carbon concentration over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikas; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Sahu, Lokesh; Sokhi, Ranjeet

    2018-04-01

    The continuous observations over a period of 7 years (2009-2016) available at 7 locations show declining trend of atmospheric BC in the UK. Among all the locations, the highest decrease of 8 ± 3 percent per year was observed at the Marylebone road in London. The detailed analysis performed at 21 locations during 2009-2011 shows that average annual mean atmospheric BC concentration were 0.45 ± 0.10, 1.47 ± 0.58, 1.34 ± 0.31, 1.83 ± 0.46 and 9.72 ± 0.78 μgm-3 at rural, suburban, urban background, urban centre and kerbside sites respectively. Around 1 μgm-3 of atmospheric BC could be attributed to urban emission, whereas traffic contributed up to 8 μg m-3 of atmospheric BC near busy roads. Seasonal pattern was also observed at all locations except rural and kerbside location, with maximum concentrations (1.2-4 μgm-3) in winter. Further, minimum concentrations (0.3-1.2 μgm-3) were observed in summer and similar concentrations in spring and fall. At suburban and urban background locations, similar diurnal pattern were observed with atmospheric BC concentration peaks (≈1.8 μg m-3) in the morning (around 9 a.m.) and evening (7-9 p.m.) rush hours, whereas minimum concentrations were during late night hours (peak at 5 a.m.) and the afternoon hours (peak at 2 p.m.). The urban centre values show a similar morning pattern (peak at 9 a.m.; concentration - 2.5 μgm-3) in relation to background locations but only a slight decrease in concentration in the afternoon which remained above 2 μgm-3 till midnight. It is concluded that the higher flow of traffic at urban centre locations results in higher atmospheric BC concentrations throughout the day. Comparison of weekday and weekend daily averaged atmospheric BC showed maximum concentrations on Friday, having minimum levels on Sunday. This study will help to refine the atmospheric BC emission inventories and provide data for air pollution and climate change models evaluation, which are used to formulate air pollution

  5. Linking Atmospheric Pollution to Cryospheric Changes over the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Zhang, Q.; Ji, Z.; Li, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, C.; Cong, Z.; Chen, P.; Guo, J.; Huang, J.; Tripathee, L.; Rupakheti, D.; Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Panday, A. K.; Rupakheti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Known as "the Third Pole" (TP), the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountains hold the largest aggregate of glaciers outside the pole regions. Recent monitoring and projection indicated an accelerated glacier decline and increasing glacier runoff. The long-range transport of South Asian atmospheric pollutants, including light absorbing impurities (LAIs) such as black carbon (BC) and mineral dust (MD), can absorb the solar radiation in the atmosphere and reduce albedo after being deposited onto the cryosphere, thereby promoting glacier and snow melt. A coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network has been launched covering the TP with emphasis on trans-Himalayan transects since 2013. TSP were collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days. BC/OC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured. Results reveal a consistent decrease in almost all analyzed parameters from south to north across the Himalayas. Geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicate dominant sources of biomass burning and vehicle exhaust, in line with results of PAHs. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggest that the trans-boundary air pollution occurred episodically and concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons via upper air circulation, through-valley wind, and local convection. Simulation results showed that carbonaceous aerosols produced positive/negative shortwave radiative forcing in the atmosphere/ground surface. Aerosols increased surface air temperatures by 0.1-0.5° over the TP and decreased temperatures in South Asia during the monsoon season. Surface snow/ice samples were collected from benchmark glaciers to estimate the impacts of LAIs on glacier melt with model assistance. BC (37%) and MD (32%) contribute to the summer melting of Laohugou Glacier in the northern TP. MD (38%) contributed more glacier melt than BC (11%) on Zhadang Glacier in the southern TP. In the southeastern TP, BC and MD contribute to 30% of the

  6. Atmospheric deposition exposes Qinling pandas to toxic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping; Zheng, Ying-Juan; Liu, Qiang; Song, Yi; An, Zhi-Sheng; Ma, Qing-Yi; Ellison, Aaron M

    2017-03-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered animals in the world, and it is recognized worldwide as a symbol for conservation. A previous study showed that wild and captive pandas, especially those of the Qinling subspecies, were exposed to toxicants in their diet of bamboo; the ultimate origin of these toxicants is unknown. Here we show that atmospheric deposition is the most likely origin of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the diets of captive and wild Qinling pandas. Average atmospheric deposition was 199, 115, and 49 g·m -2 ·yr -1 in the center of Xi'an City, at China's Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center (SWARC), and at Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), respectively. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Ni) and POPs was highest at Xi'an City, intermediate at SWARC, and lowest at FNNR. Soil concentrations of the aforementioned heavy metals other than As and Zn also were significantly higher at SWARC than at FNNR. Efforts to conserve Qinling pandas may be compromised by air pollution attendant to China's economic development. Improvement of air quality and reductions of toxic emissions are urgently required to protect China's iconic species. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in the basin of the amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, N; Takizawa, Y; Hisamatsu, S; Abe, T; Abe, Y; Motohashi, Y

    1998-01-01

    A wide regional mercury pollution in Amazon, Brazil is closely associated with goldmining that has been carried out in the basin of tributaries of the Amazon since the eighteenth century. Possible involvement has been discussed on atmospheric circulation in distributing the volatile pollutant. We developed a portable air sampler for the collection of mercury compounds and determined atmospheric mercury concentrations at several sites in Brazil including the basin of the Amazon tributaries. The mean concentration of total mercury was between 9.1 and 14.0 ng/m(3) in the basin of the Uatumã River located in the tropical rain forest far from goldmining sites and from urbanized area. These mercury levels exceeded the background level previously reported in rural area and, furthermore, were higher than concentrations observed in Rio de Janeiro and in Manaus that were compatible with the reference values for urban area. Mercury concentrations were also determined in gold refineries in the basin of the Tapajos River, and detected at a significant but not a health deteriorating level. Although only preliminary data were available, the present observations were in favor of the hypothesis that mercury is distributed widely by long distant transport by the atmospheric circulation after released at gold mining sites.

  8. Influence of emissions on regional atmospheric mercury concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieser J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a global pollutant that is rapidly transported in the atmosphere. Unlike the majority of air pollutants the background concentrations of mercury play a major role for the atmospheric concentrations on a hemispheric scale. In this study the influence of regional anthropogenic emissions in comparison to the global emissions on mercury concentrations over Europe are investigated. For this purpose an advanced threedimensional model system is used that consists of three components. The emission model SMOKE-EU, the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, and the chemistry transport model (CTM CMAQ. A variety of sensitivity runs is performed in order to determine the influence of different driving factors (i.e. boundary conditions, anthropogenic and natural emissions, emission factors, meteorological fields on the atmoshperic concentrations of different mercury species. This study is part of the European FP7 project GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System. The aim is to identify the most important drivers for atmospheric mercury in order to optimize future regional modelling studies in the course of the GMOS project. Moreover, the model results are used to determine areas of interest for air-plane based in-situ measurements which are also part of GMOS.

  9. Atmospheric Concentrations of Organochlorine Pesticides in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organochlorine pesticides may still be in use in the Eastern African region for agricultural purposes and for the control of mosquitoes. Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides are expected to be higher in the tropics compared to temperate regions due to prevailing high temperatures. However, no study has ...

  10. Atmospheric pollution over the eastern Mediterranean during summer - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Uri; Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Régina; Dulac, François

    2017-11-01

    The eastern Mediterranean (EM) is one of the regions in the world where elevated concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous air pollutants have been reported frequently, mainly in summer. This review discusses published studies of the atmospheric dispersion and transport conditions characterizing this region during the summer, followed by a description of some essential studies dealing with the corresponding concentrations of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen, methane, and sulfate aerosols observed there. The interlaced relationship between the downward motion of the subsiding air aloft induced by global circulation systems affecting the EM and the depth of the Persian Trough, a low-pressure trough that extends from the Asian monsoon at the surface controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the mixed boundary layer during summer, is discussed. The strength of the wind flow within the mixed layer and its depth affect much the amount of pollutants transported and determine the potential of the atmosphere to disperse contaminants off their origins in the EM. The reduced mixed layer and the accompanying weak westerlies, characterizing the summer in this region, led to reduced ventilation rates, preventing an effective dilution of the contaminants. Several studies pointing at specific local (e.g., ventilation rates) and regional peculiarities (long-range transport) enhancing the build-up of air pollutant concentrations are presented. Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations observed in the summer over the EM are among the highest over the Northern Hemisphere. The three essential processes controlling its formation (i.e., long-range transport of polluted air masses, dynamic subsidence at mid-tropospheric levels, and stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange) are reviewed. Airborne campaigns and satellite-borne initiatives have indicated that the concentration values of reactive nitrogen identified as precursors in the formation of O

  11. Recreational atmospheric pollution episodes: Inhalable metalliferous particles from firework displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cruz Minguillón, Mari; Pey, Jorge; Rodriguez, Sergio; Vicente Miró, José; Felis, Carles; Gibbons, Wes

    The use of fireworks creates an unusual and distinctive anthropogenic atmospheric pollution event. We report on aerosol samples collected during Las Fallas in Valencia, a 6-day celebration famous for its firework displays, and add comparative data on firework- and bonfire-contaminated atmospheric aerosol samples collected from elsewhere in Spain (Barcelona, L'Alcora, and Borriana) and during the Guy Fawkes celebrations in London. Specific high-profile official firework events during Las Fallas included the afternoon Mascletà and the nightly aerial displays (especially in the climactic final 2 days of the fiesta) and were accompanied by pollution spikes in suspended particles, NO, SO 2, and the creation and dispersal of an aerosol cloud enriched in a range of metallic elements. Notable metal aerosol concentration increases recorded during Las Fallas were potassium (from 500 to 5900 ng m -3), aluminium (as Al 2O 3 from around 600 to 2200 ng m -3), titanium (from 200 to 700 ng m -3), magnesium (from 100 to 500 ng m -3), lead (from 17 to 379 ng m -3), barium (from 39 to 322 ng m -3), strontium (from 3 to 112 ng m -3), copper (from 12 to 71 ng m -3), and antimony (from 1 to 52 ng m -3). Firework-contaminated aerosols of similarly metalliferous composition were also identified at the other monitoring sites, although different sites show variations attributable to other sources such as bonfires and local industry. Unusual levels of the trace elements Ba, Sr and (to a lesser extent) Cu, always in proportions with Ba dominant, along with strongly enhanced K, Pb, and Sb, are identified as being particularly characteristic of firework aerosols. Although firework-related recreational pollution episodes are transient in nature, they are highly concentrated, contribute significantly to total annual metal emissions, and are on average fine enough to be easily inhaled and a health risk to susceptible individuals.

  12. Natural and anthropogenic pollution of the global atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Results of determination of natural radionuclides, fission products and heavy metals in contemporary and pre-industrial ice from 14 glaciers in Southern and Northern Hemisphere, and in aerosols collected during three decades from seven altitudes between 0 and 15 km in the troposphere and atmosphere, were used for determinations of fluxes of man-made and natural pollutants into the global atmosphere. For these determinations 137 Cs from nuclear explosions and natural 210 Pb were used as tracers. Concentration of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in ice deposited before industrial revolution were higher than the contemporary precipitation presented as firn in high mountain and polar glaciers. This is due probably to volcanic activity which was higher before the first part of 20 th century. Man-made contribution to the total atmospheric flux is now 3.5% for 226 Ra, 12% for U, 7.4% for Pb, 011% for Cd, 62% for V and 5.8 for Hg. The mass of annual global wet precipitation, determined for the first time with radioactive tracers, is 5.7·10 1 7 kg. In Poland the lowest concentration of stable lead in human bones is now in highly industrialized southern districts. Lead level in medieval human bones from these districts reached up to 370 μg/g. Its current average level in inhabitants of southern Poland is 3.5 μg/g, i. e. similar as 1800 years ago. (author)

  13. Atmospheric pollution and health. An introduction; Pollution atmospherique et sante une introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmirou, D. [Universite-Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    Physiological observations and pollution measurements allowed for the study of short and long term respiratory effects of tropospheric ozone and fine particulate pollution on man, depending on age and health factors. Risk reduction policies towards air quality, and criteria issues for atmospheric pollution control and abatement measures, are discussed

  14. Ideas in Practice: Studies in Atmospheric Pollution For Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Donald R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the content and structure of an enviromental course offered by the Department of Engineering Technology at Western Kentucky University. The course focuses on atmospheric pollution and is designed for science teachers currently teaching in the school system. (JR)

  15. [Development and current status of atmospheric pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elichegaray, C; Bouallala, S; Maitre, A; Ba, M

    2009-02-01

    Air quality is a public health issue and this article includes a reminder of the related causes and issues and a description of the monitoring of ambient air quality in France. It also provides a review of major developments in recent years of the pollutants measured. Emissions of major air pollutants have declined significantly since the 1970s, and this is reflected in an overall improvement in the quality of ambient air. Nevertheless, various forms of air pollution remain a concern (in the case of photochemical pollution) and health data show that air pollution is still a cause of morbidity and mortality. The fight against air pollution must remain a priority and requires multi-pollutant and multi-effect approaches. The National Health and Environment Program adopted during the Grenelle environment stakeholder consultation processes includes targets for reducing human exposure to air pollution, especially particulate matter, as well as measures to improve indoor air quality. In a context dominated by the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases, problems of air quality should not be underestimated and policies relating to climate protection must be taken into account.

  16. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L; Colegrove, Dominique P; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W; Sonke, Jeroen E; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-12

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through 'atmospheric mercury depletion events', or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(ii)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(ii) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)-the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere-occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  17. Atmospheric pollution and its influence on British forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, R

    1958-01-01

    The two chief sources of atmospheric pollution in Britain are the combustion of fuels and salt spray blown inland from the sea. This paper reviews the research done up to 1958 on both combustion-related air pollution and sea salt deposition in Great Britain.

  18. Atmosphere pollutants-their health and environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, Ali Sasi; Ibsaim, Rajab A.

    2006-01-01

    The conducted studies, continuous monitoring and measuring of the atmosphere pollution surrounding the world cities for a decade in the last century demonstrated increased rates of some pollutants, often exceeded the levels which are considered to be safe for health. Most of the dangerous pollutants in the atmosphere are suspended particles, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, ozone troposphere and lead, these are the main responsible pollutant in contaminating the atmosphere leading to increase of death percentage in the major cities. For a duration of nearly a century, atmosphere pollution accidents in cities like London approved that inhaling contaminated air is dangerous and deadly sometimes. In 1880 2200 person from London inhabitants have died when coal smoke with heating and industrial gases have been accumulated to form a toxic smog of sulfur oxide gas and suspended particles in the atmosphere of the city. In this paper we discuss type of atmosphere pollutants and their health and environmental effects on human being, creatures and earth and ways of eliminating that.(Author)

  19. Modelling of pollution dispersion in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Stankiewicz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The paper contains the review of the mathematical foundation of atmospheric dispersion models. The atmospheric phenomena relevant to atmospheric dispersion model are discussed. In particular the parametrization of processes with time and space scales smaller than numerical grid size, limited by available computer power, is presented. The special attention was devoted to similarity theory and parametrization of boundary layer. The numerical methods are analysed and the drawbacks of the method are presented. (author). 99 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Mathematical models for atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.L.; Barrager, S.M.

    1979-08-01

    The present and likely future roles of mathematical modeling in air quality decisions are described. The discussion emphasizes models and air pathway processes rather than the chemical and physical behavior of specific anthropogenic emissions. Summarized are the characteristics of various types of models used in the decision-making processes. Specific model subclasses are recommended for use in making air quality decisions that have site-specific, regional, national, or global impacts. The types of exposure and damage models that are currently used to predict the effects of air pollutants on humans, other animals, plants, ecosystems, property, and materials are described. The aesthetic effects of odor and visibility and the impact of pollutants on weather and climate are also addressed. Technical details of air pollution meteorology, chemical and physical properties of air pollutants, solution techniques, and air quality models are discussed in four appendices bound in separate volumes

  1. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants Emissions from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... Pollutants Emissions from Mining Operations at Ghana Managanese Company Ltd.”, Ghana Mining Journal, ..... Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, ... Management, Arsenic Sequestration, and Water Quality Issues.

  2. Atmospheric Pollution and Urban Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guinot, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese cities face the challenge of battling air pollution during a time of rapid urbanisation and rising energy demand. Poor air quality is heightening anxiety over the environment. Given pollution’s economic cost, a real policy of monitoring and control has emerged at the national level. Chinese researchers and industry have come up with technological responses to the enormous challenges. While some showcase cities have boosted their pollution-control measures, the situation in smaller one...

  3. Application of computational fluid mechanics to atmospheric pollution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.; Smith, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most noticeable effects of air pollution on the properties of the atmosphere is the reduction in visibility. This paper reports the results of investigations of the fluid dynamical and microphysical processes involved in the formation of advection fog on aerosols from combustion-related pollutants, as condensation nuclei. The effects of a polydisperse aerosol distribution, on the condensation/nucleation processes which cause the reduction in visibility are studied. This study demonstrates how computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer modeling can be applied to simulate the life cycle of the atmosphereic pollution problems.

  4. Advection of pollutants by internal solitary waves in oceanic and atmospheric stable stratifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Haarlemmer

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available When a pollutant is released into the ocean or atmosphere under turbulent conditions, even a steady release is captured by large eddies resulting in localized patches of high concentration of the pollutant. If such a cloud of pollutant subsequently enters a stable stratification-either a pycnocline or thermocline-then internal waves are excited. Since large solitary internal waves have a recirculating core, pollutants may be trapped in the sclitary wave, and advected large distances through the waveguide provided by the stratification. This paper addresses the mechanisms, through computer and physical simulation, by which a localized release of a dense pollutant results in solitary waves that trap the pollutant or disperse the pollutant faster than in the absence of the waves.

  5. The characteristic features of the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, H.

    1986-01-01

    The publication facilitates access to the development and effects of air pollution caused by the major emission sources by way of discussing the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants and the processes involved. Apart from the physical ratings of atmospheric pollutants the author focuses on the meteorological parameters determining the dispersion process as well as on the unavoidable statistical variations. Representative realistic maximum and minimum values indicating the relation between emissions from the relevant sources and the resulting air pollution allow an expeditious evaluation of possible environmental impacts classified by the different types of pollutants. The publication not only discusses the direct incorporation, that is the breathing of contaminated air or the absorption of food grown or produced in contaminated regions but also refers to radiation doses which due to the presence of radioactive substances accumulate in the human organism. Comprehensive references are annexed to facilitate access to relevant problems connected with the subject discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  6. On the use of the lichen Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog. and Swinsc. as an indicator of atmospheric pollution in the province of Cordoba, Argentina, considering both lichen physiological parameters and element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasan, R.C.; Pla, R.R.; Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Pignata, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The lichen Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog. and Swinsc. was used to study trace-element atmospheric pollution in Cordoba (Argentina). 38 samples from a 1999 campaign were analyzed by NAA and a number of physiological parameters was determined. In first-ever comparisons, no correlations were found between altitude, physiological parameters and determined elements, which allowed the full comparison of element data in lichen samples throughout the whole survey area. After the application of Monte Carlo assisted factor analysis to the elemental matrix, five source profiles were found and mapped. The attribution of the sources is discussed. (author)

  7. An advanced open path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mani, S. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Over 100 million gallons of radioactive and toxic waste materials generated in weapon materials production are stored in 322 tanks buried within large areas at DOE sites. Toxic vapors occur in the tank headspace due to the solvents used and chemical reactions within the tanks. To prevent flammable or explosive concentration of volatile vapors, the headspace are vented, either manually or automatically, to the atmosphere when the headspace pressure exceeds preset values. Furthermore, 67 of the 177 tanks at the DOE Hanford Site are suspected or are known to be leaking into the ground. These underground storage tanks are grouped into tank farms which contain closely spaced tanks in areas as large as 1 km{sup 2}. The objective of this program is to protect DOE personnel and the public by monitoring the air above these tank farms for toxic air pollutants without the monitor entering the tanks farms, which can be radioactive. A secondary objective is to protect personnel by monitoring the air above buried 50 gallon drums containing moderately low radioactive materials but which could also emit toxic air pollutants.

  8. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  9. An assessment of worldwide energy-related atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Energy-related emissions of atmospheric pollutants are currently suspected as the source of a number of major environmental problems. Early concerns about local and regional air quality and respiratory health risks, greatly alleviated in the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by the use of tall stacks, have been superseded by ''global problems,'' such as acidification of the biosphere, increase in tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), visibility impairment, long-term exposure to toxic pollutants, and buildup of ''greenhouse gases''. Chapter 1 assesses the sources and physical/chemical atmospheric processes of energy-related atmospheric pollution (ERAP). It is not an exhaustive review but rather a documented statement of the state-of-art knowledge on issues critical to effective environmental decision-making. Chapter 2 looks at the effects on man, the environment and materials, and chapter 3 presents an overview and policy options. (author)

  10. Influence of the atmospheric aerosol and air pollution on solar albedo of the earth. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Mohamed, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of increasing atmospheric aerosol and air pollutant concentration on the solar albedo and consequently upon the heat budget near the earth's surface is studied. The magnitude of aerosol absorption coefficient to back-scattering coefficient B ab /B bs is calculated. This study will be used to estimate atmospheric stability categories and other meteorological parameters which are affected by thermal state radiation balance of the atmosphere as mixing and inversion height of Inshas nuclear reactor site. Consequently, concentration distribution of radioactive release from Inshas can be evaluated.. 4 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Influence of the atmospheric aerosol and air pollution on solar albedo of the earth. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhoub, A B; Mohamed, K S [Mathematics and Theoretical Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Auhtority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The effect of increasing atmospheric aerosol and air pollutant concentration on the solar albedo and consequently upon the heat budget near the earth`s surface is studied. The magnitude of aerosol absorption coefficient to back-scattering coefficient B{sub ab}/B{sub bs} is calculated. This study will be used to estimate atmospheric stability categories and other meteorological parameters which are affected by thermal state radiation balance of the atmosphere as mixing and inversion height of Inshas nuclear reactor site. Consequently, concentration distribution of radioactive release from Inshas can be evaluated.. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants with laser techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corio, W; Querzola, B; Zanzottera, E

    1979-03-01

    Laser techniques for the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants are reviewed, with attention given to lidars based on Rayleigh and Mie scattering, the Raman effect, or fluorescent scattering. Emphasis is placed on differential absorption lidars, which rely on Rayleigh or Mie scattering for measurements made in the IR or in the visible-UV range, respectively. A comprehensive air pollution monitoring program based on differential absorption lidars, together with systems using fluorescent backscattering and absorption measurements with topographic backscattering, is described.

  13. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-09-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle pollution changes the atmospheric circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevaag, Alf; Seland, Oeyvind; Debernard, Jens; Roeed, Lars Petter

    2002-01-01

    Industrial emissions and combustion of fossil fuels create large amounts of sulfate- and carbon containing soot particles. These mix with natural particles to change the natural aerosols. Such anthropogenic changes in the aerosols may have a great impact on the climate of the earth. Altered properties of the aerosols may change the atmosphere's absorption and reflection of solar radiation and contribute to heating or cooling. This is the direct effect. Changes in the properties of aerosols may also affect the number and size of recently formed cloud droplets. This may change the ability of the clouds to reflect solar radiation and to produce precipitation. This is the indirect effect. Recent research at the University of Oslo shows that anthropogenic particles significantly change the atmospheric circulation, in particular in the tropics, but also at European latitudes

  15. Monitoring of mercury concentration in atmosphere in Usti nad Labem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synek, V.; Baloch, T.; Otcenasek, J.; Kremlova, S.; Subrt, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study elaborates the observation of mercury pollution of the atmosphere in the city of Usti nad Labem. The biggest source of the polluting mercury in Usti nad Labem is the chlor-alkali production in the factory of Spolchemie Inc. The method of mercury determination applied is based on capturing the mercury contented in a volume of the air on an amalgamator and measuring the mercury by an atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin -Elmer 4100ZL) equipped with a special adapter after a thermal release of the mercury from the amalgamator. The basic characteristics of this method were evaluated; e.g. the limit of detection and limit of determination are, respectively, 0.43 and 1.4 ng/m 3 , the relative expanded uncertainty is 28 %. The work gives results of long-term (1998-2006) observations in a few localities in Usti nad Labem situated in various distances from the mercury source (e.g. means of 28.6 and 14.1 ng/m3 were obtained, respectively, in places 350 and 700 m far from the electrolysis plant) and also in a different city (Duchcov). The cases with a higher mercury concentration are very frequent so the sets of the obtained results have lognormal distributions. This study statistically compares the total level and variability of the mercury concentrations in the time series. It also investigates their trends, correlations between them and meteorological influences upon the levels of mercury concentration in the air. The effect of the mercury emission from the chlor-alkali plant is dominant. It as the only factor determines when the cases with a high mercury concentration in the atmosphere occur. (author)

  16. Modeling of urban atmospheric pollution and impact on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrto, Valari

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this dissertation, is to develop a methodology that provides an improved knowledge of the associations between atmospheric contaminant concentrations and health impact. The propagation of uncertainties from input data to the output concentrations through a Chemistry Transport Model was first studied. The influence of the resolutions of meteorological parameters and emissions data were studied separately, and their relative role was compared. It was found that model results do not improve linearly with the resolution of emission input. A critical resolution was found, beyond which model error becomes higher and the model breaks down. Based on this first investigation concerning the direct down scaling, further research focused on sub grid scale modeling. Thus, a statistical down scaling approach was adopted for the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability due to heterogeneous surface emissions. Emission fractions released from different types of sources (industry, roads, residential, natural etc.) were calculated from a high-resolution emission inventory. Then emission fluxes were mapped on surfaces emitting source-specific species. Simulations were run independently over the defined micro-environments allowing the modeling of sub grid-scale concentration variability. Sub grid scale concentrations were therefore combined with demographic and human activity data to provide exposure estimates. The spatial distribution of human exposure was parameterized through a Monte-Carlo model. The new information concerning exposure variability was added to an existing epidemiological model to study relative health risks. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used for this purpose. The principal outcome of the investigation was that a new functionality was added to the regression model which allows the dissociation of the health risk associated with each pollutant (e.g. NO 2 and PM 2.5 ). (author)

  17. Atmospheric corrosion in Gran Canaria specifically meteorological and pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.E.G.; Valles, M.L.; Mirza R, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon steel, copper, zinc and aluminium samples were exposed in different sizes with known ambient parameters in Gran Canaria Island and atmospheric corrosion was investigated. Weight-loss measurements used to determine corrosion damage were complemented with metallographic and XP S determination in order to characterize the structure and morphology of surface corrosion products. The ambient aggressiveness could be well evaluated from meteorological and pollution data. All atmospheric corrosion and environmental data were statistically processed for establishing general corrosion damage functions for carbon steel, copper, aluminium and zinc in terms of Gran Canaria extreme meteorological and pollution parameters. (Author)

  18. Atmospheric pollution history at Linfen (China) uncovered by magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from a water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Cao, Liwan; Appel, Erwin; Wang, Longsheng

    2015-01-01

    We studied magnetic and chemical parameters of sediments from sediments of a water reservoir at Linfen (China) in order to quantitatively reconstruct the atmospheric pollution history in this region. The results show that the main magnetic phases are magnetite and maghemite originating from the surrounding catchment and from anthropogenic activities, and there is a significant positive relationship between magnetic concentration parameters and heavy metals concentrations, indicating that magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the anthropogenic pollution. In order to uncover the atmospheric pollution history, we combined the known events of environmental improvement with variations of magnetic susceptibility (χ) and heavy metals along the cores to obtain a detailed chronological framework. In addition, air comprehensive pollution index (ACPI) was reconstructed from regression equation among magnetic and chemical parameters as well as atmospheric monitoring data. Based on these results, the atmospheric pollution history was successfully reconstructed. - Highlights: • Magnetic proxies can be used to monitor the heavy mental pollution in sediments. • Accurate age model was obtained using known events of environmental improvement. • Regression equation was obtained among sediment records and monitoring data. • Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed. - Atmospheric pollution history was quantitatively reconstructed using magnetic and chemical records of reservoir sediments combined with atmospheric monitoring data

  19. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  20. Elemental atmospheric pollution assessment via moss-based measurements in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis; Sarah Jovan; Geoffrey Donovan; Michael Amacher; Vicente Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Mosses accumulate pollutants from the atmosphere and can serve as an inexpensive screening tool for mapping air quality and guiding the placement of monitoring instruments. We measured 22 elements using 346 moss samples collected across Portland, Oregon, in December 2013. Our objectives were to develop citywide maps showing concentrations of each element in moss and...

  1. The laser absorption spectrometer - A new remote sensing instrument for atmospheric pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    An instrument capable of remotely monitoring trace atmospheric constituents is described. The instrument, called a laser absorption spectrometer, can be operated from an aircraft or spacecraft to measure the concentration of selected gases in three dimensions. This device will be particularly useful for rapid determination of pollutant levels in urban areas.

  2. Observations of atmospheric pollutants at Lhasa during 2014-2015: Pollution status and the influence of meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Bu; Cui, Lulu; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Rui; Zhang, Liwu; Fu, Hongbo; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Huifang; Qiong, A

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and inhalable particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were monitored continuously from March 2014 to February 2015 to investigate characteristics of air pollution at Lhasa, Tibetan Plateau. Species exhibited similar seasonal variations except O 3 , with the peaks in winter but low valleys in summer. The maximum O 3 concentration was observed in spring, followed by summer, autumn, and winter. The positive correlation between O 3 and PM 10 in spring indicated similar sources of them, and was assumed to be turbulent transport. Temperature was the dominant meteorological factor for most species in spring. High temperature accelerates O 3 photochemistry, and favors air disturbance which is conductive to dust resuspension in spring. Relative humidity (RH) and atmospheric pressure were the main meteorological factors in summer. RH showed negative correlations with species, while atmospheric pressure posed opposite situation. Wind speed (WS) was the dominant meteorological factor in autumn, the negative correlations between WS and species indicated diffusion by wind. Most species showed non-significant correlations with meteorological factors in winter, indicating the dependence of pollution on source emission rather than restriction by meteorology. Pollution weather character indicated that emissions were from biomass burning and dust suspension, and meteorological factors also played an important role. Air stream injection from the stratosphere was observed during O 3 pollution period. Air parcels from Southwest Asia were observed during air pollution period in winter. An enhancement in air pollutants such as O 3 would be expected in the future, more attention should be given to countermeasures for prevention of air pollution in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural). Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long term trend in de-seasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to few percent per year, by Generalised Least Square and Theil-Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal-Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two gathering the metropolitan areas of Torino and Milano and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering north-east, north-west and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. Significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop resulted low and restricted to few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is sufficient to explain the

  4. Laser spectroscopic analysis in atmospheric pollution research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, PBC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info ForbesP_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3174 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ForbesP_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Laser spectroscopic... Department and a CSIR National Laser Centre rental pool programme grant-holder, is involved in research into a novel method of monitoring atmospheric PAHs. The rental pool programme gives South African tertiary education institutions access to an array...

  5. Multi-scale dynamic modeling of atmospheric pollution in urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouron, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    Urban air pollution has been identified as an important cause of health impacts, including premature deaths. In particular, ambient concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) are regulated, which means that emission reduction strategies must be put in place to reduce these concentrations in places where the corresponding regulations are not respected. Besides, air pollution can contribute to the contamination of other media, for example through the contribution of atmospheric deposition to runoff contamination. The multifactorial and multi-scale aspects of urban make the pollution sources difficult to identify. Indeed, the urban environment is a heterogeneous space characterized by complex architectural structures (old buildings alongside a more modern building, residential, commercial, industrial zones, roads, etc.), non-uniform atmospheric pollutant emissions and therefore the population exposure to pollution is variable in space and time. The modeling of urban air pollution aims to understand the origin of pollutants, their spatial extent and their concentration/deposition levels. Some pollutants have long residence times and can stay several weeks in the atmosphere (PM2.5) and therefore be transported over long distances, while others are more local (NO x in the vicinity of traffic). The spatial distribution of a pollutant will therefore depend on several factors, and in particular on the surfaces encountered. Air quality depends strongly on weather, buildings (canyon-street) and emissions. The aim of this thesis is to address some of these aspects by modeling: (1) urban background pollution with a transport-chemical model (Polyphemus / POLAIR3D), which makes it possible to estimate atmospheric pollutants by type of urban surfaces (roofs, walls and roadways), (2) street-level pollution by explicitly integrating the effects of the building in a three-dimensional way with a multi-scale model of

  6. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ''multimedia'' model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations

  7. Spectroradiometric inspection of nuclear pollution in the atmosphere based on photochemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Kopytin, Yurii D.

    2005-07-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental investigations of remote monitoring methods based on secondary radioactivity effects including anomalous gaseous fields and their emissions in optical and microwave ranges are discussed. The feasibility of remote registration of secondary emission and absorption spectra from weakly ionized regions in the atmosphere above nuclear power engineering objects, dumps, and tailings dumps of nuclear wastes are examined. Based on the literature data on the excess concentrations of aerosol and gaseous components produced in radiation fields above their background levels, the diffusion parameters of radioactive emissions in the atmosphere are evaluated. The methods under consideration are shown to be promising for ecological monitoring of atmospheric radioactive pollution. High sensitivities of these methods enable pollutants to be detected at long distances. Simultaneous use of passive and active methods gives additional information on the parameters of radioactive pollution.

  8. The relationships between air pollutants, meteorological parameters and concentration of airborne fungal spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Wolski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Fungal spores are an important component of bioaerosol and also considered to act as indicator of the level of atmospheric bio-pollution. Therefore, better understanding of these phenomena demands a detailed survey of airborne particles. The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of two the most important allergenic taxa of airborne fungi - Alternaria and Cladosporium - on meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations during three consecutive years (2006-2008). This study is also an attempt to create artificial neural network (ANN) forecasting models useful in the prediction of aeroallergen abundance. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and environmental parameters as well as pollutants, confirmed by the Spearman's correlation rank analysis and high performance of the ANN models obtained. The concentrations of Cladosporium and Alternaria spores can be predicted with quite good accuracy from meteorological conditions and air pollution recorded three days earlier. - ANN models predict airspore contents from weather conditions and air pollutant.

  9. Role of atmospheric circulations in haze pollution in December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2017-09-01

    In the east of China, recent haze pollution has been severe and damaging. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric circulations and local meteorological conditions were conducive factors. The number of December haze days over North China and the Huanghuai area has increased sharply since 2010 and was greatest in 2016. During 2016, the most aggressive control measures for anthropogenic emissions were implemented from 16 to 21 December, but the most severe haze pollution still occurred, covering approximately 25 % of the land area of China and lasting for 6 days. The atmospheric circulations must play critical roles in the sub-seasonal haze events. Actually, the positive phase of the East Atlantic-West Russia pattern in the middle troposphere strengthened the anomalous anti-cyclone over the NH area that confined vertical motion below. The associated southerly anomalies made the cold air and surface wind speed weaker, but enhanced the humid flow. Thus, the horizontal and vertical dispersion of atmospheric particulates was suppressed and the pollutants gathered within a narrow space. In December 2016, these key indices were strongly beneficial for haze occurrence and combined to result in the severest haze pollution. The influences of the preceding autumn sea surface temperature near the Gulf of Alaska and the subtropical eastern Pacific, October-November snow cover in western Siberia, and associated physical processes on haze pollution are also discussed.

  10. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi'ou; Zhang Yuliang; Wang Ya; Wang Pei; Tian Hailin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20 th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  11. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to

  12. [Consequences of atmospheric pollution fluctuations in patients with COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, N; Tillon, J; Viacroze, C; Aouine, H; Muir, J-F

    2010-10-01

    Fluctuations in atmospheric pollution are responsible for an important morbidity and mortality in the patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiological studies show a significant increase in the mortality and hospitalization rates in COPD patients in relation to moderate increases in atmospheric pollution. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a pro-inflammatory role and an oxidative toxicity of atmospheric particles and secondary morphological and functional changes in the respiratory epithelium and the immune system. An excess of particulate matter, ozone, NO(2), SO(2) and CO is directly correlated to the number of episodes of acute respiratory failure in different countries all over the world. The mechanisms implicated are complex and variable, dependent on the different pollutant agents, climatic variations and inter-individual susceptibility. Further experimental studies are necessary in order to clarify our fundamental understanding and, alongside better control of air quality, to reduce short-term respiratory complications. The consequences of atmospheric pollution fluctuations on the exacerbation rate and therefore on the morbidity and mortality of patients with COPD emphasize the importance of preventive environmental management in the field of public health. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. A Regulation for the Control of Atmospheric Pollution, Amended Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board, San Juan.

    Nine articles, related to the preservation of the natural quality of the air, and to prevention, elimination and control of atmospheric pollution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, are contained in this document. These articles were written and enacted by the Environmental Quality Board in accordance with Law No. 9, approved June 18, 1970 -…

  14. Atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for pollution plume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a comparative investigation of atmospheric ventilation corridors and coefficients for gaseous pollution plume released from an isolated industrial facility into the ambient air of the host community in Ile-Ife suburb, southwest Nigeria. For the months of September to December in the year 2012 and 2013, ...

  15. [Observation on atmospheric pollution in Xianghe during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue-Peng; Wang, Yue-Si; Hu, Bo; Liu, Quan; Wang, Ying-Hong; Nan, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    There is a concern that much of the atmospheric pollution experienced in Beijing is regional in nature and not attributable to local sources. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of sources outside Beijing to atmospheric pollution levels during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The observations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were conducted from June 1 to September 30, 2008 in Xianghe, a rural site about 70 km southeast of Beijing. Sources and transportation of atmospheric pollution during the experiment were discussed with surface meteorology data and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The results showed that the daily average maximum (mean +/- standard deviation) concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5, and PM10 during observation reached 84.4(13.4 +/- 15.2), 43.3 (15.9 +/- 9.1), 230 (82 +/- 38), 184 (76 +/- 42) and 248 (113 +/- 52) microg x m(-3), respectively. In particular, during the pollution episodes from July 20 to August 12, the hourly average concentration of O3 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II for 46 h (9%), and the daily average concentration of PM10 exceeded the Standard for 11 d (46%); PM2.5 exceeded the US EPA Standard for 18 d (75%). The daily average concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 decreased from 27.7, 18.6, 96, 90, 127 microg x m(-3) in June-July to 5.8, 13.2, 80, 60, 106 microg x m(-3) during Olympic Games (August-September), respectively. The typical diurnal variations of NO(x), PM2.5 and PM10 were similar, peaking at 07:00 and 20:00, while the maximum of O3 occurred between 14:00 to 16:00 local time. The findings also suggested that the atmospheric pollution in Xianghe is related to local emission, regional transport as well as the meteorological conditions. Northerly wind and precipitation are favorable for diffusion and wet deposition of pollutants, while sustained south flows make the atmospheric pollution more serious. The lead-lag correlation analysis during the

  16. Concentrations and geographic distribution of selected organic pollutants in Scottish surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhind, S.M.; Kyle, C.E.; Kerr, C.; Osprey, M.; Zhang, Z.L.; Duff, E.I.; Lilly, A.; Nolan, A.; Hudson, G.; Towers, W.; Bell, J.; Coull, M.; McKenzie, C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) representing three chemical classes (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and the organic pollutant diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), were determined in surface soil samples (0–5 cm) collected at 20 km grid intersects throughout Scotland over a three-year period. Detectable amounts of all chemical classes and most individual congeners were present in all samples. There were no consistent effects of soil or vegetation type, soil carbon content, pH, altitude or distance from centres of population on concentrations which exhibited extreme variation, even in adjacent samples. It is concluded that soil POPs and DEHP concentrations and associated rates of animal and human exposure were highly variable, influenced by multiple, interacting factors, and not clearly related to local sources but possibly related to wet atmospheric deposition and the organic carbon content of the soil. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of selected organic pollutants in Scottish soils were determined. •Concentrations were highly variable. •There were few effects of soil or vegetation type, soil carbon, pH or altitude. •Distance from cities was not an important determinant of concentrations. •Atmospheric deposition and soil organic carbon content may affect concentrations. -- Soil concentrations of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants are not clearly related to soil type or pH, vegetation, altitude, or distance from pollutant sources

  17. Volume concentration of 41 elements in ground level of atmosphere in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Meresova, J.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry in Bratislava. The obtained results confirmed the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. (authors)

  18. Model predictions of ambient pollution concentration | Olaniyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the emission loads of the pollutants associated with the use of industrial boiler and power generating plant are in decreasing order of magnitude as NOx > CO > TSP > SO2 > VOC > SO,sub>3 and NOx > TSP > CO > HC > SO2 respectively. The emission load of SO2 is 74.6% in power generating plant, ...

  19. Correlation study of air pollution and cardio-respiratory diseases through NAA of an atmospheric pollutant biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Alves, E.R.; Genezini, F.A.; Santos, J.O.; Marcelli, M.P.; Saldiva, P.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study neutron activation analysis was applied to analyze lichen samples used as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors in order to verify if there is correlation between air pollution and its effects on the cardio respiratory system. Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungii species was chosen for passive biomonitoring of atmospheric pollutants. The population group selected for this study was adults over 45 years. Lichen samples collected in Sao Paulo city were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for the analyses. Aliquots of samples were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for short and long periods along with synthetic element standards. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer with an HPGe detector and the concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se,Th, V, Zn and lanthanides were determined. For quality control of the results, certified reference materials were analyzed together. Mortality data for the population due to cardio-respiratory diseases were obtained from the database of the Secretariat of Health of the Sao Paulo Municipality for the years 2005-2009. Results obtained point to vehicular and industrial emissions as the origins of pollutants in Sao Paulo city. The statistical treatment of Pearson's correlation applied to the results of lichen element concentrations and mortality rates indicated significant positive correlation for the elements Co, Mn and Zn for adults. (author)

  20. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants to aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, Cecilia

    1999-04-01

    The load of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is considered high in the Baltic ecosystem. The Baltic Sea spans over 12 latitudes and the regional differences in climate affect the behavior of POPs. Therefore spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of POPs in air and precipitation within this area has been investigated at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990-1993. In addition, the deposition of gaseous and particulate associated POPs to the Baltic Sea is estimated from empirical data. This atmospheric input of POPs is compared with the input from rivers. Additionally, data from Ross Island, Antarctica and Lake Kariba, Zimbabve, Africa is presented, and all results are discussed and explained using the `global fractionation hypothesis` as a framework. In the Baltic Sea, concentration of individual POPs in air were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient air temperature and location. A latitudinal gradient, with higher levels in the south was found for PCBs and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners in air increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentration increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic, or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites. The concentrations of individual congeners in precipitation were found to be influenced by atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, ambient temperature, precipitation volume and

  1. [Atmospheric air pollution: a risk factor for COPD?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Y-M; Roche, N; Huchon, G

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of COPD worldwide but other risk factors have been recognized. Air pollution is one of them, but its exact role in the development of COPD is hard to demonstrate. Its physiological effects on lung function have only been studied since the nineties by long and tedious cohort studies. Difficulties arise from the heterogeneity of air pollution (gas and particles); thus, its respiratory effects have to be examined for every component separately, and in different populations. It is also necessary to analyse the effects of atmospheric pollution in the short and the long term, considering both its physiological, clinical and toxicological effects, from childhood to adulthood. These factors make it difficult to obtain statistically significant results. Nevertheless, most studies seem to point to a role of air pollution in the development of COPD via oxydative stress but further studies are needed to confirm the exact effect of each component of air pollution on the respiratory tract. These studies could lead to improved public health policies and results are awaited that would identify at-risk populations, decide appropriate preventive measures and propose documented thresholds in pollution exposure... thereby limiting the spread of COPD. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2012-12-01

    Recent methods to map artificial night-sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere that allows fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. They are accurate for a clear atmosphere, when a two-scattering approximation is acceptable, which is the most common situation. We present here up-to-date extended Garstang models (EGM), which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) satellite measurements of artificial light emission and to GTOPO30 (Global 30 Arcsecond) digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the world at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atmosphere across the territory. EGM account for (i) multiple scattering, (ii) wavelengths from 250 nm to infrared, (iii) the Earth's curvature and its screening effects, (iv) site and source elevation, (v) many kinds of atmosphere with the possibility of custom set-up (e.g. including thermal inversion layers), (vi) a mix of different boundary-layer aerosols and tropospheric aerosols, with the possibility of custom set-up, (vii) up to five aerosol layers in the upper atmosphere, including fresh and aged volcanic dust and meteoric dust, (viii) variations of the scattering phase function with elevation, (ix) continuum and line gas absorption from many species, ozone included, (x) up to five cloud layers, (xi) wavelength-dependent bidirectional

  3. Atmospheric turbidity parameters in the high polluted site of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, M.A.M.; Rahoma, U.A.

    1996-01-01

    Monthly variations of Linke, angstrom and Schuepp turbidity coefficients and gamma exponent as well as the influence of climatic factor on them are analysed. For each of these turbidity coefficients; calculated from measurements of broad band filters at Helwan, egypt, desert climate, are reported. A linear regression model fitted to Angstrom's turbidity turbidity coefficient beta and Linke turbidity L for Helwan. The calculation showed that, it is higher values of atmospheric turbidity coefficients due to, both the effect of air pollutants in the Helwan atmosphere from the four cement companies and some of heavy industrial factories, and the effect of the former's desert climate. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Microscale atmospheric pollution of Pogranichny settlement (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Agoshkov, Alexander; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter in the small urban settlement Pogranichny by means of laser granulometry of snow water. The atmosphere of this settlement is polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10) to a certain extent. We found microparticles potentially hazardous to health in significant quantities (from 176.3% to 24.9%) in 4 sampling points out of 9. Large particles (sized over 400 μm) dominate on the most territory of the settlement reaching 78.1%.

  5. Study of laser monitoring techniques of pollutants in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T. A. A.

    2006-01-01

    There are several techniques used as a tool for monitoring the pollutions in the atmosphere, where the laser radiation sending through the sample of atmosphere to be investigated ether transmission or the scattering of the light, all the way through a variety of different techniques for monitoring the air quality. We are showed in this study the comparison of detection techniques through measuring the light scattered in some particular direction, rather than measuring direction the attenuation due to two type of scattering (Rayieh scattering and Mie scattering) during (optical Radar, Roman backscattering and Resonance fluorescence).(Author)

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Pollutants from Combustion Formation and Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This volume is based on the lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute: (ASI) «Pollutants Formation from Combustion. Formation Mechanisms and Impact on th th Atmospheric Chemistry» held in Maratea, Italy, from 13 to 26 september 1998. Preservation of the environment is of increasing concern in individual countries but also at continental or world scales. The structure of a NATO ASI which involve lecturers and participants of different nationalities was thought as especially well suited to address environmental issues. As combustion is known to substantially contribute to the damaging of the atmosphere, it was natural to concentrate the ASI program on reviewing the currently available knowledge of the formation mechanisms of the main pollutants liberated by combustion systems. In most situations, pollutants are present as trace components and their formation and removal is strongly conditioned by the chemical reactions initiated by fuel consumption. Therefore specific lectures were aimed at defi...

  7. Interlaboratory model comparisons of atmospheric concentrations with and without deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.; Cooper, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    To calculate the dose to the regional and U.S. populations, the pollutant concentration both with and without deposition and the amount of material deposited on the ground and watersheds around such a facility must be known. The following report (Article 50) of this document contains some initial estimates of population exposure from atmospheric effluents. The expertise of laboratories supported by U.S. Department of Energy funds ensures that the latest methods and data are available. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) performed regional calculations (out to distances of the order of 200 km from a hypothetical fuel reprocessing plant). The Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) performed U.S. scale calculations, and ARL also did the global calculations. Data from a winter and summer period were used to make comparisons of calculations by LLL, ARL, and PNL to determine which model should be used for the final calculations and to determine if a 200-km square area centered on the site would be large enough for dose calculations via the water and food pathways

  8. Meteorological controls on atmospheric particulate pollution during hazard reduction burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Hart, Melissa Anne; Jiang, Ningbo

    2018-05-01

    Internationally, severe wildfires are an escalating problem likely to worsen given projected changes to climate. Hazard reduction burns (HRBs) are used to suppress wildfire occurrences, but they generate considerable emissions of atmospheric fine particulate matter, which depend upon prevailing atmospheric conditions, and can degrade air quality. Our objectives are to improve understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and air quality during HRBs in Sydney, Australia. We identify the primary meteorological covariates linked to high PM2.5 pollution (particulates pollution, the PBLH between 00:00 and 07:00 LT (local time) was 100-200 m higher than days with high pollution. The PBLH was similar during 10:00-17:00 LT for both low and high pollution days, but higher after 18:00 LT for HRB days with low pollution. Cloud cover, temperature and wind speed reflected the above pattern, e.g. mean temperatures and wind speeds were 2 °C cooler and 0.5 m s-1 lower during mornings and evenings of HRB days when air quality was poor. These cooler, more stable morning and evening conditions coincide with nocturnal westerly cold air drainage flows in Sydney, which are associated with reduced mixing height and vertical dispersion, leading to the build-up of PM2.5. These findings indicate that air pollution impacts may be reduced by altering the timing of HRBs by conducting them later in the morning (by a matter of hours). Our findings support location-specific forecasts of the air quality impacts of HRBs in Sydney and similar regions elsewhere.

  9. Concentration reduction of selected pollutants in fish culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentration reduction of selected pollutants in fish culture effluents using plastic straws and palm kernel shells. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... Their effluent treatment ability were evaluated in terms of reduction made to ...

  10. Fractional kalman filter to estimate the concentration of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Oktaviana, Yessy; Apriliani, Erna; Khusnul Arif, Didik

    2018-04-01

    Air pollution problem gives important effect in quality environment and quality of human’s life. Air pollution can be caused by nature sources or human activities. Pollutant for example Ozone, a harmful gas formed by NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from various sources. The air pollution problem can be modeled by TAPM-CTM (The Air Pollution Model with Chemical Transport Model). The model shows concentration of pollutant in the air. Therefore, it is important to estimate concentration of air pollutant. Estimation method can be used for forecast pollutant concentration in future and keep stability of air quality. In this research, an algorithm is developed, based on Fractional Kalman Filter to solve the model of air pollution’s problem. The model will be discretized first and then it will be estimated by the method. The result shows that estimation of Fractional Kalman Filter has better accuracy than estimation of Kalman Filter. The accuracy was tested by applying RMSE (Root Mean Square Error).

  11. Elevational and Spatial Gradients of Atmospheric Metal Pollution in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongebloed, U. A.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Ferris, D. G.; Campbell, S.; Saylor, P. L.; Winski, D.; Handley, M.

    2017-12-01

    The industrial revolution has led to a several-fold increase in the atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids including Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As. Modern emissions inventories identify Asia as the largest emitter of many of these toxic pollutants, which are subsequently transported eastwards across the North Pacific Ocean by prevailing westerly winds in the mid-upper troposphere. Previous ice cores collected from the Yukon Territory in the eastern North Pacific reveal evolution-dependent metal pollution histories; the highest (5300 m elevation) core from Mt. Logan records a nearly pure trans-Pacific Asian pollution record, whereas cores from lower sites like the Eclipse Icefield (3017 m) record a complex combination of Asian and more local North American emission. However, it is unclear if this elevation gradient of pollution sources is found in other regions of the North Pacific. Furthermore, the previous ice core records end in the late 1990's, before efforts by some Asian nations to reduce metal pollution, and it is unknown if North Pacific atmospheric metal concentrations have declined in response to these efforts. Here we investigate metal and metalloid concentrations and sources recorded in ice core and snow pit samples recovered from a vertical transect spanning 2200 - 5242 m within Denali National Park in the Central Alaska Range. We compare these metal concentrations and crustal enrichment factors to data from the Yukon Territory to investigate North Pacific regional metal gradients. We also present preliminary results from a new 60 m ice core from the Eclipse Icefield to evaluate recent trends in metal concentrations since the end of the Mt. Logan and original Eclipse records in 1998, and compare this to the recent metal pollution history recorded in the 2013 Denali Ice Core collected from the summit plateau (3900 m) of Mt. Hunter.

  12. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B.; Hao, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35–50% of THg concentration and 50–70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. - Highlights: • China's anthropogenic mercury emission was 643.1 t in 2007. • GEOS-Chem model well reproduces the background Hg concentrations. • Anthropogenic emissions contribute 35–50% of Hg concentrations in polluted regions. • The priorities for mercury control in polluted regions are identified. - Anthropogenic Hg emissions are updated and their impacts on atmospheric mercury concentrations and depositions are quantified for China

  13. Atmospheric pollution in an urban environment by tree bark biomonitoring--part I: trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Lahd Geagea, Majdi; Boutin, René

    2012-03-01

    Tree bark has been shown to be a useful biomonitor of past air quality because it accumulates atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in its outermost structure. Trace element concentrations of tree bark of more than 73 trees allow to elucidate the impact of past atmospheric pollution on the urban environment of the cities of Strasbourg and Kehl in the Rhine Valley. Compared to the upper continental crust (UCC) tree barks are strongly enriched in Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. To assess the degree of pollution of the different sites in the cities, a geoaccumulation index I(geo) was applied. Global pollution by V, Ni, Cr, Sb, Sn and Pb was observed in barks sampled close to traffic axes. Cr, Mo, Cd pollution principally occurred in the industrial area. A total geoaccumulation index I(GEO-tot) was defined; it is based on the total of the investigated elements and allows to evaluate the global pollution of the studied environment by assembling the I(geo) indices on a pollution map. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  15. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  16. Numerical models for computation of pollutant-dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leder, S.M.; Biesemann-Krueger, A.

    1985-04-01

    The report describes some models which are used to compute the concentration of emitted pollutants in the lower atmosphere. A dispersion model, developed at the University of Hamburg, is considered in more detail and treated with two different numerical methods. The convergence of the methods is investigated and a comparison of numerical results and dispersion experiments carried out at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe is given. (orig.) [de

  17. Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, part II: Chemical characterization and transformation of pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Andrea L.; Jia, Yuling; Denbleyker, Allison; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Fraser, Matthew P.; Allen, David T.; Collins, Donald R.; Michel, Edward; Pudota, Jayanth; Sullivan, David; Zhu, Yifang

    Spatial gradients of vehicular emitted air pollutants were measured in the vicinity of three roadways in the Austin, Texas area: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway with significant truck traffic. A mobile monitoring platform was used to characterize the gradients of CO and NO x concentrations with increased distance from each roadway, while concentrations of carbonyls in the gas-phase and fine particulate matter mass and composition were measured at stationary sites upwind and at one (I-35 and FM-973) or two (SH-71) downwind sites. Regardless of roadway type or wind direction, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Under perpendicular wind conditions, CO, NO and NO x concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance perpendicular to the roadways. The decay rate for NO was more than a factor of two greater than for CO, and it comprised a larger fraction of NO x closer to the roadways than further downwind suggesting the potential significance of near roadway chemical processing as well as atmospheric dilution. Concentrations of most carbonyl species decreased with distance downwind of SH-71. However, concentrations of acetaldehyde and acrolein increased farther downwind of SH-71, suggesting chemical generation from the oxidation of primary vehicular emissions. The behavior of particle-bound organic species was complex and further investigation of the size-segregated chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) at increasing downwind distances from roadways is warranted. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and elemental carbon (EC

  18. Atmospheric relative concentrations in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.; Smyth, S.B.

    1995-05-01

    This report documents the ARCON95 computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research for use in control room habitability assessments. The document includes a user's guide to the code, a description of the technical basis for the code, and a programmer's guide to the code. The ARCON95 code uses hourly meteorological data and recently developed methods for estimating dispersion in the vicinity of buildings to calculate relative concentrations at control room air intakes that would be exceeded no more five percent of the time. These concentrations are calculated for averaging periods ranging from one hour to 30 days in duration. Relative concentrations calculated by ARCON95 are significantly lower than concentrations calculated using the currently accepted procedure when winds are less than two meters per second. For higher wind speeds, ARCON95 calculates about the same concentrations as the current procedure

  19. Atmospheric pollution assessment from a mountainous environment in Southern Ghana: case study of Abetifi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Linda Maud Naa-Dedei

    2016-07-01

    In the pursuit to improve man’s livelihood, human activities which include emission of heavy metals from various industries and sectors, as well as the past use of chemicals such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and flame retardants have often mobilized and redistributed natural substances and anthropogenic pollutants into the atmosphere, predisposing it to relatively high concentrations of such pollutants even in pristine areas in the environment. This study assessed the level of atmospheric pollution, contributing sources and human health exposure risk of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along with selected heavy metals with focus on Abetifi, one of the highest altitude environments in Ghana. Passive sampling with polyurethane foam (PUF) as adsorbent was employed. Samplers were deployed every 84 days for two years. A total of 65 polyurethane foams were deployed and twelve (12) groups of analytes were considered together with their various isomers. High resolution gas chromatographic technique coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and electron capture detectors (ECD) were used in the analysis of the POPs. Besides, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with MS was employed in analysing the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) while the heavy metals were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and UNMIX model were used to group pollution source contribution of all analytes (POPs and heavy metals) in this study. Diagnostic isomer and other predictive ratios were also employed for source apportionment of various individual analyte groups. Results revealed that polychlorinated dibenzo-furans gave with the least total mean concentration (0.074 pg/m"3) for the sampling period and polybrominated biphenyls gave the highest (55 pg/m"3). The pesticide group gave values in the order of DRINs (53 pg/m"3) > DDT (41 pg/m"3) > HCHs (28 pg/m"3). Data for perflourinated compounds (PFCs) in

  20. Non-destructive neutron activation analysis of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owlya, A.; Kasrai, M.; Massoumi, R.

    1976-01-01

    The concentration of elements in atmospheric particulate in an urban area were determined by means of a Ge(Li) detector. Samples were collected on a Millipore filter at a single location during three seasons of the year and the results compared. These results are compared with results for the same elements in other cities. It was concluded that in a dry climate, at least two parameters are related to seasonal changes in trace element concentration in the atmosphere-rain and snowfall, and the reducation of vertical diffusion of airborne particulates (author)

  1. Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowicz, Robert; Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Fetter, Wojciech

    2017-11-04

    Seasonal variation of air pollution is associated with variety of seasons and specificity of particular months which form the so-called summer and winter season also known as the "heating" season. The occurrence of higher values of air pollution in different months of a year is associated with the type of climate, and accordingly with different atmospheric conditions in particular months, changing state of weather on a given day, and anthropogenic activity. The appearance of these conditions results in different levels of air pollution characteristic for a given period. The study uses data collected during a seven-year period (2009-2015) in the automatic measuring station of immissions located in Eastern Wielkopolska. The analysis concerns the average and maximum values of air pollution (i.e., particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) from the perspective of their occurrence in particular seasons and months or in relation to meteorological actors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

  2. Atmospheric pollution and melanic moths in Manchester and its environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askew, R R; Cook, L M; Bishop, J A

    1971-01-01

    Samples of moths have been taken in the Manchester area at sites in localities with moderate to extreme atmospheric pollution. The majority of species collected are dark in color, many typically pale species being represented by dark variants. Four species polymorphic for melanic and non-melanic morphs have been examined in more detail. In Biston betularia the melanic frequency is over 93% at all stations, but the frequency of typicals appears to have increased over the past 15 years. This coincides with a period of extensive smoke control zonation. Gondontis bidentata has a higher frequency of melanics than has been recorded elsewhere in the country. There is significant variation between sites, the higher frequencies occurring in the more polluted localities. Non-melanics segregate into a pale and a dark category. In reared samples males exhibit a greater frequency of melanics than females.

  3. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aboel Fetouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.

  4. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This project is to design, develop, and test an atmospheric pollution monitor which can measure concentrations of DOE-specified and EPA-specified hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. A CO 2 laser to measure absorption spectra and to determine the distance over which the measurements are made, is combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to measure thermal emission spectra

  5. Development of Indoor Air Pollution Concentration Prediction by Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyati Pradini Yudison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available People living near busy roads are potentially exposed to traffic-induced air pollutants. The pollutants may intrude into the indoor environment, causing health risks to the occupants. Prediction of pollutant exposure therefore is of great importance for impact assessment and policy making related to environmentally sustainable transport. This study involved the selection of spatial interpolation methods that can be used for prediction of indoor air quality based on outdoor pollutant mapping without indoor measurement data. The research was undertaken in the densely populated area of Karees, Bandung, Indonesia. The air pollutant NO2 was monitored in this area as a preliminary study. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured by passive diffusion tube. Outdoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 94 locations, consisting of 30 roadside and 64 outdoor locations. Residential indoor NO2 concentrations were measured at 64 locations. To obtain a spatially continuous air quality map, the spatial interpolation methods of inverse distance weighting (IDW and Kriging were applied. Selection of interpolation method was done based on the smallest root mean square error (RMSE and standard deviation (SD. The most appropriate interpolation method for outdoor NO2 concentration mapping was Kriging with an SD value of 5.45 µg/m3 and an RMSE value of 5.45 µg/m3, while for indoor NO2 concentration mapping the IDW was best fitted with an RMSE value of 5.92 µg/m3 and an SD value of 5.92 µg/m3.

  6. Atmospheric relative concentrations in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Simonen, C.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report documents the ARCON96 computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation for potential use in control room habitability assessments. It includes a user's guide to the code, a description of the technical basis for the code, and a programmer's guide to the code. The ARCON96 code uses hourly meteorological data and recently developed methods for estimating dispersion in the vicinity of buildings to calculate relative concentrations at control room air intakes that would be exceeded no more than five percent of the time. The concentrations are calculated for averaging periods ranging from one hour to 30 days in duration. ARCON96 is a revised version of ARCON95, which was developed for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Changes in the code permit users to simulate releases from area sources as well as point sources. The method of averaging concentrations for periods longer than 2 hours has also been changed. The change in averaging procedures increases relative concentrations for these averaging periods. In general, the increase in concentrations is less than a factor of two. The increase is greatest for relatively short averaging periods, for example 0 to 8 hours and diminishes as the duration of the averaging period increases

  7. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  8. Source-receptor metrology and modeling of trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddeville, P.

    2005-12-01

    This work deals with acid pollution and with its long distance transport using the metrology of trace amounts of pollutants in rural environment and the identification of the emission sources at the origin of acid atmospheric fallouts. Several French and foreign precipitation collectors have been evaluated and tested on the field. The measurement efficiency and limitations of four sampling systems for gas and particulate sulfur, ammonia and nitrous compounds have been evaluated. The limits of methods and the measurement uncertainties have been determined and calculated. A second aspect concerns the development of oriented receptor-type statistical models with the aim of improving the research of emission sources in smaller size areas defined by the cells of a geographical mesh. The construction of these models combines the pollution data of the sites with the informations about the trajectories of air masses. Results are given as probability or concentration fields revealing the areas potentially at the origin of pollutant emissions. Areas with strong pollutant emissions have been detected at the Polish, Czech and German borders and have been identified as responsible of pollution events encountered in Morvan region. Quantitative source-receptor relations have been also established. The different atmospheric transport profiles, their related frequency and concentration have been also evaluated using a dynamical clouds classification of air mass retro-trajectories. Finally, the first medium-term exploitation results (14 years) of precipitation data from measurement stations allow to perfectly identify the different meteorological regimes of the French territory by establishing a relation with the chemical composition of rainfalls. A west-east oriented increase of rainfall acidity is observed over the French territory. The pluviometry of the north-east area being among the highest of France, it generates more important deposits of acidifying compounds. The analysis

  9. The linear accumulation of atmospheric mercury by vegetable and grass leaves: Potential biomonitors for atmospheric mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Ci, Zhijia; Kong, Xiangrui; Wang, Zhangwei

    2013-09-01

    One question in the use of plants as biomonitors for atmospheric mercury (Hg) is to confirm the linear relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves. To explore the origin of Hg in the vegetable and grass leaves, open top chambers (OTCs) experiment was conducted to study the relationships of Hg concentrations between air and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The influence of Hg in soil on Hg accumulation in leaves was studied simultaneously by soil Hg-enriched experiment. Hg concentrations in grass and vegetable leaves and roots were measured in both experiments. Results from OTCs experiment showed that Hg concentrations in leaves of the four species were significantly positively correlated with those in air during the growth time (p  0.05). Thus, Hg in grass leaves is mainly originated from the atmosphere, and grass leaves are more suitable as potential biomonitors for atmospheric Hg pollution. The effect detection limits (EDLs) for the leaves of alfalfa and ryegrass were 15.1 and 22.2 ng g(-1), respectively, and the biological detection limit (BDL) for alfalfa and ryegrass was 3.4 ng m(-3).

  10. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Fuga, A.; Alves, E.R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  11. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor environment of five households in the community. The quantification of the trace metals was done using Atomic Absorption spectrometry method, employing HNO based wet digestion. High baseline concentration of SPMwere obtained ...

  12. Greenhouse Gases Concentrations in the Atmosphere Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect of vehicular emission on greenhouse gases concentrations along selected roads of different traffic densities in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nine roads comprised highway, commercial and residential were selected. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) were determined from both sides of the roads by ...

  13. Relationships between removal processes and residence times for atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slinn, W.G.N.

    1978-01-01

    This report is concerned with improving estimates for the residence times of atmospheric trace constituents in various atmospheric reservoirs. Residence times are defined only for steady-state conditions; i.e., when the net growth rate vanishes. The most useful case of vanishing net growth rate is when the total growth rate is equal to the decay rate. It is demonstrated that the most important advance towards improving estimates of pollutant residence times is through proper choices of reservoirs. Chosen reservoirs should possess the following features: steady-state conditions, uniform mixing ratio throughout or throughout specified subreservoirs, and subreservoirs chosen in which removal rates can be treated as approximate constants. An example of a poorly mixed reservoir, the stratosphere, is discussed. In another example, it is suggested that commonly used reservoirs for atmospheric CO 2 have been chosen poorly and that a substantial portion of the anthropogenic CO 2 released during the past 50 years may still be mixing into the stratosphere. In another example, it is suggested that determination of the dry deposition velocity for accumulation-mode aerosol particles may not be so important as previously thought. To improve estimates for the atmospheric residence times of these particles, it is important to increase knowledge of what is called the ascension velocity

  14. Concentrations and fate of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Hansen, Kaj M; van Egmond, Roger; Christensen, Jesper H; Skjøth, Carsten A

    2010-07-15

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) is a volatile compound used in personal care products that is released to the atmosphere in large quantities. Although D(5) is currently under consideration for regulation, there have been no field investigations of its atmospheric fate. We employed a recently developed, quality assured method to measure D(5) concentration in ambient air at a rural site in Sweden. The samples were collected with daily resolution between January and June 2009. The D(5) concentration ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng m(-3), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than previous reports. The measured data were compared with D(5) concentrations predicted using an atmospheric circulation model that included both OH radical and D(5) chemistry. The model was parametrized using emissions estimates and physical chemical properties determined in laboratory experiments. There was good agreement between the measured and modeled D(5) concentrations. The results show that D(5) is clearly subject to long-range atmospheric transport, but that it is also effectively removed from the atmosphere via phototransformation. Atmospheric deposition has little influence on the atmospheric fate. The good agreement between the model predictions and the field observations indicates that there is a good understanding of the major factors governing D(5) concentrations in the atmosphere.

  15. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs

  17. DETECTING INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Henry W. [Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: henrylin@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: ggonzalezabad@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Detecting biosignatures, such as molecular oxygen in combination with a reducing gas, in the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets has been a major focus in the search for alien life. We point out that in addition to these generic indicators, anthropogenic pollution could be used as a novel biosignature for intelligent life. To this end, we identify pollutants in the Earth's atmosphere that have significant absorption features in the spectral range covered by the James Webb Space Telescope. We focus on tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F), which are the easiest to detect chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) produced by anthropogenic activity. We estimate that ∼1.2 days (∼1.7 days) of total integration time will be sufficient to detect or constrain the concentration of CCl{sub 3}F (CF{sub 4}) to ∼10 times the current terrestrial level.

  18. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  19. Relationship between carbon-14 concentrations in tree-ring cellulose and atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshimune; Yasuike, Kaeko; Komura, Kazuhisa

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of organically-bound 14 C in the tree-ring cellulose of a Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) grown in a rural region of Kanazawa, Ishikawa prefecture, Japan (36.5degN, 136.7degE), were measured for the ring-years from 1989 to 1998 to study relationship between 14 C concentrations in tree-ring cellulose and atmospheric CO 2 in a narrow region. An interesting result in comparing our data of tree-ring cellulose with those of atmospheric CO 2 is that the 14 C concentration in tree-ring cellulose was close to the corresponding average from mid-June to early September of 14 C concentrations in atmospheric CO 2 . Furthermore, the 14 C concentrations in tree-ring cellulose were found to be merely influenced by the drastic decrease of 14 C concentrations in atmospheric CO 2 in winter, which might be caused by air pollution from the Asian continent and additional local fossil fuel contribution. These results suggest that the 14 C concentration in tree-ring cellulose for a given growing year reflects the 14 C concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 during the warm summer months. (author)

  20. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanova, Magdalena; Penkova-Radicheva, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    One of Europe's most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant "Maritza East" (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. A five year study (2009-2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal atmospheric pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, dust, nitrogen dioxide, lead aerosols and hydrogen sulfide, and the way in which those levels had an effect on morbidity (outpatient and inpatient medical care) in the area. Statistical processing of data has been completed to represent and analyze the collected data in nonparametric and alternative format. Atmospheric pollution affects human health directly through pathological changes in the human organism. The registered outpatient care provided for the period 2009-2013 is highest for diseases of the cardiovascular system (11.85%), the respiratory system (17.34%) and the genitourinary system (9.76%). The registered rate of hospitalization for the same period is for diseases of the digestive system (11.90%), the cardiovascular system (11.85%), respiratory system (10.86%) and the genitourinary system (8.88%). The observed period shows a decrease in average yearly concentrations of the principal atmospheric pollutants in the industrial region (Bulgaria) and reflects a decrease in morbidity based on outpatient care and an increase in morbidity by inpatient care (hospitalization). Our findings should be corroborated in future longitudinal studies.

  1. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of primary pollutants from electric power plants: Application to a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The normal operation of a power plant generally releases pollutants to the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to describe a modeling method to estimate the changes in air pollutant concentrations that result from these emissions. This modeling approach is applicable to coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas technologies. As an example, this paper uses a hypothetical 500 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power plant, located at a Southeast Reference site in the U.S. and at a Southwest Reference Site. The pollutants resulting from the operation of the power plant may be classified as primary (emitted directly from the plant) or secondary (formed in the atmosphere from primary pollutants). The primary pollutants of interest in this paper are nitrogen oxides (NO x , sulfur dioxide SO 2 , particulate matter and metals

  2. Evaluating the suitability of different environmental samples for tracing atmospheric pollution in industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Vítková, Martina; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Samples of lichens, snow and particulate matter (PM 10 , 24 h) are used for the source identification of air pollution in the heavily industrialized region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic. An integrated approach that uses different environmental samples for metal concentration and Pb isotope analyses was applied. The broad range of isotope ratios in the samples indicates a combination of different pollution sources, the strongest among them being the metallurgical industry, bituminous coal combustion and traffic. Snow samples are proven as the most relevant indicator for tracing metal(loid)s and recent local contamination in the atmosphere. Lichens can be successfully used as tracers of the long-term activity of local and remote sources of contamination. The combination of PM 10 with snow can provide very useful information for evaluation of current pollution sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromatographic air analyser microsystem for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Jean-Baptiste; Lahlou, Houda; Mohsen, Yehya; Berger, Franck; Vilanova, Xavier; Correig, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The development of industry and automotive trafic produces Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) whose toxicity can affect seriously human health and environment. The level of those contaminants in air must be as low as possible. In this context, there is a need for in situ systems that could monitor selectively the concentration of these compounds. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficiency of a system build with a pre-concentrator, a chromatographic micro-column and a tin oxide-based gas sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of atmospheric pollutants. In particular, this study is focused on the selective detection of benzene and 1,3 butadiene.

  4. Evaluation of atmospheric pollution in Kenitra city (MOROCCO) (Particles and Metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zghaid, M.; Noack, Y.; Tahiri, M.; Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Benyaich, F

    2008-01-01

    Full text: All Recent epidemiological studies show that air pollution in general and especially particulate pollution have a strong influence on human health, particularly on the respiratory and cardio-vascular systems, but also affect the developing fetus. Like developed countries, countries under development are subject to significant air pollution both urban and industrial. The car park is often old, sometimes uncontrolled industrialization, the regulations of atmospheric emissions are infancy and the network monitoring rare. The aim of this work is to focus on the problem of particulate air pollution in Kenitra (50 km north of Rabat, Morocco) by characterizing the pollution in both quantity and quality, to assess the impact potential health and provide decision makers with reliable data. Initial results show that the OMS recommendations, along with European standards on sulfur dioxide as well as PM10 are largely outdated (80 ug / Nm 3 instead of 40 in average). This is also the case for some metals: Lead concentrations are approximately ten times greater than those encountered in urban sites in Europe; nickel is fifteen times higher than the European standard. The metals are mainly present in the thin fraction (particles below 2.5 um). The low proportion of thin particles in the total particles, show the influence of resuspension events and other natural inputs from arid or desert. The SO2 average concentrations are also quite important (60 ug / m 3 ). The concentrations near the site are much higher than those that can be measured on similar sites in Europe. It is more than probable that in this city, the health impacts are not negligible. We will look to continue this work in three aspects: Spatial distribution of particulate pollution in Kenitra; The health impact of air pollution in Kenitra; Cyto-and geno-toxicity of airborne particles in Kenitra [fr

  5. ISLSCP II GlobalView: Atmospheric Methane Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The GlobalView Methane (CH4) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CH4 concentrations at selected sites that were...

  6. ISLSCP II GlobalView: Atmospheric Methane Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Methane (CH4) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CH4 concentrations at selected sites that were created using...

  7. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Seventeenth progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.; Bartlett, J.; Gatz, D.F.; Peden, M.E.; Skowron, L.M.; Stensland, G.J.

    1979-07-01

    The continued study of historical precipitation chemistry, air quality, and emissions data shows that the nitrate concentrations in precipitation have increased over the past 20 years with little change in sulfate concentrations. An analysis of aerosol concentrations at MAP3S precipitation collection sites shows consistently higher elemental concentrations at urban Champaign, Illinois, than sites at Whiteface Mountain, New York, and rural Champaign. Scavenging ratios at Whiteface exceeded those obtained previously at St. Louis, Missouri, possibly due to mid-tropospheric long-range transport and differing synoptic situations. Factor analysis of 6 storms during METROMEX shows that different deposition patterns were found for the soluble and insoluble concentrations of the same element. This suggests different scavenging processes may be active for these fractions. Using METROMEX data, no correlation was found between pollutant source strength and the urban-related precipitation anomaly. Four different Nuclepore air filter setups were used to compare air concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. The sulfate comparison was good, but the large variability for nitrate and ammonium raise serious questions on the credibility of measurements using Nuclepore as the collection medium. The details of a case study of wet deposition from SCORE-78 are presented and shows the pollutant concentrations are more variable than the rainfall. A brief description of the progress on the SCORE-79 project is presented. The progress on acid rainfall studies shows that the high pH values in the Midwest in the mid-1950's were due in part to elevated concentrations of calcium and magnesium. A variety of model calculations are presented to show the effects of adjusting past data to currently observed values. Recent results of continuing research on ionic stability of precipitation samples are given.

  8. Huguangyan Maar Lake (SE China): A solid record of atmospheric mercury pollution history in a non-remote region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Chen, Jingan; Yang, Yongqiong; Wang, Jianxu; Zhu, Zhengjie; Li, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic metal that can cause harm to environment and human health. As atmospheric deposition is the main source of total Hg input to aquatic system in remote and pristine regions, almost all the studies on atmospheric Hg pollution history concentrated in these areas, while the studies in non-remote areas are much limited, especially for the long history records. In this study, Huguangyan Maar Lake, an undisturbed lake system at low altitude in China, was selected to reconstruct the atmospheric mercury pollution history. Variation patterns of TOC, Hg and non-residual Sr in the sediment core indicated that, compared to the direct atmospheric Hg deposition, the effect of either Hg scavenging from water column by algae or the catchment inputs of previously deposited Hg on the Hg accumulation in the lake sediment was limited. The sediment Hg content in Huguangyan Lake was mainly controlled by the atmospheric Hg deposition, and thus accurately reflected the atmospheric Hg pollution history. The Hga (Hg content from atmospheric deposition) in Huguangyan Lake presented a comparable variation pattern to that in remote sites. It had the same variation trend as the global atmospheric Hg before 1950 CE, which could be attributed to the Industrial Revolution. After that, it was mainly controlled by Hg emissions from Asian countries. The variation of Hga also indicated that atmospheric Hg deposition accelerated significantly since 2000 CE. This study, along with other investigations in remote sites in China, showed that the sediment Hg in Huguangyan Lake responded to the atmospheric Hg pollution more sensitively than in the alpine regions. It should be noted that, the more intensive acceleration of Hg deposition in Huguangyan Lake may imply that the South of China suffered from much more serious atmospheric Hg pollution than previous studies revealed.

  9. Pollutant concentrations and pollution loads in stormwater runoff from different land uses in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; He, Qiang; Ai, Hainan; Wang, Zhentao; Zhang, Qianqian

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the distribution of pollutant concentrations and pollution loads in stormwater runoff in Chongqing, six typical land use types were selected and studied from August 2009 to September 2011. Statistical analysis on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in all water samples shows that pollutant concentrations fluctuate greatly in rainfall-runoff, and the concentrations of the same pollutant also vary greatly in different rainfall events. In addition, it indicates that the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from urban traffic roads (UTR) are significantly higher than those from residential roads (RR), commercial areas (CA), concrete roofs (CR), tile roofs (TRoof), and campus catchment areas (CCA); and the EMCs of total phosphorus (TP) and NH3-N from UTR and CA are 2.35-5 and 3 times of the class-II standard values specified in the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002). The EMCs of Fe, Pb and Cd are also much higher than the class-III standard values. The analysis of pollution load producing coefficients (PLPC) reveals that the main pollution source of TSS, COD and TP is UTR. The analysis of correlations between rainfall factors and EMCs/PLPC indicates that rainfall duration is correlated with EMCs/PLPC of TSS for TRoof and TP for UTR, while rainfall intensity is correlated with EMCs/PLPC of TP for both CR and CCA. The results of this study provide a reference for better management of non-point source pollution in urban regions.

  10. Change in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARREC, Jean-Pierre

    2000-01-01

    With the constant increase in industrial and agricultural activities since the beginning of the 20. Century, human societies have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere both in their immediate vicinity and further afar. The most preoccupying problem today is the increase in the so-called greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CFC, O 3 ). Indeed, these pollutant gases generally have long life cycles and consequently have for the first time produced a change in the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale inducing deferred effects such as a likely change in the earth's climate. (author)

  11. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buccolieri, R.; Gromke, C.B.; Sabatino, Di S.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant

  12. Pollutant Concentrations in the Rime and Fog Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Tesař, Miroslav; Fottová, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2008), S68-S73 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042301; GA AV ČR 1QS200420562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : fog water * rime water * pollutant concentration Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  13. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  14. Analysis of the experimental data of air pollution using atmospheric dispersion modeling and rough set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfa, I.K.I

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains four chapters and list of references:In chapter 1, we introduce a brief survey about the atmospheric concepts and the topological methods for data analysis.In section 1.1, we give introduce a general introduction. We recall some of atmospheric fundamentals in Section 1.2. Section 1.3, shows the concepts of modern topological methods for data analysis.In chapter 2, we have studied the properties of atmosphere and focus on concept of Rough set and its properties. This concepts of rough set has been applied to analyze the atmospheric data.In section 2.1, we introduce a general introduction about concept of rough set and properties of atmosphere. Section 2.2 focuses on the concept of rough set and its properties and generalization of approximation of rough set theory by using topological space. In section 2.3 we have studied the stabilities of atmosphere for Inshas location for all seasons using different schemes and compared these schemes using statistical and rough set methods. In section 2.4, we introduce mixing height of plume for all seasons. Section 2.5 introduced seasonal surface layer turbulence processes for Inshas location. Section 2.6 gives a comparison between the seasonal surface layer turbulence processes for Inshas location and for different locations using rough set theory.In chapter 3 we focus on the concept of variable precision rough set (VPRS) and its properties and using it to compare, between the estimated and observed data of the concentration of air pollution for Inshas location. In Section 3.1 we introduce a general introduction about VPRS and air pollution. In Section 3.2 we have focused on the concept and properties of VPRS. In Section 3.3 we have introduced a method to estimate the concentration of air pollution for Inshas location using Gaussian plume model. Section 3.4 has showed the experimental data. The estimated data have been compared with the observed data using statistical methods in Section 3.5. In Section 3

  15. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)reg-sign: Atmospheric pathway formulations. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a multimedia model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations. The MEPAS atmospheric component for the air media documented in this report includes models for emission from a source to the air, initial plume rise and dispersion, airborne pollutant transport and dispersion, and deposition to soils and crops. The material in this report is documentation for MEPAS Versions 3.0 and 3.1 and the MEPAS version used in the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) Version 1.0

  16. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Niklas; Stenroth, Patrik; Berglund, Olof; Nystroem, Per; Olsson, Karin; Jellyman, Don; McIntosh, Angus R.; Larsson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use

  17. Pollutants transport and atmospheric variability of CO2 over Siberia: contribution of airborne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, J.D.

    2008-12-01

    The work presented here intends to characterize the variations of atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 , CO, O 3 and ultrafine particles, over a large scale aircraft transect above Siberia, during three intensive YAK-AEROSIB campaigns in April 2006, September 2006 and August 2007, respectively. Pollutant and greenhouse gases distribution in this poorly studied region is needed to model atmospheric long range transport. I show here that CO concentrations at the time of the campaigns is broadly affected by (1) advection of Chinese pollutants through baro-clinic perturbations, (2) advection (diffuse or not) of European pollutants at various altitudes, (3) and of biomass burning from Central Asia. This set of factors is analyzed through a novel statistical technique based on clustering of backward transport simulated by the FLEXPART Lagrangian model. Large observed CO 2 gradients in summer are matched against vertical mixing in GCM simulated CO 2 . At last I present ultrafine particle measurements, and a possible nucleation summer maximum in the clean, continental mid-troposphere. (author)

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere - spatial and temporal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backe, Cecilia

    2001-05-01

    In this thesis I have studied the spatial and temporal variations of PCBs in the atmosphere and in precipitation in southern Sweden. Further, soil-air exchange processes of PCBs were investigated. Finally, the long-range transport of PCBs and DDT was studied in the Baltic Sea region and in a tropical vs. a temporal region. On the regional scale there were significant differences in PCB concentration in the atmosphere, in precipitation and in soil between nearby sampling-areas. Differences in PCB concentrations between areas probably originated from varying geographical and meteorological conditions that affected exchange processes between air and soil/vegetation surfaces. Temporal variations in PCB concentration in atmosphere and precipitation were also found. For PCBs in the air, a systematic pattern in the deviation from the yearly median value for the region was observed. Wind direction played an important role for PCB concentration in precipitation in coastal areas, while at the inland sites this variable seemed to have a minor influence. To examine the intensity of precipitation scavenging, the total washout ratios were calculated and the highest ratios were observed at the two sites where PCB concentration in the air was high. Further, high concentrations of PCB in precipitation correlated with a composition of highly chlorinated PCB congeners, as shown by principal component analysis. For most of the sites there was a significant negative relationship between PCB concentration and rain volume. Soil type and soil organic matter content was found to be important for the variations in PCB concentration between nearby areas. Highest concentrations were found at two sites with sandy soils, one with an extremely high organic carbon content. Soils with similar soil textures (i.e. sandy silt moraine) did not show any significant differences in PCB concentrations. PCB congener composition was shown to differ between sites, with site-specific congener patterns. No

  19. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  20. Trentepohlia algae biofilms as bioindicator of atmospheric metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; Marcaida, Iker; Salcedo, Isabel; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a reddish biocolonization composed mainly by Trentepohlia algae affecting a synthetic building material from a modern building from the 90s located in the Bizkaia Science and Technology Park (Zamudio, North of Spain) was characterized and its ability to accumulate metals coming from the surrounding atmosphere was evaluated. To asses if these biofilms can act as bioindicators of the surrounding metal pollution, a fast non-invasive in situ methodology based on the use of hand-held energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (HH-ED-XRF) was used. In order to corroborate the in situ obtained conclusions, some fragments from the affected material were taken to analyze the metal distribution by means of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-ED-XRF) and to confirm the presence of metal particles deposited on it using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). In order to confirm if Trentepohlia algae biofilms growing on the surface of building materials could be a fast way to in situ provide information about the surrounding metal pollution, a second Trentepohlia algae biofilm growing on a different kind of material (sandstone) was analyzed from an older historical building, La Galea Fortress (Getxo, North of Spain). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Severe Pollution in China Amplified by Atmospheric Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Chang, Di; Pöschl, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Dusek, Uli; Li, Guohui; Worsnop, Douglas R; O'Dowd, Colin D

    2017-11-17

    In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL). A positive feedback cycle is triggered resulting in the formation of heavy haze: (1) the dispersal of water vapour is constrained by the shallow PBL, leading to an increase in relative humidity (RH); (2) the high RH induces an increase of aerosol particle size by enhanced hygroscopic growth and multiphase reactions to increase particle size and mass, which results in (3) further dimming and decrease of PBL height, and thus further depressing of aerosol and water vapour in a very shallow PBL. This positive feedback constitutes a self-amplification mechanism in which water vapour leads to a trapping and massive increase of particulate matter in the near-surface air to which people are exposed with severe health hazards.

  2. Environmental epidemiology applied to urban atmospheric pollution: a contribution from the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory (LPAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Paulo Afonso de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic investigation on the effects of human exposure to environmental pollution using scientific methodology only began in the 20th century as a consequence of several environmental accidents followed by an unexpected mortality increase above expected mortality and as a result of observational epidemiological and toxicological studies conducted on animals in developed countries. This article reports the experience of the Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory at the School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, concerning the respiratory system and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in responses to exposure to pollution using toxicological and experimental procedures, complemented by observational epidemiological studies conducted in the city of São Paulo. It also describes these epidemiological studies, pointing out that air pollution is harmful to public health, not only among susceptible groups but also in the general population, even when the concentration of pollutants is below the limits set by environmental legislation. The study provides valuable information to support the political and economic decision-making processes aimed at preserving the environment and enhancing quality of life.

  3. Atmospheric radon daughters concentration inside and outside of cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tsuguo; Okabe, Shigeru; Aoki, Masayoshi; Imamura, Takakazu; Iwata, Yoshitomo; Tamura, Yukihide; Tsuboguchi, Masayasu

    1987-01-01

    The measurements of the atmospheric radon daughters concentration in and out of the cloud were carried out on the top of the mountain, and in the upper air of the sea by using the airplane. The difference of the concentrations between inside and outside of the stratus measured on the top of the mountain was not clear. The atmospheric radon daughters concentration at the top of the mountain decreased when the amount of precipitation at that point was large. Concerning the cumulus investigated by using the airplane, the concentration in the cloud was a little higher than the concentration out of the cloud. Results of the measurements show that the cloud seems to be constructed of the various air masses whose radon daughters concentrations are different from each other even though it appears to be uniform. (author)

  4. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management.

  5. REDUCING AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN ATMOSPHERE AFTER ITS UNPLANNED RELEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Amelina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this work is development of numerical model, which allows to calculate the efficiency of neutralizer supply for reduction of air pollution in case of unplanned ammonia emission at the territory of ammonia pump station. The numerical model should allow fast calculating, taking into account the meteorological parameters and buildings situated near the source of toxic chemical emission and equipment for neutralizer supply. Methodology. The developed model is based on the equation for potential flow and equation of pollutant dispersion. To simulate the chemical interaction between ammonia and neutralizer the stoichiometry equation is used. Equation of potential flow is used to compute flow pattern among buildings. To solve the equation for potential flow the Samarskii implicit difference scheme is used. The implicit change-triangle difference scheme is used to solve equation of mass transfer. While for the numerical integration the authors use the rectangular difference grid. Method of porosity technique («markers method» is applied to create the form of comprehensive computational region. Emission of ammonia is modeled using Delta function for point source. Findings. Developed numerical model belongs to the class of «diagnostic models». This model takes into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of ammonia and neutralizer in the atmosphere, as well as the influence of buildings on admixture dispersion. On the basis of the developed numerical models the authors carried out a computational experiment to estimate the efficiency of neutralizer supply for reduction of air pollution in case of unplanned ammonia release at ammonia pump station. Originality. Developed numerical model allows calculating the flow pattern among buildings and estimating the efficiency of neutralizer supply for reduction of air pollution in the case unplanned ammonia release. Practical value. Model allows performing fast

  6. Ionization rates and profiles of electron concentration in Martian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komitov, B.; Spasov, S.; Gogoshev, M.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization and vertical profiles of electron concentration in the Martian atmosphere are calculated as functions of the solar zenith angles varying from O deg to 90 deg. A neutral atmospheric model based on direct mass-spectometric measurements from the Viking-1 landing modul is employed in the calculation. The Earth data of the ionization solar flux at the same level of the solar activity and for the month of the Viking-1 measurements reduced for the Mars orbit are used. The numerical result for the photoionization rates and quasi-equilibrium electron-concentration profiles in the upper Martian atmosphere at different solar zenith angles from 0 deg to 100 deg are presented. It is shown that the maxima of both quantities decrease and move towards the upper atmosphere regions. The calculated electron density at the zenith solar angle of 40 deg are compared to Viking-1 experimental data and a good agreement is achieved

  7. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Eighteenth progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.; Bartlett, J.D.; Bowersox, V.C.; Gatz, D.F.; Naiman, D.Q.; Peden, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.K.; Stensland, G.J.

    1980-07-01

    The analysis of aerosol samples obtained in rural east-central Illinois reveals a seasonal maximum in SO/sub 4/ during May to July and a similar pattern for NH/sub 4/. The annual median SO/sub 4/ is about 1 to 1.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. In contrast to these ions, NO/sub 3/ displays highest values in the cold season. Soil-related species (Ca, K) seem to maximize in relation to farm tillage and harvesting practices. The NO/sub 3/ in recent precipitation samples over the northeast US increased between 1 and 2 times the values observed in the mid-1950's. A case study from SCORE-78 suggests that all ion concentrations analyzed from sequentially collected samples decreased from the onset of rain to a minimum corresponding to the heaviest rain rates. Four groups of elements in 10 event rain samples were identified using factor analysis. The groups include soluble and insoluble crustal elements, soluble pollutant metals and sulfate, and insoluble pollutant metals. Utilizing the factor analysis approach, the St. Louis METROMEX precipitation chemistry data showed that the SO/sub 4/ deposition patterns group consistently with those of other soluble pollutants. Additional factor analysis efforts on the St. Louis rainwater data set revealed that soluble and insoluble concentrations of a given element have different deposition patterns suggesting that scavenging and/or precipitation formation processes dictate the patterns. An approach to managing the vast data base of rain chemistry used in the above studies is described. The software also examines the data for certain aspects of quality assurance. The procedures used to analyze ambient air filter samples are discussed.

  8. Reduction of the environmental concentration of air pollutants by proper geometrical orientation of industrial line sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    An account is given of an Israeli study of two line sources, one composed of 10 and the other of 20 individual sources. The height of release ranged from 15.7 to 39.6 m, with a uniform rate of release of a gaseous pollutant of 1 Ci/s for each source. Average pollutant concentration was plotted as a function of the rotation angle of the line sources. Reduction of pollutant concentration by a particular rotation of the line sources attained values of up to 50%. At certain rotation angles of the line sources, the environmental concentration was lower even as compared with a single high source. Results also depended on atmospheric conditions. It is suggested that considering the increase in cost of augmenting the height of release as a means of reducing the air pollutant concentration, determination of the optimum geometric orientation of the line sources should be considered as an economical means of improving environmental air quality. (U.K.)

  9. Some indices of bodily reaction of traffic controllers to atmospheric pollution by automobile exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partsef, D.P.; Bessonova, N.A.

    1976-12-01

    The authors studied pollution of the atmospheric air at 20 posts on Moscow streets with various intensity of auto traffic. They sampled for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, dust, acrolein, oxidants, and ozone and found that the concentration of these substances was a direct function of the intensity of auto flow and a reverse function of the width of the highway. Traffic controllers exhibited increased carboxyhemoglobin blood levels, decrease in bactericidal properties and increase in number of colonies of skin microorganisms. The controller complained in weariness, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disturbances.

  10. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-09-15

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues.

  11. Stable lead isotopes and lake sediments. A useful combination for the study of atmospheric lead pollution history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renberg, I.; Braennvall, M.-L.; Bindler, R. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Emteryd, O. [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden)

    2002-06-20

    Analysis of stable lead isotopes and lead concentrations in lake-sediment deposits, not least in varved (annually-laminated) sediments, is a useful method to study lead pollution history. This paper presents details from a study of 31 lakes in Sweden. Using a strong acid digestion of sediment samples and ICP-MS analyses, we have found that Swedish lake sediments have a high natural (pre-pollution) 206[Pb]/207[Pb] ratio (mean 1.52{+-}0.18, range 1.28-2.01, n=31 lakes). In contrast, atmospheric lead pollution derived from metal smelting processes, coal burning and from alkyl-lead added to petrol has a lower ratio (<1.2). Consequently, when pollution lead deposition began approximately 3500 years ago, the lead isotope ratio of the sediments started to decline, and in modern sediments it is typically <1.2. Using the isotope and concentration values and a mixing model, the relative contribution of pollution and natural lead in sediment samples can be calculated. The pollution lead records of the Swedish lake sediments show a consistent picture of the atmospheric lead pollution history. Some noticeable features are the Roman peak, the large and permanent Medieval increase, peaks at approximately 1200 and 1530 ad, the rapid increase after World War II, the peak in the 1970s, and the large modern decline.

  12. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in first birth mothers across Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Van Oostdam, Jay; Weber, Jean Philippe; Needham, Larry L; Trip, Luke

    2012-01-01

    This project was initiated by the North America Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). Its main purpose was to obtain an initial profile on pregnant woman's exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in North America (Canada, the United States and Mexico). Persistent organic pollutants are transferred to the fetus via the placenta during the pregnancy or to the infant via maternal milk; therefore, the pregnant woman's body burden is important because of the higher exposures and potential health effects in the fetus and infant. This paper presents the results from 240 pregnant women in 10 Mexican cities, and includes the concentrations of various POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in maternal plasma. We found concentrations of p,p'-DDE in maternal samples from Coatzacoalcos to be ∼60% higher than those found in Ciudad Obregon, which had the second highest concentration. Pregnant women from Merida had higher mean concentrations of PCBs than all women in other regions. Results for PCDDs and PCDFs plus dioxin-like PCBs data were only available on the basis of composite samples, and their concentrations are similar in most cities except for Coatzacoalcos, which had more than double the concentration found in other cities. Although this study provides useful information on the variability of POPs in specific populations and possible regional/local differences, these results cannot be generalized to the entire Mexican population because of differences in age, gender, sources of exposure and nonrandom nature of the sample.

  13. On the calculation of atmospheric thermal pollution resulted from a flat area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkauskas, D.Ch.; Senuta, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spatial distribution of thermal atmospheric pollution from a flat area source - a great city or a lake-cooler of NPP was investigated. The numerical solution obtained lets to evaluate the horizontal and vertical spreading of the thermal atmospheric pollution by the different wind velocities in dependence of the inhomogeneities in humidity of the earth's surface

  14. 222Rn and 14CO2 concentrations in the surface layer of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Chudy, M.; Sivo, A.; Richtarikova, M.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Vojtyla, P.; Bosa, I.; Hola, O.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of the Δ 14 C in the atmospheric near-ground CO 2 has been realized in Bratislava and Zlkovce, situated near the nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice. Until 1993, the monthly mean Δ 14 C values showed a high variability. The annual means of Δ 14 C were about 30 per mille higher at Zlkovce than in highly industrialised Bratislava. An important change in the behaviour of the 14 C data has occurred since 1993. The records from both stations show the similar course, mainly due to the fact that there do not occur deep winter minima in Bratislava. This behaviour corresponds to the lower values of the total fossil fuel CO 2 emissions in the years after 1993 when compared to the previous years. At present, both sets of data show that the 14 C concentration is about 10% above the natural level. Since 1987 also the 222 Rn concentration in the surface layer of the atmosphere has been measured in Bratislava. These measurements provided an extensive set of the 222 Rn data characteristic for the inland environment with high level of atmospheric pollution. The seasonal and daily variations of the 222 Rn concentration were observed. The investigation of the relation between the monthly mean diurnal courses of the 222 Rn concentration and the atmospheric stability proved a high correlation between them. The 222 Rn data were used to interpret the anomalous Δ 14 C values in the surface layer of the atmosphere. (author)

  15. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic.

  16. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  17. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  18. Peculiarities of general atmospheric circulation above Kazakhstan and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turulina, G.K.; Muradov, M.A.; Sal'nikov, V.G.; Bogacev, V.P.

    1997-01-01

    Essential information is gathered for analysis and typification of atmospheric processes observed above Kazakhstan during studied period (1964-1986). Peculiarities of atmospheric processes and trans-bordering transfer of polluted substances above Kazakhstan territory are researched. Received data indicate on actuality of the problem for Republic of Kazakhstan and necessity of signing of the International Convention on trans-bordering pollution with purpose of integration in fulfillment of International Program of observation and assessment of spreading of air pollutants in Europe. (author)

  19. Assessment of the Atmospheric Suspended Particles Pollution in the Madrid Air Quality Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, P.; Artinano, B.

    2000-01-01

    Suspended particles are a very complex type of atmospheric pollution because of their chemical composition and size. In fact, there are a quite high number of particles sources which are linked to different physicochemical processes that determine their size. At present particles smaller than 10 μm are considered the most dangerous, as has been recently pointed out by numerous epidemiologic studies. In this way, more restrictive concentration limit values have been approved in the EU countries, so an assessment of present airborne concentration values and the sources apportionment in their most representative areas is needed. In the Madrid Community a first approaching of these and other aims, has been carried out from an analysis of the Madrid Air Quality networks data. This will contribute to the establishment of concentration levels abatement strategies. (Author) 111 refs

  20. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaoliu; Kang Shichang; Zhang Qianggong

    2009-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical 'pollution' elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles <20 μm are transportable as long distances, elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP. - High concentrations of some elements of the Tibetan soils can cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements during aerosol related study.

  1. Population-production-pollution nexus based air pollution management model for alleviating the atmospheric crisis in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Tong, Y F; Cui, L; Kong, X M; Sheng, Y N; Chen, L; Li, Y P

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection. A fuzzy-stochastic mixed quadratic programming method (FSQ) is developed and introduced into a PPP for tackling atmospheric pollution issues with uncertainties. Based on the contribution of an index of population-production-pollution, a hybrid PPP-based AMP model that considers employment structure, industrial layout pattern, production mode, pollutant purification efficiency and a pollution mitigation scheme have been applied in Beijing. Results of the adjustment of employment structure, pollution mitigation scheme, and green gross domestic product under various environmental regulation scenarios are obtained and analyzed. This study can facilitate the identification of optimized policies for alleviating population-production-emission conflict in the study region, as well as ameliorating the hazardous air pollution crisis at an urban level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pollutant concentrations in road runoff: Southeast Queensland case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapper, D.; Tomlinson, R.; Williams, P.

    2000-04-01

    This paper discusses the results of research into the pollutants in runoff from road pavement surfaces following natural rainfall events. Road runoff water quality was monitored at 21 sites centering around Brisbane, in southeast Queensland, Australia. The sites were selected according to traffic volumes, surrounding land use, pavement surface type, ease of access, and commercial vehicle percentage. Bridge sites were chosen for convenience of sample collection and minimized infrastructure modification. First flush grab samplers were permanently installed at each site to collect the first 20 L of runoff from one of the bridge drainage scuppers. The runoff samples were tested for a number of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, and other physical characteristics. The observed results fall within the ranges of concentrations reported internationally and nationally but do not typically follow the 30,000 average annual daily traffic results reported in the United States. Traffic volumes have not been found to be the best indicator of road runoff pollutant concentrations. Interevent duration has been found to be a statistically significant factor for pollutant concentrations. Sites incorporating exit lanes have recorded higher concentrations of acid-extractable copper and zinc, tending to support the hypothesis that brake pad and tire wear caused by rapid deceleration contributes to the concentrations of these metals in road runoff. Laser particle sizing has shown that a significant proportion of the sediment found in the runoff is <100 {micro}m. However, these particulates do settle in water within 24 h, under laboratory conditions. This may be due to the presence of heavy metals.

  3. Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aromolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory analysis of atmospheric pollution in a coastal forest ecosystem in central Italy - The study of spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in the atmosphere through the continuous assessment of deposition is of great interest for the analysis of anthropogenic pressure on the environment and the potential toxicity to humans and other living organisms. Information based on reliable estimates of heavy metals is therefore crucial for the evaluation of environmental quality. Trends in heavy metal concentration in atmospheric depositions on a coastal forest ecosystem (Castelporziano, Rome are analyzed in the present study based on a three-year monitoring field survey over three sites representative of different woodland characteristics in the area. Our results highlight both the influence of transportation processes in the short and medium distance based on the human pressure reflecting urban expansion and infrastructure development on the fringe of Castelporziano pristine forest. Further studies investigating the latent correlation with meteorological variables at various temporal scales are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of environmental conditions in a forest ecosystem subjected to increasing human pressure. Analysis of runoff water quality and the determination of other heavy metals, such as arsenic, may identify additional sources of pollution impacting soil and forest ecosystem.

  4. [Atmospheric pollution characteristic during fireworks burning time in spring festival in Quanzhou suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-ping; Xu, Ya; Zhang, Fu-wang; Chen, Jin-sheng

    2011-05-01

    Atmospheric pollution characteristics during fireworks burning time in 2009 Spring Festival in Quangzhou suburb were studied. Particulate aerosol has been monitored and collected using real-time monitor and middle-volume sampler during fireworks burning time. The objectives of this study were to identify the contents and distributing characteristics of particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and water-soluble ions and to discuss sources of these pollutants. The results showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were increased significantly during fireworks burning time. The highest concentration of particles presented time of 00:57-01:27 on New Year's Eve, which the average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 were reached 1102.43 microm(-3) and 1610.22 microg x m(-3) in 30 min. The concentration of particle- and gas-PAHs were 54.18 ng x m(-1) and 47.10 ng x m(-3), respectively, during fireworks burning time in New Year's Eve, which were higher than that in the normal day. It can be judged by the diagnostic ratios that the primary source of PAHs in Quanzhou suburb were the combustion of coal, biomass and the exhaust emission from diesel vehicles in this region. Results of water-soluble ions indicated that fireworks burning were the main reason to lead to higher concentration of these ions during Spring Festival. Moreover, pollution gases of NOx and SO2 that were origined from fireworks burning, coal combustion and exhaust emission from motor vehicle were supplied precursors to form secondary pollutants, such as NO3- and SO4(2-).

  5. A simple method employed for the treatment of filters used in atmospheric pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendez B, M.M.; Ortiz C, J.L.; Garrido, J.I.; Huerta P, R.; Alvarez B, C.; Zolezzi C, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the multielement routine analysis of atmospheric particulate matter is described. The samples collected on four different types of filters were treated with HNO 3 and HCl at 110-120 deg C in pyrex glassware. Time required for the different stages of the treatment was determined by using 60 Co, 65 Zn and 137 Cs as radioactive tracers. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of the elements. The efficiency for 11 elements (Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was determined. The method was succesfully employed for the treatment of filters used in atmospheric pollution studies in both urban and rural areas. (author)

  6. Atmospheric tritium concentration in the different chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Shima, Nagayoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at obtaining background tritium concentrations in air at Rokkasho where the first commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan has been under construction. Atmospheric tritium was operationally separated into HTO, HT and hydrocarbon (CH 3 T) fractions, and analyzed for the samples collected every 3 d to 14 d during fiscal year 2005. The HT concentration was the highest among the chemical forms analyzed, followed by the HTO and CH 3 T concentrations. The HT and CH 3 T concentrations did not have clear seasonal variation patterns through the HTO concentrations in spring were higher than those in summer. The HT concentration followed the decline previously reported by Mason and Östlund with an apparent half-life of 4.8 y. The apparent and environmental half-lives of CH 3 T were estimated as 9.2 y and 36.5 y, respectively, by combining the present data with literature data. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change used the atmospheric lifetime of 12 y for CH 4 to estimate global warming in its 2007 report. The longer environmental half-life of CH 3 T suggested its supply from other sources than past nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere. (author)

  7. Seasonal comparison of moss bag technique against vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Hanna; Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Joni

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study seasonally applying Sphagnum papillosum moss bags and vertical snow samples for monitoring atmospheric pollution. Moss bags, exposed in January, were collected together with snow samples by early March 2012 near the Harjavalta Industrial Park in southwest Finland. Magnetic, chemical, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), K-means clustering, and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) data showed parallel spatial trends of pollution dispersal for both materials. Results strengthen previous findings that concentrate and slag handling activities were important (dust) emission sources while the impact from Cu-Ni smelter's pipe remained secondary at closer distances. Statistically significant correlations existed between the variables of snow and moss bags. As a summary, both methods work well for sampling and are efficient pollutant accumulators. Moss bags can be used also in winter conditions and they provide more homogeneous and better controlled sampling method than snow samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The influence of scales of atmospheric motion on air pollution over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo; Mendes, Manuel; Jerez, Sonia; Gouveia, Célia Marina

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is determined by the combination of different factors, namely, emissions, physical constrains, meteorology and chemical processes [1,2,3]. The relative importance of such factors is influenced by their interaction on diverse scales of atmospheric motion. Each scale depicts different meteorological conditions, which, when combined with the different air pollution sources and photochemistry, result in varying ambient concentrations [2]. Identifying the dominant scales of atmospheric motion over a given airshed can be of great importance for many applications such as air pollution and pollen dispersion or wind energy management [2]. Portugal has been affected by numerous air pollution episodes during the last decade. These episodes are often related to peak emissions from local industry or transport, but can also be associated to regional transport from other urban areas or to exceptional emission events, such as forest fires. This research aims to identify the scales of atmospheric motion which contribute to an increase of air pollution. A method is proposed for differentiating between the scales of atmospheric motion that can be applied on a daily basis from data collected at several wind-measuring sites in a given airshed and to reanalysis datasets. The method is based on the daily mean wind recirculation and the mean and standard deviation between sites. The determination of the thresholds between scales is performed empirically following the approach of Levy et al. [2] and also through a automatic statistical approach computed taking into account the tails of the distributions (e.g. 95% and 99% percentile) of the different wind samples. A comparison is made with two objective approaches: 1) daily synoptic classification for the same period over the region [4] and 2) a 3-D backward trajectory approach [5,6] for specific episodes. Furthermore, the outcomes are expected to support the Portuguese authorities on the implementation of strategies for a

  9. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing problems of atmospheric pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region that affect the environment and human health the application of biomonitoring methodologies using cosmopolite organisms has now become relevant. Biomonitoring is a method to evaluate the response of live organisms to pollution. This method offers advantages such as reduced costs, efficient monitoring of large geographic areas and accumulated pollutants over a large period in which low concentrations of chemicals elements in the environment can be evaluated. In the present study, neutron activation analysis method was applied to determine elements accumulated in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi. Samples were collected in two distinct areas: Carlos Botelho (PECB) and Intervales (PEI) State Parks that are considered as non-polluted areas and that belong to the Atlantic Forest - SP ecosystem; and Sao Paulo city metropolitan region in sites near automatic monitoring stations of the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). The lichens collected from the bark of the trees were properly treated, and irradiated with neutrons from IEA-R1 nuclear reactor along with synthetic standards of elements. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of IAEA-336 LICHEN and Mixed Polish Herbs (INCT -MPH-2) certified reference materials. The results obtained for these materials were in accordance with the certified values and presented good precision with variation coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 14.6%. Results obtained for lichens showed that elements As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Mo, Sb, Sc, Se and U are present at ng g -1 levels, Ba, Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn at μg g -1 and Ca at mg g -1 . By applying cluster and discriminant analyses to the results for the lichen samples from areas with different levels of pollution, the sampling sites were grouped according to their chemical similarities and their elemental composition. It was

  10. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O.; Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  11. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  12. 222Rn concentration in the outdoor atmosphere and its relation to the atmospheric stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Bosa, I.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    The radon in the outdoor atmosphere has been monitored continuously since 1991. On the basis of the measured data mainly the average daily and the average annual courses of the 222 Rn concentrations have been studied. The annual courses of 222 Rn concentration are similar for all years. They present the annual variations. The average course of the 222 Rn concentration calculated on the basis of all continual measurements in the years 1991-1997 reaches the maximum value in October and the minimum value in April. The average daily courses of the 222 Rn concentration for the individual months of the year. The average daily courses have a form of waves with a maximum in the morning hours and with a minimum in the afternoon. The maximal amplitudes of daily waves have been reached in the summer months, from June till August. The amplitudes of daily waves are very small at the end of an autumn and during the winter months. The analysis of the daily waves and annual courses of 222 Rn showed that the amplitudes of the daily waves are in proportion to the global solar radiation irradiating the Earth's surface. The day duration influence on the phase of the daily wave and the wind velocity influence mainly on the level of the radon concentration. For the study of the relation of the radon concentration in the outdoor atmosphere to the stability the data of the atmosphere were obtained and they were correlated with the radon concentration. The results indicate that the 222 Rn concentrations int he outdoor atmosphere could be used for determination of the vertical atmospheric stability and these ones could reflect the atmospheric stability more completely than the different classifications based on the knowledge pertinent to the meteorological parameters. (authors)

  13. Pollutant Plume Dispersion in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Idealized Urban Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colman C. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-05-01

    The Gaussian model of plume dispersion is commonly used for pollutant concentration estimates. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, barely account for terrain configuration and surface roughness. Large-scale roughness elements (e.g. buildings in urban areas) can substantially modify the ground features together with the pollutant transport in the atmospheric boundary layer over urban roughness (also known as the urban boundary layer, UBL). This study is thus conceived to investigate how urban roughness affects the flow structure and vertical dispersion coefficient in the UBL. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is carried out to examine the plume dispersion from a ground-level pollutant (area) source over idealized street canyons for cross flows in neutral stratification. A range of building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, covering the regimes of skimming flow, wake interference, and isolated roughness, is employed to control the surface roughness. Apart from the widely used aerodynamic resistance or roughness function, the friction factor is another suitable parameter that measures the drag imposed by urban roughness quantitatively. Previous results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modelling also support the aforementioned approach for both two- and three-dimensional roughness elements. Comparing the UBL plume behaviour, the LES results show that the pollutant dispersion strongly depends on the friction factor. Empirical studies reveal that the vertical dispersion coefficient increases with increasing friction factor in the skimming flow regime (lower resistance) but is more uniform in the regimes of wake interference and isolated roughness (higher resistance). Hence, it is proposed that the friction factor and flow regimes could be adopted concurrently for pollutant concentration estimate in the UBL over urban street canyons of different roughness.

  14. Long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants to the Eastern Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncel, G.; Tuncel, S.

    1994-01-01

    A permanent stations has been established in the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey for continuous monitoring of aerosols and precipitation. The station is part of the MED-POL programme which includes all countries that have coasts in the Mediterranean Sea and attempts to determine the role of the atmospheric fluxes of pollutants on the pollution of the Mediterranea Sea. Aerosol and deposition samples have been collected since early 1992. Concentrations of SO 4 , NO 3 , Cl, Li, Pb, K, Ca, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn and Na were determined by ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. Daily samples will be screened to select the ones which correspond to transport from Europe and will be analyzed for a larger number of parameters using INAA. Method development took most of the time in 1992, and analysis are still in progress. Available data have shown that concentrations of anthropogenic elements are smaller in the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere compared to other rural sites in the Europe. (author). 21 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Size-differentiated composition of inorganic atmospheric aerosols of both marine and polluted continental origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Pio, Casimiro A.

    Atmospheric aerosols were sampled with a high volume impactor/diffusion battery system and the collected fractions analysed for their major water-soluble inorganic constituents. Sulphate, nitrate and chloride showed bimodal distributions; sulphate and nitrate were mainly associated with NH 4+, having approximately log-normal distributions with modes at 1.0 μm. In unpolluted maritime air, chlorides appeared as salts of sodium and magnesium with average modes at c. 5 μm, whilst in polluted air masses significant concentrations of ammonium chloride sub-μm aerosols were detected. Sodium nitrate and sodium sulphate aerosols having average modes of c. 3.5 μm were observed in mixed maritime/polluted air masses. The dimensions of these particles indicate formation from absorption of H 2SO 4 and HNO 3 at the surface of marine NaCl particles. The concentration of H + was very low, but the possibility of its neutralization by atmospheric ammonia during sampling was ruled out by parallel air sampling using an 'ammonia denuder'.

  16. Atmospheric concentration of 210Pb in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, T.; Sato, S.; Sato, J.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of 210 Pb and 7 Be in the surface air were measured at Tsukuba, Japan. The air concentrations of 210 Pb and 7 Be ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 mBq/m 3 and from 1 to 6 mBq/m 3 , respectively. Seasonal variation of 210 Pb concentration was similar to that of 7 Be, showing a 'two-peak' variation pattern: high concentrations appeared in spring and fall. Atmospheric concentrations of 210 Pb and their variations over Urumqi, Lanzhou and Baotou, cities located inland area of the Eurasian Continent, were observed. The monthly average concentrations ranged from 0.27 to 4.57 mBq/m 3 . The concentrations over these cities in winter were several times higher than that observed at Tsukuba, and the range of variation was also larger. The variations in concentration over the 3 localities resembled well with each other, showing the similar seasonal variation pattern: low concentration appeared in summer and high in winter. This variation pattern was different from that observed at Tsukuba. The variations in concentration over the Eurasian Continent, where precipitation is extremely smaller than that of Japan, inversely correlated quite well with the variation in the precipitation. The atmospheric concentrations of 210 Pb ranged from 0.9 to 4.6 mBq/m 3 at Beijing and from 1.4 to 7.8 mBq/m 3 at Chengdu and from 0.5 to 4.9 mBq/m 3 at Seoul, respectively, which were in the similar level to those observed previously in the inland area of the Eurasian Continent. Seasonal variations of the 210 Pb concentration showed the 'one-peak' variation pattern: the maximum levels were recorded in winter season. Small additional rises in the atmospheric 210 Pb concentrations observed in the period from spring to fall seasons may be due to complicated meteorology with high pressure systems at Beijing and Seoul and due to the topographical situation at Chengdu. Long range transport from the Eurasian Continent to the Japanese Islands was also assessed. The air mass from continent reached the

  17. Effectiveness of Emission Controls to Reduce the Atmospheric Concentrations of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mark S; Sherwell, John

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants in the United States are required to reduce their emissions of mercury (Hg) into the atmosphere to lower the exposure of Hg to humans. The effectiveness of power-plant emission controls on the atmospheric concentrations of Hg in the United States is largely unknown because there are few long-term high-quality atmospheric Hg data sets. Here, we present the atmospheric concentrations of Hg and sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured from 2006 to 2015 at a relatively pristine location in western Maryland that is several (>50 km) kilometers downwind of power plants in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Annual average atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), SO2, fine particulate mercury (PBM2.5), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) declined by 75%, 75%, 43%, and 13%, respectively, and were strongly correlated with power-plant Hg emissions from the upwind states. These results provide compelling evidence that reductions in Hg emissions from power plants in the United States had their intended impact to reduce regional Hg pollution.

  18. Atmospheric stability analysis and its relationship with the atmospheric pollution in Salamanca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidalgo, M.R.; Garmendia, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the relationship between the sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter concentrations and the atmospheric stability in Salamanca over 4 year (1978-1982). Of the various indices cited in the bibliography for estimating stratification stability, two were used. First, the Pasquill categories and later a method based on Montgomery's potential, which was the one that gave the best results. (Author)

  19. Coupled atmosphere-soil-vegetation modelling for the assessment of the impact of atmospheric releases of heavy metals and of persistent organic pollutants at the European scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queguiner, Solen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to couple a model of atmospheric dispersion with a multi-environment model in order to perform impact studies related to atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and POPs (persistent organic pollutants). The author first presents the studied pollutants, their physical and chemical properties, and their effects on health. Then, he addresses the atmospheric modelling with a presentation of the used atmospheric dispersion model (POLAIR3D), and an application to heavy metals. Simulations are performed on a 4-year period in order to try to represent the inter-annual variability of atmospheric lead and cadmium concentrations. The next part reports the modelling of POPs which required the introduction of a soil model to address re-emissions. Results are compared with provided measurements. The fourth part reports the modelling of agricultural environments in the impact model, and more particularly physical processes and parameters proper to heavy metals and POPs. The author finally reports two case studies, one related to heavy metals, and the other to POPs [fr

  20. Contribution to the study of the behaviour of polluted atmospheres under low β radiation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    In some cases where nuclear power plants are built in industrial areas, radiochemical impacts might occur at the same time as radiobiological impacts. These radiochemical impacts would be due to interactions between gaseous radioactive emissions and pollutants of the ambient atmosphere in these areas. Fundamental data needed for evaluating this have been brought together in this paper. The published data on air radiochemistry are discussed in detail, particularly for low radiation rates and low pollutant levels. But generally, published data appear to be plainly insufficient because of the high level of radiation rates and concentrations, particularly for NOsub(x). So the experimental study concerns nitrogen oxides mainly. Mixtures with concentration of about 1 ppmV of NO 2 , NO or SO 2 are irradiated, in a glass chamber, by β radiations from krypton 85. Mixtures are analyzed after various time lapses. The irradiation of NO and NO 2 polluted air leads to a progressive disappearance of NO and NO 2 and to the formation of a great amount of O 3 and N 2 O 5 (so the total amount of nitrogen oxides is increasing). Results can be explained with a radicalar model. With water vapor, the disappearance speed of NO and NO 2 is increased, the formation speed of O 3 is reduced. Some results of SO 2 irradiation are given [fr

  1. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  2. Effects of Roof-Edge Roughness on Air Temperature and Pollutant Concentration in Urban Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Nazarian, Negin; Chew, Lup Wai; Armstrong, Peter R.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, Leslie K.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of roof-edge roughness elements on airflow, heat transfer, and street-level pollutant transport inside and above a two-dimensional urban canyon is analyzed using an urban energy balance model coupled to a large-eddy simulation model. Simulations are performed for cold (early morning) and hot (mid afternoon) periods during the hottest month of the year (August) for the climate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The analysis suggests that early in the morning, and when the tallest roughness elements are implemented, the temperature above the street level increases on average by 0.5 K, while the pollutant concentration decreases by 2% of the street-level concentration. For the same conditions in mid afternoon, the temperature decreases conservatively by 1 K, while the pollutant concentration increases by 7% of the street-level concentration. As a passive or active architectural solution, the roof roughness element shows promise for improving thermal comfort and air quality in the canyon for specific times, but this should be further verified experimentally. The results also warrant a closer look at the effects of mid-range roughness elements in the urban morphology on atmospheric dynamics so as to improve parametrizations in mesoscale modelling.

  3. Modeling concentrations and fluxes of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish NEAREX project a three-dimensional Eulerian hemispheric air pollution model is used to study the transport and concentrations of atmospheric CO2 in the North East Atlantic region. The model domain covers the major part of the Northern Hemisphere and currently the model...

  4. Air pollutants and atmospheric pressure increased risk of ED visit for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Hyung; Lee, Sun Hwa; Yun, Seong Jong; Ryu, Seokyong; Choi, Seung Woon; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Tae Kyung; Oh, Sung Chan; Cho, Suk Jin

    2018-04-14

    To investigate the impact of short-term exposure to air pollutants and meteorological variation on ED visits for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). We retrospectively identified PSP cases that presented at the ED of our tertiary center between January 2015 and September 2016. We classified the days into three types: no PSP day (0 case/day), sporadic days (1-2 cases/day), and cluster days (PSP, ≥3 cases/day). Association between the daily incidence of PSP with air pollutants and meteorological data were determined using Poisson generalized-linear-model to calculate incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and the use of time-series (lag-1 [the cumulative air pollution level on the previous day of PSP], lag-2 [two days ago], and lag-3 [three days ago]). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, O 3 (p = 0.010), NO 2 (p = 0.047), particulate matters (PM) 10 (p = 0.021), and PM 2.5 (p = 0.008) were significant factors of PSP occurrence. When the concentration of O 3 , NO 2 , PM 10 , and PM 2.5 were increased, PSP IRRs increased approximately 15, 16, 3, and 5-fold, respectively. With the time-series analyses, atmospheric pressure in lag-3 was significantly lower and in lag-2, was significantly higher in PSP days compared with no PSP days. Among air pollutant concentrations, O 3 in lag-1 (p = 0.017) and lag-2 (p = 0.038), NO 2 in lag-1 (p = 0.015) and lag-2 (p = 0.009), PM 10 in lag-1 (p = 0.012), and PM 2.5 in lag-1 (p = 0.021) and lag-2 (p = 0.032) were significantly different between no PSP and PSP days. Increased concentrations of air pollutants and abrupt change in atmospheric pressure were significantly associated with increased IRR of PSP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Atmospheric pollution over the eastern Mediterranean during summer – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dayan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Mediterranean (EM is one of the regions in the world where elevated concentrations of primary and secondary gaseous air pollutants have been reported frequently, mainly in summer. This review discusses published studies of the atmospheric dispersion and transport conditions characterizing this region during the summer, followed by a description of some essential studies dealing with the corresponding concentrations of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, total reactive nitrogen, methane, and sulfate aerosols observed there. The interlaced relationship between the downward motion of the subsiding air aloft induced by global circulation systems affecting the EM and the depth of the Persian Trough, a low-pressure trough that extends from the Asian monsoon at the surface controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the mixed boundary layer during summer, is discussed. The strength of the wind flow within the mixed layer and its depth affect much the amount of pollutants transported and determine the potential of the atmosphere to disperse contaminants off their origins in the EM. The reduced mixed layer and the accompanying weak westerlies, characterizing the summer in this region, led to reduced ventilation rates, preventing an effective dilution of the contaminants. Several studies pointing at specific local (e.g., ventilation rates and regional peculiarities (long-range transport enhancing the build-up of air pollutant concentrations are presented. Tropospheric ozone (O3 concentrations observed in the summer over the EM are among the highest over the Northern Hemisphere. The three essential processes controlling its formation (i.e., long-range transport of polluted air masses, dynamic subsidence at mid-tropospheric levels, and stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange are reviewed. Airborne campaigns and satellite-borne initiatives have indicated that the concentration values of reactive nitrogen identified as precursors in

  6. [Respiratory symptoms and atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms in the general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, I; Charpin, D

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies on air pollution have mainly been interested in the effects of short- or long-term exposure on patients suffering from respiratory illnesses. Fewer studies have addressed the acute effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population. We conducted a review of the literature over the last 16years that has addressed the impact of atmospheric pollution on respiratory symptoms in the general population to estimate the magnitude of effect. The majority of studies demonstrated a significant association between exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms, without any threshold. Although a link between atmospheric pollution and respiratory symptoms has been demonstrated, knowledge of the effects of specific air pollutants and the effect of pollution on particular vulnerable groups (infants, young children, the elderly) is still limited. There is a need for further studies in this area. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  8. Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branquinho, C.; Catarino, F.; Brown, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution is the main objective of this work. For that a better insight into the availability and location of heavy metals in lichens subjected to polluted conditions both under laboratory and field conditions was attained. The data in this work supported the hypothesis that the absence of the lichen Ramalina fastigiata near a copper mine site, located in the south of Portugal, was related with toxic levels of Cu-dust near the centre of the mine. Lichen biodiversity, measured by the parameter number of lichen species, reflected the impact of the copper-mine dust emissions. The extent of the impact was more widespread towards cast, which appears to be correlated with the frequency of the winds. The chemical analysis of in-situ samples of R. fastigiata collected at different distances and in different directions from the mine showed that Cu, K and Mg were emitted from the centre of the mine site, confirming that major sources of atmospheric dust were located there. Total inhibition of PSII (photosystem II) photochemical reactions occurred in R. fastigiata both under field and controlled conditions, when intracellular Cu concentrations exceeded a threshold of ca. 2.0 μmol g -1 . No samples of this species were found under field conditions beyond the Cu threshold, suggesting that the absence of the lichen R. fastigiata might be used as an indicator of intracellular Cu concentrations above 2.0 μmol g -1 in the surroundings of the copper-mine. The fluorescence parameter F v /F m proved to be a good estimator of the survival capacity of R. fastigiata under field conditions and thus a useful parameter in determining the sensitivity of the lichens (photobiont) to Cu pollution. The intracellular location of Cu, K and Mg allowed to explain the physiological changes and the survival of the species in the surroundings of the copper-mine. (author)

  9. Mass flows of nitrogen-containing pollutants between atmosphere and forest ecosystem. Massenfluesse stickstoffhaltiger Schadstoffe zwischen Atmosphere und Waldoekosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, W.; Grieser, J.; Herrmann, U.; Kessel, M.; Kosiol, W.; Nietzsche, I.; Sattler, T. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung)

    1992-01-01

    In the discussion about the possible causes of novel forest decline, nitrogen-containing components in the atmosphere have received increased interest in recent years. At the Centre for Environmental Research of the University of Frankfurt, a new approach to this problem was tried within the framework of the coordinated research project Frankfurter Stadtwald. A whole number of concentrations and flows of different pollutants were used to make up a balance for the area of investigation. Where possible, all relevant concentrations and flows were to be measured or at least realistically estimated. Therefore several measuring set-ups were realized. From the compiled data, a budget of nitrogen-containing components for the area of investigation was made up. This novel approach gives an idea of the concentrations and flows of a multitude of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem like the Frankfurter Stadtwald. These constitute a necessary basis for impact investigations by botanists to explain novel forest decline. (orig./KW) With 90 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. The effects of air pollution and climatic factors on atmospheric corrosion of marble under field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Nishimura, Rokuro; Tsujino, Yoshio; Satoh, Yukihiro; Thi Phuong Thoa, Nguyen; Yokoi, Masayuki; Maeda, Yasuaki

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of marble was evaluated in terms of SO 2 concentration as air pollution and climatic factors such as rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and so on under the field exposure. Marble of calcite type (CaCO 3 ) was exposed to outdoor atmospheric environment with and without a rain shelter at four test sites in the southern part of Vietnam for 3-month, 1- and 2-year periods from July 2001 to September 2003. The thickness loss of marble was investigated gravimetrically. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescent methods were applied to study corrosion products on marble. The corrosion product of marble was only gypsum (CaSO 4 . 2H 2 O) and was washed out by rain under the unsheltered exposure condition. It was found that the most substantial factors influencing the corrosion of marble were rainfall, SO 2 concentration in the air and relative humidity. Based on the results obtained, we estimated the dose-response functions for the atmospheric corrosion of marble in the southern part of Vietnam

  11. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations unaffected by urban air pollution in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wu, Zhijun; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Markus; Pei, Xiangyu; Liu, Zirui; Ji, Dongsheng; Wex, Heike

    2018-03-01

    Exceedingly high levels of PM2.5 with complex chemical composition occur frequently in China. It has been speculated whether anthropogenic PM2.5 may significantly contribute to ice-nucleating particles (INP). However, few studies have focused on the ice-nucleating properties of urban particles. In this work, two ice-nucleating droplet arrays have been used to determine the atmospheric number concentration of INP (NINP) in the range from -6 to -25 °C in Beijing. No correlations between NINP and either PM2.5 or black carbon mass concentrations were found, although both varied by more than a factor of 30 during the sampling period. Similarly, there were no correlations between NINP and either total particle number concentration or number concentrations for particles with diameters > 500 nm. Furthermore, there was no clear difference between day and night samples. All these results indicate that Beijing air pollution did not increase or decrease INP concentrations in the examined temperature range above values observed in nonurban areas; hence, the background INP concentrations might not be anthropogenically influenced as far as urban air pollution is concerned, at least in the examined temperature range.

  12. Analysis of Co, Cr and Mn Concentrations in Atmospheric Dry Deposition in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shokri Ragheb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Heavy metals are major pollutants that can spread in the atmosphere with particulate matter and dust and because of the toxic and carcinogenic effects, their meas-urement and control is very important. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess Co, Cr and Mn concentration in the atmospheric dry deposition collected from Hamadan city in 2014. Materials & Methods: After collection of 12 dust samples from 3 sampling stations and their laboratory preparation, metals concentrations were determined using ICP–OES. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the minimum and maximum mean concentrations of Co were 0.19 and 0.29 mg/kg for high and low traffic intensity sampling stations, respectively. The min and max mean concentrations of Cr were 0.65and 1.02 mg/kg for high traffic intensity and suburb sampling stations, respectively and the min and max mean concentrations of Mn were 7.23and 8.82 mg/kg for high and low traffic intensity sampling stations , respectively. Also comparing the mean concentrations of assessed metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean concentrations of metals were signifi-cantly lower than the maximum permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the mean concentrations of Co, Cr and Mn are lower than the standard levels, lack of continuous monitoring of heavy metals concentrations in the dust and particu-late matters in the air can lead to the entrance of various types of toxic pollutants such as heavy metals into the air and result in adverse health effects. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:149-156

  13. An index for estimating the potential metal pollution contribution to atmospheric particulate matter from road dust in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Shao, Yaping; Yin, Chengqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Xuyong

    2016-04-15

    The resuspension of road dust from street surfaces could be a big contributor to atmospheric particulate pollution in the rapid urbanization context in the world. However, to date what its potential contribution to the spatial pattern is little known. Here we developed an innovative index model called the road dust index (RIatmospheric suspended particles. The factors were ranked and weighted based on road dust characteristics (the amounts, grain sizes, and mobilities of the road dust, and the concentrations and toxicities of metals in the road dust). We then applied the RIatmospheric suspended particles. The results demonstrated that the road dust in urban areas has higher potential risk of metal to atmospheric particles than that in rural areas. The RIatmospheric suspended particles and for controlling atmospheric particulate pollution caused by road dust emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  15. Global atmospheric concentrations and source strength of ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the variation in ethane (C2H6) concentration between northern and southern latitudes over three years is presented together with a new estimate of its source strength. Ethane concentrations vary from 0.07 to 2 p.p.b.v. (parts per billion by volume) in air samples collected in remote surface locations in the Pacific (latitude 71 N-47 S) in all four seasons between September 1984 and June 1985. The variations are consistent with southerly transport from sources located chiefly in the Northern Hemisphere, further modified by seasonal variations in the strength of the reaction of C2H6 with OH radicals. These global data can be combined with concurrent data for CH4 and the laboratory reaction rates of each with OH to provide an estimate of three months as the average atmospheric lifetime for C2H6 and 13 + or - 3 Mtons for its annual atmospheric release.

  16. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  17. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Monleon, Vicente J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m"3, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m"3, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two stained

  18. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP. Proceedings of an international workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Some organisms accumulate atmospheric contaminants over certain periods of time and concentrate them, thus allowing reliable analytical measurements if the organisms are suitably chosen. Measurements of contaminants accumulated by such organisms (biomonitors) provide information on the integrated exposure over an extended period of time. They may also be present in remote areas, and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Therefore, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practical use of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact human health, and one of the main emphases is on studying air contaminants. The idea of organizing a workshop on biomonitoring atmospheric pollution arose during an IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Monitoring of Trace Element Air Pollution, carried out at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Portugal, with substantial technical support by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Netherlands. The International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (With Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21 to 24 September 1997. The meeting was organized in co-operation with the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear

  19. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP. Proceedings of an international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Some organisms accumulate atmospheric contaminants over certain periods of time and concentrate them, thus allowing reliable analytical measurements if the organisms are suitably chosen. Measurements of contaminants accumulated by such organisms (biomonitors) provide information on the integrated exposure over an extended period of time. They may also be present in remote areas, and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Therefore, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. The IAEA is making concerted efforts to promote the practicaluse of nuclear and related analytical techniques in studies of non-radioactive environmental pollutants that may impact human health, and one of the main emphases is on studying air contaminants. The idea of organizing a workshop on biomonitoring atmospheric pollution arose during an IAEA Technical Co-operation Project on Monitoring of Trace Element Air Pollution, carried out at the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Portugal, with substantial technical support by the Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI) of the Delft University of Technology (TUDelft), Netherlands. The International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (With Emphasis on Trace Elements) - BioMAP, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 21 to 24 September 1997. The meeting was organized in co-operation with the Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear.

  20. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Sixteenth progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.; Gatz, D.F.; Peden, M.E.; Stensland, G.J.

    1978-07-01

    The relative spatial variability of atmospheric deposition was studied for sampling networks of various areas in the U.S., Sweden, and the U.S.S.R. The data were derived from event, monthly, and yearly sample collection periods. The results indicate the relative variability for precipitation, chemical concentration of constituents, and the deposition increase in that order. A factor analysis approach to interpretation of the role of aerosol in altering rainfall is presented. The results indicate that either aerosol does not influence rainfall amount, or a critical chemical component of the aerosol was not included in the analysis. Careful analyses were carried out, comparing historical and current precipitation chemistry at Champaign-Urbana. The results show that the apparent high pH values of rainfall in 1954 were due to high values of calcium and magnesium and not due to low concentrations of sulfate and nitrogen species. New field efforts were initiated in 1978 in east-central Illinois to measure rain chemistry with improved precision over previous effort. The preliminary results from the first light rainshower show some puzzling relationships between the amount of rain and various chemical concentrations. The pH appears to be inversely related to rain volume, but other ionic species are not so easily identified with rain amount. The summer field experiment has, thus far, produced approximately 12 additional events which are in various stages of analysis. The study of the stability of ions in precipitation was continued and is the subject of additional proposed work. The results are very firm at this time, that either wet-only sampling must be carried out, or the sample must be preserved at 4/sup 0/C to retain the chemical integrity of the sample. It is recommended, however, that filtration of the sample be accomplished within 12 hours of the cessation of precipitation to ensure stability of the ionic composition.

  1. Atmospheric pollution and plants, especially trees in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauly, T.; Lohou, C.

    1992-01-01

    Trees in down live in ecologically difficult conditions and suffer a great number of aggressions. Air pollution only increases their state of weakness. Studies in this field are only at their infancy. The part of responsibility of air pollution on the decay of trees is very difficult to determine. However the effect of some pollutants can be observed at present (sulfur dioxide, ozone, hydrocarburants, dust, PAN, lead...). New special equipment will determine, quantify and perhaps resolve some problems of pollution and vegetation in our cities in the future. 11 refs

  2. Control of radon and its progeny concentration in indoor atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Subbaramu, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to radon daughter concentration in indoor atmosphere can result in a significant risk to the general public. There are two generally used methods for the control of radon and progeny concentration in the indoor atmosphere, namely restriction of radon entry and reduction of indoor radon and its progeny concentration by ventilation or by air cleaning. Predominant radon entry process in most of the dwellings appears to be by pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement slab or subfloors. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are the methods for reducing the radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentration can also be reduced by increasing the ventilation and by using charcoal filters for the removal of radon gas in indoor air by absorption. Concentration of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associatd with radon exposure can also be controlled by the use of electrostatic or mechanical filters. This study describes briefly the above control strategies used for reducing the inhalation doses to persons in dwellings. (author). 9 refs., 2 tables

  3. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  4. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E.; Beltran H, R. I.; Issac O, K.; Lucho C, C. A.; Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  5. Low concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air at Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Halse, Anne Karine; Schlabach, Martin; Bäcklund, Are; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut

    2018-01-15

    Ambient air is a core medium for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention and is used in studies of global transports of POPs and their atmospheric sources and source regions. Still, data based on active air sampling remain scarce in many regions. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) monitor concentrations of selected POPs in air outside West Africa, and (ii) to evaluate potential atmospheric processes and source regions affecting measured concentrations. For this purpose, an active high-volume air sampler was installed on the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory at Cape Verde outside the coast of West Africa. Sampling commenced in May 2012 and 43 samples (24h sampling) were collected until June 2013. The samples were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordanes. The concentrations of these POPs at Cape Verde were generally low and comparable to remote sites in the Arctic for several compounds. Seasonal trends varied between compounds and concentrations exhibited strong temperature dependence for chlordanes. Our results indicate net volatilization from the Atlantic Ocean north of Cape Verde as sources of these POPs. Air mass back trajectories demonstrated that air masses measured at Cape Verde were generally transported from the Atlantic Ocean or the North African continent. Overall, the low concentrations in air at Cape Verde were likely explained by absence of major emissions in areas from which the air masses originated combined with depletion during long-range atmospheric transport due to enhanced degradation under tropical conditions (high temperatures and concentrations of hydroxyl radicals). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of nitrogen additions on oak foliage and herbivore communities at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D.; Fenn, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate plant and herbivore responses to nitrogen we conducted a fertilization study at a low and high pollution site in the mixed conifer forests surrounding Los Angeles, California. Contrary to expectations, discriminant function analysis of oak herbivore communities showed significant response to N fertilization when atmospheric deposition was high, but not when atmospheric deposition was low. We hypothesize that longer-term fertilization treatments are needed at the low pollution site before foliar N nutrition increases sufficiently to affect herbivore communities. At the high pollution site, fertilization was also associated with increased catkin production and higher densities of a byturid beetle that feeds on the catkins of oak. Leaf nitrogen and nitrate were significantly higher at the high pollution site compared to the low pollution site. Foliar nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with abundance of sucking insects, leafrollers and plutellids in all three years of the study. - Nitrogen additions at sites impacted by air pollution were associated with altered foliar herbivore communities and increased densities of a catkin-feeding beetle on Quercus kellogii

  7. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  8. Aleppo pine bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in the arid environment of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Alawi, Mu' taz M.; Jiries, Anwar [Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research, Mu' tah University, Al-Karak (Jordan); Carreras, Hebe [University of Cordoba, FCEFyN, Cordoba (Argentina); Alawi, Mahmoud [Chemistry Department, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Geography, Environment and Disaster Management, Coventry University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Batarseh, Mufeed I.

    2007-11-15

    Monitoring of atmospheric pollution using Aleppo bark as a bioindicator was carried out in the industrial area surrounding the Al-Hussein thermal power station and the oil refinery at Al-Hashimyeh town, Jordan. The concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc, iron, and chromium) were analyzed in bark samples collected from the study area during July 2004. The results showed that high levels of heavy metals were found in tree bark samples retrieved from all studied sites compared with the remote reference site. This is, essentially, due to the fact that the oil refinery and the thermal power plant still use low-quality fuel oil from the by-products of oil refining. Automobile emissions are another source of pollution since the study area is located along a major heavy-traffic highway. It was found that the area around the study sites (Al-Hashimyeh town, Zarqa) is polluted with high levels of heavy metals. Pine bark was found to be a suitable bioindicator of aerial fallout of heavy metals in arid regions. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Atmospheric CO{sub 2}, trace gas and CN concentrations in Vaerrioe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, T; Aalto, P; Kulmala, M; Rannik, U; Vesala, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Hari, P; Pohja, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The Vaerrioe environmental measurement station is founded in 1991. The aim of the station is to obtain more information on air quality influenced by Kola industrial areas and effects of pollutants on photosynthesis in subarctic climate. In the station air quality and meteorological quantities are measured together with photosynthesis, which makes it quite unique in comparison with other measurement stations located in northern Finland. The measurements also provide information of aerosol and trace gas concentrations in order to study the direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. These measurements also increase the knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and deposition in subarctic conditions

  10. Atmospheric CO{sub 2}, trace gas and CN concentrations in Vaerrioe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, T.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Rannik, U.; Vesala, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Hari, P.; Pohja, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1995-12-31

    The Vaerrioe environmental measurement station is founded in 1991. The aim of the station is to obtain more information on air quality influenced by Kola industrial areas and effects of pollutants on photosynthesis in subarctic climate. In the station air quality and meteorological quantities are measured together with photosynthesis, which makes it quite unique in comparison with other measurement stations located in northern Finland. The measurements also provide information of aerosol and trace gas concentrations in order to study the direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. These measurements also increase the knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and deposition in subarctic conditions

  11. Gaseous atmospheric pollution. Gas measurement; Pollution atmospherique gazeuse. Mesure des gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toupance, G [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France); Person, A [Laboratoire d' Hygiene de la Ville de Paris, 75 (France); Le Moullec, Y; Masclet, P; Perros, P E

    2004-09-01

    This article deals with the majority of pollutants which are present in gaseous phase in the low layer of the troposphere, of the proximity of sources to the distant areas where are in weak traces persisting substances or sub-products induced by photochemical reactions. The compounds described in this article are of interest for various reasons: either they are source tracers, or they draw attention for their impact on health or/and ecosystem. Their follow-up can also be in other approaches such as the understanding of reactional mechanisms and the support to modeling of the phenomena. Thereby, the range of the covered concentrations is very large: if the preoccupations are in most of the cases to answer to detection limits of about the ppb, for some substances, the requirements can be harder and we have then to orient oneself to techniques able to quantify at the level of ppt, sometimes less. Some pollutants are qualified of 'semi-volatile', that is to say they are the property to be present in gaseous phase and in particles in suspension in air. (O.M.)

  12. A numerical study for the assessment of pollutant dispersion from Kostolac B power plant to Viminacium for different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozić Mirko S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of pollution concentration to the archaeological site Viminacium caused by the stack of Kostolac B power plant is analyzed using CFD software. The wind is directed from the stack toward Viminacium-Archaeological Site, Therma and Viminacium - Museum. Three different meteorological conditions resulting in fanning, fumigating and looping plume are modelled. The temperature gradient as the most important factor defining the conditions of the atmosphere is included through the appropriate boundary conditions. It is shown that concentrations of the pollutants on the objects of Viminacium are very low. It can be attributed to the stack height and high temperature of the smoke at its exit. It also indicates that other sources of pollution such as open ash dumps and acid rain should be checked.

  13. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7 Be, 54 Mn, 95 Zr, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 131 I, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 141 Ce, 144 Ce, 226 Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  14. Atmospheric Pollution and Greenhouse Emissions over 14 Largest Megacities of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Megacities have more than 10 million people, some of them are located in developing/developed countries. We have considered the top 14 megacities of the world. Due to growing industries, urbanization, vehicular density, and energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions have increased, which has degraded air quality. In some countries, clean air act has improved the air quality. We have considered multiple satellites and have retrieved atmospheric pollution parameters (aerosol optical depth-AOD and angstrom exponent) and greenhouse gases to study their variability from the period 2002-2016. High AOD represents high pollution level, which are prominent during winter and spring for Manila, Tokyo, Beijing, Moscow, Mexico City, Mumbai, Seoul, Dhaka, Cairo, and Bangkok. During summer and fall, Delhi, Karachi, and Sao Paulo have high values. During spring season, some of the megacities show significant higher pollution levels (high AOD) associated with the dust storms; however, Moscow and Karachi show contrasting behaviors. The angstrom exponent parameter has high values in the spring and summer for Manila, Shanghai, Beijing, Moscow, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, Seoul, and Cairo. Moscow shows a significant low value in April 2012. Delhi, Karachi, Mumbai, Dhaka, and Bangkok have high values in fall and winter. Dhaka shows significant low values in August 2003, June 2005, June 2008, July 2011, and June 2016. The total ozone column concentrations have high values during summer and spring, and low values during fall and winter. The methane concentrations are higher during fall and winter, and lower during spring and summer. An increasing trend of methane level is observed over all the megacities from 2002 until now. The increasing greenhouse gases in megacities have direct impact on human health and weather conditions. Some of the megacities suffer from dense haze, fog and smog, which impact the day-to-day lives of residents due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases.

  15. [Pollution characteristics of organic acids in atmospheric particles during haze periods in autumn in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-hua; Zhao, Jing-ping; Duan, Jing-chun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin; Yang, Fu-mo

    2013-05-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during a typical haze period in Guangzhou, were analyzed for the fatty acids (C12-C30) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the concentration of total fatty and carboxylic acids was pretty high during the haze episode. The ratios of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in haze to those in normal days were 1.9 and 2.5, respectively. During the episode of the increasing pollution, the fatty acids and carboxylic acids at night (653 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (487 ng x m(-3)) in days. After that, the level of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in days (412 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (336 ng x m(-3)) at night. In general, the time-series of fatty acids and carboxylic acids was similar to that of the air particle and carbonaceous species, however, the trend of the ratio of fatty acids and carboxylic acids to organic carbon was opposite to that of air particle and carbonaceous species. This ratio decreased with the increase of the concentration of air particle and after the night of 27th, the ratio increased with the decrease in the concentration of air particle. The results showed that haze pollution had a significant inhibitory effect on the enrichment of fatty and carboxylic acids. Based on the ratio of malonate to succinate (C3/C4), it could be found that primary sources contribute more to the atmospheric fatty and carboxylic acids during the autumn haze pollution periods in Guangzhou.

  16. Methods for Online Monitoring of Air Pollution Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel, Ioana; Popescu, Francisc

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a global environmental problem that represents a measure of the potential of the climate change rate influenced by local pollution sources, although its scale has a strong regional or local orientation. Improvements in technology supported by policy measures have lead to reduced pollution levels, but still, especially in new member states, more activity is needed. In developed countries advanced low pollution technique is applied in order to reduce the pollution levels Howeve...

  17. Study of the superficial ozone concentrations in the atmosphere of Comunidad de Madrid using passive samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galán Madruga

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The ozone is a secondary atmospheric pollutant which is generated for photochemical reactions of volatil organic compounds (VOC’s and nitrogen oxides (NOx. In Spain the ozone is a big problem as a consequence of the solar radiation to reach high levels. Exposure over a period of time to elevated ozone concentrations can cause damage in the public health and alterations in the vegetation.The aim of this study is to carry out the development and validation of a measurement method to let asses the superficial ozone levels in the Comunidad de Madrid, by identifing the zones more significants, where to measure with UV photometric monitors (automatics methods this pollutant and where the health and the vegetation can be affected. To such effect, passive samplers are used, which have glass fiber filters coated with a solution of sodium nitrite, potassium carbonate, glycerol and water. The nitrite ion in the presence of ozone is oxidized to nitrato ion, which it is extrated with ultrapure water and analyzed for ion chromatography, by seen proportional to the concentration existing in the sampling point.The results of validation from field tests indicate a excellent correlation between the passive and the automatic method.The higher superficial ozone concentrations are placed in rural zones, distanced of emission focus of primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides and volatil organic compounds... principally in direction soutwest and northwest of the Comunidad of Madrid.

  18. Magnetic particles in atmospheric particulate matter collected at sites with different level of air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Zbořil, R.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Kotlík, B.; Novák, J.; Kapička, Aleš; Grison, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2013), s. 755-770 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0554 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : magnetite * atmospheric dust * pollution * rock magnetism Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2013

  19. Atmospheric pollution considered in relation to horticulture: preliminary analysis of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurfield, G

    1955-01-01

    The results of the possible effects of SO/sub 2/ and other air pollutants upon the distribution and success of several plants species in the UK is discussed. The hypothesis is advanced that observed distributions of several plant species are a result of varying sensitivities to air pollutants and varying concentrations of air pollutants.

  20. The role of forest in mitigating the impact of atmospheric dust pollution in a mixed landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Artur; Pinho, Pedro; Munzi, Silvana; Botelho, Maria João; Palma-Oliveira, José Manuel; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial and urban areas in reducing atmospheric dust pollution. This was tested using lichen transplants as biomonitors in a Mediterranean regional area with high levels of dry deposition. After a multivariate analysis, we have modeled the maximum pollution load expected for each site taking into consideration nearby pollutant sources. The difference between maximum expected pollution load and the observed values was explained by the deposition in nearby forests. Both the dust pollution and the ameliorating effect of forested areas were then mapped. The results showed that forest located nearby pollution sources plays an important role in reducing atmospheric dust pollution, highlighting their importance in the provision of the ecosystem service of air purification.

  1. An analytical model for radioactive pollutant release simulation in the atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymar, Guilherme J.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Buske, Daniela; Quadros, Regis

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of emission of radioactive substances in the atmosphere from the Brazilian nuclear power plant Angra 1 are a necessary tool for control and elaboration of emergency plans as a preventive action for possible accidents. In the present work we present an analytical solution for radioactive pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere, solving the time-dependent three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The experiment here used as a reference in the simulations consisted of the controlled releases of radioactive tritiated water vapor from the meteorological tower close to the power plant at Itaorna Beach. The wind profile was determined using experimental meteorological data and the micrometeorological parameters were calculated from empirical equations obtained in the literature. We report on a novel analytical formulation for the concentration of products of a radioactive chain released in the atmospheric boundary layer and solve the set of coupled equations for each chain radionuclide by the GILTT solution, assuming the decay of all progenitors radionuclide for each equation as source term. Further we report on numerical simulations, as an explicit but fictitious example and consider three radionuclides in the radioactive chain of Uranium 235. (author)

  2. An analytical model for radioactive pollutant release simulation in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weymar, Guilherme J.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J., E-mail: guicefetrs@gmail.com, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com, E-mail: bejbodmann@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Buske, Daniela; Quadros, Regis, E-mail: danielabuske@gmail.com, E-mail: quadros99@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica

    2013-07-01

    Simulations of emission of radioactive substances in the atmosphere from the Brazilian nuclear power plant Angra 1 are a necessary tool for control and elaboration of emergency plans as a preventive action for possible accidents. In the present work we present an analytical solution for radioactive pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere, solving the time-dependent three-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. The experiment here used as a reference in the simulations consisted of the controlled releases of radioactive tritiated water vapor from the meteorological tower close to the power plant at Itaorna Beach. The wind profile was determined using experimental meteorological data and the micrometeorological parameters were calculated from empirical equations obtained in the literature. We report on a novel analytical formulation for the concentration of products of a radioactive chain released in the atmospheric boundary layer and solve the set of coupled equations for each chain radionuclide by the GILTT solution, assuming the decay of all progenitors radionuclide for each equation as source term. Further we report on numerical simulations, as an explicit but fictitious example and consider three radionuclides in the radioactive chain of Uranium 235. (author)

  3. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  4. The atmospheric pollution in a few words; La pollution atmospherique en bref

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper takes stock briefly on the different pollution sources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, VOC, methane...), the mechanisms (acidification, photochemical pollution, eutrophication, greenhouse effect, ozone...) and the effects on the health. (A.L.B.)

  5. A study of the capture of atmospheric pollutants by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belot, Yves

    1976-01-01

    Small-scale experiments were conducted in order to study the capture of gaseous and particulate pollutants by the foliar organs of plants. A model was then developed allowing to pass from plant leaves to a plant canopy. The model was applied to wooded belts in order to assess their protective effect as a function of meteorological conditions and nature of the pollutant. (author) [fr

  6. Study on atmosphere pollution by PIXE analysis combining with statistical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guanghua

    1994-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor or an automatic time sequence step sampler at Jomo Langma, Zhangye at the edge of Gobi Desert and Beijing. Element concentration were analyzed by PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) technique. The data were analyzed by APCA (absolute principal component analysis) to determine the principal components. The sources and contribution to the aerosol in the above three regions were discussed. The result shows that the PIXE has high sensitivity, multi-element capability, high speed and non-destruction advantages. APCA analytical method can effectively determine the aerosol components in urban area, and it also can distinguish between local components and remote components in the area far from the pollution resources

  7. The atmospheric transfer of pollution for a site with rapidly variable winds (low winds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maigne, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper firstly describes the ICAIR 2 computer model which takes into account the variability in space and time of wind speed and direction in estimating the dispersion of a pollutant in the atmosphere. This is done by breaking down each release into a series of separate puffs which continuously respond to the meteorological conditions applying at the point in time to the positions in which they are located. The law governing the change in each of the puffs is tri-Gaussian and the standard deviations used are a function of the transfer time and the wind speed for transfer times of less than 2000 seconds and of the transfer time alone beyond this period. Finally, the concentration patterns at various points calculated using ICAIR 2 are compared with those obtained during a series of experiments in situ using tracers at low wind speeds (< 1 m/s)

  8. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  9. Usefulness of the infrared heterodyne radiometer in remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    The application of narrow-band optical receivers to the problem of sensing atmospheric pollution is discussed. The emission/absorption lines of many major atmospheric pollutant molecules overlap the operating frequency bands of CO2 laser and CO laser heterodyne receivers. Several remote pollution sensing systems which are based upon utilization of these spectral overlaps are described, and an analysis of their potential is presented. The possibility of using other lasers (e.g.: the PbSnTe tunable diode laser) as local oscillators is also considered. Results of laboratory experiments with a CO2 laser heterodyne radiometer are presented.

  10. Control of emissions from stationary combustion sources: Pollutant detection and behavior in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, W.; Engel, A.J.; Slater, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary combustion resources continue to be significant sources of NOx and SOx pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. This volume considers four problem areas: (1) control of emissions from stationary combustion sources, particularly SOx and NOx (2) pollutant behavior in the atmosphere (3) advances in air pollution analysis and (4) air quality management. Topics of interest include carbon slurries for sulfur dioxide abatement, mass transfer in the Kellogg-Weir air quality control system, oxidation/inhibition of sulfite ion in aqueous solution, some micrometeorological methods of measuring dry deposition rates, Spanish moss as an indicator of airborne metal contamination, and air quality impacts from future electric power generation in Texas

  11. Comparative discussion on some measurements of the atmospheric natural radioactivity and pollution with coal smoke particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of measuring the natural radioactivity and coal smoke pollution are discussed for two sites in an industrial town, as well as for two heights at the same site, in connection with large scale and local atmospheric stability. The effects of the radiation fog upon the radon daughters acumulation near the ground are examined in some detail. By comparing the pollutant diurnal variations during two periods of similar atmospheric stability in autumn, respectively in winter, the contribution from the dwelling coal heating has been estimated to be about half of the total pollution in the town. (author)

  12. Data processing technique for multiangle lidar sounding of poorly stratified polluted atmospheres: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle E. Wold; Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander P. Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    Scanning elastic lidar, which can operate in different slant directions, is the most appropriate remote sensing tool for investigating the optical properties of smoke-polluted atmospheres. However, the commonly used methodologies of multiangle measurements are based on the assumption of horizontal stratification of the searched atmosphere1,2. When working in real...

  13. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  14. Source contributions to atmospheric fine carbon particle concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Gray, H.; Cass, Glen R.

    A Lagrangian particle-in-cell air quality model has been developed that facilitates the study of source contributions to atmospheric fine elemental carbon and fine primary total carbon particle concentrations. Model performance was tested using spatially and temporally resolved emissions and air quality data gathered for this purpose in the Los Angeles area for the year 1982. It was shown that black elemental carbon (EC) particle concentrations in that city were dominated by emissions from diesel engines including both on-highway and off-highway applications. Fine primary total carbon particle concentrations (TC=EC+organic carbon) resulted from the accumulation of small increments from a great variety of emission source types including both gasoline and diesel powered highway vehicles, stationary source fuel oil and gas combustion, industrial processes, paved road dust, fireplaces, cigarettes and food cooking (e.g. charbroilers). Strategies for black elemental carbon particle concentration control will of necessity need to focus on diesel engines, while controls directed at total carbon particle concentrations will have to be diversified over a great many source types.

  15. Mathematical models for atmospheric pollutants. Appendix A. Elements of meteorology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.L.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1979-08-01

    The meteorological elements that are important in the transport and fate of airborne pollutants are summarized. The summary consists of descriptions of the thermal, water, kinematic and dynamic structures of the atmosphere, the time and space scale classifications of atmospheric motions, and modifications of pollutant plumes as they pass over nonhomogeneous surface conditions and complex terrain. The discussions consider the atmospheric thermal layers and their stability, formation of clouds and the production of rain and snow, the movement of air masses and weather fronts, the horizontal winds in the planetary boundary layer, and wind profiles over transition zones and complex terrain

  16. Web technologies for rapid assessment of pollution of the atmosphere of the industrial city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparev, N.; Tokarev, A.; Yakubailik, O.; Soldatov, A.

    2018-05-01

    The functionality, architectural features, the user interface of the geoinformation web-system of environmental monitoring of Krasnoyarsk is discussed. This system is created in service-oriented architecture. Data collection from the automated stations to monitor the state of atmospheric air has been implemented. An original device to measure the level of contamination of the atmosphere by fine dust PM2.5 has developed. Assessment of the level of air pollution is based on the quality index AQI atmosphere.

  17. The measurement of airborne rodon daughter concentrations in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Lee, J.K.; Moon, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    A simple method for determining the airborne concentration of radon daughter products has been developed, which is based on gross alpha counting of the air filter collections at several time intervals after completion of air sampling. The concentration of each nuclide is then obtained from an equation involving the alpha disintegrations, the sampling time, and the known numerical coefficients. The state of radioactive disequilibrium is also inventigated. The atmosphere sampled in the TRIGA Mark-III reactor room was largely in disequilibrium. The extent of radioactive disequilibrium between radon daughter products seems likely depend on sampling times associated with turbulence conditions. The data obtained here will certainly provide useful information on the evaluation of internal exposure and calibration of effluent monitoring instruments. (author)

  18. Background Atmospheric Levels of Aldehydes, BTEX and PM10 Pollutants in a Medium-Sized City of Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovino, P.; Salvestrini, S.; Capasso, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background atmospheric levels of aldehydes, BTEX and PM10 pollutants were measured in the suburb of Caserta (Italy), 75 thousands inhabitants, 41 0 04' N, on rainless weekdays and weekends during 2005. On weekdays the average daily concentrations (μg m -3 ) were 41.6 PM10, 8.6 benzene, 25.2 toluene, 6.3 ethylbenzene, 14.0 (m+p)-xylene, 11.7 o-xylene, 6.5 formaldehyde, 3.3 acetaldehyde. All the pollutant concentrations were strictly correlated (mean correlation coefficients = 0.90). At weekends the concentrations were lower by about 1.6 times. Both on weekdays and at weekends the PM10 and benzene levels exceeded the limits set by the EU Directive 30/1999 and 69/2000, respectively

  19. A physical explanation of the lognormality of pollutant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Investigators in different environmental fields have reported that the concentrations of various measured substances have frequency distributions that are lognormal, or nearly so. That is, when the logarithms of the observed concentrations are plotted as a frequency distribution, the resulting distribution is approximately normal, or Gaussian, over much of the observed range. Examples include radionuclides in soil, pollutants in ambient air, indoor air quality, trace metals in streams, metals in biological tissue, calcium in human remains. The ubiquity of the lognormal distribution in environmental processes is surprising and has not been adequately explained, since common processes in nature (for example, computation of the mean and the analysis of error) usually give rise to distributions that are normal rather than lognormal. This paper takes the first step toward explaining why lognormal distributions can arise naturally from certain physical processes that are analogous to those found in the environment. In this paper, these processes are treated mathematically, and the results are illustrated in a laboratory beaker experiment that is simulated on the computer

  20. Pb isotopic composition of the atmosphere of the Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and isotopic characterization of some pollutant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aily, C.; Babinski, M.; Ruiz, I.R.; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Lead isotopes are known to be good tools for surveying lead origin in atmospheric samples (Chow et al., 1975). Lead has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb and 204 Pb. The first three isotopes are end products of radioactive decay chains from 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, respectively, and the last one is non-radiogenic. Therefore, their abundance and the ratios among the four isotopes gradually change with time. Lead in the atmosphere comes from various sources, such as leaded gasoline, industrial emissions and coal combustion. Thus, lead isotope ratios different from those of the mother rock in the region are often observed in the atmosphere (Tatsumoto and Patterson, 1963). Lead is emitted to the atmosphere in fine particles, which can be transported within air masses for very long distances, e. g. from mid latitude regions to the Artic and Antarctica (Sturges and Barrie, 1989). Lead isotopes have been used to trace the pollutant sources in many cities of the world. However, a systematic study using this methodology has not been done in any Brazilian city. The main purpose of the present work is to characterize the Pb isotope composition in the atmosphere in Sao Paulo city, and suggest the possible pollutant sources. For our study lead isotopes were measured in different samples: aerosols and rainwater which would yield the Pb isotope composition of the atmosphere. Samples of gasoline and ethanol, gutter sweepings, soot from vehicle exhaust pipes, and filters containing particulate material from industrial emissions were also analyzed, since they were considered potential pollutant sources of the atmosphere. In order to obtain the local geogenic Pb isotopic composition we also analyzed rock and K-feldspar samples. Lead concentrations were only determined on aerosols and rainwater samples (au)

  1. Evaluation of satellites and remote sensors for atmospheric pollution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, J.; Eldridge, R.; Friedman, E.; Keitz, E.

    1976-01-01

    An approach to the development of a prioritized list of scientific goals in atmospheric research is provided. The results of the analysis are used to estimate the contribution of various spacecraft/remote sensor combinations for each of several important constituents of the stratosphere. The evaluation of the combinations includes both single-instrument and multiple-instrument payloads. Attention was turned to the physical and chemical features of the atmosphere as well as the performance capability of a number of atmospheric remote sensors. In addition, various orbit considerations were reviewed along with detailed information on stratospheric aerosols and the impact of spacecraft environment on the operation of the sensors.

  2. Ozone and atmospheric pollution at synoptic scale: the monitoring network Paes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheusi, F.; Chevalier, A.; Delmas, R.; Athier, G.; Bouchou, P.; Cousin, J.M.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.; Ancellet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone as an environmental concern extends beyond the questions usually covered by media - stratospheric ozone depletion and urban pollution peaks. Strong expositions to this pollutant are frequent even far from pollution sources, and the background tropospheric content of ozone has been growing fivefold over the last century. In response to this concern at the French national scale, formerly independent monitoring stations have been coordinated since 2004 in a structured network: Paes (French acronym for atmospheric pollution at synoptic scale). The data are put in free access online. (authors)

  3. Significant atmospheric aerosol pollution caused by world food cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to it s sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  4. Significant Atmospheric Aerosol Pollution Caused by World Food Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Miller, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter is a major concern for public health, causing cancer and cardiopulmonary mortality. Therefore, governments in most industrialized countries monitor and set limits for particulate matter. To assist policy makers, it is important to connect the chemical composition and severity of particulate pollution to its sources. Here we show how agricultural practices, livestock production, and the use of nitrogen fertilizers impact near-surface air quality. In many densely populated areas, aerosols formed from gases that are released by fertilizer application and animal husbandry dominate over the combined contributions from all other anthropogenic pollution. Here we test reduction scenarios of combustion-based and agricultural emissions that could lower air pollution. For a future scenario, we find opposite trends, decreasing nitrate aerosol formation near the surface while total tropospheric loads increase. This suggests that food production could be increased to match the growing global population without sacrificing air quality if combustion emission is decreased.

  5. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.P.; Dews, J.; Harris, F.C. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D.J. [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  6. The effects of atmospheric pollutants upon standstone: evidence from real time measurements and analysis of decay features on historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D P; Dews, J; Harris, F C [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Construction, Engineering and Technology; Mitchell, D J [Wolverhampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Applied Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Due to the urbanisation and industrialisation of the West Midlands, UK, historic sandstone buildings are exposed to atmospheric pollution. In order to assess the impact of this pollution upon their deterioration, chemical analysis of runoff water, from sandstone and control surfaces, has been carried out. The amount of stone affected by atmospheric pollution has been quantified by surveying selected sandstone buildings. (author)

  7. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury

  8. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiron, M.; Quenel, Ph.; Zmirou, D.

    1997-01-01

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  9. Loading Concentrations of Pollutant in Alur Ilmu at UKM Bangi Campus: Event Mean Concentration (EMC) Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslinur Md Din; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mazlin Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    Water pollutant loadings and river discharge are among the basic data used in determining the dynamicity of a river. The input of water quality and river discharge are usually available through the collection of water samples in the field or at the observatory, and are done automatically using the data logger sensor. This paper discusses the concentrations pollutant load water quality and its relationship with discharge (m 3 / s) using Event Mean Concentration (EMC) in the Alur Ilmu, UKM source from the Diptrokarp forest at Hutan Simpan Bangi (2 degree 55' 1 4.72 N 101 degree 46' 5 7.37 E). Alur Ilmu is a 1.79 km long stretching across the main campus of National University of Malaysia before flowing into the Langat River. Water quality was measured using automatic gauging and continuous water quality stations which are installed at downstream of Alur Ilmu (2 degree 55 ' 40.33 N 100 degree 46 ' 47.15 E) and involves in measuring the parameters of total dissolved solid (TDS) and dissolved oxygen (DO). Laboratory analysis carried out for chemical parameters such as ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total suspended solid (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in accordance with guidelines American Public Health Association (APHA, 1995). The normal discharge rate recorded at Alur Ilmu is 0.33 m 3 / s and the wet discharge is 13.04 m 3 / s.The total estimated pollutant loadings according to EMC as DO (18.51±3.01 mg/ L), TDS (794.92±186.72 mg/ L), BOD (11.57±0.28 mg/ L), COD (201.29±1.55 mg/ l), TSS (470.03±27.63 mg/ L) and Ammonia Nitrogen (2.52±0.0 mg/ L). Correlation test showed a direct relationship between rainfall and flow (Q) and several pollutant loadings with R 2 =1 at a significance level of 0.05. The study also classified some of the pollutants concentrations in class III and IV as determined by the Water Quality Index (WQI). (author)

  10. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution – Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition (13C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ13C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ13C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  11. Complex Physiological Response of Norway Spruce to Atmospheric Pollution - Decreased Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Unchanged Tree Biomass Increment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čada, Vojtěch; Šantrůčková, Hana; Šantrůček, Jiří; Kubištová, Lenka; Seedre, Meelis; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution critically affects forest ecosystems around the world by directly impacting the assimilation apparatus of trees and indirectly by altering soil conditions, which subsequently also leads to changes in carbon cycling. To evaluate the extent of the physiological effect of moderate level sulfate and reactive nitrogen acidic deposition, we performed a retrospective dendrochronological analysis of several physiological parameters derived from periodic measurements of carbon stable isotope composition ((13)C discrimination, intercellular CO2 concentration and intrinsic water use efficiency) and annual diameter increments (tree biomass increment, its inter-annual variability and correlation with temperature, cloud cover, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index). The analysis was performed in two mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands of the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, central Europe), where moderate levels of pollution peaked in the 1970s and 1980s and no evident impact on tree growth or link to mortality has been reported. The significant influence of pollution on trees was expressed most sensitively by a 1.88‰ reduction of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C). The effects of atmospheric pollution interacted with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. As a result, we observed no change in intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), an abrupt increase in water use efficiency (iWUE) and no change in biomass increment, which could also partly result from changes in carbon partitioning (e.g., from below- to above-ground). The biomass increment was significantly related to Δ(13)C on an individual tree level, but the relationship was lost during the pollution period. We suggest that this was caused by a shift from the dominant influence of the photosynthetic rate to stomatal conductance on Δ(13)C during the pollution period. Using biomass increment-climate correlation analyses, we did not identify any clear pollution

  12. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  13. PIXE analysis: an option for the study of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, U.F.

    1989-01-01

    Several techniques have been utilized in studying atmospheric contamination samples. However, each lack some characteristics required for these studies. Spectroscopy of X-rays particularly where excitation models are produced using charged particles (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE), for its high sensitivity, is the one that best fitting itself to the scheme of analysis required. In this paper we report some qualitative results of the atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Mexico City. (Author)

  14. Contribution to the modeling of atmospheric pollution in cities; Contribution a la modelisation de la pollution atmospherique dans les villes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glockmer, St.

    2000-07-01

    Pollution generated by urban traffic and by industry at its periphery is a serious problem of our cities. Once emitted in the atmosphere, pollutants undergo two types of constraints: on one side they react chemically one with another and, on the other side, they are transported by the wind. We have chosen to work on the dynamical, thermal and chemical aspects of the pollution at different scales of the phenomena: local scale (around a group of buildings) and meso-scale (a whole city). Our ambition is not to realize a complete model but to advance step by step on each aspect. We have contributed to the realization of a numerical tool that will be completed and used for concrete pollution episodes. The first chapter is a description of the atmospheric boundary layer. Chapters two and three present models and results of numerical simulations. We stress on k-{epsilon}, RNG and v{sup 2}-f turbulence models, radiative heat transfer models and dynamical and thermal wall laws that allow to take in consideration surface roughness. The last chapter is dedicated to atmospheric chemistry. We have moreover developed a general solver of any number of transport equations coupled by a stiff chemistry and simplified ozone kinetics. (author)

  15. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations promote ant tending of aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Jenni M M; Nooten, Sabine S; Cook, James M; Ryalls, James M W; Barton, Craig V M; Johnson, Scott N

    2018-04-27

    Animal mutualisms, which involve beneficial interactions between individuals of different species, are common in nature. Insect-insect mutualism, for example, is widely regarded as a keystone ecological interaction. Some mutualisms are anticipated to be modified by climate change, but the focus has largely been on plant-microbe and plant-animal mutualisms rather than those between animals. Ant-aphid mutualisms, whereby ants tend aphids to harvest their honeydew excretions and, in return, provide protection for the aphids, are widespread. The mutualism is heavily influenced by the quality and quantity of honeydew produced by aphids, which is directly affected by host plant quality. As predicted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO 2 ) are widely reported to affect plant nutritional chemistry, this may also alter honeydew quality and hence the nature of ant-aphid mutualisms. Using glasshouse chambers and field-based open-top chambers, we determined the effect of eCO 2 on the growth and nutritional quality (foliar amino acids) of lucerne (Medicago sativa). We determined how cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora) populations and honeydew production were impacted when feeding on such plants and how this affected the tending behaviour of ants (Iridomyrmex sp.). eCO 2 stimulated plant growth but decreased concentrations of foliar amino acids by 29% and 14% on aphid-infested plants and aphid-free plants, respectively. Despite the deterioration in host plant quality under eCO 2 , aphids maintained performance and populations were unchanged by eCO 2 . Aphids induced higher concentrations of amino acids (glutamine, asparagine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid) important for endosymbiont-mediated synthesis of essential amino acids. Aphids feeding under eCO 2 also produced over three times more honeydew than aphids feeding under ambient CO 2 , suggesting they were imbibing more phloem sap at eCO 2 . The frequency of ant tending of aphids more than doubled in

  16. A joint prevention and control mechanism for air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in china based on long-term and massive data mining of pollutant concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Laijun

    2018-02-01

    China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region suffers from the country's worst air pollution. The problem has caused widespread concern both at home and abroad. Based on long-term and massive data mining of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration, we found that these pollutants showed similar variations in four seasons, but the most severe pollution was in winter. Through cluster analysis of the winter daily average concentration (DAC) of the two pollutants, we defined regions with similar variations in pollutant concentrations in winter. For the most polluted cities in BTH, the relationship between correlation coefficients for winter DAC and the distance between cities revealed that PM2.5 has regional, large-scale characteristics, with concentrated outbreaks, whereas PM10 has local, small-scale characteristics, with outbreaks at multiple locations. By selecting the key cities with the strongest linear relationship between the pollutant's DAC of each city and the daily individual air quality index values of the BTH region and through cluster analysis on the correlations between the pollutant DACs of the key cities, we defined regional divisions suitable for Joint Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (JPCAP) program to control PM2.5 and PM10. Comprehensively considering the degree of influence of regional atmospheric pollution control (RAPC) on air quality in BTH, as well as the elasticity and urgency of RAPC, we defined the control grades of the JPCAP regions. We found both the regions and corresponding control grades were consistent for PM2.5 and PM10. The thinking and methods of atmospheric pollution control we proposed will have broad significance for implementation of RAPC in other regions around the world.

  17. [The application of the multidimensional statistical methods in the evaluation of the influence of atmospheric pollution on the population's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, V D; Surzhikov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The search and measurement of causal relationships between exposure to air pollution and health state of the population is based on the system analysis and risk assessment to improve the quality of research. With this purpose there is applied the modern statistical analysis with the use of criteria of independence, principal component analysis and discriminate function analysis. As a result of analysis out of all atmospheric pollutants there were separated four main components: for diseases of the circulatory system main principal component is implied with concentrations of suspended solids, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen fluoride, for the respiratory diseases the main c principal component is closely associated with suspended solids, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, charcoal black. The discriminant function was shown to be used as a measure of the level of air pollution.

  18. Atmospheric mercury pollution around a chlor-alkali plant in Flix (NE Spain): an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrí, José M; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Díez, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    An integrated analysis approach has been applied to a mercury (Hg) case study on a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River basin, close to the town of Flix (NE Spain). The study focused on atmospheric Hg and its incorporation in soils and lichens close to a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (CAP), which has been operating since the end of the 19th century. Atmospheric Hg present in the area was characterized by means of seven total gaseous mercury (TGM) surveys carried out from 2007 to 2012. Surveys were carried out by car, walking, and at fixed locations, and covered an area of some 12 km(2) (including the CAP area, the village in which workers live, Flix town, and the Sebes Wildlife Reserve). Finally, an atmospheric Hg dispersion model was developed with ISC-AERMOD software validated by a lichen survey of the area. The results for the atmospheric compartment seem to indicate that the Flix area currently has the highest levels of Hg pollution in Spain on the basis of the extremely high average concentrations in the vicinity of the CAP (229 ng m(-3)). Moreover, the Hg(0) plume affects Flix town center to some extent, with values well above the international thresholds for residential areas. Wet and dry Hg deposition reached its highest values on the banks of the Ebro River, and this contributes to increased soil contamination (range 44-12,900 ng g(-1), average 775 ng g(-1)). A good fit was obtained between anomalous areas indicated by lichens and the dispersion model for 1 year.

  19. Soil acidification by atmospheric pollution and forest growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengt Jonsson

    1976-01-01

    In recent years concern has been expressed about the danger of harmful pollution deposits which affect areas at great distances from the emission sources. The investigation was so designed that a possible reaction in growth resulting from a supposed acidification could be observed as far as possible. A poorer growth development was observed in regions, which are...

  20. Severe Pollution in China Amplified by Atmospheric Moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tie, Xuexi; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Chang, Di; Poeschl, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Dusek, Uli; Li, Guohui; Worsnop, Douglas R.; O'Dowd, Colin D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in

  1. Short-Term Impact of Atmospheric Pollution on Fecundability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slama, R.; Bottagisi, S.; Solanský, I.; Lepeule, J.; Giorgis-Allemand, L.; Šrám, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2013), s. 871-879 ISSN 1044-3983 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : particulate air-pollution * postneonatal infant-mortality * fertility Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 6.178, year: 2013

  2. ATMOSPHERE POLLUTION AT STORAGE OF SLAGS OF ALUMINIUM SECONDARY PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Panasyugin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic probability of the processes of the formation of compounds of aluminum (which release in the environment by hydrolysis ammonia, acetylene, propane and hydrogen sulfide is determined. In the article the economic loss from irrecoverable waste of aluminum and fines for emissions of air pollutants is estimated.

  3. Atmospheric conditions during high ragweed pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Srnec, Lidija; Peternel, Renata; Madžarević, Valentina; Hrga, Ivana; Stjepanović, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    We examined the atmospheric conditions favourable to the occurrence of maximum concentrations of ragweed pollen with an extremely high risk of producing allergy. Over the 2002-2009 period, daily pollen data collected in Zagreb were used to identify two periods of high pollen concentration (> 600 grains/m3) for our analysis: period A (3-4 September 2002) and period B (6-7 September 2003). Synoptic conditions in both periods were very similar: Croatia was under the influence of a lower sector high pressure system moving slowly eastward over Eastern Europe. During the 2002-2009 period, this type of weather pattern (on ~ 70% of days), in conjunction with almost non-gradient surface pressure conditions in the area (on ~ 30% of days) characterised days when the daily pollen concentrations were higher than 400 grains/m3. Numerical experiments using a mesoscale model at fine resolution showed successful multi-day simulations reproducing the local topographic influence on wind flow and in reasonable agreement with available observations. According to the model, the relatively weak synoptic flow (predominantly from the eastern direction) allowed local thermal circulations to develop over Zagreb during both high pollen episodes. Two-hour pollen concentrations and 48-h back-trajectories indicated that regional-range transport of pollen grains from the central Pannonian Plain was the cause of the high pollen concentrations during period A. During period B, the north-westward regional-range transport in Zagreb was supplemented significantly by pronounced horizontal recirculation of pollen grains. This recirculation happened within the diurnal local circulation over the city, causing a late-evening increase in pollen concentration.

  4. Impact of two chemistry mechanisms fully coupled with mesoscale model on the atmospheric pollutants distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, J.; Cautenet, S.; Taghavi, M.; Audiffren, N.

    Air quality models (AQM) consist of many modules (meteorology, emission, chemistry, deposition), and in some conditions such as: vicinity of clouds or aerosols plumes, complex local circulations (mountains, sea breezes), fully coupled models (online method) are necessary. In order to study the impact of lumped chemical mechanisms in AQM simulations, we examine the ability of both different chemical mechanisms: (i) simplified: Condensed Version of the MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique 2.2 (CV-MOCA2.2), and (ii) reference: Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Model (RACM), which are coupled online with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling Systems (RAMS) model, on the distribution of pollutants. During the ESCOMPTE experiment (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution et de Transport d'Emissions) conducted over Southern France (including urban and industrial zones), Intensive observation periods (IOP) characterized by various meteorological and mixed chemical conditions are simulated. For both configurations of modeling, numerical results are compared with surface measurements (75 stations) for primary (NO x) and secondary (O 3) species. We point out the impact of the two different chemical mechanisms on the production of species involved in the oxidizing capacity such as ozone and radicals within urban and industrial areas. We highlight that both chemical mechanisms produce very similar results for the main pollutants (NO x and O 3) in three-dimensional (3D) distribution, despite large discrepancies in 0D modeling. For ozone concentration, we found sometimes small differences (5-10 ppb) between the mechanisms under study according to the cases (polluted or not). The relative difference between the two mechanisms over the whole domain is only -7% for ozone from CV-MOCA 2.2 versus RACM. When the order of magnitude is needed rather than an accurate estimate, a reduced mechanism is satisfactory. It has the advantage of running faster (four times less than CPU

  5. Spectral solar irradiance and some optical properties for various polluted atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacovides, Constantinos P.; Asimakopoulos, Demosthenis N.; Steven, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Using ground-based spectroradiometric measurements taken over the Athens atmosphere during May 1995, the influence of gaseous pollutants and aerosol on the spectral radiant energy distribution was investigated. It was found that spectral measurements exhibited variations based on various polluted urban atmospheric conditions as determined via gaseous pollutants record analysis. The relative attenuations cause by gaseous pollutants and aerosol can exceed 27%, 17% and 16% in the global ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared portions of the solar spectrum respectively, as compared to 'background' values. In contrast, an enhancement of the near-infrared diffuse component by 66%, was observed, while in visible and ultraviolet bands the relative increases reached 54% and 21% respectively. Experimental total Rayleigh-corrected and spectral aerosol optical depths were retrieved, representing differences in polluted air over the Athens atmosphere. The diffuse component accounts for more than 80% of the total radiation field under high polluted atmosphere. The observed differences of solar radiation between the Athens center and at a nearby suburban site are a manifestation of contrasting air properties provided mainly by automotive traffic. (Author)

  6. Atmospheric concentrations of 7Be and 210Pb in Granada, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azahra, M.; Gonzalez-Gomez, C.; Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Granada; Lopez-Penalver, J.J.; Camacho-Garcia, M.A.; El Bardouni, T.; Boukhal, H.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosols samples in near-surface air of Granada (Spain) were collected on a weekly basis. The seasonal 210 Pb and 7 Be concentrations were determined during the five-year period, from October 1993 to September 1997. The elements, despite their different origin and their different distribution throughout the atmosphere, present the same seasonal variation. There was a tendency for a maximum during the summer season and a minimum during fall and/or winter. Concentration of 7 Be and 210 Pb and meteorological data have been used in order to determine the periods of the potential radioactive pollution. Deposition of 7 Be occurs primarily by precipitation except during the investigation periods where precipitation was scarce and irregular. (author)

  7. Geostatistical integration and uncertainty in pollutant concentration surface under preferential sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grisotto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the focus is on environmental statistics, with the aim of estimating the concentration surface and related uncertainty of an air pollutant. We used air quality data recorded by a network of monitoring stations within a Bayesian framework to overcome difficulties in accounting for prediction uncertainty and to integrate information provided by deterministic models based on emissions meteorology and chemico-physical characteristics of the atmosphere. Several authors have proposed such integration, but all the proposed approaches rely on representativeness and completeness of existing air pollution monitoring networks. We considered the situation in which the spatial process of interest and the sampling locations are not independent. This is known in the literature as the preferential sampling problem, which if ignored in the analysis, can bias geostatistical inferences. We developed a Bayesian geostatistical model to account for preferential sampling with the main interest in statistical integration and uncertainty. We used PM10 data arising from the air quality network of the Environmental Protection Agency of Lombardy Region (Italy and numerical outputs from the deterministic model. We specified an inhomogeneous Poisson process for the sampling locations intensities and a shared spatial random component model for the dependence between the spatial location of monitors and the pollution surface. We found greater predicted standard deviation differences in areas not properly covered by the air quality network. In conclusion, in this context inferences on prediction uncertainty may be misleading when geostatistical modelling does not take into account preferential sampling.

  8. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1998-01-01

    The document presents an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon, with an analysis of sources of pollution, their impact on local and global environment and their control.Local causes of pollution are mainly: -Thermal power plants of electric power production which produce 75% SO 2 emission and 60% dust - Industries, especially cement industry - Land transportation which produces 70% NOX emission and 50% CO 2 A description of air pollution caused by these three sectors is revealed. Pollutants derived from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, Co 2 emission will reach 5204450 tons, SO 2 emission will be 136470 tons, NOX emissions 96870 and dust estimated to 4130 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal Protocol are described. Recommendations for control of air pollution in Lebanon within a national policy are presented

  9. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sénéchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  10. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  11. Intermediate range atmospheric transport and technology assessments: nuclear pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwer, P.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models have been used to assess potential impacts of radioactivity releases during all phases of our country's development of nuclear power. Experience to date has shown that in terms of potential dose to man, the most significant releases of radioactivity from nuclear fuel cycle facilities are those to the atmosphere. Our ability to predict atmospheric dispersion will, therefore, ultimately affect our capability to understand and assess the significance of both routine and accidental discharges of radionuclides. Assessment of potential radiological exposures from postulated routine and accidental releases of radionuclides from the fast-breeder reactor will require the use of atmospheric dispersion models, and the design, siting, and licensing of breeder reactor fuel cycle facilities will be influenced by the predictions made by these models

  12. Characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Young; Jo, Wan-Kuen; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-09-01

    Although analysis of long-term data is necessary to obtain reliable information on characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution, it has rarely been performed. Therefore, a long-term evaluation of atmospheric visibility in characteristically different Korean cities, as well as a remote island, during 2001 to 2009, was performed in this study. In general, visibility decreased in the studied areas during the 9-yr study period. In addition, all areas displayed a distinct seasonal trend, with high visibility in the cold season relative to the warm season. Weekday visibility, however, did not significantly differ from weekend visibility. Similarly, the number of days per year for both low (19 km) fluctuated during the study period. Busan (a coastal city) exhibited the highest visibility, with an overall average of 17.6 km, followed by Daegu (a basin city), Ulsan (with concentrated petrochemical industries), Ullungdo (a remote island), and Seoul (the capital of Korea). Visibility was found to be significantly correlated with target air pollutants, except for ozone, for all metropolitan cities, whereas it was significantly correlated only with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone on the remote island (Ullungdo). Among the metropolitan cities, Seoul exhibited the lowest visibility for both the PM10 standard exceedance and non-exceedance days, followed by Ulsan, Daegu, and Busan. The results of this study can be used to establish effective strategies for improving urban visibility and air quality. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentration Based on an Extreme Learning Machine: The Case of Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiangshe; Ding, Weifu

    2017-01-01

    With the development of the economy and society all over the world, most metropolitan cities are experiencing elevated concentrations of ground-level air pollutants. It is urgent to predict and evaluate the concentration of air pollutants for some local environmental or health agencies. Feed-forward artificial neural networks have been widely used in the prediction of air pollutants concentration. However, there are some drawbacks, such as the low convergence rate and the local minimum. The e...

  14. Source apportionment of atmospheric mercury pollution in China using the GEOS-Chem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yanxu; Nielsen, Chris; McElroy, Michael B; Hao, Jiming

    2014-07-01

    China is the largest atmospheric mercury (Hg) emitter in the world. Its Hg emissions and environmental impacts need to be evaluated. In this study, China's Hg emission inventory is updated to 2007 and applied in the GEOS-Chem model to simulate the Hg concentrations and depositions in China. Results indicate that simulations agree well with observed background Hg concentrations. The anthropogenic sources contributed 35-50% of THg concentration and 50-70% of total deposition in polluted regions. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impacts of mercury emissions from power plants, non-ferrous metal smelters and cement plants. It is found that power plants are the most important emission sources in the North China, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) while the contribution of non-ferrous metal smelters is most significant in the Southwest China. The impacts of cement plants are significant in the YRD, PRD and Central China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative effects of atmospheric pollution and cigarette smoking on carboxyhaemoglobin levels in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P.V.

    1975-06-26

    The effects of atmospheric pollution and cigarette smoking on carboxyhemoglobin levels in man were investigated in subjects living on the Island of Sark and in two areas of the City of London. The average concentration of CO on Sark is 1 ppM. A total of 78 non-smoking subjects have a mean COHb of 0.68 percent with a range of 0.2-2.6 percent. In a hospital outpatient department in the City of London (where smoking is forbidden) the ambient CO concentrations range between 2-4 ppM. The mean COHb level in 120 non-smokers is 0.97 percent with a range of 0.2-2.5 percent. In an adjacent office where smoking is permitted, the ambient concentration is slightly higher, 3-8 ppM CO. The COHb levels in 100 office workers (non-smokers) are slightly higher, a mean of 1.12 percent with a range of 0.1-2.7 percent. The mean COHb of smokers is 5.5 percent with a range of 2.2-13.0 percent.

  16. Studies of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutant using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Appendix 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shaojin

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol and rainwater samples collected in the different Western Pacific areas were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation and proton induced x-ray emission to (1) determine the atmospheric concentrations of trace elements over the Western Pacific and (2) to estimate the atmospheric deposition of trace elements and dust-soil material to this region. High abundance of pollutant and crustal elements relative to oceanic sources was observed. Some characteristics of marine atmosphere relating to long-range transport of crustal and anthropogenic elements from continent to the remote ocean are discussed. The total dust-soil particle mass is estimated to be 0.066-1.2 μg/m 3 over the Western Pacific Ocean areas. Atmospheric inputs of dust-soil particles control the marine particle concentrations of crustal elements. A total of 99 atmospheric samples with the 'Gent' filter unit were collected during October 1993 and September 1994 at a western suburb of Beijing, China (40 deg. N,116 deg. E), and completed the analysis of these filters by both INAA and PIXE. (author)

  17. Modelling atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants in the Northern Hemisphere with a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.

    2004-03-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The α-isomer of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is used as tracer in the model development. The structure of the model and processes included are described in detail. The results from a model simulation showing the atmospheric transport for the years 1991 to 1998 are presented and evaluated against measurements. The annual averaged atmospheric concentration of α-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model; however, the shorter-term average concentration for most of the stations is not well captured. This indicates that the present simple surface description needs to be refined to get a better description of the air-surface exchange proceses of POPs.

  18. Determination of atmospheric concentrations of xenon radioisotopes. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, K.H.; Panisko, M.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Bowyer, T.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    Determination of radioactive xenon concentrations in the atmosphere over a two year period has been performed as part of a research program to develop real-time measurement capabilities. The initial measurements were made to develop, prove, and validate the authors technical approach, while the longer-term measurements are being undertaken to establish natural background concentrations and variability with time. The results reported were made using noble gas fraction (typically 90% Kr and 10% Xe by weight) gas samples obtained from a commercial air-reduction plant in the northeastern US over a two-year interval beginning in the fall of 1993. The concentrated gas samples were typically obtained during a 6--8 hour interval at the commercial reduction plant and were shipped overnight to their laboratory. Analysis was typically completed approximately 24 hours after sampling. The analytical separation process typically took approximately 6 hours and gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were conducted for intervals ranging from 3 to 16 hours. The technical approach involved removal of potentially interfering radon daughter radionuclides using a molecular sieve at room temperature, followed by cryogenic concentration of noble gases using a chilled (-76 C) activated carbon molecular sieve. During initial measurements both molecular sieve materials were contained in 30 foot x 1/4 inch gas chromatography columns for analytical separations. Krypton was separated from Xenon during the analytical procedure by warming the activated carbon molecular sieve to room temperature after initial noble gas concentration and actively pumping it away. Xenon-133 adsorbed to the activated charcoal molecular sieve was then quantified via its 81 keV gamma-ray using initially a p-type intrinsic germanium detector and later a higher efficiency (64% relative to a 3 inch x 3 inch sodium iodide) n-type intrinsic germanium detector

  19. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-12-01

    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  20. Atmospheric ions and pollution. Ions of the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, A.

    1977-01-01

    The principal historical steps before the so-called 'cosmic radiation' was known as an extra-terrestrial radiation are described. The origin, nature and energy of the radiation are discussed together with its evolution all along its path through atmosphere, in view of the interaction that occurs between the radiation and the atmosphere. The mechanism of the ionization induced by cosmic radiation is analyzed, the corresponding energy balance is established and the possible singularities in air ionization induced by cosmic rays are discussed [fr

  1. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  2. Comparing early twentieth century and present-day atmospheric pollution in SW France: A story of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnan, Y.; Séjalon-Delmas, N.; Probst, A.

    2013-01-01

    Lichens have long been known to be good indicators of air quality and atmospheric deposition. Xanthoria parietina was selected to investigate past (sourced from a herbarium) and present-day trace metal pollution in four sites from South-West France (close to Albi). Enrichment factors, relationships between elements and hierarchical classification indicated that the atmosphere was mainly impacted by coal combustion (as shown by As, Pb or Cd contamination) during the early twentieth century, whereas more recently, another mixture of pollutants (e.g. Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) from local factories and car traffic has emerged. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other lithogenic elements indicated a higher dust content in the atmosphere in the early twentieth century and a specific lithological local signature. In addition to long-range atmospheric transport, local urban emissions had a strong impact on trace element contamination registered in lichens, particularly for contemporary data. - Highlights: ► We compared metal concentrations registered in contemporary and early 1900's lichens. ► In the past, As, Pb and Cd were enriched due to coal combustion. ► Nowadays, a new mixture of enriched contaminants (Sb, Sn, Pb and Cu) was evidenced. ► REE originated from local bedrock and proved an increased dust deposition in the past. ► Lichens recorded both local and long-range atmospheric contamination. - Using lichens registration, past (As, Pb, Cd) and recent (Sb, Sn, Cu) atmospheric pollution from local and long-range transport, as well as dust deposition, was evidenced in SW France.

  3. The risks of premature mortality related to atmospheric pollution. Comparison with those related to tobacco and those related to radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Whereas atmospheric pollution is now recognized as one of the most important cause of mortality in the world, this report first notices that these pollutants have mainly an anthropogenic origin. In a first part, the author presents the main harmful atmospheric pollutants, and briefly discusses their origin and their impact on health: carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, ammonia, nitrogen oxides, persistent organic pollutants, volatile organic compounds, ozone, tars, soot or particles, heavy metals. In a second part, the author discusses the assessment of hazards related to atmospheric pollution, and more particularly the assessment of premature morbidity due to different pollutants according to different organisations and programs. He also discusses health impacts on a short and on a long term, notably in terms of exposure in big cities. In a third part, based on measurements of emissions of primary pollutant, notably primary particles, the author tries to identify the most dangerous sources of atmospheric pollutions

  4. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Liu, Q.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-10-01

    The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution-weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

  5. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L −1 (mean of 45 ng · L −1 ), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L −1 for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L −1 for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains of the Iberian

  6. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.pombal@usc.es [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  7. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 12: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Twelve papers dealing with the meteorological aspects of air pollution were translated. These papers were initially presented at an international symposium held in Leningrad during July 1968. The papers are: Status and prospective development of meteorological studies of atmospheric pollution, Effect of the stability of the atmosphere on the…

  8. Tracking of atmospheric release of pollution using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2013), s. 425-436 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013018 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Data assimilation * Atmospheric dispersion model * Sequential Monte Carlo * Sensor positioning Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 3.062, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/smidl-0385368.pdf

  9. Ozone Atmospheric Pollution and Alzheimer's Disease: From Epidemiological Facts to Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Marine L; Zimmer, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is a well-known environmental hazard, especially in developing countries where millions of people are exposed to airborne pollutant levels above safety standards. Accordingly, several epidemiological and animal studies confirmed its role in respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies and identified a strong link between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality. More recently, the potential deleterious effect of air pollution inhalation on the central nervous system was also investigated and mounting evidence supports a link between air pollution exposure and neurodegenerative pathologies, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). The focus of this review is to highlight the possible link between ozone air pollution exposure and AD incidence. This review's approach will go from observational and epidemiological facts to the proposal of molecular mechanisms. First, epidemiological and postmortem human study data concerning residents of ozone-severely polluted megacities will be presented and discussed. Then, the more particular role of ozone air pollution in AD pathology will be described and evidenced by toxicological studies in rat or mouse with ozone pollution exposure only. The experimental paradigms used to reproduce in rodent the human exposure to ozone air pollution will be described. Finally, current insights into the molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation can affect the brain and play a role in AD development or progression will be recapitulated.

  10. Study on the total amount control of atmospheric pollutant based on GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Guo, Xi-Kun

    2005-08-01

    To provide effective environmental management for total amount control of atmospheric pollutants. An atmospheric diffusion model of sulfur dioxide on the surface of the earth was established and tested in Shantou of Guangdong Province on the basis of an overall assessment of regional natural environment, social economic state of development, pollution sources and atmospheric environmental quality. Compared with actual monitoring results in a studied region, simulation values fell within the range of two times of error and were evenly distributed in the two sides of the monitored values. Predicted with the largest emission model method, the largest emission of sulfur dioxide would be 54,279.792 tons per year in 2010. The mathematical model established and revised on the basis of GIS is more rational and suitable for the regional characteristics of total amount control of air pollutants.

  11. Transboundary radioactive and chemical pollution simulation using an atmospheric/marine predicting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telenta, B.; Antic, D.

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric models can be used to simulate the transport of contaminants in typical accidental cases and for realistic meteorological conditions. Some numerical models for weather forecast can be used for near to real simulations of propagation of radioactive nuclides or classical chemical pollutants to the atmosphere. The various meteorological parameters are taken into account and various meteorological conditions, even complex ones, can be analyzed. The models can be used for very well assessment of the airborne pollution from energy sources and industrial installations, for comparative studies and for safety analysis. This report describes an proposal for a project of the transboundary pollution simulation, that can be used for the East Mediterranean Region. The project is based on the numerical models developed in the in simulating of the Chernobyl accident and similar hypothetical cases. The study is based on an atmospheric models developed in Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Insular Coastal Dynamics (ICoD), Foundation for International Studies, Valeta, Malta

  12. Long-term trend and variability of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, A.; Ghermandi, G.

    2014-05-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a data set of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and background sites (either urban, suburban or rural). Of these 41 sites, 18 with 10 yr or longer record have been analysed for long-term trend in deseasonalized monthly means, in annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution. A widespread significant decreasing trend has been observed at most sites, up to a few percent per year, by a generalized least squares and Theil-Sen method. All 41 sites have been tested for significant weekly periodicity by Kruskal-Wallis test for mean anomalies and by Wilcoxon test for weekend effect magnitude. A significant weekly periodicity has been observed for most PM10 series, particularly in summer and ascribed mainly to anthropic particulate emissions. A cluster analysis has been applied in order to highlight stations sharing similar pollution conditions over the reference period. Five clusters have been found, two encompassing the metropolitan areas of Turin and Milan and their respective nearby sites and the other three clusters gathering northeast, northwest and central Po Valley sites respectively. Finally, the observed trends in atmospheric PM10 have been compared to trends in provincial emissions of particulates and PM precursors, and analysed along with data on vehicular fleet age, composition and fuel sales. A significant basin-wide drop in emissions occurred for gaseous pollutants, contrarily to emissions of PM10 and PM2.5, whose drop was low and restricted to a few provinces. It is not clear whether the decrease for only gaseous emissions is sufficient to explain the

  13. Increased serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants among prediabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Kristine Villum; Højlund, Kurt; Vind, Birgitte Falbe

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the potential role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.......There is a need for a better understanding of the potential role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes....

  14. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a powerful measure to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. Planetary-scale interventions of that kind are often portrayed as "last-resort strategies", which need to weigh in if humankind keeps on enhancing the climate-system stock of CO2. Yet even if CDR could restore atmospheric CO2 to substantially lower concentrations, would it really qualify to undo the critical impacts of past emissions? In the study presented here, we employed an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) to investigate how CDR might erase the emissions legacy in the marine environment, focusing on pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Against a background of a world following the RCP8.5 emissions path ("business-as-usual") for centuries, we simulated the effects of two massive CDR interventions with CO2 extraction rates of 5 GtC yr-1 and 25 GtC yr-1, respectively, starting in 2250. We found that the 5 GtC yr-1 scheme would have only minor ameliorative influence on the oceans, even after several centuries of application. By way of contrast, the extreme 25 GtC yr-1 scheme eventually leads to tangible improvements. However, even with such an aggressive measure, past CO2 emissions leave a substantial legacy in the marine environment within the simulated period (i.e., until 2700). In summary, our study demonstrates that anthropogenic alterations of the oceans, caused by continued business-as-usual emissions, may not be reversed on a multi-centennial time scale by the most aspirational geoengineering measures. We also found that a transition from the RCP8.5 state to the state of a strong mitigation scenario (RCP2.6) is not possible, even under the assumption of extreme extraction rates (25 GtC yr-1). This is explicitly demonstrated by simulating additional scenarios, starting CDR already in 2150 and operating until the atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 280 ppm and 180 ppm, respectively. The simulated

  15. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojaervi, Paeivi; Parmanne, Raimo; Verta, Matti; Hallikainen, Anja; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2008-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring

  16. Calculations of color and visibility in urban atmospheres polluted by gaseous NO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodkinson, J.R.

    1966-01-01

    Calculations are made of the optical effects of persistent gaseous NO/sub 2/ pollution at 0.2-2 ppm in a city atmosphere in both the presence and absence of a polluting aerosol which does not absorb light or NO/sub 2/. It is concluded that the coloring of the horizon sky and of distant white objects would resemble whiskey, tea or cola-drinks, and the visual range would be markedly reduced. 2 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. The chemistry of the global atmosphere; International Symposium of the Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution of IAMAP, 7th, Chamrousse, France, Sept. 5-11, 1990, Selected Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buat-Menard, P. (Editor); Delmas, R. J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Topics presented include the adsorption and reaction of trichlorofluoromethane on various particles, equilibria of the marine multiphase ammonia system, a novel ozone sensor for direct eddy flux measurements, and characterization of the carbonate content of atmospheric aerosols. Also presented are variations in heavy metals concentrations in Antarctic snows, sources of continental dust over Antarctica during the last glacial cycle, an inventory of anthropogenic emissions and air pollution in the USSR, and atmospheric nuclei in the remote free-troposphere.

  18. Effects of ascorbate feeding on chlorophyll fluorescence and xanthophyll cycle components in the lichen Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vainio exposed to atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, A.; Deltoro, V.I.; Barreno, E. [Univ. de Valencia, Inst. `Cavanilles` de Biodiversitat y Biologia Evolutiva, Burjassot (Spain); Abadia, A. [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei, CSIC, Dept. of Plant Nutrition, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    The effects of environmental stresses on photosynthetic responses, ascorbate levels and pigment composition were investigated in samples of Parmelia quercina (Willd.) Vainio from control and polluted regions of the northern Castellon area (Valencia, Spain). In response to sustained pollutant stress in the field, lichen thalli has closed PSII traps and exhibited lower rates of electron transport and non-radiative energy dissipation. The xanthophyll concentration was not affected by exposure to atmospheric pollutants. The ascorbate concentration was lower in samples exposed to ambient air pollutants compared to control thalli. Ascorbate feeding of thalli from polluted sites stimulated electron flow, photochemical quenching and non-raditive energy dissipation. Additionally, ascorbate feeding enhances the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll pool in polluted thalli. The partial recovery for non-radiative energy dissipation was presumabley due to the interaction between the increased thylakoid pH gradient and de-epoxidized xanthophylls. Furhtermore, ascorbate feeding descreased photon excess in thalli from polluted sites owing to the stimulation of linear electron flow and non-radiative energy dissipation. The present study suggests that atmospheric pollutants besides their intrinsic toxicity, put on an additional burden by hampering the operation of photoprotective mechanisms. (au)

  19. Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants: Asbestos - The Need For and Feasibility of Air Pollution Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 1971 report sets forth in a well-organized fashion the currently available information on asbestos as an air pollutant, with special attention to sources health effects, measurements, and feasibility of control.

  20. Gas sampling method for determining pollutant concentrations in the flame zone of two swirl-can combustor modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A gas sampling probe and traversing mechanism were developed to obtain detailed measurements of gaseous pollutant concentrations in the primary and mixing regions of combustors in order to better understand how pollutants are formed. The gas sampling probe was actuated by a three-degree-of-freedom traversing mechanism and the samples obtained were analyzed by an on-line gas analysis system. The pollutants in the flame zone of two different swirl-can combustor modules were measured at an inlet-air temperature of 590 K, pressure of 6 atmospheres, and reference velocities of 23 and 30 meters per second at a fuel-air ratio of 0.02. Typical results show large spatial gradients in the gaseous pollutant concentration close to the swirl-can module. Average concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide decrease rapidly in the downstream wake regions of each module. By careful and detailed probing, the effect of various module design features on pollutant formation can be assessed. The techniques presently developed seem adequate to obtain the desired information.

  1. Silica nanoparticles capture atmospheric lead: implications in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xifei; Shen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Bing; Yang, Jianping; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in the air is a severe global problem, most notably in China. Removal of Pb from polluted air remains a significant challenge. It is unclear what potential effects silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) exposure can have on atmospheric Pb. Here we first characterized the features of SiNPs by measuring the particle size, zeta potential and the specific surface area of SiO(2) particles using a Nicomp 380/ZLS submicron particle sizer, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). We measured the content of the metal Pb adsorbed by SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is found that SiNPs exposed to two Pb polluted electric battery plants absorb more atmospheric Pb compared to either blank control or micro-sized SiO(2) particles in a time-dependent manner. This is the first study demonstrating that SiNPs exposure can absorb atmospheric Pb in the polluted environment. These novel findings indicate that SiNPs have potential to serve as a significant adsorbent of Pb from industrial pollution, implicating a potentially novel application of SiNPs in the treatment of environmental heavy metal pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction of health effects of cross-border atmospheric pollutants using an aerosol forecast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kazunari; Sekiyama, Tsuyoshi Thomas; Nojima, Masanori; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Fujitani, Yusuke; Otani, Shinji; Maki, Takashi; Shinoda, Masato; Kurozawa, Youichi; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2018-08-01

    Health effects of cross-border air pollutants and Asian dust are of significant concern in Japan. Currently, models predicting the arrival of aerosols have not investigated the association between arrival predictions and health effects. We investigated the association between subjective health symptoms and unreleased aerosol data from the Model of Aerosol Species in the Global Atmosphere (MASINGAR) acquired from the Japan Meteorological Agency, with the objective of ascertaining if these data could be applied to predicting health effects. Subjective symptom scores were collected via self-administered questionnaires and, along with modeled surface aerosol concentration data, were used to conduct a risk evaluation using generalized estimating equations between October and November 2011. Altogether, 29 individuals provided 1670 responses. Spearman's correlation coefficients were determined for the relationship between the proportion of the participants reporting the maximum score of two or more for each symptom and the surface concentrations for each considered aerosol species calculated using MASINGAR; the coefficients showed significant intermediate correlations between surface sulfate aerosol concentration and respiratory, throat, and fever symptoms (R = 0.557, 0.454, and 0.470, respectively; p < 0.01). In the general estimation equation (logit link) analyses, a significant linear association of surface sulfate aerosol concentration, with an endpoint determined by reported respiratory symptom scores of two or more, was observed (P trend = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] of the highest quartile [Q4] vs. the lowest [Q1] = 5.31, 95% CI = 2.18 to 12.96), with adjustment for potential confounding. The surface sulfate aerosol concentration was also associated with throat and fever symptoms. In conclusion, our findings suggest that modeled data are potentially useful for predicting health risks of cross-border aerosol arrivals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Is Distant Pollution Contaminating Local Air? Analyzing the Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin of aerosols in the atmosphere is important because of visual pollution, climate impacts, and deleterious health effects due to the inhalation of fine particles. This research analyzed aerosols characterized by their chloride, sulfate, and nitrate content as a function of size over a 3-month period. Due to wind patterns over coal-burning power plants, a higher concentration of local sulfate pollution was expected. Aerosols were harvested on the Purdue University campus using a high-volume air sampler with glass fiber filters and a five-stage impactor that separates the aerosols into five sizes. The filters were extracted in water to dissolve anions and the solution was analyzed using high-pressure liquid ion chromatography. Only trace amounts of chloride with no distinct patterns in size were detected. In total, nitrate content ranged from 0.12 to 2.10 μg/m3 and sulfate content ranged from 0.44 to 6.45 μg/m3 over a 3-month period. As for fine particles, a higher concentration of sulfate was observed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model determines air mass origin, and in this study, higher total sulfate content was observed when the air mass moved out of the southwest, and higher total nitrate content was observed when the air mass originated from the southeast. The author concluded that small particles resulted in sulfate from sulfur dioxide, typically from gas to particle conversion. High sulfur dioxide levels are directly correlated with coal-burning power plant density. Small particulate sulfate found in West Lafayette, Indiana, was determined to originate primarily from power plants in southwest Indiana. Though the results do show a significant amount of potentially harmful aerosols in West Lafayette, there is still further research to be done concerning isotopic composition of those particles in attempts to better explain the chemical pathways.

  4. HARAD, Decay Isotope Concentration from Atmospheric Noble-Gas Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: HARAD calculates concentrations of radioactive daughters in air following the atmospheric release of a parent radionuclide for a variety of release heights and meteorological conditions. It can be applied most profitably to the assessment of doses to man from the noble gases such as Rn-222, Rn-220, and Xe and Kr isotopes. These gases can produce significant quantities of short-lived particulate daughters in an airborne plume, which are the major contributors to dose. The simultaneous processes of radioactive decay, buildup and environmental loss due to wet and dry deposition on ground surfaces are calculated for a daughter chain in an airborne plume as it is dispersed downwind from a point of release of a parent. 2 - Method of solution: The code evaluates the analytic solution to the set of coupled first order differential equations describing time variation of the concentration of a chain of radionuclides. The analytic solutions assume that the coefficient describing the fractional rate of dry deposition is constant with time. To account for the variation the time coordinate is automatically divided into intervals and a set of average values are used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The maximum length of decay chain is 10 nuclides; calculations can be made at a maximum of 24 downwind distances

  5. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  6. Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walna, Barbara; Kurzyca, Iwona; Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2013-07-01

    A 2-year study (2010-2011) of fluorides in atmospheric precipitation in the open area and in throughfall in Wielkopolski National Park (west-central Poland) showed their high concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 2 mg/l under the tree crowns. These high values indicate substantial deposition of up to 52 mg/m(2)/year. In 2011, over 51% of open area precipitation was characterized by fluoride concentration higher than 0.10 mg/l, and in throughfall such concentrations were found in more than 86% of events. In 2010, a strong connection was evident between fluoride and acid-forming ions, and in 2011, a correlation between phosphate and nitrite ions was seen. Analysis of available data on F(-) concentrations in the air did not show an unequivocal effect on F(-) concentrations in precipitation. To find reasons for and source areas of high fluoride pollution, the cases of extreme fluoride concentration in rainwater were related to atmospheric circulation and weather patterns. Weather conditions on days of extreme pollution were determined by movement of weather fronts over western Poland, or by small cyclonic centers with meteorological fronts. Macroscale air advection over the sampling site originated in the western quadrant (NW, W, and SW), particularly in the middle layers of the troposphere (2,500-5,000 m a.s.l.). Such directions indicate western Poland and Germany as possible sources of the pollution. At the same time in the lower troposphere, air inflow was frequently from the north, showing short distance transport from local emitters, and from the agglomeration of Poznań.

  7. Atmospheric BTEX concentrations in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery of the Baltic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrėnas, Pranas; Baltrėnaitė, Edita; Serevičienė, Vaida; Pereira, Paulo

    2011-11-01

    Among chemical industries, petroleum refineries have been identified as large emitters of a wide variety of pollutants. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) form an important group of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because of their role in the troposphere chemistry and the risk posed to human health. A very large crude oil refinery of the Baltic States (200,000 bbl/day) is situated in the northern, rural part of Lithuania, 10 km from the town of Mažeikiai (Lithuania). The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine of atmospheric levels of BTEX in the region rural and urban parts at the vicinity of the crude oil refinery; and (2) to investigate the effect of meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, humidity) on the concentrations measured. The averaged concentration of benzene varied from 2.12 ppbv in the rural areas to 2.75 ppbv in the urban areas where the traffic was determined to be a dominant source of BTEX emissions. Our study showed that concentration of benzene, as strictly regulated air pollutant by EU Directive 2008/50/EC, did not exceed the limit of 5 ppbv in the region in the vicinity of the crude oil refinery during the investigated period. No significant change in air quality in the vicinity of the oil refinery was discovered, however, an impact of the industry on the background air quality was detected. The T/B ratio (0.50-0.81) that was much lower than 2.0, identified other sources of pollution than traffic.

  8. Study on Relationship between Seasonal Temperatures and Municipal Wastewater Pollutant Concentration and Removal Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temperatures, pollutant concentrations and other indicators of municipal wastewater influent and effluent were tested for 7 months in 6 constructed wetland microcosms; the hydraulic retention time is 2 days. The results indicated that for both influent and effluent, there was a highly significant negative correlation (P<0.01 between the temperature and the pollutant concentrations, there was a significant difference (P<0.05 between seasonal temperatures, and the pollutant concentrations in summer and autumn were significantly different from those in winter (P<0.05. Furthermore, a regression analysis of pollutant concentration (y based on changes in water temperature (x in different seasons was performed. The analysis revealed that the relationship has the form ‘y = a -bx + cx2’, that under certain circumstances, pollutant concentrations can be calculated based on the temperature, and that the concentrations of NH4-N, Total Phosphorus (TP and Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP had a significantly negative correlation with their removal rate (P < 0.01. However, seasonal temperature clearly did not have a direct impact on the pollutant concentration, and some studies have indicated that the different manners in which urban residents use water as the temperature changes may be the real reason that the pollutant concentrations of municipal wastewater vary with seasonal temperature. Furthermore, when designing and operating constructed wetlands, the impact of the changes in pollutant concentrations generated by seasonal temperature should be fully considered, dilution and other means should be taken to ensure purification.

  9. Atmospheric pollution and the prevalence of asthma: study among schoolchildren of 2 areas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José Luiz Magalhães; Boechat, José Laerte; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2004-06-01

    Air pollutants have been associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. They may intensify the inflammatory allergic response and airways reactivity to inhaled allergens. However, it is still not clear if air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of asthma. To investigate if different levels of air pollution exposure can be related to differences in the prevalence of asthma. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol was used to determine and compare the prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in 2 cities of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Duque de Caxias (DC) and Seropédica (SR), which have different levels of atmospheric pollution. The research involved 4,064 students aged 13 to 14 years from 49 schools in DC and 1,129 from 17 schools in SR. Air pollution was evaluated by the concentration of inhalable particulate matter (PM10). ISAAC's written questionnaire was answered by 4,040 students aged 13 to 14 years in DC and 1,080 in SR. Between 1998 and 2000, the PM10 annual arithmetic mean was 124 microg/m3 in DC and 35 microg/m3 in SR (acceptable level is up to 50 microg/m3). The prevalence of wheezing ever was 35.1% in DC and 29.9% in SR (P = .001), and the prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months was 19.0% in DC and 15.0% in SR (P = .002). In DC, 14.5% of the adolescents presented 1 to 3 crises of wheezing in the last year, whereas in SR only 11.0% presented 1 to 3 crises (P = .003). In this study, the prevalence of asthma in adolescents was directly related to atmospheric pollution.

  10. An effective chaos-geometric computational approach to analysis and prediction of evolutionary dynamics of the environmental systems: Atmospheric pollution dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyadzhi, V. V.; Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Bunyakova, Yu Ya; Florko, T. A.; Agayar, E. V.; Solyanikova, E. P.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper concerns the results of computational studying dynamics of the atmospheric pollutants (dioxide of nitrogen, sulphur etc) concentrations in an atmosphere of the industrial cities (Odessa) by using the dynamical systems and chaos theory methods. A chaotic behaviour in the nitrogen dioxide and sulphurous anhydride concentration time series at several sites of the Odessa city is numerically investigated. As usually, to reconstruct the corresponding attractor, the time delay and embedding dimension are needed. The former is determined by the methods of autocorrelation function and average mutual information, and the latter is calculated by means of a correlation dimension method and algorithm of false nearest neighbours. Further, the Lyapunov’s exponents spectrum, Kaplan-Yorke dimension and Kolmogorov entropy are computed. It has been found an existence of a low-D chaos in the time series of the atmospheric pollutants concentrations.

  11. Low-technology monitoring of atmospheric metal pollution in central Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, F A; Lloyd, O L

    1984-01-01

    In epidemiological studies covering relationships of disease patterns and patterns of atmospheric pollution, conventional filtering equipment is normally used for monitoring the pollution. For various reasons, however, this type of approach often results in levels of pollution being obtained for only a few sites within an extensive fieldwork area. Hence, alternative monitoring techniques, which allow a high density of sampling sites in an area, have been of interest to an increasing number of investigators. The monitors used, known as low-technology monitors, fall into two main categories; indigenous; and transplants. In the authors surveys of atmospheric metal pollutants in industrial communities in Scotland, the indigenous sample materials have included: Hypnum cupressiforme, Lecanora conizaeoides, Agropyron repens and surface soils. In their transplant surveys a variety of different low-technology samplers have been deployed, the most frequently used being: spherical and flat moss bags, Hypogymnia physodes, Tak (synthetic fabric), and total deposition collectors. The data obtained from the various surveys have been plotted on a variety of types of computer map to minimize any systematic bias resulting from the use of a single technique. The pollution patterns found in one particular town were partly unexpected, in view of the dominant wind direction in the locality concerned. Hence it was decided to carry out a wind tunnel experiment to investigate the situation further. The wind tunnel experiment produced results which were consistent with the patterns of pollution derived from the metal surveys, and revealed that the meteorological dispersal of the pollution was unexpectedly influenced by local topography.

  12. Applications of Ground-based Mobile Atmospheric Monitoring: Real-time Characterization of Source Emissions and Ambient Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. Douglas

    Gas and particle phase atmospheric pollution are known to impact human and environmental health as well as contribute to climate forcing. While many atmospheric pollutants are regulated or controlled in the developed world uncertainty still remains regarding the impacts from under characterized emission sources, the interaction of anthropogenic and naturally occurring pollution, and the chemical and physical evolution of emissions in the atmosphere, among many other uncertainties. Because of the complexity of atmospheric pollution many types of monitoring have been implemented in the past, but none are capable of perfectly characterizing the atmosphere and each monitoring type has known benefits and disadvantages. Ground-based mobile monitoring with fast-response in-situ instrumentation has been used in the past for a number of applications that fill data gaps not possible with other types of atmospheric monitoring. In this work, ground-based mobile monitoring was implemented to quantify emissions from under characterized emission sources using both moving and portable applications, and used in a novel way for the characterization of ambient concentrations. In the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania two mobile platforms were used to estimate emission rates from infrastructure associated with the production and transmission of natural gas using two unique methods. One campaign investigated emissions of aerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) from natural gas wells, well development practices, and compressor stations using tracer release ratio methods and a developed fenceline tracer release correction factor. Another campaign investigated emissions of methane from Marcellus Shale gas wells and infrastructure associated with two large national transmission pipelines using the "Point Source Gaussian" method described in the EPA OTM-33a. During both campaigns ambient concentrations

  13. Historical reconstruction of atmospheric lead pollution in central Yunnan province, southwest China: an analysis based on lacustrine sedimentary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Li, Kai; Nath, Bibhash; Li, Yanling; Shen, Ji

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric lead (Pb) pollution during the last century in central Yunnan province, one of the largest non-ferrous metal production centers in China, was reconstructed using sediment cores collected from Fuxian and Qingshui Lakes. Lead concentrations and isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were measured in sediment cores from both lakes. The operationally defined chemical fractions of Pb in sediment core from Fuxian Lake were determined by the optimized BCR procedure. The chronology of the cores was reconstructed using (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating methods. Similar three-phase variations in isotopic ratios and enrichment factors of Pb were observed in the sediment cores from both lakes. Before the 1950s, the sediment data showed low (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios and enrichment factors (EFs=~1), indicating that the sedimentary Pb was predominantly of lithogenic origin. However, these indices were increased gradually between the 1950s and the mid-1980s, implying an atmospheric Pb deposition. The EFs and isotopic ratios of Pb reached their peak during recent years, indicating aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution. The average anthropogenic Pb fluxes since the mid-1980s were estimated to be 0.032 and 0.053 g m(-2) year(-1) recorded in Fuxian and Qingshui cores, respectively. The anthropogenic Pb was primarily concentrated in the reducible fraction. Combining the results of Pb isotopic compositions and chemical speciations in the sediment cores and in potential sources, we deduced that recent aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution in central Yunnan province should primarily be attributed to regional emissions from non-ferrous metal production industries.

  14. Characterization of the atmospheric pollution level in Sfax (Tunisia): influence of sources and meteorological factors; Caracterisation du niveau de pollution atmospherique dans la ville de Sfax (Tunisie): influence des sources et des facteurs meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, Ch.; Maalej, A.; Medhioub, K. [Ecole Nationale d' ingenieurs de Sfax, Unite de Recherche Etude et Gestion des Environnements Cotiers et Urbains (Tunisia); Tlili, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Dept. de Geologie (Tunisia)

    2002-01-01

    This study held in Sfax City (Tunisia), showed that the atmospheric pollution level is strongly influenced by industrial sources, obstacles and meteorological factors. The factory of phosphate treatment 'SIAPE' displayed the main polluting source in the City. It is the principal issuing of SO{sub x} and toxic metals. The phosphogypsum deposit displayed an obstacle to the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants. Their stagnation is accentuated under smoky conditions. Several episodes of SO{sub 2} and dust are attributed to the effect of marked thermal inversions and the sirocco wind. The limited influence of traffic was proved by the registration of NO{sub x}, which showed low concentrations. It is conditioned by the change of fashion life of people and their customs of work (Ramadan month, agricultural activities). As a result, the adequate treatment of atmospheric industrial emanations (notably those of SIAPE) and the evacuation of artificial obstacles have to be considered. (authors)

  15. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  16. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  17. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Modeling of atmospheric pollution at the regional scale: application to the Esquif campaign; Modelisation a l'echelle regionale de la pollution atmospherique: application a la campagne Esquif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrat, C

    2003-06-01

    The Esquif experimental campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France (Paris region, France)) took place between 1998 and 2000 with the aim of better understanding the dynamical and chemical processes leading to atmospheric pollution peaks in Paris. The construction of a rich and diversified database (12 periods of intensive monitoring (PIM)) has been implemented with the aim of improving the existing chemical-transport models in general and air quality forecasting models in particular. In the framework of this study, the data collected during PIM 2 and 6 were used for the validation and analysis of situations of intensive pollution, simulated with the meso-scale numerical meteorological and chemical model Meso-NHC. The validation of both the dynamic fields (temperature and potential temperature, wind, height of the boundary layer) and the chemical fields (mainly O{sub 3}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, PAN, isoprene) of the model allows to discuss some of the parameters of the model such as the initialization, the boundary forcing and the resolution. Then, a study of the dynamical processes allows to analyze the formation and reinforcement of the pollution conditions. Stress is put on the interaction of the regional scale processes with the photochemical pollution events. In this framework, the dynamical-chemical interaction processes are analyzed in detail, in particular when pollution levels are reinforced by the intrusion of residual ozone inside the convective boundary layer, dragged by the turbulence. Also, the impact of the urban hot island and of the urban wind on the redistribution of primary and secondary pollutants are considered. An analysis of the impact of hydrocarbons of biogenic origin on the ozone concentrations with respect to the temperature and to the presence of primary compounds has been performed for the PIM 2 and 6 of the Esquif campaign. (J.S.)

  19. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian

    2016-09-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  20. Atmospheric concentration of 210Pb in East Asia and its contribution to Japanese islands by long-range transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Taeko; Sato, Shin; Sato, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric 210 Pb is a long-lived progeny of 222 Rn generated from the earth's crust and exists as adsorbed onto the surface of aerosol particles. The distribution of atmospheric 210 Pb in East Asia reflects (1) the concentration levels in continental and maritime air masses and (2) the spatial extent of the continental air mass. This paper reviews the previously observed results on seasonal variation of 210 Pb concentration at several sites of Japan, Korea and China to evaluate the contribution of continental to Japanese atmosphere, and the specific activity of 210 Pb in the main components of aerosol samples and discusses from the view point of the Japanese islands. The authors conclude that aerosols from continental East Asia in winter contain more soil particles with low specific radioactivity of 210 Pb than the aerosols in Japan and that the natural radionuclide is extremely useful tracer for researches on meteorological phenomena and global transfer of environmental pollution. (S. Ohno)

  1. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  2. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  3. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  4. Extent and effects of atmospheric pollution on soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, S

    1972-01-01

    Man's activities take place mainly in a thin layer of air near the ground, and both direct and indirect emissions into the air give rise to local, regional or even global distribution of man-made products. Radioactive substances, insecticides, hydrocarbons, heavy metals and exhaust products from industries and urban areas are thus emitted into the atmosphere and they may be distributed all over the Globe. This widespread distribution is now a well-known fact for some compounds such as radioactive isotopes, chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT) and lead. For other substances the distribution pattern is more local - or seems to be more local due to lack of information. In the long run, however, all emissions will be globally distributed.

  5. Application of spherical fly-ash particles to study spatial deposition of atmospheric pollutants in northen-eastern Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.

    2000-01-01

    Spherical fly-ash particles, emitted to the atmosphere in the high-temperature combustion process of fossil fuels, were found in considerable amounts in analysed snow samples of north-eastern Estonia. Spatial deposition of particles in snow cover is compared with the results of surface sediment samples of lakes. The results from snow characterise well the distribution of pollution sources and the distance from the main power plants in north eastern Estonia. Variations in particle deposition of closely situated snow samples were found to be negligible. Fly-ash particle influxes in snow samples correlate well with modelled maximum concentration fields of flyash in the near-surface air layer. (author)

  6. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed. - Epiphytic lichen diversity differs increasingly between healthy and dead or dying conifers with increasing atmospheric pollutant load

  7. Essentials of multiangle data-processing methodology for smoke polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; A. Petkov; Cyle Wold; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao

    2011-01-01

    Essentials for investigating smoke plume characteristics with scanning lidar are discussed. Particularly, we outline basic principles for determining dynamics, heights, and optical properties of smoke plumes and layers in wildfire-polluted atmospheres. Both simulated and experimental data obtained in vicinities of wildfires with a two-wavelength scanning lidar are...

  8. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in

  9. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in

  10. Atmospheric pollution and human reproduction: Report on the Munich International Workshop

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slama, R.; Darrow, L.; Parker, J.; Woodruff, T.J.; Strickland, M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Glinianaia, S.; Hoggatt, J.; Kannan, S.; Hurley, K.; Kalinka, J.; Šrám, Radim; Brauer, M.; Wilhelm, M.; Heinrich, J.; Ritz, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 6 (2008), s. 791-798 ISSN 0091-6765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Atmospheric pollution * Birth weight * Exposure assessment Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 6.123, year: 2008

  11. Atmospheric mercury deposition and its contribution of the regional atmospheric transport to mercury pollution at a national forest nature reserve, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Wang, Dingyong; Du, Hongxia; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Zheng; Wei, Shiqing

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition by wet and dry processes contributes to the transformation of mercury from atmosphere to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Factors influencing the amount of mercury deposited to subtropical forests were identified in this study. Throughfall and open field precipitation samples were collected in 2012 and 2013 using precipitation collectors from forest sites located across Mt. Jinyun in southwest China. Samples were collected approximately every 2 weeks and analyzed for total (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg). Forest canopy was the primary factor on THg and MeHg deposition. Simultaneously, continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were carried out from March 2012 to February 2013 at the summit of Mt. Jinyun. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 3.8 ± 1.5 ng m(-3), which was elevated compared with global background values. Sources identification indicated that both regional industrial emissions and long-range transport of Hg from central, northeast, and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM levels. Precipitation deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Jinyun were slightly higher than those reported in Europe and North America, whereas total fluxes of MeHg and THg under forest canopy on Mt. Jiuyun were 3 and 2.9 times of the fluxes of THg in wet deposition in the open. Highly elevated litterfall deposition fluxes suggest that even in remote forest areas of China, deposition of atmospheric Hg(0) via uptake by vegetation leaf may be a major pathway for the deposition of atmospheric Hg. The result illustrates that areas with greater atmospheric pollution can be expected to have greater fluxes of Hg to soils via throughfall and litterfall.

  12. Evaluation of environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burneikis, J.; Shtreimikiene, D.

    1996-01-01

    Methods to evaluate the environmental damage due to atmospheric pollution caused by power economy are presented. The products of burning fossil fuel (CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x and ashes) make the bulk of the pollutants that are being discharged into the atmosphere. To evaluate the damage caused by these pollutants an empirical method is suggested. The direct and analytical methods are used as a basis in collecting data for the empirical evaluation. All the three methods are described and empirical formulas suggested for calculating environmental damage due to burning fossil fuel in thermal power stations. The authors prove the necessity to change the present system of environmental taxes in Lithuania, which are purely symbolic. (author). 8 refs., 9 tabs

  13. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Lin, Jintai; Peters, Glen P.; Li, Meng; Geng, Guannan; Zheng, Bo; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Haikun; Davis, Steven J.; He, Kebin

    2017-09-01

    Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2.5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths) of China's PM2.5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths) China's PM2.5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total) and 145 100 (14 %) premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  14. Influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the atmospheric persistent organic pollutants observed at near sources and receptor site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs are bio-accumulative, toxic, and susceptible to long-range transport (LRT). This study is the first that comprehensively discusses the long-range atmospheric transport behavior of these five groups of POPs. The main goal is to investigate the atmospheric characteristics of these POPs at the biomass burning sites of Chiang Mai in Thailand, and Da Nang in Vietnam, as well as the influence of the Southeast Asian biomass burnings on the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in Taiwan. Biomass burning in Southeast Asia is usually carried to remove the residues of agricultural activities. The ambient air in Da Nang seems to be more seriously affected by the local biomass burnings than that in Chiang Mai. The elevated atmospheric brominated POP (PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs) concentrations in Da Nang were attributed to the biomass burning and viewed as mostly unrelated to the local use of brominated flame retardants. In the spring of 2010, the mean atmospheric concentrations in LABS during the first and second Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) were 0.00428 and 0.00232 pg I-TEQ Nm-3 for PCDD/Fs, 0.000311 and 0.000282 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 for PCBs, 0.000379 and 0.000449 pg TEQ Nm-3 for total PBDD/Fs, 0.0208 and 0.0163 pg Nm-3 for total PBBs, and 109 and 18.2 pg Nm-3 for total PBDEs, respectively. These values represent the above concentrations due to the Southeast Asian biomass burnings. The affected atmospheric POP concentrations at the LABS were still at least one order lower than those in other atmospheric environments, except for the PBDE concentrations during the first IOP (109 pg Nm-3), which was surprisingly higher than those in Taiwanese metal complex areas (93.9 pg Nm-3) and urban areas (34.7 pg Nm-3). Atmospheric POP concentrations do not seem to dramatically decrease during long-range transport, and the reasons for this need to be further investigated.

  15. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particle-bound mercury (PBM were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China, from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74, 10.1 ± 18.8 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m−3, respectively, about 2–20 times higher than the background concentration of the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in northern China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations, with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m−3 and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m−3. In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed, with peak levels in the late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the the temperature inversion that increases in depth as the night proceeds. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from the east and southwest of the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF model indicate that the atmospheric transport

  16. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-02-15

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the -5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. AMFIC Web Data Base - A Satellite System for the Monitoring and Forecasting of Atmospheric Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Symeonidis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the contribution of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution and Pollution Control Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace in the AMFIC-Air Monitoring and Forecasting In China European project. Within the framework of this project our laboratory in co-operation with DRAXIS company will create and manage a web satellite data base. This system will host atmospheric pollution satellite data for China and for the whole globe in general. Atmospheric pollution data with different spatial resolution such as O3 and NO2 total columns and measurements of other important trace gasses from GOME (ERS-2, SCIAMACHY (ENVISAT and OMI (EOS-AURA along with aerosol total load estimates from AATSR (ENVISAT will be brought to a common spatial and temporal resolution and become available to the scientific community in simple ascii files and maps format. Available will also be the results from the validation procedure of the satellite data with the use of ground-based observations and a set of high resolution maps and forecasts emerging from atmospheric pollution models. Data will be available for two geographical clusters. The one cluster includes the greater area of China and the other the whole globe. This integrated satellite system will be fully operational within the next two years and will also include a set of innovative tools that allow easy manipulation and analysis of the data. Automatic detection of features such as plumes and monitoring of their evolution, data covariance analysis enabling the detection of emission signatures of different sources, cluster analysis etc will be possible through those tools. The AMFIC satellite system shares a set of characteristics with its predecessor, AIRSAT. Here, we present some of these characteristics in order to bring out the contribution of such a system in atmospheric sciences.

  18. Concentrations, Deposition, and Effects of Nitrogenous Pollutants in Selected California Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+ from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3– resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95% of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3, drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems.

  19. [Pollution Level and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particles PM₂.₅ in Southwest Suburb of Chengdu in Spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Yang, Huai-jin; Zhang, Ju; Yin, Wei-wen; Li, Xiao-fen

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics of PM₂.₅ pollution in the atmosphere of Chengdu southwest suburb, PM₂.₅ particles in Chengdu southwest suburb were collected and analyzed from March 18 to March 31st, 2015. The results showed that the daily average concentration of PM₂.₅ in the southwest suburb of Chengdu reached 121.21 µg · m⁻³, and the average daily concentration of 24 samples in 31 PM₂.₅ samples was over 75 µg · m⁻³, the daily excessive rate was 77%, indicating the PM₂.₅ pollution in the study area was serious in March. When studying the relationship between atmospheric and meteorological factors, it was found that there was a significant index correlation between PM₂.₅ concentration and atmospheric visibility, and it had a positive correlation with temperature and humidity, but the correlation was not obvious. NH₄⁺ (16.24%), SO₄²- (12.58%) and NO₃⁻ (9.91%) were dominant in PM₂.₅ The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ was 0.77, which indicated that the pollution of stationary sources in the southwest suburb was more severe than that of mobile sources. Organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) ratios were higher than 2, which indicated the existence of second organic carbon (SOC). Using OC/EC ratio method to estimate the concentration of SOC, it was found that the average concentration of SOC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu in March was 3.49 µ · m⁻³, and the contribution rate of OC was 20.6%, which showed that the main source of OC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu was primary discharge. The correlation analysis of OC and EC showed that the correlation coefficient reached 0.95, indicating that the OC and EC sources were similar and relatively stable, and there was a great impact of local source emissions on Chengdu southwest suburb in spring, and primary discharge played a dominant role, while the contribution of SOC to OC was relatively small, which was consistent with the SOC characteristics obtained

  20. Relations between Scots pine needle element concentrations and decreased needle longevity along pollution gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamppu, Jukka; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Deceased needle longevity was related to increased heavy metal concentrations. - Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots were sampled along transects near one urban pollution source and two smelters. Needle Mg, P and K concentrations decreased from the second to the fourth age class linearly with needle survival along the urban pollution gradient. Still, over 80% of the average concentration of these nutrients remained in the fourth needle age class. Decreased needle longevity was closely related to the increased heavy metal concentrations near the smelters. Near the urban pollution source, it was related to the increased annual needle mass and the increased needle nutrient concentrations. Decreased Mn accumulation along with needle age was detected near all pollution sources. Leaching of Mn from needles and especially from soil as a cause of decreased needle concentrations is discussed

  1. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Elichegaray, Ch.

    2003-11-01

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  2. A four-layer model for calculating the dispersion and chemical conversion of pollutants in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    A four-layer model for the calculation of the propagation and chemical change of emitted pollutants in the ground level troposphere is presented. The following influences on the spreading of pollutants are considered: the height of the mixing layer, the orography, the horizontal and vertical advection, the horizontal and vertical diffusion, the diurnal variation of insolation, the source strength of the emissions of NO x , HC, SO 2 and CO. The knowledge of the wind field is an essential precondition for spreading calculations in the ground level troposphere. For the calculation of the wind field, a wind model is developed with the help of the variation calculation. The propagation and the chemical change of pollutants in the atmosphere in the Upper Rhine Graben are calculated for various atmospheric conditions and emission data. The influences of the wind power orography, the parametrization of the turbulent diffusion and the emission volume on the concentration of the photooxidants are studied in detail. (orig./KW) With 82 figs., 9 tabs [de

  3. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    2000-01-01

    The article is an overview on atmospheric pollution in Lebanon. It presents an analysis of sources of pollution in the country and their impacts on local and global environment and describes their control. Air pollution is mainly due to the industrial, electrical and transportation sectors. Pollutants from fuel combustion are analyzed. It is estimated that in 2010, CO 2 emissions will reach 5987250 tons, SO 2 emissions is estimated to be 182950 tons, Nox to 105180 and dusts to 4965 tons. CFC consumption and measures of control according to Montreal protocol are described. Consumption of primary energy, consumption of petroleum products, quantity of petroleum in refineries and production of cement in Lebanon are also presented in tables

  4. Natural gas and quality of fuels for the reduction of atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Occhio, L.; Andreetto, B.

    1998-01-01

    The production of atmospheric pollutants in combustion processes depends on plant characteristic, combustion conditions and fuel quality. The influence of fuel quality on the emission of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, dust and carbon dioxide and on the emission of some toxic pollutants, such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is analysed. The comparison between the emission limits, fixed by the Italian legislation, and the uncontrolled pollutant emissions, produced by fossil fuel combustion in power plants and industrial use, shows that, in order to comply with the limits, a reduction of pollutant emissions is required through the use of abatement systems and cleaner fuels where natural gas has a primary role. The use of cleaner fuels is particularly required in heating plants and appliances for the residential sector, where the development of new gas technologies further increases the environmental advantages of natural gas in comparison with other fuels [it

  5. Problematic of atmospheric pollution in Lebanon: the better stake is apprehended, the best acts are taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, Said

    1999-01-01

    Lebanon has imported in 1996 5000 Kt of carburants causing about 80 Kt of SO x ; 40 Kt of NO x ; 3 Kt of dusts and 3.5 million tons of CO 2 . The atmospheric pollution in Lebanon is due to three main sources: - Thermal central of electric production - Industries (cement) - Transportation sector The document describes in tables: the inventory of pollutants and pollutant emissions in 1993 and 2010; industrial and heating gas oil; liquified petroleum gas commercial propane; fuel oil for EDL; consumption of energy in 1996; sectorial distribution of pollutants PPM; emissions of CO 2 per tons per habitant in 1993; consumption in 1993 broken down by use and application. Finally, three projects concerning public transportation were presented

  6. First simultaneous space measurements of atmospheric pollutants in the boundary layer from IASI: A case study in the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynard, Anne; Safieddine, Sarah; Oudot, Charlotte; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Clerbaux, Cathy; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Pommier, Matthieu; Van Damme, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a severe pollution episode that occurred in Beijing, Tianjin, and the Hebei province in January 2013. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and a high-pressure system that trapped pollutants in the boundary layer. Using IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) satellite measurements, high concentrations of key trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and ammonia (NH 3 ) along with ammonium sulfate aerosol ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) are found. We show that IASI is able to detect boundary layer pollution in case of large negative thermal contrast combined with high levels of pollution. Our findings demonstrate that anthropogenic key pollutants, such as CO and SO 2 , can be monitored by IASI in the North China Plain during wintertime in support of air quality evaluation and management. (authors)

  7. Atmospheric fate of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs): I. Day–night patterns of air concentrations in summer in Zurich, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Claudia E.; Gerecke, Andreas C.; Bogdal, Christian; Wang, Zhanyun; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are anthropogenic pollutants ubiquitously found in the environment. Volatile PFASs are likely transported atmospherically over long ranges, but identification and quantification of emission sources is a challenging task. In this work, special meteorological conditions were utilized to quantify atmospheric emissions of Zurich City, Switzerland with a dual approach of modeling and field measurements. During high pressure systems in summer, a stable nocturnal boundary layer is formed in which pollutants are enriched. For volatile PFASs, a diel pattern of high concentrations in the night and low concentrations during the day was observed in Zurich, which is likely due to the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics. These results enable to model the emission source strength of Zurich City with a multimedia mass balance model in an accompanying paper. Cluster analyses suggested that perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) are a result of degradation of volatile precursors and direct emissions. - Highlights: ► Atmospheric PFAS concentrations in Zurich increase during the night. ► Diel concentration dynamics are likely due to stable nocturnal boundary layer. ► City is a source of PFASs to the atmosphere. ► 8:2 FTOH concentrations are high: up to 1200 pg/m 3 . ► PFAA concentrations are correlated with ozone, not particulate matter. - Semivolatile PFAS concentrations follow a diel trend in Zurich City in stable summer conditions likely due to atmospheric boundary layer effects and urban emissions.

  8. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aksoyoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %, the English Channel and the North Sea (30–35 %, while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %, where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3 due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to

  9. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  10. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  11. Ship-Based Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations over the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hoglind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a toxic pollutant emitted from both natural sources and through human activities. A global interest in atmospheric mercury has risen ever since the discovery of the Minamata disease in 1956. Properties of gaseous elemental mercury enable long range transport, which can cause pollution even in pristine environments. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was measured from winter 2016 to spring 2017 over the Baltic Sea. A Tekran 2357A mercury analyser was installed aboard the research and icebreaking vessel Oden for the purpose of continuous measurements of gaseous mercury in ambient air. Measurements were performed during a campaign along the Swedish east coast and in the Bothnian Bay near Lulea during the icebreaking season. Data was evaluated from Gothenburg using plotting software, and back trajectories for air masses were calculated. The GEM average of 1.36 ± 0.054 ng/m3 during winter and 1.29 ± 0.140 ng/m3 during spring was calculated as well as a total average of 1.36 ± 0.16 ng/m3. Back trajectories showed a possible correlation of anthropogenic sources elevating the mercury background level in some areas. There were also indications of depleted air, i.e., air with lower concentrations than average, being transported from the Arctic to northern Sweden, resulting in a drop in GEM levels.

  12. Is atmospheric pollution exposure during pregnancy associated with individual and contextual characteristics? A nationwide study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouidir, Marion; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frederik; Rivière, Emmanuel; Launay, Ludivine; Zaros, Cécile; Cheminat, Marie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Slama, Rémy

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants is a danger for the health of pregnant mother and children. Our objective was to identify individual (socioeconomic and behavioural) and contextual factors associated with atmospheric pollution pregnancy exposure at the nationwide level. Among 14 921 women from the French nationwide ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children) mother-child cohort recruited in 2011, outdoor exposure levels of PM 2.5 , PM 10 (particulate matter atmospheric pollutants with individual (maternal age, body mass index, parity, education level, relationship status, smoking status) and contextual (European Deprivation Index, urbanisation level) factors. Patterns of associations were globally similar across pollutants. For the CART approach, the highest tertile of exposure included mainly women not in a relationship living in urban and socially deprived areas, with lower education level. Linear regression models identified different determinants of atmospheric pollutants exposure according to the residential urbanisation level. In urban areas, atmospheric pollutants exposure increased with social deprivation, while in rural areas a U-shaped relationship was observed. We highlighted social inequalities in atmospheric pollutants exposure according to contextual characteristics such as urbanisation level and social deprivation and also according to individual characteristics such as education, being in a relationship and smoking status. In French urban areas, pregnant women from the most deprived neighbourhoods were those most exposed to health-threatening atmospheric pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Public Perceptions of How Long Air Pollution and Carbon Dioxide Remain in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Rachel; Morgan, M Granger; Bostrom, Ann; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2018-03-01

    The atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide is hundreds of years, many orders of magnitude longer than that of common air pollution, which is typically hours to a few days. However, randomly selected respondents in a mail survey in Allegheny County, PA (N = 119) and in a national survey conducted with MTurk (N = 1,013) judged the two to be identical (in decades), considerably overestimating the residence time of air pollution and drastically underestimating that of carbon dioxide. Moreover, while many respondents believed that action is needed today to avoid climate change (regardless of cause), roughly a quarter held the view that if climate change is real and serious, we will be able to stop it in the future when it happens, just as we did with common air pollution. In addition to assessing respondents' understanding of how long carbon dioxide and common air pollution stay in the atmosphere, we also explored the extent to which people correctly identified causes of climate change and how their beliefs affect support for action. With climate change at the forefront of politics and mainstream media, informing discussions of policy is increasingly important. Confusion about the causes and consequences of climate change, and especially about carbon dioxide's long atmospheric residence time, could have profound implications for sustained support of policies to achieve reductions in carbon dioxide emissions and other greenhouse gases. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Experiences with the Haertel-Truebungstest at diagnosing injuries to spruce caused by atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    The Haertel-Truebungstest is based on the observation that spruce needles secrete more wax at the stomata in areas affected by atmospheric pollution than in areas without. The increased secretion of wax is taken for a symptom of injury caused by atmospheric pollution. The wax is extracted in boiling water and, after cooling down, the turbidity of the extract is measured quantitatively in a photometer. Investigations on spruce in Saxony and Thuringia confirm the tendency to increasing turbidity towards the source of smoke. A considerable dispersion of turbidity values however impairs the results of this method, so that a great number of samples must be used in order to find out a trend. The dispersion of turbidity values in spruce forests that are not directly influenced by atmospheric pollution substantially exceeds the dispersion of the +/- 1% of the turbidity value that was found by Haertel. As was stated by Haertel and Papesch, the dispersion of individual turbidity values grows with increasing doses of SO/sub 2/. In Saxony the individual smoke emissions so densely cover one another, that there are scarcely any areas without air pollution and, probably, a relation exists between this continuous influence of smoke and SO/sub 2/ and the dispersion of turbidity values. It may be, however, that the environmental factors have also a certain influence, as, on vast areas of Saxony, spruce is growing on sites that are not its natural habitat.

  15. Comparison of indoor air pollutants concentration in two Romanian classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Vasilica; Dima, Alina; Zorila, Elena; Istrate, Andrei; Catalina, Tiberiu

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the air pollutions in space ventilated in two High School classrooms. The analysis consists of comparison of one classroom with hybrid ventilation system and another one stander-by classroom with natural ventilation. Several studies regarding indoor air quality during the experimental campaign have been done for VOC, CO2, CO, other pollutants, keeping monitored for humidity and temperature. The experimental demonstrated that the highest value for CO2 in stander-by classroom is 2691 ppm and in classroom with hybrid ventilation is 1897 ppm, while values for CO are 1.1 / 1.1 ppm and VOC 0.14 / 0.06 ppm, better use hybrid ventilation.

  16. The spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents during the period 2000-2005 in the Urban Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Hermes U Ramírez; García, María D Andrade; Bejaran, Rubén; Guadalupe, Mario E García; Vázquez, Antonio Wallo; Toledano, Ana C Pompa; Villasenor, Odila de la Torre

    2009-06-15

    In the large cities, the disordered urban development, the industrial activities, and the transport, have caused elevated concentrations of polluting agents and possible risks to the health of the population. The metropolises located in valleys with little ventilation (such as the Urban Area of Guadalajara: UAG) present low dispersion of polluting agents can cause high risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this work was to describe the spatial-temporal distribution of the atmospheric polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), particles smaller than 10 microns (microm) (PM(10)) and ozone (O(3)) in the UAG during the period 2000-2005. A spatial-temporal distribution analysis was made by means of graphic interpolation (Kriging method) of the statistical parameters of CO, NO(2), SO(2), PM(10) and O(3) with the collected data from eight stations of atmospheric monitoring in the UAG. The results show that the distributions of the atmospheric polluting agents are variable during the analyzed years. The polluting agent with highest concentration is PM(10) (265.42 microg/m(3)), followed by O(3) (0.11 ppm), NO(2) (0.11 ppm), CO (9.17 ppm) and SO(2) (0.05 ppm). The most affected zone is the southeast of the UAG. The results showed that an important percentage of days exceed the Mexican norms of air quality (93-199 days/year).

  17. Study of surface an atmospheric pollution in radioiodine from Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacios, M.; Cuetos Menendez, A.

    1999-01-01

    In hospitals environment, the radioactive iodine surface contamination is one of the most important incident from the point of view of radiation protection. Among this kind of incidents we can consider vomit or urine spillage from ''131 I therapy or spillage of liquids contaminated with ''125 I from RIA laboratories. We have studied the dynamic of the contamination flow from the contaminated surface to the indoor air, using total activity in the spill, indoor air renewal rate, and resuspension rate as parameters. We describe a method to estimate the resuspension rate, assuming that this parameter is usually unknown, and its results for the following cases: urine or water, on paper-covered or uncovered plastic surface. By using the experimental results, we have studied the indoor air contamination evolution with time, as a function of both initial activity, and indoor air renewal rate. The maximum value of indoor air contamination is not dependent on the initial activity value. The resuspension process is slower in the case of urine spillage that in watery leakage. The use of porous paper may establish the difference between keeping and indoor air contamination below derived air concentration limit (CDAC), or clearly above DAC for may days. The indoor air contamination dependence from the air renewal rate, shows the convenience of high air renewal rate in places where contamination from ''131 I therapy were possible, and how although this factor is not so critical, it should be taken into account in RIA laboratories. (Author) 6 refs

  18. Air pollution and associated human mortality: The role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5μm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860) times and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-hour daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8±0.16 μg/m3 and 30±0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5 (O3) to change by +7.5±0.19 μg/m3 (+25±0.30 ppbv), +0.4±0.17 μg/m3 (+0.5±0.28 ppbv), and -0.02±0.01 μg/m3 (+4.3±0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0-2.5) million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129-592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air

  19. Sanitary impact of the particulate atmospheric urban pollution; Impact sanitaire de la pollution atmospherique urbaine particulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentissi, M.

    1999-03-22

    The pollution of particulates origin is one of the principle actual problem relative to air quality. In France, the fine particulates come from industry and automobile traffic, especially, the diesel vehicles. The most worrying characteristic is their fineness, that allow them to stay in suspension during a long time and penetrate into pulmonary alveoli, with toxic elements at their surface such metals, acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to take stock of epidemiology and toxicology studies evaluating the sanitary impact of particulates in suspension. (N.C.)

  20. Evaluation of correlating factors between 238U concentration measured in fine and course atmospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Dias, Vagner Silva; Dias, Fabiana Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Air quality is ever more important in function of the enormous proportion of human actions that have affected the environment over the last two centuries. Particulate material is one among many pollutants that can cause great risk to human health and the environment. It can be classified as: Total Suspended Particles (TSP), defined simply as particles with less than 50 μm aerodynamic diameter (one group of these particles can be inhaled and may cause health problems, while others may unfavorably affect the population's quality of life, interfering in environmental conditions and impairing normal community activities); and Inhalable Particles (PM 10 ), defined as those particles with less than 10 μm aerodynamic diameter. These particles penetrate the respiratory system and can reach pulmonary alveoli due to their small size, causing serious health damage. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has monitored air quality around its installations since 2000. CDTN's Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) includes monitoring radioactivity levels contained in atmospheric TSP. In order to optimize its program, CDTN is carrying out a study to estimate the correlation between concentrations of particulate material measured in TSP and those measured in PM 10 , PI 2.5 and PI 1 , as well as determination of activity concentration for each controlled radionuclide in all parts. The objective of this study is to present preliminary results and report 238 U activity concentration results. (author)

  1. Influence of Air Pollution on Chemical Quality of Wet Atmospheric Deposition: a Case Study in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Hajizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased combustion of fossil fuel owing to the energy requirement is a main cause of air pollution throughout the world. Atmospheric precipitation is considered as a major water resource for indoor, municipal, industrial and agricultural uses. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of air pollution on chemical quality of rain and snow in Urmia, a city in northwest of Iran. Sampling was performed during the wet seasons from October to March at six sampling stations in different locations of the city. Acidity, alkalinity, NO3- , SO42-, Cl- and pH contents of the collected samples were analyzed. All samples showed a pH value of more than 6.8, and lower acidity than alkalinity, therefore, the precipitations were not acidic. Maximum concentrations of SO42- and NO3- in the samples were 5 and 8.8mg/L, respectively. Chloride was varied from 1 to 11.5 mg/L with the highest measures observing in autumn. According to the results, concentrations of the analyzed parameters in wet precipitations in Urmia were within the natural ranges except chloride ions, which was higher than its common level in the atmosphere. This phenomenon may be the result of desert dusts which transfers by wind from the west border to Iran. ‎

  2. Emission of pollutants in the atmosphere according to oil products quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkovska, Jasmina; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the comparison of the environmental protection legal regulations as well as pollutants emission in atmosphere in a most European countries is shown. The air pollution directly depends on both fuel consumption and fuel quality. The fuel quality in Republic of Macedonia gradually is performing and incorporating with anchors European countries. On the other side, energy potentials have no rights to ignore environmental protection, neither environmental protection should be dominated under energy plants. Reciprocal antagonisms should be overtaken through corresponding legislation. (Author)

  3. Macro impact of the law on prevention and control of atmospheric pollution on power industry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [State Power Corporation (China). Dept. of Science, Technology and Environment

    2001-07-01

    The newly revised and enlarged main contents of China's Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, which came into force on 1 September 2000, are described. The macro impacts of the law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in respect to power demand and readjustment of power structure and layout, clean production and pollution control level, scientific management of environmental protection, in accordance with law as well as changes of construction and operation costs. Several questions worthy to be noted in course of implementation of the new law are enumerated. 1 tab.

  4. Lactation history, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, and maternal risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination....... Prospective studies are needed to clarify how lactation could complement diabetes prevention through decreasing the POP body burdens....

  5. Human health risk assessment of lead pollution in atmospheric deposition in Baoshan District, Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jun; Shi, Guitao; Sun, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The lead (Pb) content in atmospheric deposition was determined at 42 sampling sites in Baoshan District of Shanghai, China. Based on exposure and dose-response assessments, the health risk caused by Pb exposure in atmospheric deposition was investigated. The results indicated that Pb was significantly accumulated in atmospheric deposition. The spatial distribution of Pb was mapped by geostatistical analysis, and the results showed that pollution hotspots were present at traffic and industrial zones. Ingestion was the main route of Pb exposure in both adults and children. For children the risk value was above 1, whereas it was below 1 for the adult group. Therefore, children belong to the high-risk group for Pb exposure from atmospheric deposition in the observed area of Shanghai, China.

  6. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the Northern Hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  7. Mosses Are Better than Leaves of Vascular Plants in Monitoring Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanbin; Fan, Miao; Hu, Ronggui; Zhao, Jinsong; Wu, Yupeng

    2018-05-29

    Mosses and leaves of vascular plants have been used as bioindicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals originating from various sources. This study aims to compare the metal accumulation capabilities of mosses and vascular species in urban areas and quantify the suitability of different taxa for monitoring airborne heavy metals. One pleurocarpous feather moss species, Haplocladium angustifolium , and two evergreen tree species, Cinnamomum bodinieri Osmanthus fragrans , and substrate soil were sampled in the urban area of different land use types in Wuhan City in China. The concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, Pb, and Zn in these samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The differences of heavy metals concentration in the three species showed that the moss species was considerably more capable of accumulating heavy metals than tree leaves (3 times to 51 times). The accumulated concentration of heavy metals in the moss species depended on the metal species and land use type. The enrichment factors of metals for plants and the correlations of metals in plants with corresponding metals in soil reflected that the accumulated metals in plants stemmed mostly from atmospheric deposition, rather than the substrate soil. Anthropogenic factors, such as traffic emissions from automobile transportation and manufacturing industries, were primarily responsible for the variations in metal pollutants in the atmosphere and subsequently influenced the metal accumulation in the mosses. This study elucidated that the moss species H. angustifolium is relatively more suitable than tree leaves of C. bodinieri and O. fragrans in monitoring heavy metal pollution in urban areas, and currently Wuhan is at a lower contamination level of atmospheric heavy metals than some other cities in China.

  8. An integrated Bayesian model for estimating the long-term health effects of air pollution by fusing modelled and measured pollution data: A case study of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guowen; Lee, Duncan; Scott, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The long-term health effects of air pollution can be estimated using a spatio-temporal ecological study, where the disease data are counts of hospital admissions from populations in small areal units at yearly intervals. Spatially representative pollution concentrations for each areal unit are typically estimated by applying Kriging to data from a sparse monitoring network, or by computing averages over grid level concentrations from an atmospheric dispersion model. We propose a novel fusion model for estimating spatially aggregated pollution concentrations using both the modelled and monitored data, and relate these concentrations to respiratory disease in a new study in Scotland between 2007 and 2011. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Impact of atmospheric total suspended particulate pollution on photosynthetic parameters of street mango trees in Xiamen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-xian; Chen, Jin-sheng; Ren, Yin; Li, Fang-yi; Cui, Sheng-hui

    2010-05-01

    With the development of urbanization, total suspended particulate (TSP) pollution is getting serious, and the normal physiological processes of urban vegetation are profoundly affected while adsorbing and purifying the particulates. In this study, four areas were selected, i.e., Tingxi reservoir (clean control area), Xiamen University (cultural and educational area), Xianyue (business area), and Haicang (industrial area), with their atmospheric TSP concentrations and the photosynthetic parameters of street Mango (Mangifera indica) trees monitored in April and May, 2009. The daily average concentration of TSP in Tingxi, Xiamen University, Xianyue, and Haicang was 0.061, 0.113, 0.120 and 0.205 mg x m(-3), respectively, and the impact of TSP stress on M. indica was in the sequence of Haicang > Xianyue > Xiamen University > Tingxi. TSP pollution negatively affected the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of M. indica, and induced intercellular CO2 concentration changed significantly. High TSP concentration could cause the decline of net photosynthetic rate via stomatal limitation.

  10. Use of the indicator activation method in studies of the propagation of pollutants in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alps, W.; Kuehn, W.

    1979-01-01

    The pollution of the atmosphere near ground level with various noxal substances, originating in industrial irradiation centres and in connection with the generation of nuclear power, has recently prompted detailed investigations of the propagation of aerosols, taking into account the roughness of the terrain and the vegetation. For this purpose pyrotechnic aerosols have been developed, labelled with an easily activated element, which can be released at any point in the atmosphere in the form of pulsed, linear or paint sources for propagation investigations. The paper reports on experiments over terrain with various types of natural vegetation. (orig.) [de

  11. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng·L(-1) (mean of 45 ng·L(-1)), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng·L(-1) for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng·L(-1) for, respectively, PCBs with 2-3 Cl atoms and 5-10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5-10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2-3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5-10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of genetic algorithm for the simultaneous identification of atmospheric pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantelli, A.; D'Orta, F.; Cattini, A.; Sebastianelli, F.; Cedola, L.

    2015-08-01

    A computational model is developed for retrieving the positions and the emission rates of unknown pollution sources, under steady state conditions, starting from the measurements of the concentration of the pollutants. The approach is based on the minimization of a fitness function employing a genetic algorithm paradigm. The model is tested considering both pollutant concentrations generated through a Gaussian model in 25 points in a 3-D test case domain (1000m × 1000m × 50 m) and experimental data such as the Prairie Grass field experiments data in which about 600 receptors were located along five concentric semicircle arcs and the Fusion Field Trials 2007. The results show that the computational model is capable to efficiently retrieve up to three different unknown sources.

  13. Leaves of Bauhinia blakeana as indicators of atmospheric pollution in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, O. W.; Luk, S. F.

    Bauhinia blakeana was used as a biomonitor to monitor the air quality in Hong Kong. Equations were set up to relate the ambient iron, copper, zinc and lead concentrations with those in leaves of the biomonitor and good correlations were observed. The concentration of sulphate in the leaves of Bauhinia blakeana was found to be directly related to ambient sulphur dioxide and total suspended particulates. Using these equations the ambient pollutant levels in different districts of Hong Kong were determined quantitatively according to the concentrations of pollutants in leaves. As many residential buildings are close to congested roads, the ambient pollutant concentrations at selected roads were evaluated. Many temples are known to be heavily polluted with air particulates, and thus the air quality inside are suspected to be poor. The air quality inside temples may be reflected by the air quality outside these buildings, which were also assessed using the proposed method of biomonitoring. The levels of ambient lead and copper outside these temples were higher than their respective background levels while the levels of pollutants at the kerbsides were reported to be 10-300% higher than those of the background.

  14. Differential Optical-absorption Spectroscopy (doas) System For Urban Atmospheric-pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Edner, H; Ragnarson, P; Spannare, S; Svanberg, Sune

    1993-01-01

    We describe a fully computer-controlled differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric air pollution monitoring. A receiving optical telescope can sequentially tune in to light beams from a number of distant high-pressure Xe lamp light sources to cover the area of a medium-sized city. A beam-finding servosystem and automatic gain control permit unattended long-time monitoring. Using an astronomical code, we can also search and track celestial sources. Selected wavelength ...

  15. A case study in atmospheric lead pollution of Northern-German coastal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitza, H.; Eppel, D.P. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1998-12-31

    Transport and deposition of atmospheric lead over the coastal zone of Northern Germany are investigated. It is shown that marked differences in the impact of the ecologically valuable wadden sea areas can occur between summer and winter time. Due to the formation of sea breeze systems in summer the coastal zone is likely to be less stressed than in winter when the pollutant is confined to a shallow layer above ground. (orig.) 10 refs.

  16. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  17. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Cerena, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maguas, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, Universidade Atlantica, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-08-15

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO{sub 2} and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species.

  18. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A.; Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Maguas, C.; Branquinho, C.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO 2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species

  19. Linear stochastic models for forecasting daily maxima and hourly concentrations of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollister, G M; Wilson, K R

    1975-04-01

    Two related time series models were developed to forecast concentrations of various air pollutants and tested on carbon monoxide and oxidant data for the Los Angeles basin. One model forecasts daily maximum concentrations of a particular pollutant using only past daily maximum values of that pollutant as input. The other model forecasts 1 hr average concentrations using only the past hourly average values. Both are significantly more accurate than persistence, i.e., forecasting for tomorrow what occurred today (or yesterday). Model forecasts for 1972 of the daily instantaneous maxima for total oxidant made using only past pollutant concentration data are more accurate than those made by the Los Angeles APCD using meteorological input as well as pollutant concentrations. Although none of these models forecast as accurately as might be desired for a health warning system, the relative success of simple time series models, even though based solely on pollutant concentration, suggests that models incorporating meteorological data and using either multi-dimensional times series or pattern recognition techniques should be tested.

  20. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 13: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y., Ed.

    Twelve papers were translated from Russian: Automation of Information Processing Involved in Experimental Studies of Atmospheric Diffusion, Micrometeorological Characteristics of Atmospheric Pollution Conditions, Study of theInfluence of Irregularities of the Earth's Surface on the Air Flow Characteristics in a Wind Tunnel, Use of Parameters of…

  1. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 14: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Fifteen papers were translated: On the removal of impurities from the atmosphere by clouds and precipitation; Some aspects of the adoption of automatic methods of determining atmospheric pollutants; Recording of sulfur dioxide content at the outskirts of a city. Comparison of measurement results for a valley and an elevation; Theoretical and…

  2. Laser system for remote sensing monitoring of air pollution and quality control of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Ilija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the atmosphere and determination of the types and amounts of pollutants is becoming more important issue in complex and global monitoring of the environment. On the geocomponent and geocomplex level problem of monitoring the environment is attracting the attention of the scientific experts of different profiles (chemists, physicists, geographers, biologists, meteorologists, both in the national and international projects. Because of the general characteristics of the Earth's atmosphere (Dynamically Ballanced Instability DBI and the potential contribution to climate change solutions air-pollution monitoring has become particularly important field of environmental research. Control of aerosol distribution over Europe is enabled by EARLINET systems (European Aerosol Lidar NETwork. Serbia’s inclusion into these European courses needs development of the device, the standardization of methods and direct activity in determining the type, quantity and location of aerosol. This paper is analyzing the first step in the study of air-pollution, which is consisted of the realization of a functional model of LIDAR remote sensing devices for the large particle pollutants.

  3. Effects of atmospheric transport and trade on air pollution mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air quality is a major environmental concern in China, where premature deaths due to air pollution have exceeded 1 million people per year in recent years. Here, using a novel coupling of economic, physical and epidemiological models, we estimate the premature mortality related to anthropogenic outdoor PM2. 5 air pollution in seven regions of China in 2010 and show for the first time how the distribution of these deaths in China is determined by a combination of economic activities and physical transport of pollution in the atmosphere. We find that 33 % (338 600 premature deaths of China's PM2. 5-related premature mortality in 2010 were caused by pollutants emitted in a different region of the country and transported in the atmosphere, especially from north to south and from east to west. Trade further extended the cross-regional impact; 56 % of (568 900 premature deaths China's PM2. 5-related premature mortality was related to consumption in another region, including 423 800 (42 % of total and 145 100 (14 % premature deaths from domestic consumption and international trade respectively. Our results indicate that multilateral and multi-stage cooperation under a regional sustainable development framework is in urgent need to mitigate air pollution and related health impacts, and efforts to reduce the health impacts of air pollution in China should be prioritized according to the source and location of emissions, the type and economic value of the emitting activities, and the related patterns of consumption.

  4. Sensing sulfur oxides and other sulfur bearing pollutants with solid electrolyte pellets. I. Gas concentration cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberland, A M; Gauthier, J M

    1977-01-01

    A new sensing technique using a solid electrolyte has been demonstrated for sulfur-bearing pollutants. Based on potentiometric measurements across a pellet of potassium sulfate, this sensor allows concentrations of sulfur dioxides, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide in air to be measured with accuracy. Its operational concentration range at the present time is 0.1 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. The presence of other common pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide does not interfere with the measurement of air samples containing sulfur-bearing pollutants.

  5. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-10-22

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12-23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models.

  6. First retrieval of hourly atmospheric radionuclides just after the Fukushima accident by analyzing filter-tapes of operational air pollution monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    No observed data have been found in the Fukushima Prefecture (FP) for the time-series of atmospheric radionuclides concentrations just after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident. Accordingly, current estimates of internal radiation doses from inhalation, and atmospheric radionuclide concentrations by atmospheric transport models are highly uncertain. Here, we present a new method for retrieving the hourly atmospheric 137Cs concentrations by measuring the radioactivity of suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected on filter tapes in SPM monitors which were operated even after the accident. This new dataset focused on the period of March 12–23, 2011 just after the accident, when massive radioactive materials were released from the FD1NPP to the atmosphere. Overall, 40 sites of the more than 400 sites in the air quality monitoring stations in eastern Japan were studied. For the first time, we show the spatio-temporal variation of atmospheric 137Cs concentrations in the FP and the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (TMA) located more than 170 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The comprehensive dataset revealed how the polluted air masses were transported to the FP and TMA, and can be used to re-evaluate internal exposure, time-series radionuclides release rates, and atmospheric transport models. PMID:25335435

  7. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases from the preindustrial period to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fang

    2013-02-01

    mortalities annually and changes in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129–592 thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively. However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also contribute to premature mortality associated with air pollution globally (by up to 5% and 15%, respectively. In some regions, the contribution of climate change and increased CH4 together are responsible for more than 20% of the respiratory mortality associated with O3 exposure. We find the interaction between climate change and atmospheric chemistry has influenced atmospheric composition and human mortality associated with industrial air pollution. Our study highlights the benefits to air quality and human health of CH4 mitigation as a component of future air pollution control policy.

  8. Using magnetic and chemical measurements to detect atmospherically-derived metal pollution in artificial soils and metal uptake in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapkota, B.; Cioppa, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of potential effects of ambient atmospheric pollution on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plants requires precise experimental studies. A controlled growth experiment assessing magnetic and chemical parameters was conducted within (controls) and outside (exposed) a greenhouse setting. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements showed that while initial MS values were similar for the sample sets, the overall MS value of exposed soil was significantly greater than in controls, suggesting an additional input of Fe-containing particles. Scanning electron microscope images of the exposed soils revealed numerous angular magnetic particles and magnetic spherules typical of vehicular exhaust and combustion processes, respectively. Similarly, chemical analysis of plant roots showed that plants grown in the exposed soil had higher concentrations of Fe and heavy (toxic) metals than controls. This evidence suggests that atmospheric deposition contributed to the MS increase in exposed soils and increased metal uptake by plants grown in this soil. - Highlights: ► Magnetic susceptibility (MS) values increased in exposed soils during the growth. ► MS values in control soils decreased from their initial values during the growth. ► Decrease in MS values due to downwards migration of Fe particles, magnetic mineral transformations and Fe uptake by plants. ► Higher metal uptake in plants grown in exposed soils than those grown in controls. ► Atmospheric particulate deposition isolated as main contributor to these effects. - Variations in atmospheric particulate levels are measurable using magnetic and chemical techniques on soils and plant biomass, and suggest pollutant levels may be higher than previously recognized.

  9. Long Term Variations of the Atmospheric Air Pollutants in Istanbul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kurtulus Ozcan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High population density and intense industrial activity has resulted in various forms of pollution in megacities. Air pollution ranks at the top of this list. This study investigated long-term changes in air pollutant parameters (SO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx in Istanbul City, Turkey, using data from air-quality measurement stations on the Asian and European sides of Istanbul. The results show decreases from 2002 to 2010 in the amounts of SO2 (one of the main pollutants released as a result of the burning of fossil fuels and CO (indicative of incomplete combustion. However, NOx concentrations showed fluctuations over time, rather than a steady decline throughout the study period.

  10. [Atmospheric Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Eight Cities of China: Pollution Characteristics and Human Exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-tao; Li, Qi-lu; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun

    2016-01-15

    The gas and particle samples of eight cities were collected by high flow active air sampler in the Eastern and Western China and eight congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of BDE-28 (tri-BDE) in the gas-phase (three bromide components) was the highest, which was different from previous studies where BDE-99 and-47 were the predominant homologues in the gas-phase while the concentration of BDE-209 [(25.4 ± 124) pg · m⁻³] in particle-phase was the highest. The atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs in Beijing and Guangzhou were relatively higher, especially the BDE-209 concentration in particle phases of Guangzhou was two orders higher than those of other cities. However, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs declined significantly when compared with the data from previous studies. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the gas-phase concentrations decreased slowly and the particle-phase concentrations decreased rapidly. Combined with the results of correlation analysis, this phenomenon might be ascribed to the ceased commercial production of penta- and octa-BDE, the light degradation of high bromide components and reduced concentrations of atmospheric particles in urban area. Inhalation exposure for infants was about 2-3 times higher than that of adults. This reflected that the potential health risk of atmospheric PBDEs in city for residents, especially infants and young children, should not be ignored.

  11. Simulation of influence of some climatic factors on radiocarbon concentration in the Earth atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetkereev, S.Kh.; Dergachev, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of different climatic factors on radiocarbon concentration in the Earth atmosphere is analyzed by modelling the exchange radiocarbon system. It is supposed that the exchange system consists of four reservoirs: long-lived surface vegetation and its remnants, the atmosphere, surface layer of the World ocean. It is shown that the variations of the ocean temperature and the variations in CO 2 amount in the atmosphere connected with it do not affect the atmosphere radiocarbon concentration. Variations in the square of sea ice on the time scale of >=1000 years could bring about variations in the 14 C concentration with the amplitude up to 1%. 14 C concentration in the atmosphere in the icing maximum 18 thousands of years ago was 7% higher than present concentration [ru

  12. Influence of weather and atmospheric pollution on physical activity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmari, Ayedh D; Mackay, Alex J; Patel, Anant R C; Kowlessar, Beverly S; Singh, Richa; Brill, Simon E; Allinson, James P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2015-06-13

    Information concerning how climate and atmospheric pollutants affects physical activity in COPD patients is lacking and might be valuable in determining when physical activity should be encouraged. Seventy-three stable COPD patients recorded on daily diary cards worsening of respiratory symptoms, peak expiratory flow rate, hours spent outside the home and the number of steps taken per day. Pedometry data was recorded on 16,478 days, an average of 267 days per patient (range 29-658). Daily data for atmospheric PM10 and ozone (O3) were obtained for Bloomsbury Square, Central London from the Air Quality Information Archive databases. Daily weather data were obtained for London Heathrow from the British Atmospheric Data Archive. Colder weather below 22.5 °C, reduced daily step count by 43.3 steps day per °C (95% CI 2.14 to 84.4; p = 0.039) and activity was lower on rainy than dry days (p = 0.002) and on overcast compared to sunny days (p atmospheric pollution at high levels.

  13. The IPAC-NC field campaign: a pollution and oxidization pool in the lower atmosphere over Huabei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, regional air pollution characterized by photochemical smog and grey haze-fog has become a severe environmental problem in China. To investigate this, a field measurement campaign was performed in the Huabei region, located between 32–42° N latitude in eastern China, during the period 2 April–16 May 2006 as part of the project "Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China" (IPAC-NC. It appeared that strong pollution emissions from urban and industrial centers tend to accumulate in the lower atmosphere over the central area of Huabei. We observed widespread, very high SO2 mixing ratios, about 20–40 ppbv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude and 10–30 ppbv at 1.5–3.0 km altitude. Average CO mixing ratios were 0.65–0.7 ppmv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude, and very high CO around 1 ppmv was observed during some flights, and even higher levels at the surface. We find the high pollution concentrations to be associated with enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals, calculated with a chemical box model constrained by the measurements. In the upper part of the boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere, high CO and SO2 compete with relatively less NO2 in reacting with OH, being efficiently recycled through HO2, preventing a net loss of HOx radicals. In addition to reactive hydrocarbons and CO, the oxidation of SO2 causes significant ozone production over Huabei (up to ~13% or 2.0 ppbv h−1 at 0.8 km altitude. Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere over Huabei is not only strongly polluted but also acts as an oxidation pool, with pollutants undergoing very active photochemistry over this part of China.

  14. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MEANS FOR ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL LOSSES FROM POLLUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN ZONES OF TECHNOGENIC OBJECTS IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. POPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the solution of one of the most important problems of rational use of natural resources. Modern mathematical tools for damage estimation, which are caused by atmospheric pollution to natural objects, and also methods for calculation of the cost for their renewal were developed. The solution of problem was divided into 3 stages. At the first stage it was defined basic anthropogenic sources of pollution, was illustrated conceptual behavior of pollutants in the atmosphere emitted by technological stationary point source. Choice of mathematical model that allows to determine the distribution of pollutants concentration in the air in zones of pollution by point stationary sources in the short-term discharges was proved. At the second stage it was developed mathematical tools to determine the level of objects damage, which were in the zone of pollution, depending on the intensity and duration of exposure of technogenic sources. At the third stage it was developed mathematical models to determine the recoverable amount of natural objects depending on their level of damage. Model example of developed means usage was described. Advantages of developed means over existed analogs were noticed.

  16. Assessment of radionuclides (uranium and thorium) atmospheric pollution around Manjung district, Perak using moss as bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Nursyairah, E-mail: nursyairah1990@gmail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Bio-monitoring method using mosses have been widely done around the world and the effectiveness has been approved. Mosses can be used to assess the levels of atmospheric pollution as mosses pick up nutrients from the atmosphere and deposition retaining many trace elements. In this study, the deposition of two radionuclides; uranium (U) and thorium (Th) around Manjung districts have been evaluated using Leucobryum aduncum as bio-monitoring medium. The samples were collected from 24 sampling sites covering up to 40 km radius to the North, North-East and South-East directions from Teluk Rubiah. The concentrations of U and Th in moss samples were analysed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The concentrations of Th are in the range of 0.07-2.09 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the concentrations of U in the moss are in the range of 0.03-0.18 mg/kg. The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated to determine the origin of the radionuclides distributions. Other than that, the distribution maps were developed to observe the distribution of the radionuclides around the study area.

  17. Indoor house pollution: appliance emissions and indoor ambient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, T [Univ. of Santiago, Chile; Soto, H; Lissi, E; Cisternas, R

    1983-01-01

    Emissions rates for CO, NO, NO/sub 2/ adn CH/sub 2/O from several unvented gas and kerosene heaters frequently employed in domestic heating have been measured. The indoor concentrations generated by these emissions are evaluated and compared to those determined in typical houses. It is found that both the predicted and measured values exceed the short term air quality standards accepted in most countries.

  18. Some aspects of the effect of atmospheric pollution on the lichen flora to the west of Consett Co. , Durham

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, J L

    1966-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric pollution on the growth of lichens has long been discussed. This work was aimed at obtaining data on the effect of such pollution, from the Iron and Steel works at Consett Co. Durham, on the lichen flora of the district. The degree of pollution found to the west of Consett was evaluated by analysis of lichen thallus for sulfur and from bark washings for amounts of deposited matter. These results were compared with standard pollution data at Consett, obtained from the DSIR, and a pollution gradient passing west from Consett was plotted. The distribution of corticolous, saxicolous and terricolous lichens in this area was mapped. The results from these distributions were applied to the pollution data and the control of lichens by pollution shown. The modification of the pollution effect by humidity factors is also discussed.

  19. Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in short-lived pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram

    2013-07-01

    We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in short-lived pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among short-lived species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the short-lived pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in short-lived pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top-of-the-atmosphere

  20. The lichen Parmelia physodes (L. Ach. as indicator for determination of the degree of atmospheric air pollution in the area contaminated by flourine and sulphur dioxide emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Świeboda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the area involved in the influence of conteminations emitted by the aluminium works and electric power plant, the degree of atmospheric air pollution was evaluated on the basis of the behaviour of healthy thallus of the lichen Parmelia physodes, analysis of fluorine and sulphur content in this thallus and in the bark substrate and the F and SO2 concentrations in the air.

  1. Historical atmospheric pollution trends in Southeast Asia inferred from lake sediment records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, S; Fong, L S R Z; Chen, Q; Leng, M J; McGowan, S; Idris, M; Rose, N L; Ruslan, M S; Taylor, D; Yang, H

    2018-04-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to increased levels of air pollution, which negatively affects human health as well as the environment. Documented data for Southeast Asia (SEA) show a strong increase in fossil fuel consumption since 1980, but information on coal and oil combustion before 1980 is not widely available. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) and heavy metals, such as mercury (Hg), are emitted as by-products of fossil fuel combustion and may accumulate in sediments following atmospheric fallout. Here we use sediment SCP and Hg records from several freshwater lentic ecosystems in SEA (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore) to reconstruct long-term, region-wide variations in levels of these two key atmospheric pollution indicators. The age-depth models of Philippine sediment cores do not reach back far enough to date first SCP presence, but single SCP occurrences are first observed between 1925 and 1950 for a Malaysian site. Increasing SCP flux is observed at our sites from 1960 onward, although individual sites show minor differences in trends. SCP fluxes show a general decline after 2000 at each of our study sites. While the records show broadly similar temporal trends across SEA, absolute SCP fluxes differ between sites, with a record from Malaysia showing SCP fluxes that are two orders of magnitude lower than records from the Philippines. Similar trends in records from China and Japan represent the emergence of atmospheric pollution as a broadly-based inter-region environmental problem during the 20th century. Hg fluxes were relatively stable from the second half of the 20th century onward. As catchment soils are also contaminated with atmospheric Hg, future soil erosion can be expected to lead to enhanced Hg flux into surface waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of lichens as indicator and test organism for atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1969-01-01

    Some species of lichens are very specialized with regard to their substrata, while others grow on almost any substratum. The species that grow on the bark of trees are discussed. Not all kinds of bark are equally desirable to all epiphytic lichen species. Some species occur on bark with a fairly low pH (pH 3-4), while others occur on moderately acid to almost neutral bark (pH 4.5-6-7). Different ways of using lichens as indicators and test plants for atmospheric pollution have been tried. Individual species have served as indicators. In order to get an idea of the zonation around a source of damage, it is possible to use the number of species per tree or group of trees examined. This method is practicable only under certain special conditions. The comparison of the species gives a better indication of the degree and kind of atmospheric pollution than the epiphyte flora. De Sloover and LeBlanc have published a formula, with the aid of which an index of atmospheric purity (IAP) may be produced. This index may then be used in the cartographical representation of zones of air purity. Another formula is based on the degree of cover and poleotolerance in the individual species. Schoenbeck has developed Brodo's transplantation method and uses Hypogymnia physodes as a test organism for atmospheric pollution. The extent of the damage to the lichens is recorded on infra-red-sensitive film. The damaged areas are measured with a planimeter, by which means a numerical value is obtained for the extent of damage.

  3. Atmospheric pollution for trace elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in central Asia as recorded in snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Hong, Sungmin; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Liu, Yapping; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

    2008-10-01

    A series of 42 snow samples covering over a one-year period from the fall of 2004 to the summer of 2005 were collected from a 2.1-m snow pit at a high-altitude site on the northeastern slope of Mt. Everest. These samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sb, Pb, and Bi in order to characterize the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources to the fallout of these elements in central Himalayas. Our data were also considered in the context of monsoon versus non-monsoon seasons. The mean concentrations of the majority of the elements were determined to be at the pg g(-1) level with a strong variation in concentration with snow depth. While the mean concentrations of most of the elements were significantly higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, considerable variability in the trace element inputs to the snow was observed during both periods. Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Bi displayed high crustal enrichment factors (EFc) in most samples, while Cr, Ni, Rb, and Pb show high EFc values in some of the samples. Our data indicate that anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in the central Himalayas. The relationship between the EFc of each element and the Al concentration indicates that a dominant input of anthropogenic trace elements occurs during both the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, when crustal contribution is relatively minor. Finally, a comparison of the trace element fallout fluxes calculated in our samples with those recently obtained at Mont Blanc, Greenland, and Antarctica provides direct evidence for a geographical gradient of the atmospheric pollution with trace elements on a global scale.

  4. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  5. A study on air pollution concentration at Desa parkcity construction site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the effect of construction workers exposure towards the air pollution to the correlation between meteorological factor with the particulate matter and other gases concentration at a construction site in DesaParkcity. The concentration of PM was collected by using low volume sampler meanwhile CO, CO2, ...

  6. Measurement of radioactivity in the atmosphere and pollution nearby an atomic centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Weill, J.

    1955-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is particularly interested in studies on atmospheric radioactivity by reason of the necessity to control the atmosphere nearby nuclear plants as uranium mines, nuclear reactors and hot laboratories or radioactive materials treatment plants. Thus, the CEA developed different apparatus to control and monitor the atmosphere nearby its sites. These air monitors are essentially of two types: the first one, called 'Babar', monitors smokes, fogs and dusts, the second type is an ionization chamber and measures the concentration of radioactive gas in the air. The functioning and sensitivity of these two systems are discussed. (M.P.)

  7. Urticaceae pollen concentration in the atmosphere of North Western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Maray, Ana Maria; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Delia; Fraile, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Plants of the Urticaceae family can develop into a pest on soils enriched with nitrogen. Urticaceae pollen is a biohazard because it elicits severe pollinosis. Pollen grains were sampled by using a Lanzoni seven-day-recording trap from February 1995-December 2000 in the atmosphere of the city of Ponferrada (Leon, North Western Spain). The Spearman test was used to analyse the statistical correlation between Urticaceae pollen and certain meteorological factors in different main pollination periods. Maximum values are reached in June and July, minimum levels are recorded in January and December. The parameters bearing the greatest positive influence on the occurrence of Urticaceae pollen grains are: temperature (maximum, minimum and mean), humidity (absolute, wet-bulb temperature, dew point and mixing ratio) and south western wind direction; negative parameters are: relative humidity, rainfall and period without wind. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained with temperature and wet-bulb. Absolute humidity and wet-bulb temperature yielded better correlation than relative humidity; hence, these two parameters must be included in this type of study. The use of one main pollination period or another in statistical analysis has an influence on the coefficient value. The behaviour of the pollen grains in the atmosphere during the year also influences the results.

  8. Reconstruction of atmospheric trace metals pollution in Southwest China using sediments from a large and deep alpine lake: Historical trends, sources and sediment focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qi; Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Nath, Bibhash; Shen, Ji; Yuan, Hezhong; Wang, Rong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution, one of the leading environmental problems in South and East Asia, and its impact on the terrestrial environmental quality remain poorly understood particularly in alpine areas where both historical and present-day mining and smelting operations might leave an imprint. Here, we reconstructed atmospheric trace metals pollution during the past century using core sediments from a large and deep alpine lake in Southwest China. The implication of in lake and/or in watershed sediment focusing in pollution quantification is discussed by analyzing 15 sediment cores. Factor analysis and enrichment factor indicated Cd, Pb and Sb as the typical pollutants. Distinct peaks of Pb and Sb pollution were observed around the 1920s, but little Pb pollution was detected in recent decades, different from other studies in similar regions. Cadmium pollution was observed until the mid-1980s synchronized with Sb. The distinctive variations in atmospheric trace metal pollution process in Southwest China highlight the regional and sub-regional sources of metal pollutants, which should be primarily attributed to non-ferrous metal smelting emissions. Both natural and anthropogenic metals showed wide concentration ranges though exhibited similar temporal trends in the 15 cores. Spatial variations of anthropogenic metals were influenced by the in-watershed pollutants remobilization, whereas, natural metals were regulated by the detrital materials in the sub-basin. In-lake sediment focusing had little influence on the spatial distributions of all metals, different from the traditional sediment focusing pattern observed in small lakes. Anthropogenic Cd accumulation in sediments ranged from 1.5 to 10.1mgm -2 in a specific core with an average of 6.5mgm -2 for the entire lake, highlighting that a reliable whole-lake pollutant budget requires an analysis of multiple cores. Our study suggests that the management of aquatic ecosystem health should take the remobilization of in

  9. Atmospheric dispersion and inverse modelling for the reconstruction of accidental sources of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiarek, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled releases of pollutant in the atmosphere may be the consequence of various situations: accidents, for instance leaks or explosions in an industrial plant, or terrorist attacks such as biological bombs, especially in urban areas. In the event of such situations, authorities' objectives are various: predict the contaminated zones to apply first countermeasures such as evacuation of concerned population; determine the source location; assess the long-term polluted areas, for instance by deposition of persistent pollutants in the soil. To achieve these objectives, numerical models can be used to model the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. We will first present the different processes that govern the transport of pollutants in the atmosphere, then the different numerical models that are commonly used in this context. The choice between these models mainly depends of the scale and the details one seeks to take into account. We will then present several inverse modeling methods to estimate the emission as well as statistical methods to estimate prior errors, to which the inversion is very sensitive. Several case studies are presented, using synthetic data as well as real data such as the estimation of source terms from the Fukushima accident in March 2011. From our results, we estimate the Cesium-137 emission to be between 12 and 19 PBq with a standard deviation between 15 and 65% and the Iodine-131 emission to be between 190 and 380 PBq with a standard deviation between 5 and 10%. Concerning the localization of an unknown source of pollutant, two strategies can be considered. On one hand parametric methods use a limited number of parameters to characterize the source term to be reconstructed. To do so, strong assumptions are made on the nature of the source. The inverse problem is hence to estimate these parameters. On the other hand nonparametric methods attempt to reconstruct a full emission field. Several parametric and nonparametric methods are

  10. The effect of nitrogen additions on bracken fern and its insect herbivores at sites with high and low atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Jones; M.E. Fenn; T.D. Paine

    2011-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric pollution, including nitrogen deposition, on bracken fern herbivores has never been studied. Bracken fern is globally distributed and has a high potential to accumulate nitrogen in plant tissue. We examined the response of bracken fern and its herbivores to N fertilization at a high and low pollution site in forests downwind of Los Angeles,...

  11. Meteorologia e poluição atmosférica Meteorology and atmospheric pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Martins Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentam-se os principais aspectos relacionados à meteorologia ligada ao processo de dispersão turbulenta de poluentes atmosféricos. Ressalta-se que a meteorologia desempenha um papel fundamental para o controle da qualidade do ar, pois os eventos meteorológicos guiam a dispersão de poluentes e sua deposição no solo. Discutem-se os recentes melhoramentos da descrição e previsão dos fenômenos que envolvem a poluição atmosférica considerando a melhoria da qualidade de vida da população.This work shows the main aspects related to the meteorology linked to the process of turbulent dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. It is pointed out that meteorology is fundamental to air quality control, and meteorological events guide the pollutant dispersion and its deposition on the soil. Recent improvements on the description and forecast of the phenomena that involve atmospheric pollution, considering the population quality of life, are discussed.

  12. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  13. Interception of wet deposited atmospheric pollutants by herbaceous vegetation: Data review and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, M.-A., E-mail: marc-andre.gonze@irsn.fr; Sy, M.M.

    2016-09-15

    Better understanding and predicting interception of wet deposited pollutants by vegetation remains a key issue in risk assessment studies of atmospheric pollution. We develop different alternative models, following either empirical or semi-mechanistic descriptions, on the basis of an exhaustive dataset consisting of 440 observations obtained in controlled experiments, from 1970 to 2014, for a wide variety of herbaceous plants, radioactive substances and rainfall conditions. The predictive performances of the models and the uncertainty/variability of the parameters are evaluated under Hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework. It is demonstrated that the variability of the interception fraction is satisfactorily explained and quite accurately modelled by a process-based alternative in which absorption of ionic substances onto the foliage surfaces is determined by their electrical valence. Under this assumption, the 95% credible interval of the predicted interception fraction encompasses 81% of the observations, including situations where either plant biomass or rainfall intensity are unknown. This novel approach is a serious candidate to challenge existing empirical relationships in radiological or chemical risk assessment tools. - Highlights: • Literature data on the interception of atmospheric pollutants by herbs were reviewed • Predictive models were developed and evaluated in the Bayesian modelling framework • Sensitivity of interception to environmental conditions was satisfactorily explained • 81% of the observations were satisfactorily predicted by a semi-mechanistic model • This model challenges empirical relationships currently used in risk assessment tools.

  14. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  15. Detection of radon products in atmosphere and its concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Naemi, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar is very warm during the summer and also for considerable parts of the spring and autumn. Energy-tight houses and buildings with air conditioning working day and night for several months are very common. Consequently, the problem of accumulation of indoor radon may exist. No measurements of radon concentration in Qatar have been performed before. The aim of the present work is to implement a suitable technique to measure radon concentration in Qatari houses and buildings. As a first stage, it was found reasonable to start with a technique to evaluate the short-term average indoor radon concentration. The activated charcoal method was chosen to perform this evaluation

  16. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  17. Growing Atmospheric Pollution and Its Relation with Occurrences of Natural Hazards in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh

    In the last three decades, multi satellite remote sensing data have revealed increasing atmospheric pollution. The satellite data have shown spatial distribution of fine and coarse atmospheric particles which impact human health, cloud albedo and atmospheric and meteorological parameters. The long range dusts coming over India travel through Arabian Sea and reach to the Bay of Bengal, such long range transport of dust influences atmospheric and ocean parameters, as a result strong coupling exists between land-ocean-atmosphere. Various kind of natural hazards, such as cyclone, algal bloom, cloud burst, excessive rainfall have been observed apart from the intense fog, haze and smog during winter and post monsoon seasons that have serious impacts on human health of people living in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The long range transport of dust and local anthropogenic emissions also reach to the Himalayan region affecting snow and glaciers of Himalaya and accelerating melting of snow and glaciers which is a threat of flooding of rivers originate from Himalayan region.

  18. Measurement of radioactive aerosols as an original indicator of atmospheric pollution in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Millies-Lacroix, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Service Radioanalyses, Chimie et Environnment (Departement Analyses Surveillance de l'Environnement) of the French Atomic Energy Commission, located in suburban Paris, has for many years been conducting atmospheric radioactivity measurements. Since 1994, the laboratory has been using high volume air samplers equipped with filters for the weekly collection of atmospheric aerosols at a mean rate of about 600 m 3 .h -1 . The polypropylene filters, with a collection efficiency in excess of 93%, are compacted after sampling. The atmospheric radioactivity is measured by HP Ge gamma spectrometry after decay of short-lived natural relationship products. A study conducted in 1996 shows good correlation between the evolution with time of some of the indicators routinely used by AIRPARIF, the organization in charge of monitoring the air quality in the Ile-de-France region, to measure atmospheric pollution in the Paris area (SO 2 , NO) and that related to radioactivity of terrestrial ( 210 Pb, 40 K) and anthropogenic ( 137 Cs) origin, as well as the amount of aerosols collected. Further, the distribution in time of the atmospheric radioactivity of cosmogenic origin ( 7 Be) shows a yearly evolution somewhat similar to that observed with ozone

  19. Measurement of radioactive aerosols as an original indicator of atmospheric pollution in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Petit, G.; Millies-Lacroix, J.-C.; Simon, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Service Radioanalyses, Chimie et Environnement (Departement Analyses Surveillance de l'Environnement) of the French Atomic Energy Commission, located in suburban Paris, has for many years been conducting atmospheric radioactivity measurements. Since 1994, the laboratory has been using high volume air samplers equipped with filters for the weekly collection of atmospheric aerosols at a mean rate of about 600 m 3 .h -1 . The polypropylene filters, with a collection efficiency in excess of 93%, are compacted after sampling. The atmospheric radioactivity is measured by HP Ge gamma spectrometry after decay of short-lived natural relationship products. A study conducted in 1996 shows good correlation between the evolution with time of some of the indicators routinely used by AIRPARIF, the organization in charge of monitoring of the air quality in the Ile-de-France region, to measure atmospheric pollution in the Paris area (SO 2 , NO) and that related to radioactivity of terrestrial ( 210 Pb, 40 K) and anthropogenic ( 137 Cs) origin, as well as the amount of aerosols collected. Further, the distribution in time of the atmospheric radioactivity of cosmogenic origin ( 7 Be) shows a yearly evolution somewhat similar to that observed with ozone. (author). 16 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  20. Concentrations of pollutants in fogwaters using a Grunow fogwater sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrimpff, E.; Klemm, O.; Eiden, R.; Frevert, T.; Herrmann, R.

    1984-02-01

    A simple device for sampling fog water is described (modified passive Grunow sampler), and analytical results as were found in rain and fog waters are reported. All samples were taken in the northern part of the Frankenwald mountains (near Bad Steben) from November 1982 until March 1983. Specific conductivity (..mu..Sxcm/sup -1/, 20/sup 0/C), titration acidity, Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, total hardness, Ca, Na, Fe, Cd, Pb, TDOC and the polycyclic aromates fluoranthene and 3.4-benzopyrene were continuously higher in fog than in rain water. pH's were remarkably decreased in fog water. Here extreme results were measured in the first two weeks of March with pH 2.5, and acidities proportional2 mequivxl/sup -1/. Possible reasons for such extraordinary concentrations are discussed meteorologically as well as hydrochemically.

  1. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  2. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  3. [Methodology of the description of atmospheric air pollution by nitrogen dioxide by land use regression method in Ekaterinburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antropov, K M; Varaksin, A N

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the description of Land Use Regression (LUR) modeling and the result of its application in the study of nitrogen dioxide air pollution in Ekaterinburg. The paper describes the difficulties of the modeling for air pollution caused by motor vehicles exhaust, and the ways to address these challenges. To create LUR model of the NO2 air pollution in Ekaterinburg, concentrations of NO2 were measured, data on factors affecting air pollution were collected, a statistical analysis of the data were held. A statistical model of NO2 air pollution (coefficient of determination R2 = 0.70) and a map of pollution were created.

  4. The determinants of atmospheric SO2 concentrations. Reconsidering the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur; Garnham, Sophie; Pauly, Peter

    1998-01-01

    This analysis explores the effects of income and the spatial intensity of economic activity on the atmospheric concentration of sulfur dioxide. The results indicate that there is a U-shaped relation between income and atmospheric concentration of SO 2 and an inverted U-shaped relation between the spatial intensity of economic activity and SO 2 concentrations. These results suggest that the spatial intensity of economic activity, rather than income, provides the impetus for policies and technologies that reduce SO 2 emissions. Based on this result, the atmospheric concen