WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric physics

  1. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introduction, examples that combine the relevant physics equations with real data, and exercises. Topics range from foundational knowledge, such as the origin of atmospheric composition and planetary spectra, to more advanced concepts, such as solutions to the radiative transfer equation, polarization, and molecular and condensate opacities. Since planets vary widely in their atmospheric properties, Seager emphasizes the major p...

  2. Atmosphere physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.

    2005-10-01

    Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)

  3. VIRTUAL AND PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURAL ATMOSPHERE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Anders; Klint, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This study, of the similarities between the perception of architectural space experienced in physical space conditions and in Virtual Reality, intents to clarify to what extend subjective and objective attributes of architectural space can be conveyed through a direct use of Building Information...... Models in Virtual Reality. 60 test persons experienced a specific test space as either a physical or a virtual environment, while data from their experiences was collected through a quantitative/qualitative questionnaire. The overall conclusion, from this phase of the study, is that even a simple BIM...... model through HMD VR can convey rather precise information about both subjective and objective experiences of architectural space, ambience and atmosphere. Next phase of the study will include eye-tracking data from the two scenarios....

  4. The atmosphere and ocean: A physical introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, N.

    1986-01-01

    The book's contents are: The Earth within the solar system. Composition and physical properties of the ocean and atmosphere. Radiation, temperature and stability. Water in the atmosphere. Global budgets of heat, water and salt. Observations of winds and currents. The influence of the Earth's rotation on fluid motion. Waves and tides. Energy transfer in the ocean-atmosphere system. Climate variability and predictability. The atmosphere and ocean are two different environmental systems, yet both are interdependent, interacting and exchanging energy, heat and matter. This book attempts to bring the study of the atmosphere and ocean together. It is a descriptive account of physical properties, exploring their common bases, similarities, interactions and fundamental differences

  5. Atmospheric Physics Background – Methods – Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), this book presents more than 50 chapters highlighting results of the institute’s research. The book provides an up-to-date, in-depth survey across the entire field of atmospheric science, including atmospheric dynamics, radiation, cloud physics, chemistry, climate, numerical simulation, remote sensing, instruments and measurements, as well as atmospheric acoustics. The authors have provided a readily comprehensible and self-contained presentation of the complex field of atmospheric science. The topics are of direct relevance for aerospace science and technology. Future research challenges are identified.

  6. Microlensing and the physics of stellar atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sackett, PD; Menzies, JW; Sackett, PD

    2001-01-01

    The simple physics of microlensing provides a well understood tool with which to probe the atmospheres of distant stars in the Galaxy and Local Group with high magnification and resolution. Recent results in measuring stellar surface structure through broad band photometry and spectroscopy of high

  7. Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

  8. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  9. Annual progress report 2000. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.E.; Skrumsager, B.

    2001-05-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2000. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2000 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  10. Annual report 1997. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, P.H.; Dannemand Andersen, P.; Skrumsager, B. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1997. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. (au)

  11. Annual progress report 2000. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.E.; Skrumsager, B. (eds.)

    2001-05-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2000. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2000 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  12. Annual progress report 2000. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.E.; Skrumsager, B. [eds.

    2001-05-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2000. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2000 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  13. Chemico-physical models of cometary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Keady, J.J.; Boice, D.C.; Schmidt, H.U.; Wegmann, R.

    1985-01-01

    Sublimation (vaporization) of the icy component of a cometary nucleus determines the initial composition of the coma gas as it streams outward and escapes. Photolytic reactions in the inner coma, escape of fast, light species such as atomic and molecular hydrogen, and solar wind interaction in the outer coma alter the chemical composition and the physical nature of the coma gas. Models that describe these interactions must include (1) chemical kinetics, (2) coma energy balance, (3) multifluid flow for the rapidly escaping light components, the heavier bulk fluid, and the plasma with separate temperatures for electrons and the remainder of the gas, (4) transition from a collision dominated inner region to free molecular flow of neutrals in the outer region, (5) pickup of cometary ions by the solar wind, (6) counter and cross streaming of neutrals with respect to the plasma which outside of the contact surface also contains solar wind ions, and (7) magnetic fields carried by the solar wind. Progress on such models is described and results including velocity, temperature, and number density profiles for important chemical species are presented and compared with observations

  14. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rutjes (Casper); D. Sarria (David); A.B. Skeltved (Alexander Broberg); A. Luque (Alejandro); G. Diniz (Gabriel); N. Østgaard (Nikolai); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires

  15. Evaluation of monte carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Casper; Sarria, David; Skeltved, Alexander Broberg; Luque, Alejandro; Diniz, Gabriel; Østgaard, Nikolai; Ebert, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate

  16. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department annual progress report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risø National Laboratory in 1999. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviateatmospheric aspects of environmental problems....... The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danishand international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A sum......-mary of the department's activities in 1999 is presented, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members....

  17. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rutjes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron–positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  18. Highlights from the First Ever Demographic Study of Solar Physics, Space Physics, and Upper Atmospheric Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; White, S. C.; Ivie, R.

    2014-12-01

    Members of the Education & Workforce Working Group and the American Institute of Physics (AIP) conducted the first ever National Demographic Survey of working professionals for the 2012 National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey to learn about the demographics of this sub-field of space science. The instrument contained questions for participants on: the type of workplace; basic demographic information regarding gender and minority status, educational pathways (discipline of undergrad degree, field of their PhD), how their undergraduate and graduate student researchers are funded, participation in NSF and NASA funded spaceflight missions and suborbital programs, and barriers to career advancement. Using contact data bases from AGU, the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (AAS-SPD), attendees of NOAA's Space Weather Week and proposal submissions to NSF's Atmospheric, Geospace Science Division, the AIP's Statistical Research Center cross correlated and culled these data bases resulting in 2776 unique email addresses of US based working professionals. The survey received 1305 responses (51%) and generated 125 pages of single space answers to a number of open-ended questions. This talk will summarize the highlights of this first-ever demographic survey including findings extracted from the open-ended responses regarding barriers to career advancement which showed significant gender differences.

  19. Physical analysis of multivariate measurements in the Atmospheric high-energy physics experiments within ADEI platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, K.; Chilingarian, A.; Karapetyan, T.; Chilingaryan, S.

    2017-01-01

    To make transformational scientific progress in Space science and geophysics, the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere and different layers of the atmosphere must be studied as a coupled system. Presented paper describes how information on complicated physical processes on Sun, in the heliosphere, magnetosphere and atmosphere can be made immediately assessable for researchers via advanced multivariate visualization system with simple statistical analysis package. Research of the high-energy phenomena in the atmosphere and the atmospheric discharges is of special importance. The relationship between thundercloud electrification, lightning activity, wideband radio emission and particle fluxes have not been yet unambiguously established. One of most intriguing opportunities opening by observation of the high-energy processes in the atmosphere is their relation to lightning initiation. Investigations of the accelerated structures in the geospace plasmas can as well shed light on particle acceleration up to much higher energies in the similar structures of space plasmas in the distant objects of the Universe. (author)

  20. The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, J G; Visconti, G [eds.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is paid to the atmosphere and how the understanding of its behavior could be facilitated by the observations and modeling of these interacting processes planned within the framework of the EOS (Earth Observing System) program. The Enrico Fermi School on which the book is based, was organized in such a way that general introductory lectures were followed by reviews of the planned EOS instruments and observational strategy to study specific components and processes in the earth atmosphere system. The contents are divided into four parts. Part 1 is an overview of the EOS concept and provides a general introduction to earth system science. Part 2 deals with the troposphere and includes a comprehensive introduction to the problems of tropospheric chemistry. The more traditional view of the troposphere as the stage for dynamics and meteorology is also dealt with. The climate system is discussed in detail in part 3, and includes the most important advances made in recent years in understanding some of these processes which have come from satellite observations. The final part deals with the middle atmosphere. The interest in ozone has made this region of the atmosphere the most closely studied in the last few years, in an attempt to establish how much of the changes in its composition may be attributable to natural variability and how much to anthropogenic influence

  1. Physics of the Sun's Hot Atmosphere B. N. Dwivedi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an Earth-like planet and its atmosphere (cf., Fig. 1). ... the radiative zone (where energy travels outward by radiation through about 70% of the Sun), and the convection .... (1990) carried out rocket-borne experiments to observe off-limb linewidth.

  2. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  3. Annual progress report for 1999. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.E.; Skrumsager, B. [eds.

    2000-06-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 1999. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the departments is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 1999 is presented, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  4. Annual progress report for 1999. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.E.; Skrumsager, B.

    2000-06-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 1999. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the departments is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 1999 is presented, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  5. Bunsen conference 1999. Atmospheric physical chemistry; Bunsentagung 1999. Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, P.J.; Zellner, R. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    The main subject of the 1999 Bunsen conference was atmospheric physical chemistry. There were lectures and posters on measurement and distribution of atmospheric trace gases, photochemical reactions in the different parts of the atmosphere, natural and anthropogenic emissions resulting from biomass combustion, thermodynamics and microphysics of aerosol, and air pollution abatement. [German] Die Bunsentagung 1999 beschaeftigte sich mit dem Thema Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere. Themen der Vortraege und Poster waren u.a. die Messung und Verteilung von Spurengasen in der Atmosphaere, photochemische Reaktionen in den verschiedenen Schichten der Atmosphaere, natuerliche und anthropogene Emissionen durch Verbrennung von Biomasse, Thermodynamik und Microphysik von Aerosolen und Klimaschutz.

  6. Challenges of Representing Sub-Grid Physics in an Adaptive Mesh Refinement Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Johansen, H.; Johnson, J. N.; Rosa, D.; Benedict, J. J.; Keen, N. D.; Collins, W.; Goodfriend, E.

    2015-12-01

    Some of the greatest potential impacts from future climate change are tied to extreme atmospheric phenomena that are inherently multiscale, including tropical cyclones and atmospheric rivers. Extremes are challenging to simulate in conventional climate models due to existing models' coarse resolutions relative to the native length-scales of these phenomena. Studying the weather systems of interest requires an atmospheric model with sufficient local resolution, and sufficient performance for long-duration climate-change simulations. To this end, we have developed a new global climate code with adaptive spatial and temporal resolution. The dynamics are formulated using a block-structured conservative finite volume approach suitable for moist non-hydrostatic atmospheric dynamics. By using both space- and time-adaptive mesh refinement, the solver focuses computational resources only where greater accuracy is needed to resolve critical phenomena. We explore different methods for parameterizing sub-grid physics, such as microphysics, macrophysics, turbulence, and radiative transfer. In particular, we contrast the simplified physics representation of Reed and Jablonowski (2012) with the more complex physics representation used in the System for Atmospheric Modeling of Khairoutdinov and Randall (2003). We also explore the use of a novel macrophysics parameterization that is designed to be explicitly scale-aware.

  7. Physics-based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    knowledge and capabilities in the use and development of inverse problem techniques to deduce atmospheric parameters. WORK COMPLETED The research completed...please find the Final Technical Report with SF 298 for Dr. Erin E. Hackett’s ONR grant entitled Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine...From- To) 07/03/2017 Final Technica l Dec 2012- Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine

  8. Atmospheric effects in astroparticle physics experiments and the challenge of ever greater precision in measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louedec, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Astroparticle physics and cosmology allow us to scan the universe through multiple messengers. It is the combination of these probes that improves our understanding of the universe, both in its composition and its dynamics. Unlike other areas in science, research in astroparticle physics has a real originality in detection techniques, in infrastructure locations, and in the observed physical phenomenon that is not created directly by humans. It is these features that make the minimisation of statistical and systematic errors a perpetual challenge. In all these projects, the environment is turned into a detector medium or a target. The atmosphere is probably the environment component the most common in astroparticle physics and requires a continuous monitoring of its properties to minimise as much as possible the systematic uncertainties associated. This paper introduces the different atmospheric effects to take into account in astroparticle physics measurements and provides a non-exhaustive list of techniques and instruments to monitor the different elements composing the atmosphere. A discussion on the close link between astroparticle physics and Earth sciences ends this paper.

  9. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department annual progress report for 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risø National Laboratory in 2000. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviateatmospheric aspects of environmental problems...

  10. Chemical and physical conversion in cold atmosphere and the effect of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulmala, M.; Aalto, P.; Korhonen, P.; Laaksonen, A.; Vesala, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The project is focusing on the formation and growth mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol and cloud droplets. Both aerosol particles and cloud droplets affect strongly on the atmospheric radiation fluxes by scattering and absorption. The droplet formation results from physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously. The studies concerning the tropospheric cloud droplet formation, laboratory experiments with a cloud chamber and stratospheric cloud formation are summarized. The recent studies summarized in this presentation indicate that both aerosol particles and cloud droplets have a significant role in climatic change and ozone depletion problems. The anthropogenic emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants change the properties of atmospheric aerosols and cloud droplets. The research in this field will be continued and more quantitative understanding based both experimental and theoretical studies is required

  11. Chemical and physical conversion in cold atmosphere and the effect of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulmala, M; Aalto, P; Korhonen, P; Laaksonen, A; Vesala, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The project is focusing on the formation and growth mechanisms of atmospheric aerosol and cloud droplets. Both aerosol particles and cloud droplets affect strongly on the atmospheric radiation fluxes by scattering and absorption. The droplet formation results from physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously. The studies concerning the tropospheric cloud droplet formation, laboratory experiments with a cloud chamber and stratospheric cloud formation are summarized. The recent studies summarized in this presentation indicate that both aerosol particles and cloud droplets have a significant role in climatic change and ozone depletion problems. The anthropogenic emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants change the properties of atmospheric aerosols and cloud droplets. The research in this field will be continued and more quantitative understanding based both experimental and theoretical studies is required

  12. Influence of weather and atmospheric pollution on physical activity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmari, Ayedh D; Mackay, Alex J; Patel, Anant R C; Kowlessar, Beverly S; Singh, Richa; Brill, Simon E; Allinson, James P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Donaldson, Gavin C

    2015-06-13

    Information concerning how climate and atmospheric pollutants affects physical activity in COPD patients is lacking and might be valuable in determining when physical activity should be encouraged. Seventy-three stable COPD patients recorded on daily diary cards worsening of respiratory symptoms, peak expiratory flow rate, hours spent outside the home and the number of steps taken per day. Pedometry data was recorded on 16,478 days, an average of 267 days per patient (range 29-658). Daily data for atmospheric PM10 and ozone (O3) were obtained for Bloomsbury Square, Central London from the Air Quality Information Archive databases. Daily weather data were obtained for London Heathrow from the British Atmospheric Data Archive. Colder weather below 22.5 °C, reduced daily step count by 43.3 steps day per °C (95% CI 2.14 to 84.4; p = 0.039) and activity was lower on rainy than dry days (p = 0.002) and on overcast compared to sunny days (p atmospheric pollution at high levels.

  13. Effects of sintering atmosphere on the physical and mechanical properties of modified BOF slag glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wen-bin; Li, Yu; Cang, Da-qiang; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Fan, Yong

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes an efficient way to utilize all the chemical components of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag to prepare high value-added glass-ceramics. A molten modified BOF slag was converted from the melting BOF slag by reducing it and separating out iron component in it, and the modified BOF slag was then quenched in water to form glasses with different basicities. The glasses were subsequently sintered in the temperature range of 600-1000°C in air or nitrogen atmosphere for 1 h. The effects of different atmospheres on the physical and mechanical properties of sintered samples were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by conducting experiment on evaluating the sintering shrinkage, water absorption and bulk density. It is found that the kinetics of the sintering process is significantly affected by sintering atmosphere. In particular, compared with sintering in air atmosphere, sintering in N2 atmosphere promotes the synergistic growth of pyroxene and melilite crystalline phases, which can contribute to better mechanical properties and denser microstructure.

  14. Soil physics with Python transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere system

    CERN Document Server

    Bittelli, Marco; Tomei, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents numerical methods to solve soil physics problems using computers. It starts with the theory and then shows how to use Python code to solve the problems. Most soil physics books focus on deriving rather than solving the differential equations for mass and energy transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The focus of this book is on solutions. Agricultural and biological scientists usually have a good working knowledge of algebra and calculus, but not of differential equations. Here numerical procedures are used to solve differential equations.

  15. Physical modeling of flow over an axisymmetric knoll under neutral atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, W.C.; Smith, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    A glass-walled hydraulic (water) flume was used to model physically air flow near an axisymmetric knoll in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer. The knoll was a 1:250 scale model. An upstream velocity profile (1/7 power law), characteristic of a neutral atmospheric boundary layer, was produced by locating a 10-cm-high (4-in.) trip near the flume entrance and by appropriately roughening the flume floor. Mean velocity, rms velocity, and turbulence intensity profiles were measured at locations near the knoll using an existing laser Doppler anemometer system. The flow accelerated over the knoll and produced a relatively uniform velocity profile at the crest. The measured velocity profile was in close agreement with a theoretical velocity profile developed using potential flow theory and an upstream power law velocity profile. The turbulence intensity decreased at the crest of the knoll as a result of the flow acceleration

  16. Physical modeling of emergency emission in the atmosphere (experimental investigation of Lagrangian turbulence characteristics in the surface and boundary layer of the atmosphere)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.

    2013-01-01

    Results of diffusion experiments simulating emergency emission in the surface and boundary layers of the atmosphere are presented. Interpretation of measurements in the surface layer of the atmosphere had been conducted on the basis of the Lagrangian similarity hypothesis., Results of measurements in the boundary layer of the atmosphere are interpreted with use of the homogeneous turbulence theory. Regimes of turbulent diffusion from land and low sources of admixtures predicted by the Lagrangian similarity hypothesis for various conditions of thermal stratification in the surface layer of the atmosphere are experimentally confirmed. Universal empirical constants for these regimes are received that allows to use their in practice. Calculation diffusion parameters and concentrations of an admixture from various sources in the surface layer of the atmosphere by model is presented. Results of calculation on this model are compared to independent measurements of mass concentration of a admixture in horizontal and vertical planes. Results of simultaneous measurements Eulerian and Lagrangian turbulence characteristics for various diffusion times in the boundary layer of the atmosphere have allowed to estimate turbulence time scales in Lagrangian variables for conditions close to neutral thermal stratification. The monograph is intended for scientists and students engaged in the field of meteorology, physics of the atmosphere and pollution air control, services of radiation and ecological safety

  17. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental), the main barrier to emergency department inter-professional communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Varjoshani, Nasrin; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-08-22

    A highly important factor in enhancing quality of patient care and job satisfaction of health care staff is inter-professional communication. Due to the critical nature of the work environment, the large number of staff and units, and complexity of professional tasks and interventions, inter-professional communication in an emergency department is particularly and exceptionally important. Despite its importance, inter-professional communication in emergency department seems unfavorable. Thus, this study was designed to explain barriers to inter-professional communication in an emergency department. This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach, based on interviews conducted with 26 participants selected purposively, with diversity of occupation, position, age, gender, history, and place of work. Interviews were in-depth and semi-structured, and data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. In total, 251 initial codes were extracted from 30 interviews (some of the participants re-interviewed) and in the reducing trend of final results, 5 categories were extracted including overcrowded emergency, stressful emergency environment, not discerning emergency conditions, ineffective management, and inefficient communication channels. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental) was the common theme between categories, and was decided to be the main barrier to effective inter-professional communication. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical-mental) was found to be the most important barrier to inter-professional communication. This study provided a better understanding of these barriers in emergency department, often neglected in most studies. It is held that by reducing environmental turmoil (physical-mental), inter-professional communication can be improved, thereby improving patient care outcomes and personnel job satisfaction.

  18. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric High-energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Mnatsakanyan, E.

    2016-01-01

    The observation of the numerous Thunderstorm ground Enhancements (TGEs), i.e. enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth’s surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it helped to establish a new scientific topic - high-energy physics in the atmosphere. The Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiated high-energy processes in the thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Aragats Mt. in Armenia during strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma ray energy spectra proved that RREA is a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the “beams” of “electron accelerators” operated in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking at May-June and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. The key method employed is that all the relevant information is being gathered, including the data on the particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mt. Aragats on the 28th of August 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes. (author)

  19. Contributions from the Department of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics to EWEC `99 in Nice, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gunner C; Westermann, Kirsten; Noergaard, Per [eds.

    1999-03-01

    The first conference following the merger of the series of European Union Wind Energy Conference and the European Wind Energy Conferences - EWEC`99 - was held in Nice, France during the period 1-5 March 1999. About 600 delegates, mainly from Europe but also from other parts of the world, attended the conference. The conference contributions included 96 oral presentations and 305 posters. The Department of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics contributed with 29 oral presentations and 36 posters with members of the department as authors or co-authors. The present report contains the set of these papers available at the deadline 19 March 1999. The contributions cover a wide spectrum of subjects including wind resources, aerodynamics, reliability and load assessment, grid connection, measurement methods, innovative wind turbines and market aspects. (au)

  20. Atmospheric chemistry and physics in the atmosphere of a developed megacity (London: an overview of the REPARTEE experiment and its conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Harrison

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The REgents PARk and Tower Environmental Experiment (REPARTEE comprised two campaigns in London in October 2006 and October/November 2007. The experiment design involved measurements at a heavily trafficked roadside site, two urban background sites and an elevated site at 160–190 m above ground on the BT Tower, supplemented in the second campaign by Doppler lidar measurements of atmospheric vertical structure. A wide range of measurements of airborne particle physical metrics and chemical composition were made as well as measurements of a considerable range of gas phase species and the fluxes of both particulate and gas phase substances. Significant findings include (a demonstration of the evaporation of traffic-generated nanoparticles during both horizontal and vertical atmospheric transport; (b generation of a large base of information on the fluxes of nanoparticles, accumulation mode particles and specific chemical components of the aerosol and a range of gas phase species, as well as the elucidation of key processes and comparison with emissions inventories; (c quantification of vertical gradients in selected aerosol and trace gas species which has demonstrated the important role of regional transport in influencing concentrations of sulphate, nitrate and secondary organic compounds within the atmosphere of London; (d generation of new data on the atmospheric structure and turbulence above London, including the estimation of mixed layer depths; (e provision of new data on trace gas dispersion in the urban atmosphere through the release of purposeful tracers; (f the determination of spatial differences in aerosol particle size distributions and their interpretation in terms of sources and physico-chemical transformations; (g studies of the nocturnal oxidation of nitrogen oxides and of the diurnal behaviour of nitrate aerosol in the urban atmosphere, and (h new information on the chemical composition and source apportionment of particulate

  1. Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory engineering concepts/design tradeoffs. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

  2. "SMART": A Compact and Handy FORTRAN Code for the Physics of Stellar Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapar, A.; Poolamäe, R.

    2003-01-01

    A new computer code SMART (Spectra from Model Atmospheres by Radiative Transfer) for computing the stellar spectra, forming in plane-parallel atmospheres, has been compiled by us and A. Aret. To guarantee wide compatibility of the code with shell environment, we chose FORTRAN-77 as programming language and tried to confine ourselves to common part of its numerous versions both in WINDOWS and LINUX. SMART can be used for studies of several processes in stellar atmospheres. The current version of the programme is undergoing rapid changes due to our goal to elaborate a simple, handy and compact code. Instead of linearisation (being a mathematical method of recurrent approximations) we propose to use the physical evolutionary changes or in other words relaxation of quantum state populations rates from LTE to NLTE has been studied using small number of NLTE states. This computational scheme is essentially simpler and more compact than the linearisation. This relaxation scheme enables using instead of the Λ-iteration procedure a physically changing emissivity (or the source function) which incorporates in itself changing Menzel coefficients for NLTE quantum state populations. However, the light scattering on free electrons is in the terms of Feynman graphs a real second-order quantum process and cannot be reduced to consequent processes of absorption and emission as in the case of radiative transfer in spectral lines. With duly chosen input parameters the code SMART enables computing radiative acceleration to the matter of stellar atmosphere in turbulence clumps. This also enables to connect the model atmosphere in more detail with the problem of the stellar wind triggering. Another problem, which has been incorporated into the computer code SMART, is diffusion of chemical elements and their isotopes in the atmospheres of chemically peculiar (CP) stars due to usual radiative acceleration and the essential additional acceleration generated by the light-induced drift. As

  3. Phase B-final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL). A spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Progress in the development of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is outlined. The fluid subsystem, aerosol generator, expansion chamber, optical system, control systems, and software are included.

  4. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) task flow is shown. Current progress is identified. The requirements generated in task 1 have been used to formulate an initial ACPL baseline design concept. ACPL design/functional features are illustrated. A timetable is presented of the routines for ACPL integration with the spacelab system.

  5. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  6. Existence and asymptotic estimates of periodic solutions of El Niño mechanism of atmospheric physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Jing, Li

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the El Niño mechanism of atmospheric physics. The existence and asymptotic estimates of periodic solutions for its model are obtained by employing the technique of upper and lower solution, and using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory. (general)

  7. Utilization of mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC as a meteorological forecast model in nuclear emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1997-01-01

    It is advantageous for an emergency response system to have a forecast function to provide a time margin for countermeasures in case of a nuclear accident. We propose to apply an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC (Prognostic HYdroStatic model Including turbulence Closure model) as a meteorological forecast model in the emergency system. The model uses GPV data which are the output of the numerical weather forecast model of Japan Meteorological Agency as the initial and boundary conditions. The roles of PHYSIC are the interface between GPV data and the emergency response system and the forecast of local atmospheric phenomena within the model domain. This paper presents a scheme to use PHYSIC to forecast local wind and its performance. Horizontal grid number of PHYSIC is fixed to 50 x 50, whereas the mesh and domain sizes are determined in consideration of topography causing local winds at an objective area. The model performance was examined for the introduction of GPV data through initial and boundary conditions and the predictability of local wind field and atmospheric stability. The model performance was on an acceptable level as the forecast model. It was also recognized that improvement of cloud calculation was necessary in simulating atmospheric stability. (author)

  8. Investigation of methods for physical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and ground dust fractions on radioactive contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'ev, O.I.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Gaziev, Ya.I.; Gordeev, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data about current situation and trends to develop investigation methods for physical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and ground dust fractions that are observed on the former Semipalatinsk Test Site area and adjacent regions. It was considered one of the options for comprehensive collection of radioactive aerosols as fallout within control area of atmospheric contamination and underlying surface with aerosol products of the man-caused dusting on the former STS area to determine rates of 'dry' deposition and ground-based activity concentration contained in these products of radionuclides at different distances from place of dusting. (author)

  9. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  10. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  11. Analysis of different atmospheric physical parameterizations in COAWST modeling system for the Tropical Storm Nock-ten application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Danqin; Du, Jianting; Hua, Feng

    2016-01-01

    the storm center area. As a result, using Kain–Fritsch cumulus scheme, Goddard shortwave radiation scheme and RRTM longwave radiation scheme in WRF may lead to much larger wind intensity, significant wave height, current intensity, as well as lower SST and sea surface pressure. Thus......A coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport modeling system was applied to study the atmosphere and ocean dynamics during Tropical Storm Nock-ten. Different atmospheric physical parameterizations in WRF model were investigated through ten groups of numerical experiments. Results...... of atmosphere, ocean wave and current features were compared with storm observations, ERA-Interim data, NOAA sea surface temperature data, AVISO current data and HYCOM data, respectively. It was found that the storm track and intensity are sensitive to the cumulus and radiation schemes in WRF, especially around...

  12. Biological and physical controls in the Southern Ocean on past millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C; Lippold, Jörg; Vogel, Hendrik; Frank, Norbert; Jaccard, Samuel L; Waelbroeck, Claire

    2016-05-17

    Millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial period and deglaciation were accompanied by rapid changes in atmospheric CO2 that remain unexplained. While the role of the Southern Ocean as a 'control valve' on ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange has been emphasized, the exact nature of this role, in particular the relative contributions of physical (for example, ocean dynamics and air-sea gas exchange) versus biological processes (for example, export productivity), remains poorly constrained. Here we combine reconstructions of bottom-water [O2], export production and (14)C ventilation ages in the sub-Antarctic Atlantic, and show that atmospheric CO2 pulses during the last glacial- and deglacial periods were consistently accompanied by decreases in the biological export of carbon and increases in deep-ocean ventilation via southern-sourced water masses. These findings demonstrate how the Southern Ocean's 'organic carbon pump' has exerted a tight control on atmospheric CO2, and thus global climate, specifically via a synergy of both physical and biological processes.

  13. Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL), a spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary identification of the Supporting Research and Technology (SR&T) necessary during the planned evolution of atmospheric cloud physics is discussed. All requirements are for subsequent flights over its expected ten year lifetime. Those components identified as requiring some SR&T work prior to inclusion are listed. A data sheet is included for each item, briefly justifying the need, giving general objectives for the proposed development effort and identifying approximate schedule requirements on the program.

  14. Theory of planetary atmospheres an introduction to their physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlain, Joseph W; Marshall, Samantha

    1978-01-01

    For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web * Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative laboratory experiments * Includes...

  15. Infrasound Predictions Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model: Atmospheric Green's Functions for the Source Physics Experiments 1-6.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppeliers, Christian; Aur, Katherine Anderson; Preston, Leiph

    2018-03-01

    This report shows the results of constructing predictive atmospheric models for the Source Physics Experiments 1-6. Historic atmospheric data are combined with topography to construct an atmo- spheric model that corresponds to the predicted (or actual) time of a given SPE event. The models are ultimately used to construct atmospheric Green's functions to be used for subsequent analysis. We present three atmospheric models for each SPE event: an average model based on ten one- hour snap shots of the atmosphere and two extrema models corresponding to the warmest, coolest, windiest, etc. atmospheric snap shots. The atmospheric snap shots consist of wind, temperature, and pressure profiles of the atmosphere for a one-hour time window centered at the time of the predicted SPE event, as well as nine additional snap shots for each of the nine preceding years, centered at the time and day of the SPE event.

  16. Shoppers’ Perception on Physical Condition of Shopping Centers’ Atmosphere at Different Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Kusumowidagdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Shopping center with atmospheric stimuli design needs to be well formulated in marketing strategy to expose its competitive advantage. As a result, most designs included in the marketing tactic scheme pay more attention to all factors related to the lifestyle in order to make designs exist and be appreciated by the society. Design is one of the key factors of shopping center to gain its success. This research aimed to find out to what extent the visitors perception is different towards shopping centers which has different lifecycles. The research studied two things, first was exploratory research intended to find the embodiment of atmospheric (atmospheric variables.The second research was done in a quantitative method, (multiple regression. This research studied the perception of a hundred mall visitors regarding how the variables of the interior atmosphere affected their shopping habit. The independent variables in the research were the exterior features and building configuration, interior features and supporting facilities. The dependent variable was the the visitor behavior. As a conclusion, the atmospheric interior design of a mall that is embodied in its interior element supported the hypothesis which said that existence of experience which felt differently according to visitor perception at shopping centers in different lifecyle.

  17. Physical model of the dispersion of a radioactive contaminant in the atmosphere above a heat island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toly, J.A.; Tenchine, D.

    1984-01-01

    The project deals with the impact of surface heating in urban areas on the dispersion of contaminants in the atmosphere. - The atmospheric boundary layer is simulated in a water flume. Ground heating is applied locally reproducing the heat flux of an urban region. Fission products for which internal heat source is neglected are simulated by horizontal plumes at pHs different from the original pH of the flume. - The main results of the study concern: the characterization of the internal boundary layer downstream of the leading edge of the heated ground; the comparison of the concentration distributions of pollutants with and without surface heating. - A transposition of the results, expressed in terms of global parameters, enables information on the heat island effect due to urban regions on the dispersion of contaminants in the atmosphere to be obtained

  18. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications.

  19. Program report for FY 1984 and 1985 Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; MacCracken, M.C.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gresho, P.M.; Luther, F.M.

    1986-08-01

    This annual report for the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division (G-Division) summarizes the activities and highlights of the past three years, with emphasis on significant research findings in two major program areas: the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its recent involvement in assessing the effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and new findings on the environmental consequences of nuclear war. The technical highlights of the many other research projects are also briefly reported, along with the Division's organization, budget, and publications

  20. Environmental consequences of nuclear war (SCOPE 28), Vol. 1: Physical and atmospheric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittock, A.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Crutzen, P.J.; MacCracken, M.C.; Shapiro, C.S.; Turco, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an interdisciplinary look at current scientific knowledge of the possible environmental consequences of a nuclear war. The authors assess the likely magnitude of changes in sunlight, temperature, precipitation, atmospheric chemistry, and more. Volume One reviews existing nuclear arsenals, war scenarios, immediate and subsequent effects

  1. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1980. Atmospheric physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Contained are twenty-six abstracts of on-going research programs at Argonne National Laboratory concerning the modeling of environmental air pollutants concentration and transport for January-December 1980. Studies on pollutant transport modeling, fluid flow models, and atmospheric precipitations chemistry are included

  2. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1982. Atmospheric physics. Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The first article in this report, although dealing with simple terrain, summarizes an effort to obtain measures of parameters important in transport and diffusion in the lower atmosphere solely by use of a Doppler acoustic sounding system. The second article describes participation in a multiagency experiment (Shoreline Environment Atmospheric Dispersion Experiment, SEADEX) to study the fate of materials released over a surface with notable surface nonuniformities, specifically at a coastal nuclear power plant during onshore flow conditions. The third and fourth articles in this report address research on the local behavior of pollutants emitted from diesel engines in urban areas. Most effort was directed toward field studies on circulation patterns in street canyons, exchange rates with the atmosphere above rooftops, and characterization of particles in outdoor urban microclimates. The remainder of the report is quite diverse and contains multiple articles on perhaps only one or two types of research. One is numerical modeling of the behavior of atmospheric pollutants, especially gaseous and particulate substances associated with acid deposition. The modeling and theoretical capabilities have been developed in part to consider potential nonlinear relationships between anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and the distant deposition of resulting acidifying substances. On the experimental side, field phases of research designed to compare methods of analyses of precipitation samples and to study local urban effects on precipitation chemistry were completed. Each report is indexed separately.

  3. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division, Physics Department program report, FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Orphan, R.C.

    1977-12-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a number of mathematical models for the simulation and computer analysis of a variety of environmental conditions. Regional, local, and global models for the environmental transport of chemical and radioactive effluents at surface and stratospheric levels are described. A list is included of publications in the atmospheric sciences during the time covered by this report

  4. The molecular physics of photolytic fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in planetary atmospheres (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Schmidt, J. A.; Hattori, S.; Danielache, S.; Meusinger, C.; Schinke, R.; Ueno, Y.; Nanbu, S.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric photochemistry is able to produce large mass independent anomalies in atmospheric trace gases that can be found in geological and cryospheric records. This talk will present theoretical and experimental investigations of the molecular mechanisms producing photolytic fractionation of isotopes with special attention to sulfur and oxygen. The zero point vibrational energy (ZPE) shift and reflection principle theories are starting points for estimating isotopic fractionation, but these models ignore effects arising from isotope-dependent changes in couplings between surfaces, excited state dynamics, line densities and hot band populations. The isotope-dependent absorption spectra of the isotopologues of HCl, N2O, OCS, CO2 and SO2 have been examined in a series of papers and these results are compared with experiment and ZPE/reflection principle models. Isotopic fractionation in planetary atmospheres has many interesting applications. The UV absorption of CO2 is the basis of photochemistry in the CO2-rich atmospheres of the ancient Earth, and of Mars and Venus. For the first time we present accurate temperature and isotope dependent CO2 absorption cross sections with important implications for photolysis rates of SO2 and H2O, and the production of a mass independent anomaly in the Ox reservoir. Experimental and theoretical results for OCS have implications for the modern stratospheric sulfur budget. The absorption bands of SO2 are complex with rich structure producing isotopic fractionation in photolysis and photoexcitation.

  5. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1982. Atmospheric physics. Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The first article in this report, although dealing with simple terrain, summarizes an effort to obtain measures of parameters important in transport and diffusion in the lower atmosphere solely by use of a Doppler acoustic sounding system. The second article describes participation in a multiagency experiment (Shoreline Environment Atmospheric Dispersion Experiment, SEADEX) to study the fate of materials released over a surface with notable surface nonuniformities, specifically at a coastal nuclear power plant during onshore flow conditions. The third and fourth articles in this report address research on the local behavior of pollutants emitted from diesel engines in urban areas. Most effort was directed toward field studies on circulation patterns in street canyons, exchange rates with the atmosphere above rooftops, and characterization of particles in outdoor urban microclimates. The remainder of the report is quite diverse and contains multiple articles on perhaps only one or two types of research. One is numerical modeling of the behavior of atmospheric pollutants, especially gaseous and particulate substances associated with acid deposition. The modeling and theoretical capabilities have been developed in part to consider potential nonlinear relationships between anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and the distant deposition of resulting acidifying substances. On the experimental side, field phases of research designed to compare methods of analyses of precipitation samples and to study local urban effects on precipitation chemistry were completed. Each report is indexed separately

  6. Origins of atmospheric aerosols. Basic concepts on aerosol main physical properties; L`aerosol atmospherique: ses origines quelques notions sur les principales proprietes physiques des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoux, A. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France). Laboratoire de Physique des aerosols et de transferts des contaminations

    1996-12-31

    Natural and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric aerosols are reviewed and indications of their concentrations and granulometry are given. Calculation of the lifetime of an atmospheric aerosol of a certain size is presented and the various modes of aerosol granulometry and their relations with photochemical and physico-chemical processes in the atmosphere are discussed. The main physical, electrical and optical properties of aerosols are also presented: diffusion coefficient, dynamic mobility and relaxation time, Stokes number, limit rate of fall, electrical mobility, optical diffraction

  7. Physical Properties of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Analysis of Contradictions and Possible Ways of Their Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Korablev, O. I.; Morozhenko, A. V.; Moroz, V. I.; Petrova, E. V.; Rodin, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in forming the Martian climate. However, the basic physical properties of the Martian aerosols are still poorly known; there are many contradictions in their estimates. We present an analytical overview of the published results and potentialities of various methods. We consider mineral dust. Zonally averaged data obtained from mapping IR instruments (TES and IRTM) give the optical thickness of mineral aerosols τ9 = 0.05-0.1 in the 9-μm band for quite atmospheric conditions. There is a problem of comparing these estimates with those obtained in the visible spectral range. We suggest that the commonly used ratio τvis/τ9 >2 depends on the interpretation and it may actually be smaller. The ratio τvis/τ9 ~ 1 is in better agreement with the IRIS data (materials like montmorillonite). If we assume that τvis/τ9 = 1 and take into account the nonspherical particle shape, then the interpretation of ground-based integrated polarimetric observations (τ < 0.04) can be reconciled with IR measurements from the orbit. However, for thin layers, the sensitivity of both methods to the optical thickness is poorly understood: on the one hand, polarimetry depends on the cloud cover and, on the other hand, the interpretation of IR measurements requires that the atmospheric temperature profile and the surface temperature and emissivity be precisely known. For quite atmospheric conditions, the local optical-thickness estimates obtained by the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer method and from the sky brightness measured from Viking 1 and 2 and Mars Pathfinder landers are much larger: τ = 0.3-0.6. Estimates of the contrasts in images from the Viking orbiters yield the same values. Thus, there is still a factor of 3 to 10 difference between different groups of optical-thickness estimates for the quiet atmosphere. This difference is probably explained by the contribution of condensation clouds and/or by local/time variations.

  8. Physical and meteorological data from the seventy moorings of the Tropical Atmosphere/Ocean (TAO) Project in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1979-2002 (NODC Accession 0000727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and meteorological data were collected in the Tropical Pacific Ocean from 29 January 1979 to 03 November 2001. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  9. Physical profile data collected during the calendar year 2003 for the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environment Lab (NODC Accession 0001364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical profile data were collected using meteorological sensors and CTD casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA and NOAA Ship RONALD H....

  10. Program report: FY 1976, Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division, Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Orphan, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), with its central facility located at LLL, is meeting the long-term need for rapid and accurate regional dose-to-man estimates of nuclear material released as a result of accidents, operations, or terrorism acts. During the past two years, ARAC has been used in four potential WARMSPOT events and for one accidental release. Continuing research, in terms of new modeling techniques, simulation of regional tracer experiments, and other verification activities, support this capability. Emergency response is currently being upgraded to evaluate the consequences of atmospheric releases at selected nuclear facilities and for potential acts of nuclear terrorism anywhere in the Northern Hemisphere. Regional modeling was also applied in monitoring SO 2 -sulfate concentrations in the northeastern USA

  11. Program report for FY 1980. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division of the Physics Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Orphan, R.C.

    1981-02-01

    The FY 1980 research program conducted by the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division and supporting segments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is reviewed briefly. The work is divided into five research themes: advanced modeling, regional modeling and assessments, CO 2 and climate research, stratospheric research, and special projects. Specific projects are described, and significant findings of the work are indicated. Unique numerical modeling capabilities in use and under development are described

  12. A Hot Downflowing Model Atmosphere for Umbral Flashes and the Physical Properties of Their Dark Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, V. M. J.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Socas-Navarro, H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Avda vía Láctea S/N, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz, E-mail: v.henriques@qub.ac.uk [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-08-20

    We perform non-LTE inversions in a large set of umbral flashes, including the dark fibrils visible within them, and in the quiescent umbra by using the inversion code NICOLE on a set of full Stokes high-resolution Ca ii λ 8542 observations of a sunspot at disk center. We find that the dark structures have Stokes profiles that are distinct from those of the quiescent and flashed regions. They are best reproduced by atmospheres that are more similar to the flashed atmosphere in terms of velocities, even if with reduced amplitudes. We also find two sets of solutions that finely fit the flashed profiles: a set that is upflowing, featuring a transition region that is deeper than in the quiescent case and preceded by a slight dip in temperature, and a second solution with a hotter atmosphere in the chromosphere but featuring downflows close to the speed of sound at such heights. Such downflows may be related, or even dependent, on the presence of coronal loops, rooted in the umbra of sunspots, as is the case in the region analyzed. Similar loops have been recently observed to have supersonic downflows in the transition region and are consistent with the earlier “sunspot plumes,” which were invariably found to display strong downflows in sunspots. Finally, we find, on average, a magnetic field reduction in the flashed areas, suggesting that the shock pressure is moving field lines in the upper layers.

  13. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  14. Assessment of two physical parameterization schemes for desert dust emissions in an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter and more specific desert dust has been the topic of numerous research studies in the past due to the wide range of impacts in the environment and climate and the uncertainty of characterizing and quantifying these impacts in a global scale. In this work we present two physical parameterizations of the desert dust production that have been incorporated in the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). The scope of this work is to assess the impact of the two physical parameterizations in the global distribution of desert dust and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using either technique. The dust concentration and deposition has been evaluated using the AEROCOM dust dataset for the year 2000 and data from the MODIS and MISR satellites as well as sun-photometer data from the AERONET network was used to compare the modelled aerosol optical depth with observations. The implementation of the two parameterizations and the simulations using relatively high spatial resolution (T106~1.1deg) has highlighted the large spatial heterogeneity of the dust emission sources as well as the importance of the input parameters (soil size and texture, vegetation, surface wind speed). Also, sensitivity simulations with the nudging option using reanalysis data from ECMWF and without nudging have showed remarkable differences for some areas. Both parameterizations have revealed the difficulty of simulating all arid regions with the same assumptions and mechanisms. Depending on the arid region, each emission scheme performs more or less satisfactorily which leads to the necessity of treating each desert differently. Even though this is a quite different task to accomplish in a global model, some recommendations are given and ideas for future improvements.

  15. Discharge physics and chemistry of a novel atmospheric pressure plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Henins, I.; Hermann, J.W.; Selwyn, G.S.; Jeong, J.Y.; Hickis, R.

    1999-07-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a unique plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. The APPJ operates with RF power and produces a stable non-thermal discharge in capacitively-coupled configuration. The discharge is spatially and temporally homogeneous and provides a unique gas phase chemistry that is well suited for various applications including etching, film deposition, surface treatment and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents. A theoretical model shows electron densities of 0.2--2 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3} for a helium discharge at a power level of 3--30 W cm{sup {minus}3}. The APPJ also produces a large flux, equivalent of up to 10,000 monolayer s{sup {minus}1}, of chemically-active, atomic and metastable molecular species which can impinge surfaces several cm downstream of the confined source. In addition, the efforts are in progress to measure the electron density using microwave diagnostics and to benchmark the gas phase chemical model by using LIF and titration.

  16. Chemical-physical parameters of atmospheric precipitations in the Pisa urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradossi, C.; Marchini, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the work the major chemical-physical parameters of the rain collected in May 1992 - May 1993 period in Pisa are studied and discussed. The ph analysis was particular interesting. Indeed sometimes it reached values between 4.5 and 5.0. Also the ions examined although they did not reach values supposed to cause damage, were subjected to monthly variations. This paper confirms previously results. Pisa although not being considered an industrial area is subjected to pollutant acid rains [it

  17. Some studies relating to solar-terrestrial physics and the middle atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theobald, A.G.

    1977-12-01

    A review is given of observed variations in the Earth's rotation rate, and mechanisms by which the Sun might affect the length of day are discussed. Solar activity and means by which the planets might influence this activity are considered. Observed solar activity - weather correlations, in particular in relation to the sun-based, interplanetary magnetic sector structure and some of the suggested mechanisms for producing these correlations are discussed. The simple photochemical production of ozone in the middle atmosphere and the manner in which cosmic rays, through the production of nitrogen compounds, alter the ozone concentration at high altitudes is described. A computer model is developed which calculates ozone concentrations and energy absorption at any altitude, latitude, longitude and time of year and used to predict ozone and temperature change profiles over a 14-day cycle of ultra-violet changes. The existence of a solar magnetic sector linked variation of the high latitude, high altitude NO concentration is postulated and this is incorporated into the computer model to predict a temperature oscillation over a 14-day cycle which varies with geographic latitude and longitude. This effect is investigated in detail. (UK)

  18. Gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric aerosols: interplay of physical state, non-ideal mixing and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Bertram, Allan K; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-21

    Atmospheric aerosols, comprising organic compounds and inorganic salts, play a key role in air quality and climate. Mounting evidence exists that these particles frequently exhibit phase separation into predominantly organic and aqueous electrolyte-rich phases. As well, the presence of amorphous semi-solid or glassy particle phases has been established. Using the canonical system of ammonium sulfate mixed with organics from the ozone oxidation of α-pinene, we illustrate theoretically the interplay of physical state, non-ideality, and particle morphology affecting aerosol mass concentration and the characteristic timescale of gas-particle mass transfer. Phase separation can significantly affect overall particle mass and chemical composition. Semi-solid or glassy phases can kinetically inhibit the partitioning of semivolatile components and hygroscopic growth, in contrast to the traditional assumption that organic compounds exist in quasi-instantaneous gas-particle equilibrium. These effects have significant implications for the interpretation of laboratory data and the development of improved atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  19. The contributions of Lewis Fry Richardson to drainage theory, soil physics, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, John; Raats, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The EGU Division on Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics awards the Lewis Fry Richardson Medal. Richardson's significance is highlighted in http://www.egu.eu/awards-medals/portrait-lewis-fry-richardson/, but his contributions to soil physics and to numerical solutions of heat and diffusion equations are not mentioned. We would like to draw attention to those little known contributions. Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) made important contributions to many fields including numerical weather prediction, finite difference solutions of partial differential equations, turbulent flow and diffusion, fractals, quantitative psychology and studies of conflict. He invented numerical weather prediction during World War I, although his methods were not successfully applied until 1950, after the invention of fast digital computers. In 1922 he published the book `Numerical weather prediction', of which few copies were sold and even fewer were read until the 1950s. To model heat and mass transfer in the atmosphere, he did much original work on turbulent flow and defined what is now known as the Richardson number. His technique for improving the convergence of a finite difference calculation is known as Richardson extrapolation, and was used by John Philip in his 1957 semi-analytical solution of the Richards equation for water movement in unsaturated soil. Richardson's first papers in 1908 concerned the numerical solution of the free surface problem of unconfined flow of water in saturated soil, arising in the design of drain spacing in peat. Later, for the lower boundary of his atmospheric model he needed to understand the movement of heat, liquid water and water vapor in what is now called the vadose zone and the soil plant atmosphere system, and to model coupled transfer of heat and flow of water in unsaturated soil. Finding little previous work, he formulated partial differential equations for transient, vertical flow of liquid water and for transfer of heat and water vapor. He

  20. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  1. On the role of atmospheric forcing on upper ocean physics in the Southern Ocean and biological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Magdalena M.

    The Southern Ocean (SO) plays a key role in regulating climate by absorbing nearly half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2). Both physical and biogeochemical processes contribute to the net CO2 sink. As a result of global warming and ozone depletion, westerly winds have increased, with consequences for upper ocean physics but little is known on how primary producers are expected to respond to changes in atmospheric forcing. This thesis addresses the impact of atmospheric forcing on upper ocean dynamics and phytoplankton bloom development in the SO on synoptic storm scales, combining a broad range of observations derived from satellites, reanalysis, profiling floats and Southern elephant seals. On atmospheric synoptic timescales (2-10 days), relevant for phytoplankton growth and accumulation, wind speed has a larger impact on satellite Chl-a variability than surface heat fluxes or wind stress curl. In summer, strong winds are linked to deep mixed layers, cold sea surface temperatures and enhanced satellite chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), which suggest wind-driven entrainment plays a role in sustaining phytoplankton blooms at the surface. Subsurface bio-optical data from floats and seals reveal deep Chl-a fluorescence maxima (DFM) are ubiquitous in summer and tend to sit at the base of the mixed layer, but can occur in all seasons. The fact that wind speed and Chl-a correlations are maximal at zero lag time (from daily data) and incubation experiments indicate phytoplankton growth occurs 3-4 days after iron addition, suggests high winds in summer entrain Chl-a from a subsurface maximum. Vertical profiles also reveal Chl-a fluorescence unevenness within hydrographically defined mixed layers, suggesting the biological timescales of adaptation through the light gradient (i.e. growth and/or photoacclimation) are often faster than mixing timescales, and periods of quiescence between storms are long enough for biological gradients to form within the homogeneous layer in density

  2. Radiological and Environmental Research Division Annual Report. Atmosphere Physics January - December 1979.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R. E.; Hicks, B. B.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of this document with previous reports of this series will reveal some substantial changes in the research performed by this Section. There have been several projects in which scientific work has evolved, creating the bases for exciting new programs. For example, the Section's work on micrometeorology was initially in support of planetary boundary layer modeling studies. In recent years, the techniques that were developed have been extended to .include air pollutants, and we are now closely identified with work on the dry deposition of airborne particles and trace gases. In this area of research, three separate programs can be identified'. Under EPA sponsorship, we are developing methods for parameterizing the dry deposition of acid aerosol for, the MAP3S program. In a second EPA program, we are conducting field experiments to investigate the physical, chemical and biological factors that control dry deposition rates to natural surfaces. Under DOE sponsorship, we are conducting field experiments concentrating on the deposition of trace gases and particles to open water surfaces.

  3. Physical properties and pyrolysis characteristics of rice husks in different atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Wang

    Full Text Available This paper explores the physical properties and pyrolysis characteristics of rice husk combustion in air and in argon. The SEM results show that the outer epidermis of combusted RHIR (rice husk in air is well organized with features that include papillae shapes and full, straight, high ridges. The inner epidermis of the RHIR has long rectangular furrow tissues. The results also show that the outer epidermis of pyrolyzed RHR (rice husk in argon has ridges that are not as straight as for the RHIR and the top of the papillae have small holes. The inner surface of the RHR looks a some cracked. XPS analysis shows that the surfaces of RHIR and RHR contain carbon, oxygen, and silicon. The carbon was found to be in the elemental graphite form, the oxygen in the −2 oxidation state, and the silicon in the Si4+ form as SiO2. The DSC graphs have “camel peaks”, showing that an increase in rate of heating leads to an increase in the exothermic peaks. Calculations show that, initially, increased temperature leads to increased activation energy for pyrolysis, but as the temperature continues to increase, the activation energy decreases again. The frequency factor follows the same trend. In analysis of carbon content, rice husk volatile carbon content is the largest, it is about 33.94%, especially 700 °C, the carbon content of volatile minimum is about 0.33%. Keywords: Rice husk, Microstructure, Thermal analysis, Thermal properties, XPS

  4. The 4th ATLAS Physics Workshop in Athens: The discussions, social events, environment, atmosphere, etc.

    CERN Multimedia

    Kawagoe, K

    Over 220 people attended the 4th Atlas Software Workshop in Athens, Greece, a place with a history of thousands of years of scientific achievement. The workshop was hosted by the University of Athens, the National Technical University of Athens, and the Aristotle University of Thessalonki. The venue for the meeting was the newly opened Conference Center of the Physics Department of the University of Athens which featured very comfortable plush red chairs (too comfortable for some of the more jet-lagged workshop participants!). Fig.1. Participants gathering in front of the Conference Center. The workshop schedule was structured to allow plenty of time during breaks for the many lively discussions that developed from the presentations. Ample supplies of coffee, juice, and cookies fueled the discussions. Discussions continued over lunches featuring Greek Salads and other tasty fare. The food was so good that one speaker offered the meal tickets as prize for answering a quiz at the end of her talk! The w...

  5. Improvement of a mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. Utilization of output from synoptic numerical prediction model for initial and boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the improvement of the mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model which is a part of the atmospheric dispersion calculation model PHYSIC. To introduce large-scale meteorological changes into the mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model, it is necessary to make the initial and boundary conditions of the model by using GPV (Grid Point Value) which is the output of the numerical weather prediction model of JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency). Therefore, the program which preprocesses the GPV data to make a input file to PHYSIC was developed and the input process and the methods of spatial and temporal interpolation were improved to correspond to the file. Moreover, the methods of calculating the cloud amount and ground surface moisture from GPV data were developed and added to the model code. As the example of calculation by the improved model, the wind field simulations of a north-west monsoon in winter and a sea breeze in summer in the Tokai area were also presented. (author)

  6. Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Final review (DR-MA-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, O. W.

    1976-01-01

    Systems design for an initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory to study microphysical processes in zero gravity is presented. Included are descriptions of the fluid, thermal, mechanical, control and data, and electrical distribution interfaces with Spacelab. Schedule and cost analysis are discussed.

  7. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: 'Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges' and 'Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortshagen, Uwe; Heberlein, Joachim; Girshick, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  8. Fine-Structure Measurements of Oxygen A Band Absorbance for Estimating the Thermodynamic Average Temperature of the Earth's Atmosphere: An Experiment in Physical and Environmental Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Daniele; Colavita, Paula

    2006-01-01

    The experiment describe the measures of the A band transitions of atmospheric oxygen, a rich series of rotation-electronic absorption lines falling in the deep red portion of the optical spectrum and clearly visible owing to attenuation of solar radiation. It combines pure physical chemistry with analytical and environmental science and provides a…

  9. Technologies and Methods Used at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) to Serve Solar Irradiance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Chris; Beland, Stephane; Craft, James; Baltzer, Thomas; Wilson, Anne; Lindholm, Doug; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas; Woodraska, Don

    2018-01-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado in Boulder, USA operates the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) NASA mission, as well as several other NASA spacecraft and instruments. Dozens of Solar Irradiance data sets are produced, managed, and disseminated to the science community. Data are made freely available to the scientific immediately after they are produced using a variety of data access interfaces, including the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Datacenter (LISIRD), which provides centralized access to a variety of solar irradiance data sets using both interactive and scriptable/programmatic methods. This poster highlights the key technological elements used for the NASA SORCE mission ground system to produce, manage, and disseminate data to the scientific community and facilitate long-term data stewardship. The poster presentation will convey designs, technological elements, practices and procedures, and software management processes used for SORCE and their relationship to data quality and data management standards, interoperability, NASA data policy, and community expectations.

  10. On the physical processes ruling an atmospheric pressure air glow discharge operating in an intermediate current regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm 2 , both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium

  11. Multi-scale Drivers of Variations in Atmospheric Evaporative Demand Based on Observations and Physically-based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, L.; Sheffield, J.; Li, D.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key link between the availability of water resources and climate change and climate variability. Variability of ET has important environmental and socioeconomic implications for managing hydrological hazards, food and energy production. Although there have been many observational and modeling studies of ET, how ET has varied and the drivers of the variations at different temporal scales remain elusive. Much of the uncertainty comes from the atmospheric evaporative demand (AED), which is the combined effect of radiative and aerodynamic controls. The inconsistencies among modeled AED estimates and the limited observational data may originate from multiple sources including the limited time span and uncertainties in the data. To fully investigate and untangle the intertwined drivers of AED, we present a spectrum analysis to identify key controls of AED across multiple temporal scales. We use long-term records of observed pan evaporation for 1961-2006 from 317 weather stations across China and physically-based model estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET). The model estimates are based on surface meteorology and radiation derived from reanalysis, satellite retrievals and station data. Our analyses show that temperature plays a dominant role in regulating variability of AED at the inter-annual scale. At the monthly and seasonal scales, the primary control of AED shifts from radiation in humid regions to humidity in dry regions. Unlike many studies focusing on the spatial pattern of ET drivers based on a traditional supply and demand framework, this study underlines the importance of temporal scales when discussing controls of ET variations.

  12. A Comparison between Predicted and Observed Atmospheric States and their Effects on Infrasonic Source Time Function Inversion at Source Physics Experiment 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aur, K. A.; Poppeliers, C.; Preston, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) consists of a series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to gain an improved understanding of the generation and propagation of physical signals in the near and far field. Characterizing the acoustic and infrasound source mechanism from underground explosions is of great importance to underground explosion monitoring. To this end we perform full waveform source inversion of infrasound data collected from the SPE-6 experiment at distances from 300 m to 6 km and frequencies up to 20 Hz. Our method requires estimating the state of the atmosphere at the time of each experiment, computing Green's functions through these atmospheric models, and subsequently inverting the observed data in the frequency domain to obtain a source time function. To estimate the state of the atmosphere at the time of the experiment, we utilize the Weather Research and Forecasting - Data Assimilation (WRF-DA) modeling system to derive a unified atmospheric state model by combining Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) data and locally obtained sonde and surface weather observations collected at the time of the experiment. We synthesize Green's functions through these atmospheric models using Sandia's moving media acoustic propagation simulation suite (TDAAPS). These models include 3-D variations in topography, temperature, pressure, and wind. We compare inversion results using the atmospheric models derived from the unified weather models versus previous modeling results and discuss how these differences affect computed source waveforms with respect to observed waveforms at various distances. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear

  13. Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Packed in a Modified Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ježek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor the course of physical and chemical changes taking place in stored fresh chilled muscle tissue of carp packed in modified atmosphere (MAP, and to determine its shelf life. Samples of muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. were packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 and stored for 15 days at +2 ± 2 °C max. During the storage period, O2 level in packs decreased from 78.7 ± 0.39% (day 1 to 63.8 ± 1.30% (day 15. Decrease in O2 in packs between storage days 7 and 9 was highly significant (p -1 (day 15. Hydrolytic lipid decomposition (FFA was more intensive in carp muscle tissue (2.09 ± 1.07% total lipid as oleic acid than in carp skin (1.01 ± 0.31% total lipid as oleic acid (day 15. Lipid oxidation (PV in skin showed differences from lipid oxidation in muscle tissue. Oxidation processes in muscle correlated positively with the length of storage (r = 0.90. Over the storage period, peroxide levels increased from 2.58 ± 1.19 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 1 to 6.76 ± 1.78 mekv O2 kg-1 (day 15. Because of low TVBN levels in muscle tissue, shelf life was limited mainly by sensory changes (green discoloration, odour deviations, slime production, which were observed from storage day 9 onwards. It was found that the maximum shelf life of carp packed in MAP (80% O2, 20% CO2 was 7 days. The optimum parameter to determine the remaining shelf life of common carp muscle tissue stored at +2 ± 2 °C max is the TVBN level. As concerns shelf life, TVBN levels in carp muscle should not exceed 15 mg 100 g-1. This level of TVBN (max. 15 mg 100 g-1 for carp (MAP 80% O2, 20% CO2 is much more lower in comparison with levels TVBN (max 25 - 35 mg 100 g-1 which have been determined by Commission Regulation (EC No. 2074/2005 for sea fish. For that reason we suggest to amplify the study by other monitoring (higher number of samples, various breeds of carp in different weight categories for all the year. On the basis of these analyses the level

  14. Heidelberg physicists report. Vol. 2. Reviews of research in physics and astronomy. Fundamental contributions to the physics of the atomic nuclei and the star atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, Immo; Dubbers, Dirk; Siebig, Hans-Georg; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2018-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: 50 years theoretical astrophysics, nuclear physics after the discovery of the shell model, from the small van de Graaf to the large HERA, from ''chamber physics'' to big research, reminiscences on physical research in Heidelberg. (HSI)

  15. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART B : Results and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Petitdidier, M.; Soula, S.; Masson, F.; Davila, J.; Doherty, P.; Elias, A.; Gadimova, S.; Makela, J.; Nava, B.; Radicella, S.; Richardson, J.; Touzani, A.; Girgea Team

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern solar terrestrial physics, atmospheric physics and space weather. This part B is devoted to the results and capacity building. Our network began in 1991, in solar terrestrial physics, by our participation in the two projects: International Equatorial Electrojet Year IEEY [1992-1993] and International Heliophysical Year IHY [2007-2009]. These two projects were mainly focused on the equatorial ionosphere in Africa. In Atmospheric physics our research focused on gravity waves in the framework of the African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis project n°1 [2005-2009 ], on hydrology in the Congo river basin and on lightning in Central Africa, the most lightning part of the world. In Vietnam the study of a broad climate data base highlighted global warming. In space weather, our results essentially concern the impact of solar events on global navigation satellite system GNSS and on the effects of solar events on the circulation of electric currents in the earth (GIC). This research began in the framework of the international space weather initiative project ISWI [2010-2012]. Finally, all these scientific projects have enabled young scientists from the South to publish original results and to obtain positions in their countries. These projects have also crossed disciplinary boundaries and defined a more diversified education which led to the training of specialists in a specific field with knowledge of related scientific fields.

  16. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  17. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the GERDA as part of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) project from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957 (NODC Accession 7000057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the GERDA from 20 July 1955 to 29 May 1957. Data were collected as part of the Rosenstiel...

  18. Physical, meteorological, and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) project from 01 January 1988 to 31 December 1988 (NODC Accession 8900241)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, and other data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 01 January 1988 to 31 December 1988. Data...

  19. Physical inversion of the full IASI spectra: Assessment of atmospheric parameters retrievals, consistency of spectroscopy and forward modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Venafra, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    2016-01-01

    Spectra observed by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) have been used to assess both retrievals and the spectral quality and consistency of current forward models and spectroscopic databases for atmospheric gas line and continuum absorption. The analysis has been performed with thousands of observed spectra over sea surface in the Pacific Ocean close to the Mauna Loa (Hawaii) validation station. A simultaneous retrieval for surface temperature, atmospheric temperature, H_2O, HDO, O_3 profiles and gas average column abundance of CO_2, CO, CH_4, SO_2, N_2O, HNO_3, NH_3, OCS and CF_4 has been performed and compared to in situ observations. The retrieval system considers the full IASI spectrum (all 8461 spectral channels on the range 645–2760 cm"−"1). We have found that the average column amount of atmospheric greenhouse gases can be retrieved with a precision better than 1% in most cases. The analysis of spectral residuals shows that, after inversion, they are generally reduced to within the IASI radiometric noise. However, larger residuals still appear for many of the most abundant gases, namely H_2O, CH_4 and CO_2. The H_2O ν_2 spectral region is in general warmer (higher radiance) than observations. The CO_2ν_2 and N_2O/CO_2ν_3 spectral regions now show a consistent behavior for channels, which are probing the troposphere. Updates in CH_4 spectroscopy do not seem to improve the residuals. The effect of isotopic fractionation of HDO is evident in the 2500–2760 cm"−"1 region and in the atmospheric window around 1200 cm"−"1. - Highlights: • This is the first work that uses the full IASI spectrum. This aspect is new and unique. • Simultaneous retrieval of the average amount of CO_2, N_2O, CO, CH_4, SO_2, HNO_3, NH_3, OCS and CF_4, T, H_2O, HDO, O_3 profiles, and T_s. • Assessment of spectroscopy consistency over the full IASI spectrum (645 to 2760 cm"−"1). • Two-year record of IASI retrievals are available on request, compared

  20. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART A: TUTORIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Menvielle, M.; Curto, J-J.; Le Huy, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern Solar Terrestrial Physics, Atmospheric Physics and Space Weather. In this part A, we introduce knowledge on the Sun-Earth system. We consider the physical process of the dynamo which is present in the Sun, in the core of the Earth and also in the regions between the Sun and the Earth, the solar wind-magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Equations of plasma physics and Maxwell's equations will be recalled. In the Sun-Earth system there are permanent dynamos (Sun, Earth's core, solar wind - magnetosphere, neutral wind - ionosphere) and non-permanent dynamos that are activated during magnetic storms in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. All these dynamos have associated electric currents that affect the variations of the Earth's magnetic field which are easily measurable. That is why a part of the tutorial is also devoted to the magnetic indices which are indicators of the electric currents in the Sun-Earth system. In order to understand some results of the part B, we present some characteristics of the Equatorial region and of the electrodynamics coupling the Auroral and Equatorial regions.

  1. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  3. The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC): Showcasing Mathematical and Computational Physics in a Critical Atmospheric Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. B.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2001-05-01

    The Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC) is an on-going initiative involving an international group of over 30 researchers engaged in the numerical modeling of three-dimensional radiative transfer as applied to clouds. Because of their strong variability and extreme opacity, clouds are indeed a major source of uncertainty in the Earth's local radiation budget (at GCM grid scales). Also 3D effects (at satellite pixel scales) invalidate the standard plane-parallel assumption made in the routine of cloud-property remote sensing at NASA and NOAA. Accordingly, the test-cases used in I3RC are based on inputs and outputs which relate to cloud effects in atmospheric heating rates and in real-world remote sensing geometries. The main objectives of I3RC are to (1) enable participants to improve their models, (2) publish results as a community, (3) archive source code, and (4) educate. We will survey the status of I3RC and its plans for the near future with a special emphasis on the mathematical models and computational approaches. We will also describe some of the prime applications of I3RC's efforts in climate models, cloud-resolving models, and remote-sensing observations of clouds, or that of the surface in their presence. In all these application areas, computational efficiency is the main concern and not accuracy. One of I3RC's main goals is to document the performance of as wide a variety as possible of three-dimensional radiative transfer models for a small but representative number of ``cases.'' However, it is dominated by modelers working at the level of linear transport theory (i.e., they solve the radiative transfer equation) and an overwhelming majority of these participants use slow-but-robust Monte Carlo techniques. This means that only a small portion of the efficiency vs. accuracy vs. flexibility domain is currently populated by I3RC participants. To balance this natural clustering the present authors have organized a systematic outreach towards

  4. A contribution to the study of the physical properties of natural and radioactive aerosols in controlled atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouden, A.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this work was to study the properties of normal and radioactive particles produced by attachment of radon 222 daughters on environmental aerosol particles, in various and controlled atmospheres. In the first part, devoted to the radioactivity of radon 222, the influence of the number of nuclei on the radioactive equilibrium state and the size distribution of alpha radioactivity was demonstrated. In the second part, an experimental study of the C.E.A. α dosimeter was developed. We investigated the counting and the collection efficiency of the dosimeter for inlet particles in the 0.001-0.1 μm size range. The last part concerns aerosol-filtration behaviour. The comparison between experimental and theoretical procedures revealed a good agreement only in some circumstances for membrane filters. In the case of fibrous filters the agreement is quite satisfactory. Particularly, if the fiber size distribution is taken into account in the theoretical model, it results in an improved estimation of the collection efficiency [fr

  5. Atmospheric pressure argon surface discharges propagated in long tubes: physical characterization and application to bio-decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalova, Zuzana; Leroy, Magali; Jacobs, Carolyn; Kirkpatrick, Michael J; Odic, Emmanuel; Machala, Zdenko; Lopes, Filipa; Laux, Christophe O; DuBow, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed corona discharges propagated in argon (or in argon with added water vapor) at atmospheric pressure on the interior surface of a 49 cm long quartz tube were investigated for the application of surface bio-decontamination. H 2 O molecule dissociation in the argon plasma generated reactive species (i.e. OH in ground and excited states) and UV emission, which both directly affected bacterial cells. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the contribution of UV radiation, a DNA damage repair defective bacterial strain, Escherichia coli DH-1, was used. Discharge characteristics, including propagation velocity and plasma temperature, were measured. Up to ∼5.5 and ∼5 log 10 reductions were observed for E. coli DH-1 bacteria (from 10 6 initial load) exposed 2 cm and 44 cm away from the charged electrode, respectively, for a 20 min plasma treatment. The factors contributing to the observed bactericidal effect include desiccation, reactive oxygen species (OH) plus H 2 O 2 accumulation in the liquid phase, and UV-B (and possibly VUV) emission in dry argon. The steady state temperature measured on the quartz tube wall did not exceeded 29 °C; the contribution of heating, along with that of H 2 O 2 accumulation, was estimated to be low. The effect of UV-B emission alone or in combination with the other stress factors of the plasma process was examined for different operating conditions. (paper)

  6. Effects of the modified atmosphere and irradiation on the microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of the 'minas frescal' cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Vanessa Pires da

    2004-01-01

    The experiment was divided into two parts. Initially, it was studied the 'Minas Frescal' cheeses packed under atmospheric air, modified atmosphere of 70% CO2 and 30% N2 (ATM) and vacuum. Second the cheeses packed under these three treatments had been radiated by doses of 2 KGy. In the two parts of the experiment, it was analyzed the microbial evolution and, the sensory and physical-chemical characteristics of the cheeses under the different treatments during a 4 deg C-storage. In the first phase of the experiment it was verified that the ATM and the vacuum decreased the intensity of the total population growth of aerobic mesophilic and psychotropic and had reduced the population of Staphylococcus positive coagulase, but they had not been efficient controlling the total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while in control all the populations had continuously grown, according to the sensory characteristics of the cheeses, color, odor and appearance. These characteristics were kept the same during the 40 days of storage, and the control decreased the acceptability levels gradually, being rejected in the 17 th day. In the second part of the experiment, it was observed that a 2KGy-irradiation over the 'Minas Frescal' cheeses reduced the populations of aerobic mesophilic, aerobic and anaerobic psychotropic, Staphylococcus positive coagulase, total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The ATM and vacuum treatments were very efficient therefore they prevented the growth of these microorganisms during the storage, while in control, the aerobic mesophilic and psychotropic population grew during the storage. According to sensory aspects, the ATM treatment was the most efficient one, because it kept the appearance, texture and flavor for more than 43 days while the vacuum kept for 36 days and the control for only 8 days. The use of the irradiation with modified atmosphere and low temperatures of storage increased the shelf life of the cheeses, hindering the growth of the microbial

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  8. Investigations on physics of planetary atmospheres and small bodies of the Solar system, extrasolar planets and disk structures around the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Delets, O. S.; Dlugach, J. M.; Zakhozhay, O. V.; Kostogryz, N. M.; Krushevska, V. M.; Kuznyetsova, Y. G.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Ovsak, O. S.; Rozenbush, O. E.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.; Shavlovskiy, V. I.; Yanovitskij, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The history and main becoming stages of Planetary system physics Department of the Main astronomical observatory of National academy of Sciences of Ukraine are considered. Fundamental subjects of department researches and science achievements of employees are presented. Fields of theoretical and experimental researches are Solar system planets and their satellites; vertical structures of planet atmospheres; radiative transfer in planet atmospheres; exoplanet systems of Milky Way; stars having disc structures; astronomical engineering. Employees of the department carry out spectral, photometrical and polarimetrical observations of Solar system planets, exoplanet systems and stars with disc structures. 1. From the history of department 2. The main directions of department research 3. Scientific instrumentation 4. Telescopes and observation stations 5. Theoretical studies 6. The results of observations of planets and small Solar system bodies and their interpretation 7. The study of exoplanets around the stars of our galaxy 8. Spectral energy distribution of fragmenting protostellar disks 9. Cooperation with the National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI) and National University of Ukraine "Lviv Polytechnic" to study the impact of stratospheric aerosol changes on weather and climate of the Earth 10. International relations. Scientific and organizational work. Scientific conferences, congresses, symposia 11. The main achievements of the department 12. Current researches 13. Anniversaries and awards

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  11. The kINPen—a review on physics and chemistry of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Stephan; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2018-06-01

    The kINPen® plasma jet was developed from laboratory prototype to commercially available non-equilibrium cold plasma jet for various applications in materials research, surface treatment and medicine. It has proven to be a valuable plasma source for industry as well as research and commercial use in plasma medicine, leading to very successful therapeutic results and its certification as a medical device. This topical review presents the different kINPen plasma sources available. Diagnostic techniques applied to the kINPen are introduced. The review summarizes the extensive studies of the physics and plasma chemistry of the kINPen performed by research groups across the world, and closes with a brief overview of the main application fields.

  12. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  14. Jovian atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M.; Travis, L.D.

    1986-10-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers

  15. Measurement and modeling of gamma-absorbed doses due to atmospheric releases from Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Chen, A.I.; Olsen, W.A.; Van Etten, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Short-term gamma-absorbed doses were measured by one high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) at an azimuth of 12 0 from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) stack during the January 1 through February 8 operating cycle. Two HPICs were in the field during the September 8 through December 31 operating cycle, one north and the other north-northeast of the LAMPF stack, but they did not provide reliable data. Meteorological data were also measured at both East Gate and LAMPF. Airborne emission data were taken at the stack. Daily model predictions, based on the integration of modeled 15-min periods, were made for the first LAMPF operating cycle and were compared with the measured data. A comparison of the predicted and measured daily gamma doses due to LAMPF emissions is presented. There is very good correlation between measured and predicted values. During 39-day operating cycles, the model predicted an absorbed dose of 10.3 mrad compared with the 8.8 mrad that was measured, an overprediction of 17%

  16. Ocean-Atmosphere CO2 Fluxes in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre: Association with Biochemical and Physical Factors during Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Burgos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 was measured continuously in a transect of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre between Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (18.1° N, 68.5° W and Vigo, Spain (41.9° N, 11.8° W during spring 2011. Additional biogeochemical and physical variables measured to identify factors controlling the surface pCO2 were analyzed in discrete samples collected at 16 sites along the transect at the surface and to a depth of 200 m. Sea surface pCO2 varied between 309 and 662 μatm, and showed differences between the western and eastern subtropical gyre. The subtropical gyre acted as a net CO2 sink, with a mean flux of −5.5 ± 2.2 mmol m−2 day−1. The eastern part of the transect, close to the North Atlantic Iberian upwelling off the Galician coast, was a CO2 source with an average flux of 33.5 ± 9.0 mmol m−2 day−1. Our results highlight the importance of making more surface pCO2 observations in the area located east of the Azores Islands since air-sea CO2 fluxes there are poorly studied.

  17. Application of physical and energetic approach to estimation and selection of atmospheric protection systems for energetic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysova Ekaterina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The air basin of cities is subjected to considerable pollution, including waste gases generated during the production of thermal and electric energy by power plants. However, power plants are an indispensable element of the life support system on urban areas and they can not be taken out of the city, that means minimizing losses, both material and energy. Therefore, the problem of the correct choice of structural elements and operating characteristics of the process and a system for reducing air pollution is becoming very important. The paper analyzes the most well-known and practical scientific approaches to the selection of optimal measures to reduce air pollution, their advantages and disadvantages are revealed. The authors have singled out the physical and energetic approach as the most acceptable one. The approach is based on the theory of dispersed systems stability, the analysis of the main provisions which allowed us to systematize the parameters of properties, energy parameters and stability of gaseous pollutants formed during the operation of power plants and to construct a scheme for the transformation of gaseous pollutants for the process of reducing air pollution has been performed. At the same time, stability is the resultant criterion characterizing the gaseous pollutants behavior.

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  2. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  3. Physical and meteorological delayed-mode full-resolution data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the Equatorial Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array of moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific. Moorings within the array measure surface meteorological and upper-ocean...

  4. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  8. Microspectroscopic imaging of solution plasma: How do its physical properties and chemical species evolve in atmospheric-pressure water vapor bubbles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Hiroharu; Banno, Motohiro

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review the development of scientific instruments for obtaining information on the evolution of physical properties and chemical species of solution plasma (SP). When a pulsed high voltage is applied between electrodes immersed in an aqueous solution, SP is formed in water vapor bubbles transiently generated in the solution under atmospheric pressure. To clarify how SP emerges in water vapor bubbles and is sustained in solutions, an instrument with micrometer spatial resolution and nanosecond temporal resolution is required. To meet these requirements, a microscopic system with a custom-made optical discharge cell was newly developed, where the working distance between the SP and the microscopic objective lens was minimized. A hollow electrode equipped in the discharge cell also enabled us to control the chemical composition in water vapor bubbles. To study the spatial and temporal evolutions of chemical species in micrometer and nano- to microsecond regions, a streak camera with a spectrometer and a CCD detector with a time-gated electronic device were combined with the microscope system. The developed instrument is expected to contribute to providing a new means of developing new schemes for chemical reactions and material syntheses.

  9. Physical bases of the generation of short-term earthquake precursors: A complex model of ionization-induced geophysical processes in the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, S. A.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Karelin, A. V.; Davidenko, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the current understanding of the interaction between geospheres from a complex set of physical and chemical processes under the influence of ionization. The sources of ionization involve the Earth's natural radioactivity and its intensification before earthquakes in seismically active regions, anthropogenic radioactivity caused by nuclear weapon testing and accidents in nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage, the impact of galactic and solar cosmic rays, and active geophysical experiments using artificial ionization equipment. This approach treats the environment as an open complex system with dissipation, where inherent processes can be considered in the framework of the synergistic approach. We demonstrate the synergy between the evolution of thermal and electromagnetic anomalies in the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. This makes it possible to determine the direction of the interaction process, which is especially important in applications related to short-term earthquake prediction. That is why the emphasis in this study is on the processes proceeding the final stage of earthquake preparation; the effects of other ionization sources are used to demonstrate that the model is versatile and broadly applicable in geophysics.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  16. Atmospheric Physics and Sound Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-09-01

    has 2U flush mounting plates into which may be screwed short support rpds on whi.cn ä platform may .he mounted for suppörtihg a person> or longer...particle trhose rest position ig 4 distance x from the source z(0j,t) s Z cos art I Asa parameter (not Travelsngfeh)- £ (A) -» Z (1-eos wiX ) f»,(A

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  1. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  2. Influence of annealing temperature on physical properties and photocatalytic ability of g-C3N4 nanosheets synthesized through urea polymerization in Ar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai Oanh, Le Thi; Hang, Lam Thi; Lai, Ngoc Diep; Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Dao Viet; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Danh Bich, Do; Minh, Nguyen Van

    2018-03-01

    The influences of annealing temperature on structure, morphology, vibration, optical properties and photocatalytic ability of g-C3N4 nanosheets synthesized from urea in Ar atmosphere were investigated in detail by using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis absorption, and photoluminescence (PL). It was found that the preparation temperature had a great effect on structure and physical properties of g-C3N4. As the processing temperature increased from 450 °C to 650 °C, the interlayer stacking distance of g-C3N4 decreased from 3.281 Å to 3.217 Å and the lattice parameter a decreased from 5.010 Å to 4.934 Å. This indicated a denser packing fashion of g-C3N4 at high annealing temperature. Moreover, the FTIR spectra and SEM images revealed a large fraction of small polymer segments containing only a few heptazine units as annealing temperature increased. BET result indicated an increasing specific surface area as preparation temperature increased. UV-vis absorption spectra showed a decrease of the band gap energy with increasing calcination temperature which agrees well with the measured PL spectra. It was demonstrated that samples annealed at 550 °C exhibited the strongest photocatalytic activity. A decomposition of 80% and 100% of rhodamine B was obtained within respectively 1 h and 2 h under Xenon lamp irradiation. Photocatalytic result could be adequately explained based on evidences of specific surface area, average pore volume and pore size, and recombination rate of photoinduced electron-hole pairs.

  3. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the course of physical and chemical changes in chilled muscle tissue of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, V.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, F; Buchtová, H

    2012-01-01

    The effect of two types of modified atmosphere (MA1: 69% N2, 25% CO2, 5% O2, 1% CO; MA2: 70% N2, 30% CO2) on changes in physical and chemical parameters (pH, a(w)--water activity, TVBN - total volatile basic nitrogen, TMA - trimethylamine, FFA - free fatty acids, PV - peroxide value, TBA--thiobarbituric acid) in muscle tissues of the silver carp was monitored in the study. The samples were stored at temperatures +2 +/- 2 degrees C for 18 days. Changes in gas volumes (CO2 and O2) in MAs were also monitored. CO2 levels increased in MA1 but decreased in MA2. At the end of 18 days of storage, a significantly (P MA2 where water activity values showed considerable fluctuation. Variations in pH values in the two types of MA showed similar trends. Sample pH gradually decreased until day 9 of storage. On day 11, muscle tissue pH increased markedly and then began to decrease again. The overall decrease in pH values was more profound in samples packaged under MA1. TVBN and TMA levels in samples packaged under the two types of MAs remained almost identical until day 9 of the experiment. Later, however, significantly (P MA2. Faster rates of oxidation (P MA2 were observed on days 14 and 18 of the experiment, respectively. From the course of proteolytic and oxidative changes point of view, the more appropriate combination of gases for silver carp storage seems to be the mixture of 70% N2 and 30% CO2 (MA2), which allows for muscle storage of up to 9 days. We recommend TVBN as a suitable indicator of freshness, and TBA assay as a suitable indicator of the extent of oxidative processes.

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  5. Phase B - final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Work breakdown structure for phase C/D DR-MA-06 (preliminary issue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and Dictionary (DR-MA-06) for initial and subsequent flights of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) is presented. An attempt is made to identify specific equipment and components in each of the eleven subsystems; they are listed under the appropriate subdivisions of the WBS. The reader is cautioned that some of these components are likely to change substantially during the course of the study, and the list provided should only be considered representative.

  6. Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, J.L.; Dunham, E.W.; Bosh, A.S.; Slivan, S.M.; Young, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references

  7. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  8. Atmosphere as colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsenogij, K.P.; Kutsenogij, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper review the results of experimental and theoretical investigations on space-time variability of physical, chemical and biological atmospheric characteristics and its influence on climate, ecology and environmental quality under the impact of natural processes and anthropogenic load is submitted

  9. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...

  10. Atmospheric electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, H.

    1984-01-01

    The book Atmospheric Electrodynamics, by Hans Voland is reviewed. The book describes a wide variety of electrical phenomena occurring in the upper and lower atmosphere and develops the mathematical models which simulate these processes. The reviewer finds that the book is of interest to researchers with a background in electromagnetic theory but is of only limited use as a reference work

  11. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  12. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  13. Criteria for controlled atmosphere chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.N.

    1980-03-01

    The criteria for design, construction, and operation of controlled atmosphere chambers intended for service at ORNL are presented. Classification of chambers, materials for construction, design criteria, design, controlled atmosphere chamber systems, and operating procedures are presented. ORNL Safety Manual Procedure 2.1; ORNL Health Physics Procedure Manual Appendix A-7; and Design of Viewing Windows are included in 3 appendices

  14. Atmospheric Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Electricity occurs in atmospheres across the Solar System planets and beyond, spanning spectacular lightning displays in clouds of water or dust, to more subtle effects of charge and electric fields. On Earth, lightning is likely to have existed for a long time, based on evidence from fossilized lightning strikes in ancient rocks, but observations of planetary lightning are necessarily much more recent. The generation and observations of lightning and other atmospheric electrical processes, both from within-atmosphere measurements, and spacecraft remote sensing, can be readily studied using a comparative planetology approach, with Earth as a model. All atmospheres contain charged molecules, electrons, and/or molecular clusters created by ionization from cosmic rays and other processes, which may affect an atmosphere's energy balance both through aerosol and cloud formation, and direct absorption of radiation. Several planets are anticipated to host a "global electric circuit" by analogy with the circuit occurring on Earth, where thunderstorms drive current of ions or electrons through weakly conductive parts of the atmosphere. This current flow may further modulate an atmosphere's radiative properties through cloud and aerosol effects. Lightning could potentially have implications for life through its effects on atmospheric chemistry and particle transport. It has been observed on many of the Solar System planets (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and it may also be present on Venus and Mars. On Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, lightning is thought to be generated in deep water and ice clouds, but discharges can be generated in dust, as for terrestrial volcanic lightning, and on Mars. Other, less well-understood mechanisms causing discharges in non-water clouds also seem likely. The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has recently led to a range of further exotic possibilities for atmospheric electricity, though lightning detection beyond our Solar System

  15. A change in the electro-physical properties of narrow-band CdHgTe solid solutions acted upon by a volume discharge induced by an avalanche electron beam in the air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Grigor'ev, D. V.; Korotaev, A. G.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of a nanosecond volume discharge forming in an inhomogeneous electrical field at atmospheric pressure on the CdHgTe (MCT) epitaxial films of the p-type conduction with the hole concentration 2·1016 cm3 and mobility 500 cm2·V-1·s-1 is studied. The measurement of the electrophysical parameters of the MCT specimens upon irradiation shows that a layer exhibiting the n-type conduction is formed in the near-surface region of the epitaxial films. After 600 pulses and more, the thickness and the parameters of the layer are such that the measured field dependence of the Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of the n-type conduction. Analysis of the preliminary results reveals that the foregoing nanosecond volume discharge in the air at atmospheric pressure is promising for modification of electro-physical MCT properties.

  16. Mars: Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The atmosphere of MARS is much thinner than the terrestrial one. However, even the simplest visual telescopic observations show a set of atmospheric events such as seasonal exchange of material between polar caps, temporal appearance of clouds and changes of visibility of dark regions on the disk of the planet. In 1947 the prominent CO2 bands in the near-infrared part of the Martian spectrum were...

  17. Radiation transfer and stellar atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swihart, T. L.

    This is a revised and expanded version of the author's Basic Physics of Stellar Atmospheres, published in 1971. The equation of transfer is considered, taking into account the intensity and derived quantities, the absorption coefficient, the emission coefficient, the source function, and special integrals for plane media. The gray atmosphere is discussed along with the nongray atmosphere, and aspects of line formation. Topics related to polarization are explored, giving attention to pure polarized radiation, general polarized radiation, transfer in a magnetic plasma, and Rayleigh scattering and the sunlit sky. Physical and astronomical constants, and a number of problems related to the subjects of the book are presented in an appendix.

  18. Effects of biochemical and physical processes on concentrations and size distributions of dimethylaminium and trimethylaminium in atmospheric particles from marginal seas of China to the northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Yao, X.; Qu, K.; Cui, Z.; Gao, H.; Xie, H.

    2017-12-01

    This study aim to assess the effects of concentrations and size distributions of aminium ions in atmospheric particles from offshore to open oceans. Size-segregated dimethylaminium (DMA+) and trimethylaminium (TMA+) in atmospheric particles were measured during March-May, 2014. One cruise was over marginal seas of China, in which the concentrations of DMA+ and TMA+ in PM0.056-10 varied from 0.08 nmol m-3 to 0.43 nmol m-3 and from 0.10 to 0.27 nmol m-3, respectively. The two ions both had good positive correlations with subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum and salinity, respectively. The highest concentrations of (DMA+ + TMA+) were observed during cyanobacteria bloom period which happened in subsurface water. The results implied that the concentrations of DMA+ (TMA+) in marine atmospheric particles might be influenced by phytoplankton quantities and species in subsurface seawater. Another cruise was carried out from marginal seas of China to the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO). The concentrations of DMA+ and TMA+ in PM0.056-1.8 varied from 0.19 nmol m-3 to 1.53 nmol m-3 and from 0.57 to 3.85 nmol m-3, respectively. The highest (lowest) concentrations of (DMA+ + TMA+) were observed near the cyclonic (anticyclonic) eddy, indicating that the cyclonic (anticyclonic) eddy with high (low) chlorophyll-a enhanced (suppressed) DMA+ (TMA+) production in atmospheric particles. In addition, the dominant particle modes less than 0.2 μm for DMA+ (TMA+) were observed, ie., 0.13±0.02 μm for DMA+ over marginal seas of China, and 0.08±0.00 μm for TMA+ in NWPO, but if they were emitted via bubble bursting needed to be further researched.

  19. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  20. Impacts of spectral nudging on the simulated surface air temperature in summer compared with the selection of shortwave radiation and land surface model physics parameterization in a high-resolution regional atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun; Hwang, Seung-On

    2017-11-01

    The impact of a spectral nudging technique for the dynamical downscaling of the summer surface air temperature in a high-resolution regional atmospheric model is assessed. The performance of this technique is measured by comparing 16 analysis-driven simulation sets of physical parameterization combinations of two shortwave radiation and four land surface model schemes of the model, which are known to be crucial for the simulation of the surface air temperature. It is found that the application of spectral nudging to the outermost domain has a greater impact on the regional climate than any combination of shortwave radiation and land surface model physics schemes. The optimal choice of two model physics parameterizations is helpful for obtaining more realistic spatiotemporal distributions of land surface variables such as the surface air temperature, precipitation, and surface fluxes. However, employing spectral nudging adds more value to the results; the improvement is greater than using sophisticated shortwave radiation and land surface model physical parameterizations. This result indicates that spectral nudging applied to the outermost domain provides a more accurate lateral boundary condition to the innermost domain when forced by analysis data by securing the consistency with large-scale forcing over a regional domain. This consequently indirectly helps two physical parameterizations to produce small-scale features closer to the observed values, leading to a better representation of the surface air temperature in a high-resolution downscaled climate.

  1. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedynitch Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  3. Atmospheric turbulence and diffusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (well known in the atmospheric dispersion community as the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, ATDL) is one of several field facilities of NOAAs Air Resources Laboratory, headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. The laboratory conducts research on matters of atmospheric diffusion and turbulent exchange, concerning air quality. ATDD focuses attention on the physics of the lower atmosphere, with special emphasis on the processes contributing to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and air-surface exchange, and on the development of predictive capabilities using the results of this research. Research is directed toward issues of national and global importance related to the missions of DOE, to DOE's Oak Ridge Field Office, and to NOAA. The program is divided into four major projects: plume transport and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer, complex topography, canopy micrometeorology, and air-surface exchange

  4. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  5. Reactions at surfaces in the atmosphere: integration of experiments and theory as necessary (but not necessarily sufficient) for predicting the physical chemistry of aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2009-09-28

    While particles have significant deleterious impacts on human health, visibility and climate, quantitative understanding of their formation, composition and fates remains problematic. Indeed, in many cases, even qualitative understanding is lacking. One area of particular uncertainty is the nature of particle surfaces and how this determines interactions with gases in the atmosphere, including water, which is important for cloud formation and properties. The focus in this Perspective article is on some chemistry relevant to airborne particles and especially to reactions occurring on their surfaces. The intent is not to provide a comprehensive review, but rather to highlight a few selected examples of interface chemistry involving inorganic and organic species that may be important in the lower atmosphere. This includes sea salt chemistry, nitrate and nitrite ion photochemistry, organics on surfaces and heterogeneous reactions of oxides of nitrogen on proxies for airborne mineral dust and boundary layer surfaces. Emphasis is on the molecular level understanding that can only be gained by fully integrating experiment and theory to elucidate these complex systems.

  6. Experimental confirmation and physical understanding of ultra-high bit rate impulse radio in the THz digital communication channels of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandehgar, Mahboubeh; Yang, Yihong; Grischkowsky, D.

    2014-09-01

    We have performed highly accurate numerical calculations of high bit rate impulse propagation through the seven digital communication channels of the atmosphere at RH 58% (10 g m-3). These calculations maximized bit rates for pathlengths equal to or longer than 100 m. We have experimentally verified our calculations for three channels with a propagation pathlength of 137 m and RH 65% (11.2 g m-3). Excellent agreement between measurement and theory was obtained for Channel 3 at 252 GHz, bit rate 84 Gb s-1, FWHM bandwidth (BW) 180 GHz; Channel 6 at 672 GHz, 45 Gb s-1, BW 84 GHz; and Channel 7 at 852 GHz, 56.8 Gb s-1, BW 108 GHz.

  7. Experimental confirmation and physical understanding of ultra-high bit rate impulse radio in the THz digital communication channels of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandehgar, Mahboubeh; Yang, Yihong; Grischkowsky, D

    2014-01-01

    We have performed highly accurate numerical calculations of high bit rate impulse propagation through the seven digital communication channels of the atmosphere at RH 58% (10 g m −3 ). These calculations maximized bit rates for pathlengths equal to or longer than 100 m. We have experimentally verified our calculations for three channels with a propagation pathlength of 137 m and RH 65% (11.2 g m −3 ). Excellent agreement between measurement and theory was obtained for Channel 3 at 252 GHz, bit rate 84 Gb s −1 , FWHM bandwidth (BW) 180 GHz; Channel 6 at 672 GHz, 45 Gb s −1 , BW 84 GHz; and Channel 7 at 852 GHz, 56.8 Gb s −1 , BW 108 GHz. (special issue article)

  8. Atmospheric evolution on inhabited and lifeless worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Catling, David C

    2017-01-01

    As the search for Earth-like exoplanets gathers pace, in order to understand them, we need comprehensive theories for how planetary atmospheres form and evolve. Written by two well-known planetary scientists, this text explains the physical and chemical principles of atmospheric evolution and planetary atmospheres, in the context of how atmospheric composition and climate determine a planet's habitability. The authors survey our current understanding of the atmospheric evolution and climate on Earth, on other rocky planets within our Solar System, and on planets far beyond. Incorporating a rigorous mathematical treatment, they cover the concepts and equations governing a range of topics, including atmospheric chemistry, thermodynamics, radiative transfer, and atmospheric dynamics, and provide an integrated view of planetary atmospheres and their evolution. This interdisciplinary text is an invaluable one-stop resource for graduate-level students and researchers working across the fields of atmospheric science...

  9. The effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment on microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of vacuum packaged beef loin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Ni, Y; Bauer, S; Paulsen, P; Modic, M; Walsh, J L; Smulders, F J M

    2017-06-01

    Effects on vacuum packaged and non-packaged beef longissimus samples exposed to atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) generated at different powers were studied over a 10day period of vacuum-, and a subsequent 3day period of aerobic storage. Exposure of non-covered beef samples under high power ACP conditions resulted in increased a*, b*, Chroma and Hue values, but ACP treatment of packaged loins did not impact colour (L*, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue), lipid peroxidation, sarcoplasmic protein denaturation, nitrate/nitrite uptake, or myoglobin isoform distribution. Colour values measured after 3days of aerobic storage following unpackaging (i.e. 20days post-mortem) were similar and all compliant with consumer acceptability standards. Exposure to ACP of the polyamide-polyethylene packaging film inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and two Escherichia coli strains resulted in >2 log reduction without affecting the integrity of the packaging matrix. Results indicate that ACP can reduce microbial numbers on surfaces of beef packages without affecting characteristics of the packaged beef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  11. Application of PIXE analysis to atmospheric environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Mikio

    1997-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of the atmospheric aerosols is a fundamental to understand the behavior of aerosols in the atmosphere. The analysis of atmospheric aerosols is the most preferable fields of the PIXE. In this paper, the characteristics of atmospheric aerosols are reviewed at first, and the sampling method of atmospheric aerosols for the PIXE samples and the characterization of atmospheric aerosols using the PIXE analysis are discussed. (author)

  12. HIGH IMPACT HEAT WAVES OVER THE EURO-MEDITERRANEAN REGION AND TURKEY - IN CONCERT WITH ATMOSPHERIC BLOCKING AND LARGE DYNAMICAL AND PHYSICAL ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Demirtaş

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in high impact heat waves in the Euro-Mediterranean region and Turkey is related to a number of concurring factors that include the persistent anticyclonic weather regimes. The present study investigates the June-July-August (JJA of 2000, 2007 and 2010 heat wave events in concert with some meteorological anomalies (the 500 hPa geopotential height, 850 hPa temperature, sea surface temperature and soil wetness and blocking anticyclones, focusing on heat wave occurrences on a grid point base. Detection methods for atmospheric blocking and heat wave are introduced and applied for the mentioned years. During the 2000 JJA very high temperatures were recorded over the Balkan Peninsula and in Turkey where 42 cities had breaking all time highest temperature records for June, but the duration of heat wave was the shortest. The 2007 summer was also abnormally hot for the region and record breaking temperatures were observed in Greece, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey where 34 cities had highest temperature records for June and July, and the highest total heat wave duration was 60-70 days. The 2010 JJA period was extremely hot over Russia and nearby countries including Turkey where 9 cities had highest temperature records for August. The 2010 case was marked for; large anomalies, the longest heat wave duration and the highest heat wave intensity. In all cases, heat wave occurrences found to be particularly high over the western part of Turkey. The abnormally hot summers of 2000, 2007 and 2010 could reflect summers to come. The results indicate that summer climate might experience a pronounced increase in year-to-year variability. Increase in variability might be able to explain the high impact heat waves, and would strongly affect their incidence in the future. The results may also contribute to a better understanding of heat waves in context of climate variability.

  13. ESA Atmospheric Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Sander

    2017-04-01

    The ESA Atmospheric Toolbox (BEAT) is one of the ESA Sentinel Toolboxes. It consists of a set of software components to read, analyze, and visualize a wide range of atmospheric data products. In addition to the upcoming Sentinel-5P mission it supports a wide range of other atmospheric data products, including those of previous ESA missions, ESA Third Party missions, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), ground based data, etc. The toolbox consists of three main components that are called CODA, HARP and VISAN. CODA provides interfaces for direct reading of data from earth observation data files. These interfaces consist of command line applications, libraries, direct interfaces to scientific applications (IDL and MATLAB), and direct interfaces to programming languages (C, Fortran, Python, and Java). CODA provides a single interface to access data in a wide variety of data formats, including ASCII, binary, XML, netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, CDF, GRIB, RINEX, and SP3. HARP is a toolkit for reading, processing and inter-comparing satellite remote sensing data, model data, in-situ data, and ground based remote sensing data. The main goal of HARP is to assist in the inter-comparison of datasets. By appropriately chaining calls to HARP command line tools one can pre-process datasets such that two datasets that need to be compared end up having the same temporal/spatial grid, same data format/structure, and same physical unit. The toolkit comes with its own data format conventions, the HARP format, which is based on netcdf/HDF. Ingestion routines (based on CODA) allow conversion from a wide variety of atmospheric data products to this common format. In addition, the toolbox provides a wide range of operations to perform conversions on the data such as unit conversions, quantity conversions (e.g. number density to volume mixing ratios), regridding, vertical smoothing using averaging kernels, collocation of two datasets, etc. VISAN is a cross-platform visualization and

  14. The Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-05-01

    A comprehensive and lucid account of the physics and dynamics of the lowest one to two kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere in direct contact with the Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Dr. Garratt emphasizes the application of the ABL problems to numerical modeling of the climate, which makes this book unique among recent texts on the subject. He begins with a brief introduction to the ABL before leading to the development of mean and turbulence equations and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modeling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, so chapters four and five deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention given to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The author next treats the structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL, and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter seven then extends this discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is particularly relevant to current research because the extensive stratocumulus regions over the subtropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic have been identified as key players in the climate system. In the final chapters, Dr. Garratt summarizes the book's material by discussing appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes in general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate stimulation.

  15. Physics of the tropospheric radiopropagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, G.O.

    1989-02-01

    The physics of the tropospheric radiopropagation is presented considering the atmospheric radio refractive index and taking into account the influence of precipitation and the attenuation due to the atmospheric gases. 35 refs, 20 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Atmospheric chemistry and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh, SK

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science where major focus is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Knowledge of atmospheric composition is essential due to its interaction with (solar and terrestrial) radiation and interactions of atmospheric species (gaseous and particulate matter) with living organisms. Since atmospheric chemistry covers a vast range of topics, in this article the focus is on the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols with special emphasis on the Indian reg...

  17. An Atmospheric Pressure Ping-Pong "Ballometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkov, Alexander; Kryuchkov, Dmitriy; Willis, Courtney; Moore, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom experiments on atmospheric pressure focus largely on demonstrating its existence, often in a most impressive way. A series of amusing physics demonstrations is widely known and practiced by educators teaching the topic. However, measuring the value of atmospheric pressure(P[subscript atm]) is generally done in a rather mundane way,…

  18. Atmosphere, Science (Experimental): 5343.08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Sandra Kay

    This unit of instruction deals with a study of the general atmosphere by layers with an emphasis on physical characteristics. The formation of layers in the atmosphere and the energy relationships that exist between them are also discussed. No requisites for prior course work, experience, or courses to be taken concurrently are required for…

  19. Strategy for the Explorer program for solar and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents include: executive summary; the Explorer program - background and current status; strategy - level of activity; solar-terrestrial research (solar physics, space plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics)

  20. Toward understanding atmospheric physics impacting the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth and near-surface PM2.5 mass concentrations in Nevada and California, U.S.A., during 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Panorska, Anna; Arnott, W. Patrick; Barnard, James C.; Boehmler, Jayne M.; Holmes, Heather A.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth (τext) and surface particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5) is desired to estimate surface aerosol concentrations over broad spatial and temporal scales using satellite remote sensing. However, remote sensing studies incur challenges when surface aerosol pollution (i.e. PM2.5) is not correlated with columnar conditions (i.e., τext). PM2.5 data fusion models that rely on satellite data and statistical relationships of τext and PM2.5 may not be able to capture the physical conditions impacting the relationships that cause columnar and surface aerosols to not be correlated in the western U.S. Therefore, an extensive examination of the atmospheric conditions is required to improve surface estimates of PM2.5 that rely on columnar aerosol measurements. This investigation uses datasets from both routine monitoring networks and models of meteorological variables and aerosol physical parameters to understand the atmospheric conditions under which surface aerosol pollution can be explained by column measurements in California and Nevada during 2013. A novel quadrant method, that utilizes statistical analysis, was developed to investigate the relationship between τext and PM2.5. The results from this investigation show that τext and PM2.5 had a positive association (τext and PM2.5 increase together) when local sources of pollution or wildfires dominated aerosol pollution in the presence of a deep and well-mixed planetary boundary layer (PBL). Moreover, τext and PM2.5 had no association (where the variables are not related) when stable conditions, long-range transport, or entrainment of air from above the PBL were observed. It was found that seasonal categorization of the relationship between τext and PM2.5, an approach commonly used in statistical models to estimate surface concentrations with satellite remote sensing, may not be enough to account for the atmospheric conditions that drive the

  1. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  2. Atmospheric Research 2016 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Divisions goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  3. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric research in the Earth Sciences Division (610) consists of research and technology development programs dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmosphere and its interaction with the climate of Earth. The Division's goals are to improve understanding of the dynamics and physical properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; atmospheric chemistry, including the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and radiative properties of Earth's atmosphere and the influence of solar variability on the Earth's climate. Major research activities are carried out in the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office. The overall scope of the research covers an end-to-end process, starting with the identification of scientific problems, leading to observation requirements for remote-sensing platforms, technology and retrieval algorithm development; followed by flight projects and satellite missions; and eventually, resulting in data processing, analyses of measurements, and dissemination from flight projects and missions. Instrument scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology to remotely sense the atmosphere. Members of the various Laboratories conduct field measurements for satellite sensor calibration and data validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud resolving models, and developing the next-generation Earth system models. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential at every stage of the research process to meeting our goals and maintaining leadership of the

  4. Atmosphere in a Test Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Pace, E.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Piccioni, G.; Billi, D.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Coccola, L.; Erculiani, M. S.; Fedel, M.; Galletta, G.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Schierano, D.; Stefani, S.

    The ancestor philosophers' dream of thousand of new world is finally realised: more than 1800 extrasolar planets have been discovered in the neighborhood of our Sun. Most of them are very different from those we used to know in our Solar System. Others orbit the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Space missions, as JWST and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground based instruments, like SPHERE@VLT, GPI@GEMINI and EPICS@ELT, have been proposed and built to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra over a wide wavelength range of these new worlds. In order to interpret the spectra coming out by this new instrumentation, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how those characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and bio-chemical reaction. Insights in this direction can be achieved from laboratory studies of simulated planetary atmosphere of different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. ''Atmosphere in a Test Tube'' is a collaboration among several Italian astronomical, biological and engineering institutes in order to share their experiencece in performing laboratory experiments on several items concerning extrasolar planet atmospheres.

  5. The atmosphere as particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, Todor

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of using an inflatable, gas-filled balloon as a TeV gamma-ray detector on the moon is considered. By taking an atmosphere of Xenon gas there, or by extracting it on the moon, a layman's detector design is presented. In spite of its shortcomings, the exercise illustrates several of the novel features offered by particle physics on the moon.

  6. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, V. M.; Chmyrev, V. M.

    Numerous phenomena that occur in the mesosphere, ionosphere, and the magnetosphere of the Earth are caused by the sources located in the lower atmosphere and on the ground. We describe the effects produced by lightning activity and by ground-based transmitters operated in high frequency (HF) and very low frequency (VLF) ranges. Among these phenomena are the ionosphere heating and the formation of plasma density inhomogeneities, the excitation of gamma ray bursts and atmospheric emissions in different spectral bands, the generation of ULF/ELF/VLF electromagnetic waves and plasma turbulence in the ionosphere, the stimulation of radiation belt electron precipitations and the acceleration of ions in the upper ionosphere. The most interesting results of experimental and theoretical studies of these phenomena are discussed below. The ionosphere is subject to the action of the conductive electric current flowing in the atmosphere-ionosphere circuit. We present a physical model of DC electric field and current formation in this circuit. The key element of this model is an external current, which is formed with the occurrence of convective upward transport of charged aerosols and their gravitational sedimentation in the atmosphere. An increase in the level of atmospheric radioactivity results in the appearance of additional ionization and change of electrical conductivity. Variation of conductivity and external current in the lower atmosphere leads to perturbation of the electric current flowing in the global atmosphere-ionosphere circuit and to the associated DC electric field perturbation both on the Earth's surface and in the ionosphere. Description of these processes and some results of the electric field and current calculations are presented below. The seismic-induced electric field perturbations produce noticeable effects in the ionosphere by generating the electromagnetic field and plasma disturbances. We describe the generation mechanisms of such experimentally

  7. Physics research 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Research programmes at Oxford University are given for the year 1980 of the Clarendon Laboratory, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department and the Atmospheric Physics Department, together with provisional research programmes in Astrophysics, Metallurgy and the Science of Materials, and Archaeology and the History of Art. Items of interest to physicists are also included from Engineering Science, Geology and Mineralogy, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Physical Chemistry Laboratory and the Chemical Crystallography Laboratory. (U.K.)

  8. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    campaigns such as Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry Near the Equator-Atlantic (TRACE-A), Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92), and Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Since those large international efforts, satellites have matured enough to enable quantifiable measurements of regional land surface, atmosphere, and ocean. In addition, global and chemical transport models have also been advanced to incorporate various data. Thus, the timing of the workshop was right for a full-fledged re-assessment of the chemistry, physics, and socio-economical impacts caused by pollution in the region, including a characterization of sources, deposition, and feedbacks with climate change.

  9. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  10. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sportisse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  11. Our shared atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our atmosphere is a precious and fascinating resource, providing air to breath, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV), and maintaining a comfortable climate. Since the industrial revolution, people have significantly altered the composition of the atmosphere throu...

  12. Jets in Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Tim

    2018-05-01

    Jet streams, "jets" for short, are remarkably coherent streams of air found in every major atmosphere. They have a profound effect on a planet's global circulation, and have been an enigma since the belts and zones of Jupiter were discovered in the 1600s. The study of jets, including what processes affect their size, strength, direction, shear stability, and predictability, are active areas of research in geophysical fluid dynamics. Jet research is multidisciplinary and global, involving collaborations between observers, experimentalists, numerical modelers, and applied mathematicians. Jets in atmospheres have strong analogies with shear instability in nonneutral plasmas, and these connections are highlighted throughout the article. The article begins with a description of four major challenges that jet researchers face: nonlinearity, non-intuitive wave physics, non-constant-coefficients, and copious nondimensional numbers. Then, two general fluid-dynamical tenets, the practice of rendering expressions dimensionally homogeneous (nondimensional), and the universal properties of shocks are applied to the open question of what controls the on-off switch of shear instability. The discussion progresses to how the physics of jets varies in equatorial, midlatitude, and polar regions, and how jets are observed to behave in each of these settings. The all-in-one conservation law of potential vorticity (PV), which combines the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and thermal energy into a single expression, is the common language of jet research. Earth and Uranus have weak retrograde equatorial jets, but most planets exhibit super-rotating equatorial jets, which require eddies to transport momentum up gradient in a non-intuitive manner. Jupiter and Saturn exhibit multiple alternating jets in their midlatitudes. The theory for why jets are invariably zonal (east-west orientated) is reviewed, and the particular challenges that Jupiter's sharp westward jets present to existing

  13. Atmospheric Infrasound during a Large Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Alexis; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Numerous natural and manmade sources generate infrasound, including tornado producing storms, human heart, hurricanes, and volcanoes. Infrasound is currently being studied as part of Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUD MAP), which is a multi-university collaboration focused on development and implementation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and integration with sensors for atmospheric measurements. To support this effort a fixed infrasonic microphone located in Stillwater, Oklahoma has been monitoring atmospheric emissions since September of 2016. While severe storm systems is the primary focus of this work, the system also captures a wide range of infrasonic sources from distances in excess of 300 miles due to an acoustic ceiling and weak atmospheric absorption. The current presentation will focus on atmospheric infrasound observations during a large wildfire on the Kansas-Oklahoma border that occurred between March 6-22, 2017. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1539070.

  14. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  15. Would be the Atmosphere Chaotic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isimar de Azevedo Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere has often been considered “chaotic” when in fact the “chaos” is a manifestation of the models that simulate it, which do not include all the physical mechanisms that exist within it. A weather prediction cannot be perfectly verified after a few days of integration due to the inherent nonlinearity of the equations of the hydrodynamic models. The innovative ideas of Lorenz led to the use of the ensemble forecast, with clear improvements in the quality of the numerical weather prediction. The present study addresses the statement that “even with perfect models and perfect observations, the ‘chaotic’ nature of the atmosphere would impose a finite limit of about two weeks to the predictability of the weather” as the atmosphere is not necessarily “chaotic”, but the models used in the simulation of atmospheric processes are. We conclude, therefore, that potential exists for developments to increase the horizon of numerical weather prediction, starting with better models and observations.

  16. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: j.s.yates@ed.ac.uk [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-20

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  17. Particulate carbon in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surakka, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted to the atmosphere in combustion processes. Carbon particles are very small and have a long residence time in the air. Black Carbon, a type of carbon aerosol, is a good label when transport of combustion emissions in the atmosphere is studied. It is also useful tool in air quality studies. Carbon particles absorb light 6.5 to 8 times stronger than any other particulate matter in the air. Their effect on decreasing visibility is about 50 %. Weather disturbances are also caused by carbon emissions e.g. in Kuwait. Carbon particles have big absorption surface and capacity to catalyze different heterogenous reactions in air. Due to their special chemical and physical properties particulate carbon is a significant air pollution specie, especially in urban air. Average particulate carbon concentration of 5.7 μg/m 2 have been measured in winter months in Helsinki

  18. Dispersion and transport of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslik, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the physical mechanisms that govern the dispersion and transport of air pollutant; the influence of the state of the 'carrying fluid', i.e. the role of meteorology; and finally, outlines the different techniques of assessing the process. Aspects of physical mechanisms and meteorology covered include: fate of an air pollutant; turbulence and dispersion; transport; wind speed and direction; atmospheric stability; and the role of atmospheric water. Assessment techniques covered are: concentrations measurements; modelling meteorological observations; and tracer releases. It is concluded that the only way to reduce air pollution is to pollute less. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Institute of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A survey is given of the personnel and activities of the Institute of Physics. Research by staff of the Nuclear Physics Group includes mainly work on heavy ion reactions and investigations of rare earth nuclei. The Elementary Particle Group has studied antineutron and antiproton annihilations, neutral current pions minus and has used the CERN ISRs. The Cosmic Physics Group has used rockets, satellite data and balloons to study the electron and proton precipitation in the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere, and aurorae. (JIW)

  20. Forward physics with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Grothe, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Forward physics with CMS at the LHC covers a wide range of physics subjects, including very low-x_Bj QCD, underlying event and multiple interactions characteristics, gamma-mediated processes, shower development at the energy scale of primary cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere, diffraction in the presence of a hard scale and even MSSM Higgs discovery in central exclusive production. Selected feasibility studies to illustrate the forward physics potential of CMS are presented.

  1. Atmospheric aerosol system: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospero, J.M.; Charlson, R.J.; Mohnen, V.; Jaenicke, R.; Delany, A.C.; Moyers, J.; Zoller, W.; Rahn, K.

    1983-01-01

    Aerosols could play a critical role in many processes which impact on our lives either indirectly (e.g., climate) or directly (e.g., health). However, our ability to assess these possible impacts is constrained by our limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, both anthropogenic and natural. This deficiency is attributable in part to the fact that aerosols are the end product of a vast array of chemical and physical processes. Consequently, the properties of the aerosol can exhibit a great deal of variability in both time and space. Furthermore, most aerosol studies have focused on measurements of a single aerosol characteristic such as composition or size distribution. Such information is generally not useful for the assessment of impacts because the degree of impact may depend on the integral properties of the aerosol, for example, the aerosol composition as a function of particle size. In this overview we discuss recent work on atmospheric aerosols that illustrates the complex nature of the aerosol chemical and physical system, and we suggest strategies for future research. A major conclusion is that man has had a great impact on the global budgets of certain species, especially sulfur and nitrogen, that play a dominant role in the atmospheric aerosol system. These changes could conceivably affect climate. Large-scale impacts are implied because it has recently been demonstrated that natural and pollutant aerosol episodes can be propagated over great distances. However, at present there is no evidence linking anthropogenic activities with a persistent increase in aerosol concentrations on a global scale. A major problem in assessing man's impact on the atmospheric aerosol system and on global budgets is the absence of aerosol measurements in remote marine and continental areas

  2. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  3. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  4. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report was prepared by the Panel on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics of the Physics Survey Committee in response to its charge to describe the field, to characterize the recent advances, and to identify the current frontiers of research. Some of the areas discussed are: atomic structure, atomic dynamics, accelerator-based atomic physics, molecular photoionization and electron-molecule scattering, astrophysics, laser spectroscopy, atmospheric physics, plasma physics, and applications

  5. Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    REPORT Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have transformed a plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, with the...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 31-Mar-2012 Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane Report Title ABSTRACT We have transformed a...DD882) Scientific Progress See attachment Technology Transfer 1    Final Report for DARPA project W911NF1010027  Phytoremediation  of Atmospheric

  6. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A.E.; Fontenla, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized. 7 refs

  7. Nucleation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegg, D A; Baker, M B

    2009-01-01

    Small particles play major roles in modulating radiative and hydrological fluxes in the atmosphere and thus they impact both climate (IPCC 2007) and weather. Most atmospheric particles outside clouds are created in situ through nucleation from gas phase precursors and most ice particles within clouds are formed by nucleation, usually from the liquid. Thus, the nucleation process is of great significance in the Earth's atmosphere. The theoretical examination of nucleation in the atmosphere has been based mostly on classical nucleation theory. While diagnostically very useful, the prognostic skill demonstrated by this approach has been marginal. Microscopic approaches such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory have also proven useful in elucidating various aspects of the process but are not yet sufficiently refined to offer a significant prognostic advantage to the classical approach, due primarily to the heteromolecular nature of atmospheric nucleation. An important aspect of the nucleation process in the atmosphere is that the degree of metastability of the parent phase for the nucleation is modulated by a number of atmospheric processes such as condensation onto pre-existing particles, updraft velocities that are the main driving force for supersaturation of water (a major factor in all atmospheric nucleation), and photochemical production rates of nucleation precursors. Hence, atmospheric nucleation is both temporally and spatially inhomogeneous

  8. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  9. Recent Advances in Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Si

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic metals and has global importance due to the biomagnification and bioaccumulation of organomercury via the aquatic food web. The physical and chemical transformations of various mercury species in the atmosphere strongly influence their composition, phase, transport characteristics and deposition rate back to the ground. Modeling efforts to assess global cycling of mercury require an accurate understanding of atmospheric mercury chemistry. Yet, there are several key uncertainties precluding accurate modeling of physical and chemical transformations. We focus this article on recent studies (since 2015 on improving our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of mercury. We discuss recent advances in determining the dominant atmospheric oxidant of elemental mercury (Hg0 and understanding the oxidation reactions of Hg0 by halogen atoms and by nitrate radical (NO3—in the aqueous reduction of oxidized mercury compounds (HgII as well as in the heterogeneous reactions of Hg on atmospheric-relevant surfaces. The need for future research to improve understanding of the fate and transformation of mercury in the atmosphere is also discussed.

  10. CLOUD: an atmospheric research facility at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    The Cloud Collaboration

    2001-01-01

    This report is the second of two addenda to the CLOUD proposal at CERN (physics/0104048), which aims to test experimentally the existence a link between cosmic rays and cloud formation, and to understand the microphysical mechanism. The document places CLOUD in the framework of a CERN facility for atmospheric research, and provides further details on the particle beam requirements.

  11. An atmospheric dispersion index for prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas G. Lavdas

    1986-01-01

    A numerical index that estimates the atmosphere's capacity to disperse smoke from prescribed burning is described. The physical assumptions and mathematical development of the index are given in detail. A preliminary interpretation of dispersion index values is offered. A FORTRAN subroutine package for computing the index is included.

  12. Deuterium in atmospheric cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontikis, M.C.

    Interest of the study concerning the deuterium content variation (HDO) in the atmospheric water. Standards and measurement methods. Molecule HDO cycle in the atmospheric water. Application to the study of hail-generating cumulus-nimbus and of the mantle of snow [fr

  13. Urban atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano Jose, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of contamination are not only limited to this century, pale pathology evidences of the effects of the contamination of the air exist in interiors in the health of the old ones; the article mention the elements that configure the problem of the atmospheric contamination, atmospheric pollutants and emission sources, orography condition and effects induced by the urbanization process

  14. Controlled Atmosphere Stunning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Controlled atmosphere (CAS) stunning includes several variations of gaseous mixtures given to induce an anaesthetic state before slaughter poultry. One method of multi phase CAS is to unload the birds out of the crate on a conveyor belt and subject the birds to an atmosphere of 30% O2, 40% CO2 and

  15. Atmosphere Impact Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2018-02-01

    Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the early differentiation of the Earth. We further quantify the key volatile loss mechanisms and the atmospheric loss history during Earth's formation. Volatiles were accreted throughout the Earth's formation, but Earth's early accretion history was volatile poor. Although nebular Ne and possible H in the deep mantle might be a fingerprint of this early accretion, most of the mantle does not remember this signature implying that volatile loss occurred during accretion. Present day geochemistry of volatiles shows no evidence of hydrodynamic escape as the isotopic compositions of most volatiles are chondritic. This suggests that atmospheric loss generated by impacts played a major role during Earth's formation. While many of the volatiles have chondritic isotopic ratios, their relative abundances are certainly not chondritic again suggesting volatile loss tied to impacts. Geochemical evidence of atmospheric loss comes from the {}3He/{}^{22}Ne, halogen ratios (e.g., F/Cl) and low H/N ratios. In addition, the geochemical ratios indicate that most of the water could have been delivered prior to the Moon forming impact and that the Moon forming impact did not drive off the ocean. Given the importance of impacts in determining the volatile budget of the Earth we examine the contributions to atmospheric loss from both small and large impacts. We find that atmospheric mass loss due to impacts can be characterized into three different regimes: 1) Giant Impacts, that create a strong shock transversing the whole planet and that can lead to atmospheric loss globally. 2) Large enough impactors (m_{cap} ≳ √{2

  16. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  17. The equilibrium response to doubling atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.F.B.

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium response of climate to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as simulated by general circulation models is assessed. Changes that are physically plausible are summarized, along with an indication of the confidence attributable to those changes. The main areas of uncertainty are highlighted. They include: equilibrium experiments with mixed-layer oceans focusing on temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture; equilibrium studies with dynamical ocean-atmosphere models; results deduced from equilibrium CO 2 experiments; and priorities for future research to improve atmosphere models

  18. Dynamics of Massive Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemke, Rei; Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: rei.chemke@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-08-10

    The many recently discovered terrestrial exoplanets are expected to hold a wide range of atmospheric masses. Here the dynamic-thermodynamic effects of atmospheric mass on atmospheric circulation are studied using an idealized global circulation model by systematically varying the atmospheric surface pressure. On an Earth analog planet, an increase in atmospheric mass weakens the Hadley circulation and decreases its latitudinal extent. These changes are found to be related to the reduction of the convective fluxes and net radiative cooling (due to the higher atmospheric heat capacity), which, respectively, cool the upper troposphere at mid-low latitudes and warm the troposphere at high latitudes. These together decrease the meridional temperature gradient, tropopause height and static stability. The reduction of these parameters, which play a key role in affecting the flow properties of the tropical circulation, weakens and contracts the Hadley circulation. The reduction of the meridional temperature gradient also decreases the extraction of mean potential energy to the eddy fields and the mean kinetic energy, which weakens the extratropical circulation. The decrease of the eddy kinetic energy decreases the Rhines wavelength, which is found to follow the meridional jet scale. The contraction of the jet scale in the extratropics results in multiple jets and meridional circulation cells as the atmospheric mass increases.

  19. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  20. Seasonal Variation of Atmospheric Composition of Water-Soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Background Site in Tanzania, East Africa. 1Mkoma S.L. ... fine, coarse and PM10 mass were, 17±4, 52±27 and 69±29 µg/m3 during the 2005 dry season campaign and. 13±5, 34±23 ... particles in ambient air, atmospheric particulate ... especially the fine particle fraction with ..... Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air.

  1. Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Integrating Air Chemistry and Land Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Stratum, van B.J.H.; Dries, van den C.L.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to the interactions between the atmosphere and the land for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and a reference text for researchers in atmospheric physics and chemistry, hydrology, and plant physiology. The combination of the book, which provides the

  2. Stochastic and Statistical Methods in Climate, Atmosphere, and Ocean Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.T. Crommelin (Daan); B. Khouider; B. Engquist

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractIntroduction The behavior of the atmosphere, oceans, and climate is intrinsically uncertain. The basic physical principles that govern atmospheric and oceanic flows are well known, for example, the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow, thermodynamic properties of moist air, and the

  3. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Age started half a century ago. Today, with the completion of a fairly detailed study of the planets of the Solar System, we have begun studying exoplanets (or extrasolar planets). The overriding question in is to ask whether an exoplanet is habitable and harbors life, and if so, what the biosignatures ought to be. This forces us to confront the fundamental question of what controls the composition of an atmosphere. The composition of a planetary atmosphere reflects a balance between thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry (as in the interior of giant planets) and photochemistry (as in the atmosphere of Mars). The terrestrial atmosphere has additional influence from life (biochemistry). The bulk of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres is driven by UV radiation. Photosynthesis may be considered an extension of photochemistry by inventing a molecule (chlorophyll) that can harvest visible light. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of photochemistry is catalytic chemistry, the ability of trace amounts of gases to profoundly affect the composition of the atmosphere. Notable examples include HOx (H, OH and HO2) chemistry on Mars and chlorine chemistry on Earth and Venus. Another remarkable feature of photochemistry is organic synthesis in the outer solar system. The best example is the atmosphere of Titan. Photolysis of methane results in the synthesis of more complex hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon chemistry inevitably leads to the formation of high molecular weight products, giving rise to aerosols when the ambient atmosphere is cool enough for them to condense. These results are supported by the findings of the recent Cassini mission. Lastly, photochemistry leaves a distinctive isotopic signature that can be used to trace back the evolutionary history of the atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen isotopes on Mars and sulfur isotopes on Earth. Returning to the question of biosignatures on an exoplanet, our Solar System experience tells us to look for speciation

  4. Atmospheric correction of Earth-observation remote sensing images ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physics underlying the problem of solar radiation propagations that takes into account ... SART code (Spherical Atmosphere Radiation. Transfer) ... The use of Monte Carlo sampling ..... length because this soil is formed by clay and sand.

  5. New atmospheric program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Science Foundation's Division of Atmospheric Sciences has established an Upper Atmospheric Facilities program within its Centers and Facilities section. The program will support the operation of and the scientific research that uses the longitudinal chain of incoherent scatter radars. The program also will ensure that the chain is maintained as a state-of-the-art research tool available to all interested and qualified scientists.For additional information, contact Richard A. Behnke, Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 202-357-7390).

  6. Atmospheric ionisation in Snowdonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aplin, K L [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH UK (United Kingdom); Williams, J H, E-mail: k.aplin1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Envirodata-Eyri, Bryn Goleu, Penmaen Park, Llanfairfechan, Gwynedd LL33 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Atmospheric ionisation from natural radioactivity and cosmic rays has been measured at several sites in Snowdonia from 2005-present. The motivation for this project was a combination of public engagement with science, and research into the effects of ionisation on climate. A four-component atmospheric radiometer instrument is co-located with the ionisation detectors and the data is remotely logged and displayed on the Web. Atmospheric ionisation from natural radioactivity varies with local geology, and the cosmic ray ionisation component is modulated by solar activity and altitude. Variations due to all these effects have been identified and are described.

  7. Atmospheric greenhouse effect - simple model; Atmosfaerens drivhuseffekt - enkel modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanestroem, Ingolf; Henriksen, Thormod

    2011-07-01

    The article shows a simple model for the atmospheric greenhouse effect based on consideration of both the sun and earth as 'black bodies', so that the physical laws that apply to them, may be used. Furthermore, explained why some gases are greenhouse gases, but other gases in the atmosphere has no greenhouse effect. But first, some important concepts and physical laws encountered in the article, are repeated. (AG)

  8. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyan; Seay, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We construct a grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres spanning a wide range of atmospheric metallicity (0.3x ≤ met ≤ 100x), C/O ratios (0.25x ≤ C/O ≤ 2.5x), and cloud properties, encompassing atmospheres of effective temperatures 200 ≤ Teff ≤ 2400 K and gravities 2.5 ≤ log g ≤ 5.5. We produce the expected temperature-pressure profiles and emergent spectra from an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium. We can then compare our predicted spectra to observations and retrieval results to aid in their predictions and influence future missions and telescopic observations. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology and present our progress on model grid construction, spanning solar and subsolar C/O and metallicity.

  9. Results from atmospheric neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Africa and South India first detected the natural neutrinos and observed .... lucky coincidences, such as the angular diameter of the moon and sun being ... (where there is some peaking due to longer flight paths for pions in the atmosphere).

  10. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  11. CARBON NEUTRON STAR ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Klochkov, D.; Werner, K.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in the chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, the atmospheres of thermally emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in Cas A, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho and Heinke. To test this composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of the carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed this grid using the standard local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10 8  G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra

  12. Origin of atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Gy [Eotvos Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest (Hungary). Atomfizikai Tanszek

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied.

  13. The origin of atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Gy.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the atmosphere of the Earth is described. Starting from the hot Universe the main steps of the ''cooling-down'' process as the different states of the condensation of the matter are discussed. After this nuclear evolution the chemical evolution could start on the solid Earth's crust. In the reductive primordial atmosphere mainly due to ultraviolet rays the basic molecules for life as sugars and amino acids were formed. The photosynthesis of the plants has later produced the oxygen being present in the recent atmosphere. The question whether the pollution could affect the auto-stabilization loop of the atmosphere is also discussed. Finally the possibility of life on the Mars is studied. (Sz.Z.)

  14. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  15. Intensifying the Atmospheric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenological concept of urban atmospheres is more often applied as an aesthetic description of the metropolitan space as such. This conceptualization is supported in this paper; however, I strive to give the concept a post-phenomenological axial turn. While phenomenology, due to its under...... sufficiently intense. All things considered, the paper should be read as a sociological contribution to theoretically reconstruct the concept of urban atmospheres in the light of spatial morphology....

  16. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  17. A First Course in Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, Phillip

    2009-08-01

    It is not uncommon to find textbooks that have been written with the intention of catering to a broad spectrum of readers. Often, though not always, the result is a book appropriate for neither advanced nor beginning students. However, Grant Petty had a very specific target audience in mind when he wrote A First Course in Atmospheric Thermodynamics. The book is clearly gauged for atmospheric science and meteorology students who have had introductory courses in physics and calculus but who have not necessarily established a firm foundation in analytic problem solving.

  18. Development of atmospheric polarization LIDAR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalumyan, A.S.; Ghazaryan, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system sensitive to the polarization of the backscattered signal is being developed in Yerevan Physics Institute. The system is designed primarily for remote sensing of the atmospheric electric fields. At present, the system is being tuned for measuring vertical atmospheric backscatter profiles of aerosols and hydrometeors, analyze the depolarization ratio of elastic backscattered laser beams and investigate the influence of external factors on the beam polarization. In this paper, we describe the complete LIDAR system – the laser transmitter, receiving telescope and the polarization separator. The data acquisition and processing techniques are also described. (author)

  19. Atmospheric pollution in Lisbon urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lisbon is the capital city of Portugal with about 565,000 residents in 2008 and a population density of 6,600 inhabitants per square kilometre. Like several other major metropolis, the town is surrounded by satellite cities, forming together a region known as "Lisbon Metropolitan Area" with about 3 million inhabitants, a quarter of the overall Portuguese population. Besides their local residents, it is estimated that more than one million citizens come into the Lisbon area every day from the outskirts, leading to elevated traffic densities and intense traffic jams, with important consequences on air pollution levels and obvious negative impacts on human health. Airborne particulate matter limit values are frequently exceeded, making urgent the existence of consistent programs to monitor and help taking measures to control them. Within the Portuguese project PAHLIS (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contamination in Lisbon Urban Atmosphere) financed by the Portuguese Science Foundation ("Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia"), an aerosol and vapour phase sampling program is being implemented in the city of Lisbon at two selected contrasting zones, namely a typically busy area with intense road traffic and frequent exceedences of the particulate matter standard for the maximum allowable concentration, and a residential quieter area, thus with a cleaner atmosphere characterised as an urban background site. An one month-long sampling campaign was performed during the summer of 2008, where particulate matter was collected in two fractions (coarse 2.5µmwork are expected to cover a lack of reliable information regarding sources of atmospheric pollutants in Portugal and present, for the first time, systematic data of PAHs levels in Lisbon. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under Project PAHLIS (PTDC/AMB/65699/2006) financed by "Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia". C. Oliveira thanks Project PAHLIS his scholarship.

  20. Meteorology ans solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Oliver

    When in the second half of the 19th century both solar physics and astrophysics came into existence, various solar phenomena were described by analogies encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere. For a certain time, meteorology played a central role in research on solar processes. At first glance, this may appear as a curious and old-fashioned specialty. However, solar physics owes its first insights into solar structure to various analogies in terrestrial atmospheric studies. The present investigation intends to elucidate this fact, to present details of the historical development, and to demonstrate how our present knowledge in certain fields is based on considerations which were originally taken from the description of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  1. CERN School of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This year's CERN School of Physics, the 25th, was held from 8-21 June in Sandhamn, near Stockholm. This exotic island in the Stockholm archipelago helped create a friendly atmosphere for the 80 very ambitious students (coming from 20 different countries) and their 20 or so lecturers and discussion leaders

  2. CERN School of physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-09-15

    This year's CERN School of Physics, the 25th, was held from 8-21 June in Sandhamn, near Stockholm. This exotic island in the Stockholm archipelago helped create a friendly atmosphere for the 80 very ambitious students (coming from 20 different countries) and their 20 or so lecturers and discussion leaders.

  3. Heidelberg physicists report. Vol. 2. Reviews of research in physics and astronomy. Fundamental contributions to the physics of the atomic nuclei and the star atmospheres; Heidelberger Physiker berichten. Bd. 2. Rueckblicke auf Forschung in der Physik und Astronomie. Grundlegende Beitraege zur Physik der Atomkerne und der Sternatmosphaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appenzeller, Immo; Dubbers, Dirk; Siebig, Hans-Georg; Winnacker, Albrecht (eds.)

    2018-04-01

    The following topics are dealt with: 50 years theoretical astrophysics, nuclear physics after the discovery of the shell model, from the small van de Graaf to the large HERA, from ''chamber physics'' to big research, reminiscences on physical research in Heidelberg. (HSI)

  4. Dinamics of hydrogen in terrestrial atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roamntan, A.; Mercea, V.; Ristoiu, D.; Ursu, D.

    1981-01-01

    Thishs monographic study presents the dynamics of hydrogen in t e Earth's atmosphere. Atomic hydrogen is produced in the homosphere through a complex system of chemical reaction in wich molecules of 2 , H 2 O, C 4 s ''parent '' molecules are involved. The maximum production of H appears at 8O km resulting a concentration of the order of 10 8 cm -3 . There is a correlation between the total mixing ratio of hydrogen in the homosphere and the global escape flux from the Earth's atmosphere. Two new physical mechanisms which may have a substantial contribution to the total escape flux are presented: ''polar wind'' and charge exchange of H with ''hot'' protons. The possibilities of accretion of hydrogen, as atomic hydrogen or as water from the Earth's atmosphere, are analysed in brief. (authors)

  5. Cloud Computing with iPlant Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Sheldon J; Skidmore, Edwin J; LaRose, Christopher J; Mercer, Andre W; Noutsos, Christos

    2013-10-15

    Cloud Computing refers to distributed computing platforms that use virtualization software to provide easy access to physical computing infrastructure and data storage, typically administered through a Web interface. Cloud-based computing provides access to powerful servers, with specific software and virtual hardware configurations, while eliminating the initial capital cost of expensive computers and reducing the ongoing operating costs of system administration, maintenance contracts, power consumption, and cooling. This eliminates a significant barrier to entry into bioinformatics and high-performance computing for many researchers. This is especially true of free or modestly priced cloud computing services. The iPlant Collaborative offers a free cloud computing service, Atmosphere, which allows users to easily create and use instances on virtual servers preconfigured for their analytical needs. Atmosphere is a self-service, on-demand platform for scientific computing. This unit demonstrates how to set up, access and use cloud computing in Atmosphere. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Chemical element abundance in K giant atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, N.S.; Shcherbak, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    With the help of modified method of differential curves of growth studied are physical parameters of atmospheres of giant stars of KO111 spectral class of the NGC 752, M25 and UMa cluster. Observations have been made on reflector of Crimea astrophysical observatory of Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the period from February to May, 1978. Spectograms are obtained for the wave length range from 5000-5500 A. It is shown that the change of chemical content in the wide range in heavy element composition does not influence the star atmosphere structUre. It follows from the results of the investigation that the abundance of chemical elements in stars of various scattered clusters, is the same in the range of errors of measurements and is similar to the abundance of chemical elements in the Sun atmosphere

  7. Occultations for probing atmosphere and climate

    CERN Document Server

    Foelsche, Ulrich; Steiner, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite­ crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi­ fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a...

  8. An introduction to atmospheric gravity waves

    CERN Document Server

    Nappo, Carmen J

    2012-01-01

    Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation.An accompanying website contains real data, computer codes for data analysis, and linear gravity wave models to further enhance the reader's understanding of the book's material. Companion web site features animations and streaming video Foreword by George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interac...

  9. Composition, Chemistry, and Climate of the Atmosphere. 2: Mean properties of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B. (Editor); Salstein, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The atmosphere can be defined as the relatively thin gaseous envelope surrounding the entire planet Earth. It possesses a number of properties related to its physical state and chemical composition, and it undergoes a variety of internal processes and external interactions that can either maintain or alter these properties. Whereas descriptions of the atmosphere's chemical properties form much of the remaining chapters of this book, the present chapter will highlight the atmosphere's gases, and these define its temperature structure. In contrast, the larger-scale motions comprise the winds, the global organization of which is often referred to as the general circulation. The framework of the dynamical and thermodynamical laws, including the three principles of conversation of mass, momentum, and energy, are fundamental in describing both the internal processes of the atmosphere and its external interactions. The atmosphere is not a closed system, because it exchanges all three of these internally conservative quantities across the atmosphere's boundary below and receives input from regions outside it. Thus surface fluxes of moisture, momentum, and heat occur to and from the underlying ocean and land. The atmosphere exchanges very little mass and momentum with space, though it absorbs directly a portion of the solar radiational energy received from above.

  10. Atmospheric ions and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1977-01-01

    The various types of atmospheric ions are defined, the main sources of natural atmospheric radioactivity inducing the formation of radioactive ions in the air are then recalled. The basic equations governing the formation of these ions are indicated and the most current experimental methods used for detecting them are described (Zeleny tubes, Erikson tubes). The special properties of these ions are examined, they are particularly emphasized for the smaller ones. The existence of a discret spectrum of mobilities is shown and the presence of big negative radioactive ions is investigated. Indicative information are given on the granulometric distribution of the atmospheric radioactivity in the air, from small positive Ra A ion fixation on aerosols [fr

  11. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  12. Composition of Estonian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J. M.; Karindi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric study, particularly that of its chemical composition, has a long tradition in Estonia. Since middle of this century, in addition to meteorological observations, some chemical compounds in precipitations have been regularly measured in many meteorological stations. The main aim was to acquire information about the state and dynamics of the atmosphere. Therefore, main attention was paid to monitoring chemical compounds which have a direct impact on the human environment. As energy production developed intensively and SO 2 and NO x increased drastically in the atmosphere in acidic rock areas, like Scandinavia, the problem of acid rain became the most important environmental problem in Europe and North-America. As a consequence, monitoring the compounds of sulphur in precipitation was organized in Estonia. In the 1970 s, as related to large operating oil shale-based power plants, Estonia became a country , where emissions of sulphur compounds per capita were extremely high. In 1979, Estonia became a participant in the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme - the network created to study transboundary air pollution. The aims of the precipitation chemistry study and the related problems of the formation and transformation of the atmospheric composition have varied over the years. But monitoring of pollutant (in particular, sulphur compound) loads has been a central issue. Over recent years, an attempt was made to estimate the spatial regularities of atmospheric impurities and their impact on the pH of mean monthly precipitations. Furthermore, calculations were provided to find out the origin of atmospheric impurities washed out in Estonia. Until the 1990 s, CO 2 , and some other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were not studied in Estonia. The first inventory of GHG for Estonia was provided in 1995 using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology

  13. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  14. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  15. Atmosphere beyond Poetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2014-01-01

    Defined by German philosopher Gernot Böhme as a ‘fundamental concept of a new aesthetics’ (Böhme 2003), the notion of atmosphere has been widely discussed across many disciplinary fields over the last few decades. It has taken a central stage also in architectural debate, leading to both conceptual......, the notion of atmosphere is presented as parallactic for designing experience in architectural fields, since it transgresses formal and material boundaries of bodies, opening a new gap that exposes the orthodox space-body-environment relationships to questions. It leads to the dissolution...

  16. Global atmospheric changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  17. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.

    1977-01-01

    The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man

  18. Atmospheric transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.

    1978-01-01

    The chairman and contributors are members of the Working Group on Atmospheric Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension. This group examined the mathematical approaches for determining the direct and indirect pathways to man of releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. The dose-to-man limitations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Energy Research and Development Administration were presented. The present status of research was discussed, and recommendations for future work were made. Particular emphasis was placed on the need for additional experimental work to develop confidence limits leading to acceptable probability statements of critical pathways for determining the dose-to-man

  19. Modern physics in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickinger, W.; Kowalski, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report contain papers on the following topics: physics at higher energies and smaller distances: are there limits; reminiscences of my father; atoms, molecules and light; the life of the stars; neutrinos from the atmosphere and beyond; the search for gravitational waves: probing the dynamics of space-time; experimental gaze at nonlinear phenomena; a physicist's view of biology; strange insulators, strange semiconductors, strange metals: High T c as a case history in condensed-matter physics; grand challenges to computational science; the supercollider: assault on the summit; is the whole universe composed of superstrings; SN1987A: the supernovae of a lifetime; and the discovery and physics of superconductivity above 100 K

  20. Development of scheme for predicting atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during nuclear emergency by using atmospheric dynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-07-01

    The meteorological forecast models are critically important for the accuracy of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into atmosphere during nuclear emergencies. Thus, this paper describes a new scheme for predicting environmental impacts due to accidental release of radionuclides by using an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. The advantages of introducing PHYSIC are, (1) three-dimensional local meteorological forecasts can be conducted, (2) synoptic meteorological changes can be considered by inputting grid data of synoptic forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency to PHYSIC as initial and boundary conditions, (3) forecasts can be improved by nudging method using local meteorological observations, and (4) atmospheric dispersion model can consider the variation of the mixed layer. (author)

  1. Development of scheme for predicting atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during nuclear emergency by using atmospheric dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The meteorological forecast models are critically important for the accuracy of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into atmosphere during nuclear emergencies. Thus, this paper describes a new scheme for predicting environmental impacts due to accidental release of radionuclides by using an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. The advantages of introducing PHYSIC are, (1) three-dimensional local meteorological forecasts can be conducted, (2) synoptic meteorological changes can be considered by inputting grid data of synoptic forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency to PHYSIC as initial and boundary conditions, (3) forecasts can be improved by nudging method using local meteorological observations, and (4) atmospheric dispersion model can consider the variation of the mixed layer. (author)

  2. Coupled atmosphere-wildland fire modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Henri Balbi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the interaction between fire and atmosphere is critical to the estimation of the rate of spread of the fire. Wildfire’s convection (i.e., entire plume can modify the local meteorology throughout the atmospheric boundary layer and consequently affect the fire propagation speed and behaviour. In this study, we use for the first time the Méso-NH meso-scale numerical model coupled to the point functional ForeFire simplified physical front-tracking wildfire model to investigate the differences introduced by the atmospheric feedback in propagation speed and behaviour. Both numerical models have been developed as research tools for operational models and are currently used to forecast localized extreme events. These models have been selected because they can be run coupled and support decisions in wildfire management in France and Europe. The main originalities of this combination reside in the fact that Méso-NH is run in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES configuration and that the rate of spread model used in ForeFire provides a physical formulation to take into account the effect of wind and slope. Simulations of typical experimental configurations show that the numerical atmospheric model is able to reproduce plausible convective effects of the heat produced by the fire. Numerical results are comparable to estimated values for fire-induced winds and present behaviour similar to other existing numerical approaches.

  3. Atmospheric River Characteristics under Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, J.; Ge, M.

    2017-12-01

    How does decadal climate variability change the nature and predictability of atmospheric river events? Decadal swings in atmospheric river frequency, or shifts in the proportion of precipitation falling as rain, could challenge current water resource and flood risk management practice. Physical multi-scale processes operating between Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and atmospheric rivers over the Western U.S. are explored using the global Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS). A 45km global mesh is refined over the Western U.S. to 12km to capture the major terrain effects on precipitation. The performance of the MPAS is first evaluated for a case study atmospheric river event over California. Atmospheric river characteristics are then compared in a pair of idealized simulations, each driven by Pacific SST patterns characteristic of opposite phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Given recent evidence that we have entered a positive phase of the IPO, implications for current reservoir management practice over the next decade will be discussed. This work contributes to the NSF-funded project UDECIDE (Understanding Decision-Climate Interactions on Decadal Scales). UDECIDE brings together practitioners, engineers, statisticians, and climate scientists to understand the role of decadal climate information for water management and decisions.

  4. Thomson scattering measurements in atmospheric plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, G.; Schein, J.; Schwendinger, P.; Kortshagen, U.; Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1999-01-01

    Electron temperature and electron density in a dc plasma jet at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using Thomson laser scattering. Measurements performed at various scattering angles have revealed effects that are not accounted for by the standard scattering theory. Differences between the predicted and experimental results suggest that higher order corrections to the theory may be required, and that corrections to the form of the spectral density function may play an important role. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, Yohai [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl st., 76100, Rehovot (Israel); Showman, Adam P., E-mail: yohai.kaspi@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate.

  6. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF ORBITAL AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discoveries of terrestrial exoplanets and super-Earths extending over a broad range of orbital and physical parameters suggest that these planets will span a wide range of climatic regimes. Characterization of the atmospheres of warm super-Earths has already begun and will be extended to smaller and more distant planets over the coming decade. The habitability of these worlds may be strongly affected by their three-dimensional atmospheric circulation regimes, since the global climate feedbacks that control the inner and outer edges of the habitable zone—including transitions to Snowball-like states and runaway-greenhouse feedbacks—depend on the equator-to-pole temperature differences, patterns of relative humidity, and other aspects of the dynamics. Here, using an idealized moist atmospheric general circulation model including a hydrological cycle, we study the dynamical principles governing the atmospheric dynamics on such planets. We show how the planetary rotation rate, stellar flux, atmospheric mass, surface gravity, optical thickness, and planetary radius affect the atmospheric circulation and temperature distribution on such planets. Our simulations demonstrate that equator-to-pole temperature differences, meridional heat transport rates, structure and strength of the winds, and the hydrological cycle vary strongly with these parameters, implying that the sensitivity of the planet to global climate feedbacks will depend significantly on the atmospheric circulation. We elucidate the possible climatic regimes and diagnose the mechanisms controlling the formation of atmospheric jet streams, Hadley and Ferrel cells, and latitudinal temperature differences. Finally, we discuss the implications for understanding how the atmospheric circulation influences the global climate

  7. Seasonal atmospheric extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    Mean monochromatic extinction coefficients at various wavelengths at the Kottamia Observatory site have shown the existence of a seasonal variation of atmospheric extinction. The extinction of aerosol compontnts with wavelengths at winter represent exceedingly good conditions. Spring gives the highest extinction due to aerosol. (orig.)

  8. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  9. Atmospheric muons in Hanoi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Ngoc Diep; Pham thi Tuyet Nhung; Pierre Darriulat; Nguyen Thi Thao; Dang Quang Thieu; Vo Van Thuan

    2006-01-01

    Recent measurements of the atmospheric muon flux in Hanoi were reviewed. As the measurements were carried out in a region of maximal geomagnetic rigidity cutoff, they provided a sensitive test of air shower models used in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. The measured data were found to be in a very good agreement with the prediction from the model of M. Honda. (author)

  10. Climate and atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Schumacher, R.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the scientific journal of the Humboldt university is dedicated to results of research work carried out to the greatest extent at the meteorological institute in the last two years on the area of climate and atmospheric research. The traditional research areas of the institute are climatology and the dynamics of the atmosphere, in particular the atmospherical boundary layer. Considering the high probability of a global climatic fluctuation due to the anthropogenic change of composition of the atmosphere and other climate-relevant factors imminent in the next century, climatological research today is an important part of global and regional environmental research. From the necessity of determination and evaluation of the effect of climatic fluctuations on nature and society the contours of a new interdisciplinary research area are already visible now. This is suitable as hardly any other area to be the supporting idea of environmental research at universities. The contributions contained in the issue already consider, in addition to results on climate diagnosis, also results on aspects of climate effect research. (orig./KW) [de

  11. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  12. Contaminants in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, R.; Wåhlin, P.

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental...

  13. Atmospheric neutrino challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    We briefly review the improvements in the predictions of atmospheric neutrino fluxes since the NOW2000 workshop. In spite of the great progress of the calculational technique the predictions are still not exact because of the uncertainties in the two major sets of input - cosmic ray flux and hadronic interactions on light nuclei.

  14. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Ariya, Parisa A.; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC

    2014-01-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  15. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  16. Atoms and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megie, G.

    1994-01-01

    The ozone sources, roles and distribution are reviewed, and the atmosphere dynamic effects on ozone circulation are discussed; chlorine and CFC are the two main perturbative agents of the ozone layer and their effects are described and analyzed; impacts of the limitation of the CFC and chlorine utilization are discussed. 5 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Comets, impacts, and atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Tobias; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    Studies of element abundances and values of D/H in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Titan have emphasized the important role of icy planetesimals in the formation of these bodies. In these atmospheres, C/H and D/H increase as the relative masses of the 'cores' of the planets increase. N/H appears to deviate from this trend in an interesting way. In the inner solar system, the traditional approach of using carbonaceous chondrites as the source of planetary volatiles is in serious trouble because of the depletion of xenon and the unusual pattern of xenon isotopes found in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars, and because of the solar-type abundance ratios of argon, krypton and xenon and the large amounts of neon and argon on Venus. Recent studies of elemental abundances in comets, especially P/Halley, coupled with laboratory studies of the trapping of gas in ice formed at low temperatures by A. Bar-Nun et al. provide a consistent interpretation of all of these results. This interpretation emphasizes the fundamental importance of icy planetesimals (comets) and the randomness of early impacts in the formation of planetary systems. Cometary delivery by itself will not explain the noble gas abundances on the inner planets. There is good evidence for at least one additional source, which presumably consists of the rocky material making up the bulk of the planets. The existence of this rocky reservoir is manifested in the nucleogenic isotopes and in the neon which is found in all these atmospheres and is also present in the Earth's mantle. This neon may well be a relic of the planets' earliest, accretional atmospheres.

  18. Final Report for Cloud-Aerosol Physics in Super-Parameterized Atmospheric Regional Climate Simulations (CAP-SPARCS)(DE-SC0002003) for 8/15/2009 through 8/14/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M; Somerville, Richard C.J.

    2012-11-05

    Improving the representation of local and non-local aerosol interactions in state-of-the-science regional climate models is a priority for the coming decade (Zhang, 2008). With this aim in mind, we have combined two new technologies that have a useful synergy: (1) an aerosol-enabled regional climate model (Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry WRF-Chem), whose primary weakness is a lack of high quality boundary conditions and (2) an aerosol-enabled multiscale modeling framework (PNNL Multiscale Aerosol Climate Model (MACM)), which is global but captures aerosol-convection-cloud feedbacks, and thus an ideal source of boundary conditions. Combining these two approaches has resulted in an aerosol-enabled modeling framework that not only resolves high resolution details in a particular region, but crucially does so within a global context that is similarly faithful to multi-scale aerosol-climate interactions. We have applied and improved the representation of aerosol interactions by evaluating model performance over multiple domains, with (1) an extensive evaluation of mid-continent precipitation representation by multiscale modeling, (2) two focused comparisons to transport of aerosol plumes to the eastern United States for comparison with observations made as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT), with the first being idealized and the second being linked to an extensive wildfire plume, and (3) the extension of these ideas to the development of a new approach to evaluating aerosol indirect effects with limited-duration model runs by nudging to observations. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Zhan Zhao) for two years and contributed to the training and research of two graduate students. Four peer-reviewed publications have resulted from this work, and ground work for a follow-on project was completed.

  19. Studies on the relationship between the content of carbon monoxide in atmosphere and the health of mothers and babies. I. The status of carbon monoxide concentration in expired air of pregnant woman and its relationship to environmental and physical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, A

    1974-03-01

    The actual condition of carbon monoxide content in expired air and its relation to life-environmental and physical factors was investigated in 277 pregnant women. Subjects residing in a midtown area of Tokyo have average CO concentrations in the expired air slightly higher than those previously reported. Seventy two women (26%) have CO concentrations over 10 ppM. The concentration of CO in expired air correlates with the CO level in the immediate life environment of the individual. Pregnant women with a history of abnormal gestation and/or abnormal delivery are more frequent in the areas with those exhibiting higher CO concentrations in expired air, compared to regions with women showing lower CO levels.

  20. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  1. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  2. Hyperspectral material identification on radiance data using single-atmosphere or multiple-atmosphere modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Adrian V.; Grossmann, John M.

    2010-11-01

    Reflectance-domain methods convert hyperspectral data from radiance to reflectance using an atmospheric compensation model. Material detection and identification are performed by comparing the compensated data to target reflectance spectra. We introduce two radiance-domain approaches, Single atmosphere Adaptive Cosine Estimator (SACE) and Multiple atmosphere ACE (MACE) in which the target reflectance spectra are instead converted into sensor-reaching radiance using physics-based models. For SACE, known illumination and atmospheric conditions are incorporated in a single atmospheric model. For MACE the conditions are unknown so the algorithm uses many atmospheric models to cover the range of environmental variability, and it approximates the result using a subspace model. This approach is sometimes called the invariant method, and requires the choice of a subspace dimension for the model. We compare these two radiance-domain approaches to a Reflectance-domain ACE (RACE) approach on a HYDICE image featuring concealed materials. All three algorithms use the ACE detector, and all three techniques are able to detect most of the hidden materials in the imagery. For MACE we observe a strong dependence on the choice of the material subspace dimension. Increasing this value can lead to a decline in performance.

  3. Características físicas e químicas de morango processado minimamente e conservado sob refrigeração e atmosfera controlada Physical and chemical characteristics of minimally processed strawberries stored under refrigeration and controled atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Vieira Machado de Moraes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Morangos cv. Oso Grande foram processados minimamente e mantidos em três diferentes atmosferas: 3% O2 + 10% CO2 (balanço N2, 3% O2 + 15% CO2 (balanço N2 e atmosfera ambiente (controle, a 5 e 10 ºC, durante 7 dias, com o objetivo de avaliar suas características físicas e químicas ao longo do armazenamento. Os frutos foram avaliados nos dias 0, 3 e 7 quanto à perda de massa, firmeza, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, açúcares (sacarose, frutose e glicose e teor de antocianinas totais. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA, e as médias comparadas estatisticamente pelo teste de Diferença Mínima Significativa (LSD, a 5% de probabilidade. Verificou-se que o aumento da temperatura, de 5 para 10 ºC, não influenciou de forma significativa as variáveis físicas e químicas avaliadas. A utilização das atmosferas contendo 3% O2 + 10% CO2 e 3% O2 + 15% CO2 foi importante para a manutenção da qualidade dos morangos processados minimamente, pois mantiveram melhor firmeza em relação à atmosfera ambiente, e foram mais efetivas no controle da perda de massa dos frutos. Todavia, os frutos processados minimamente mantidos nestas atmosferas apresentaram menor teor de antocianinas que os mantidos em atmosfera ambiente.Strawberries cv. Oso Grande were minimally processed and kept in three different atmospheres: 3% O2 + 10% CO2 (N2 balance, 3% O2 + 15% CO2 (N2 balance and ambient atmosphere (control, at 5 and 10 ºC, during 7 days, with the evaluation of their physical and chemical characteristics during storage. Fruits were evaluated at 0, 3 and 7 days for weight loss, firmness, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, sugar content (sucrose, fructose and glucose and total anthocyanins. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and means were compared by the Least Significance Difference (LSD test (5%. It was verified that shifting the temperature from 5 to 10 ºC had no significant effect on the physical

  4. Verification of atmospheric diffusion models with data of atmospheric diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hato, Shinji; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-02-01

    The atmospheric diffusion experiments were implemented by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) around Mount Tsukuba in 1989 and 1990, and the tracer gas concentration were monitored. In this study, the Gauss Plume Model and RAMS/HYPACT that are meteorological forecast code and atmospheric diffusion code with detailed physical law are made a comparison between monitored concentration. In conclusion, the Gauss Plume Model is better than RAM/HYPACT even complex topography if the estimation is around tens of kilometer form release point and the change in weather is constant for short time. This reason is difference of wind between RAMS and observation. (author)

  5. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  6. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Bardin, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Vogel, B.; Leyronas, C.; Ariya, P. A.; Psenner, R.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  7. Actions of magnetospheres on planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, Bengt.

    1989-12-01

    Planet Earth is rather special in terms of transfer of magnetospheric energy to the atmosphere (apart from Jupiter, which is extreme in almost all respects). The auroral particle energy input rate to the atmosphere per unit area, and therefore the resulting auroral emission intensity, is second only to that of Jupiter. The contribution of the Joule heating to the heating of the upper atmosphere, measured in terms of the energetic particle precipitation power, is probably larger on Earth than on all the other planets, possibly with the exception of Uranus (and perhaps Neptune, which we know nothing of when this is written). For all those planets which have a corotating plasmasphere extending to the magnetopause, the Joule heating power is small compared with the precipitating particle power. The extremely successful Pioneer and Voyager missions have provided us with most impressive sets of data from the outer planets and Phobos has recently added unique new data from Mars. Still, the conclusion that the observational basis for our understanding of the physics of the magnetosphere-atmosphere interactions at all the planets other than Earth is very limited, is a self-evident one. Even at Earth many aspects of this interaction are frontline areas of research. The grand tour of the Voyagers has demonstrated very clearly how different the magnetospheres and atmospheres of the various planets are and the very high degree of complexity of the plasma systems around the planets. Most questions of physics are still unanswered; those related to source and sink processes of the plasma and energetic particles being one set of examples. The Galileo and Cassini-Huygens missions will certainly contribute in very important ways to the answering of many open questions. (147 refs.)

  8. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  9. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  10. Outer atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability. 16 references

  11. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  12. Atmospheric tides on Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dement'ev, M.S.; Morozhenko, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the equivalent width of the methane absorption band at 619 nm in the Neptune's spectrum upon the Triton's orbital position is discovered. It is assumed that observed changes of the equivalent width of the band and colour index (J - K) (Belton et al., 1981; Brown et al., 1981; Cruikshank, 1978) are due to atmospheric tides (period 2 d .9375) and Neptune's rotation (period 10 h .14)

  13. The physics of lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Joseph R., E-mail: jdwyer@fit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Uman, Martin A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Despite being one of the most familiar and widely recognized natural phenomena, lightning remains relatively poorly understood. Even the most basic questions of how lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds and how it then propagates for many tens of kilometers have only begun to be addressed. In the past, progress was hampered by the unpredictable and transient nature of lightning and the difficulties in making direct measurements inside thunderstorms, but advances in instrumentation, remote sensing methods, and rocket-triggered lightning experiments are now providing new insights into the physics of lightning. Furthermore, the recent discoveries of intense bursts of X-rays and gamma-rays associated with thunderstorms and lightning illustrate that new and interesting physics is still being discovered in our atmosphere. The study of lightning and related phenomena involves the synthesis of many branches of physics, from atmospheric physics to plasma physics to quantum electrodynamics, and provides a plethora of challenging unsolved problems. In this review, we provide an introduction to the physics of lightning with the goal of providing interested researchers a useful resource for starting work in this fascinating field.

  14. Dreaming of Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  15. Atmospheric benzene and toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of benzene (C 6 H 6 ) and toluene (C 7 H 8 )have been observed at nine remote locations of the world ranging in latitude from inside the arctic circle to the south pole. The observations span all seasons at each location. In the northern hemisphere it is observed that C 6 H 6 and C 7 H 8 are most abundant during winter and least abundant during summer. Based on the limited data available, such cycles are not observed in the tropics. These findings are consistent with the expected latitudinal and seasonal variations of OH radicals which cause benzene and toluene to be removed from the atmosphere. The latitude distribution shows high concentrations at mid latitude and low levels in the southern hemisphere. This finding is consistent with the present understanding that the sources of benzene and toluene are primarily anthropogenic. The observed concentration distribution and varibility are consistent with the short expected atmospheric lifetime of the order of months for benzene and days for toluene

  16. DREAMING OF ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, I. P.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process

  17. Atmospheric radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Peixoto, C.J. Todero; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Luzio, V.P. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), SP (Brazil); Barbosa, A.F.; Lima Junior, H.P.; Vilar, A.B.; Gama, R.G.; Ferraz, V.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (MonRAt) is a compact telescope designed to detect fluorescence photons generated in the atmosphere by ultra-high energy cosmic rays showers with energies in the interval between 10{sup 17} eV and 10{sup 18} eV. It is composite by a 64 pixels MultiAnodic PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT) placed at the focus of a parabolic mirror mounted in a Newtonian telescope setup and the data acquisition system. In front of the MAPMT photocathode, filters will be positioned to select light with wavelength in the near ultraviolet region (300 nm < {lambda} < 450 nm) where the nitrogen fluorescent emissions occurs. The data acquisition system consists of a set of pre-amplifiers and FPGA-based boards able to record trigger times and waveforms from each channel and send the data to a computer by USB ports. MonRAt will be used to detect fluorescence photons under different atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, humidity, local geomagnetic field, etc) and will contribute with a detailed study of the fluorescence radiation yield. The assembly of the telescope is under way and we present in this work the status of the experiment and its first measurements in the laboratory. (author)

  18. Atmospheric radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Peixoto, C.J. Todero; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Luzio, V.P.; Barbosa, A.F.; Lima Junior, H.P.; Vilar, A.B.; Gama, R.G.; Ferraz, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (MonRAt) is a compact telescope designed to detect fluorescence photons generated in the atmosphere by ultra-high energy cosmic rays showers with energies in the interval between 10 17 eV and 10 18 eV. It is composite by a 64 pixels MultiAnodic PhotoMultiplier Tube (MAPMT) placed at the focus of a parabolic mirror mounted in a Newtonian telescope setup and the data acquisition system. In front of the MAPMT photocathode, filters will be positioned to select light with wavelength in the near ultraviolet region (300 nm < λ < 450 nm) where the nitrogen fluorescent emissions occurs. The data acquisition system consists of a set of pre-amplifiers and FPGA-based boards able to record trigger times and waveforms from each channel and send the data to a computer by USB ports. MonRAt will be used to detect fluorescence photons under different atmospheric conditions (pressure, temperature, humidity, local geomagnetic field, etc) and will contribute with a detailed study of the fluorescence radiation yield. The assembly of the telescope is under way and we present in this work the status of the experiment and its first measurements in the laboratory. (author)

  19. DREAMING OF ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, I. P., E-mail: ingo@star.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Here, we introduce the RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition) algorithm for the classification of exoplanetary emission spectra. Spectral retrieval of exoplanetary atmospheres frequently requires the preselection of molecular/atomic opacities to be defined by the user. In the era of open-source, automated, and self-sufficient retrieval algorithms, manual input should be avoided. User dependent input could, in worst-case scenarios, lead to incomplete models and biases in the retrieval. The RobERt algorithm is based on deep-belief neural (DBN) networks trained to accurately recognize molecular signatures for a wide range of planets, atmospheric thermal profiles, and compositions. Reconstructions of the learned features, also referred to as the “dreams” of the network, indicate good convergence and an accurate representation of molecular features in the DBN. Using these deep neural networks, we work toward retrieval algorithms that themselves understand the nature of the observed spectra, are able to learn from current and past data, and make sensible qualitative preselections of atmospheric opacities to be used for the quantitative stage of the retrieval process.

  20. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  1. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T J [Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM)

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  2. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based

  3. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Workman, Jared, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu [Colorado Mesa University, 1260 Kennedy Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  4. The nitrogen cycle: Atmosphere interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric interactions involving the nitrogen species are varied and complex. These interactions include photochemical reactions, initiated by the absorption of solar photons and chemical kinetic reactions, which involve both homogeneous (gas-to-gas reactions) and heterogeneous (gas-to-particle) reactions. Another important atmospheric interaction is the production of nitrogen oxides by atmospheric lightning. The nitrogen cycle strongly couples the biosphere and atmosphere. Many nitrogen species are produced by biogenic processes. Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxides are photochemically and chemically transformed to nitrates, which are returned to the biosphere via precipitation, dry deposition and aerosols to close the biosphere-atmosphere nitrogen cycle. The sources, sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of the nitrogen species; atmospheric nitrogen species; souces and sinks of nitrous oxide; sources; sinks and photochemistry/chemistry of ammonia; seasonal variation of the vertical distribution of ammonia in the troposphere; surface and atmospheric sources of the nitrogen species, and seasonal variation of ground level ammonia are summarized.

  5. Electrifying atmospheres charging, ionisation and lightning in the solar system and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Electrical processes take place in all planetary atmospheres. There is evidence for lightning on Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, it is possible on Mars and Titan, and cosmic rays ionise every atmosphere, leading to charged droplets and particles. Controversy surrounds the role of atmospheric electricity in physical climate processes on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of electrification in the atmospheres of other planets and their moons. This book reviews the theory, and, where available, measurements, of planetary atmospheric electricity, taken to include ion production and ion-aerosol interactions. The conditions necessary for a global atmospheric electric circuit similar to Earth’s, and the likelihood of meeting these conditions in other planetary atmospheres, are briefly discussed. Atmospheric electrification is more important at planets receiving little solar radiation, increasing the relative significance of electrical forces. Nucleation onto atmospheric ...

  6. Accelerating Atmospheric Modeling Through Emerging Multi-core Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Linford, John Christian

    2010-01-01

    The new generations of multi-core chipset architectures achieve unprecedented levels of computational power while respecting physical and economical constraints. The cost of this power is bewildering program complexity. Atmospheric modeling is a grand-challenge problem that could make good use of these architectures if they were more accessible to the average programmer. To that end, software tools and programming methodologies that greatly simplify the acceleration of atmospheric modeling...

  7. Atmospheric and Space Sciences: Ionospheres and Plasma Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiǧit, Erdal

    2018-01-01

    The SpringerBriefs on Atmospheric and Space Sciences in two volumes presents a concise and interdisciplinary introduction to the basic theory, observation & modeling of atmospheric and ionospheric coupling processes on Earth. The goal is to contribute toward bridging the gap between meteorology, aeronomy, and planetary science. In addition recent progress in several related research topics, such atmospheric wave coupling and variability, is discussed. Volume 1 will focus on the atmosphere, while Volume 2 will present the ionospheres and the plasma environments. Volume 2 is aimed primarily at (research) students and young researchers that would like to gain quick insight into the basics of space sciences and current research. In combination with the first volume, it also is a useful tool for professors who would like to develop a course in atmospheric and space physics.

  8. Heat transfer in the atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1982-01-01

    The atmosphere is almost transparent to solar radiation and almost opaque to terrestrial radiation. This implies that in the mean the atmosphere cools while the earth's surface is heated. Convection in the lower atmosphere must therefore occur. The upward flux of energy associated with it

  9. Atmospheric tritium. Measurement and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejaville, Gerard

    1967-02-01

    The possible origins of atmospheric tritium are reviewed and discussed. A description is given of enrichment (electrolysis and thermal diffusion) and counting (gas counters and liquid scintillation counters) processes which can be used for determining atmospheric tritium concentrations. A series of examples illustrates the use of atmospheric tritium for resolving a certain number of hydrological and glaciological problems. (author) [fr

  10. Lightning Physics and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orville, Richard E.

    2004-03-01

    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  11. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  12. Atmospheric impacts of evaporative cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.E.

    1976-10-01

    The report summarizes available information on the effects of various power plant cooling systems on the atmosphere. While evaporative cooling systems sharply reduce the biological impacts of thermal discharges in water bodies, they create (at least, for heat-release rates comparable to those of two-unit nuclear generating stations) atmospheric changes. For an isolated site such as required for a nuclear power plant, these changes are rather small and local, and usually environmentally acceptable. However, one cannot say with certainty that these effects will remain small as the number of reactors on a given site increases. There must exist a critical heat load for a specific site which, if exceeded, can create its own weather patterns, and thus create inadvertent weather changes such as rain and snow, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Because proven mathematical models are not available, it is not now possible to forecast precisely the extent and frequency of the atmospheric effects of a particular heat-dissipation system at a particular site. Field research on many aspects of cooling system operation is needed in order to document and quantify the actual atmospheric changes caused by a given cooling system and to provide the data needed to develop and verify mathematical and physical models. The more important topics requiring field study are plume rise, fogging and icing (from certain systems), drift emission and deposition rates, chemical interactions, cloud and precipitation formation and critical heat-release rates

  13. Detection of atmospheric muons with ALICE detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro, B.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cuautle, E.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Gomez Jimenez, R.; Gonzalez Santos, H.; Herrera Corral, G.; Leon, I.; Martinez, M.I.; Munoz Mata, J.L.; Podesta, P.; Ramirez Reyes, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Sitta, M.; Subieta, M.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Vargas, A.; Vergara, S.

    2010-01-01

    The calibration, alignment and commissioning of most of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment at the CERN LHC) detectors have required a large amount of cosmic events during 2008. In particular two types of cosmic triggers have been implemented to record the atmospheric muons passing through ALICE. The first trigger, called ACORDE trigger, is performed by 60 scintillators located on the top of three sides of the large L3 magnet surrounding the central detectors, and selects atmospheric muons. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) installed on the first two layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) gives the second trigger, called SPD trigger. This trigger selects mainly events with a single atmospheric muon crossing the SPD. Some particular events, in which the atmospheric muon interacts with the iron of the L3 magnet and creates a shower of particles crossing the SPD, are also selected. In this work the reconstruction of events with these two triggers will be presented. In particular, the performance of the ACORDE detector will be discussed by the analysis of multi-muon events. Some physical distributions are also shown.

  14. The Atomic Physics Center of Toulouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Daniel.

    The research program was concerned with the aerosol and atmospheric exchange physics and, in atomic physics essentially with: atomic collisions, postluminescence in gases, discharges in gases at medium and high pressure, the electric arc, dielectric physics, and radiation transport in matter [fr

  15. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, established in 1965, continues its tradition of excellence with Volume 32, published in honor of Founding Editor Sir David Bates upon his retirement as editorof the series. This volume presents reviews of topics related to the applications of atomic and molecular physics to atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

  16. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics.

  17. Evaluation of satellites and remote sensors for atmospheric pollution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, J.; Eldridge, R.; Friedman, E.; Keitz, E.

    1976-01-01

    An approach to the development of a prioritized list of scientific goals in atmospheric research is provided. The results of the analysis are used to estimate the contribution of various spacecraft/remote sensor combinations for each of several important constituents of the stratosphere. The evaluation of the combinations includes both single-instrument and multiple-instrument payloads. Attention was turned to the physical and chemical features of the atmosphere as well as the performance capability of a number of atmospheric remote sensors. In addition, various orbit considerations were reviewed along with detailed information on stratospheric aerosols and the impact of spacecraft environment on the operation of the sensors.

  18. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2008-02-01

    The upper atmosphere of Titan is currently losing mass at a rate ˜(4-5)×10 amus, by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating by CH 4 absorption. The hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Their combined escape rates are restricted by power limitations from attaining their limiting rates (and limiting fluxes). Hence they must exhibit gravitational diffusive separation in the upper atmosphere with increasing mixing ratios to eventually become major constituents in the exosphere. A theoretical model with solar EUV heating by N 2 absorption balanced by HCN rotational line cooling in the upper thermosphere yields densities and temperatures consistent with the Huygens Atmospheric Science Investigation (HASI) data [Fulchignoni, M., and 42 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791], with a peak temperature of ˜185-190 K between 3500-3550 km. This model implies hydrodynamic escape rates of ˜2×10 CHs and 5×10 Hs, or some other combination with a higher H 2 escape flux, much closer to its limiting value, at the expense of a slightly lower CH 4 escape rate. Nonthermal escape processes are not required to account for the loss rates of CH 4 and H 2, inferred by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements [Yelle, R.V., Borggren, N., de la Haye, V., Kasprzak, W.T., Niemann, H.B., Müller-Wodarg, I., Waite Jr., J.H., 2006. Icarus 182, 567-576].

  19. Atmospheric natural radioactivity outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Following a short account of natural atmospheric radioactivity, radon concentrations are given as well as their variations with time obtained by means of a original apparatus developped in Brest. The radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters is then considered, many experiments demonstrating that equilibrium is seldom reached even for 218 Po (RaA). Finally, some characteristics of natural radioactive aerosols are studied: charge, particle size distribution (demonstrating they are fine aerosols since only 30 per cent are made of particles with radii exceeding 0,1 μm) [fr

  20. Atmospheres of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a brief summary of atmospheric models that are of possible relevance to the central stars of planetary nebulae, and then discusses the extent to which these models accord with the observations of both nebulae and central stars. Particular attention is given to the significance of the very high Zanstra temperature implied by the nebulae He II lambda 4686 A line, and to the discrepancy between the Zanstra He II temperature and the considerably lower temperatures suggested by the appearance of the visual spectrum for some of these objects. (Auth.)

  1. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kasahara, K.; Hidaka, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    1990-02-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutrino fluxes of atmospheric origin is made taking into account the muon polarization effect on neutrinos from muon decay. We calculate the fluxes with energies above 3 MeV for future experiments. There still remains a significant discrepancy between the calculated (ν e +antiν e )/(ν μ +antiν μ ) ratio and that observed by the Kamiokande group. However, the ratio evaluated at the Frejus site shows a good agreement with the data. (author)

  2. Rectenna related atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    Possible meteorological effects arising from the existence and operations of a solar power satellite (SPS) system rectenna are examined. Analysis and model simulations in some chosen site situations and meteorological conditions indicate that the meteorological effects of the construction and operation of a rectenna are small, particularly outside the boundary of the structure. From weather and climate points of view, installation of an SPS rectenna seems likely to have effects comparable with those due to other nonindustrial land use changes covering the same area. The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation in the troposphere would have negligible atmospheric effects.

  3. Physics of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Krishna Swamy, K S

    1997-01-01

    The study of Comet Halley in 1986 was a tremendous success for cometary science. In March of that year, six spacecrafts passed through Comet Halley as close as 600 km from the nucleus and made the in situ measurements of various kinds. These space missions to Comet Halley and that of the ICE spacecraft to Comet Giacobini-Zinner combined with studies, both ground-based and above the atmosphere, have increased our knowledge of cometary science in a dramatic way.This new edition of Physics of Comets incorporates these new and exciting findings. The emphasis of the book is on the physical processe

  4. The physics of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon D; Whisnant, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The physics of neutrinos- uncharged elementary particles that are key to helping us better understand the nature of our universe - is one of the most exciting frontiers of modern science. This book provides a comprehensive overview of neutrino physics today and explores promising new avenues of inquiry that could lead to future breakthroughs. The Physics of Neutrinos begins with a concise history of the field and a tutorial on the fundamental properties of neutrinos, and goes on to discuss how the three neutrino types interchange identities as they propagate from their sources to detectors. The book shows how studies of neutrinos produced by such phenomena as cosmic rays in the atmosphere and nuclear reactions in the solar interior provide striking evidence that neutrinos have mass, and it traces our astounding progress in deciphering the baffling experimental findings involving neutrinos. The discovery of neutrino mass offers the first indication of a new kind of physics that goes beyond the Standard Model ...

  5. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  6. Effects of the modified atmosphere and irradiation on the microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of the 'minas frescal' cheese;Efeitos da atmosfera modificada e da irradiacao sobre as caracteristicas microbiologicas, fisico-quimicas e sensoriais do queijo minas frescal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Vanessa Pires da

    2004-07-01

    The experiment was divided into two parts. Initially, it was studied the 'Minas Frescal' cheeses packed under atmospheric air, modified atmosphere of 70% CO2 and 30% N2 (ATM) and vacuum. Second the cheeses packed under these three treatments had been radiated by doses of 2 KGy. In the two parts of the experiment, it was analyzed the microbial evolution and, the sensory and physical-chemical characteristics of the cheeses under the different treatments during a 4 deg C-storage. In the first phase of the experiment it was verified that the ATM and the vacuum decreased the intensity of the total population growth of aerobic mesophilic and psychotropic and had reduced the population of Staphylococcus positive coagulase, but they had not been efficient controlling the total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while in control all the populations had continuously grown, according to the sensory characteristics of the cheeses, color, odor and appearance. These characteristics were kept the same during the 40 days of storage, and the control decreased the acceptability levels gradually, being rejected in the 17{sup th} day. In the second part of the experiment, it was observed that a 2KGy-irradiation over the 'Minas Frescal' cheeses reduced the populations of aerobic mesophilic, aerobic and anaerobic psychotropic, Staphylococcus positive coagulase, total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The ATM and vacuum treatments were very efficient therefore they prevented the growth of these microorganisms during the storage, while in control, the aerobic mesophilic and psychotropic population grew during the storage. According to sensory aspects, the ATM treatment was the most efficient one, because it kept the appearance, texture and flavor for more than 43 days while the vacuum kept for 36 days and the control for only 8 days. The use of the irradiation with modified atmosphere and low temperatures of storage increased the shelf life of the cheeses, hindering the

  7. Atmospheric stability in CFD &NDASH; Representation of the diurnal cycle in the atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Sogachev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models that focus primarily on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface layer. So far, physical processes that are specific to the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), for exam......For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models that focus primarily on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface layer. So far, physical processes that are specific to the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL......), for example the Coriolis force, buoyancy forces and heat transport, are mostly ignored in state-of-the-art CFD models. In order to decrease the uncertainty of wind resource assessment, especially in complex terrain, the effect of thermal stratification on the ABL should be included in such models. The present...

  8. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology development, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our chemical and physical understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Research Division in the Office of Earth Science at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort have also been provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and their control on the distribution of atmospheric chemical species such as ozone; assess possible perturbations to the composition of the atmosphere caused by human activities and natural phenomena (with a specific emphasis on trace gas geographical distributions, sources, and sinks and the role of trace gases in defining the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere); understand the processes affecting the distributions of radiatively active species in the atmosphere, and the importance of chemical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks on the meteorology and climatology of the stratosphere and troposphere; and understand ozone production, loss, and recovery in an atmosphere with increasing abundances of greenhouse gases. The current report is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported

  9. Report from upper atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carignan, G.R.; Roble, R.G.; Mende, S.B.; Nagy, A.F.; Hudson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the understanding of the thermosphere resulted from the analysis of data accrued through the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, and observations from rockets, balloons, and ground based instruments. However, new questions were posed by the data that have not yet been answered. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been less thoroughly studied because of the difficulty of accessibility on a global scale, and many rather fundamental characteristics of these regions are not well understood. A wide variety of measurement platforms can be used to implement various parts of a measurement strategy, but the major thrusts of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program would require Explorer-class missions. A remote sensing mission to explore the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and one and two Explorer-type spacecraft to enable a mission into the thermosphere itself would provide the essential components of a productive program of exploration of this important region of the upper atomsphere. Theoretical mission options are explored

  10. Atmospheric activity in red dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Active and inactive stars of similar mass and luminosity have similar physical conditions in their photospheres, outside of magnetically disturbed regions. Such field structures give rise to stellar activity, which manifests itself at all heights of the atmosphere. Observations of uneven distributions of flux across the stellar disc have led to the disovery of photospheric starspots, chromospheric plage areas, and coronal holes. Localized transient behavior has been identified in both thermal and non-thermal sources, such as flares, shock waves and particle acceleration. The common element to all active regions is the presence of strong magnetic field structures connecting the violently turbulent deep layers in the convection zones of stars with the tenuous outer atmospheres. Transport and dissipation of energy into the chromospheric and coronal regions are still much debated topics

  11. Wave heating of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, Iñigo

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic waves are a relevant component in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Their significance has increased because of their potential as a remote diagnostic tool and their presumed contribution to plasma heating processes. We discuss our current understanding of coronal heating by magnetic waves, based on recent observational evidence and theoretical advances. The discussion starts with a selection of observational discoveries that have brought magnetic waves to the forefront of the coronal heating discussion. Then, our theoretical understanding of the nature and properties of the observed waves and the physical processes that have been proposed to explain observations are described. Particular attention is given to the sequence of processes that link observed wave characteristics with concealed energy transport, dissipation and heat conversion. We conclude with a commentary on how the combination of theory and observations should help us to understand and quantify magnetic wave heating of the solar atmosphere.

  12. Modeling the Chemical Complexity in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Veronique; Yelle, Roger; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Horst, Sarah; Lavvas, Panayotis

    2018-06-01

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is extremely complicated because of the multiplicity of chemical as well as physical processes involved. Chemical processes begin with the dissociation and ionization of the most abundant species, N2 and CH4, by a variety of energy sources, i.e. solar UV and X-ray photons, suprathermal electrons (reactions involving radicals as well as positive and negative ions, all possibly in some excited electronic and vibrational state. Heterogeneous chemistry at the surface of the aerosols could also play a significant role. The efficiency and outcome of these reactions depends strongly on the physical characteristics of the atmosphere, namely pressure and temperature, ranging from 1.5×103 to 10-10 mbar and from 70 to 200 K, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the species is affected by molecular diffusion and winds as well as escape from the top of the atmosphere and condensation in the lower stratosphere.Photochemical and microphysical models are the keystones of our understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemistry. Their main objective is to compute the distribution and nature of minor chemical species (typically containing up to 6 carbon atoms) and haze particles, respectively. Density profiles are compared to the available observations, allowing to identify important processes and to highlight those that remain to be constrained in the laboratory, experimentally and/or theoretically. We argue that positive ion chemistry is at the origin of complex organic molecules, such as benzene, ammonia and hydrogen isocyanide while neutral-neutral radiative association reactions are a significant source of alkanes. We find that negatively charged macromolecules (m/z ~100) attract the abundant positive ions, which ultimately leads to the formation of the aerosols. We also discuss the possibility that an incoming flux of oxygen from Enceladus, another Saturn's satellite, is responsible for the presence of oxygen-bearing species in Titan's reductive

  13. Aspects of airborne particles and radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidy, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    There are two major ways that thermal radiation may interact with airborne particles in the Earth's atmosphere. The first is a classical problem in which the radiation balance is influenced by scattering and absorption from haze or aerosol layers in the atmosphere. Absorption is generally believed to have a minor effect on attenuation of radiation compared with scattering. In the visible and infrared, scattering by submicron sized particles can have a substantial influence on the balance of radiation in the atmosphere. Considerable interest in this question has developed recently with the assessment of the global impact of air pollution in the lower atmosphere and of exhaust emissions from aircraft flying in the stratosphere. In the first part of this review, the physics of atmospheric aerosol scattering is summarized, and the current status of observational knowledge is examined to identify areas of greatest uncertainty. The second way the radiation is involved in aerosols lies in the production in the atmosphere. Until recently, evidence for airborne particle production by atmospheric photochemistry was quite ambiguous. However, with the advent of results from several new field experiments the role of photochemistry in the generation of aerosol precursors from traces of such gases as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and olefinic hydrocarbons is much better understood. The remaining part of this paper is devoted to the discussion of several new observations that indicate the complicated nature of photochemical aerosol formation in the polluted and non-polluted atmosphere

  14. Concentrations and fate of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Hansen, Kaj M; van Egmond, Roger; Christensen, Jesper H; Skjøth, Carsten A

    2010-07-15

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) is a volatile compound used in personal care products that is released to the atmosphere in large quantities. Although D(5) is currently under consideration for regulation, there have been no field investigations of its atmospheric fate. We employed a recently developed, quality assured method to measure D(5) concentration in ambient air at a rural site in Sweden. The samples were collected with daily resolution between January and June 2009. The D(5) concentration ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng m(-3), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than previous reports. The measured data were compared with D(5) concentrations predicted using an atmospheric circulation model that included both OH radical and D(5) chemistry. The model was parametrized using emissions estimates and physical chemical properties determined in laboratory experiments. There was good agreement between the measured and modeled D(5) concentrations. The results show that D(5) is clearly subject to long-range atmospheric transport, but that it is also effectively removed from the atmosphere via phototransformation. Atmospheric deposition has little influence on the atmospheric fate. The good agreement between the model predictions and the field observations indicates that there is a good understanding of the major factors governing D(5) concentrations in the atmosphere.

  15. Examination of fluctuations in atmospheric pressure related to migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Hirohisa; Okuma, Yumiko; Kitagawa, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Japan has four seasons and many chances of low atmospheric pressure or approaches of typhoon, therefore it has been empirically known that the fluctuation of weather induces migraine in people. Generally, its mechanism has been interpreted as follows: physical loading, attributed by atmospheric pressure to human bodies, compresses or dilates human blood vessels, which leads to abnormality in blood flow and induces migraine. We report our examination of the stage in which migraine tends to be induced focusing on the variation of atmospheric pressure. Subjects were 34 patients with migraine, who were treated in our hospital. The patients included 31 females and three males, whose mean age was 32 ± 6.7. 22 patients had migraine with aura and 12 patients had migraine without aura. All of patients with migraine maintained a headache diary to record atmospheric pressures when they developed a migraine. The standard atmospheric pressure was defined as 1013 hPa, and with this value as the criterion, we investigated slight fluctuations in the atmospheric pressure when they developed a migraine. It was found that the atmospheric pressure when the patients developed a migraine was within 1003-1007 hPa in the approach of low atmospheric pressure and that the patients developed a migraine when the atmospheric pressure decreased by 6-10 hPa, slightly less than the standard atmospheric pressure. Small decreases of 6-10 hPa relative to the standard atmospheric pressure of 1013 hPa induced migraine attacks most frequently in patients with migraine.

  16. Proceedings of the tenth biennial national conference of Physics Academy of North East: recent advances in physics research and its relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutia, Simanta; Saikia, Shantu

    2017-06-01

    This conference provided a platform to discuss the recent developments in Physics research in different fields which includes high energy astrophysics, condensed matter physics, electronics, spectroscopy, atmospheric sciences, cosmology, general physics etc. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Hazardous gas treatment by atmospheric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of NO x ; SO x , CO 2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including fluorocarbons to the atmosphere influence heavily our environment, NO x and SO x emitted to the atmosphere are the major cause of acid rains, while CO 2 and VOCs emissions cause the greenhouse effect which leads to abnormal global heating of the atmosphere and creating in a temperature inversion layer that traps gaseous pollutants. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in controlling these emissions. A new technique, which uses the plasma processes induced by energetic electrons, emerges as one of the most effective methods of reducing concentrations of the emitted gaseous pollutants. Various plasma techniques have been tested for gaseous pollution control. The electron bean irradiation was found to be physically and economically efficient for NO x and SO x reduction in the exhaust gases from electrical and heat power plants. The capability of the non-thermal plasmas, produced in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges, for decomposition of the gaseous pollutants has been widely tested. These atmospheric pressure electrical discharges are dielectric barrier discharges, pulsed and de corona discharges (in the reactors with the point-to-plate, wire-cylinder and wire-plate geometries, in the reactors with flow stabilized corona torch and corona radical shower), gliding discharges, inductively coupled high-frequency discharges, ac surface discharges, ac discharges in the packed bed reactors, and microwave torch discharges. In this paper, after reviewing the methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for gaseous pollutant control, some results of the laboratory experiments on the plasmas abatement of NO x ; SO x and various VOCs will be presented, followed by a discussion on the energy efficiency and by-products. Also some results obtained in the pilot-plants will be given. finally other possible applications of the presented plasma devices for controlling

  18. A Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, W. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Russell, J. M.; Anderson, J.; Kireev, S.; Loughman, R. P.; Smith, W. L.

    2006-12-01

    With this presentation we discuss the status of plans for a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at Hampton University. Hampton University is a privately endowed, non-profit, non-sectarian, co-educational, and historically black university with 38 baccalaureate, 14 masters, and 4 doctoral degree programs. The graduate program in physics currently offers advanced degrees with concentration in Atmospheric Science. The 10 students now enrolled benefit substantially from the research experience and infrastructure resident in the university's Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), which is celebrating its tenth anniversary. Promoting a greater diversity of participants in geosciences is an important objective for CAS. To accomplish this, we require reliable pipelines of students into the program. One such pipeline is our undergraduate minor in Space, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences (SEAS minor). This minor concentraton of study is contributing to awareness of geosciences on the Hampton University campus, and beyond, as our students matriculate and join the workforce, or pursue higher degrees. However, the current graduate program, with its emphasis on physics, is not necessarily optimal for atmospheric scientists, and it limits our ability to recruit students who do not have a physics degree. To increase the base of candidate students, we have proposed creation of a Department of Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, which could attract students from a broader range of academic disciplines. The revised curriculum would provide for greater concentration in atmospheric and planetary sciences, yet maintain a degree of flexibility to allow for coursework in physics or other areas to meet the needs of individual students. The department would offer the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, and maintain the SEAS minor. The university's administration and faculty have approved our plan for this new department pending authorization by the university's board of trustees, which will

  19. Atmospheric detritiation system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Jalbert, R.A.; Rossmassler, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the performance of atmospheric detritiation systems and of possible ways for improving their performance was undertaken. Small-scale experiments demonstrated that system performance is strongly dependent on catalyst bed temperature. That may be helped by addition of protium to the process gas stream, but added protium at constant temperature does not increase conversion to HTO. Collection of the HTO on dry sieve with residual HTO fraction of less than one part in 10/sup 7/ was observed. Ways suggested for improvement in collection of HTO on molecular sieve beds include adding H/sub 2/O to the stream entering the molecular sieve and premoistening of the sieve with H/sub 2/O. While these improvement schemes may reduce HTO emissions they increase the amount of tritiated waste that must be handled

  20. Atmospheric chemistry of peroxynitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, D.G.; Kenley, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermochemistry and kinetics of the various types of peroxy nitrates are discussed, and the influence of these compounds on smog formation is evaluated. The heats of formation and of two dissociation reactions for various peroxyalkyl nitrates are calculated and it is shown that dissociation into nitrogen dioxide is more favorable than into nitrogen trioxide for the peroxyalkyl and peroxyacetyl nitrates (PANs). The atmospheric lifetimes of peroxynitric acid, peroxyalkyl nitrates and peroxyacyl nitrates are estimated as a function of temperature and it is found that PANs can exhibit lifetimes greater than a day at low temperatures, resulting in significant concentrations. In the presence of NO, PANs are shown to be an important source of OH radicals in the early morning and at night. A computer simulation reveals the contribution of PANs to ozone formation by the oxidation of NO to NO2

  1. 13. Atmosphere and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, G.; Hammond, A.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reports on past and current trends in the major forms of atmospheric pollution and on the relative contributions of the countries of the world to these emissions. It also reports on emissions of carbon dioxide from industrial processes - principally the combustion of fossil fuels - which is the largest single source of greenhouse gases and an appropriate target for initial efforts to limit emissions. Discussions are presented on the following: urban air pollution - sources, trends and effects (particulates, sulfur dioxide, smog and its precursors, indoor air pollution, carbon monoxide, lead); regional air pollution - sources, trends and effects (acid deposition, ground-level ozone, regional responses and emission trends, acceleration of ozone depletion); solutions (cleaning up stationary sources, corporate responsibility movement, reducing vehicle pollution); global climate treaty talks proceed; greenhouse gas emissions; and targets for limiting emissions

  2. Atmospheric detritiation system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Jalbert, R.A.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of the performance of atmospheric detritiation systems and of possible ways for improving their performance was undertaken. Small-scale experiments demonstrated that system performance is strongly dependent on catalyst bed temperature. That may be helped by addition of protium to the process gas stream, but added protium at constant temperature does not increase conversion to HTO. Collection of the HTO on dry sieve with residual HTO fraction of less than one part in 10 7 was observed. Ways suggested for improvement in collection of HTO on molecular sieve beds include adding H 2 O to the stream entering the molecular sieve and premoistening of the sieve with H 2 O. While these improvement schemes may reduce HTO emissions they increase the amount of tritiated waste that must be handled. 13 refs., 4 figs

  3. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....

  4. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...

  5. Physical Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Additional Content Medical News Physical Allergy By Peter J. Delves, PhD, Professor of ... Disorders Exercise-Induced Allergic Reactions Food Allergy Mastocytosis Physical Allergy Seasonal Allergies Year-Round Allergies A physical ...

  6. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  7. White dwarf atmospheres and circumstellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, Donald W

    2012-01-01

    Written by selected astronomers at the forefront of their fields, this timely and novel book compiles the latest results from research on white dwarf stars, complementing existing literature by focusing on fascinating new developments in our understanding of the atmospheric and circumstellar environments of these stellar remnants. Complete with a thorough refresher on the observational characteristics and physical basis for white dwarf classification, this is a must-have resource for researchers interested in the late stages of stellar evolution, circumstellar dust and nebulae, and the future

  8. Numerical modeling of atmospheric washout processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, D.; Beheng, K.D.; Herbert, F.

    1987-01-01

    For the washout of particles from the atmosphere by clouds and rain one has to distinguish between processes which work in the first phase of cloud development, when condensation nuclei build up in saturated air (Nucleation Aerosol Scavenging, NAS) and those processes which work at the following cloud development. In the second case particles are taken off by cloud droplets or by falling rain drops via collision (Collision Aerosol Scavenging, CAS). The physics of both processes is described. For the CAS process a numerical model is presented. The report contains a documentation of the mathematical equations and the computer programs (FORTRAN). (KW) [de

  9. Reconciling atmospheric temperatures in the early Archean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik Thorleif

    rock record. The goal of this study is to compile and reconcile Archean geologic and geochemical features that are in some way controlled by surface temperature and/or atmospheric composition, so that at the very least paleoclimate models can be checked by physical limits. Data used to this end include...... weathering on climate). Selective alteration of δD in Isua rocks to values of -130 to -100‰ post-dates ca. 3.55Ga Ameralik dikes, but may be associated with a poorly defined 2.6-2.8Ga metamorphic event that is coincident with the amalgamation of the “Kenorland supercontinent.”...

  10. Italian research on the Antarctic atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rafanelli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work after a short introduction on the structure of Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, the different researches on atmospheric physics developed by Italian scientists are presented. The international activities are described, with particular attention both to APE experiment and the setting up of the new base in Dome-C. The results obtained are also discussed and the new projects proposed by SCAR or other international bodies are recalled. The reduction of funds and fall in young people interested in scientifi c studies represent the main problems for the future work.

  11. Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions

  12. Planetary Surface-Atmosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrison, J. P.; Bak, E.; Finster, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Knak Jensen, S.; Nørnberg, P.

    2013-09-01

    Planetary bodies having an accessible solid surface and significant atmosphere, such as Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, share common phenomenology. Specifically wind induced transport of surface materials, subsequent erosion, the generation and transport of solid aerosols which leads both to chemical and electrostatic interaction with the atmosphere. How these processes affect the evolution of the atmosphere and surface will be discussed in the context of general planetology and the latest laboratory studies will be presented.

  13. A glossary of atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This book concentrates on the glossary of atmospheric science, which contains summary, for enactment and deliberation on choosing special glossary on atmospheric science in Korea, examiner for the glossary on atmospheric science, reference, explanatory notes and a lot of glossary on atmospheric science. It also has an appendix on commercial abbreviation, prefix, unit, wavelength and the number o vibrations of electromagnetic waves, ICAO classified catalogue on cloud, list of varietal cloud and list of local wind. It has explanation of the glossary in English, Korea, China and Japan.

  14. Kajian Pustaka Mengenai Restaurant Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Agoes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Restaurant is one of the businesses that support tourism development. Restaurants nowadays don’t only provide food, but also the service and atmosphere to their customers. The purpose of this study is to discover theaspects defining restaurant atmosphere and the implications of restaurant atmosphere to other particular aspects related to restaurant business. This article is written based on a study conducted through a literature review. Through the examination, it is found that the atmosphere of a restaurant is one important aspect and can be considered as a competitive advantage as well as one of the determinants of customer satisfaction.

  15. Recent advances in non-LTE stellar atmosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Andreas A. C.

    2017-11-01

    In the last decades, stellar atmosphere models have become a key tool in understanding massive stars. Applied for spectroscopic analysis, these models provide quantitative information on stellar wind properties as well as fundamental stellar parameters. The intricate non-LTE conditions in stellar winds dictate the development of adequate sophisticated model atmosphere codes. The increase in both, the computational power and our understanding of physical processes in stellar atmospheres, led to an increasing complexity in the models. As a result, codes emerged that can tackle a wide range of stellar and wind parameters. After a brief address of the fundamentals of stellar atmosphere modeling, the current stage of clumped and line-blanketed model atmospheres will be discussed. Finally, the path for the next generation of stellar atmosphere models will be outlined. Apart from discussing multi-dimensional approaches, I will emphasize on the coupling of hydrodynamics with a sophisticated treatment of the radiative transfer. This next generation of models will be able to predict wind parameters from first principles, which could open new doors for our understanding of the various facets of massive star physics, evolution, and death.

  16. Anthropogenous modifications of the atmosphere. The atmospheric ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimedieu, P.

    1991-01-01

    Ozone role and atmospheric chemistry are first reviewed: chemical reactions and vertical distribution of ozone in the atmosphere. The origins of chlorofluorocarbon air pollution and the role of the various types of CFC on ozone depletion, greenhouse effect, cancer, etc. are then discussed. The political and environmental discussions concerning these phenomena are also reviewed

  17. Formation of nucleobases in a Miller–Urey reducing atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Pietrucci, F.; Saitta, A. M.; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Ivanek, Ondřej; Shestivska, Violetta; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 17 (2017), s. 4306-4311 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB16FR035 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : origin of life * asteroid impact * reducing atmosphere Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  18. Collision Physics in Atmospheric Pressure Non-Equilibrium Plasmas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Msezane, Alfred Z

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a new aspect of interchannel coupling has been found 1, known as spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling, stimulated by an experimental study on photoionization of Xe in the vicinity of the 3d threshold...

  19. Magnetospheric and atmospheric physics at the University of Natal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical outline of geophysical work done at the University of Natal from 1938-1982 is given. Mention is also made of experimental work concerning whistlers and VLF, low-light level TV and geomagnetic pulsations. Current work on the magnetosphere, namely plasma convection in plasmasphere, auroral features, geomagnetic pulsations and the measuring of plasma properties is discussed

  20. Impact of Physics Parameterization Ordering in a Global Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Aaron S.; Caldwell, Peter M.

    2018-02-01

    Because weather and climate models must capture a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales, they rely heavily on parameterizations of subgrid-scale processes. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the assumptions used to couple these parameterizations have an important effect on the climate of version 0 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) General Circulation Model (GCM), a close relative of version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Like most GCMs, parameterizations in E3SM are sequentially split in the sense that parameterizations are called one after another with each subsequent process feeling the effect of the preceding processes. This coupling strategy is noncommutative in the sense that the order in which processes are called impacts the solution. By examining a suite of 24 simulations with deep convection, shallow convection, macrophysics/microphysics, and radiation parameterizations reordered, process order is shown to have a big impact on predicted climate. In particular, reordering of processes induces differences in net climate feedback that are as big as the intermodel spread in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. One reason why process ordering has such a large impact is that the effect of each process is influenced by the processes preceding it. Where output is written is therefore an important control on apparent model behavior. Application of k-means clustering demonstrates that the positioning of macro/microphysics and shallow convection plays a critical role on the model solution.

  1. Are there persistent physical atmospheric responses to galactic cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benestad, Rasmus E

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the annual mean of the galactic cosmic ray flux (GCR) are compared with annual variations in the most common meteorological variables: temperature, mean sea-level barometric pressure, and precipitation statistics. A multiple regression analysis was used to explore the potential for a GCR response on timescales longer than a year and to identify ‘fingerprint’ patterns in time and space associated with GCR as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The response pattern associated with GCR consisted of a negative temperature anomaly that was limited to parts of eastern Europe, and a weak anomaly in the sea-level pressure (SLP), but coincided with higher pressure over the Norwegian Sea. It had a similarity to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the northern hemisphere and a wave train in the southern hemisphere. A set of Monte Carlo simulations nevertheless indicated that the weak amplitude of the global mean temperature response associated with GCR could easily be due to chance (p-value = 0.6), and there has been no trend in the GCR. Hence, there is little empirical evidence that links GCR to the recent global warming. (letter)

  2. Estimating Neutral Atmosphere Drivers using a Physical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    Araujo-Pradere, M. Fedrizzi, 2007, Memory effects in the ionosphere storm response. EGU General Assembly , Vienna, Austria Codrescu, M., T.J. Fuller...Strickland, D, 2007: Application of thermospheric general circulation models for space weather operations. J. Adv. Space Res., edited by Schmidtke

  3. Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (LEP) performs experimental and theoretical research on the heliosphere, the interstellar medium, and the magnetospheres and upper atmospheres of the planets, including Earth. LEP space scientists investigate the structure and dynamics of the magnetospheres of the planets including Earth. Their research programs encompass the magnetic fields intrinsic to many planetary bodies as well as their charged-particle environments and plasma-wave emissions. The LEP also conducts research into the nature of planetary ionospheres and their coupling to both the upper atmospheres and their magnetospheres. Finally, the LEP carries out a broad-based research program in heliospheric physics covering the origins of the solar wind, its propagation outward through the solar system all the way to its termination where it encounters the local interstellar medium. Special emphasis is placed on the study of solar coronal mass ejections (CME's), shock waves, and the structure and properties of the fast and slow solar wind. LEP planetary scientists study the chemistry and physics of planetary stratospheres and tropospheres and of solar system bodies including meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets. The LEP conducts a focused program in astronomy, particularly in the infrared and in short as well as very long radio wavelengths. We also perform an extensive program of laboratory research, including spectroscopy and physical chemistry related to astronomical objects. The Laboratory proposes, develops, fabricates, and integrates experiments on Earth-orbiting, planetary, and heliospheric spacecraft to measure the characteristics of planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields and plasmas in space. We design and develop spectrometric instrumentation for continuum and spectral line observations in the x-ray, gamma-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; these are flown on spacecraft to study

  4. mathematical modelling of atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    the main objectives of this thesis are dealing with environmental problems adopting mathematical techniques. in this respect, atmospheric dispersion processes have been investigated by improving the analytical models to realize the realistic physical phenomena. to achieve these aims, the skeleton of this work contained both mathematical and environmental topics,performed in six chapters. in chapter one we presented a comprehensive review study of most important informations related to our work such as thermal stability , plume rise, inversion, advection , dispersion of pollutants, gaussian plume models dealing with both radioactive and industrial contaminants. chapter two deals with estimating the decay distance as well as the decay time of either industrial or radioactive airborne pollutant. further, highly turbulent atmosphere has been investigated as a special case in the three main thermal stability classes namely, neutral, stable, and unstable atmosphere. chapter three is concerned with obtaining maximum ground level concentration of air pollutant. the variable effective height of pollutants has been considered throughout the mathematical treatment. as a special case the constancy of effective height has been derived mathematically and the maximum ground level concentration as well as its location have been established

  5. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  6. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  7. Eddy transport of water vapor in the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. R.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Viking orbiter measurements of the Martian atmosphere suggest that the residual north polar water-ice cap is the primary source of atmospheric water vapor, which appears at successively lower northern latitudes as the summer season progresses. Zonally symmetric studies of water vapor transport indicate that the zonal mean meridional circulation is incapable of transporting from north polar regions to low latitudes the quantity of water vapor observed. This result has been interpreted as implying the presence of nonpolar sources of water. Another possibility is the ability of atmospheric wave motions, which are not accounted for in a zonally symmetric framework, to efficiently accomplish the transport from a north polar source to the entirety of the Northern Hemisphere. The ability or inability of the full range of atmospheric motions to accomplish this transport has important implications regarding the questions of water sources and sinks on Mars: if the full spectrum of atmospheric motions proves to be incapable of accomplishing the transport, it strengthens arguments in favor of additional water sources. Preliminary results from a three dimensional atmospheric dynamical/water vapor transport numerical model are presented. The model accounts for the physics of a subliming water-ice cap, but does not yet incorporate recondensation of this sublimed water. Transport of vapor away from this water-ice cap in this three dimensional framework is compared with previously obtained zonally symmetric (two dimensional) results to quantify effects of water vapor transport by atmospheric eddies.

  8. CELESTE: an atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for high energy gamma astrophysics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paré, E.; Balauge, B.; Bazer-Bachi, R.; Bergeret, H.; Berny, F.; Briand, N.; Bruel, P.; Cerutti, M.; Collon, J.; Cordier, A.; Cornbise, P.; Debiais, G.; Dezalay, J. P.; Dumora, D.; Durand, E.; Eschstruth, P.; Espigat, P.; Fabre, B.; Fleury, P.; Gilly, J.; Gouillaud, J. C.; Gregory, C.; Hérault, N.; Holder, J.; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Incerti, S.; Jouenne, A.; Kalt, L.; LeGallou, R.; Lott, B.; Manigot, P.; Neveu, J.; Olive, J. F.; Palatka, Miroslav; Perez, A.; Rebii, A.; Rob, L.; Sans, J. L.; Schovánek, Petr; Villard, G.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 490, - (2002), s. 71-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : gamma-ray astronopy * atmospheric Cherenkov detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2002

  9. Modeling atmospheric dispersion for reactor accident consequence evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, D.J.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Woodard, K.

    1982-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion models are a central part of computer codes for the evaluation of potential reactor accident consequences. A variety of ways of treating to varying degrees the many physical processes that can have an impact on the predicted consequences exists. The currently available models are reviewed and their capabilities and limitations, as applied to reactor accident consequence analyses, are discussed

  10. Atmospheric stability and complex terrain: comparing measurements and CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman; Bechmann, Andreas; Berg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    For wind resource assessment, the wind industry is increasingly relying on Computational Fluid Dynamics models that focus on modeling the airflow in a neutrally stratified surface layer. So far, physical processes that are specific to the atmospheric boundary layer, for example the Coriolis force...

  11. Atmospheric precipitable water in Jos, Nigeria | Utah | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the atmosphere of Jos in the month of August has a value of 4.44±0.47cm, while the minimum of 1.54±0.47cm was found in the month of February. The regression models have been presented and discussed. Keywords: Precipitable water vapour, dew-point temperature, relative humidity. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  12. Microwave Atmospheric-Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes tests of microwave pressure sounder (MPS) for use in satellite measurements of atmospheric pressure. MPS is multifrequency radar operating between 25 and 80 GHz. Determines signal absorption over vertical path through atmosphere by measuring strength of echoes from ocean surface. MPS operates with cloud cover, and suitable for use on current meteorological satellites.

  13. Geologic data on atmospheric history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.G.

    1966-01-01

    Attention is focussed on the possible existence of an anoxygenic, primeval atmosphere and on the history of atmospheric O2 and CO2. For this purpose, geologic data can be divided into those on fossil remains, on biogenic deposits formed by early life, on “chemicofossils”, and on deposits formed

  14. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  15. Pathlength distributions of atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, T.K.; Stanev, Todor

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the distribution of the production heights of atmospheric neutrinos as a function of zenith angle and neutrino energy. The distributions can be used as the input for evaluation of neutrino propagation under various hypotheses for neutrino flavor oscillations. Their use may alter substantially the estimates of the oscillation parameters for almost horizontal atmospheric neutrinos.

  16. Organic chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory photochemical simulations and other types of chemical simulations are discussed. The chemistry of methane, which is the major known constituent of Titan's atmosphere was examined with stress on what can be learned from photochemistry and particle irradiation. The composition of dust that comprises the haze layer was determined. Isotope fractionation in planetary atmospheres is also discussed.

  17. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  18. Atmospheric Research 2012 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K -M.

    2013-01-01

    This annual report, as before, is intended for a broad audience. Our readers include colleagues within NASA, scientists outside the Agency, science graduate students, and members of the general public. Inside are descriptions of atmospheric research science highlights and summaries of our education and outreach accomplishments for calendar year 2012.The report covers research activities from the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Laboratory, the Climate and Radiation Laboratory, the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, and the Wallops Field Support Office under the Office of Deputy Director for Atmospheres, Earth Sciences Division in the Sciences and Exploration Directorate of NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center. The overall mission of the office is advancing knowledge and understanding of the Earths atmosphere. Satellite missions, field campaigns, peer-reviewed publications, and successful proposals are essential to our continuing research.

  19. Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Supplement VIII, halogen species evaluation for atmospheric chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, R.; Baulch, D.L.; Cox, R.A.; Hampson, R.F. Jr.; Kerr, J.A.; Rossi, M.J.; Troe, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper updates and extends part of the previous data base of critical evaluations of the kinetics and photochemistry of gas-phase chemical reactions of neutral species involved in atmospheric chemistry [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 295 (1980); 11, 327 (1982); 13, 1259 (1984); 18, 881 (1989); 21, 1125 (1992); 26, 521 (1997); 26, 1329 (1997); 28, 191 (1999)]. The present evaluation is limited to the inorganic halogen family of atmospherically important reactions. The work has been carried out by the authors under the auspices of the IUPAC Subcommittee on Gas Phase Kinetic Data Evaluation for Atmospheric Chemistry. Data sheets have been prepared for 102 thermal and photochemical reactions, containing summaries of the available experimental data with notes giving details of the experimental procedures. For each thermal reaction, a preferred value of the rate coefficient at 298 K is given together with a temperature dependence where possible. The selection of the preferred value is discussed and estimates of the accuracies of the rate coefficients and temperature coefficients have been made for each reaction. For each photochemical reaction the data sheets list the preferred values of the photoabsorption cross sections and the quantum yields of the photochemical reactions together with comments on how they were selected. The data sheets are intended to provide the basic physical chemical data needed as input for calculations that model atmospheric chemistry. A table summarizing the preferred rate data is provided, together with an appendix listing the available values of enthalpies of formation of the reactant and product species

  20. Aerosolization and Atmospheric Transformation of Engineered Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Andrea J.

    While research on the environmental impacts of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing, the potential for them to be chemically transformed in the atmosphere has been largely ignored. The overall objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric transformation of carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNPs). The research focuses on C60 fullerene because it is an important member of the carbonaceous nanoparticle (CNP) family and is used in a wide variety of applications. The first specific objective was to review the potential of atmospheric transformations to alter the environmental impacts of CNPs. We described atmospheric processes that were likely to physically or chemically alter aerosolized CNPs and demonstrated their relevance to CNP behavior and toxicity in the aqueous and terrestrial environment. In order to investigate the transformations of CNP aerosols under controlled conditions, we developed an aerosolization technique that produces nano-scale aerosols without using solvents, which can alter the surface chemistry of the aerosols. We demonstrated the technique with carbonaceous (C60) and metal oxide (TiO2, CeO2) nanoparticle powders. All resulting aerosols exhibited unimodal size distributions and mode particle diameters below 100 nm. We used the new aerosolization technique to investigate the reaction between aerosolized C60 and atmospherically realistic levels of ozone (O3) in terms of reaction products, reaction rate, and oxidative stress potential. We identified C60O, C60O2, and C60O3 as products of the C60-O3 reaction. We demonstrated that the oxidative stress potential of C 60 may be enhanced by exposure to O3. We found the pseudo-first order reaction rate to be 9 x 10-6 to 2 x 10 -5 s-1, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the rate for several PAH species under comparable conditions. This research has demonstrated that a thorough understanding of atmospheric chemistry of ENPs is critical for accurate prediction of their environmental

  1. Modification of combustion aerosols in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    Combustion aerosols particles are released on large scale into the atmosphere in the industrialized regions as well as in the tropics (by wood fires). The particles are subjected to various aging processes which depend on the size, morphology, and chemical composition of the particles. The interaction of combustion particles with sunlight and humidity as well as adsorption and desorption of volatile material to or from the particles considerably changes their physical and chemical properties and thus their residence time in the atmosphere. This is of importance because combustion particles are known to have a variety of health effects on people. Moreover, atmospheric aerosol particles have an influence on climate, directly through the reflection and absorption of solar radiation and indirectly through modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. In a first step, a field experiment was carried out to study the sources and characteristics of combustion aerosols that are emitted from vehicles in a road tunnel. It was found that most of the fine particles were tail pipe emissions of diesel powered vehicles. The calculation shows that on an average these vehicles emit about 300 mg fine particulate matter per driven kilometer. This emission factor is at least 100 times higher than the mean emission factor estimated for gasoline powered vehicles. Furthermore, it is found that during their residence time in the tunnel, the particles undergo significant changes: The particles change towards a more compact structure. The conclusion is reached that this is mainly due to adsorption of volatile material from the gas phase to the particle surface. In the atmosphere, the life cycle as well as the radiative and chemical properties of an aerosol particle is strongly dependent on its response to humidity. Therefore the hygroscopic behavior of combustion particles emitted from single sources (i.e. from a gasoline and a diesel engine) were studied in laboratory experiments.

  2. Mass spectroscopic analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wippel, R.

    1997-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere vary greatly in origin, in their physical and chemical properties and their effects on climate, atmospheric chemistry and health. Aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than two μm can enter the respiratory tract of humans when inhaled. Bulk analysis of ambient dust particles was performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The size-fractionated collected samples were analyzed after a leaching procedure that simulates the solution reactions occurring in the lungs. A disadvantage of bulk analysis is that it gives no information about the distribution of a certain element within the particles under investigation. A Laser-Microprobe-Mass-Analyzer (LAMMA-500) was used to obtain this information. At sampling sites in Austria and in Zimbabwe, Africa, single particles were sampled using a self-made impactor. One of the final aims in environmental analysis is to successfully apply receptor models that relate the chemical and physical properties of a receptor site to a source. The knowledge of the sources of atmospheric particulate matter is essential for environmental policy makers as well as for epidemiological studies. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have a remarkable ability to handle LAMMA-data. Three ANNs were used as a pattern recognition tool for LAMMA mass spectral data: a back-propagation net, a Kohonen network,and a counter-propagation net. Standard source profiles from the United States Environmental Protection Agency were used as training and test data of the different nets. The elemental patterns of the sum of 100 mass spectra of fine dust particles were presented to the trained nets and satisfactory recognition (> 80 %) was obtained. (author)

  3. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-06-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation. (author)

  4. Determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes from atmospheric neutrino data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Concepcion; Maltoni, Michele; Rojo, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based on the convolution of the primary cosmic ray spectrum with the expected yield of neutrinos per incident cosmic ray. In this work we present an alternative approach to the determination of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes based on the direct extraction from the experimental data on neutrino event rates. The extraction is achieved by means of a combination of artificial neural networks as interpolants and Monte Carlo methods for faithful error estimation

  5. Atmospheric stability and atmospheric circulation in Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synodinou, B.M.; Petrakis, M.; Kassomenos, P.; Lykoudis, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the evaluation and study of atmospheric pollution reference is always made to the stability criteria. These criteria, usually represented as functions of different meteorological data such as wind speed and direction, temperature, solar radiation, etc., play a very important role in the investigation of different parameters that affect the build up of pollution episodes mainly in urban areas. In this paper an attempt is made to evaluate the atmospheric stability criteria based on measurements obtained from two locations in and nearby Athens. The atmospheric stability is then examined along with the other meteorological parameters

  6. International Centre for Theoretical Physics: scientific activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Research and training-for-research were carried out in the following areas: physics and energy (nuclear physics, solar energy), physics and frontiers of knowledge (elementary particles and fundamental theory), physics of the living state, physics and technology (condensed matter physics), applicable mathematics and planning models (applicable mathematics, mathematical ecology), physics of the environment and of natural resources (geomagnetism, ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, atmospheric physics), and physics and development. Activities included both research at the Centre and a number of workshops and symposia. The subjects treated are briefly summarized, and references to preprints and internal reports are given

  7. Caracterização química e física de batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas, embaladas sob diferentes atmosferas modificadas ativas Chemical and physical characterization of fresh-cut 'Ágata' potatoes packed under different active modified atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Lacerda Oliveira Pineli

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações químicas e físicas em batatas 'Ágata' minimamente processadas, embaladas sob diferentes atmosferas, durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Batatas 'Ágata' foram minimamente processadas como minibatatas e embaladas em filmes de náilon multicamadas. Os tratamentos aplicados no momento da embalagem foram o vácuo parcial e as misturas 10%CO2, 2%O2, 88%N2 ou 5%CO2, 5%O2, 90%N2. Em seguida, foram armazenadas a 5ºC. A cada três dias, amostras foram avaliadas quanto ao índice de escurecimento, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais e acidez titulável. O armazenamento sob vácuo parcial foi o mais eficaz no controle do escurecimento, da minimização da atividade da polifenoloxidase e da peroxidase, prevenindo alterações nos teores de sólidos solúveis totais, redução da firmeza, encharcamento da embalagem e maior acidez titulável. Os demais tratamentos apresentaram rápido desenvolvimento do escurecimento, aumento de firmeza em decorrência de ressecamento dos tubérculos, elevação nos sólidos solúveis totais e menor desenvolvimento da acidez em comparação ao tratamento sob vácuo parcial. A utilização de vácuo parcial foi a mais recomendada para a manutenção da qualidade das minibatatas. Todavia, outros tratamentos que busquem a manutenção da firmeza e frescor, sem o desenvolvimento de off-flavors e sem escurecimento, devem ser avaliados.The objective of this work was to evaluate chemical and physical characteristics of fresh-cut 'Ágata' potatoes packed under different active modified atmospheres, during refrigerated storage. 'Ágata' potatoes were minimally processed as baby potatoes and packed in nylon multilayer films. The treatments applied were partial vacuum, and atmospheres with 10%CO2, 2%O2, 88%N2 and 5%CO2, 5%O2, 90%N2. After that, they were stored at 5ºC. Every three days, tubers were evaluated for browning index

  8. Interaction of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustueva, K A; Sanotsky, I V

    1975-01-01

    In evaluating the health effects of chemical and physical factors, it is of great importance to know the possible interactions between different pollutants. The biological effects of interactions, when present, may be synergistic, antagonistic or additive. Each type of interaction calls for a different evaluation and different practical measures. As yet the understanding of such effects is not clear, probably because of differing definitions of terminology. For example, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide and particulates is interpreted as a synergistic effect; in the author's opinion, this is an aggravating effect. The type of interaction depends on the levels of concentration observed, for example, the synergism shown at high levels of concentration is not always demonstrated for low levels of concentration. In fact there is little evidence of synergistic effects from ambient air pollutant; the more common type of interaction is additive in effect. 12 references.

  9. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  10. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  11. Environmental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Physics is a comprehensive introduction to the physical concepts underlying environmental science. The importance and relevance of physics is emphasised by its application to real environmental problems with a wide range of case studies. Applications included cover energy use and production, global climate, the physics of living things, radioactivity, environmental remote sensing, noise pollution and the physics of the Earth. The book makes the subject accessible to those with little physics background, keeping mathematical treatment straightforward. The text is lively and informative, and is supplemented by numerous illustrations, photos, tables of useful data, and a glossary of key terms.

  12. Solar atmosphere wave dynamics generated by solar global oscillating eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. K.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.; Zheng, R.

    2018-01-01

    The solar atmosphere exhibits a diverse range of wave phenomena, where one of the earliest discovered was the five-minute global acoustic oscillation, also referred to as the p-mode. The analysis of wave propagation in the solar atmosphere may be used as a diagnostic tool to estimate accurately the physical characteristics of the Sun's atmospheric layers. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and upward propagation of waves which are generated by the solar global eigenmodes. We report on a series of hydrodynamic simulations of a realistically stratified model of the solar atmosphere representing its lower region from the photosphere to low corona. With the objective of modelling atmospheric perturbations, propagating from the photosphere into the chromosphere, transition region and low corona, generated by the photospheric global oscillations the simulations use photospheric drivers mimicking the solar p-modes. The drivers are spatially structured harmonics across the computational box parallel to the solar surface. The drivers perturb the atmosphere at 0.5 Mm above the bottom boundary of the model and are placed coincident with the location of the temperature minimum. A combination of the VALIIIC and McWhirter solar atmospheres are used as the background equilibrium model. We report how synthetic photospheric oscillations may manifest in a magnetic field free model of the quiet Sun. To carry out the simulations, we employed the magnetohydrodynamics code, SMAUG (Sheffield MHD Accelerated Using GPUs). Our results show that the amount of energy propagating into the solar atmosphere is consistent with a model of solar global oscillations described by Taroyan and Erdélyi (2008) using the Klein-Gordon equation. The computed results indicate a power law which is compared to observations reported by Ireland et al. (2015) using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly.

  13. Processes analysis of ocean-atmosphere interaction in Colombian marine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jeimmy; Pabon Caicedo, Jose Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This document shows the importance to understanding the processes of interaction ocean-atmosphere by means of the knowledge of the behavior of the physical and biological processes in the Colombian marine areas. For such aim, it was studied the production of the pigment concentration (chlorophyll-a) by means the state of the sea surface temperature and the atmospheric dynamics for year 2001

  14. radionuclides modelling dispersion of in the atmosphere for continuous discharges and accidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teyeb, Malika

    2011-01-01

    The study of the dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere is the subject of a physical and numerical modeling of the phenomenon of dispersion. This work aims to study the atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases and continuous, from the possible establishment of a nuclear pressurized water reactor in the potential in Bizerte and Skhira.

  15. Atmospheric chemistry: Description of the area of performance and a working plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.

    1986-11-01

    INPE's program in Atmospheric Chemistry Research is described. Research in this area is concerned with atmospheric gases and their chemical reactions, production and loss rates, and their interactions with the biosphere. Atmospheric chemistry includes concepts in Physics, Chemistry, Meteorology, and Biology, which gives it a strong interdisciplinary character. The interaction of some of the atmospheric gases with the biosphere, such as ozone, is very strong and direct. Studying atmospheric chemistry is, therefore, of direct interest to man and the quality of life. Details are described to define the objectives of study, in particular those of our research program at INPE. A working plan is proposed in order to reach the defined goals. Owing to the large anthropogenic interference in the balance of the natural atmosphere it is anticipated that a better understanding of Atmospheric Chemistry will be the great scientific challenge of the next decade.

  16. A Reusable and Autonomous Ocean-Atmosphere Sensor Integration System (OASIS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need to acquire observations on oceanic and atmospheric physical and biogeochemical processes continues to increase. These data are presently being used as...

  17. Atmospheres of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelson, M.G.; Schubert, G.

    1986-01-01

    Properties of the planets are identified - such as size, spin rate, and distance from the sun - that are important in understanding the characteristics of their atmospheres. Venus, earth and Mars have surface-temperature differences only partly explained by the decrease of solar radiation flux with distance from the sun. More significant effects arise from the variations in the degree to which the atmospheres act as absorbers of planetary thermal reradiation. Atmospheric circulation on a global scale also varies markedly among the three planets. 5 references

  18. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  19. Urban physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Physics is the multiscale and interdisciplinary research area dealing with physical processes in urban environments that influence our everyday health, comfort and productivity. It involves disciplines ranging from mesoscale meteorology to human thermophysiology. The introductory lecture

  20. Physics matters

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of essays on physics topics. It is written as a textbook for non-physics science and arts students, at the undergraduate level. Topics covered include cellphone radiation, lasers, the twin paradox, and more.

  1. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION FOR CMB GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errard, J.; Borrill, J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Akiba, Y.; Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Elleflot, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Baccigalupi, C.; Fabbian, G. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste I-34014 (Italy); Boettger, D. [Department of Astronomy, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Cukierman, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Delabrouille, J. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Ducout, A.; Feeney, S. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Feng, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine (United States); and others

    2015-08-10

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  2. Characterization of Atmospheric Infrasound for Improved Weather Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUD MAP) is a multi-university collaboration focused on development and implementation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and integration with sensors for atmospheric measurements. A primary objective for this project is to create and demonstrate UAS capabilities needed to support UAS operating in extreme conditions, such as a tornado producing storm system. These storm systems emit infrasound (acoustic signals below human hearing, <20 Hz) up to 2 hours before tornadogenesis. Due to an acoustic ceiling and weak atmospheric absorption, infrasound can be detected from distances in excess of 300 miles. Thus infrasound could be used for long-range, passive monitoring and detection of tornadogenesis as well as directing UAS resources to high-decision-value-information. To achieve this the infrasonic signals with and without severe storms must be understood. This presentation will report findings from the first CLOUD MAP field demonstration, which acquired infrasonic signals while simultaneously sampling the atmosphere with UAS. Infrasonic spectra will be shown from a typical calm day, a continuous source (pulsed gas-combustion torch), singular events, and UAS flights as well as localization results from a controlled source and multiple microphones. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1539070: CLOUD MAP - Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics.

  3. High flying physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Cosmic ray physicists have always had to aim high. In the constant search for interactions produced as close as possible to the immensely high primary particles entering the earth's atmosphere from outer space, they have installed experiments on high mountain peaks and flown detectors aloft in balloons. In these studies, there have been periodic sightings of remarkable configurations of secondary particles. These events, many of which bear exotic names like Centauro, Andromeda, Texas Lone Star, etc., frequently defy explanation in terms of conventional physics ideas and give a glimpse of what may lie beyond the behaviour seen so far under laboratory conditions

  4. Physical literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Roučka, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Topic: Physical literacy Goals: The aproximation of physical literacy, collection and evaluation questionnaires of physical literacy knowledge and students anamnesis. Description of applicants progress in the specific movement skills. Method: Unified questionnaires was used for obtaining informations. We make video for movement analysis. Results: The results didn't obtain our expectation that students are able to express precisely the content of physical literacy by specific skills. However, ...

  5. Characterization of extra-solar planets and their atmospheres (Spectroscopy of transits and atmospheric escape)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Hot Jupiters are exo-planets so close to their star that their atmosphere can lose gas because of hydrodynamic escape. Transiting gaseous giants are an excellent way to understand this mechanism, but it is necessary to study other types of planets to determine its impact on the exo-planetary population. This thesis aims at using transit spectroscopy to observe the atmosphere of several exo-planets, to study their properties and to contribute to the characterization of hydrodynamic escape. UV lines observed with the Hubble telescope are analyzed with the numerical model of upper atmospheres we developed. Using the Ly-α line we identify energetic and dynamical interactions between the atmospheres of the hot Jupiters HD209458b and HD189733b and their stars. We study the dependence of the escape on the environment of a planet and on its physical properties, through the observation of a super-Earth and a warm Jupiter in the 55 Cnc system. Using observations of HD209458b, we show that magnesium lines are a window on the region of formation of hydrodynamic escape. We study the potential of transit spectroscopy in the near-UV to detect new cases of atmospheric escape. This mechanism is fostered by the proximity of a planet to its star, which makes it even more important to understand the formation and migration processes that can be traced in the alignment of a planetary system. Using measures from the spectrographs HARPS-N and SOPHIE we study the alignments of 55 Cnc e and the Kepler candidate KOI 12.01, whose planetary nature we also seek to validate. (author)

  6. Astroparticle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; J. Carr

    2001-01-01

    The lectures will introduce the emerging field of Astroparticle Physics which links particle physics and astrophysics. Starting from the Big Bang, the course will describe how particle physics explains certain features of the natural world and the features remainning to be understood. The subjects covered will include dark matter, gamma and neutrino astronomy, cosmic rays and gravity waves.

  7. Physical ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical ergonomics deals with the physical load on the human body when performing activities like work, sports, jobs at home or dealing with products. With regard to the exposure to physical loads and its potential effects on the human body, the presented framework is helpful. In this article we

  8. Collider Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is summary of the activities of the working group on collider physics in the IXth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-9) held at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India in January 2006. Some of the work subsequently done on these problems by the subgroups formed during the workshop is ...

  9. Physics Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringing Physics Presentations to Students for Presenters Remember why you became a scientist help students develop a deeper understanding of the concepts of force and motion. Physics of Sports Grades 4-12 Fermilab scientists guide a discussion and exploration of the impact physics has in a variety

  10. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P.; Allen, G. A.; Hwang, H. H.; Marley, M. S.; McGuire, M. K.; Garcia, J. A.; Sklyanskiy, E.; Huynh, L. C.; Moses, R. W.

    2014-07-01

    To better understand the technology requirements for Uranus atmospheric entry probe, Entry Vehicle Technology project funded an internal study with a multidisciplinary team from NASA Ames, Langley and JPL. The results of this study are communicated.

  11. The bibliometrics of atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M.

    Bibliometric analysis is an important tool in the management of a journal. SCOPUS output is used to assess the increase in the quantity of material in Atmospheric Environment and stylistic changes in the way authors choose words and punctuation in titles and assemble their reference lists. Citation analysis is used to consider the impact factor of the journal, but perhaps more importantly the way in which it reflects the importance authors give to papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The impact factor of Atmospheric Environment (2.549 for 2007) from the Journal Citation Reports suggests it performs well within the atmospheric sciences, but it conceals the long term value authors place on papers appearing in the journal. Reference lists show that a fifth come through citing papers more than a decade old.

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma vapour coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Starostine, S.; Premkumar, P.A.; Creatore, M.; Vries, de H.W.; Kondruweit, S.; Szyszka, B.; Pütz, J.

    2010-01-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is recognized as a promising tool of thin films deposition on various substrates at atmospheric pressure. Emerging applications including encapsulation of flexible solar cells and flexible displays require large scale low costs production cif transparent

  13. (Chemistry of the global atmosphere)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marland, G.

    1990-09-27

    The traveler attended the conference The Chemistry of the Global Atmosphere,'' and presented a paper on the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to the atmosphere. The conference included meetings of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) programme, a core project of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the traveler participated in meetings on the IGAC project Development of Global Emissions Inventories'' and agreed to coordinate the working group on CO{sub 2}. Papers presented at the conference focused on the latest developments in analytical methods, modeling and understanding of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NMHCs, CFCs, and aerosols.

  14. Exploring the Atmosphere with Lidars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the source is beyond the control of the observer, e.g. radiometer, photometer ... of the atmosphere, environmental monitoring, measurement of air quality ... able for the development of mobile systems for vehicles, aircraft and spacecraft ...

  15. Uranus atmospheric dynamics and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Michael; Beebe, Reta F.; Conrath, Barney J.; Hinson, David P.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1991-01-01

    The observations, models, and theories relevant to the atmospheric dynamics and meteorology of Uranus are discussed. The available models for the large-scale heat transport and atmospheric dynamics as well as diagnostic interpretations of the Voyager data are reviewed. Some pertinent ideas and questions regarding the global circulation balance are considered, partly in comparison with other planetary atmospheres. The available data indicate atmospheric rotation at midlatitudes nearly 200 m/s faster than that of the planetary magnetic field. Analysis of the dynamical deformation of the shape and size of isobaric surfaces measured by the Voyager radio-occultation experiment suggests a subrotating equator at comparable altitudes. Infrared temperature retrievals above the cloud deck indicate a smaller equator-to-pole contrast than expected for purely radiative-convective equilibrium, but show local variations implying a latitudinally correlated decrease with altitude in the cloud-tracked wind.

  16. Atmospheres in a Test Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Erculiani, M. S.; Giro, E.; D'Alessandro, M.; Galletta, G.

    2013-09-01

    The "Atmosphere in a Test Tube" project is a laboratory experiment that will be able to reproduce condition of extreme environments by means of a simulator. These conditions span from those existing inside some parts of the human body to combinations of temperatures, pressures, irradiation and atmospheric gases present on other planets. In this latter case the experiments to be performed will be useful as preliminary tests for both simulation of atmosphere of exoplanets and Solar System planets and Astrobiology experiments that should be performed by planetary landers or by instruments to be launched in the next years. In particular at INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova Laboratory we are approaching the characterization of extrasolar planet atmospheres taking advantage by innovative laboratory experiments with a particular focus on low mass Neptunes and Super earths and low mass M dwarfs primaries.

  17. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  18. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available using state of the art Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) instrumentation and other active and passive remote sensing tools. First “Lidar Field Campaign” • 2-day measurement campaign at University of Pretoria • First 23-hour continuous measurement... head2rightCirrus cloud morphology and dynamics. Atmospheric Research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ARSAIO) Slide 24 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Middle atmosphere dynamics and thermal structure: comparative studies from...

  19. Coupled Human-Atmosphere-System Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Chabay, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    With the discovery of fire, humankind started changing the composition of the atmosphere. Beginning with the industrial revolution, this has led to significant environmental problems, mainly air pollution and climate change. While climate change has been recognized as one key challenge of the Anthropocene, air pollution contributes to the top causes of global premature mortality. Air pollution also plays a key role in contamination of ecosystems and bio-magnification of toxins along food chains. Even though emissions leading to air pollution and climate change often originate from the same sources, they are generally perceived and regulated separately. Climate change impacts are global and hence are tackled at an international level. Conversely, air pollution has local to regional impacts and is thus a matter of national or regional legislation. This legislative and policy divide is generally useful, since full integration could lead, for example, to detrimental delays in action against air pollution through protracted international climate negotiations. However, the separation obscures the fact that almost any kind of human activity leads to the simultaneous emission of air pollutants, toxins and long-lived greenhouse gases. The atmosphere functions as a "dump" for human generated gaseous waste, which is then dispersed and transformed, partly chemically and partly micro-physically, perturbing natural processes in the atmosphere and leading to manifold impacts. In addition, air pollutants affect the Earth's radiative balance directly and indirectly, hence affecting climate change, while a changing climate in turn affects air pollution. Current policies often neglect these linkages and favor mitigation in one arena, which sometimes has detrimental effects on the other. One example is domestic wood burning, which though nearly carbon neutral, deteriorates air quality. Moreover, the design of appliances, machinery, or infrastructure generally does not attempt to

  20. Physics Projects for a Future CERN-LNGS Neutrino Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.

    1998-01-01

    We present an overview of the future projects concerning the neutrino oscillation physics in Europe. Recently a joint CERN-LNGS scientific committee has reviewed several proposals both for the study of atmospheric neutrinos and for long (LBL) and short baseline (SBL) neutrino oscillation experiments. The committee has indicated the priority that the European high energy physics community should follows in the field of neutrino physics, namely a new massive, atmospheric neutrino detector and a...

  1. Global Warming: Physics and Facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, B.G.; Hafemeister, D.; Scribner, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO 2 ; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment

  2. Game physics

    CERN Document Server

    Eberly, David H

    2010-01-01

    ""Game Physics, 2nd Edition"" provides clear descriptions of the mathematics and algorithms needed to create a powerful physics engine - while providing a solid reference for all of the math you will encounter anywhere in game development: quaternions, linear algebra, and calculus. Implementing physical simulations for real-time games is a complex task that requires a solid understanding of a wide range of concepts from the fields of mathematics and physics. Previously, the relevant information could only be gleaned through obscure research papers. Thanks to ""Game Physics"", all this informa

  3. Cosmoparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, M Yu

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1980s the cross-disciplinary, multidimensional field of links between cosmology and particle physics has been widely recognised by theorists, studying cosmology, particle and nuclear physics, gravity, as well as by astrophysicists, astronomers, space physicists, experimental particle and nuclear physicists, mathematicians and engineers.The relationship between cosmology and particle physics is now one of the important topics of discussion at any scientific meeting both on astrophysics and high energy physics.Cosmoparticle physics is the result of the mutual relationship between cosmo

  4. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  5. Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Montmessin, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Although resembling an extremely dry desert, planet Mars hosts clouds in its atmosphere. Every day somewhere on the planet a part of the tiny amount of water vapor held by the atmosphere can condense as ice crystals to form cirrus-type clouds. The existence of water ice clouds has been known for a long time, and they have been studied for decades, leading to the establishment of a well-known climatology and understanding of their formation and properties. Despite their thinness, they have a clear impact on the atmospheric temperatures, thus affecting the Martian climate. Another, more exotic type of clouds forms as well on Mars. The atmospheric temperatures can plunge to such frigid values that the major gaseous component of the atmosphere, CO2, condenses as ice crystals. These clouds form in the cold polar night where they also contribute to the formation of the CO2 ice polar cap, and also in the mesosphere at very high altitudes, near the edge of space, analogously to the noctilucent clouds on Earth. The mesospheric clouds are a fairly recent discovery and have put our understanding of the Martian atmosphere to a test. On Mars, cloud crystals form on ice nuclei, mostly provided by the omnipresent dust. Thus, the clouds link the three major climatic cycles: those of the two major volatiles, H2O and CO2; and that of dust, which is a major climatic agent itself.

  6. Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashurin, A., E-mail: ashashur@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Keidar, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.

  7. Magnetospheric plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.

    1989-09-01

    The discovery of the earth's radiation belts in 1957 by Van Allen marked the beginning of what is now known as magnetospheric physics. In this study of plasma physics in the magnetosphere, we shall take the magnetosphere to be that part of the earth's ionized atmosphere which is formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's dipole-like magnetic field. It extends from approximately 100km above the earth's surface where the proton-neutral atom collision frequency is equal to the proton gyrofrequency to about ten earth radii (R E ∼ 6380km) in the sunward direction and to several hundred earth radii in the anti-sunward direction. The collision dominated region is called the ionosphere and is sometimes considered separate from the collisionless plasma region. In the ionosphere ion-neutral collisions are dominant and one may think of the ionosphere as a frictional boundary layer ∼ 1000km thick. Other planets are also considered. (author)

  8. Dust in the Sky: Atmospheric Composition. Modeling of Aerosol Optical Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Kinne, Stefan; Torres, Omar; Holben, Brent; Duncan, Bryan; Martin, Randall; Logan, Jennifer; Higurashi, Akiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol is any small particle of matter that rests suspended in the atmosphere. Natural sources, such as deserts, create some aerosols; consumption of fossil fuels and industrial activity create other aerosols. All the microscopic aerosol particles add up to a large amount of material floating in the atmosphere. You can see the particles in the haze that floats over polluted cities. Beyond this visible effect, aerosols can actually lower temperatures. They do this by blocking, or scattering, a portion of the sun's energy from reaching the surface. Because of this influence, scientists study the physical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Reliable numerical models for atmospheric aerosols play an important role in research.

  9. Problems in global atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Paul J.

    1993-02-01

    The chemistry of the atmosphere is substantially influenced by a wide range of chemical processes which are primarily driven by the action of ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths shorter than 320 nm (UV-B) on ozone and water vapor. This leads to the formation of hydroxyl (OH) radicals which, despite very low tropospheric concentrations, remove most gases that are emitted into the atmosphere by natural and anthropogenic processes. Therefore, although only about 10% of all atmospheric ozone is located in the troposphere, through the formation of OH, it determines the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere and is, therefore, of the utmost importance for maintaining its chemical composition. Due to a variety of human activities, especially through increasing emissions of CH4, CO, and NOx, the concentrations of tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl are expected to be increasing in polluted and decreasing in clean tropospheric environments. Altogether, this may be leading to an overall decrease in the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere, contributing to a gradual buildup of several longlived trace gases that are primarily removed by reaction with OH. In the stratosphere, especially due to catalytic reactions of chlorine-containing gases of industrial origin, ozone is being depleted, most drastically noted during the early spring months over Antarctica. Because ozone is the only atmospheric constituent that can significantly absorb solar radiation in the wavelength region 240 - 320 nm, this loss of ozone enhances the penetration of biologically harmful UV-B radiation to the earth's surface with ensuing negative consequences for the biosphere. Several of the aforementioned chemically active trace gases with growing trends in the atmosphere are also efficient greenhouse gases. Together they can exert a warming effect on the earth's climate about equal to that of carbon dioxide.

  10. Overview of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The SuperSonic Transport (SST) development program within the US was based at the Langley Research Center as was the Apollo radiation testing facility (Space Radiation Effects Laboratory) with associated radiation research groups. It was natural for the issues of the SST to be first recognized by this unique combination of research programs. With a re-examination of the technologies for commercial supersonic flight and the possible development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), the remaining issues of the SST required resolution. It was the progress of SST radiation exposure research program founded by T. Foelsche at the Langley Research Center and the identified remaining issues after that project over twenty-five years ago which became the launch point of the current atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) research project. Added emphasis to the need for reassessment of atmospheric radiation resulted from the major lowering of the recommended occupational exposure limits, the inclusion of aircrew as radiation workers, and the recognition of civil aircrew as a major source of occupational exposures. Furthermore, the work of Ferenc Hajnal of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory brought greater focus to the uncertainties in the neutron flux at high altitudes. A re-examination of the issues involved was committed at the Langley Research Center and by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). As a result of the NCRP review, a new flight package was assembled and flown during solar minimum at which time the galactic cosmic radiation is at a maximum (June 1997). The present workshop is the initial analysis of the new data from that flight. The present paper is an overview of the status of knowledge of atmospheric ionizing radiations. We will re-examine the exposures of the world population and examine the context of aircrew exposures with implications for the results of the present research. A condensed version of this report was given at the 1998

  11. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny's atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

  12. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  13. University physics

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George

    1984-01-01

    University Physics provides an authoritative treatment of physics. This book discusses the linear motion with constant acceleration; addition and subtraction of vectors; uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; and electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor. The behavior of materials in a non-uniform magnetic field; application of Kirchhoff's junction rule; Lorentz transformations; and Bernoulli's equation are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the speed of electromagnetic waves; origins of quantum physics; neutron activation analysis; and interference of light. This publi

  14. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  15. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-01-01

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms

  16. Possible Tau Appearance Experiment with Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    1999-12-27

    We suggest an experimental measurement that could detect the appearance of tau neutrinos due to {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos by measuring the energy spectra of neutrino induced showers. {tau} neutrinos deposit a large fraction of their energy in showers generated by {nu}{sub {tau}} charge current interactions and the subsequent {tau} -lepton decay. The appearance of {nu}{sub {tau}} will enhance the spectrum of neutrino induced showers in energy ranges corresponding to the neutrino oscillation parameters. A shower rate lower than the ''no oscillation'' prediction is an indication for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub s} oscillations. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  17. From Atmospheric Awareness to Active Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    ‘Atmosphere’ has recently claimed more attention in architectural discourse and practice leading to the revaluation of embodiment as a basis for the interaction with an environment. In this context, architectural space is understood as a space of engagement that ‘appears’ to us as a result....... In this multifaceted relationship materials are: carriers of effects and phenomena, encoders of our reminiscences and memories, detonators of physical, physiological and emotional contingencies, activators of the aesthetic occurrence. This reading defines materiality as an active and operative force – as a means...... parameters as a data upon which projects develop. Thus, the aim is to illustrate this particular projective genealogy, one that builds upon ‘atmospheric awareness’ where seeking an effect and affect is implicit and foregrounding perceptual and emotional engagement is conscious – i.e. one that defines so...

  18. Lord Kelvin's atmospheric electricity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Harrison, R. Giles; Trainer, Matthew; Hough, James

    2013-04-01

    Lord Kelvin (William Thomson), one of the greatest Victorian scientists, made a substantial but little-recognised contribution to geophysics through his work on atmospheric electricity. He developed sensitive instrumentation for measuring the atmospheric electric field, including invention of a portable electrometer, which made mobile measurements possible for the first time. Kelvin's measurements of the atmospheric electric field in 1859, made during development of the portable electrometer, can be used to deduce the substantial levels of particulate pollution blown over the Scottish island of Arran from the industrial mainland. Kelvin was also testing the electrometer during the largest solar flare ever recorded, the "Carrington event" in the late summer of 1859. Subsequently, Lord Kelvin also developed a water dropper sensor, and employed photographic techniques for "incessant recording" of the atmospheric electric field, which led to the long series of measurements recorded at UK observatories for the remainder of the 19th and much of the 20th century. These data sets have been valuable in both studies of historical pollution and cosmic ray effects on atmospheric processes.

  19. Computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A complete introduction to the field of computational physics, with examples and exercises in the Python programming language. Computers play a central role in virtually every major physics discovery today, from astrophysics and particle physics to biophysics and condensed matter. This book explains the fundamentals of computational physics and describes in simple terms the techniques that every physicist should know, such as finite difference methods, numerical quadrature, and the fast Fourier transform. The book offers a complete introduction to the topic at the undergraduate level, and is also suitable for the advanced student or researcher who wants to learn the foundational elements of this important field.

  20. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  1. GCM simulations of cold dry Snowball Earth atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, A.; Held, I.; Marotzke, J.

    2009-12-01

    We use the full-physics atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 to investigate cold and virtually dry Snowball Earth atmospheres. These result from specifying sea ice as the surface boundary condition everywhere, corresponding to a frozen aquaplanet, while keeping total solar irradiance at its present-day value of 1365 Wm-2 and setting atmospheric carbon dioxide to 300 ppmv. Here, we present four simulations corresponding to the four possible combinations of enabled or disabled diurnal and seasonal cycles. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we focus on the zonal-mean circulation of Snowball Earth atmospheres, which, due to missing moisture, might constitute an ideal though yet unexplored testbed for theories of atmospheric dynamics. Second, we investigate tropical surface temperatures with an emphasis on the impact of the diurnal and seasonal cycles. This will indicate whether the presence of the diurnal or seasonal cycle would facilitate or anticipate the escape from Snowball Earth conditions when total solar irradiance or atmospheric CO2 levels were increased. The dynamics of the tropical circulation in Snowball Earth atmospheres differs substantially from that in the modern atmosphere. The analysis of the mean zonal momentum budget reveals that the mean flow meridional advection of absolute vorticity is primarily balanced by vertical diffusion of zonal momentum. The contribution of eddies is found to be even smaller than the contribution of mean flow vertical advection of zonal momentum, the latter being usually neglected in theories for the Hadley circulation, at least in its upper tropospheric branch. Suppressing vertical diffusion of horizontal momentum above 850 hPa leads to a stronger Hadley circulation. This behaviour cannot be understood from axisymmetric models of the atmosphere, nor idealized atmospheric general circulation models, which both predict a weakening of the Hadley circulation when the vertical viscosity is decreased globally. We

  2. Study of the atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the Frejus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdereau, O.

    1989-05-01

    The behavior of atmospheric neutrinos is investigated. It is a zero mass, zero charge and weak interacting particle. The aim of the investigation is to search for non standard phenomena, such as neutrino oscillations. The neutrino theoretical properties are discussed and the physical parameters experimental limits are recalled. The analysis of the approximately 200 events from atmospheric neutrinos observed in Frejus detector is carried out. The results and simulation of neutrino interactions are presented. The data analysis induces to the exclusion of neutrino oscillation hypothesis from some models. Three cases of oscillations involving two neutrino flavors are analyzed. The effect of a third flavor is also taken into account. The present data and those from IMB and Kamiokande experiments are compared. Topics involving investigations on the superposition of a signal and the atmospheric neutrinos are included [fr

  3. An assessment of worldwide energy-related atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Energy-related emissions of atmospheric pollutants are currently suspected as the source of a number of major environmental problems. Early concerns about local and regional air quality and respiratory health risks, greatly alleviated in the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by the use of tall stacks, have been superseded by ''global problems,'' such as acidification of the biosphere, increase in tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), visibility impairment, long-term exposure to toxic pollutants, and buildup of ''greenhouse gases''. Chapter 1 assesses the sources and physical/chemical atmospheric processes of energy-related atmospheric pollution (ERAP). It is not an exhaustive review but rather a documented statement of the state-of-art knowledge on issues critical to effective environmental decision-making. Chapter 2 looks at the effects on man, the environment and materials, and chapter 3 presents an overview and policy options. (author)

  4. HTO deposition by vapor exchange between atmosphere and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnenberg, C.

    1989-01-01

    HTO deposition to soils occurs by vapor exchange between atmosphere and soil-air, when the concentration gradient is directed downwards, and it is principally independent from simultaneous transport of H 2 O. In relatively dry top soil, which is frequently the case, as it tries to attain equilibrium with the air humidity, HTO diffuses into deeper soil driven by the same mechanisms that caused the deposition process. The resulting HTO profile is depending on the atmospheric supply and the soil physical conditions, and it is the source for further tritium pathways, namely root uptake by plants and reemission from soil back into the ground-level air. Simulation experiments with soil columns exposed to HTO labeled atmospheres have proved the theoretical expectation that under certain boundary conditions the HTO profile can be described by an error function. The key parameter is the effective diffusion coefficient, which in turn is a function of the sorption characteristics of the particular soil. (orig.) [de

  5. Structural aspects of the atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaxo Netto, P.E.; Orsini, C.M.Q.

    1982-01-01

    The results presented on this paper may be considered as complementary to the ones published on two previous papers about the natural atmospheric aerosol of the Amazon Basin, and the effects, on these physical-chemical systems of the large scale brushfires carried out from time to time on that region. The experiments have been performed in August-September, 1980, simultaneously to the ones of the 'Projeto Queimadas - 1980' promoted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research from the U.S.A.. The new results here in presented are size distribution concentration data as log-probability curves for the detected tracer-elements; from these curves, by introducing a new technique, is was possible to derive the corresponding log-normal curves. These last curves can be used conveniently to characterize the atmospheric aerosol system which is under investigation. (Author) [pt

  6. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P K; Hewitt, C N; Wildt, J; Blande, J D; Eller, A S D; Fares, S; Gentner, D R; Gilman, J B; Graus, M; Greenberg, J; Guenther, A B; Hansel, A; Harley, P; Huang, M; Jardine, K; Karl, T; Kaser, L; Keutsch, F N; Kiendler-Scharr, A; Kleist, E; Lerner, B M; Li, T; Mak, J; Nölscher, A C; Schnitzhofer, R; Sinha, V; Thornton, B; Warneke, C; Wegener, F; Werner, C; Williams, J; Worton, D R; Yassaa, N; Goldstein, A H

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

  7. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clément, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  8. Foundations of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter J.; Iza, Felipe; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas have been intensively studied over the past century in the context of material processing, environmental remediation, ozone generation, excimer lamps and plasma display panels. Research on atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas intensified over the last two decades leading to a large variety of plasma sources that have been developed for an extended application range including chemical conversion, medicine, chemical analysis and disinfection. The fundamental understanding of these discharges is emerging but there remain a lot of unexplained phenomena in these intrinsically complex plasmas. The properties of non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure span over a huge range of electron densities as well as heavy particle and electron temperatures. This paper provides an overview of the key underlying processes that are important for the generation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas. The unique physical and chemical properties of theses discharges are also summarized.

  9. Coupling atmospheric and ocean wave models for storm simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting

    the atmosphere must, by conservation, result in the generation of the surface waves and currents. The physics-based methods are sensitive to the choice of wind-input source function (Sin), parameterization of high-frequency wave spectra tail, and numerical cut-off frequencies. Unfortunately, literature survey......This thesis studies the wind-wave interactions through the coupling between the atmospheric model and ocean surface wave models. Special attention is put on storm simulations in the North Sea for wind energy applications in the coastal zones. The two aspects, namely storm conditions and coastal...... shows that in most wind-wave coupling systems, either the Sin in the wave model is different from the one used for the momentum flux estimation in the atmospheric model, or the methods are too sensitive to the parameterization of high-frequency spectra tail and numerical cut-off frequencies. To confront...

  10. Upper atmosphere research at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemesha, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Upper atmosphere research at INPE is mainly concerned with the chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere, upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and the middle thermosphere. Experimental work includes lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol, measurements of stratospheric ozone by Dobson spectrophotometers and by balloon and rocket-borne sondes, lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium, and photometric observations of O, O 2 , OH and Na emissions, including interferrometric measurements of the OI6300 emission for the purpose of determing thermospheric winds and temperature. The airglow observations also include measurements of a number of emissions produced by the precipitation of energetic neutral particles generated by charge exchange in the ring current. Some recent results of INPE's upper atmosphere program are presented. (Author) [pt

  11. An archetype hydrogen atmosphere problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, R. G.; Mihalas, D.; Shine, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Populations for the first three bound states and the continuum of hydrogen are determined for an isothermal hydrostatic atmosphere at 20,000 K. The atmosphere is treated as optically thin in the Balmer and Paschen continua and illuminated by continuum radiation at these wavelengths with prescribed radiation temperatures. The atmosphere is optically thick in the 2-1, 3-1, 3-2 and c-1 transitions. Three stages of approximation are treated: (1) radiative detailed balance in the 2-1, 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, (2) radiative detailed balance in the 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, and (3) all transitions out of detailed balance. The solution of this problem is nontrivial and presents sufficient difficulty to have caused the failure of at least one rather standard technique. The problem is thus a good archetype against which new methods or new implementations of old methods may be tested.

  12. An archetype hydrogen atmosphere problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athay, R.G.; Mihalas, D.; Shine, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Populations for the first three bound states and the continuum of hydrogen are determined for an isothermal, hydrostatic atmosphere at 20000K. The atmosphere is treated as being optically thin in the Balmer and Paschen continua and illuminated by continuum radiation at these wavelengths with prescribed radiation temperatures. The atmosphere is optically thick in the 2-1,3-1,3-2 and c-1 transitions. Three stages of approximation are treated: (1) radiative detailed balance in the 2-1, 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, (2) radiative detailed balance in the 3-1 and 3-2 transitions, and (3) all transitions out of detailed balance. The solution of this problem is non-trivial, and presents sufficient difficulty to have caused failure of at least one rather standard technique. The problem is thus a good archetype against which new methods, or new implementations of old methods may be tested. (Auth.)

  13. Atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper the current knowledge of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are reviewed making use of the extensive telescopic studies, International Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite observations and the measurements made during the recent Pioneer and Voyager flybys which have been supported by detailed theoretical studies. A detailed discussion is given of the composition of these atmospheres and the abundance ratios which provide insight into their original state and their evolution. The Voyager observations indicate a surprisingly close similarity between the weather systems of the Earth and the giant planets. Although both Jupiter and Saturn have internal heat sources, and are therefore star-like in their interiors, they appear to produce terrestrial-style weather systems. A detailed discussion is given of this work, which forms a major study of the Laboratory for Planetary Atmospheres at University College London. (author)

  14. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  15. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  16. Review of investigations of atmospheric contamination carried out in the USSR from 1975 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styro, B.I.

    1980-01-01

    A brief characteristic of main directions of atmospherical contamination is given. A bibliographic list of articles and books, published in the USSR during 1975-1978 is presented. Atmospherical contamination study was carried out within the wide range of problems during this period. They are: both artificial and natural radioactive substances, the behaviour of these substances in the atmosphere and their application as tracers for a number of processes of atmospheric physics. Attention was paid to the study of radon fission products ( 222 Rn, 210 Pb, 210 Bi, 210 Po) behaviour in the atmosphere, of the ratio between 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce concentrations in surface air during the first months after nuclear explosion, to the study of radioactive fallout and washout of radionuclides from the atmosphere, of cosmic ray produced radionuclides, 85 Kr concentration as a product of the nuclear power production development. Serious attention was also paid to methodics problems referring measurements and sampling [ru

  17. Ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of carbon in a heathland under future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang

    understanding plant and soil responses to such changes are necessary, as ecosystems potentially can ameliorate or accelerate global change. To predict the feedback of ecosystems to the atmospheric CO2 concentrations experiments imitating global change effects are therefore an important tool. This work....... Fluxes of CO2 from soil to atmosphere depend on a physical equilibrium between those two medias, why it is important to keep the CO2 gradient between soil and atmosphere unchanged during measurement. Uptake to plants via photosynthesis depends on a physiological process, which depends strongly...... on the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Photosynthesis and respiration run in parallel during measurements of net ecosystem exchange, and these measurements should therefore be performed with care to both the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the CO2 soil-atmosphere gradient....

  18. Future of Atmospheric Neutrino Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of large θ 13 has opened up the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and θ 23 octant through earth matter effects. The atmospheric neutrinos pick up large earth matter effects both in the ν e and ν μ channels, which if observed could lead to the determination of the mass hierarchy and θ 23 octant using this class of experiments in the near future. In this talk I review the status and prospects of future atmospheric neutrino measurements in determining the mass hierarchy and octant of θ 23

  19. Atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U

    2004-01-01

    Major industrial plasma processes operating close to atmospheric pressure are discussed. Applications of thermal plasmas include electric arc furnaces and plasma torches for generation of powders, for spraying refractory materials, for cutting and welding and for destruction of hazardous waste. Other applications include miniature circuit breakers and electrical discharge machining. Non-equilibrium cold plasmas at atmospheric pressure are obtained in corona discharges used in electrostatic precipitators and in dielectric-barrier discharges used for generation of ozone, for pollution control and for surface treatment. More recent applications include UV excimer lamps, mercury-free fluorescent lamps and flat plasma displays

  20. Plume spread and atmospheric stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The horizontal spread of a plume in atmospheric dispersion can be described by the standard deviation of horizontal direction. The widely used Pasquill-Gifford classes of atmospheric stability have assigned typical values of the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction and of the lapse rate. A measured lapse rate can thus be used to estimate the standard deviation of wind direction. It is examined by means of a large dataset of fast wind measurements how good these estimates are. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  1. Baseline atmospheric program Australia 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs

  2. Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.

  3. Review: the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1994-10-01

    An overview is given of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over both continental and ocean surfaces, mainly from observational and modelling perspectives. Much is known about ABL structure over homogeneous land surfaces, but relatively little so far as the following are concerned, (i) the cloud-topped ABL (over the sea predominantly); (ii) the strongly nonhomogeneous and nonstationary ABL; (iii) the ABL over complex terrain. These three categories present exciting challenges so far as improved understanding of ABL behaviour and improved representation of the ABL in numerical models of the atmosphere are concerned.

  4. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  5. Radiotherapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Lyman, J.T.; Pitluck, S.

    1982-01-01

    The Radiotherapy Physics Group works on the physical and biophysical aspects of charged particle radiotherapy. Our activities include the development of isosurvival beams (beams of uniform biological effect), computerized treatment planning development for charged particle radiotherapy, design of compensation to shape dose distributions, and development of dosimetry techniques to verify planned irradiations in both phantoms and patients

  6. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, B.

    1991-01-01

    This general book describes the change from classical physics to quantum physics. The first part presents atom evolution since antiquity and introduces fundamental quantities and elements of relativity. Experiments which have contributed to the evolution of knowledge on matter are analyzed in the second part. Applications of wave mechanics to the study of matter properties are presented in the third part [fr

  7. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  8. Imagined Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy Robert; Nørgaard, M.; Laursen, C.

    2015-01-01

    to this book focuses on the human responses to objects that change shape in response to input from users, environment, or other circumstances. In this chapter we discuss the term "imagined physics", meaning how actuated devices are in one sense tied to their physical form, yet through the use of actuators...

  9. Observation of Atmospheric Constituents From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. P.

    Remote sensing of the atmosphere from space is a growing research field. Surprisingly but for good physical reasons, the mesosphere and stratosphere are easier to probe from space than the troposphere. GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) are related European instruments, which were proposed and been designed to measure atmospheric constituents (gases, aerosols and clouds) by passive remote sensing of the up-welling solar radiation leaving atmosphere. GOME is a smaller version of SCIAMACHY and was launched as part of the core payload of the second European research satellite (ERS-2) on the 20th April 1995. GOME comprises four spectral channels and measures simultaneously the earthshine radiance or solar extra terrestrial irradiance between 240 and 790 nm. Inversion of GOME measurements using the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) yields the total column of trace gases (e.g. O3, NO2, HCHO, BrO and OClO). Application of the FURM (Full Retrieval Method) enables the profiles of O3 to be retrieved. One of the important achievements of GOME has been the separation of tropopsheirc columns of trace gases using TEM (Tropospheric Excess Method). SCIAMACHY has been developed as Germa n, Dutch and Belgian contribution to ENVISAT. It has significantly enhanced capability compared to GOME, measuring a larger spectral range, 220-2380 nm, and observing in alternate nadir and limb modes as well as solar and lunar occultation. ENVISAT is to be launched into a sun synchronous polar orbit, having an equator crossing time of 10.00 a.m. at the beginning of March 2002. SCIAMACHY is thereby able to measure many more species and vertical profiles than GOME. This facilitates improved tropospheric retrievals. Finally GeoTROPE (Geostationary TROPospheric Explorer) is a new mission, which is proposed for launch within the ESA Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission. It comprises two national

  10. Impact of Atmospheric Albedo on Amazon Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, A. V.; Thompson, S. E.; Dracup, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The vulnerability of the Amazon region to climate and anthropogenic driven disturbances has been the subject of extensive research efforts, given its importance in the global and regional climate and ecologic systems. The evaluation of such vulnerabilities requires the proper understanding of physical mechanisms controlling water and energy balances and how the disturbances change them. Among those mechanisms, the effects of atmospheric albedo on evapotranspiration have not been fully explored yet and are explored in this study. Evapotranspiration in the Amazon is sustained at high levels across all seasons and represents a large fraction of water and energy surface budgets. In this study, statistical analysis of data from four flux towers installed at Amazon primary forest sites was employed to quantify the impact of atmospheric albedo, mostly resulted from cloudiness, on evapotranspiration and to compare it to the effect of water limitation. Firstly, the difference in eddy-flux derived evapotranspiration at the flux towers under rainy and non-rainy antecedent conditions was tested for significance. Secondly, the same statistical comparison was performed under cloudy and clear sky conditions at hourly and daily time scales, using the reduction in incoming solar radiation as an indicator of cloudiness. Finally, the sensitivity of seasonal evapotranspiration totals to atmospheric albedo resulted from rainfall patterns is evaluated. That was done by sampling daily evapotranspiration estimates from empirical probability distribution functions conditioned to rainfall occurrence and then varying the number of dry days in each season. It was found that light limitation is much more important than water limitation in the Amazon, resulting in up to 43% reduction in daily evapotranspiration. Also, this effect varies by location and by season, the largest impact being in wet season, from December do January. Moreover, seasonal evapotranspiration totals were found to be

  11. Space plasma physics stationary processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...

  12. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  13. Modeling Effectivity of Atmospheric Advection-Diffusion Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brojewski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Some methods of solving the advection-diffusion problems useful in the field of atmospheric physics are presented and analyzed in the paper. The most effective one ( from the point of view of computer applications) was chosen. This is the method of problem decomposition with respect to the directions followed by secondary decomposition of the problem with respect to the physical phenomena. Introducing some corrections to the classical numerical methods of solving the problems, a hybrid composed of the finite element method for the advection problems and the implicit method with averaging for the diffusion processes was achieved. This hybrid method and application of the corrections produces a very effective means for solving the problems of substance transportation in atmosphere. (author)

  14. The Progress of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Introduction; 1. Scope of lectures. State of physics in 1875. Science of energy. Theory of gases. Elastic solid theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electricity. Training of students. Maxwell's view. Accurate measurement and discovery of Argon. German methods. Kirchhoff's laboratory. Wilhelm Weber's laboratory. The two laboratories of Berlin. Laboratory instruction at Manchester. Position of physics in mathematical tripos at Cambridge. Todhunter's views. The Cavendish laboratory. Spectrum analysis. The radiometer. Theory of vortex atom; 2. Action at a distance. Elastic solid of theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electrical action. Electro-magnetic theory. Verification of electromagnetic theory by Hertz. Electro-magnetic waves. Wireless telegraphy. First suggestion of molecular structure of electricity. Early experiments in the electric discharge through gases. Kathode rays. Works of Goldstein and Crookes. Hittorf's investigations. Own work on the discharge through gases. Ionization of gases. Magnetic deflexion of kathode rays. J. J. Thomson's experiments. Measurement of atomic charge; 3. Roentgen's discovery. Theories of Roentgen rays. Ionizing power of Roentgen rays. Conduction of electricity through ionized gases. Discovery of radio-activity. Discovery of radium. Magnetic deflexion of rays emitted by radio-active bodies. Discovery of emanations. Theory of radio-active change. Decay of the atom. Connexion between helium and the a ray. Helium produced by radium. Strutt's researches on helium accumulated in rocks. Electric inertia. Constitution of atom. J. J. Thomson's theory of Roentgen radiation. The Michelson-Morley experiment. Principle of relativity. The Zeeman effect. Other consequences of electron theory. Contrast between old and modern school of physics; 4. Observational sciences. Judgment affected by scale. Terrestrial magnetism. Existence of potential. Separation of internal and external causes. Diurnal variation. Magnetic storms. Their causes. Solar

  15. Clouds and Hazes in Exoplanet Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Marley, Mark S.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Kitzmann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Clouds and hazes are commonplace in the atmospheres of solar system planets and are likely ubiquitous in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets as well. Clouds affect every aspect of a planetary atmosphere, from the transport of radiation, to atmospheric chemistry, to dynamics and they influence - if not control - aspects such as surface temperature and habitability. In this review we aim to provide an introduction to the role and properties of clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. We consider t...

  16. Physical effects of thermonuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1984-01-01

    The detonation of nuclear weapons gives rise to the following: blast wave; thermal wave; initial radiation (neutrons and gamma-rays); local radioactive fallout; global radioactive fallout; electromagnetic pulse; atmospheric disturbances. Some of these phenomena became known only as a result of the use or testing of bombs and are not as yet fully understood. They produce physical or biological effects or both, almost all of which are directly detrimental to human health. Some are likely to damage the environment

  17. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  18. Diffusional limits to the consumption of atmospheric methane by soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Net transport of atmospheric gases into and out of soil systems is primarily controlled by diffusion along gas partial pressure gradients. Gas fluxes between soil and the atmosphere can therefore be estimated by a generalization of the equation for ordinary gaseous diffusion in porous unsaturated media. Consumption of CH4 by methylotrophic bacteria in the top several centimeters of soil causes the uptake of atmospheric CH4 by aerated soils. The capacity of the methylotrophs to consume CH4 commonly exceeds the potential of CH4 to diffuse from the atmosphere to the consumers. The maximum rate of uptake of atmospheric CH4 by soil is, therefore, limited by diffusion and can be calculated from soil physical properties and the CH4 concentration gradient. The CH4 concentration versus depth profile is theoretically described by the equation for gaseous diffusion with homogeneous chemical reaction in porous unsaturated media. This allows for calculation of the in situ rate of CH4 consumption within specified depth intervals.

  19. Atmospheric Photooxidation Products and Chemistry of Current-use Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murschell, T.; Farmer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural, commercial, and residential applications across the United States. Pesticides can volatilize off targets and travel long distances, with atmospheric lifetimes determined by both physical and chemical loss processes. In particular, oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) can reduce the lifetime and thus atmospheric transport of pesticides, though the rates and oxidation products of atmospheric pesticide oxidation are poorly understood. Here, we investigate reactions of current-use pesticides with OH. MCPA, triclopyr, and fluroxypyr are herbicides that are often formulated together to target broadleaf weeds. We detect these species in the gas-phase using real-time high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) with both acetate and iodide reagent ions. We used an Oxidative Flow Reactor to explore OH radical oxidation and photolysis of these compounds, simulating up to 5 equivalent days of atmospheric aging by OH. Use of two ionization schemes allowed for the more complete representation of the OH radical oxidation of the three pesticides. The high resolution mass spectra allows us to deduce structures of the oxidation products and identify multi-generational chemistry. In addition, we observe nitrogen oxides, as well as isocyanic acid (HNCO), from some nitrogen-containing pesticides. We present yields of species of atmospheric importance, including NOx and halogen species and consider their impact on air quality following pesticide application.

  20. Atmospheric particle formation in spatially and temporally varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauros, J.

    2011-07-01

    Atmospheric particles affect the radiation balance of the Earth and thus the climate. New particle formation from nucleation has been observed in diverse atmospheric conditions but the actual formation path is still unknown. The prevailing conditions can be exploited to evaluate proposed formation mechanisms. This study aims to improve our understanding of new particle formation from the view of atmospheric conditions. The role of atmospheric conditions on particle formation was studied by atmospheric measurements, theoretical model simulations and simulations based on observations. Two separate column models were further developed for aerosol and chemical simulations. Model simulations allowed us to expand the study from local conditions to varying conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer, while the long-term measurements described especially characteristic mean conditions associated with new particle formation. The observations show statistically significant difference in meteorological and back-ground aerosol conditions between observed event and non-event days. New particle formation above boreal forest is associated with strong convective activity, low humidity and low condensation sink. The probability of a particle formation event is predicted by an equation formulated for upper boundary layer conditions. The model simulations call into question if kinetic sulphuric acid induced nucleation is the primary particle formation mechanism in the presence of organic vapours. Simultaneously the simulations show that ignoring spatial and temporal variation in new particle formation studies may lead to faulty conclusions. On the other hand, the theoretical simulations indicate that short-scale variations in temperature and humidity unlikely have a significant effect on mean binary water sulphuric acid nucleation rate. The study emphasizes the significance of mixing and fluxes in particle formation studies, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. The further

  1. Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes elsewhere in the world. Reliable projections of the future atmosphere require models to not only accurately describe current atmospheric concentrations, but to do so by representing chemical, physical and biological processes with conceptual and quantitative fidelity. Only through incorporation of the processes controlling emissions and chemical mechanisms that represent the key transformations among reactive molecules can models reliably project the impacts of future policy, energy and climate scenarios. Efforts to properly identify and implement the fundamental and controlling mechanisms in atmospheric models benefit from intensive observation periods, during which collocated measurements of diverse, speciated chemicals in both the gas and condensed phases are obtained. The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS, including SENEX, SOAS, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS conducted during the summer of 2013 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the atmospheric modeling community to come together to evaluate, diagnose and improve the representation of fundamental climate and air quality processes in models of varying temporal and spatial scales.This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models. The effort focused primarily on model representation of fundamental atmospheric processes that are essential to the formation of ozone, secondary organic aerosol (SOA and other trace species in the troposphere, with the ultimate goal of understanding the radiative impacts of these species in the southeast and

  2. Sedimentation Efficiency of Condensation Clouds in Substellar Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peter; Marley, Mark S.; Ackerman, Andrew S.

    2018-03-01

    Condensation clouds in substellar atmospheres have been widely inferred from spectra and photometric variability. Up until now, their horizontally averaged vertical distribution and mean particle size have been largely characterized using models, one of which is the eddy diffusion–sedimentation model from Ackerman and Marley that relies on a sedimentation efficiency parameter, f sed, to determine the vertical extent of clouds in the atmosphere. However, the physical processes controlling the vertical structure of clouds in substellar atmospheres are not well understood. In this work, we derive trends in f sed across a large range of eddy diffusivities (K zz ), gravities, material properties, and cloud formation pathways by fitting cloud distributions calculated by a more detailed cloud microphysics model. We find that f sed is dependent on K zz , but not gravity, when K zz is held constant. f sed is most sensitive to the nucleation rate of cloud particles, as determined by material properties like surface energy and molecular weight. High surface energy materials form fewer, larger cloud particles, leading to large f sed (>1), and vice versa for materials with low surface energy. For cloud formation via heterogeneous nucleation, f sed is sensitive to the condensation nuclei flux and radius, connecting cloud formation in substellar atmospheres to the objects’ formation environments and other atmospheric aerosols. These insights could lead to improved cloud models that help us better understand substellar atmospheres. For example, we demonstrate that f sed could increase with increasing cloud base depth in an atmosphere, shedding light on the nature of the brown dwarf L/T transition.

  3. Potential Trace Metal–Organic Complexation in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Okochi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible that metal–organic complexation enhances the uptake of gaseous organic compounds and the solubility of metals in aerosols and atmospheric water. We investigated potential atmospheric organic ligands and the enhanced uptake of hydroxy-, oxo-, and dicarboxylic acids as well as dicarbonyls into atmospheric aqueous aerosol. We examined complexation with transition metals (iron, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc and lead on the basis of available references and our experimental data. Humic-like substances are most likely ligands in the atmosphere, although this is a poorly characterized material. A number of polycarboxylic acids and hydroxy forms (e.g., citric and tartronic acids effectively complex metals such as copper in atmospheric aerosols. The simple equilibrium model calculations show that the effect of the complexation on the gas–aqueous phase partition of gaseous atmospheric ligands is quite small for the ligands with the high physical Henry’s law constants, e.g., dicarboxylic acids represented by oxalic acid, even if they have high affinity with metal ions. The lower Henry’s law constants of the α-dicarbonyls, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, mean that the complexation could lead to profound increases in their partition into the aqueous phase. Despite quantum mechanical arguments for copper–glyoxal complexes, experiments showed no evidence of complexation between either hydrated or unhydrated α-dicarbonyls and the cupric ion. By contrast the β-dicarbonyl, malondialdehyde, has properties that would allow it to partition into atmospheric water via the complexation with metal ions under some conditions.

  4. Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingqiu; Carlton, Annmarie; Cohen, Ronald C.; Brune, William H.; Brown, Steven S.; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pye, Havala O. T.; Ng, Nga Lee; Xu, Lu; McNeill, V. Faye; Tsigaridis, Kostas; McDonald, Brian C.; Warneke, Carsten; Guenther, Alex; Alvarado, Matthew J.; de Gouw, Joost; Mickley, Loretta J.; Leibensperger, Eric M.; Mathur, Rohit; Nolte, Christopher G.; Portmann, Robert W.; Unger, Nadine; Tosca, Mika; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2018-02-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes) elsewhere in the world. Reliable projections of the future atmosphere require models to not only accurately describe current atmospheric concentrations, but to do so by representing chemical, physical and biological processes with conceptual and quantitative fidelity. Only through incorporation of the processes controlling emissions and chemical mechanisms that represent the key transformations among reactive molecules can models reliably project the impacts of future policy, energy and climate scenarios. Efforts to properly identify and implement the fundamental and controlling mechanisms in atmospheric models benefit from intensive observation periods, during which collocated measurements of diverse, speciated chemicals in both the gas and condensed phases are obtained. The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS, including SENEX, SOAS, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS) conducted during the summer of 2013 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the atmospheric modeling community to come together to evaluate, diagnose and improve the representation of fundamental climate and air quality processes in models of varying temporal and spatial scales.This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models. The effort focused primarily on model representation of fundamental atmospheric processes that are essential to the formation of ozone, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and other trace species in the troposphere, with the ultimate goal of understanding the radiative impacts of these species in the southeast and elsewhere. Here we

  5. Electron and proton kinetics and dynamics in flaring atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Zharkova, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    This timely book presents new research results on high-energy particle physics related to solar flares, covering the theory and applications of the reconnection process in a clear and comprehensible way. It investigates particle kinetics and dynamics in flaring atmospheres and their diagnostics from spectral observations, while providing an analysis of the observation data and techniques and comparing various models. Written by an internationally acclaimed expert, this is vital reading for all solar, astro-, and plasma physicists working in the field.

  6. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  7. Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K

    1991-01-01

    The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.

  8. Glacial ocean circulation and stratification explained by reduced atmospheric temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Malte F.

    2016-01-01

    To understand climatic swings between glacial and interglacial climates we need to explain the observed fluctuations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), which in turn are most likely driven by changes in the deep ocean circulation. This study presents a model for differences in the deep ocean circulation between glacial and interglacial climates consistent with both our physical understanding and various proxy observations. The results suggest that observed changes in ocean circulation and s...

  9. Flavorful Ways to New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The workshop is intended to bring together young PhD students and postdocs with international renown representatives of the field of flavor physics. The workshop is specifically intended for PhD students and young postdocs. The overview talks about four big topics in flavor physics are given by international experts. The informal atmosphere should lead to fruitful discussions between the young and the experienced scientists. Furthermore, the participants themselves are invited to present their own work. Thus all young academics will get insights into selected fields of current research.

  10. Aerosols, cloud physics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of climate physics are discussed with special attention given to cases where cloud physics is relevant for the phase and microstructure of clouds and, therefore, in the optical properties of the planet. It is argued that aerosol particles, through their strong effect on cloud microphysics, influence the shortwave energy input to earth, and that cloud microphysics strongly influence rain formation. Therefore, through their influence on microphysics, the aerosols play a central role in the atmospheric water cycle and, thus, on the planet's outgoing radiation. 20 refs

  11. Environmental factor atmosphere. Umweltfaktor Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogosjan, C P

    1981-01-01

    This book presents chapters on constitution of atmosphere, sun energy, air temperature, ocean-currents and heat transfer, annual specialities of pressure field, low and high pressure areas, hurricanes, formation of clouds and rainfall, climate variations, weather and weather forecast, artificial influence of weather and climate.

  12. Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Radiometry Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-27

    structure of the atmosphere would be very important. Rufton [20] combined thermal sensor technology for microthermal measurements with radiosonde...fromT2 h n relationships with CT(h) at least for optical effects. Bufton obtained the mean-square temperature difference between two microthermal probes

  13. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  14. Exploring the Atmosphere Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Martin; Vogt, Patrik; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the inner layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, are determinant for Earth's life. In this experience we explore the first hundreds of meters using a smartphone mounted on a quadcopter. Both the altitude and the pressure are obtained using the smartphone's sensors. We complement these measures with data collected from the…

  15. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  16. the Martian atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2011-01-01

    . This portion of the atmosphere is extremely important, both scientifically and operationally, because it is the region within which surface lander spacecraft must operate and also determines exchanges of heat, momentum, dust, water, and other tracers between surface and subsurface reservoirs and the free...

  17. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  18. Atmospheric Research 2011 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of Atmospheric Research. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report.

  19. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bremer, J.; Laštovička, Jan; Mikhailov, A. V.; Altadill, D.; Pal, B.; Burešová, Dalia; Franceschi de, G.; Jacobi, C.; Kouris, S. S.; Perrone, L.; Turunen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 273-299 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * trends * atmospheric waves * ionospheric variability * incoherent radar * space weather Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009

  20. TEACHING PHYSICS: Teaching particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Phil

    2000-09-01

    Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students.