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Sample records for atmospheric particulate matter

  1. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the atmospheric particulate matter (PM) was sampled using the tapered element oscillating microbalance, and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) were used for determination of elemental ...

  2. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Longo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  3. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Amelia F.; Vine, David J.; King, Laura E.; Oakes, Michelle; Weber, Rodney J.; Huey, Lewis Gregory; Russell, Armistead G.; Ingall, Ellery D.

    2016-10-01

    The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm) analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  4. Chemical Characterization of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, M.; Kirpes, R.; Moffett, C. E.; Sheesley, R. J.; Pratt, K.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is impacting the Arctic, leading to increasing temperatures and decreasing summer sea ice coverage which has allowed for increased oil and gas extraction activities. Prudhoe Bay is currently the second highest source of particulate matter from oil and gas extraction in the Arctic, and 3rd largest oil field in the United States. With drilling operations expected to increase due to the reduced sea ice coverage, these emissions, specifically contributions from black carbon and organic carbon, are expected to continue to increase over the coming decades. Given the complexity and evolving nature of atmospheric particles, as well as the logistical challenges associated with Arctic measurements, many uncertainties remain in our understanding of the impacts of increasing emissions in the Arctic. To investigate the size and chemistry of individual particles emitted from activities within the Prudhoe Bay oil fields in real-time, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed 300 km northwest of Prudhoe Bay to Barrow, AK during August-September 2015 as well as inside the Prudhoe Bay oil fields at Oliktok Point, AK during August-September 2016. During the 2015 measurements, particle number concentrations increased 10 times when under the influence of Prudhoe Bay, primarily from sub-50 nm particles attributed to transported combustion emissions. ATOFMS also identified increased number fractions of soot and organic carbon-sulfate particles (0.2 - 1.5 μm in diameter) when comparing Prudhoe Bay influential periods to Arctic Ocean influential periods. During 2016 measurements, parallel size-resolved number concentration measurements allowed for near-source quantification of number and mass concentrations of particles from the various sources of combustion within the oil fields, including residual fuel, diesel fuel and biomass burning. These measurements represent the first single particle chemical characterization of oil and gas extraction

  5. Source apportionment of atmospheric fine particulate matter collected at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The trends in secondary organic aerosol at a remote location are studied using atmospheric fine particulate matter samples collected at Seney National Wildlife...

  6. Atmospheric lead pollution in fine particulate matter in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuanxun; Tan, Mingguang; Liu, Jiangfeng; Bao, Liangman; Zhang, Guilin; Li, Yan; Iida, Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    The Pb-monitoring program was extended for 6 years from 2002 to 2007 at 17 representative urban sites (6 traffic, 5 industrial, and 6 residential sites), and 3 suburban sites to assess the lead pollution in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) after phasing out leaded gasoline in Shanghai. Compared with Pb levels reported in other places, the Pb pollution in Shanghai is still serious after phasing out leaded gasoline, which remains at high concentration range (213-176 ng/m3) in PM2.5 in winter. Significant spatial variation of Pb concentrations and strong seasonal variation of higher Pb concentration in winter than that in summer were detected. The size distribution of Pb in particulate matter has a unimodal mode that peaks at approximately 0.154-1.59 microm particle diameter, indicating that Pb is mainly concentrated in fine fraction. Lead in the fine fraction is enriched by a factor of 10(3)-10(4) relative to Pb abundance in crust. Eight categories of Pb pollution sources were identified in the PM2.5 in the winter of 2007 in Shanghai. The important emission sources among them are vehicle exhaust derived from combustion of unleaded gasoline, metallurgic industry emission, and coal combustion emission.

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... Measurement of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out with a view to establish the potential influence of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and global radiation on the mass concentration. Particulate matter (PM) in two size ...

  8. Indoor/outdoor relationship of trace metals in the atmospheric particulate matter of an industrial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Rashida; Shaheen, Nazia; Shah, Munir H.

    2011-08-01

    Present study is based on the measurement and monitoring of indoor and outdoor atmospheric particulate matter from an industrial area (Wah Cantt, Pakistan). The particulate samples are collected on glass fiber filter paper using high volume air sampler. Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn) in the particulate samples are estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry. On the average TSP level is significantly higher in outdoor atmosphere than indoor, and both of them are higher than WHO and USEPA standards. The distribution of trace metals is considerably diverse in indoor and outdoor particulates. Average concentrations of Fe, Zn, Co, Cr and Mn are significantly higher in outdoor particulates, whereas Cu and Pb levels are considerably higher in the indoor particulates. Source apportionment carried out by PCA and CA is diverse in indoor/outdoor particulates and the major pollution sources identified are industrial activities, automobile emissions and soil derived dust. Among the trace metals, Cd, Sb, Zn, Pb and Co are found to be highly enriched in the atmospheric particulate matter. The present atmospheric trace metals levels are also compared with those reported from other regions around the world, and are many-folds higher than previously reported results.

  9. Inferring Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentrations from Chinese Social Media Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhu; Kokas, Aynne; Zhang, Rui; Cohan, Daniel S; Wallach, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Although studies have increasingly linked air pollution to specific health outcomes, less well understood is how public perceptions of air quality respond to changing pollutant levels. The growing availability of air pollution measurements and the proliferation of social media provide an opportunity to gauge public discussion of air quality conditions. In this paper, we consider particulate matter (PM) measurements from four Chinese megacities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu) together with 112 million posts on Weibo (a popular Chinese microblogging system) from corresponding days in 2011-2013 to identify terms whose frequency was most correlated with PM levels. These correlations are used to construct an Air Discussion Index (ADI) for estimating daily PM based on the content of Weibo posts. In Beijing, the Chinese city with the most PM as measured by U.S. Embassy monitor stations, we found a strong correlation (R = 0.88) between the ADI and measured PM. In other Chinese cities with lower pollution levels, the correlation was weaker. Nonetheless, our results show that social media may be a useful proxy measurement for pollution, particularly when traditional measurement stations are unavailable, censored or misreported.

  10. The variation of atmospheric particulate matter concentration in the suburb areas over Fuzhou city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weicong; Chen, Ziru; Zhu, Zhipeng; Huang, Shuping; Dong, Jianwen; Ding, Guochang

    2017-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate matter concentration (APMC) and meteorological factor were supervised and analyze the variation and characteristics in Fuzhou National Forest Park. The result showed that: 1) the atmospheric particulate matter concentration is generally low in summer and high in winter, while in spring and autumn, the APMC with different diameters changed between summer and winter. 2) The daily variation of APMC in different seasons has different characteristics; 3) maximum wind speed, average wind speed, air pressure, wet bulb index, thermal index, humidity and temperature were the meteorological factors that affect APMC. Improving the site condition play a positive role on reducing the APMC and enhancing environmental functions.

  11. Atmospheric Particulate Matter Pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, WENTAO; PRIMBS, TOBY; TAO, SHU; ZHU, TONG; SIMONICH, STACI L. MASSEY

    2009-01-01

    Size fractionated particulate matter (PM) samples (including PM2.5 and PM10) were collected at Peking University in Northwestern Beijing, China for a 2 week period prior to the Olympics, during the 2 week period of the Olympics, and for a 4 week period following the 2008 Olympics, during both source control and non-source control period. PM10 concentrations in this study were high correlated with, but a factor of 1.3 times higher than, the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau's PM10 concentrations at near-by sites because of differences in the measurement methods used. The mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were statistically different, and lower by 31 and 35%, during the Olympic period compared to the non-Olympic period. However, the PM concentrations were not statistically different between the source control and non-source control periods. While meteorological parameters (air masses from the south and precipitation) accounted for 40% of the total variation in PM10 concentration, source control accounted for 16%, suggesting that meteorology accounted for more of the variation in PM concentration than source control measures. The PM10 concentrations in Beijing during the Olympic period were 2.9, 3.5, and 1.9 times higher than those in Atlanta, Sydney and Athens. In addition, the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations during the Olympic period exceeded the WHO 24-hour guideline 100% and 81% of the time, respectively. Finally, the PM10 concentrations in October, November, and December 2008 were reduced by 9% to 27% compared to the same months in 2007, suggesting that the Olympic source control efforts (and possibly a down turn in the economy) have resulted in lower PM10 concentrations in Beijing. PMID:19708359

  12. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moukhtar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng μl−1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m−3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m−3.

    In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m−3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m−3 in some samples from a suburban location.

  13. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  14. Seasonal variations in the concentration and solubility of elements in atmospheric particulate matter: a case study in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canepari S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is characterized by a variety of chemical components, generally produced by different sources. Chemical fractionation of elements, namely the determination of their extractable and residual fractions, may reliably increase the selectivity of some elements as tracers of specific PM sources. Seasonal variations of atmospheric particulate matter concentration in PM10 and PM2.5, of elemental concentration in PM10 and PM2.5, of the extractable and residual fraction of elements in different size fractions in the range 0.18 – 18 μm are reported in this paper. The effect of the ageing of the air masses is discussed.

  15. Secondary ion mass spectrometry: The application in the analysis of atmospheric particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Di; Hua, Xin; Xiu, Guang-Li; Zheng, Yong-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Long, Yi-Tao

    2017-10-01

    Currently, considerable attention has been paid to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) investigation due to its importance in human health and global climate change. Surface characterization of PM is important since the chemical heterogeneity between the surface and bulk may vary its impact on the environment and human being. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface technique with high surface sensitivity, capable of high spatial chemical imaging and depth profiling. Recent research shows that SIMS holds great potential in analyzing both surface and bulk chemical information of PM. In this review, we presented the working principal of SIMS in PM characterization, summarized recent applications in PM analysis from different sources, discussed its advantages and limitations, and proposed the future development of this technique with a perspective in environmental sciences.

  16. Microphysical Characteristics of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from NASA’s MODIS, MISR, and AERONET Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, N.; Shokr, M.; Ibrahim, Alaa

    2017-06-01

    We present a comparative study of atmospheric particulate matter (also known as aerosols) observed by satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations. We compare satellite measurements obtained by NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instruments against the ground-based aerosol sun-photometer data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station in Cairo, Egypt from 2003 to 2014 to build a long-term database for climatological studies and to improve upon the accuracy and coverage achievable from the satellite data. We deduce microphysical and geometrical properties about the dominant aerosols based on key optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and Ångström exponent (AE). This has allowed us to place important constraints on the type of aerosols (natural, anthropogenic, and biogenic).

  17. Characterisation of solvent extractable organic constituents in atmospheric particulate matter: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia A. Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of accounting for 10-70% of the atmospheric aerosol mass, particulate-phase organic compounds are not well characterised, and many aspects of aerosol formation and evolution are still unknown. The growing awareness of the impact of particulate aerosols on climate, and the incompletely recognised but serious effects of anthropogenic constituents on air quality and human health, have conducted to several scientific studies. These investigations have provided information about the behaviour of atmospheric particulate matter and the description of the character of its carbonaceous content. The compilation of such results is important as they append to the emergent global-wide dataset of the organic composition of atmospheric aerosols. The contribution of the major emission sources to regional particulate pollution can be diagnosed by using specific molecular markers. This overview is mainly focused on results obtained with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, since it is the analytical method of choice in elucidating the solvent-extractable organic compounds in atmospheric particulate matter. A synopsis of the selection of organic tracers and the application of geochemical parameters to the analysis of organic constituents as a tool for source apportionment is shown here. Besides the assessment of current knowledge, this paper also presents the identification of further areas of concern.Apesar de constituirem 10-70% da massa do aerosol atmosférico, a caracterização dos compostos orgânicos particulados permanece ainda deficitária e vários aspectos relativos à formação e evolução do aerossol são ainda desconhecidos. A crescente preocupação com o impacto do aerosol particulado no clima e os reconhecidos efeitos dos constituintes antropogênicos na qualidade do ar e na saúde humana têm motivado a realização de numerosos estudos. Estas investigações têm fornecido informações relevantes sobre o comportamento

  18. Development of 2-channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR for mapping particulate matter in the atmosphere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors describe the developmentof 2-Channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR system for studying atmospheric particulate matter. The system is currently tested in house at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  19. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  20. A bacterial bioreporter panel to assay the cytotoxicity of atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Nivi; Schauer, James J.; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Melamed, Sahar; Tirosh, Ofir; Belkin, Shimshon; Erel, Yigal

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that elevated concentrations of suspended atmospheric particulate matter (PM) are associated with adverse health effects. In order to minimize the adverse public health effects of atmospheric PM by exposure management, there is a need for a greater understanding of the toxic mechanisms and the components that are responsible for the toxic effects. The aim of this study was to utilize bioassay techniques to investigate these aspects. For this purpose a reporter panel of 9 genetically engineered bacterial (Escherichia coli) strains was composed. Each panel member was designed to report on a different stress condition with a measurable light signal produced by the luciferase enzyme. Toxic mechanisms and components were studied using six anthropogenic PM source samples, including two vehicle combustion particles, three coal fly ash (CFA) samples and an urban dust sample. The most prominent outcome of the panel exposure results were broad panel responses observed for two of the CFA samples, indicating oxidative stress, respiration inhibition and iron deficiency. These responses were relieved when the samples were treated with EDTA, a non-specific metal chelator, suggesting the involvement of metals in the observed effects. Bioavailability analysis of the samples suggests that chromium was related to the toxic responses induced by two of the CFA samples. Oxidative stress was also observed in several samples of ambient atmospheric aerosols and excess metal toxicity in an urban dust sample collected in a parking lot. The reporter panel approach, as demonstrated in this study, has the potential of providing novel insights as to the mechanisms of atmospheric PM toxicity. Furthermore, combining the panel's results with bioavailability data can enlighten about the role of different PM components in the observed toxicity.

  1. Particulate matter and heavy metals in the atmospheric aerosol from Cartagena, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Grau, S.; Pérez-Tornell, A.; Bayo, J.; Moreno, J.; Angosto, J. M.; Moreno-Clavel, J.

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and lead (Pb) concentrations were monitored at three sampling stations in Cartagena, Spain, from February 1990 to December 1998, and copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) atmospheric concentrations were measured from January 1991 to December 1998. TSP and Pb values were analysed from samples collected on glassfibre filters, and the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd were calculated from cellulose ester filters, showing no statistically significant difference (95% C.L.) for Pb analysed in both filter types. The geographical and temporal distribution patterns were investigated. There was a trend to find the highest TSP levels during winter and autumn, and the highest Pb concentrations during the winter season. The Pb/Cd average ratios for each sampling point showed a direct anthropogenic contribution for the industrial areas, when compared with Pb/Cd ratio reported for global natural emissions. The correlation among heavy metals displayed similar results, differing from the residential area to the urban and industrial ones.

  2. Simultaneous atmospheric correction and quantification of suspended particulate matter in the Guadalquivir estuary from Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, M.; Polo, M. J.; Suhyp Salama, Mhd.

    2015-05-01

    Earth observations (EOs) following empirical and/or analytical approaches are a feasible alternative to obtain spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables. The limitations observed in the use of empirical approaches to estimate high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the estuarine water of Guadalquivir have led the authors to use a semi-analytical model, which relates the water constituents' concentration to the water leaving reflectance. In this work, the atmospheric correction has been carried out simultaneously and the aerosol reflectance and backscattering coefficients of SPM obtained. The results are validated using in situ SPM data series provided by a monitoring network in the study area. The results show that the model allows us to successfully estimate backscattering coefficients of SPM in the estuary, differentiating clear and turbid water and using two ɛ(4,5) .These considerations improve the value of R2 from 0.68 (single ɛ(4,5)) to 0.86 (two ɛ( 4,5)) on 18 May 2009. This method could be used as a preliminary approach to obtain SPM concentration in the Guadalquivir estuary with the limitations that the model shows for turbid waters.

  3. Simultaneous atmospheric correction and quantification of suspended particulate matter in the Guadalquivir estuary from Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carpintero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Earth observations (EOs following empirical and/or analytical approaches are a feasible alternative to obtain spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables. The limitations observed in the use of empirical approaches to estimate high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM in the estuarine water of Guadalquivir have led the authors to use a semi-analytical model, which relates the water constituents’ concentration to the water leaving reflectance. In this work, the atmospheric correction has been carried out simultaneously and the aerosol reflectance and backscattering coefficients of SPM obtained. The results are validated using in situ SPM data series provided by a monitoring network in the study area. The results show that the model allows us to successfully estimate backscattering coefficients of SPM in the estuary, differentiating clear and turbid water and using two ε(4,5 .These considerations improve the value of R2 from 0.68 (single ε(4,5 to 0.86 (two ε( 4,5 on 18 May 2009. This method could be used as a preliminary approach to obtain SPM concentration in the Guadalquivir estuary with the limitations that the model shows for turbid waters.

  4. Research on chromium and arsenic speciation in atmospheric particulate matter: short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocoń, Katarzyna; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Widziewicz, Kamila

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in the distribution of elements in the environment. The PM-bound elements penetrates into the other elements of the environment, in two basic forms - those dissolved in the atmospheric precipitation and those permanently bound to PM particles. Those forms differs greatly in their mobility, thus posing a potential threat to living organisms. They can also be an immediate threat, while being inhaled. Chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) belong to the group of elements whose certain chemical states exhibit toxic properties, that is Cr(VI) and As(III). Thus, recognition of the actual threat posed by Cr and As in the environment, including those present in PM, is possible only through the in depth speciation analysis. Research on the Cr and As speciation in PM, more than the analogous studies of their presence in other compartments of the environment, have been undertaken quite rarely. Hence the knowledge on the speciation of PM-bound As and Cr is still limited. The state of knowledge in the field of PM-bound Cr and As is presented in the paper. The issues related to the characterization and occurrence of Cr and As species in PM, the share of Cr and As species mass in different PM size fractions, and in PM of different origin is also summarized. The analytical techniques used in the speciation analysis of PM-bound Cr and As are also discussed. In the existing literature there is no data on the physical characteristics of Cr and As (bound to a different PM size fractions), and thus it still lack of data needed for a comprehensive assessment of the actual environmental and health threat posed by airborne Cr and As.

  5. Synoptic and climatological analysis of atmospheric circulation impacts on particulate matter pollution in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; Fan, S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the particulate matter characteristics within different circulation types (CTs) in the megacity of Shanghai during the period 2001-2015, and provided a quantitative evaluation of atmospheric circulation influences on PM10 pollution across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from local to region and daily to interannual. Ten CTs were identified over the Asian-Pacific region by objective Lamb Weather Type approach and each resulting CT was characterized with distinct local meteorology and air mass source. The PM10 loadings in the CTs associated with continental westerly flow were significant higher than that in the CTs linked to marine easterly air masses. Regional backgrounds that transported by the synoptic flows were more responsible for the distinct PM10 levels in different CTs. The locally-produced PM10 generally stabilized in range of 20-25 μg m-3, but enhanced to 41.2 μg m-3 in case of anticyclone type. There were distinct PM10 trends in different CTs (ranged from -3.74 to -0.28 μg m-3 yr-1), indicating the different background trends. Overall, the PM10 concentrations have decreased (-2.33 μg m-3 yr-1) in the studied period and the estimated locally-produced trend (-0.79 μg m-3 yr-1) accounted for 33.9% of overall downward trend. The occurrence frequency presented an increase (0.15 % yr-1) for anticyclone type, but a decrease (-0.10 % yr-1) for the type N associated with invasion of cold air. The 15-yr frequency change of atmospheric circulation induced an increase in PM­10 level (0.17 μg m-3) in Shanghai. On the contrary, controls on the pollutant emission had always positive effects and hence should be always encouraged.

  6. Molecular composition of sugars in atmospheric particulate matter from interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kim, Yongwon

    2015-04-01

    Sugars can account for 0.5-8% of carbon in atmospheric particulate matter, affecting the earth climate, air quality and public health. Total of 33 total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected from Fairbanks, Alaska in June 2008 to June 2009 using a low volume air sampler. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), primary saccharides (xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and trehalose) and sugar alcohols (erythritol, arabitol, mannitol and inositol). The average contribution of sugars to the organic carbon (OC) was also determined to be 0.92%. Sugar compounds were measured using solvent extraction/TMS-derivatization technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The concentrations of total quantified sugar compounds ranged from 2.3 to 453 ng m-3 (average 145 ng m-3). The highest concentration was recorded for levoglucosan in summer, with a maximum concentration of 790 ng m-3 (average 108 ng m-3). Levoglucosan, which is specifically formed by a pyrolysis of cellulose, has been used as an excellent tracer of biomass burning. The highest level of levoglucosan indicates a significant contribution of biomass burning in ambient aerosols. Galactosan (average 20 ng m-3) and mannosan (average 27 ng m-3), which are also formed through the pyrolysis of cellulose/hemicelluloses, were identified in all samples. The average concentrations of arabitol, mannitol, glucose and sucrose were also found 14.7, 14.6, 14.1 and 16.8 ng m-3, respectively. They have been proposed as tracers for resuspension of surface soil and unpaved road dust, which contain biological materials including fungi and bacteria. These results suggest that there is some impact of bioaerosols on climate over Interior Alaska. We will also measure water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic ions for all samples.

  7. [Particulate matter and atmospheric pollutants exposure for outdoor workers in the Muggia area (Trieste, Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Ranieri; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Cozzutto, Sergio; Barbieri, Gianpiero; Sist, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Urban air pollution originates from traffic, heating and industrial activities and it exposes several categories of workers to noxious chemicals; in recent years various surveys have been carried on taxi drivers, bus drivers, policemen, newspaper kiosks, fuel station workers and general population, for assessing exposure to main contaminants, benzene and PAHs in particular. defining a specific sampling strategy for collecting an experimental data base for the assessment of potential population exposure to atmospheric particulate matter in the Muggia area (Trieste, North-East Italy). A sample of 14 urban police officers working mainly on the roads and potentially subject to occupational exposure has been analyzed, as well as a sample of the municipal administrative personnel (13 people) working in indoor environments during the same sampling periods. Exposure has been monitored by personal samplers and high volume environmental samples; urinary levels of 1 OH-pyrene and creatinine were collected for each participant at the end of each sampling period. PAHs analyses provided diagnostic ratios for identification of the sources of pollution. In general experimental BaP values stay below the environmental target value, with satisfactory agreement between environmental and personal monitoring. Levels of urinary 1 OH-pyrene for administrative personnel was detected always below the background value (0.089 micromoles/mole creatinine), while they are above the background and below the attention value for most of urban police officers. Municipal police officers participating to the present study, while belonging to one of the categories of people most exposed to outdoor PM, do not show any worrying exposure to the considered chemicals associated to their occupational activity, in comparison to other factors, possibly associated to personal lifestyles.

  8. Temporal Variation of Atmospheric Aerosol Particulate Matters and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzir Al Mahmud, , and *

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particulate matters and heavy metal concentrations were measured for the period of August and September 2005 in Dhaka a Southeast Asian Mega City. Particulate matters (PM of different size fractions (TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were collected on the micro fiber filters by placing the PM sampler on the roof of the Mohkarram Hossain Khundhkar Biggan Bhaban at the Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The overall average concentrations of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were 68, 43 and 35 µg m-3, respectively. About 82% particles were from fine fraction (PM2.5 and 18% were from coarse fraction (PM10-2.5, which indicates mechanical processes are one of the main sources for the particulate matters in Dhaka. Heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS for the size fraction of PM10 with highest concentrations recorded for iron (2360 ng m-3 and lowest for copper (28 ng m-3. The average concentration for lead (96 ng m-3 was lower than the WHO guideline value and also lower than the previous measurements in Dhaka. The lower concentration of lead was found presumably due to the official ban of leaded gasoline in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  9. Characterization of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter in Hangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta (YRD is one of the most densely populated regions in China with severe air quality issues that have not been fully understood. Thus, in this study, based on 1-year (2013 continuous measurement at a National Reference Climatological Station (NRCS, 30.22° N, 120.17° E; 41.7 m a.s.l. in the center of Hangzhou in the YRD, we investigated the seasonal characteristics, interspecies relationships, and the local emissions and the regional potential source contributions of trace gases (including O3, NOx, NOy, SO2, and CO and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10. Results revealed that severe two-tier air pollution (photochemical and haze pollution occurred in this region, with frequent exceedances in O3 (38 days and PM2.5 (62 days. O3 and PM2.5 both exhibited distinct seasonal variations with reversed patterns: O3 reaching a maximum in warm seasons (May and July but PM2.5 reaching a maximum in cold seasons (November to January. The overall results from interspecies correlation indicated a strong local photochemistry favoring the O3 production under a volatile organic compound (VOC-limited regime, whereas it moved towards an optimum O3 production zone during warm seasons, accompanied by the formation of secondary fine particulates under high O3. The emission maps of PM2.5, CO, NOx, and SO2 demonstrated that local emissions were significant for these species on a seasonal scale. The contributions from the regional transport among inland cities (Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi Province on a seasonal scale were further confirmed to be crucial to air pollution at the NRCS site by using backward trajectory simulations. Air masses transported from the offshore areas of the Yellow Sea, East Sea, and South Sea were also found to be highly relevant to the elevated O3 at the NRCS site through the analysis of potential source contribution function (PSCF. Case studies of photochemical pollution (O3 and haze (PM2.5 episodes both

  10. [Exploration of a quantitative methodology to characterize the retention of PM2.5 and other atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves: taking Populus tomentosa as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Xi, Ben-Ye; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Jia, Li-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Taking Populus tomentosa as an example, a methodology called elution-weighing-particle size-analysis (EWPA) was proposed to evaluate quantitatively the ability of retaining fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter d ≤ 2.5 μm) and atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves using laser particle size analyzer and balance. This method achieved a direct, accurate measurement with superior operability about the quality and particle size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter retained by plant leaves. First, a pre-experiment was taken to test the stability of the method. After cleaning, centrifugation and drying, the particulate matter was collected and weighed, and then its particle size distribution was analyzed by laser particle size analyzer. Finally, the mass of particulate matter retained by unit area of leaf and stand was translated from the leaf area and leaf area index. This method was applied to a P. tomentosa stand which had not experienced rain for 27 days in Beijing Olympic Forest Park. The results showed that the average particle size of the atmospheric particulate matter retained by P. tomentosa was 17.8 μm, and the volume percentages of the retained PM2.5, inhalable particulate matter (PM10, d ≤ 10 μm) and total suspended particle (TSP, d ≤ 100 μm) were 13.7%, 47.2%, and 99.9%, respectively. The masses of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter were 8.88 x 10(-6), 30.6 x 10(-6), 64.7 x 10(-6) and 64.8 x 10(-6) g x cm(-2) respectively. The retention quantities of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter by the P. tomentosa stand were 0.963, 3.32, 7.01 and 7.02 kg x hm(-2), respectively.

  11. Disposable sputtered-bismuth screen-printed sensors for voltammetric monitoring of cadmium and lead in atmospheric particulate matter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Marín, M R; Rueda-Holgado, F; Marín-Expósito, J; Pinilla-Gil, E

    2017-12-01

    We report here the use of commercial screen-printed disposable sensors comprising a sputtered bismuth working electrode, a silver pseudo reference electrode and a carbon auxiliary electrode (whole set referred as Bi sp SPE), as a new and advantageous alternative for reliable and convenient monitoring of Cd and Pb in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 fraction) by anodic stripping voltammetry after acid digestion. After a detailed exploration of surface composition and depth profiles of the Bi sp SPE by SEM, EDX, XPS and EIS, chemical and instrumental variables have been optimized to develop a reliable method capable of measuring Cd and Pb with detection limits of 11.8ngmL -1 and 6.1ngmL -1 respectively. These detection limits are useful for pollution monitoring of these elements in ambient air under the requirements of international health and environmental protection standards. The accuracy of the method was assessed by voltammetric measurements of Cd and Pb in ERM®-CZ120 Fine dust (PM10-like) and ERM® 1648a Urban Particulate Matter certified reference materials. The applicability of the method to Cd and Pb determination in real samples was demonstrated by analysis of PM10 samples from the air quality network in Extremadura, with a good correlation respect to the standard ICP-MS methodology. Our work constitutes the first reference about the use of disposable sensors based on Bi sp SPE for the determination of heavy metals in atmospheric particulate matter samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a Novel Simulation Reactor for Chronic Exposure to Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianhuai; Salehi, Sepehr; North, Michelle L.; Portelli, Anjelica M.; Chow, Chung-Wai; Chan, Arthur W. H.

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution is associated with the morbidity and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases. Currently, limited experimental models are available to evaluate the physiological and cellular pathways activated by chronic multi-pollutant exposures. This manuscript describes an atmospheric simulation reactor (ASR) that was developed to investigate the health effects of air pollutants by permitting controlled chronic in vivo exposure of mice to combined particulate and gaseous pollutants. BALB/c mice were exposed for 1 hr/day for 3 consecutive days to secondary organic aerosol (SOA, a common particulate air pollutant) at 10-150 μg/m3, SOA (30 μg/m3) + ozone (65 ppb) or SOA + ozone (65 ppb) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2; 100 ppb). Daily exposure to SOA alone led to increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine with increasing SOA concentrations. Multi-pollutant exposure with ozone and/or NO2 in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of SOA resulted in additive effects on AHR to methacholine. Inflammatory cell recruitment to the airways was not observed in any of the exposure conditions. The ASR developed in this study allows us to evaluate the chronic health effects of relevant multi-pollutant exposures at ‘real-life’ levels under controlled conditions and permits repeated-exposure studies.

  13. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  14. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite GF-1/WFV Imagery and Quantitative Estimation of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Yangtze Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Shang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Multispectral Wide Field of View (WFV camera on the Chinese GF-1 satellite, launched in 2013, has advantages of high spatial resolution (16 m, short revisit period (4 days and wide scene swath (800 km compared to the Landsat-8/OLI, which make it an ideal means of monitoring spatial-temporal changes of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM in large estuaries like the Yangtze Estuary. However, a lack of proper atmospheric correction methods has limited its application in water quality assessment. We propose an atmospheric correction method based on a look up table coupled by the atmosphere radiative transfer model (6S and the water semi-empirical radiative transfer (SERT model for inversion of water-leaving reflectance from GF-1 top-of-atmosphere radiance, and then retrieving SPM concentration from water-leaving radiance reflectance of the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent sea. Results are validated by the Landsat-8/OLI imagery together with autonomous fixed station data, and influences of human activities (e.g., waterway construction and shipping on SPM distribution are analyzed.

  15. Chemical speciation of vanadium in particulate matter emitted from diesel vehicles and urban atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Martin M; Toner, Brandy M; Overdier, Joel T; Schauer, James J; Fakra, Sirine C; Hu, Shaohua; Herner, Jorn D; Ayala, Alberto

    2012-01-03

    We report on the development and application of an integrated set of analytical tools that enable accurate measurement of total, extractable, and, importantly, the oxidation state of vanadium in sub-milligram masses of environmental aerosols and solids. Through rigorous control of blanks, application of magnetic-sector-ICPMS, and miniaturization of the extraction/separation methods we have substantially improved upon published quantification limits. The study focused on the application of these methods to particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel vehicles, both in baseline configuration without after-treatment and also equipped with advanced PM and NO(x) emission controls. Particle size-resolved vanadium speciation data were obtained from dynamometer samples containing total vanadium pools of only 0.2-2 ng and provide some of the first measurements of the oxidation state of vanadium in diesel vehicle PM emissions. The emission rates and the measured fraction of V(V) in PM from diesel engines running without exhaust after-treatment were both low (2-3 ng/mile and 13-16%, respectively). The V(IV) species was measured as the dominant vanadium species in diesel PM emissions. A significantly greater fraction of V(V) (76%) was measured in PM from the engine fitted with a prototype vanadium-based selective catalytic reductors (V-SCR) retrofit. The emission rate of V(V) determined for the V-SCR equipped vehicle (103 ng/mile) was 40-fold greater than that from the baseline vehicle. A clear contrast between the PM size-distributions of V(V) and V(IV) emissions was apparent, with the V(V) distribution characterized by a major single mode in the ultrafine (vanadium-containing fine-particle PM from the V-SCR identified V(2)O(5) as the dominant vanadium species.

  16. Particle size distributions and elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2008-06-01

    Three 2-wk seasonal field campaigns were performed in 2003 and 2004 at a sampling site on the southern Tyrrhenian coast of Italy with the aim to investigate the dynamics and characteristics of particle-bound pollutants in the Mediterranean area. Fine (PM(2.5)) and coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) size fractions were collected by a manual dichotomous sampler on 37-mm Teflon filters over a 24-hr sampling period. On average, 70% of the total PM(10) (PM(2.5) + PM(10-2.5)) mass was associated with the coarse fraction and 30% with the fine fraction during the three campaigns. The ambient concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Mn, V, Cd, Fe, Cu, Ca, and Mg associated with both size fractions were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ambient concentrations showed differences in their absolute value, ranging from few ng x m(-3) to microg x m(-3), as well as in their variability within the PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) size fractions. PM(10) levels were well below the European Union (EU) limit value during the study period with the exception of three events during the first campaign (fall) and five events during the third campaign (spring). Two main sources were identified as the major contributors including mineral dust, transported from North Africa, and sea spray from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Comparing the results with backward trajectories, calculated using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (TOMS-NASA) maps, it was observed that in central and eastern Europe, the Tyrrhenian Sea and North Africa were the major emission source regions that affected the temporal variations and daily averages of PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) concentrations.

  17. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm (0...

  19. Monitoring of atmospheric particulate matter around sources of secondary inorganic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Rodríguez, S.; Plana, F.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Ruiz, C.; Mantilla, E.

    2004-09-01

    A physicochemical characterisation of airborne particulate matter (PM) was performed in a region affected by the emissions from a source of precursors of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 1050 MW power plant). This characterisation sought to study the interferences of other possible natural and anthropogenic sources when monitoring PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 around this emission source. The study was performed in the semi-arid Ebro basin and Catalan and Iberian ranges (Eastern Spain) and consisted in (1) monitoring the transport and impacts on the ground of the SO2 plume (fumigation), (2) chemically characterising (25 PM components) of TSP-size fractions, and diurnal and nocturnal PM10 and PM2.5 samples, and (3) in measuring the PM mass size distribution. This PM characterisation was undertaken in ambient air, during fumigations of the SO2 plume on the ground and around other local PM sources. PM1 was found to be the best parameter for monitoring PM pollution derived from the SO2 emissions owing to the formation of ammonium-sulphate in the finest PM fractions. Three PM1 & PM2.5 events were recorded during the field measurement campaign: two events were caused by ammonium-sulphate episodes, the third was due to an African dust outbreak. PM-mass size distribution and the high correlation of PM1 with SO2 during the SO2 fumigation events suggest that a significant fraction of sulphate is formed by means of `new particle formation' processes (nucleation). PM10 presents a much higher variability (noise) than PM1 & PM2.5 owing to the re-suspension of coarse (2.5- 10 μm) mineral dust particles. The PM1 load in PM10 undergoes significant variations: 60-80% during plume fumigations, 20-60% in ambient air, and down to 10% in areas affected by mineral dust re-suspension. The daily cycles observed in some PM components (sulphate, nitrate and mineral dust elements) and the chemical features of PM are also described in detail.

  20. Determination of Vanadium, Tin and Mercury in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cement Dust Samples by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Kamal T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution study applies direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) to samples of total suspended particulate matter collected in two industrial areas and one residential area, and cement dust collected near major cement factories. These samples were analyzed for vanadium, tin, and mercury. The results indicate the…

  1. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  2. Impact of abandoned mine waste on atmospheric respirable particulate matter in the historic mining district of Rio Tinto (Iberian Pyrite Belt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; González-Castanedo, Yolanda

    2011-11-01

    This work documents for the first time the levels and composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the historic mining district of Rio Tinto (Spain) to estimate the contribution and impact of resuspended particles from hazardous mine waste on air quality. The resuspended mine waste dust contributes notably (32%) to the total concentrations of toxic trace metals (Bi, As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Sb) into the atmosphere, with the consequent impact on public health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  4. The Effects of Particle Size, Relative Humidity, and Sulfur Dioxide on Iron Solubility in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, B. T.; Marcotte, A.; Anbar, A. D.; Herckes, P.; Majestic, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current study focuses on studying how iron (Fe) solubility is affected by particle size, relative humidity, and exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO2). Fe, the most abundant transition metal in atmospheric particulate matter, plays a critical role in the atmospheric sulfur cycle and is a micronutrient for phytoplankton in remote regions of the ocean. To mimic oceanic particles, iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, goethite, and illite) were resuspended with sodium chloride and size-segregated on Teflon filters into five different size fractions: 10-2.5 μm, 2.5-1.0 μm, 1.0-0.5 μm, 0.5-0.25 μm, and 80%) and arid environment humidity (24%). Trials with no SO2 ­were also performed as comparisons. Total Fe was determined by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and soluble Fe was determined by extracting the samples in a simulated cloud water buffer (pH 4.25, 0.5 mM acetate, 0.5 mM formate, and 0.2 mM ammonium nitrate). Both total and soluble Fe concentrations were determined via inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We found that, as particle size decreased, Fe percent solubility increased for hematite, magnetite, and goethite. The percent solubility of Fe in these mineral phases steadily increased from 0.5-10% as particle size decreased. In contrast, the Fe percent solubility in illite was relatively constant for the largest four size fractions but increased dramatically in the smallest size fraction. The percent solubility of Fe in illite ranged from 5-20% as the particle size decreased. Additionally, increased Fe solubility was linked to increased relative humidity with higher percent solubility generally observed in all mineral phases for the samples exposed at the higher humidity. No correlation was observed for the effects of the SO2 on Fe percent solubility. The likely lack of Fe-SO2 interactions were also supported by synchrotron-based x-ray spectroscopy. These results help further the knowledge of how the solubilization of

  5. Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter using multivariate optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso-Perez, Carmen [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: jmoreda@udc.es; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Fernandez-Fernandez, Esther [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Prada-Rodriguez, Dario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)

    2004-11-22

    A highly sensitive and simple method, based on hydride generation and atomic fluorescence detection, has been developed for the determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter samples. Atmospheric particulates matter was collected on glass fiber filters using a medium volume sampler (PM1 particulate matter). Two-level factorial designs have been used to optimise the hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) procedure. The effects of several parameters affecting the hydride generation efficiency (hydrochloric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and potassium iodide concentrations and flow rates) have been evaluated using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. In addition, parameters affecting the hydride measurement (delay, analysis and memory times) have been also investigated. The significant parameters obtained (sodium tetrahydroborate concentration, sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate and analysis time for As; hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Se(IV); and sodium tetrahydroborate concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Te(IV)) have been optimized by using 2{sup n} + star central composite design. Hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate were the significant parameters obtained for Sb and Bi determination, respectively. Using a univariate approach these parameters were optimized. The accuracy of methods have been verified by using several certified reference materials: SRM 1648 (urban particulate matter) and SRM 1649a (urban dust). Detection limits in the range of 6 x 10{sup -3} to 0.2 ng m{sup -3} have been achieved. The developed methods were applied to several atmospheric particulate matter samples corresponding to A Coruna city (NW Spain)

  6. A new method for the simultaneous determination of PAH and metals in samples of atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-Iglesias, M.; López-Mahía, P.; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S.; Prada-Rodríguez, D.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    A method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in the same filter portion employed for atmospheric particulate samples collection is proposed in this study. Two standard reference materials, SRM 1648 and SRM 1649a, were extracted by microwave-assisted extraction with hexane/acetone (1:1) and the solid residue was acid digested for the determination of levels of metals. It is demonstrated that there were no significant losses of the metal load during the PAH extraction process. Finally, the devised methodology was applied to actual atmospheric particulate samples.

  7. [Pollution of Halogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Atmospheric Particulate Matters of Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-lin; Chang, Wen-jing; Chen, Zheng-xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( HPAHs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected from Shenzhen were determined using GC-MS. Total concentrations of nine HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 118 to 1,476 pg · m(-3) and 89 to 407 pg · m(-3), respectively. In PM10 and PM(2.5) samples, the concentration of 9-BrAnt was the highest, followed by 7-BrBaA and 9, 10-Br2Ant. Seasonal levels of total HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples in Shenzhen decreased in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer, whereas concentrations of individual HPAHs showed different seasonal levels. Meteorological conditions, including temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity, might be important factors affecting the seasonal levels of HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 In addition, there were significant correlations between concentrations of HPAHs and parent PAHs. Finally, the toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) of HPAHs were estimated. The TEQs of HPAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 17.6 to 86.2 pg · m(-3) and 14.6 to 70.4 pg · m(-3), respectively. Among individual HPAHs, 7-BrBaA contributed greatly to the total TEQs of HPAHs. Our results indicated that the total TEQs of HPAHs were lower than parent PAHs in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 samples in Shenzhen.

  8. Azaarenes in fine particulate matter from the atmosphere of a Chinese megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Meusel, Hannah; Huang, Rujin; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Cao, Junji; Ho, Kinfai

    2016-08-01

    Azaarenes (AZAs) are toxicologically relevant organic compounds with physicochemical properties that are significantly different from the well-studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, little is known about their concentrations, seasonal variations, fate, and relationship with PAHs in air. This paper reports the temporal variations in the concentrations and composition patterns of AZAs in PM2.5 that was sampled once per 6 days from outdoor air of Xi'an, China from July 2008 to August 2009. The concentrations of the ∑AZAs, quinoline (QUI), benzo[h]quinoline (BQI), and acridine (ACR) in PM2.5 were 213-6441, 185-520, 69-2483, and 10-3544 pg m(-3), respectively. These concentrations were higher than those measured in urban areas of Western Europe. AZA compositional patterns were dominated by BQI and ACR. The high concentration of AZAs, high AZA/related PAH ratio, and the dominance of three-ring AZAs (BQI and ACR) in PM2.5 of Xi'an are all in contrast to observations from Western European and North American cities. This contrast likely reflects differences in coal type and the more intense use of coal in China. The PM2.5-bound concentration of AZA in winter season (W) was higher than during the summer season (S) with W/S ratios of 5.7, 1.4, 4.1, and 13, for ∑AZAs, QUI, BQI, and ACR, respectively. Despite their significantly different physicochemical properties, AZAs were significantly (p < 0.05) positively correlated with their related PAHs and pyrogenic elemental carbon. The changes in AZA concentrations were positively correlated with ambient pressure but negatively correlated with ambient temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. This trend is similar to that observed for the related PAHs. We conclude that Xi'an and possibly other Chinese cities have higher emission of AZAs into their atmosphere because of the more pronounced use of coal. We also conclude that in spite of differences in physicochemical properties between AZAs and

  9. Organic content of particulate matter in the atmosphere of Quargla City, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassaa, N. [University of Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemistry, Laboratoire d' Analyse Organique Fonctionelle, El-Alia (Algeria); Meklati, B.Y. [Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique en Analyses Physico-Chimiques, Algier (Algeria); Cecinato, A.; Marino, F.; Balducci, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico, Area della Ricerca di Roma, Monterotondo Scalo, RM (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    The particle-bound organic compounds comprising n-alkanes, n-alkanoic monocarboxylic acids, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) were investigated in ambient air of the Quargla city area (Algeria) during a short campaign performed in November 1999. The distribution profile of n-alkanes was consistent with the petrogenic origin of aerosols, suggesting that they were related to torching processes of crude oil refuses in the petroleum extraction field located not far from Quargla. Instead, the presence of n-alkanoic acids of low molecular weight was indicative of microbial activity experienced by the site. PAH levels were low when compared to other polluted areas. The presence of 2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene, which can result from in-situ nitration of fluoranthene and pyrene, was concurrent with the substantial depletion of the most reactive among PAH, suggesting that photochemical processes influence the composition of the Saharian atmosphere. [Italian] Una breve campagna di monitoraggio e' stata eseguita nell'area di Quargla (citta' dell'entroterra algerino) al fine di investigare la composizione degli aerosoli organici dell'atmosfera. Sono stati identificati e valutati gli n-alcani, gli acidi alcanoici mono-carbossilici, gli idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (PAH) ed i PAH nitrati (NPAH). La composizione della frazione alifatica era compatibile con l'origine petrogenica degli aerosoli, concordando con quella caratteristica dei pennacchi fumosi ai pozzi petroliferi di un vicino campo di estrazione. La presenza degli omologhi leggeri tra gli acidi n-alcanoici (fino a C{sub 1}8) era indicativa di attivita' microbica. I PAH mostravano concentrazioni in aria inferiori a quelle di aree inquinate. La presenza di 2-nitrofluorantene e 2-nitropirene, di origine almeno parzialmente fotochimica, contemporanea alla scomparsa dei piu' reattivi tra i PAH, indica che la

  10. Dispersion of atmospheric fine particulate matters in simulated lung fluid and their effects on model cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiuhua; Wang, Lixin; Cao, Zhaoyu; Zhou, Xuehua; Yang, Fan; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Zhenhua; Hu, Jingtian; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected to investigate its dispersion in simulated lung fluid (SLF) and its interaction with model cell membranes. Organic acids, NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were detected in PM2.5 soluble fraction, and heavy metals were detected from the total mass. The insoluble fraction contained kaolinite, CaCO3, aliphatic carbons, aromatic rings, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups reflected by the infrared spectra. Proteins dispersed PM2.5 in SLF, resulted in smaller hydrodynamic diameter (dH) and slower sedimentation rate. Conversely, phospholipids increased dH value and accelerated sedimentation rate. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were used as model cell membranes. PM2.5 adhered on and disrupted the membrane containing positively-charged lipids but not the membrane containing neutrally- and negatively-charged lipids, which was monitored by microscopy and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The cationic sites on membrane were necessary for PM2.5 adhesion, but membrane should be disrupted by the combined action of electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds between PM2.5 oxygen containing groups and the lipid phosphate groups. Our results specified the roles of proteins and phospholipids in PM2.5 dispersion and transport, highly suggested that the health hazard of PM2.5 was related to the biomolecules in the lung fluid and the particle surface groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An estimate of the global burden of anthropogenic ozone and fine particulate matter on premature human mortality using atmospheric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C; Horowitz, Larry W; Tong, Daniel Q; West, J Jason

    2010-09-01

    Ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter [model simulations of preindustrial and present-day (2000) concentrations to derive exposure estimates. Attributable mortalities were estimated using health impact functions based on long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. Using simulated concentrations rather than previous methods based on measurements allows the inclusion of rural areas where measurements are often unavailable and avoids making assumptions for background air pollution. Anthropogenic O3 was associated with an estimated 0.7 +/- 0.3 million respiratory mortalities (6.3 +/- 3.0 million years of life lost) annually. Anthropogenic PM2.5 was associated with 3.5 +/- 0.9 million cardiopulmonary and 220,000 +/- 80,000 lung cancer mortalities (30 +/- 7.6 million years of life lost) annually. Mortality estimates were reduced approximately 30% when we assumed low-concentration thresholds of 33.3 ppb for O3 and 5.8 microg/m3 for PM2.5. These estimates were sensitive to concentration thresholds and concentration-mortality relationships, often by > 50%. Anthropogenic O3 and PM2.5 contribute substantially to global premature mortality. PM2.5 mortality estimates are about 50% higher than previous measurement-based estimates based on common assumptions, mainly because of methodologic differences. Specifically, we included rural populations, suggesting higher estimates; however, the coarse resolution of the global atmospheric model may underestimate urban PM(2.5) exposures.

  12. Eco-toxicological bioassay of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with Photobacterium Phosphoreum T3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxin; Shi, Chanzhen; Yan, Yan; Yang, Yunfei; Zhou, Bin

    2016-11-01

    A bioluminescent bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum T3 (PPT3), was used as a bio-indicator for the atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) to determine the eco-toxicity of PM2.5. The PM2.5 contains toxic chemicals, which reduce light output. The PM2.5 samples were collected in the period from March 2014 to January 2015 in Nanjing and analyzed for the chemical composition versus their eco-toxicity. The eco-toxicological responses of each toxicant were detected in PM2.5 samples with PPT3. The dose-response curves obtained were verified using the Weibull fitting function. According to the measured EC50 values (EC50, the concentration of a toxicant that inhibits 50% of the bioluminescence), the toxicity sequence was: B[a]P>hexa-PCB>tetra-PCB>tri-PCB>Pb(2+)>DEHP>Cu(2+)>DBP>BDE209>Zn(2+)>DMP>DEP, where B[a]P is benzo(a)pyrene, PCB is polychlorinated biphenyl, DEHP is diethylhexyl phthalate, DBP is dibutyl phthalate, BDE209 is decabromodiphenyl ether, DMP is dimethyl phthalate, and DEP is diethyl phthalate. All the PM2.5 samples analyzed proved to be weak toxic for PPT3. The toxicity of PM2.5 was assessed by the dose-addition of organic species and heavy metallic elements existing in PM2.5 with PPT3. The bioluminescence test showed that the metals and organics detected in PM2.5 promoted PM2.5 toxicity. The total detectable organics (denoted by ΣOrs) exhibited slightly higher toxicity than the total metals (denoted by ΣMs). In contrast, the sum of water-soluble ions (denoted by ΣIons) was beneficial to PPT3. The PM2.5 toxicity increased as the PM2.5 trapped more organics or metallic elements from the industrial or densely populated urban areas, where the PM2.5 had a high inhibition rate of bioluminescence for PPT3 in contrast to the residential PM2.5 samples, where the minimum inhibition rate was observed. The toxicity of PM2.5 samples varied with the mass concentrations, chemical constituents, and sampling locations. The chemicals in PM2.5, especially organic

  13. On the Fractal Mechanism of Interrelation Between the Genesis, Size and Composition of Atmospheric Particulate Matters in Different Regions of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, Vitaliy D; Jacimovic, Radojko R; Pavlovich, Vladimir N; Bondarchuk, Yuriy A; Vaschenko, Vladimir N; Zelentsova, Tatiana N; Beglaryan, Margarita E; Linnik, Elena P; Smolyar, Vladimir P; Kosenko, Sergey I; Gudyma, Alla A

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data from the National Air Surveillance Network of Japan from 1974 to 1996 and from independent measurements performed simultaneously in the regions of Ljubljana (Slovenia), Odessa (Ukraine) and the Ukrainian "Academician Vernadsky" Antarctic station (64{\\deg}15'W; 65{\\deg}15'S), where the air elemental composition was determined by the standard method of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collection on nucleopore filters and subsequent neutron activation analysis, were analyzed. Comparative analysis of different pairs of atmospheric PM element concentration data sets, measured in different regions of the Earth, revealed a stable linear (on a logarithmic scale) correlation, showing a power law increase of every atmospheric PM element mass and simultaneously the cause of this increase - fractal nature of atmospheric PM genesis. Within the framework of multifractal geometry we show that the mass (volume) distribution of atmospheric PM elemental components is a log normal distribution, which on a l...

  14. An index for estimating the potential metal pollution contribution to atmospheric particulate matter from road dust in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Shao, Yaping; Yin, Chengqing; Jiang, Yan; Li, Xuyong

    2016-04-15

    The resuspension of road dust from street surfaces could be a big contributor to atmospheric particulate pollution in the rapid urbanization context in the world. However, to date what its potential contribution to the spatial pattern is little known. Here we developed an innovative index model called the road dust index (RIBeijing region to assess the spatial distribution of the potential risks posed by metals associated with road dust on atmospheric suspended particles. The results demonstrated that the road dust in urban areas has higher potential risk of metal to atmospheric particles than that in rural areas. The RIpollution caused by road dust emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  16. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  17. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  18. Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric particulate matter in a developing megacity, the Greater Cairo, Egypt Egipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakey, A.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre of Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: azakey@ictp.it; Abdel-Wahab, M.M. [Cairo University, Department of Meteorology, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Pettersson, J.B.C.; Gatari, M.J.; Hallquist, M. [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    As an example of a developing megacity the Greater Cairo (GC) area in Egypt has been evaluated with respect to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and lead (Pb). Particulate matter was collected during 2001-2002 in the two size fractions PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 at 17 sites representing different activities (industrial, urban, residential and background condition). The PM concentrations were generally high, with yearly average PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 values of 85 {+-} 12 and 170 {+-} 25 {mu}g/m{sup -}3, respectively. On an annual scale, the high PM levels were due to many sources that included traffic, waste burning and wind blown dust particles emitted from the desert outside GC and the Moqattam hill inside GC. On a seasonal scale, the PM concentrations were highest in the industrial sector during spring, the dusty season, due to the combined effect of dust storm events and anthropogenic emissions over GC. The lowest seasonal concentrations were recorded in the summer season at the background sites. There was a marked increase in PM levels during the period October to December due to burning of waste from harvested rice in the agriculture area in the Nile Delta (north of Cairo). The highest PM{sub 2}.5/PM{sub 1}0 ratio was recorded in the urban sector (0.59) while the lowest ratio was recorded in the residential sector (0.32). The PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 samples were also analyzed for Pb in order to address the influence of different emission sources. The monthly average concentrations of Pb in both PM{sub 2}.5 (Pb{sub 2}.5) and PM{sub 1}0 (Pb{sub 1}0) varied between 0.4 and 1.8 {+-} {mu}g m{sup -}3 at the non industrial sites. The concentrations were significantly higher in the industrial areas, where concentration up to a maximum of 16 {+-} g m{sup -}3 could be observed. Both the high lead and PM concentrations measured are contributing to local environmental pollution. GC is subjected to high concentrations of particulates most of the year. There is no

  19. Atmospheric mercury and fine particulate matter in coastal New England: implications for mercury and trace element sources in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark A.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Krabbenhotft, David P.; Bothner, Michael H.; Tate, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive sampling of ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter was conducted at Woods Hole, Massachusetts over a four-month period from 3 April to 29 July, 2008, in conjunction with year-long deployment of the USGS Mobile Mercury Lab. Results were obtained for trace elements in fine particulate matter concurrently with determination of ambient atmospheric mercury speciation and concentrations of ancillary gasses (SO2, NOx, and O3). For particulate matter, trace element enrichment factors greater than 10 relative to crustal background values were found for As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn, indicating contribution of these elements by anthropogenic sources. For other elements, enrichments are consistent with natural marine (Na, Ca, Mg, Sr) or crustal (Ba, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, La, Rb, Sc, Th, Ti, U, Y) sources, respectively. Positive matrix factorization was used together with concentration weighted air-mass back trajectories to better define element sources and their locations. Our analysis, based on events exhibiting the 10% highest PM2.5 contributions for each source category, identifies coal-fired power stations concentrated in the U.S. Ohio Valley, metal smelting in eastern Canada, and marine and crustal sources showing surprisingly similar back trajectories, at times each sampling Atlantic coastal airsheds. This pattern is consistent with contribution of Saharan dust by a summer maximum at the latitude of Florida and northward transport up the Atlantic Coast by clockwise circulation of the summer Bermuda High. Results for mercury speciation show diurnal production of RGM by photochemical oxidation of Hg° in a marine environment, and periodic traverse of the study area by correlated RGM-SO2(NOx) plumes, indicative of coal combustion sources.

  20. Molecular view modeling of atmospheric organic particulate matter: Incorporating molecular structure and co-condensation of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.; Marks, Marguerite C.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Asher, William E.; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Most urban and regional models used to predict levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) are based on fundamental equations for gas/particle partitioning, but make the highly simplifying, anonymized-view (AV) assumptions that OPM levels are not affected by either: a) the molecular characteristics of the condensing organic compounds (other than simple volatility); or b) co-condensation of water as driven by non-zero relative humidity (RH) values. The simplifying assumptions have allowed parameterized chamber results for formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g., ;two-product; (2p) coefficients) to be incorporated in chemical transport models. However, a return towards a less simplistic (and more computationally demanding) molecular view (MV) is needed that acknowledges that atmospheric OPM is a mixture of organic compounds with differing polarities, water, and in some cases dissolved salts. The higher computational cost of MV modeling results from a need for iterative calculations of the composition-dependent gas/particle partition coefficient values. MV modeling of OPM that considered water uptake (but not dissolved salts) was carried out for the southeast United States for the period August 29 through September 7, 2006. Three model variants were used at three universities: CMAQ-RH-2p (at PSU), UCD/CIT-RH-2p (at UCD), and CMAQ-RH-MCM (at TAMU). With the first two, MV structural characteristics (carbon number and numbers of functional groups) were assigned to each of the 2p products used in CMAQv.4.7.1 such that resulting predicted Kp,i values matched those in CMAQv.4.7.1. When water uptake was allowed, most runs assumed that uptake occurred only into the SOA portion, and imposed immiscibility of SOA with primary organic aerosol (POA). (POA is often viewed as rather non-polar, while SOA is commonly viewed as moderately-to-rather polar. Some runs with UCD/CIT-RH-2p were used to investigate the effects of POA/SOA miscibility.) CMAQ-RH-MCM used MCM to

  1. Particulate matters from diesel engine exhaust emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Velimir S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by diesel engine emissions, especially particulate matters and nitric oxides emissions, is one of the biggest problems of current transportation. In the near future the emission of diesel particulate matters will become one of the most important factors that will affect the trend of engine development. Ambient airborne particles have adverse environmental and health effects and therefore their concentration in the air is regulated. Recent medical studies showed that different particle properties are important (for example: number/concentration, active surface, chemical composition/morphology and may take role in the responsibility for their human health impact. Thus, diesel engines are one of the most important sources of particles in the atmosphere, especially in urban areas. Studying health effects and diesel engine particulate properties, it has been concluded that they are a complex mixture of solids and liquids. Biological activity of particulate matter may be related to particle sizes and their number. The paper presents the activities of UN-ECE working group PMP on defining the best procedure and methodology for the measurement of passenger cars diesel engines particle mass and number concentrations. The results of inter-laboratory emissions testing are presented for different engine technologies with special attention on repeatability and reproducibility of measured data. .

  2. Forward research on transmission characteristics of near-surface particulate-matter-polluted atmosphere in mining area combined with CFD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Yanming; Shi, Guoqing

    2015-07-27

    The optical radiation and radiation transfer characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in mining area of northwest China were simulated and analyzed in this paper. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was adopted to simulate the distribution of PM considering the local desertification and mining activities. The 1-D radiative transfer equation was solved using discrete ordinates method combined with Mie scattering model based on the CFD simulation results. The spectral aerosol optical depth and transmission characteristics of PM polluted atmosphere in the wavelength of 1-25μm under different intensity of dust releases, wind speeds and dust compositions were obtained and analyzed. The simulation results show that: the transmission characteristics are obviously enhanced with the increase of wind speed and sand particles' proportion but greatly decreased with the increase of the intensity of dust release.

  3. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  4. Organic composition of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter, during summer and winter sampling campaigns at representative sites in Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirante, Fátima; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Pindado, Oscar; Perez, Rosa; Revuelta, M.a. Aranzazu; Artiñano, Begoña

    2013-10-01

    Madrid, the largest city of Spain, has some and unique air pollution problems, such as emissions from residential coal burning, a huge vehicle fleet and frequent African dust outbreaks, along with the lack of industrial emissions. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) was studied during summer and winter sampling campaigns, conducted in order to obtain size-segregated information at two different urban sites (roadside and urban background). PM was sampled with high volume cascade impactors, with 4 stages: 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5 and alcohols and fatty acids were chromatographically resolved. The PM1-2.5 was the fraction with the highest mass percentage of organics. Acids were the organic compounds that dominated all particle size fractions. Different organic compounds presented apparently different seasonal characteristics, reflecting distinct emission sources, such as vehicle exhausts and biogenic sources. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations were lower than 1 ng m- 3. The estimated carcinogenic risk is low.

  5. LIDAR vertical profiles over the Oil Sands Region: an important tool in understanding atmospheric particulate matter transport, mixing and transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    LIDAR technology is an excellent tool to probe the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere at high spatial and temporal resolution. This provides the critical vertical context for the interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements, airborne measurements and model verification and validation. In recent years, Environment Canada has designed an autonomous aerosol LIDAR system that can be deployed to remote areas such as the oil sands. Currently two autonomous LIDAR systems are making measurements in the oil sands region, one since December, 2012 and the other since July, 2013. The LIDAR transmitter emits two wavelengths (1064nm and 532nm) and the detector assembly collects four channels (1064nm backscatter, 532nm backscatter and 532nm depolarization, 607 nm nitrogen channel). Aerosol profiles from near ground to 20 km are collected every 10-60 s providing sufficient resolution to probe atmospheric dynamics, mixing and transport. The depolarization channel provides key information in identifying and discriminating the various aerosol layers aloft such as dust, forest fire plumes, industrial plume sources or ice crystals. The vertical resolution of the LIDAR can determine whether industrial plumes remain aloft or mix down to the surface and also provide estimates as to the concentration of the particulate at various altitudes. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week except during precipitation events. The system is operated remotely and the data are updated every hour to a website to allow near real-time capability. An intensive measurement campaign will be carried out in August and September of 2013 and will provide coincident airborne and ground-based measurements for the two LIDAR systems. The first results from this field study will be presented as well as some statistics on the frequency and evolution of plume events that were detected by the LIDARs.

  6. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m(3), respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitimirova, M.; Katkevics, J.; Baumane, L.; Bakis, E.; Viksna, A.

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  8. The application of carbon-14 analyses to the source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particulate matter: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Mathew R

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) together constitute a substantial proportion of airborne particulate matter (PM). Insight into the sources of this major contributor to PM is important for policies to mitigate the impact of PM on human health and climate change. In recent years measurement of the abundance of the radioisotope of carbon ((14)C) in samples of PM by accelerator mass spectrometry has been used to help quantify the relative contributions from sources of fossil carbon and contemporary carbon. This review provides an introduction to the different sources of carbon within PM and the role of (14)C measurements, a description of the preparation of PM samples and of the instrumentation used to quantify (14)C, and a summary of the results and source apportionment methods reported in published studies since 2004. All studies report a sizable fraction of the carbonaceous PM as of non-fossil origin. Even for PM collected in urban locations, the proportions of non-fossil carbon generally exceed 30%; typically the proportion in urban background locations is around 40-60% depending on the local influence of biomass burning. Where values have been measured directly, proportions of non-fossil carbon in EC are lower than in OC, reflecting the greater contribution of fossil-fuel combustion to EC and the generally small sources of contemporary EC. Detailed source apportionment studies point to important contributions from biogenic-derived secondary OC, consistent with other evidence of a ubiquitous presence of heavily oxidized background secondary OC. The review concludes with some comments on current issues and future prospects, including progress towards compound-class and individual-compound-specific (14)C analyses.

  9. Pressurized liquid extraction technique for the analysis of pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs, OPEs, PAHs, alkanes, hopanes, and steranes in atmospheric particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adelaide E; Yoon, Subin; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Usenko, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from atmospheric particulate matter. Approximately 130 SVOCs from eight compound classes were selected as molecular markers of (1) agricultural activity (30 current and historic-use pesticides), (2) industrial activity (18 PCBs), (3) consumer products and building materials (16 PBDEs, 11 OPEs), and (4) motor vehicle exhaust (22 PAHs, 16 alkanes, 9 hopanes, 8 steranes). Currently, there is no analytical method validated for the extraction of all eight compound classes in a single automated technique. The extraction efficiencies of varying solvents and solvent combinations at high temperatures and pressures were examined. Extracts were concentrated and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The optimized PLE method utilized methylene chloride:acetone (2:1 v/v) at 100 °C with three (5 min) static cycles, flush volume of 80%, and a 100 s N2 purge. Spike and recovery experiments (n=7) provided average percent recoveries for pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs, OPEs, PAHs, alkanes, hopanes, and steranes of 88.8±4.0%, 86.9±2.6%, 83.8±2.9%, 101±6%, 90.3±6.1%, 74.4±8.8%, 104±8%, and 86.5±8.6%, respectively. The developed method was applied to atmospheric particulate matter samples collected in the greater Houston, TX metropolitan area. Ambient concentrations of eight classes of compounds (92 SVOCs) were reported in pg m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Elemental and carbon isotope composition of total particulate matter in the urban atmosphere of Krakow, southern Poland: summer-winter contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnoch, Miroslaw; Samek, Lucyna; Morawski, Filip; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Deterioration of air quality in urban agglomerations is a growing problem of global significance [1]. This spurs research towards better understanding of parameters controlling air quality in urban environment (sources of particulate matter and gaseous contaminants, spatial and temporal variability of air quality, impact of atmospheric dynamics on the air quality, and several others). Krakow belongs to four largest cities in Poland. With nearly one million inhabitants, rapidly growing car traffic and significant industrial activities, Krakow agglomeration represents a typical urban environment in the eastern Europe. Characteristic features of the local climate are generally weak winds (annual average around 2.7 m s-1) and frequent inversions, extending sometimes over several days, particularly during winter seasons, favor accumulation of pollutants originating from surface emissions in the atmosphere over the city. Krakow ranks among the most polluted cities in Europe. There is an ongoing discussion on the role of different sources of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) in the city's atmosphere, such as traffic, low- and high-level emissions related to burning of coal for heating purposes, resuspension of street dust, and some others. The presented work was aimed at exploring possibilities of using carbon isotope composition of total particulate matter collected in Krakow atmosphere, for better characterization of TSPM sources in the city, with the focus on seasonal changes of the character and intensity of those sources. Archived samples of TSPM deposited on filters (sampling interval between 5 and 20 days) and spanning the period 2005 - 2010 [3] were used for this purpose. For each year one pair of filters representing summer and winter conditions was selected. The work comprised also multi-elemental analysis of available TSPM samples using EDXRF technique. The measurements of 13C and 14C content in the total elemental carbon collected on filters revealed

  11. Health effects of atmospheric particulates: a medical geology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S

    2008-01-01

    In this review, atmospheric particulates as composite airborne earth materials often containing both natural and anthropogenic components were examined in the context of medical geology. Despite a vast number of both experimental and epidemiological studies confirming the direct and indirect links between atmospheric particulates and human health, the exact nature of mechanisms affecting the particulate-induced pathogenesis largely remains unexplored. Future in depth research on these areas would be most successful if potential mechanisms are examined with reference to the physical (e.g., size, shape and surface), chemical, mineralogical and source characteristics of particulate matters. The underlying goal of this review was to present the relevant terminology and processes proposed in the literature to explain the interfaces and interactions between atmospheric particles and human body within the framework of "atmospheric particle cycles." The complexities of the interactions were demonstrated through case studies focusing on particulate matter air pollution and malignant mesothelioma occurrences due to environmental exposure to erionite-a fibrous zeolite mineral. There is an urgent need for a standard protocol or speciation methods applicable to earth-materials to guide and streamline studies on etiology of mineral-induced diseases. This protocol or speciation methods should provide relevant procedures to determine the level and extent of physical, chemical and mineralogical heterogeneity of particulate matters as well as quantitative in-situ particulate characteristics.

  12. Seasonal dynamics of coarse atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 μm and 80 μm in Beijing and the impact of 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norra, Stefan; Yu, Yang; Dietze, Volker; Schleicher, Nina; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yuan; Stüben, Doris; Cen, Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Beijing is well known as a megacity facing severe atmospheric pollution problems. One very important kind of pollution is the high amount of particles in Beijing's atmosphere. Numerous studies investigated the dynamics of fine particles smaller 10 μm. Less information is available on the coarse particle fraction larger 10 μm, although geogenic dusts, which often are composed by those coarser particles, frequently affect the air quality in Beijing. Therefore, systematic sampling and analysis of size fractionated particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm was performed in Beijing from April 2005 till October 2009. Atmospheric particles were collected in the North-West of Beijing using a cost-effective passive sampling method called Sigma-2. Altogether, 200 weeks could be analysed and assessed. Concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric coarse particles were determined by automated microscopic single particle analysis. Seasonal variability of the total mass of different size fractions was identified as follows: spring > winter > autumn > summer. High concentrations of transparent mineral particles indicate the activity of geogenic sources in spring and winter time, due to asian dust events and resuspension of soil from local bare land during dry and windy periods. The percentage of opaque particle components differs seasonally with relatively high values in winter, confirming combustion of fossil fuels for heating purposes as a predominant pollution source in this season. The influence of meteorological conditions on concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm is demonstrated for the whole sampling period. Lowest pollution by coarse aerosols occurred during the period of the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. A general trend of decreasing total coarse particle mass concentrations was observed. Due to frequently observed high total coarse particle mass concentrations of several 100 μg·m-³ it is strongly recommended

  13. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected at Two Different. Heights above the Ground in A Sub-Urban Site in Kenya. Gitari W. M1, Kinyua A. M. 2, Kamau G. N3 and C. K. Gatebe C. K4. Abstract. Suspended particulate matter samples were collected in a sub-urban area in Nairobi over a 12 month ...

  14. Upper Atmospheric Particulate Monitoring and Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Alan; Sohl, John E.

    2010-10-01

    H.A.R.B.O.R. (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a student-run program in which high-altitude balloon systems are designed, constructed, and flown by students conducting individual or group research projects. One area of interest is in the sampling of particles in the upper atmosphere. Collecting airborne particulates and studying them under an SEM can answer questions on the origins of airborne particulate matter. We could find explanations for climate change or directly measure pollution caused by smokestacks. The SEM has the capacity to capture images of particulates and determine their composition. I am building a system capable of sampling air up to 30km (100,000 ft). The system will contain a servo-controlled filter system for sampling air captured by the ascent of the balloon. Currently, filter types are being evaluated for capture rate and air flow resistance. A circuit has been built to test the mass throughput of the airflow as the balloon travels its course. A vacuum chamber is being built to simulate the nearspace environment. Testing and simulation should be complete in time to fly a finalized sample return mission in spring 2011.

  15. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA). Particulates are covered with biocontaminants (e.g., endotoxins, mold, pollen) which convey free radical activity that can damage the lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins of target cells on contact and stimulate inflammatory cytokine release. Although, the historical focus of PM toxicity has been cardiopulmonary targets, it is now appreciated that inhaled nano-size (<100 nm) particles quickly exit the lungs and enter the circulation where they distribute to various organ systems (l.e., liver, kidneys, testes, lymph nodes) (Takenaka et aI

  16. Mercury, trace elements and organic constituents in atmospheric fine particulate matter, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA: A combined approach to sampling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Engle, M.A.; Orem, W.H.; Bunnell, J.E.; Lerch, H.E.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Olson, M.L.; McCord, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Compliance with U.S. air quality regulatory standards for atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is based on meeting average 24 hour (35 ?? m-3) and yearly (15 ??g m-3) mass-per-unit-volume limits, regardless of PM2.5 composition. Whereas this presents a workable regulatory framework, information on particle composition is needed to assess the fate and transport of PM2.5 and determine potential environmental/human health impacts. To address these important non-regulatory issues an integrated approach is generally used that includes (1) field sampling of atmospheric particulate matter on filter media, using a size-limiting cyclone, or with no particle-size limitation; and (2) chemical extraction of exposed filters and analysis of separate particulate-bound fractions for total mercury, trace elements and organic constituents, utilising different USGS laboratories optimised for quantitative analysis of these substances. This combination of sampling and analysis allowed for a more detailed interpretation of PM2.5 sources and potential effects, compared to measurements of PM2.5 abundance alone. Results obtained using this combined approach are presented for a 2006 air sampling campaign in Shenandoah National Park (Virginia, USA) to assess sources of atmospheric contaminants and their potential impact on air quality in the Park. PM2.5 was collected at two sampling sites (Big Meadows and Pinnacles) separated by 13.6 km. At both sites, element concentrations in PM2.5 were low, consistent with remote or rural locations. However, element/Zr crustal abundance enrichment factors greater than 10, indicating anthropogenic input, were found for Hg, Se, S, Sb, Cd, Pb, Mo, Zn and Cu, listed in decreasing order of enrichment. Principal component analysis showed that four element associations accounted for 84% of the PM 2.5 trace element variation; these associations are interpreted to represent: (1) crustal sources (Al, REE); (2) coal combustion (Se, Sb), (3) metal production

  17. Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2011-11-01

    The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (α). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

  18. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

  19. Retrieval of High-Resolution Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Pearl River Delta Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing offers an effective approach to estimate indicators of air quality on a large scale. It is critically significant for air quality monitoring in areas experiencing rapid urbanization and consequently severe air pollution, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD in China. This paper starts with examining ground observations of particulate matter (PM and the relationship between PM10 (particles smaller than 10 μm and aerosol optical thickness (AOT by analyzing observations on the sampling sites in the PRD. A linear regression (R2 = 0.51 is carried out using MODIS-derived 500 m-resolution AOT and PM10 concentration from monitoring stations. Data of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL height and relative humidity are used to make vertical and humidity corrections on AOT. Results after correction show higher correlations (R2 = 0.55 between extinction coefficient and PM10. However, coarse spatial resolution of meteorological data affects the smoothness of retrieved maps, which suggests high-resolution and accurate meteorological data are critical to increase retrieval accuracy of PM. Finally, the model provides the spatial distribution maps of instantaneous and yearly average PM10 over the PRD. It is proved that observed PM10 is more relevant to yearly mean AOT than instantaneous values.

  20. 20 Elemental Composition and Sources of Atmospheric Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    the most environmental concerns in urban areas, especially in view of the adverse health effects associated with ambient atmospheric particles (Pope, 2000). In the urban environment, particulate matter may be generated among others by automotive vehicles (road dust), manufacturing processes, fossil fuel combustion ...

  1. Particulate matter and neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko [Tohoku Univ. of Community Service and Science, Sakata, Yamagata (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In these years, economy of East Asian region is rapidly growing, and countries in this region are facing serious environmental problems. Neutron activation analysis is known as one of high-sensitive analytical method for multi elements. And it is a useful tool for environmental research, particularly for the study on atmospheric particulate matter that consists of various constituents. Elemental concentration represents status of air, such as emission of heavy metals from industries and municipal incinerators, transportation of soil derived elements more than thousands of kilometers, and so on. These monitoring data obtained by neutron activation analysis can be a cue to evaluate environment problems. Japanese government launched National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) employing neutron activation analysis in 1974, and the data has been accumulated at about twenty sampling sites. As a result of mitigation measure of air pollution sources, concentrations of elements that have anthropogenic sources decreased particularly at the beginning of the monitoring period. However, even now, concentrations of these anthropogenic elements reflect the characteristics of each sampling site, e.g. industrial/urban, rural, and remote. Soil derived elements have a seasonal variation because of the contribution of continental dust transported by strong westerly winds prevailing in winter and spring season. The health effects associated with trace elements in particulate matter have not been well characterized. However, there is increasing evidence that particulate air pollution, especially fine portion of particles in many different cities is associated with acute mortality. Neutron activation analysis is also expected to provide useful information to this new study field related to human exposures and health risk. (author)

  2. Investigation into the Effect of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) Concentrations on GPS Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Lawrence; He, Jun

    2017-03-03

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths. Air pollution is a serious problem globally, especially in developing countries that causes health problems to humans and damage to the ecosystem. Respirable suspended particles are coarse particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less, also known as PM10. Moreover, fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less are known as PM2.5. GPS signals travel through the atmosphere before arriving at receivers on the Earth's surface, and the research question posed in this paper is: are GPS signals affected by the increased concentration of the PM2.5/PM10 particles? There is no standard model of the effect of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals in GPS data processing, although an approximate generic model of non-gaseous atmospheric constituents (GPS signals and validates the aforementioned approximate model with a carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)-based empirical method. Both the approximate model and the empirical results show that the atmospheric PM2.5/PM10 particles and their concentrations have a negligible effect on GPS signals and the effect is comparable with the noise level of GPS measurements.

  3. Investigation into the Effect of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations on GPS Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Lau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths. Air pollution is a serious problem globally, especially in developing countries that causes health problems to humans and damage to the ecosystem. Respirable suspended particles are coarse particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less, also known as PM10. Moreover, fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less are known as PM2.5. GPS signals travel through the atmosphere before arriving at receivers on the Earth’s surface, and the research question posed in this paper is: are GPS signals affected by the increased concentration of the PM2.5/PM10 particles? There is no standard model of the effect of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals in GPS data processing, although an approximate generic model of non-gaseous atmospheric constituents (<1 mm can be found in the literature. This paper investigates the effect of the concentration of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals and validates the aforementioned approximate model with a carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR-based empirical method. Both the approximate model and the empirical results show that the atmospheric PM2.5/PM10 particles and their concentrations have a negligible effect on GPS signals and the effect is comparable with the noise level of GPS measurements.

  4. Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

  5. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  6. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  7. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  8. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Hawaii, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  9. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Nevada, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  10. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, California, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  11. Allegheny County Particulate Matter 2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides information on the particulate matter concentration for Allegheny County that have a diameter greater or equal to...

  12. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... which the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after initial... discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst...

  13. Double Compressions of Atmospheric Depth by Geopotential Tendency, Vorticity, and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Affected Abrupt High Particulate Matter Concentrations at a Coastal City for a Yellow Dust Period in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using GRIMM-aerosol sampler, NOAA-HYSPLIT model, and 3D-WRF-3.3 model, the transportation of dusts from Gobi Desert toward Gangneung city, Korea was investigated from 09:00 LST October 27 to 04:00 LST October 28, 2003. Maximum PM10 (PM2.5, PM1 concentration was detected with 3.8 (3.4, 14.1 times higher magnitude than one in non-Yellow Dust period. The combination of dusts transported from the desert under westerly wind with particulate matters and gases from vehicles on the road of the city caused high PM concentrations near the ground surface at 09:00 LST and their maxima at 17:00 LST near sunset with further pollutants from heating boilers in the resident area. Positive geopotential tendency at the 500 hPa level of the city (∂Φ/∂t; m day−1 corresponding to negative vorticity of -4×10-5 sec−1 (-2.5×10-5 sec−1 at 0900 LST (21:00 LST; at night was +83 m day−1 (+30 m day−1 and it caused atmospheric depth between 500 hPa level and the ground surface to be vertically expanded. However, its net reduction to −53 m/12 hrs until 21:00 LST indicated synoptic-scale atmospheric layer to be vertical shrunken, resulting in the increase of PM concentrations at 17:00 LST. Simultaneously, much shallower microscale stable nocturnal surface inversion layer (NSIL than daytime thermal internal boundary layer induced particulate matters to be merged inside the NSIL, resulting in maximum PM concentrations at 17:00 LST.

  14. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS. For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was

  15. Retrieval of High-Resolution Atmospheric Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Pearl River Delta Area, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Li; Jingxue Yang; Yunpeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing offers an effective approach to estimate indicators of air quality on a large scale. It is critically significant for air quality monitoring in areas experiencing rapid urbanization and consequently severe air pollution, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China. This paper starts with examining ground observations of particulate matter (PM) and the relationship between PM10 (particles smaller than 10 μm) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) by analyzing observations o...

  16. Ecological effect of airborne particulate matter on plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is a mixture of diverse elements. Deposition of particulate matter to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of these particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. Effects of particulate matter on vegetation may be associated with the reduction in light required for photosynthesis and an increase in leaf temperature due to changed surface optical properties. Changes in energy exchange are more important than the diffusion of gases into and out of leaves which is influenced by dust load, color and particle size. Alkaline dust materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more probable route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. Interception of dusts by vegetation makes an important contribution to the improvement of air quality in the vicinity of vegetation. Although the effect of particulate matter on ecosystem is linked to climate change, there is little threat due to un-speciated particulate matter on a regional scale.

  17. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per megagram...

  18. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  19. Investigation of time-resolved atmospheric conditions and indoor/outdoor particulate matter concentrations in homes with gas and biomass cook stoves in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Heather A; Pardyjak, Eric R

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports findings from a case study designed to investigate indoor and outdoor air quality in homes near the United States-Mexico border During the field study, size-resolved continuous particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured in six homes, while outdoor PM was simultaneously monitored at the same location in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, during March 14-30, 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to compare PM in homes using different fuels for cooking, gas versus biomass, and to obtain a spatial distribution of outdoor PM in a region where local sources vary significantly (e.g., highway, border crossing, unpaved roads, industry). Continuous PM data were collected every 6 seconds using a valve switching system to sample indoor and outdoor air at each home location. This paper presents the indoor PM data from each home, including the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM. The meteorological conditions associated with elevated ambient PM events in the region are also discussed. Results indicate that indoor air pollution has a strong dependence on cooking fuel, with gas stoves having hourly averaged median PM3 concentrations in the range of 134 to 157 microg m(-3) and biomass stoves 163 to 504 microg m(-1). Outdoor PM also indicates a large spatial heterogeneity due to the presence of microscale sources and meteorological influences (median PM3: 130 to 770 microg m(-3)). The former is evident in the median and range of daytime PM values (median PM3: 250 microg m(-3), maximum: 9411 microg m(-3)), while the meteorological influences appear to be dominant during nighttime periods (median PM3: 251 microg m(-3), maximum: 10,846 microg m(-3)). The atmospheric stability is quantified for three nighttime temperature inversion episodes, which were associated with an order of magnitude increase in PM10 at the regulatory monitor in Nogales, AZ (maximum increase: 12 to 474 microg m(-3)). Implications: Regulatory air quality standards are based on outdoor

  20. Ozone removal by diesel particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, T. A.; Batterman, S. A.; Fernandes, G. I.; Kalliokoski, P.

    The most significant removal mechanisms for tropospheric ozone (O 3) include dry deposition, photolysis, and photochemical reactions. This study examines another mechanism potentially important in urban areas: sorption and removal on diesel particulate matter (DPM). Tests were performed to determine O 3 breakthrough and the amount of O 3 removed by the DPM generated by a heavy-duty diesel engine. Teflon filters loaded with 0.7-1.8 mg of DPM were exposed to a test atmosphere of humidified and ozonated air designed to represent realistic ambient air conditions. In addition, soot samples with the organic fraction removed were tested to determine whether the organic or elemental fraction contributed to O 3 removal. For comparison, activated carbon (AC) samples were also tested. The DPM-loaded filters removed 5.6±1.8 wt% of O 3. Considerably more ozone, 31±4 wt %, was removed by the DPM after removal of its soluble organic fraction. Removal capacities of DPM were small relative to AC, which removed >38±3 wt% of O 3. Of the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and Ritchie chemisorption models tested, the Ritchie model provided the best fit to the breakthrough data. Preliminary estimates drawn from laboratory results suggest that diesel soot present at typical urban levels will remove only a small portion of O 3 from urban or tropospheric air. In air cleaning applications, DPM-loaded filters are also expected to remove only a small portion of indoor O 3.

  1. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  2. Discuss on Satellite-Based Particulate Matter Monitoring Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Li, B; Hou, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite measurements for atmospheric pollutants monitoring provide full mapping, large spatial coverage, and high spatial resolution. Retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite data as the key parameter has been used in the study on particulate matter (PM) distributions which is complementary to ground-based measurements. Based on the empirical relations between aerosol optical properties and PM10 or PM2.5 concentration and its influencing factors, combining the Beijing-T...

  3. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column 3...

  4. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods and...

  5. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced roll...

  6. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for...

  7. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from a...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain...

  9. Urban tree effects on fine particulate matter and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Overall, city trees reduce particulate matter and provide substantial health benefits; but under certain conditions, they can locally increase particulate matter concentrations. Urban foresters need to understand how trees affect particulate matter so they can select proper species and create appropriate designs to improve air quality. This article details trees'...

  10. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45...

  11. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). ...

  12. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  13. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20 percent...

  14. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg...

  15. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023 g/dscm...

  16. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  17. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from a...

  18. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0...

  19. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard cubic...

  20. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton) of...

  1. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). ...

  2. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent oxygen...

  3. Source apportionment of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) using a constrained US-EPA-PMF5.0 model at different urban environments in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Dalia; Favez, Olivier; Golly, Benjamin; Besombes, Jean Luc; Alleman, Laurent; Albinet, Alexandre; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most studied atmospheric pollutant in urban areas due to their adverse effects on human health (Pope et al., 2009). Intrinsic properties of PM (e.g. chemical composition and morphology) are directly linked to their origins. Therefore, a harmonized and comprehensive apportionment study of PM sources in urban environments is extremely required to connect source contributions with PM concentration levels and then develop effective PM abatement strategies. Multivariate receptor models such as Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) are very useful and have been used worldwide for PM source apportionment (Viana et al., 2008). PMF uses a weighted least-squares fit and quantitatively determines source fingerprints (factors) and their contributions to the total PM mass. However, in many cases, it could be tricky to separate two factors that co-vary due to similar seasonal variations, making unclear the physical sense of the extracted factors. To address such issues of source collinearities, additional specific constraints are incorporated into the model (i.e., constrained PMF) based on user's external knowledge allowing better apportionment results. In this work and within the framework of the SOURCES project, a harmonized source apportionment approach has been implemented and applied for the determination of PM sources on a large number of sites (up to 20) of different typologies (e.g. urban background, industrial, traffic, rural and/or alpine sites) distributed all over France and previously investigated with annual or multiannual studies (2012-2016). A constrained PMF approach (using US-EPA PMF5.0 software) was applied to the comprehensive PM-offline chemical datasets (i.e. carbonaceous fraction, major ions, metals/trace elements, specific organic markers) in a harmonized way for all the investigated sites. Different types of specific chemical constraints from well-characterized sources were defined based on external knowledge and were

  4. Assessing atmospheric particulate matter distribution based on Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization of herbaceous and tree leaves in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barima, Yao Sadaiou Sabas; Angaman, Djédoux Maxime; N'gouran, Kobenan Pierre; Koffi, N'guessan Achille; Kardel, Fatemeh; De Cannière, Charles; Samson, Roeland

    2014-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions, and the associated human health risks, are likely to continue increasing in urban environments of developing countries like Abidjan (Ivory Cost). This study evaluated the potential of leaves of several herbaceous and tree species as bioindicators of urban particulate matter pollution, and its variation over different land use classes, in a tropical area. Four species well distributed (presence frequencies >90%) over all land use classes, easy to harvest and whose leaves are wide enough to be easily scanned were selected, i.e.: Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae), Eleusine indica (Poaceae), Panicum maximum (Poaceae) and Ficus benjamina (Moraceae). Leaf sampling of these species was carried out at 3 distances from the road and at 3 height levels. Traffic density was also noted and finally biomagnetic parameters of these leaves were determined. Results showed that Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) of leaves was at least 4 times higher (27.5×10(-6)A) in the vicinity of main roads and industrial areas than in parks and residential areas. The main potential sources of PM pollution were motor vehicles and industries. The slightly hairy leaves of the herbaceous plant A. spinosus and the waxy leaves of the tree F. benjamina showed the highest SIRM (25×10(-6)A). Leaf SIRM increased with distance to road (R(2)>0.40) and declined with sampling height (R(2)=0.17). The distance between 0 and 5m from the road seemed to be the most vulnerable in terms of PM pollution. This study has showed that leaf SIRM of herbaceous and tree species can be used to assess PM exposure in tropical urban environments. © 2013.

  5. An Overview of Particulate Matter Measurement Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review article presents an overview of instruments available on the market for measurement of particulate matter. The main instruments and methods of measuring concentration (gravimetric, optical, and microbalance and size distribution Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI, and others were described and compared. The aim of this work was to help researchers choose the most suitable equipment to measure particulate matter. When choosing a measuring instrument, a researcher must clearly define the purpose of the study and determine whether it meets the main specifications of the equipment. ELPI and SMPS are the suitable devices for measuring fine particles; the ELPI works in real time. In health-related studies, a Diffusion Charger is the instrument that best characterizes the surface of ultrafine particles. Several methods and different particle measuring instruments should be used to confirm the values obtained during sampling.

  6. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62... Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.15 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.30 lb per ton). (2...

  7. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry sludge...

  8. Seasonal progression of atmospheric particulate matter over an urban coastal region in peninsular India: Role of local meteorology and long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, P. S.; Sinha, P. R.; Boopathy, R.; Das, T.; Mohanty, S.; Sahu, S. C.; Gurjar, B. R.

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of particulate matter (PM) over an urban site with relatively high concentration of aerosol particles is critically important owing to its adverse health, environmental and climate impact. Here we present a 3 years' worth of measurements (January 2012 to December 2014) of PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm) along with meteorological parameters and seasonal variations at Bhubaneswar an urban-coastal site, in eastern India. The concentrations of PM were determined gravimetrically from the filter samples of PM2.5 and PM10. It revealed remarkable seasonal variations with winter values (55.0 ± 23.4 μg/m3; 147.3 ± 42.4 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) about 3.5 times higher than that in pre-monsoon (15.7 ± 6.2 μg/m3; 41.8 ± 15.3 μg/m3). PM2.5 and PM10 were well correlated while PM2.5/PM10 ratios were found to be 0.38 and 0.32 during winter and pre-monsoon, indicating the predominance of coarse particles, mainly originating from long range transport of pollutants from northern and western parts of India and parts of west Asia as well. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis revealed the IGP and North Western Odisha as the most potential sources of PM2.5 and PM10 during winter. The PM concentrations at Bhubaneswar were comparable with those at other coastal sites of India reported in the literature, but were lower than few polluted urban sites in India and Asia. Empirical model reproduced the observed seasonal variation of PM2.5 and PM10 very well over Bhubaneswar.

  9. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  10. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1880 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12... available control measures, a reasonable further progress plan, contingency measures, and other planning...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March 30...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Pennsylvania has committed to undertake a comprehensive program.... Investigate source-receptor relationship June 1, 1980. Analysis and control strategy development: 1. Analyze...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1025 Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification to...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January... reasonably available control measures, a reasonable further progress plan, contingency measures, and other...

  16. 40 CFR 52.477 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January 12... associated reasonably available control measures, a reasonable further progress plan, contingency measures...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal for... areas to submit an attainment demonstration, associated reasonably available control measures, a...

  18. Impacts of benthic coarse particulate organic matter variations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to assess the relationship between coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) and macroinvertebrate communities was undertaken in the Njoro River, Kenya during 2010. Significantly lower macroinvertebrate densities and diversities were observed in study sites with low Coarse Particulate Organic Matter ...

  19. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  20. In-situ observation of atmospheric particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William Alan

    Airborne particulates play a central role in both the earth’s radiation balance and as a trigger for a wide range of health impacts. Air quality monitors are placed in networks across many cities globally. Typically these provide at best a few recording locations per city. However, large spatial variability occurs on the neighborhood scale. This study sets out to comprehensively characterize a full size distribution from 0.25 - 32 μm of airborne particulates on a fine spatial scale (meters). To fully characterize the impact of atmospheric particulates, global scale observations and data products are needed. Satellite products allow for this global coverage but require in situ validations. For the first part of this study data is gathered on a near daily basis over the month of May, 2014 in a 100 km2 area encompassing parts of Richardson, Texas, and Garland, Texas. Wind direction was determined to be the dominant factor in classifying the data. The highest mean PM2.5 concentration was 14.1 ± 5.7 μgm. -3 corresponding to periods when the wind was out of the south. The lowest PM2.5 concentrations were observed after several consecutive days of rainfall. The rainfall was found to not only “cleanse” the air, leaving a mean PM2.5 concentration as low as 3.0 ± 0.5 μgm. -3 , but to leave the region with a more uniform PM2.5 concentration. Variograms were used to determine an appropriate spatial scale for future sensor placement to provide measurements on a neighborhood scale and found that the spatial scales varied, depending on the synoptic weather pattern, from 0.8 km to 5.2 km, with a typical length scale of 1.7 km. This second part of this study used a zero emission remote-controlled aerial vehicle to look at the horizontal, vertical, and temporal variability of airborne particulates within the first 140 m of the atmosphere. Four flights where conducted on December 4, 2014 between 12:00 pm and 5:00 pm local time. The first three flights flew a pattern of

  1. Current state of particulate matter research and management in Serbia (Introductory paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Jovašević-Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is the air pollutant that currently receives most attention from the atmospheric research community, the legislative authorities and the general public. Limiting particulate matter in the atmosphere which will result in significant benefits for human health, with associated positive economic consequences. Successful management of particulate matter requires scientific knowledge about particulate matter “from cradle to grave”, covering sources of particles, processes that govern their formation, composition, dispersion and fate in the atmosphere, as well as knowledge about human exposure and associated health and well being. Such knowledge allows to design and perform effective and efficient abatement measures and monitoring. This paper provides an introduction to the research and monitoring regarding particulate matter in Serbia. The contributions were first partly presented at the 2nd international workshop of the WeBIOPATR “Outdoor concentration, size distribution and composition of respirable particles in WB urban area” project in September 2009. This information provides context to the contributions in this number, and was part of the rationale of the project WeBIOPATR.

  2. Assessment of CO, CO2 and Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Isah ABDULKARIM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of carbon oxides (CO and CO2 and suspended particulate matter at Benue Cement Company (BCC and Tse-Kucha community was investigated. Results obtained, shows that concentrations of carbon dioxide of 34.40ppm, 39.50 ppm, 48.50 ppm, 78.55 ppm, 65.25 ppm, 26.80 ppm and 29.5 ppm for quarry, raw mill, cement mill, Kiln, packing house, limestone stockpile and Tse-Kucha community respectively were below the maximum standard natural concentration of CO2 in atmosphere of 600ppm while concentrations of CO (1.25ppm - 4.00ppm measured in all the sample stations were below the Nigerian Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and WHO max limit of 10 ppm - 20 ppm for an 8-hourly average time. Lastly, the concentrations of suspended particulate matter of 375 μg/m3, 338 μg/m3 and 290 μg/m3 at the cement mill, packing house and raw mill respectively were also above the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s Guidelines and Standards for Ambient Air Quality which stipulates a range of 150 μg/m3 to 230 μg/m3 for a 24- hourly average.

  3. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The particulate samples from where the metals were characterized and quantified, were collected between December 2007 and March 2008, using a Gravimetric technique a portable SKC 506673 High volume Gravimetric sampler. The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor ...

  4. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface water concentrations of inorganic nutrients and suspended particulate matter (SPM) components from Mtwapa and Shirazi creeks in Kenya were measured and compared. This was aimed at assessing the contribution of phytoplankton carbon, particulate organic carbon (POC) and detritus on the total SPM pool, and ...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy are disapproved since they do not provide the degree of control needed to attain and maintain the...; Table 4.2, Emissions Inventory Summary for Particulates and Table 5.2, Summary of Control Strategy...

  6. Temporal and spatial variations in particulate matter, particulate organic carbon and attenuation coefficient in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.

    Nine stations over a stretch of 21 km of Periyar river estuary were sampled during January to December 1981. Particulate matter varied from 3-253 mg.1 super(1) at the surface and 24.8-257mg.1 super(1) at the bottom. Particulate organic carbon ranged...

  7. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  8. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed below.Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I - EP...

  9. Effect of ambient particulate matter expousre on hemostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was...

  10. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standard of Performance for Wool Fiberglass Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the...

  11. High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky; Daniel A. Pickersgill; Viviane R. Després; Ulrich Pöschl; William L. Chameides

    2009-01-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds...

  12. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, US EPA Region 9, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  13. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  14. Trends from the South African historical diesel particulate matter data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no occupational exposure limit (OEL) for diesel particulate matter (DPM) in South Africa. Recently the Department of Mineral Resources and the mining industry have made efforts to determine which concentration of DPM could...

  15. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  16. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  17. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  18. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  20. Particulate Matter Assessment in the Air Based on the Heavy Metals Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandačka Dušan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matters are the result of various processes in the atmosphere that are part of everyday life. The chemical composition of these particles is mainly influenced by their origin. Their behavior is also dependent on meteorological conditions and other factors as well. The aim of this paper was to identify sources of particulate matters by means of statistical methods due to the presence of 17 heavy metals. The problem solving assumes the knowledge of multivariate statistical data analysis methods as principal components analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multivariate regression and vector algebra. For the application of methodology suitable software may prove appropriate.

  1. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  2. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  3. Determination of barium, chromium, cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevski, I. V.; Daskalova, N.; Havezov, I.

    2000-11-01

    The present paper has shown that the Q concept, as proposed by P.W.J.M. Boumans, J.J.A.M. Vrakking, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 43 (1988) 69, can be used as a basic methodology in the determination of Ba, Cr, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in pairs of atmospheric particles by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The data base of Q values for line interference [ QIj(λ a)] and Q values for wing background interference [ QWJ(Δλ a)] were obtained in our former work [N. Daskalova, Iv. Boevski, Spectral interferences in the determination of trace elements in environmental materials by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 54 (1999) 1099-1122]. The samples of atmospheric particles were collected by the Bergerhoff method. The ICP-AES determination was performed after sample digestion with aqua regia. Q values were used for the calculation of both the total interfering signal under the analysis lines and the true detection limits, depending on the matrix constituents in the different samples. Comparative data for the concentration of analytes were obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and direct current arc atomic emission spectrographic method (dc arc-AES).

  4. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 ...

  5. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 μg/m(3) and 60 μg/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 μg/m(3), 38.1μg/m(3) and 52.5 μg/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ≤ 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  7. Characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in a museum in an urban area; Caratterizzazione del particolato aerosospeso all'interno di un museo situato in area urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In February 2001 the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of ENEA Institute for Radioprotection carried out a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in a museum, in the urban area of Bologna, in the frame of GIANO project of ENEA. The aerosol mass size distribution was measured and a high mass concentration of aerosol, 39.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, with an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.5 {mu}m was found. A comparison with the composition of the outdoor aerosol was made as well. In an urban area fine particles are generally generated by vehicles exhaust (particularly diesel-powered ones) and are constituted essentially of carbon black. Because of their surface adsorption properties these carbon black particles typically contain varying quantities of substances. Deposition of fine particles on the surfaces of works of art can lead to visual degradation and further damages due to chemical reactions with the adsorbed compounds. [Italian] Nell'ambito del progetto di Grafica Innovativa per il patrimonio Artistico Nazionale e per l'Occupazione Giovanile (GIANO) dell'ENEA, il laboratorio di dosimetria interna dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA, che ha competenze nella caratterizzazione fisica dell'aerosol, ha effettuato una campagna preliminare di misura del particolato aerosospeso presente all'interno di un museo nell'area urbana della citta' di Bologna. I dati dei campionamenti hanno rilevato la presenza di un'alta concentrazione in massa, 44.7 {mu}/m{sup 3}, di particolato aerosospeso inferiore a 10.5 {mu}m, composta per circa il 90%, 39.5% {mu}/m{sup 3}, da particelle con diametro aerodinamico inferiore a 0.5 {mu}m. La provenienza dalle emissioni dei motori a combustibili fossili, del particolato con queste dimensioni, ha consentito il confronto con i dati relativi alle misure di concentrazione di particolato aerosospeso effettuate presso un incrocio ad alta intensita' di traffico della citta'. Dalle

  8. Optimization of collision/reaction gases for determination of 90Sr in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry after direct introduction of air via a gas-exchange device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Ohara, Ryota; Matsunaga, Kirara

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear power plant accidents release radioactive strontium 90 (90Sr) into the environment. Monitoring of 90Sr, although important, is difficult and time consuming because it emits only beta radiation. We have developed a new analytical system that enables real-time analysis of 90Sr in atmospheric particulate matter with an analytical run time of only 10 min. Briefly, after passage of an air sample through an impactor, a small fraction of the sample is introduced into a gas-exchange device, where the air is replaced by Ar. Then the sample is directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) system equipped with a collision/reaction cell to eliminate isobaric interferences on 90Sr from 90Zr+, 89Y1H+, and 90Y+. Experiments with various reaction gas conditions revealed that these interferences could be minimized under the following optimized conditions: 1.0 mL min- 1 O2, 10.0 mL min- 1 H2, and 1.0 mL min- 1 NH3. The estimated background equivalent concentration and estimated detection limit of the system were 9.7 × 10- 4 and 3.6 × 10- 4 ng m- 3, respectively, which are equivalent to 4.9 × 10- 6 and 1.8 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3. Recoveries of Sr in PM2.5 measured by real-time analysis compared to those obtained by simultaneously collection on filter was 53 ± 23%, and using this recovery, the detection limit as PM2.5 was estimated to be 3.4 ± 1.5 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3. That is, this system enabled detection of 90Sr at concentrations < 5 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3 even considering the insufficient fusion/vaporization/ionization efficiency of Sr in PM2.5.

  9. Discuss on Satellite-Based Particulate Matter Monitoring Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Hou, L.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite measurements for atmospheric pollutants monitoring provide full mapping, large spatial coverage, and high spatial resolution. Retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) from satellite data as the key parameter has been used in the study on particulate matter (PM) distributions which is complementary to ground-based measurements. Based on the empirical relations between aerosol optical properties and PM10 or PM2.5 concentration and its influencing factors, combining the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regional PM distribution feature, the specifications including bands, viewing angles and polarization measuring requirements of the on-orbit PM monitoring instrument are discussed. The instrument is designed to obtain the data for retrieving atmospheric AOD, shape and size of particles, refractive index, aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), etc. The major pollutant PM2.5 concentration can be retrieved from the remote sensing data especially, and its global distribution can be mapped as well. The progress of conventional aerosol retrieval method using visible data is presented along with its limitation for serious haze-fog condition. Adding ultra violet (UV) bands to obtain UV aerosol index (UVAI) is useful for monitoring the main constituents of haze.

  10. Characterization of respirable mine dust and diesel particulate matter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available mine dust and diesel particulate matter By VJ MAHLANGU* PP NDIBEWU CJ PRETORIUS Introduction Objectives  Experimental  Results and Discussion  Conclusion  Acknowledgements PRESENTATION OUTLINE  Underground mining... is often associated with the release of: INTRODUCTION Diesel Exhaust Mine Dust Gas Phase & Particulate Phase Respirable dust { Diameter ≤10 (µm) } Affects mine employees Focus of this presentation SiO2 (α-quartz) DPM (EC...

  11. Association between maternal exposure to particulate matter and premature birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiza Agostini Córdoba de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this time-series study carried out in São José dos Campos, a southeastern Brazilian city, between 01.01.2005 and 31.12.2009, was to estimate the role of maternal exposure to air pollutants and preterm births. Preterm newborns of mothers aged between 18 and 34 years, with at least eight years of schooling, singleton pregnancies and whose delivery was vaginal were included in the study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the role of particulate matter, ozone and sulfur dioxide on preterm delivery with lags of zero up to 30 days. Exposure to particulate matter was associated significantly with preterm newborns in lags of 0, 1 and 3 days; but no association was found between cumulative maternal exposure in lags of 7, 15 and 30 days and the outcome. Maternal exposure to particulate matter therefore has an acute effect on preterm births in a medium-sized Brazilian town.

  12. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  13. Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Particulate Matter during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five-day isentropic backward trajectories as determined by the air trajectory HYSPLIT model were computed for Morogoro and the allocated sector of oceanic origin over continental, mainly through Mozambique and Tanzania) was the most common. However, other sectors such as Oceanic, over Madagascar or continental ...

  14. Impact of atmospheric deposition on particulate iron flux and distribution in northwestern Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétel, Christophe R.; Remoudaki, Emmanouela; Davies, Joanne E.; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Fowler, Scott W.; Lambert, Claude E.; Bergametti, Gilles; Buat-Ménard, Patrick

    1993-05-01

    Iron distribution can be significantly influenced b the interactions between atmospheric inputs and internal recycling within the water column. This question was investigated in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea as part of the French DYFAMED program. Sediment traps were moored at 80, 200 and 1000 m depth at 42°44'N, 8°31'E during 1986-1987 to collect settling particles in which iron was analysed. During the same sampling period, concurrent atmospheric deposition fluxes of iron were measured at Capo Cavallo, Corsica, 20 nautical from our marine sampling site. Some short but intense atmospheric inputs (1.5-2.4 mg m -2 day -1 during 5-20 consecutive days) of mineral matter from Africa are shown to be sufficient to explain the yearly particulate iron flux leaving surface waters at 200 m depth. Zooplanktonic grazing activity, particularly intense from April to June, is mostly responsible for the sedimentation of iron. Faecal pellets control the total iron flux because they incorporate both iron associated with aluminosilicates (refractory particulate iron) and most of iron associated with biological material (biogenic iron).There was anout 3300 ppm of iron in the organic matter collected by the sediment traps at 200 m during summer and fall. At 1000 m depth this concentration was greater by a factor of 2. During the same period, the calculated ratio of refractory particulate iron (Fe REFR) to particulate aluminium for the large particles at 80 and 200 m depth ((Fe REFRA1) TRAP = 0.43), was lower than the Fe/A1 ratio usually measured in the Saharan aerosol (0.5 < Fe/A1 < 0.7). This observation is underscored by the amplitude of the dissolved/particulate exchanges and suggests that most of the iron associated with sinking organic matter is provided by atmospheric input.

  15. Climate change, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L; McGregor, Glenn

    2008-11-01

    Because the state of the atmosphere determines the development, transport, dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants, there is concern that climate change could affect morbidity and mortality associated with elevated concentrations of these gases and fine particles. We review how climate change could affect future concentrations of tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM), and what changing concentrations could mean for population health. We review studies projecting the impacts of climate change on air quality and studies projecting the impacts of these changes on morbidity and mortality. Climate change could affect local to regional air quality through changes in chemical reaction rates, boundary layer heights that affect vertical mixing of pollutants, and changes in synoptic airflow patterns that govern pollutant transport. Sources of uncertainty include the degree of future climate change, future emissions of air pollutants and their precursors, and how population vulnerability may change in the future. Given these uncertainties, projections suggest that climate change will increase concentrations of tropospheric ozone, at least in high-income countries when precursor emissions are held constant, which would increase morbidity and mortality. Few projections are available for low- and middle-income countries. The evidence is less robust for PM, primarily because few studies have been conducted. Additional research is needed to better understand the possible impacts of climate change on air pollution-related health impacts. If improved models continue to project higher ozone concentrations with climate change, then reducing greenhouse gas emissions would enhance the health of current and future generations.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan I; Hanna, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM(2.5) patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM(2.5) concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM(2.5) variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Nava, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Division of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Prati, P. [Department of Physics, University of Genoa and INFN Division of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Vecchi, R. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Division of Milan, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  18. Anthropogenic and natural constituents in particulate matter in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, E.P.; Schaap, M.; Nguyen, L.; Matthijsen, J.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Brink, H.M. ten; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2011-01-01

    To develop mitigation strategies for reducing concentrations of both PM2.5 (and PM10), the origin of particulate matter (PM) needs to be established. An intensive, one-year measurement campaign from August 2007 to August 2008 was carried out to determine the composition of PM

  19. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  20. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, R.; Wang, M.; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413650944; Andersen, Z. J.; Hoffmann, B.; Stafoggia, M.; Samoli, E.; Weinmayr, G.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Xun, W. W.; Fischer, P.; Eriksen, K. T.; Sørensen, M.; Tjønneland, A.; Ricceri, F.; de Hoogh, K.; Key, T.; Eeftens, M.; Peeters, P. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Meliefste, K.; Oftedal, B.; Schwarze, P. E.; Nafstad, P.; Galassi, C.; Migliore, E.; Ranzi, A.; Cesaroni, G.; Badaloni, C.; Forastiere, F.; Penell, J.; De Faire, U.; Korek, M.; Pedersen, N.; Östenson, C. G.; Pershagen, G.; Fratiglioni, L.; Concin, H.; Nagel, G.; Jaensch, A.; Ineichen, A.; Naccarati, A.; Katsoulis, M.; Trichpoulou, A.; Keuken, M.; Jedynska, A.; Kooter, I. M.; Kukkonen, J.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Sokhi, R. S.; Katsouyanni, K.; Vineis, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. Methods: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We

  1. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  2. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  3. Ambient air particulate matter in Lagos, Nigeria: A study using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-01-17

    AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER IN LAGOS, NIGERIA: A STUDY USING RECEPTOR MODELING WITH. X-RAY FLOURESCENCE ANALYSIS. E.A. Oluyemi* and O.I. Asubiojo. Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, P.M.B. 013, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. (Received January 17, 2001; revised August 22, 2001).

  4. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  5. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  6. Investigation of the oxidation behavior of diesel particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yezerets, Aleksey; Currier, Neal W.; Eadler, Heather A.; Suresh, Arvind; Madden, Paula F.; Branigin, Mark A. [Cummins Inc., 1900 McKinley Avenue, Columbus, IN 47201 (United States)

    2003-12-01

    In this work, an attempt was made to identify and decouple several effects contributing to the complexity of kinetics of diesel particulate matter oxidation by oxygen. Adsorbed hydrocarbons provided limited contribution to the overall reactivity of the un-pretreated particulate matter. Even upon their thermal desorption, the first few percents of carbon in particulate matter were oxidized at an anomalously high rate. Further oxidation occurred at a lower rate with rather uniform kinetic characteristics. The high initial reactivity can be restored repeatedly by exposure of particulate matter to the ambient air for the prolonged periods of time (weeks) at room temperature. The experimental results suggest that these changes in reactivity of carbon are chemical, not morphological, in nature. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged ambient aging leads to formation of some highly reactive groups on the carbon surface, responsible for the subsequent relatively facile initial oxidation. A high density of these surface groups presumably cannot be obtained during the more vigorous oxidation process at higher temperatures.

  7. 40 CFR 52.332 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.332 Control strategy..., 2000 letter from Margie Perkins, Director, Colorado Air Pollution Control Division, to Richard Long...

  8. Biomonitoring of particulate matter by magnetic properties of Ulmus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    faraz

    2012-09-11

    Sep 11, 2012 ... Biomonitoring of the particulate matter (PM) helps us to find out quantity and quality of vegetation in different parts of the city and create sustainable urban landscape. This study explains the results of an air pollution biomonitoring in Isfahan (Iran) with regards to the magnetic properties of tree leaves of.

  9. Trace Metals Concentration Assessment in Urban Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    acid mixture, followed by the quantification of the trace elements by flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric ... industrial activities. Inorganic component of particulate matters which are mainly trace metals is very important because they are natural constituents of the ..... Size distribution and chemical composition of.

  10. Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    The temporal, spatial and depth related variation of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) in the Bay of Bengal are assessed in this paper. For this purpose, suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected from eight depths (2 to 1000...

  11. Dynamic and thermodynamic mechanisms of TFA adsorption by particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junyu; Zhai, Zihan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ziyuan; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Boya; Zhang, Jianbo

    2017-06-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the atmosphere is produced by degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons. In recent years, TFA has attracted global attention because of increased environmental concentrations, biological toxicity and accumulation in aqueous environments. This study focused on the mechanisms underlying the adsorption of TFA by particulate matter to identify the appropriate descriptive model for this process and thus improve estimation of TFA adsorption in future environmental monitoring. Onsite gas and particle phase sampling in Beijing, China, and subsequent measurement of TFA concentrations indicated that the TFA concentration in the gas phase (1396 ± 225 pg m -3 ) was much higher than that in the particle phase (62 ± 8 pg m -3 ) and that monthly concentrations varied seasonally with temperature. Based on the field results and analysis, an adsorption experiment of TFA on soot was then conducted at three different temperatures (293, 303, and 313 K) to provide parameters for kinetic and thermodynamic modelling. The proportion of atmospheric TFA concentration in the gas phase increased with temperature, indicating that temperature affected the phase distribution of TFA. The subsequent kinetic and thermodynamic modelling showed that the adsorption of TFA by soot could be described well by the Bangham kinetic model. The adsorption was controlled by diffusion, and the key mechanism was physical adsorption. The adsorption behavior can be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters ΔG° (-2.34, -1.25, and -0.15 kJ mol -1  at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively), ΔH° (-34.34 kJ mol -1 ), and ΔS° (-109.22 J mol -1  K -1 ) for TFA adsorption by soot were negative, indicating that adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  13. 78 FR 3085 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 10..., 51, 52, 53 and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY... criteria and the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM), the EPA is...

  14. Spatial correlativity of atmospheric particulate components simultaneously collected in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Oku, Yuichiro; Kishikawa, Naoya; Deguchi, Yuya; Sera, Nobuyuki; Seiyama, Tetsurou; Horasaki, Kazunori; Arashidani, Keiichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takako; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Inaba, Yohei; Tonokura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kokunai, Osamu; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-02-01

    The simultaneous sampling of total suspended particles was performed at 14 sites in Japan during July 2008-June 2009. The spatial correlativity of each particulate composition toward Osaka was obtained for nine selected sites to overview the chemical composition and geographical distribution of particulate components across a wide range of areas nationwide. The spatial correlatives of atmospheric particulate components were extended to an even wider range of areas up to 950 km distance (meso-alpha scale region, >200 km) for a far-reaching distance analysis unique in the literature. Overall, the spatial correlations of ionic species and both organic and elemental carbons were significant, suggesting their shared advections, including their long-range transport from East Asia. Although sulfate ions are widely dispersed across Japan, such is not necessarily correlated with organic and elemental carbon, possibly indicating that the sulfate emission source, including long-range transport, differs from that of carbonaceous particulates. By contrast, the characteristics of spatial correlatives of metallic constituents vary; for example, particulate Pb and Cd show a significantly wide range of spatial correlatives to Osaka, while Mn-though limited to cities neighboring Osaka-shows significant spatial correlations. Other metallic constituents showed no significant spatial correlatives, indicating the effects of local pollutants. Moreover, the extent of the spatial dispersion of the particulate components and the relationships among chemical components were analyzed via factor analysis to highlight the effects of long-range inflow and local original emissions. In this treatment, 13 particulate components among the 19 measured were implicated in long-range transport.

  15. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    was the most important sector, contributing about 60 % for BC and OC, 45 % for PM2. 5, and less than 40 % for PM10, where large combustion sources and industrial processes are equally important. Global anthropogenic emissions of BC were estimated at about 6.6 and 7.2 Tg in 2000 and 2010, respectively, and represent about 15 % of PM2. 5 but for some sources reach nearly 50 %, i.e. for the transport sector. Our global BC numbers are higher than previously published owing primarily to the inclusion of new sources. This PM estimate fills the gap in emission data and emission source characterization required in air quality and climate modelling studies and health impact assessments at a regional and global level, as it includes both carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous constituents of primary particulate matter emissions. The developed emission dataset has been used in several regional and global atmospheric transport and climate model simulations within the ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants) project and beyond, serves better parameterization of the global integrated assessment models with respect to representation of black carbon and organic carbon emissions, and built a basis for recently published global particulate number estimates.

  16. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    anthropogenic total, and residential combustion was the most important sector, contributing about 60 % for BC and OC, 45 % for PM2. 5, and less than 40 % for PM10, where large combustion sources and industrial processes are equally important. Global anthropogenic emissions of BC were estimated at about 6.6 and 7.2 Tg in 2000 and 2010, respectively, and represent about 15 % of PM2. 5 but for some sources reach nearly 50 %, i.e. for the transport sector. Our global BC numbers are higher than previously published owing primarily to the inclusion of new sources. This PM estimate fills the gap in emission data and emission source characterization required in air quality and climate modelling studies and health impact assessments at a regional and global level, as it includes both carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous constituents of primary particulate matter emissions. The developed emission dataset has been used in several regional and global atmospheric transport and climate model simulations within the ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants project and beyond, serves better parameterization of the global integrated assessment models with respect to representation of black carbon and organic carbon emissions, and built a basis for recently published global particulate number estimates.

  17. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  18. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  19. Determinants of exposure to particulate matter in textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rosales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/05/11 - Accepted: 2015/06/03The objective of the research was to determine the exposure to particulate material in the textil area of a manufacturing company of linens and duvets, where it is carried out measurements of particulate material in respirable fraction 2.5 μg/m3. The same were made through the use of the equipment of direct reading and the results are compared with the value set limit. The study found that in the operation with the overlock machines is where there is a greater amount of particulate matter getting the maximum value in the entire production plant of 244 μg/m³, and a lower value machine in the bender with a value of 9 μg/m³ During the course of the investigation, it wanted to know the perception of the employees, to do this a survey was administered in a manner that takes first-hand the opinion with regard to the work. Among the results is that the staff is aware that there is particulate matter and if you have had respiratory complaints, indicate that the organization presents a great deal of commitment to the security and they also are involved in the tasks.

  20. Size-resolved comprehensive characterization of airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, E.; Massabò, D.; Ariola, V.; Bove, M. C.; Fermo, P.; Piazzalunga, A.; Prati, P.

    2013-03-01

    An update of a methodology to extract both the size-segregated source apportionment of atmospheric aerosol and the size distribution of each detected element or compound, is presented. The approach is based on the parallel use of standard low-volume samplers to collect particulate matter (PM) and of an Optical Particle Counter (OPC). The methodology was introduced and validated in previous works for the average size distribution of elemental components of PM: it has now been extended to PM compounds such as ions and carbonaceous aerosol (namely, organic end elemental carbon, OC and EC). Furthermore, the methodology has been now adopted in the frame of a field campaign, proving that it is able to provide not only an average size distribution but also information on the time evolution of the size distribution of specific PM species. Samples were collected in the urban area of Genoa (Italy) and their composition was measured by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF), Ion Chromatography (IC) and Thermo-optical analysis. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to time series of daily concentration values in PM10 and PM2.5 (i.e. fraction of PM mass with aerodynamic diameter lower that 10 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively) to identify major PM sources, and both PM mass concentration and size-segregated particle number concentration were apportioned. Seven and six sources were respectively resolved in PM10 and PM2.5, with processes related to secondary aerosol formation accounting for about 53% and 57% of PM levels in the two fractions. The new methodology is complementary to size-segregated PM sampling, and it was actually tested against a 13-stage nanoMOUDI cascade impactor. Size distributions obtained with the new methodology and directly measured by the nanoMOUDI turned out to be in good agreement (R2 > 0.60) with discrepancies observed for SO42- only.

  1. Modelling of particulate matter and ammonia emissions from German agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Beletskaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production comes along with numerous environmental effects, such as contribution to climate change, harmful to health emission impacts as well as eutrophication and acidification of soils and waters. Political regulations and environmental protection measures at the national and international level shall support development of sustainable agriculture. The intention of this work is to analyze the alterations of particulate matter, ammonia, and greenhouse gas losses from German agr...

  2. Integrated assessment and management of ambient particulate matter: International perspective and current research in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartonova Alena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution mitigation is a necessity in Serbia, due to its high levels of criteria pollutants in ambient environment. Successful implementation of mitigation measures requires access to sufficient information from national research, and well running and efficient local participatory processes. To support air pollution mitigation in the West Balkan region, the WeBIOPATR project started a series of bi-annual conferences in 2007. They bring together an inter-disciplinary research community and local and national administrations from Serbia and its neighborhood, to present research results from Serbia and countries all over the world, and to share knowledge and best practices of mitigation. The conferences promote research that may support integrated assessment of particulate matter, and further refinement of the “Pressures-State-Impact“ (PSI part of the “Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response“ (DPSIR framework. Integrated approach needs to be underpinned by solid disciplinary research covering e.g. air quality monitoring technologies, atmospheric and further ambient composition, atmospheric modeling, biological effects and human health. WeBIOPATR conferences report on recently performed studies of particulate matter in Serbia and abroad. Through the breadth of subjects and audience, they bring together a wide inter-disciplinary and cross-sectoral expertise in support of translation of research to practice. They also allow to present examples of successful mitigation achieved with the help of strong local participatory environmental governance, demonstrating the increasing recognition of the need to involve both public and private actors. This paper gives the main features of a full chain approach and elements of integrated approach to particulate matter research, summarizes the proceedings of the 3rd WeBIOPATR conference, and in addition, reviews the results of particulate matter monitoring and source identification studies in Serbia

  3. Distribution of particulate organic matter in Rajapur and Vagothan estuarines (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tulaskar, A.S; Sawant, S.S; Wagh, A.B.

    The distribution of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and particulate proteins (PP) in the suspended particulate matter was studied. The POC, PCHO and PP concentrations ranged from 176 to 883 mu g.l/1, 115 to 647 mu...

  4. A large source of dust missing in particulate matter emission inventories? Wind erosion of post-fire landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; S. H. Chung; B. K. Lamb

    2017-01-01

    Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire contributes substantial particulate matter (PM) in the form of dust to the atmosphere, but the magnitude of this dust source is largely unknown. It is important to accurately quantify dust emissions because they can impact human health, degrade visibility, exacerbate dust-on-snow issues (including snowmelt timing, snow chemistry...

  5. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  6. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  7. A study of aerosol properties based on observations of particulate matter from the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anondo; Toohey, Darin W.

    2016-08-01

    The United States Embassy in Beijing, China publicly released a record of mass concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 µm and smaller in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), from April 2008 to the present, measured with a beta attenuation monitor (BAM). We compare these measurements with observations of particulate matter recorded at the Beijing Institute of Atmospheric Physics and observations of visibility recorded at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) to assess their value as a record of air quality in the greater Beijing metropolitan area. We find that the PM2.5 observations correlate well with the other observations of particulate matter (PM) over the period 1 January-1 February 2013 using a tapered element oscillating microbalance and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and they exhibit a clear inverse correlation with visibility measured at BCIA. Using inverse visibility as a proxy of radiation extinction, we determine a dry mass extinction efficiency and a dependence of radiation extinction on relative humidity, which is consistent with other studies of polluted urban environments. We deduce a strong degree of homogeneity of particulate pollution across the Beijing metropolitan region and conclude that the U.S. Embassy measurements are a reliable sample of this particulate pollution during periods of photochemical smog. The U.S. Embassy observations of PM2.5 appear to remain consistent throughout the available record and can serve as a useful dataset for studying future trends in particulate matter as China implements ambitious measures to improve air quality in the region.

  8. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-02

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs ( 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples.

  9. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  10. Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China

  11. Particulate matter in the indoor environment of museums in the megacity of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavicchioli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollutants can have serious impacts on the preservation of São Paulo's tangible cultural heritage. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a monitoring campaign focussed on particulate matter (PM that was conducted in three of the most important museums of the São Paulo megacity (Brazil: the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE-USP, the Museu Paulista (MP-USP, and the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo (PE. These museums exhibit indoor PM and black carbon (BC concentrations consistent with their urban locations and their specific methods for managing the indoor environment.

  12. [Characteristics of particulate matter pollution in coke oven plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua-xin; Zhang, Wang-zhen; Huang, Kun; He, Yun-feng; Li, Xiao-hai; Kuang, Dan; Lin, Da-feng; Zhang, Xiao-min; Wu, Tang-chun

    2012-12-01

    To explore the characteristics of particulate matter pollution in coke oven plant, so as to provide scientific data for establishing occupational exposure limits for coke oven emissions. Concentrations of CO, SO₂, BSM, BTEX (concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylene were determined in this study), PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, 16 selected PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were determined in the work environment of a coke oven plant in Wuhan. The work environment was divided into the adjunct area, the bottom of, the side of and the top of coke oven. The concentrations of CO, SO₂, BSM, BETX, PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were significantly related to working environmental categories, respectively, and were increasing as the adjunct area work environments were not significantly different in one-way ANOVA (P > 0.05). The distribution of aromatic rings and the concentrations of total benzo[a] pyrene equivalents in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were not statistically different between work environments. The concentrations of particulate matter was related with other contents of coke oven emissions in coke work environment, and the contents and types of PAHs in PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were similar.

  13. Effect of ozonation on particulate matter in broiler houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Wang, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E; Parnell, C B

    2010-10-01

    The effects of ozonation on particulate matter were studied on a commercial broiler farm. The farm consisted of 4 identical tunnel-ventilated houses (12.8×152.4 m): 2 houses were treated with O3 (maximum concentration 0.1 ppm) and the other 2 served as control units. The particle size distributions of total suspended particulate (TSP) samples from both control and treated houses were found to have very similar profiles with no statistical difference. The TSP concentrations were significantly higher in treated houses as compared with those in control houses, and the mean of the differences was 5.50 mg/m3. In both treated and control houses, there were substantial vertical TSP concentration gradients and the concentrations decreased with height. At broiler chicken height (0.28 m), TSP concentrations were 13±3 mg/m3 in control houses and 17±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. At human breathing height (1.55 m), TSP concentrations were 8±4 mg/m3 in control houses and 7±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. Particle phase NH4+ concentrations were higher in treated houses (ranging from 0.59 to 42.01 mg/m3 with mean=17.49 mg/m3) than in control houses (ranging from 0.34 to 13.55 mg/m3 with mean=4.42 mg/m3). The TSP samples from locations in the vicinity of the farm showed higher concentrations downwind than that upwind, but there were no significant differences observed among different ambient locations for TSP NH4+ concentrations. The results from this study did not show that direct application of ozonation technique has beneficial effects for particulate matter control in broiler houses.

  14. Composição elementar do material particulado presente no aerossol atmosférico do município de Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais Elemental composition of the particulate matter present in the atmospheric aerosols of Sete Lagoas, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guimarães Moura Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was the identification of sources generating particulate matter in the atmospheric aerosols of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais. The measurement of the mineral composition was accomplished by X-ray diffractometry and the elemental concentration by neutron activation analysis. The results showed that Al, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg and Na are the predominant chemical elements in the total suspended particles (TPS. The presence of Na, Ba, Cl, Cu, Eu, Fe and Sm in those particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM10, indicates that soil dust and ceramic and pig iron industries are the main sources of air quality degradation in the region.

  15. Atmospheric particulate mercury at the urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    Particulate mercury concentrations were investigated during intensive field campaigns at the urban and forest sites in central Poland, between April 2013 and October 2014. For the first time, quantitative determination of total particulate mercury in coarse (PHg2.2) and fine (PHg0.7) aerosol samples was conducted in Poznań and Jeziory. The concentrations in urban fine and coarse aerosol fractions amounted to urban site during summer was mainly attributed to anthropogenic sources, with significant contribution from resuspension processes and long-range transport. The highest values of PHg0.7 and PHg2.2 were found during westerly and southerly wind events, reflecting local emission from highly polluted areas. The period from late fall to spring showed that advection from the southern part of Poland was the main factor responsible for elevated Hg concentrations in fine and coarse particles in the investigated region. Moreover, September 2013 could be given as an example of the influence of additional urban activities which occurred approx. 10 m from the sampling site-construction works connected with replacement of the road surface, asphalting, etc. The concentrations of particulate Hg (>600.0 pg m(-3)) were much higher than during the following months when any similar situation did not occur. Our investigations confirmed that Hg in urban aerosol samples was predominantly related to local industrial and commercial emissions, whereas the main source of Hg in particulate matter collected at the forest site was connected with regional anthropogenic processes. This paper provides the results of the first long-term measurements of size-fractionated particulate mercury conducted in central Poland, which could be an important insight into atmospheric Hg processes within such a scarcely investigated part of Europe.

  16. Development of emission factors for particulate matter in a school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheff, P.A.; Paulius, V.; Conroy, L.M.

    1999-07-01

    Schools have complex indoor environments which are influenced by many factors such as number of occupants, building design, office equipment, cleaning agents, and school activities. Like large office buildings, school environments may be adversely influenced by deficiencies in ventilation which may be due to improper operation of HVAC systems, attempts at energy efficiency that limit the supply of outdoor air, or remodeling of building components. Most importantly, children spend up to a third of their time in these structures, and thus it is desirable to better understand the environmental quality in these buildings. A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, IL was selected for this baseline indoor air quality survey. The school was characterized as having no health complaints, good maintenance schedules, and did not contain carpeting within the classrooms or hallways. The focus of this paper is on the measurements of air quality in the school. The development of emission factors for particulate matter is also discussed. Four indoor locations including the Cafeteria, a Science Classroom, an Art Classroom, and the Lobby outside of the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February of 1997. Integrated samples (8 hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements of bioaerosols (two minute samples, three times per day) on three consecutive days were collected at each of the indoor and outdoor sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, temperature and humidity were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the Lobby area. Detailed logs of occupant activity were also collected at each indoor monitoring location throughout the study. Total particle concentrations ranged from 29 to 177 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in the art

  17. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durukan I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of air particulate matter (APM levels in the city were examined. In some stations, APM sampled in according to their size distribution such as PM10 and PM2.5. Elemental characterization of size distributed PM were achieved and evaluated. It was detected that the elements mainly originated from soil in Beytepe station, from soil and solid fuel usage in Kayas station and from traffic and a variety of human activities in Sıhhiye station in air samplings. While the elements of natural origin observed in PM10 fraction, the elements from traffic and human activities were in PM2.5. Eventually, enrichment calculations were performed in order to identify the pollution sources.

  18. 77 FR 25164 - Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for..., Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Limited Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of Alaska on September 20, 2011... notice of EPA's adequacy finding regarding the PM 10 Limited Maintenance Plan for Eagle River, Alaska...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico... including monitoring, reporting, emission inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... commitments, for implementing all of the required activities including monitoring, reporting, emission...

  1. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed rule...

  2. 77 FR 45956 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Kentucky; Louisville; Fine Particulate Matter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Particulate Matter 2002 Base Year Emissions Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking final action to approve the 1997 annual fine particulate matter (PM 2... other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1278 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1278 Section 52.1278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Mississippi § 52.1278 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated January 30...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1781 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.1781 Section 52.1781 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Carolina § 52.1781 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) The plan's control strategy...

  5. California wildfires of 2008: coarse and fine particulate matter toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegesser, Teresa C; Pinkerton, Kent E; Last, Jerold A

    2009-06-01

    During the last week of June 2008, central and northern California experienced thousands of forest and brush fires, giving rise to a week of severe fire-related particulate air pollution throughout the region. California experienced PM(10-2.5) (particulate matter with mass median aerodynamic diameter > 2.5 mum to wildfires in this region. Toxicity of PM(10-2.5) and PM(2.5) obtained during the time of peak concentrations of smoke in the air was determined with a mouse bioassay and compared with PM samples collected under normal conditions from the region during the month of June 2007. Concentrations of PM were not only higher during the wildfire episodes, but the PM was much more toxic to the lung on an equal weight basis than was PM collected from normal ambient air in the region. Toxicity was manifested as increased neutrophils and protein in lung lavage and by histologic indicators of increased cell influx and edema in the lung. We conclude that the wildfire PM contains chemical components toxic to the lung, especially to alveolar macrophages, and they are more toxic to the lung than equal doses of PM collected from ambient air from the same region during a comparable season.

  6. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-06-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  7. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  8. Diesel particulate matter exposure to railroad train crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liukonen, Larry R; Grogan, John L; Myers, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Exposure assessments were conducted aboard diesel locomotives. Results were evaluated to determine variables that affect exposure to DPM (diesel particulate matter) and to assess use of EC (elemental carbon) and OC (organic carbon) as surrogates for DPM. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 5040 was used for collection and analysis of samples in locomotives and in nonrailroad settings. The level of EC, but not OC, in locomotives was found to be significantly affected by position of exhaust stacks and windows. EC ranged from diesel exhaust exposure whereas OC levels are not, and that open windows and exhaust stack(s) in front of the locomotive cab have a significant effect on EC.

  9. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release...... of cytokines and changes of the respiratory function. Experimental exposures of eight atopic but otherwise healthy subjects were performed in a climate chamber under controlled conditions. The three controlled exposures were about 75 microg/m3 total suspended particulate matter, 0.3 p.p.m. ozone......, and the combination of these. The exposure duration was 3 h. The outcome measures were interleukins and cells in nasal lavages (NAL), respiratory function, bronchial metacholine responsiveness, rhinometry symptoms and general well-being in a questionnaire and time course of general irritation on a visual analogue...

  10. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  11. Assessment of bacterial pathogens in fresh rainwater and airborne particulate matter using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) and in rainwater (RW) were detected using a robust and sensitive Real-Time PCR method. Both RW and PM were collected simultaneously in the tropical atmosphere of Singapore, which were then subjected to analysis for the presence of selected bacterial pathogens and potential pathogen of health concern ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila). These pathogens were found to be prevalent in both PM and RW samples with E. coli being the most prevalent potential pathogen in both types of samples. The temporal distribution of these pathogens in PM and RW was found to be similar to each other. Using the proposed microbiological technique, the atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) of bacterial pathogens to lakes and reservoirs can be studied in view of growing concerns about the outbreak of waterborne diseases.

  12. The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Hualiang; Zeng, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; You, Jing; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Though rainfall is recognized as one of the main mechanisms to reduce atmospheric particulate pollution, few studies have quantified this effect, particularly the corresponding lag effect and threshold. This study aimed to investigate the association between rainfall and air quality using a distributed lag non-linear model. Daily data on ambient PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and from 2.5 to 10 μm) and meteorological factors were collected in Guangzhou and Xi'an from 2013 to 2014. A better washout effect was found for PM2.5-10 than for PM2.5, and the rainfall thresholds for both particle fractions were 7 mm in Guangzhou and 1 mm in Xi'an. The decrease in PM2.5 levels following rain lasted for 3 and 6 days in Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. Rainfall had a better washout effect in Xi'an compared with that in Guangzhou. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the washout effects of rainfall on particulate pollution, which may help to understand the category and sustainability of dust-haze and enforce anthropogenic control measures in time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHOENIX, ARIZONA, USING RAY FLUORESCENCE AND COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous epidemiological studies have found associations between airborne particulate matter measured at community monitors and increased mortality and morbidity. Chemical and physical characteristics of particulate matter (e.g., elemental composition, size) and source identifi...

  14. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... titled, ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,'' that is scheduled to be... and secondary national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to provide... below under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  15. Particulate matter pollution over a Mediterranean urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, St; Assimakopoulos, V D; Maggos, Th; Fameli, K M; Kotroni, V; Vasilakos, Ch

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the aerosols' (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) spatial and temporal distribution in different types of environment in a Mediterranean urban region, the Greater Athens Area based on data from a sampling campaign that took place during the cold and warm period of 2008. The influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns, the possible local transport mechanisms, as well as the differentiation of the PM behaviour from that of the inorganic pollutants (NOx, O3), are analysed and discussed. Furthermore, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) was applied for selected sampling dates and its results were evaluated against measurements in order to interpret qualitatively the configured picture of the air pollution above the GAA. Analysis of the measurement data show that local sources such as traffic and industry dominate over the prevailing PM loads, especially at the 'hot spot' areas. Moreover, the synoptic circulation patterns associated with calm conditions and southerly flows lead to high particulate pollution levels that also affect the urban background stations. Saharan dust outbreaks appeared to increase the particles' diameter as well as the number of E.U. limit value exceedances within the stations of our network. Without any dependence on the characteristics of the investigated atmosphere, PM1 always constituted the greatest part of the PM2.5 mass while PM10, especially during the Saharan dust episodes, was mainly constituted by the coarse fraction. The numerical modelling approach of the geographical distribution of PM10, PM2.5, NOx and O3 justified the design of the sampling campaign, indicating the need for the systematic and parallel monitoring and modelling of the pollutants' dispersion in order to understand the particulate pollution problem in the GAA and to aid to the formulation of pollution control strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  17. Priority substances list assessment report: respirable particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Potential impacts of ambient exposure to respirable particulate matter on the environment and on human health have recently been evaluated by the federal-Provincial Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines. This assessment report summarizes the critical information from that evaluation in the context of the Priority Substances List (PSL) program. Only the risk posed by ambient particulate matter to human health as defined by the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 are addressed in this Assessment Report, since these were identified as the critical effects in the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives (NAAQO) Science Assessment Document. Available data indicate that source contributions to primary particulate matter emissions and precursor gases in Canada vary by province/territory and by region. Industrial activities are the primary sources of particulate matter in most provinces, followed by non-industrial fuel combustion and the transportation sector. Forest fires are the largest sources in some provinces and in the territories. Long-range transport from industrial regions of the United States also make a major contribution to concentrations of particulate matter in some regions of Canada. Observed concentrations of particulate matter also vary by time of day, day of the week, season and year. Measured concentration during the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s ranged from 11 to 42 micrograms/cu.m. at urban sites and from 11 to 17 micrograms/cu.m. at rural sites. On a national scale, average particulate matter concentrations decreased approximately two to three per cent between 1984 and 1995. The accumulated data supports the existence of a causal relationship between current ambient particulate matter levels and adverse health effects. In particular, particulate matter equal to 2.5 microns is considered toxic as defined in Section 64 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999. 219 refs., 19 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter downwind during agricultural practices using air samplers in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Luis Gabriel; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of neonicotinoid seed treatment insecticides as particulate matter in field crops occur mainly for two reasons: 1) due to abraded dust of treated seed generated during planting using vacuum planters, and 2) as a result of disturbances (tillage or wind events) in the surface of parental soils which release wind erodible soil-bound residues. In the present study, concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter were quantified under real conditions using passive and active air samplers. Average neonicotinoid concentrations in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) using passive samplers were 0.48 ng/cm 2 , trace, trace (LOD 0.80 and 0.04 ng/cm 2 for clothianidin and thiamethoxam, respectively), and using active samplers 16.22, 1.91 and 0.61 ng/m 3 during planting, tillage and wind events, respectively. There was a difference between events on total neonicotinoid concentration collected in particulate matter using either passive or active sampling. Distance of sampling from the source field during planting of treated seed had an effect on total neonicotinoid air concentration. However, during tillage distance did not present an effect on measured concentrations. Using hypothetical scenarios, values of contact exposure for a honey bee were estimated to be in the range from 1.1% to 36.4% of the reference contact LD 50 value of clothianidin of 44 ng/bee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative elemental determination of the particulate matter in the atmosphere of Pachuca city and the Real del Monte village, Hidalgo by means of PIXE technique; Determinacion elemental cuantitativa de la materia particulada en la atmosfera de la ciudad de Pachuca y el poblado de Real del Monte, Hidalgo, mediante la tecnica PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasso G, C.L. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    All the pollutants that are generated so much of anthropogenic activities as natural cause effects to the health, and of course its increase the atmospheric pollution. Today in day for the great advance of the technology other pollutants are even generated but noxious to the human being's health, such it is the case of the particles, which are also called particulate matter airborne (MPA). This has motivated, to establish control measures leaning in collection strategies and certified analysis techniques, accurate and reliable. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) they have been carried out studies on particulate matter airborne. In 1991 it was installed, calibrated and validated the nuclear technique of atomic origin based on proton beams known as PIXE. The characterization of the (MPA) it is carried out applying this technique and the collection by means of Dichotomous collectors (SFU). The thesis work that is presented next, includes the topic of the atmospheric pollution by particulate matter airborne (MPA) in a mining region, inside the Hidalgo State. The study was carried out during the 1998 winter season, only embracing the whole month of March in alternate days giving a total of 112 samples. Two sites that are highly active in the mining were studied, these are: the Real del Monte town and the Hidalgo state capital: Pachuca. Four samples per day were collected beginning to the 7:00 am--7:00 pm (daytime period) and concluding to the 7:00 pm -7:00 am (nocturne period). The characterization of its elementary content is carried out using the X-ray emission induced by particles technique (PIXE) that is a nuclear technique able to analyze 23 chemical elements beginning from the Al to the Pb, it requires of a very small sample quantity, it is very sensitive and it is not destructive. This characterization one carries out so much for fraction PM{sub 2.5} (fine) like as PM{sub 10} (thick) in both sites, also it was analyzed the temporary

  20. An evaluation of indoor and outdoor biological particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetrez, M. Y.; Foarde, K. K.; Esch, R. K.; Schwartz, T. D.; Dean, T. R.; Hays, M. D.; Cho, S. H.; Betancourt, D. A.; Moore, S. A.

    The incidences of allergies, allergic diseases and asthma are increasing world wide. Global climate change is likely to impact plants and animals, as well as microorganisms. The World Health Organization, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cite increased allergic reactions due to climate change as a growing concern. Monitoring of indoor and ambient particulate matter (PM) and the characterization of the content for biological aerosol concentrations has not been extensively performed. Samples from urban and rural North Carolina (NC), and Denver (CO), were collected and analyzed as the goal of this research. A study of PM 10 (individuals. Three separate sites were monitored, samples were collected and analyzed for mass and biological content (endotoxins, (1,3)-β- D-glucan and protein). Concentrations of these bioaerosols were reported as a function of PM size fraction, mass and volume of air sampled. The results indicated that higher concentrations of biologicals were present in PM 10 than were present in PM 2.5, except when near-roadway conditions existed. This study provides the characterization of ambient bioaerosol concentrations in a variety of areas and conditions.

  1. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Beelen, Rob; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We...... geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models.......59; 1.12-2.26 per 2ng/m(3)) and PM10 K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PM10 and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed...

  2. Regression and multivariate models for predicting particulate matter concentration level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, Amina; Mohammed, Nurul Izma; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Abualqumboz, Motasem S

    2018-01-01

    The devastating health effects of particulate matter (PM 10 ) exposure by susceptible populace has made it necessary to evaluate PM 10 pollution. Meteorological parameters and seasonal variation increases PM 10 concentration levels, especially in areas that have multiple anthropogenic activities. Hence, stepwise regression (SR), multiple linear regression (MLR) and principal component regression (PCR) analyses were used to analyse daily average PM 10 concentration levels. The analyses were carried out using daily average PM 10 concentration, temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction data from 2006 to 2010. The data was from an industrial air quality monitoring station in Malaysia. The SR analysis established that meteorological parameters had less influence on PM 10 concentration levels having coefficient of determination (R 2 ) result from 23 to 29% based on seasoned and unseasoned analysis. While, the result of the prediction analysis showed that PCR models had a better R 2 result than MLR methods. The results for the analyses based on both seasoned and unseasoned data established that MLR models had R 2 result from 0.50 to 0.60. While, PCR models had R 2 result from 0.66 to 0.89. In addition, the validation analysis using 2016 data also recognised that the PCR model outperformed the MLR model, with the PCR model for the seasoned analysis having the best result. These analyses will aid in achieving sustainable air quality management strategies.

  3. Protein oxidation and degradation caused by particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Chun-Nin; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, You-Lan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Wu, Sheng-Ming; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE) protein adduct was caused by DEPs at 150 μg/ml. Methionine oxidation (MetO) of human albumin proteins was induced by DEPs, UD, and CB; however, the protein repair mechanism that converts MetO back to methionine by methionine sulfoxide reductases A (MSRA) and B3 (MSRB3) was activated by DEPs and inhibited by UD, suggesting that oxidized protein was accumulating in cells. As to the degradation of oxidized proteins, proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by CB with ubiquitin accumulation, whereas proteasome and autophagy activation was induced by DEPs without ubiquitin accumulation. The results suggest that CB-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-dependent autophagy pathway, whereas DEP-induced protein degradation may be via an ubiquitin-independent autophagy pathway. A distinct proteotoxic effect may depend on the physicochemistry of PM.

  4. Assessment of impact distances for particulate matter dispersion: A stochastic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, S.M.; Mores, P.L.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M. [CAIMI - Centro de Aplicaciones Informaticas y Modelado en Ingenieria, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Rosario, Zeballos 1341-S2000 BQA Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Scenna, N.J. [CAIMI - Centro de Aplicaciones Informaticas y Modelado en Ingenieria, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional-Facultad Regional Rosario, Zeballos 1341-S2000 BQA Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); INGAR - Instituto de Desarrollo y Diseno (Fundacion ARCIEN - CONICET), Avellaneda 3657, S3002 GJC Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: nscenna@santafe-conicet.gov.ar

    2009-10-15

    It is known that pollutants can be dispersed from the emission sources by the wind, or settled on the ground. Particle size, stack height, topography and meteorological conditions strongly affect particulate matter (PM) dispersion. In this work, an impact distance calculation methodology considering different particulate sizes is presented. A Gaussian-type dispersion model for PM that handles size particles larger than 0.1 {mu}m is used. The model considers primary particles and continuous emissions. PM concentration distribution at every affected geographical point defined by a grid is computed. Stochastic uncertainty caused by the natural variability of atmospheric parameters is taken into consideration in the dispersion model by applying a Monte Carlo methodology. The prototype package (STRRAP) that takes into account the stochastic behaviour of atmospheric variables, developed for risk assessment and safe distances calculation [Godoy SM, Santa Cruz ASM, Scenna NJ. STRRAP SYSTEM - A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(7):847-57] is enlarged for the analysis of the PM air dispersion. STRRAP computes distances from the source to every affected receptor in each trial and generates the impact distance distribution for each particulate size. In addition, a representative impact distance value to delimit the affected area can be obtained. Fuel oil stack effluents dispersion in Rosario city is simulated as a case study. Mass concentration distributions and impact distances are computed for the range of interest in environmental air quality evaluations (PM{sub 2.5}-PM{sub 10})

  5. Characteristics of particulate matter (PM10) and its relationship with meteorological factors during 2001-2012 in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangjin; Qiao, Zhi; Xu, Xinliang

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a significant challenge in Beijing metropolitan region, China. In this study, wavelet analysis and gray analysis were proposed to explore the temporal characteristics of particulate matter (PM10) and its relationships with meteorological factors during 2001-2012. The analysis indicated that air quality had got better significantly over the last decade. It was clearly interannual, seasonal, and monthly variation of atmospheric pollution, which represented that the air quality was the worst in spring, and got better in summer, subsequently tended to be more serious in autumn and winter. Generally atmospheric pressure was the most important meteorological feature influencing on PM10, followed by relative humidity and wind speed. However, the dominant meteorological factors influencing the atmospheric pollution were different in the four seasons. The results suggest that urban design and effective measures based on the relationship between meteorological factors and PM10 would be effective for improving atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Channel Geomorphology on Retention of Dissolved and Particulate Matter in a Cascade Mountain Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary A. Lamberti; Stan V. Gregory; Linda R. Ashkenas; Randall C. Wildman; Alan G. Steinman

    1989-01-01

    Retention of particulate and dissolved nutrients in streams is a major determinant of food avail-ability to stream biota. Retention of particulate matter (leaves) and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen) was studied experimentally during summer 1987 in four 300-500 m reaches of Lookout Creek, a fifth-order stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Constrained (narrow valley...

  7. Nature’s Particulate Matter with and without Charge and Travelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursem, W.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Natures and anthropogenic particulates can travel long distances on wind flows, but negative electrical charge due to friction can increase dispersion. Models for calculations of distance travelling of biological particulate matter with and without charge are never been calculated in a theoretical

  8. Particulate matter regulation for two-stroke two wheelers: necessity or haphazard legislation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Samaras, Z.; Ntziachristos, L.

    2005-01-01

    Although interest in particulate emissions has increased considerably during recent years, the subject of particulate matter (PM) emissions from small two-stroke engines used in road vehicles is still largely unexplored. This paper presents the results of an investigation, which examined the typical

  9. Biomonitoring of toxic compounds of airborne particulate matter in urban and industriel areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matte...

  10. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  11. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P; Krupa, S

    2013-02-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PARTICULATE MATTER, VOLUMES I-III, (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for these documents. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the Technical Information Staff at the number listed above.Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter, Volume I, Extern...

  13. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  14. Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

  15. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Schaap, Martijn [TNO, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France); Drebszok, Kamila; Wyrwa, Artur [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Stetter, Daniel [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  16. Natural isotopic composition of nitrogen in suspended particulate matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the surface Bay of Bengal (BOB) at 24 different locations during pre- (April-May 2003) and post- (September-October 2002) monsoon...

  17. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  18. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  19. Short term variation in particulate matter in the shelf waters of the Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Particulate matter collected at a single station in the shelf waters of Princess Astrid coast (70 degrees S, 11 degrees E) Antarctica, during the austral summer (Jan.-Feb. 1986) was analysed for phytoplankton biomass (Chl @ia@@), living carbon (ATP...

  20. Particulate Matter (Annual, PM-2.5) NAAQS Designations, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated areas for annual particulate matter less than 2.5 microns, according to the 1997 and 2012 annual PM-2.5 standards. Nonattainment areas are geographic...

  1. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  2. Clearing the Air: A Review of the Effects of Particulate Matter Air Pollution on Human Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Jonathan O; Thundiyil, Josef G; Stolbach, Andrew

    The World Health Organization estimates that particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to approximately 800,000 premature deaths each year, ranking it the 13th leading cause of mortality worldwide...

  3. Screening of various diesel particulate matter samples from various commodity mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative analysis results of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from various mining commodities in South Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of elements in DPM samples. For this screening...

  4. Climatic variability and morbidity and mortality associated with particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Poliany Cristiny de Oliveira; Pinheiro, Samya de Lara; Junger, Washington; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2017-10-05

    The objective of this study has been to analyze whether fine particulate matter (PM2.5), as well as its synergistic effect with maximum temperature, humidity, and seasons, is associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. This is an ecological study of time series. We have used as outcomes the daily death and hospitalization records of adults aged 45 years and over from 2009 to 2011 of the municipalities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We have used Poisson regression using generalized additive models, assuming a significance level of 5%. The model has been controlled for temporal trend, seasonality, average temperature, humidity, and season effects. Daily concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate material with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) have been obtained by converting the values of optical aerosol thickness. Maximum temperature, humidity, and seasons have been separately included in the model as dummy variables for the analysis of the synergistic effect of PM2.5 with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. We have calculated the percentage increase of relative risk (%RR) of deaths and hospitalizations for the linear increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5. Between 2009 and 2011, the increase in PM2.5 was associated with a %RR 2.28 (95%CI 0.53-4.06) for hospitalizations on the same day of exposure and RR% 3.57 (95%CI 0.82-6.38) for deaths with a lag of three days. On hot days, %RR 4.90 (95%CI -0.61-9.38) was observed for deaths. No modification of the effect of PM2.5 was observed for maximum temperature in relation to hospitalizations. On days with low humidity, %RR was 5.35 (95%CI -0.20-11.22) for deaths and 2.71 (95%CI -0.39-5.92) for hospitalizations. In the dry season, %RR was 2.35 (95%CI 0.59-4.15) for hospitalizations and 3.43 (95%CI 0.58-6.35) for deaths. The PM2.5 is associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and its effects may be potentiated by heat and low

  5. Climatic variability and morbidity and mortality associated with particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany Cristiny de Oliveira Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study has been to analyze whether fine particulate matter (PM2.5, as well as its synergistic effect with maximum temperature, humidity, and seasons, is associated with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. METHODS This is an ecological study of time series. We have used as outcomes the daily death and hospitalization records of adults aged 45 years and over from 2009 to 2011 of the municipalities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We have used Poisson regression using generalized additive models, assuming a significance level of 5%. The model has been controlled for temporal trend, seasonality, average temperature, humidity, and season effects. Daily concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate material with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers have been obtained by converting the values of optical aerosol thickness. Maximum temperature, humidity, and seasons have been separately included in the model as dummy variables for the analysis of the synergistic effect of PM2.5 with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. We have calculated the percentage increase of relative risk (%RR of deaths and hospitalizations for the linear increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5. RESULTS Between 2009 and 2011, the increase in PM2.5 was associated with a %RR 2.28 (95%CI 0.53–4.06 for hospitalizations on the same day of exposure and RR% 3.57 (95%CI 0.82–6.38 for deaths with a lag of three days. On hot days, %RR 4.90 (95%CI -0.61–9.38 was observed for deaths. No modification of the effect of PM2.5 was observed for maximum temperature in relation to hospitalizations. On days with low humidity, %RR was 5.35 (95%CI -0.20–11.22 for deaths and 2.71 (95%CI -0.39–5.92 for hospitalizations. In the dry season, %RR was 2.35 (95%CI 0.59–4.15 for hospitalizations and 3.43 (95%CI 0.58–6.35 for deaths. CONCLUSIONS The PM2.5 is associated with morbidity and mortality from

  6. Source apportionment of particulate organic matter using infrared spectra at multiple IMPROVE sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmiakova, A.; Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2016-12-01

    As organic aerosol is a dominant contributor to air pollution and radiative forcing in many regions in the United States, characterizing its composition and apportioning the organic mass to its major sources provides insight into atmospheric processes and guidance for decreasing its abundance. National networks, such as Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment (IMPROVE), provide multi-site and multi-year particulate matter samples useful for evaluating sources over all four seasons. To this end, our study focuses on apportioning the particulate organic matter (OM) to specific anthropogenic and biological processes from year-long infrared aerosol measurements collected at six IMPROVE sites (five national park sites and one urban site) during 2011. Pooling these organic aerosol samples into one dataset, we apply factor and cluster analyses to extract four chemical factors (two dominated by processed emissions, one dominated by hydroxyl groups, and one by hydrocarbons) and ascribe each factor to a specific source depending on the site and season. We also present a method to characterize measurement uncertainty in infrared instrumental analysis and investigate sensitivity analysis in generated factors. In Phoenix (the urban site) we find the majority (80-95%) of the OM consisted of anthropogenic activities, such as traffic emissions, fossil fuel combustion (both all year long), and residential wood burning (fall to winter). Mineral dust emissions accounted for the rest of OM (5-20%). At the National Park sites the OM concentration was lower on average and consisted of marine and dust aerosols, summertime biomass burning and biogenic aerosols, processed fossil fuel combustion, and emissions from ships and oil refineries. Our study highlights the potential for further site-specific or multi-year aerosol characterization in the context of a long-term atmospheric sampling program to quantify sources of organic particles impacting air quality, aid in policy

  7. Particulate organic matter in rivers of Fukushima: An unexpected carrier phase for radiocesiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulier, Maud; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi

    2017-02-01

    The role of particulate organic matter in radiocesium transfers from soils to rivers was investigated in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Suspended and deposited sediments, filtered water, macro organic debris and dead leaves were sampled along the six most contaminated coastal river catchments of the Fukushima prefecture in the early autumns 2013 and 2014. Radiocesium concentrations of river samples and total organic carbon concentrations in suspended and deposited sediments were measured. Radiocesium concentrations of suspended and deposited sediments were significantly correlated to 137Cs inventories in soils and total organic carbon. The distributions of radiocesium between the organic and mineral phases of both types of sediment were assessed by using a modelling approach. The results suggest that, during the early autumn season, the organic fraction was the main phase that carried the radiocesiums in deposited sediments and in suspended sediments for suspended loads Fukushima could be attributed to the high radiocesium contents of particulate organic matter. Since it is well known that organic compounds generally do not significantly adsorb radiocesium onto specific sites, several hypotheses are suggested: 1) Radiocesiums may have been absorbed into organic components at the early stage of atmospheric radioactive deposits and/or later due to biomass recycling and 2) Those elements would be partly carried by glassy hot particles together with organic matter transported by rivers in Fukushima. Both hypotheses would lead to conserve the amount of radiocesiums associated with particles during their transfers from the contaminated areas to the marine environment. Finally, such organically bound radiocesium would lead to significant deliveries of bioavailable radiocesium for living organisms at Fukushima. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative Potential of ambient particulate matter in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Fang, Ting; Liakakou, Eleni; Weber, Rodney; Nenes, Athanasios; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2017-04-01

    Exposure of populations to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidative stress resulting from exposure of chemical species present in PM is a mechanism thought to cause adverse health effects. Apart from radicals present in aerosol, species that can catalytically deplete the antioxidant buffering capacity of cells, called Oxidative Potential (OP), are thought to be particularly toxic. The variability of OP over location, particle age, source and environmental conditions is virtually unknown for most populated regions of the world. Motivated by this, we have built and deployed one of the first operational measurements of OP in Europe at the National Observatory of Athens site in downtown Athens, Greece. OP for fine and coarse mode is measured using a semi-automated dithiothreitol (DTT) assay developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology; the assay measures the oxidation rate of DTT by water-soluble aerosol constituents, and simulates the rate at which the same compounds would deplete antioxidants in-vivo. The DTT oxidation rate per unit volume of air (water-soluble "DTT activity") and aerosol size class (fine, coarse) are used as a measure of aerosol toxicity. We present continuous (24hr average) OP measurements in downtown Athens from July 2016 to January 2017, conducted through quartz fiber filter analysis. The dataset covers a broad range of aerosol sources (pollution from Europe, regional and local biomass burning, dust, marine aerosol, biogenic aerosol) and meteorological conditions. The daily water-soluble DTT activity ranges between 0.02-0.81 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.24 nmolmin-1 m-3) for fine aerosol and between 0.01-0.52 nmolmin-1 m-3 (averaging at 0.08 nmolmin-1 m-3) for coarse particulate matter, indicating that water-soluble fine mode aerosol components possess a significant fraction of the OP. The seasonal variability demonstrates a higher DTT activity during the coldest period of the year for both

  9. Atmospheric oxidative chemistry of organic particulate emissions from fuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    "Construction and characterization of the University of Vermont Environmental Chamber (UVMEC) : were completed in this last phase of the project. The primary function of the UVMEC is to enable : tropospheric particulate formation and aging studies to...

  10. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rovelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO. In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the

  11. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of urban particulate matter in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumax-Vorzet, Audrey F; Tate, M; Walmsley, Richard; Elder, Rhod H; Povey, Andrew C

    2015-09-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM)-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a variety of altered cellular outcomes. In this study, three different PM samples from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust standard reference material SRM1649a and air collected in Manchester have been tested for their ability to oxidise DNA in a cell-free assay, to increase intracellular ROS levels and to induce CYP1A1 gene expression in mammalian cells. In addition, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of PM were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and alkaline comet assay, respectively. All PM samples catalysed the Fenton reaction in a cell-free assay, but only DEP resulted in the generation of ROS as measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation in mammalian cells. However, there was no evidence that increased ROS was a consequence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism via CYP1A1 induction as urban dust, the Manchester dust samples but not DEP-induced CYP1A1 expression. Urban dust was more cytotoxic in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) than the other PM samples and also induced expression of GADD45a in the GreenScreen Human Cell assay without S9 activation suggesting the presence of a direct-acting genotoxicant. Urban dust and DEP produced comparable levels of DNA damage, as assessed by the alkaline comet assay, in MEFs at higher levels than those induced by Manchester PM. In conclusion, results from the cytotoxic and genotoxic assays are not consistent with ROS production being the sole determinant of PM-induced toxicity. This suggests that the organic component can contribute significantly to this toxicity and that further work is required to better characterise the extent to which ROS and organic components contribute to PM-induced toxicity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society.

  12. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  13. Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Smoliga, James M; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2012-12-01

    The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM (competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations to avoid the deleterious effects of PM inhalation. Although it is clear that PM exposure is detrimental to healthy individuals engaging in exercise, further research is necessary to better understand the role of PM on athlete health and performance, as well as measures that can attenuate the harmful effects of PM.

  14. Particulate matter air pollution and liver cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huiyu; Eckel, Sandrah P; Liu, Lihua; Lurmann, Frederick W; Cockburn, Myles G; Gilliland, Frank D

    2017-08-15

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure has been associated with cancer incidence and mortality especially with lung cancer. The liver is another organ possibly affected by PM due to its role in detoxifying xenobiotics absorbed from PM. Various studies have investigated the mechanistic pathways between inhaled pollutants and liver damage, cancer incidence, and tumor progression. However, little is known about the effects of PM on liver cancer survival. Twenty thousand, two hundred and twenty-one California Cancer Registry patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 were used to examine the effect of exposure to ambient PM with diameter cause and liver cancer-specific mortality linearly and nonlinearly-overall and stratified by stage at diagnosis (local, regional and distant)-adjusting for potential individual and geospatial confounders.PM2.5 exposure after diagnosis was statistically significantly associated with HCC survival. After adjustment for potential confounders, the all-cause mortality HR associated with a 1 standard deviation (5.0 µg/m3 ) increase in PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.16-1.20); 1.31 (95% CI:1.26-1.35) for local stage, 1.19 (95% CI:1.14-1.23) for regional stage, and 1.05 (95% CI:1.01-1.10) for distant stage. These associations were nonlinear, with substantially larger HRs at higher exposures. The associations between liver cancer-specific mortality and PM2.5 were slightly attenuated compared to all-cause mortality, but with the same patterns.Exposure to elevated PM2.5 after the diagnosis of HCC may shorten survival, with larger effects at higher concentrations. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Optical Properties of Fine Particulate Matter in Upper Silesia, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef S. Pastuszka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particles whose aerodynamic diameters were not greater than 2.5 µm (fine fraction of Particulate Matter; PM2.5 and 1 µm (PM1; sub-fraction of PM2.5 were sampled at three sites in Upper Silesia (Poland: urban background site, rural background site, and urban traffic site. In total, 240 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. The reflectance of the collected PM1 and PM2.5 samples was determined with a digital smoke stain reflectometer. The 24-h courses and seasonal changes of three determined optical parameters for PM1 and PM2.5 (absorption coefficient (a, mass absorption (σ, and mean light reflection coefficient (Rav were illustrated and discussed. The mean values of the regional background absorption coefficient (a were 1.27 × 10−5 m−1 and 0.87 × 10−5 m−1 for PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. In Katowice (urban background, the mean absorption levels were 2.37 × 10−5 m−1 and 2.09 × 10−5 m−1 for PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The highest values of the absorption coefficient for both PM fractions were found close to the highway (urban traffic site. In the heating season (winter, the absorption coefficient (a for PM2.5 and PM1 increased significantly when compared with the non-heating season. The obtained results confirmed the thesis about the significant increase in the elemental PM2.5-bound carbon concentration caused by the intensified hard coal combustion in Upper Silesia in winter. Moreover, it turned out that the increase in the concentration of the PM2.5-bound sulphates was even higher, which resulted in the relative decrease of the elemental carbon content in this PM fraction in some areas. Consequently, the mass absorption value dropped there as well.

  16. Particulate matter-induced epigenetic changes and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghong; Li, Willis X; Bai, Chunxue; Song, Yuanlin

    2017-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Cigarette smoking is the well-known risk factor for lung cancer. Epidemiological studies suggest that air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM) exposure, is associated with increased lung cancer risk and mortality independent of cigarette smoking. English-language publications focusing on PM, epigenetic changes, and lung cancer were reviewed. The epigenome serves as an interface between the environment and the genome. PM is one of the environmental factors that can cause epigenetic changes. The epigenome serves as an interface between the environment and the genome. Some of the epigenetic changes lead to increased disease susceptibility and progression. In cardiovascular disease and asthma, the association between PM exposure and the disease specific epigenetic changes has been identified. In lung cancer, the epigenetic changes in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression are commonly found, but the specific link between PM exposure and lung cancer remains incompletely understood. The results of epidemiological studies indicate the important effects of PM exposure on lung cancer. PM2.5 is consistently associated with the increased lung cancer risk and mortality. Based on the epidemiological associations between PM exposure and lung cancer, PM-induced epigenetic changes may play important roles in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of epigenetic changes associated with PM exposure and lung cancer. Better understanding of the link between PM exposure and lung cancer at the epigenomic level by comprehensive comparison approach may identify lung cancer early detection biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. SPATIAL TEMPORAL MODELLING OF PARTICULATE MATTER FOR HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. S. Hamm

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality measurement system. These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter, aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 respectively. Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.

  18. Discrimination of particulate matter emission sources using stochastic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Sikora, Grzegorz; Balcerek, Michał; Teuerle, Marek

    2016-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the criteria pollutants which has been determined as harmful to public health and the environment. For this reason the ability to recognize its emission sources is very important. There are a number of measurement methods which allow to characterize PM in terms of concentration, particles size distribution, and chemical composition. All these information are useful to establish a link between the dust found in the air, its emission sources and influence on human as well as the environment. However, the methods are typically quite sophisticated and not applicable outside laboratories. In this work, we considered PM emission source discrimination method which is based on continuous measurements of PM concentration with a relatively cheap instrument and stochastic analysis of the obtained data. The stochastic analysis is focused on the temporal variation of PM concentration and it involves two steps: (1) recognition of the category of distribution for the data i.e. stable or the domain of attraction of stable distribution and (2) finding best matching distribution out of Gaussian, stable and normal-inverse Gaussian (NIG). We examined six PM emission sources. They were associated with material processing in industrial environment, namely machining and welding aluminum, forged carbon steel and plastic with various tools. As shown by the obtained results, PM emission sources may be distinguished based on statistical distribution of PM concentration variations. Major factor responsible for the differences detectable with our method was the type of material processing and the tool applied. In case different materials were processed by the same tool the distinction of emission sources was difficult. For successful discrimination it was crucial to consider size-segregated mass fraction concentrations. In our opinion the presented approach is very promising. It deserves further study and development.

  19. Particulate matter assessment of a wetland in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Dongdong; Liu, Jiakai; Zhu, Lijuan; Mo, Lichun; Zhang, Zhenming

    2015-10-01

    To increase the knowledge on the particulate matter of a wetland in Beijing, an experimental study on the concentration and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was implemented in Beijing Olympic Forest Park from 2013 to 2014. This study analyzed the meteorological factors and deposition fluxes at different heights and in different periods in the wetlands. The results showed that the mean mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were the highest at 06:00-09:00 and the lowest at 15:00-18:00. And the annual concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in the wetland followed the order of dry period (winter)>normal water period (spring and autumn)>wet period (summer), with the concentration in the dry period significantly higher than that in the normal water and wet periods. The chemical composition of PM2.5 in the wetlands included NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), SO4(2-), NO3(-), and Cl(-), which respectively accounted for 12.7%, 1.0%, 0.8%, 0.7%, 46.6%, 33.2%, and 5.1% of the average annual composition. The concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in the wetlands had a significant positive correlation with relative humidity, a negative correlation with wind speed, and an insignificant negative correlation with temperature and radiation. The daily average dry deposition amount of PM10 in the different periods followed the order of dry period>normal water period>wet period, and the daily average dry deposition amount of PM2.5 in the different periods was dry period>wet period>normal water period. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Referential calculation of particulate matter in the air as a factor of environmental pollution in the urban area of the city of Pujilí

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    Paola Vallejo Choez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary investigation on the environmental quality of the city of Pujilí, made from the collection of samples of particulate matter and vehicular traffic counts on six points of the city. The methodology is based on the provisions of the Unified Text of Secondary Environmental Legislation for measuring atmospheric particulate matter, and the use of count tables for vehicle registration. The results reflect the impact of vehicular traffic, the characteristics of the rolling road layer, soil erosion, and climate on air pollution and its impact on the health of the population.

  1. Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

    2009-04-16

    This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

  2. [Design of inhalable particulate matters measurement based on the Mie scattering extinction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Lu-lu; Li, Chuan-liang; Qiu, Xuan-bing; Wei, Ji-lin

    2014-08-01

    The concentration of inhalable particle is an important indicator in atmospheric environment monitor. Based on Mie scattering extinction, a precise testing instrument which can measure the concentration of inhalable particles at the atmospheric was designed by three-wavelength method in combination with the algorithm of distributed function. The dependence of extinction index on the spectrum was calculated based on Mie scattering theory in this article. Furthermore, the signal of time domain is integrated in the data processing to reduce the effect of error caused by multi-peak of spectra. The PM2.5 and PM10 were collected simultaneously in particle selection. Three different wave-lengths of lasers were coupled into an optical fiber by coupler (3 in 1) and passed through the sample cell. The attenuated light was detected by a PIN. Output of the detector was converted, amplified, displayed and stored by electronic system. Finally, the data were transmitted and shared in network through the 3G wireless module. The average particle size and concentration of inhalable particles were measured by this device at the same time. The technical specifications of the detector were verified by experiment, the experimental results indicate that the detection sensitivity of the system is 0.01 microg m(-3), the responsive time of system is approximately 90 s and it is suitable for measuring particulate matter concentrations of atmosphere.

  3. Global atmospheric chemistry - which air matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Michael J.; Zhu, Xin; Flynn, Clare M.; Strode, Sarah A.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Liu, Junhua; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Mao, Jingqiu; Murray, Lee T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2017-07-01

    An approach for analysis and modeling of global atmospheric chemistry is developed for application to measurements that provide a tropospheric climatology of those heterogeneously distributed, reactive species that control the loss of methane and the production and loss of ozone. We identify key species (e.g., O3, NOx, HNO3, HNO4, C2H3NO5, H2O, HOOH, CH3OOH, HCHO, CO, CH4, C2H6, acetaldehyde, acetone) and presume that they can be measured simultaneously in air parcels on the scale of a few km horizontally and a few tenths of a km vertically. As a first step, six global models have prepared such climatologies sampled at the modeled resolution for August with emphasis on the vast central Pacific Ocean basin. Objectives of this paper are to identify and characterize differences in model-generated reactivities as well as species covariances that could readily be discriminated with an unbiased climatology. A primary tool is comparison of multidimensional probability densities of key species weighted by the mass of such parcels or frequency of occurrence as well as by the reactivity of the parcels with respect to methane and ozone. The reactivity-weighted probabilities tell us which parcels matter in this case, and this method shows skill in differentiating among the models' chemistry. Testing 100 km scale models with 2 km measurements using these tools also addresses a core question about model resolution and whether fine-scale atmospheric structures matter to the overall ozone and methane budget. A new method enabling these six global chemistry-climate models to ingest an externally sourced climatology and then compute air parcel reactivity is demonstrated. Such an objective climatology containing these key species is anticipated from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) aircraft mission (2015-2020), executing profiles over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. This modeling study addresses a core part of the design of ATom.

  4. Global atmospheric chemistry – which air matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Prather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach for analysis and modeling of global atmospheric chemistry is developed for application to measurements that provide a tropospheric climatology of those heterogeneously distributed, reactive species that control the loss of methane and the production and loss of ozone. We identify key species (e.g., O3, NOx, HNO3, HNO4, C2H3NO5, H2O, HOOH, CH3OOH, HCHO, CO, CH4, C2H6, acetaldehyde, acetone and presume that they can be measured simultaneously in air parcels on the scale of a few km horizontally and a few tenths of a km vertically. As a first step, six global models have prepared such climatologies sampled at the modeled resolution for August with emphasis on the vast central Pacific Ocean basin. Objectives of this paper are to identify and characterize differences in model-generated reactivities as well as species covariances that could readily be discriminated with an unbiased climatology. A primary tool is comparison of multidimensional probability densities of key species weighted by the mass of such parcels or frequency of occurrence as well as by the reactivity of the parcels with respect to methane and ozone. The reactivity-weighted probabilities tell us which parcels matter in this case, and this method shows skill in differentiating among the models' chemistry. Testing 100 km scale models with 2 km measurements using these tools also addresses a core question about model resolution and whether fine-scale atmospheric structures matter to the overall ozone and methane budget. A new method enabling these six global chemistry–climate models to ingest an externally sourced climatology and then compute air parcel reactivity is demonstrated. Such an objective climatology containing these key species is anticipated from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom aircraft mission (2015–2020, executing profiles over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. This modeling study addresses a core part of the design of ATom.

  5. Interim Particulate Matter Test Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter from Gas Turbine Engines, SERDP Project WP-1538 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under Project No. WP-1538 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, the U. S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is developing an interim test method for non-volatile particulate matter (PM) specifically for the Joint Strike Fighter (J...

  6. Characterization of atmospheric particulate and metallic elements at Taichung Harbor near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Lin, Jum-Bo; Lin, Chi-Kwong; Rau, Jui-Yeh; Huang, Shih-Han

    2006-06-01

    Air aerosol samples for TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)), fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter metallic elements were collected during March 2004 to January 2005 at TH (Taichung Harbor) in central Taiwan. The seasonal variation average concentration of TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) and fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter metallic elements Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during spring. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Pb, Cr and Mg in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during winter. The average metallic element TSP (total suspended particulate) concentration order was Fe>Zn>Mg>Cu>Cr>Mn>Pb in spring. In addition, at the TH sampling site, the average concentration variation of TSP (total suspended particulate) displayed the following order: spring>winter>autumn>summer. However, the average concentration variation of coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) displayed the following order: spring>winter>summer>autumn. Finally, the average concentration variations of fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter spring>summer>autumn at the TH sample site.

  7. Organic particulate material levels in the atmosphere: conditions favoring sensitivity to varying relative humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F

    2010-04-13

    This study examines the sensitivity in predicted levels of atmospheric organic particulate matter (M(o), microg m(-3)) as those levels may potentially be affected by changes in relative humidity and temperature. In a given system, for each partitioning compound, f(g) and f(p) represent the gaseous and particulate fractions (f(g) + f(p) = 1). Sensitivity in the M(o) levels becomes dampened as the compounds contributing significantly to M(o) are increasingly found in the particle phase (f(p) --> 1). Thus, although local maxima in sensitivity can be encountered as M(o) levels increase, because as M(o) increases each f(p) --> 1, then increasing M(o) levels generally tend to reduce sensitivity in M(o) levels to changes in relative humidity and temperature. Experiments designed to elucidate the potential magnitudes of the effects of relative humidity and temperature on M(o) levels must be carried out at M(o) levels that are relevant for the ambient atmosphere: The f(p) values for the important partitioning compounds must not be elevated above ambient-relevant values. Systems in which M(o) levels are low (e.g., 1-2 microg m(-3)) and/or composed of unaged secondary organic aerosol are the ones most likely to show sensitivity to changing relative humidity and temperature. Results from two published chamber studies are examined in the above regard: [Warren B, et al. (2009) Atmos Environ 43:1789-1795] and [Prisle NL, et al. (2010) Geophys Res Lett 37:L01802].

  8. Ecotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles: influence of leaching conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Testolin, Renan C; Torres, Mariana M; Cotelle, Sylvie; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-04-01

    Concerns regarding the environmental impact of diesel exhaust particulate matter (DPM) have increased in recent years. Following emission to the atmosphere, these fine materials can sorb many contaminants at their surface, which can subsequently be released, for instance, due to physicochemical environmental changes. The desorption of contaminants from particulate matter will increase the environmental pollution and can promote ecotoxicological effects. In this context, the objective of this study was to assess the aquatic ecotoxicity profile of extracts of DPM obtained at two different pH values. Thus, after collecting particulate matter from the diesel exhaust of heavy engines, extracts were obtained with pure water (at pH 2.00 and 5.00) and with a mixture of three organic solvents (dichloromethane, n-hexane, and acetone). To assess the environmental impact of DPM, the exhaust extracts were used in a battery of aquatic bioassays including key organisms of the food chain: bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri), algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus), daphnids (Daphnia magna), and fishes (Danio rerio). The aqueous leachate at natural pH (2.0) and solvent extracts were extremely ecotoxic, while the aqueous leachate at pH = 5.0 showed the lowest ecotoxicity. The global ranking of sensitivity for the biotests tested was daphnids > algae > bacteria > fishes. Thus, the use of this bioassay battery could improve our understanding of the impact of DPM on aquatic environments, which is dependent on the pH of the leaching process.

  9. Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations in Urban Chinese Cities, 2005-2016: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mike Z; Zeng, Xiange; Zhang, Kaiyue; Kinney, Patrick L

    2017-02-14

    Background: Particulate matter pollution has become a growing health concern over the past few decades globally. The problem is especially evident in China, where particulate matter levels prior to 2013 are publically unavailable. We conducted a systematic review of scientific literature that reported fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in different regions of China from 2005 to 2016. Methods: We searched for English articles in PubMed and Embase and for Chinese articles in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We evaluated the studies overall and categorized the collected data into six geographical regions and three economic regions. Results: The mean (SD) PM2.5 concentration, weighted by the number of sampling days, was 60.64 (33.27) μg/m³ for all geographic regions and 71.99 (30.20) μg/m³ for all economic regions. A one-way ANOVA shows statistically significant differences in PM2.5 concentrations between the various geographic regions (F = 14.91, p matter concentrations across regions of China. The highest levels of fine particulate matter were found in the northern and northwestern regions and especially Beijing. The high percentage of data points exceeding current federal regulation standards suggests that fine particulate matter pollution remains a huge problem for China. As pre-2013 emissions data remain largely unavailable, we hope that the data aggregated from this systematic review can be incorporated into current and future models for more accurate historical PM2.5 estimates.

  10. The application of magnetic measurements for the characterization of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Richardson, N; Bennett, M; Hoon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry.The aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tire wear residues have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. Samples have been analyzed utilizing a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tires) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

  11. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  12. Peculiarities of the vertical and geographical distribution of particulate organic matter over West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Voronetskaya, Natalia G.; Pevneva, Galina S.; Golovko, Anatoly K.; Kozlov, Alexandre S.; Malyshkin, Sergey B.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Davydov, Denis K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have performed aerosol sampling in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) over different regions of West Siberia in order to reveal peculiarities of the geographical distribution of particulate organic matter (POM). Investigation of the vertical distribution of POM in the troposphere was undertaken by means of aerosol sampling from Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory in the atmospheric layer from 2 to 8 km during three YAK-AEROSIB campaigns (2012, 2013, and 2014). Aerosol samples were collected onto Teflon filters (PTFE membranes, GRIMM 1.113). The collected aerosol samples were treated as follows: the organic part was extracted from the filter, using chromatographic acetone in an ultrasonic bath; then, it was concentrated in vacuum up to 50 μL, with the subsequent analysis using a chromatography mass spectrometer Agilent 6890N (50 - 250 °C with a rate of 5 °C/min., isotherm at the initial and final temperature - 3 and 45 min, respectively). Hydrocarbons were identified using mass spectral library databases NIST, Wiley, as well as by comparing retention times of reference compounds in model mixtures (Alkane Standard Solutions C8 - C20 and C21 - C40 by SIGMA -ALDRICH). Total organic matter varied from 244.56 ng/m3 in aerosol samples collected in the ASL to 0.08 ng/m3 in the free troposphere (FT) over the Kara Sea. Significant differences were also found in the geographical distribution of POM due to different volatile organic compounds emitted by vegetation in specific regions. Differences between concentrations of POM sampled in the free troposphere over the continent and ocean can exceed an order of magnitude. Average concentration of organic compounds in the ASL is close to 30 ng/m3 and it decreases exponentially with height down to 14 ng/m3 at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer and 5 ng/m3 in the FT.

  13. The fluvial flux of particulate organic matter from the UK: Quantifying in-stream losses and carbon sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Burt, Tim P.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.

    2014-11-01

    This study considers records of fluvial suspended sediment concentration and its organic matter content from across the United Kingdom from 1974 to 2010. Suspended sediment, mineral concentration and river flow data were used to estimate the particulate organic matter (POM) concentration and flux. Median annual POM flux from the UK was 1596 ktonnes/yr. The POM concentration significantly declined after the European Commission's Urban Wastewater Directive was adopted in 1991 although the POM flux after 1992 was significantly higher. Estimates of POM flux were compared to a range of catchment properties to estimate the flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON) as they entered rivers and thus estimate the net catchment losses. The total fluvial flux of N from the soil source to rivers was 2209 ktonnes N/yr with 814 ktonnes N lost at the tidal limit, and so leaving 1395 ktonnes N/yr loss to atmosphere from across UK catchments - equivalent to an N2O flux from UK rivers of between 33 and 154 ktonnes (N2O)/yr. The total fluvial flux of carbon from the soil source to rivers for the UK was 5020 ktonnes C/yr; the flux at the tidal limit was 1508 ktonnes C/yr, equivalent to 6.5 tonnes C/km2/yr. Assuming that all the net catchment loss goes into the atmosphere, then the impact of rivers on the atmosphere is 3512 ktonnes C/yr, equivalent to 15.2 tonnes C/km2/yr. The loss of POM from the UK suggests that soil erosion in the UK prevents soil being a net sink of CO2 and is instead a small net source to the atmosphere.

  14. Organic composition of aerosol particulate matter during a haze episode in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi Bin Abas, M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Maah, M. Jamil; Abu Samah, Azizan; Oros, Daniel R.; Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The solvent-extractable compounds of urban airborne particulate matter were analyzed to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker tracers. Samples were collected by high-volume air filtration during the haze episode of 1997 around the University of Malaya campus near Petaling Jaya, a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These results show that the samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanols, methyl n-alkanoates, n-alkyl nitriles, n-alkanals, n-alkanoic acids, levoglucosan, PAHs, and UCM as the dominant components, with minor amounts of terpenoids, glyceryl esters and sterols, all derived from natural biogenic sources (vascular plant wax), from burning of biomass, and from anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuel products (lubricating oil, vehicle emissions, etc.). Some compositional differences are observed in the samples and greater atmospheric concentrations were found for almost all organic components in the samples collected near a roadway. The results interpreted in terms of major sources are due to local build-up of organic contaminants from vehicular emissions, smoke from biomass burning, and natural background as a result of the atmospheric stability during the haze episodes. The organic components transported in from areas outside the region, assuming all smoke components are external to the city, amount to about 30% of the total organic particle burden.

  15. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  16. Examination of discrepancies between beta-attenuation and gravimetric methods for the monitoring of particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Minoura, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    Continuous monitoring of the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out for 7 years by both gravimetric method and β-ray attenuation method (BAM) from a building rooftop in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The two methods showed a different tendency in each season: the data observed by BAM were higher than those by the gravimetric method in summer, and this difference was reversed in winter. The volatilization of ammonium salts accounted for only 30% of the difference between the monitoring methods in summer. Thus, we considered the differences in the water content measured by each method. The concentration difference between methods increased when relative humidity exceeded the deliquescence point of ammonium sulfate in summer, and the water content was estimated to be 30%. However, differences in relative humidity did not explain why the data obtained by the gravimetric method exceeded BAM data by 20-30% in winter. We found that the gravimetric measurements generally exceeded BAM measurements in winter if the ambient absolute humidity during particle collection was higher than the absolute humidity during sample weighing. The water content of atmospheric aerosols greatly influences their mass concentrations. Care must be taken when using mass concentration data for purposes such as evaluating health effects.

  17. Traffic-related air pollution, particulate matter, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Heather E; Lurmann, Fred; Penfold, Bryan; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; McConnell, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous disorder with genetic and environmental factors likely contributing to its origins. Examination of hazardous pollutants has suggested the importance of air toxics in the etiology of autism, yet little research has examined its association with local levels of air pollution using residence-specific exposure assignments. To examine the relationship between traffic-related air pollution, air quality, and autism. This population-based case-control study includes data obtained from children with autism and control children with typical development who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment study in California. The mother's address from the birth certificate and addresses reported from a residential history questionnaire were used to estimate exposure for each trimester of pregnancy and first year of life. Traffic-related air pollution was assigned to each location using a line-source air-quality dispersion model. Regional air pollutant measures were based on the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System data. Logistic regression models compared estimated and measured pollutant levels for children with autism and for control children with typical development. Case-control study from California. A total of 279 children with autism and a total of 245 control children with typical development. Crude and multivariable adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for autism. Children with autism were more likely to live at residences that had the highest quartile of exposure to traffic-related air pollution, during gestation (AOR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.20-3.31]) and during the first year of life (AOR, 3.10 [95% CI, 1.76-5.57]), compared with control children. Regional exposure measures of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) were also associated with autism during gestation (exposure to nitrogen dioxide: AOR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.37-3.09]; exposure to PM2.5: AOR, 2.08 [95

  18. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  19. Distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.C.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) of 161 water samples collected from 8 depths (surface to 1000 m) at 21 stations was measured The POC concentrations ranged from 154 to 554 mu g per litre at the surface and decreased in the upper 300 m water column...

  20. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE ATTENUATES MOUSE AORTIC RELAXATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate air pollution (PM) contributes to adverse cardiovascular events by yet unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that PM exposure altered endothelial regulation of systemic vascular tone. 6-10 week old male ICR mice were exposed to a single dose of 10, 30 or 100 'g...

  1. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... deep in the lungs causing lung diseases. Research has indicated the health implications of exposure to certain levels of particulates (Bascom, 1996;. Colucci, et al., 2006; Dockery, 2001; Jansen et al.,. 2005). Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown the adverse health effects of particle pollution (Gan ...

  2. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  3. Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling of Cardiac Response to Particulate Matter Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have linked increased levels of particulate air pollution to decreased autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), particularly in populations such as the elderly. In this study, we use data obtained from the 1998 USEPA epidemiology-exposure longitudin...

  4. Removal of residual particulate matter from filter media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay C.; Miller, Stanley J.

    2018-01-09

    A method for removing residual filter cakes that remain adhered to a filter after typical particulate removal methodologies have been employed, such as pulse-jet filter element cleaning, for all cleanable filters used for air pollution control, dust control, or powder control.

  5. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  6. Mapping Particulate Matter in the European Alps from Modis, Seviri, and In-Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, M.; Emili, E.; Popp, C. T.; Wunderle, S.; Zebisch, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatially homogenous mapping of particulate matter over the complex topography of the European Alpine region by means of remote sensing and ground-based measurements. Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution and atmospheric evolution of particulate matter is of great interest because higher levels of PM can affect human health and therefore, such information can be used by authorities to take counteractions like e.g. traffic restrictions. The study area is frequently influenced by high PM concentrations, especially when atmospheric inversions occur during winter. Major anthropogenic aerosol sources in the European Alps include traffic, wood burning for heating and cooking, and industrial activities. Wefirst apply a linear model to relate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and polar orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) together with boundary layer height (BLH) to surface PM10 concentrations in order to derive spatially homogenous maps of PM10 over the study region for 2008-2009. In parallel, maps of PM10 are computed by inverse distance interpolation of in-situ measurements. Both (SEVIRI and MODIS) satellite based PM10 estimates reveal a moderate performance with a correlation coefficient (R) of ~0.6 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of around 10 μg m-1. In contrary, the sole inverse distance interpolation of in-situ measurements produces more accurate PM10 maps (R~0.8, RMSE satellite product. However, this step only leads to a small improvement in accuracy when most of the in-situ sites are excluded from the interpolation simulating a much sparser network. We conclude that satellite based PM10 maps in the European Alpine region are of limited additional value due to the relatively good coverage of the existing in-situ network, difficult terrain for remote sensing applications (topography, snow and cloud coverage), and

  7. Particulate matter mapping in the European Alps from MODIS, SEVIRI, and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, E.; Popp, C.; Zebisch, M.; Wunderle, S.; Petitta, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the spatially homogenous mapping of particulate matter over the complex topography of the European Alpine region by means of remote sensing and ground-based measurements. Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution and atmospheric evolution of particulate matter is of great interest because higher levels of PM can affect human health and therefore, such information can be used by authorities to take counteractions like e.g. traffic restrictions. The study area is frequently influenced by high PM concentrations, especially when atmospheric inversions occur during winter. Major anthropogenic aerosol sources in the European Alps include traffic, wood burning for heating and cooking, and industrial activities. Wefirst apply a linear model to relate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and polar orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) together with boundary layer height (BLH) to surface PM10 concentrations in order to derive spatially homogenous maps of PM10 over the study region for 2008-2009. In parallel, maps of PM10 are computed by inverse distance interpolation of in-situ measurements. Both (SEVIRI and MODIS) satellite based PM10 estimates reveal a moderate performance with a correlation coefficient (R) of ~0.6 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of around 10 μg m-1. In contrary, the sole inverse distance interpolation of in-situ measurements produces more accurate PM10 maps (R~0.8, RMSE satellite product. However, this step only leads to a small improvement in accuracy when most of the in-situ sites are excluded from the interpolation simulating a much sparser network. We conclude that satellite based PM10 maps in the European Alpine region are of limited additional value due to the relatively good coverage of the existing in-situ network, difficult terrain for remote sensing applications (topography, snow and cloud coverage), and

  8. Capture of air particulate matter and gaseous Hg{sup 0} by ionic liquids analyzed by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Mondragon, M. A. [UNAM, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Boulevard Juriquilla No. 3001, 76230 Juriquilla, Queretaro (Mexico); Murillo, G.; Mendez, B. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been extensively employed to study the elements associated to air particulate matter (Pm). However, the atmosphere is a very complex system and inorganic pollutants may be also in gaseous phases. Aerosol monitoring does not allow the determination of all the volatile inorganic compounds, since they are not retained in the filters, or if they are trapped, the analysis under vacuum results in a partial or total loss of them. In order to extend the applications of PIXE there is a need to develop new methods to simultaneously capture particulate matter and volatile substances. Ionic liquids (Il) result from combinations of organic cations and anions that may be liquid at room temperature. The physicochemical characteristics of Il s allow them to absorb atmospheric trace metals present in solid and gaseous phases, a task normally performed with independent sampling methods. In this work we explored this capability of Il s as monitors of chemical species which can be found in the gas phase and as particulate matter. The tested Il s included 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium-Hexafluorophosphate (BMIM) (PF{sub 6}) for Pm and Hg capture; and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (BMIM) (Scn) only for Hg capture. Elemental analysis of both experiments was performed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Changes in the molecular structure on BMIM PF{sub 6} due to the Hg binding were followed by infrared spectroscopy. (BMIM((PF{sub 6}) proved to be successful as passive collector of Pm. However when both were used for Hg capture, (BMIM) (Scn) showed better selectivity. These preliminary results showed the potential of Il s for simultaneous uptake of Pm and volatile inorganic compounds. (Author)

  9. Bacteriohopanepolyol distribution in Yenisei River and Kara Sea suspended particulate matter and sediments traces terrigenous organic matter input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, C.; Talbot, H.M.; Bischoff, J.; Cherkashov, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are ubiquitous bacterial membrane lipids, encountered in soils, river and marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Their abundance and distribution provides a direct means to identify bacterial inputs and can be used to trace soil-derived bacterial

  10. Microbial biomass on particulate organic matter in seawater of the euphotic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, H

    1970-06-01

    Microbial biomass on suspended organic matter in seawater of the euphotic zone of Saanich Inlet was investigated. The viable microorganisms were measured by the glucose-uptake method. Microbial carbon on particulate organic matter in seawater was determined to be, on the average, 9.9 mug of C/liter, and there was a regression relationship as y = 0.0062 x - 1.79 with an unbiased variance V(yx) = 0.38, where x = particulate organic carbon in seawater (micrograms of C/liter) and y = logarithm of microbial carbon (micrograms of C/liter).

  11. Characterisation of particulate matter on the receptor level in a city environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Winson; Chen, Qun; Osammor, Ogo; Nolan, Andy; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-03-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has become one of the dominant pollutants with the increasing material and energy demand due to global economic growth. The main objective of this research is to provide a comprehensive receptor level characterisation of the particulate matter collected in a city environment. Particulate matter samples were collected on Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) filters from five monitoring sites over a period of 1 year. An Andersen eight-stage cascade impactor was also used to collect airborne PM samples from three other locations to compare with the samples collected by TEOM. All the samples were then subjected to individual particle morphology and chemical composition analysis by SEM/EDS. Bulk chemical composition of the samples were also analysed through ICP-OES. Based on these analyses, possible sources of the PM samples were identified. The results showed that the monitoring sites in residential environments were dominated by transportation-derived particles and other migratory particulates. Monitoring sites near the city centre were dominant by particles from transportation, with biological particles abundant for the site closer to a river. The monitoring station located close to the industrial area, despite only 200 m away from a motorway, has low contribution of non-exhaust particulates from vehicles. Instead, the particulates collected from this site were dominated by industrial sources. An air dispersion modelling package was also used to model the particulate matter dispersion in the city area for the period of sampling. The results from the model showed that the points of high emissions were around industrial areas.

  12. Foliar uptake and metal(loid) bioaccessibility in vegetables exposed to particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tian-Tian; Leveque, Thibaut; Austruy, Annabelle; Goix, Sylvaine; Schreck, Eva; Dappe, Vincent; Sobanska, Sophie; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2014-10-01

    At the global scale, high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) enriched with metal(loid)s are currently observed in the atmosphere of urban areas. Foliar lead uptake was demonstrated for vegetables exposed to airborne PM. Our main objective here was to highlight the health risk associated with the consumption of vegetables exposed to foliar deposits of PM enriched with the various metal(loid)s frequently observed in the atmosphere of urban areas (Cd, Sb, Zn and Pb). Leaves of mature cabbage and spinach were exposed to manufactured mono-metallic oxide particles (CdO, Sb2O3 and ZnO) or to complex process PM mainly enriched with lead. Total and bioaccessible metal(loid) concentrations were then measured for polluted vegetables and the various PM used as sources. Finally, scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis was used to study PM-phyllosphere interactions. High quantities of Cd, Sb, Zn and Pb were taken up by the plant leaves. These levels depended on both the plant species and nature of the PM, highlighting the interest of acquiring data for different plants and sources of exposure in order to better identify and manage health risks. A maximum of 2% of the leaf surfaces were covered with the PM. However, particles appeared to be enriched in stomatal openings, with up to 12% of their area occupied. Metal(loid) bioaccessibility was significantly higher for vegetables compared to PM sources, certainly due to chemical speciation changes. Taken together, these results confirm the importance of taking atmospheric PM into account when assessing the health risks associated with ingestion of vegetables grown in urban vegetable crops or kitchen gardens.

  13. A Global Perspective of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Its Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2018-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM2.5 (particles health effects of PM2.5 and its components. PM2.5 levels and exceedances of national and international standards were several times higher in Asian countries, while levels in Europe and USA were mostly well below the respective standards. Vehicular traffic has a significant influence on PM2.5 levels in urban areas; followed by combustion activities (biomass, industrial, and waste burning) and road dust. In urban atmosphere, fine particles are mostly associated with different health effects with old aged people, pregnant women, and more so children being the most susceptible ones. Fine PM chemical constituents severely effect health due to their carcinogenic or mutagenic nature. Most of the research indicated an exceedance of fine PM level of the standards with a diverse array of health effects based on PM2.5 chemical constituents. Emission reduction policies with epidemiological studies are needed to understand the benefits of sustainable control measures for fine PM mitigation.

  14. Anthropogenic influences on the physical state of submicron particulate matter over a tropical forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Harder, Tristan H.; de Sá, Suzane S.; Wang, Bingbing; Castillo, Paulo; China, Swarup; Liu, Yingjun; O& amp; apos; Brien, Rachel E.; Palm, Brett B.; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Cirino, Glauber G.; Thalman, Ryan; Adachi, Kouji; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Buseck, Peter R.; Gilles, Mary K.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Laskin, Alexander; Manzi, Antonio O.; Sedlacek, Arthur; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Wang, Jian; Zaveri, Rahul; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-02-06

    The occurrence of nonliquid and liquid physical states of submicron atmospheric particulate matter (PM) downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia was investigated. Measurements were conducted during two intensive operating periods (IOP1 and IOP2) that took place during the wet and dry seasons of the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign. Air masses representing variable influences of background conditions, urban pollution, and regional- and continental-scale biomass burning passed over the research site. As the air masses varied, particle rebound fraction, an indicator of physical state, was measured in real time at ground level using an impactor apparatus. Micrographs collected by transmission electron microscopy confirmed that liquid particles adhered, while nonliquid particles rebounded. Relative humidity (RH) was scanned to collect rebound curves. When the apparatus RH matched ambient RH, 95 % of the particles adhered as a campaign average. Secondary organic material, produced for the most part by the oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from the forest, produces liquid PM over this tropical forest. During periods of anthropogenic influence, by comparison, the rebound fraction dropped to as low as 60 % at 95 % RH. Analyses of the mass spectra of the atmospheric PM by positive-matrix factorization (PMF) and of concentrations of carbon monoxide, total particle number, and oxides of nitrogen were used to identify time periods affected by anthropogenic influences, including both urban pollution and biomass burning. The occurrence of nonliquid PM at high RH correlated with these indicators of anthropogenic influence. A linear model having as output the rebound fraction and as input the PMF factor loadings explained up to 70 % of the variance in the observed rebound fractions. Anthropogenic influences can contribute to the presence of nonliquid PM in the atmospheric particle population through the combined effects of molecular species that increase viscosity

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter and metal components on mortality in the Rome longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cerza, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Forastiere, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of long-term exposure to metal components in particulate matter on mortality are still controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, particulate matter components (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, silicon,

  16. Exploring Pre-Service Elementary Science Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Particulate Nature of Matter through Three-Tier Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Bilican, Kader; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Pre-service Elementary Science Teachers' (PSTs) conceptual understanding of Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM) through a three-tier diagnostic test. Participants were 215 PSTs from Turkey. Data consisted of participants' responses to the Particulate Nature of Matter Test (PNMT). The PNMT consists of…

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter. PMID:27247608

  18. Nitrogen and Triple Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Atmospheric Particulate Nitrate over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezaki, Kazuki; Hattori, Shohei; Iwamoto, Yoko; Ishino, Sakiko; Furutani, Hiroshi; Miki, Yusuke; Miura, Kazuhiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate plays a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle. Atmospheric nitrate (NO3- and HNO3) are produced by reaction precursor as NOx (NO and NO2) emitted by combustion, biomass burning, lightning, and soil emission, with atmospheric oxidants like ozone (O3), hydroxyl radical (OH), peroxy radical and halogen oxides. Recently, industrial activity lead to increases in the concentrations of nitrogen species (NOx and NHy) throughout the environment. Because of the increase of the amount of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, the oceanic biogeochemical cycle are changed (Galloway et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2011). However, the sources and formation pathways of atmospheric nitrate are still uncertain over the Pacific Ocean because the long-term observation is limited. Stable isotope analysis is useful tool to gain information of sources, sinks and formation pathways. The nitrogen stable isotopic composition (δ15N) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used to posses information of its nitrogen sources (Elliott et al., 2007). Triple oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 ×δ18O) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used as tracer of the relative importance of mass-independent oxygen bearing species (e.g. O3, BrO; Δ17O ≠ 0 ‰) and mass-dependent oxygen bearing species (e.g. OH radical; Δ17O ≈ 0 ‰) through the formation processes from NOx to NO3- in the atmosphere (Michalski et al., 2003; Thiemens, 2006). Here, we present the isotopic compositions of atmospheric particulate NO3- samples collected over the Pacific Ocean from 40˚ S to 68˚ N. We observed significantly low δ15N values for atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean during both cruises. Although the data is limited, combination analysis of δ15N and Δ17O values for atmospheric particulate NO3- showed the possibility of the main nitrogen source of atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean is ammonia oxidation in troposphere. Furthermore, the Δ17O values

  19. 0 Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Particulate Matter during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    induced X-ray emission. (PIXE) spectrometry (Maenhaut and Cafmeyer,. 1998). However, it should be noted that the PIXE data for the lightest elements (Na and Mg) are not very reliable because of severe X-ray attention. The data for sodium and ...

  20. An assessment of common atmospheric particulate matter sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    728, November 2010. Available ... existing technologies use inertial impactors or dicho- tomous samplers as particle size separators that ..... elements measured during this study. Detection limits and analytical precision vary widely with analytical.

  1. 0 Elemental Composition of Atmospheric Particulate Matter during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    analysed for the PM mass by weighing. A further analysis was performed for 25 elements by particle-induced x-ray emission spectrometry. The results show that the concentrations of the heavy metals were lower than those for the elements of crustal origin. The data from PIXE analysis and enrichment factor (E.F.) calculation ...

  2. Particulate organic matter delta C-13 variations across the Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Takahashi, T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Sullivan, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) was sampled during two cruise transects across the Drake Passage during March 1986 to investigate the unusual C-13 depletion in high-latitude Southern Ocean plankton. This POM delta C-13 transition from -23.2 o/oo at 53.3 deg S to values as low as -30.3 o/oo at above 62 deg S does not track previously reported abrupt changes in water chemistry and plankton species composition associated with the Polar Front Zone. The north-south isotopic trend is not accompanied by significant changes in POM carbon or nitrogen concentrations, or in POM C/N. Differences in plankton standing crop or biochemistry (e.g. lipid content) do not appear responsible for the isotopic trends observed. The latitudinal change in POM delta C-13 is highly correlated with water temperature and with the calculated concentration of CO2 (aq) at equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that CO2 (aq) significantly influences POM delta C-13 in ocean surface waters.

  3. Buffering of Ocean Export Production by Flexible Elemental Stoichiometry of Particulate Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important factors that determine the ocean-atmosphere carbon partitioning is the sinking of particulate organic matter (POM) from the surface ocean to the deep ocean. The amount of carbon (C) removed from the surface ocean by this POM export production depends critically on the elemental ratio in POM of C to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), two essential elements that limit productivity. Recent observations indicate that P:N:C in marine POM varies both spatially and temporally due to chemical, physical, and ecological dynamics. In a new approach to predicting a flexible P:C ratio, we developed a power law model with a stoichiometry sensitivity factor, which is able to relate P:C of POM to ambient phosphate concentration. The new factor is robust, measurable, and biogeochemically meaningful. Using the new stoichiometry sensitivity factor, we present a first-order estimate that P:C plasticity could buffer against a generally expected future reduction in global carbon export production by up to 5% under a future warming scenario compared to a fixed, Redfield P:C. Further, we demonstrate that our new stoichiometry model can be implemented successfully and easily in a global model to reproduce the large-scale P:N:C variability in the ocean.

  4. Concentration and Size Distribution of Particulate Matter in a Broiler House Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Rodrigues Amador

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter (PM is an important constituent of ambient air. The determination of its concentration and size distribution in different environments is essential because of its ability to penetrate deeply into animal and human respiratory tract. In this study, air sampling was performed in a broiler house to estimate the concentration and size distribution of PM emitted along with its activities. Low-vol impactor (< 10 mm, cyclones (< 2.5 e < 1.0 mm, and Sioutas cascade impactor (> 2.5; 1.0 – 2.5; 0.50 – 1.0; 0.25 – 0.50; < 0.25 mm connected with membrane pumps were used. PM10 showed high concentration (209 - 533 mg m-3. PM2.5 and PM1.0 initially showed relatively low concentration (20.8 and 16.0 mg m-3 respectively with significantly increasing levels (412.9 and 344.8 mg m-3 respectively during the samplings. It was also possible to observe the contribution of fine particles. This was evidenced by the high correlation between PM2.5 and PM1.0 and by the profile of particle distribution in the Sioutas sampler. PM concentration levels are considered excessively high, with great potential to affect animal and human health. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.847 

  5. Levels of particulate matter in rural, urban and industrial sites in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Viana, M.M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra del CSIC, C/Luis Sole y Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artinano, B.; Salvador, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Mediambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, CEAM. Parque tecnologico, C-4, sector oeste, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Santos, S. Garcia do; Patier, R. Fernandez [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra. Majadahonda-Pozuelo, km n. 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); De La Rosa, J.; De la Campa, A. Sanchez [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Huelva, Campus Universitario de la Rabida, La Rabida, 21819 Huelva (Spain); Menendez, M.; Gil, J.J. [Departamento Mineralogia y Petrologia. Universidad del Pais Vasco, Aptdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    This paper summarises the results of a series of studies on the interpretation of time series of levels of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter (PM, <10 {mu}m) in six regions of Spain in the period 1996-2000. In addition to the local pollution events, high PM10 episodes are recorded during African dust outbreaks, regional atmospheric recirculation events (mainly in spring to autumn), and to a lesser extent, under the influence of European and Mediterranean long range transported air masses. The lowest PM10 levels are usually recorded under Atlantic air mass advective conditions. All these regional and large-scale processes account for the relatively high PM10 levels recorded in regional background stations in Spain. Thus, the PM10 levels recorded at EMEP (Cooperative Program for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) regional background stations between March 2001 and March 2002 are very close to the annual limit value proposed for 2010 by the EU Air Quality Directive 1999/30/CE. Chemical data obtained for the different monitoring stations during 2001 show a high mineral load in PM10 for most of the study sites in Spain. Furthermore, a high marine aerosol load is evidenced in the Canary Islands. These mineral and marine loads are lower when considering PM2.5, but a relatively high proportion (8-21%) of mineral dust is still present.

  6. Accumulation of three different sizes of particulate matter on plant leaf surfaces: Effect on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.

  7. Particulate matter emitted from poultry and pig houses: source identification and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Hermosilla, T.; Lai, T.L.H.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    There is need to identify and quantify the contribution of different sources to airborne particulate matter (PM) emissions from animal houses. To this end, we compared the chemical and morphological characteristics of fine and coarse PM from known sources collected from animal houses with the

  8. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  9. Global Guidance On LCIA Indicators: Impacts Of Particulate Matter And Of Land Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Improving life cycle impact assessment models is crucial. The flagship project of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative provides global guidance and consensus on environmental LCIA indicators for climate change, particulate matter impacts, land use impact on biodiversity, water scarcity and water ...

  10. Chemical Composition and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Particulate Matter in Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cleveland airshed comprises a complex mixture of industrial source emissions that contribute to periods of non-attainment for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and are associated with increased adverse health outcomes in the exposed population. Specific PM sources responsible...

  11. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a wet scrubber) for reducing PM, SO2, or carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, burns only gaseous fuels or... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this....060 lb/MMBtu) or less and does not use a post-combustion technology to reduce SO2 or PM emissions. The...

  12. Effect of PDEODE Teaching Strategy on Turkish Students' Conceptual Understanding: Particulate Nature of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Hülya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of activities developed in accordance with PDEODE teaching strategy on students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter. The sample of the study consists of the first grade students who study in the Primary School Teacher Education Program. In order to determine the conceptual change on…

  13. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  14. Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeftens, M.; Hoek, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Mölter, A.; Agius, R.; Beelen, R.; Brunekreef, B.; Custovic, A.; Cyrys, J.; Fuertes, E.; Heinrich, J.; Hoffmann, B.; De Hoogh, K.; Jedynska, A.; Keuken, M.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.; Krämer, U.; Korek, M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Simpson, A.; Smit, H.A.; Tsai, M.Y.; Wang, M.; Wolf, K.; Pershagen, G.; Gehring, U.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) on lung function have been shown repeatedly. Spatial differences in the composition and toxicity of PM may explain differences in observed effect sizes between studies. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study in 5

  15. Stable Isotope Values of Nitrogen and Carbon in Particulate Matter: Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data set from “Patterns in stable isotope values of nitrogen and carbon in particulate matter from the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras” by Oczkowski et al. These are the data upon which all results and conclusion are made...

  16. Trace metals in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Severnaya Dvina estuary, Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koukina, S.E.; Calafat-Frau, A.; Hummel, H.; Palerud, R.

    2001-01-01

    A geochemical study of the Severnaya Dvina estuary was carried out during two oceanographic cruises to the White Sea. The amount and distribution of trace (Mn, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and major (Al and Fe) elements in suspended particulate matter and sediments were determined. The main source of

  17. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  18. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft, Jul 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  19. Health Risks in relation to air quality, especially particulate matter. Interim report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombout PJA; Bloemen HJTh; Bree L van; Buring E; Cassee FR; Fischer PH; Freijer JL; Kruize H; Marra M; Opperhuizen; LEO; LAE; LPI; LLO; CDL

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment of health effects associated with particulate matter (PM), especially ambient PM10 levels, for the Netherlands has indicated premature mortality among approximately 1000 persons. Local information, including air pollution mix and health status of the population, has

  20. From concentration to dose: factors influencing airborne particulate matter deposition in humans and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter-sorkina R de; Cassee FR; LBV; LBO

    2003-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) consisting of solid particles and droplets is present in the ambient air. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 micro m can be inhaled by humans. Knowledge of the tissue-specific internal dose of PM is a critical link between individual external exposure and

  1. Processes and modeling of hydrolysis of particulate organic matter in aerobic wastewater tratment - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Kommedal, Roald; Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    Carbon cycling and the availability of organic carbon for nutrient removal processes are in most wastewater treatment systems restricted by the rate of hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable (particulate) organic matter. To date, the mechanisms of hydrolysis are not well understood for complex...

  2. Determination of basic azaarenes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter by gas chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben; Clausen, Peraxel; Jensen, Finn Palmgren

    1986-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrogen analogs, basic azaarenes, are extracted from samples of airborne particulate matter by toluene with ultrasonic treatment. The basic azaarenes are extracted from the toluene phase with phosphoric acid, re-extracted from the phosphoric acid...

  3. Diesel particulate matter exposure in South African platinum mines: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling was conducted on nearly 300 mine workers in the diesel and non-diesel sections of three platinum mines in South Africa. Respiratory health questionnaires were administered to all of these workers...

  4. Abatement of particulate matter emission from experimental aviary housings for laying hens by spraying rapeseed oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, A.; Riel, van J.W.; Emous, van R.A.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    In alternative systems for laying hens, concentrations and emission rates of particulate matter (PM) give reason for concern with regard to working conditions, bird health and productivity, and health of residents living near farms. Previously, we found that spraying a film of rapeseed oil onto the

  5. [Elemental size distribution of airborne fine and ultrafine particulate matters in the suburb of Shanghai, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Li, Yan; Bao, Liang-Man; Li, Yu-Lan; Xu, Zhong-Yang; Wu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Dong-Liang; He, Wei

    2009-04-15

    The elemental size distributions of airborne fine/ultrafine particulate matters in the suburb of Shanghai were studied using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. Median mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), elemental correlation coefficient as well as enrichment factor (EF) of each size fraction were calculated to characterize the sources of elements in fine/ultrafine particulate matters. Ca and Ti distributed mainly in coarse particles (> 2 microm) with size independent enrichment factors between 0.1 and 3.2, and the correlation coefficient between Ca and Ti was as high as 0.933, which implied strong contribution from nature sources, such as soil dusts and resuspended dusts. However, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cl, S mainly distributed in 0.1-1.0 microm particulate matters with MMAD between 0.56-0.94 microm. The EF of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb increased with decreasing particle size. The highest EF were found for Pb in ultrafine particulate matters (MMAD of 1.3 microm. The results indicated non-negligible influences of remote transmission of anthropogenic pollutions.

  6. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives of

  7. 78 FR 19128 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA...-2450. 4. Mail: Pamela Blakely, Chief, Control Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S...

  8. 75 FR 65594 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... have been necessary to attain and maintain the 2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM in... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is...

  9. 78 FR 19164 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Particulate Matter Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 77 West Jackson Boulevard...

  10. Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

  11. 78 FR 78315 - Revision to the Idaho State Implementation Plan; Approval of Fine Particulate Matter Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision to the Idaho State Implementation Plan; Approval of Fine Particulate Matter Control Measures; Franklin County AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) to address Clean Air Act (CAA) requirements for the Idaho...

  12. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.126 Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G and § 51.281 of this...

  13. 40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.62 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated May 29, 1987, the Alabama Department of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.933 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.933 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 27, 1987, the Kentucky Department...

  15. 40 CFR 52.578 - Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.578 Control Strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. In a letter dated March 26, 1987, the Georgia Department of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Florida § 52.528 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) In a letter dated October 10, 1986, the Florida...

  17. Levels of As, Pb, Cd and Fe in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) collected from three different artisans' workshops was analyzed for As, Cd, Pb and Fe by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The range of SPM concentrations for the three workshops was 583-20,166Bg/m3. The highest concentrations of these elements were observed in Motor ...

  18. The added value of a proposed satellite imager for ground level particulate matter analyses and forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.M.A.; Segers, A.J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Vautard, R.; Siddans, R.; Elbern, H.; Tjemkes, S.A.T.; Schaap, M.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring aerosols over wide areas is important for the assessment of the population's exposure to health relevant particulate matter (PM). Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can contribute to the improvement of highly needed analyzed and forecasted distributions of PM when

  19. Distortion of particulate extinction profiles measured with lidar in a two-component atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V A; Moosmüller, H

    1994-09-20

    Distortions of particular extinction-coefficient profiles measured with lidar in a two-component (molecular and aerosol) scattering atmosphere are analyzed. The error of the extinction coefficient measured at range r depends on the location of the point r(b), where a boundary value is specified, and the particulate optical depth of the atmosphere between r and r(b); the particulate backscatter-to-extinction ratio; and the ratio of particulate and molecular scattering extinction. If the near-end solution is used, small measurement errors can produce a significant divergence between the actual and the retrieved extinction-coefficient profiles, even if the boundary value and the particulate backscatter-to-extinction ratio are specified accurately. This effect is exacerbated at small values of the particulate scattering coefficient and the backscatter-to-extinction ratio. When reasonable criteria are used, feasible minimum and maximum boundary values can be specified to restrict the range of lidar equation solutions from below and from above.

  20. Natural, anthropogenic and fossil organic matter in river sediments and suspended particulate matter: a multi-molecular marker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Köster, J; Hofmann, T

    2011-02-01

    Different classes of organic matter (OM) have been systematically investigated in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) along the Danube River in order to understand causes of compositional changes. Analytical pyrolysis revealed the dominance of natural organic matter (NOM) in most of the samples. The predominance of aquatic biomass is evident mainly from the abundance of organonitrogen compounds and phenol distributions. As the river enters a forested gorge, the terrestrial component of the NOM in sediments is more significant. This is reflected in abundant methoxyphenols and a very high carbon preference index. SPM sample from a tributary shows a unique geochemical signature. It contains abundant carboxylic acids, amines, isoprenoids in the pyrolyzate, and is dominated by phytol and 24-methyl-cholesta-5,24(28)-dien-3β-ol in the extract, produced by a diatom bloom. Wax esters with a relatively high proportion of short, methyl-branched alkyl-chains appear together with abundant phytadienes and n-C(17) alkane in some samples, suggesting a microbial origin. Anthropogenic OM from runoff and atmospheric deposition was evident from a minor input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from mixed combustion sources. Multivariate analysis using PAH data led us to define simple molecular ratios to distinguish the PAH composition in sand and silty sediments. The newly defined ratios are the alkylated phenanthrenes and anthracenes ratio (APA; C(1)-C(3)/C(0)-C(3) phenanthrenes and anthracenes) and the PAH ring number ratio (RN; 5-6 ring parent PAHs/all parent PAHs). This demonstrates that alkylated, as well as 5-6 ring PAHs are better preserved in the finer than in coarser grained sediments. A ubiquitous, but minor input of petroleum-related contamination with a uniform composition was evident in all samples as revealed by the analysis of petroleum biomarkers. This study demonstrates that the investigation of different classes of riverine OM

  1. Analysis of traffic and meteorology on airborne particulate matter in Münster, northwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Johanna K; Klemm, Otto

    2009-07-01

    The importance of street traffic and meteorological conditions on the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 microm (PM10) was studied in the city of Münster in northwest Germany. The database consisted of meteorological data, data of PM10 mass concentrations and fine particle number (6-225 nm diameter) concentrations, and traffic intensity data as counted with tally hand counters at a four- to six-lane road. On working days, a significant correlation could be found between the diurnal mean PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number. The lower number of heavy-duty vehicles compared with passenger cars contributed more to the particle number concentration on working days than on weekend days. On weekends, when the vehicle number was very low, the correlation between PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number changed completely. Other sources of PM and the meteorology dominated the PM concentration. Independent of the weekday, by decreasing the traffic by approximately 99% during late-night hours, the PM10 concentration was reduced by 12% of the daily mean value. A correlation between PM10 and the particle number concentration was found for each weekday. In this study, meteorological parameters, including the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer, were also accounted for. The authors deployed artificial neural networks to achieve more information on the influence of various meteorological parameters, traffic, and the day of the week. A multilayer perceptron network showed the best results for predicting the PM10 concentration, with the correlation coefficient being 0.72. The influence of relative humidity, temperature, and wind was strong, whereas the influence of atmospheric stability and the traffic parameters was weak. Although traffic contributes a constant amount of particles in a daily and weekly cycle, it is the meteorology that drives most of the variability.

  2. Contribution of fungal spores to particulate matter in a tropical rainforest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ting; Chan Chuenyu; Zhang Yinan; Zhang Zhisheng; Lin Mang; Sang Xuefang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Engling, Guenter [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Y D [Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Bureau of Forestry, Guangzhou (China); Li, Yok-Sheung, E-mail: guenter@gate.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: chzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2010-04-15

    The polyols arabitol and mannitol, recently proposed as source tracers for fungal spores, were used in this study to estimate fungal contributions to atmospheric aerosol. Airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}) was collected at Jianfengling Mountain, a tropical rainforest on Hainan Island situated off the south China coast, during spring and analyzed for arabitol and mannitol by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The average concentrations of arabitol and mannitol exhibited high values with averages of 7.0 and 16.0 ng m{sup -3} respectively in PM{sub 2.5} and 44.0 and 71.0 ng m{sup -3} in PM{sub 10}. The two tracers correlated well with each other, especially in the coarse mode aerosol (PM{sub 2.5-10}), indicating they were mainly associated with coarse aerosol particles and had common sources. Arabitol and mannitol in PM{sub 10} showed significant positive correlations with relative humidity, as well as positive correlations with average temperature, suggesting a wet emissions mechanism of biogenic aerosol in the form of fungal spores. We made estimations of the contribution of fungal spores to ambient PM mass and to organic carbon, based on the observed ambient concentrations of these two tracers. The relative contributions of fungal spores to the PM{sub 10} mass were estimated to range from 1.6 to 18.2%, with a rather high mean value of 7.9%, and the contribution of fungal spores to organic carbon in PM{sub 10} ranged from 4.64 to 26.1%, with a mean value of 12.1%, implying that biological processes are important sources of atmospheric aerosol.

  3. Allergenic Asteraceae in air particulate matter: quantitative DNA analysis of mugwort and ragweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Germann, I; Pickersgill, D A; Paulsen, H; Alberternst, B; Pöschl, U; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J; Després, V R

    2017-01-01

    Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) are highly allergenic Asteraceae. They often cause pollen allergies in late summer and fall. While mugwort is native to Europe, ragweed reached Europe as a neophyte from North America about 150 years ago and continued spreading ever since. To understand possible relationships between the spread of ragweed, its abundance in air, and to judge possible health risks for the public, we quantified ragweed DNA in inhalable fine as well as in coarse air particulate matter. Mugwort was chosen for comparison, as it is closely related to ragweed and grows in similar, though mainly not identical, habitats but is native to Germany. The DNA quantification was performed on atmospheric aerosol samples collected over a period of 5 years in central Europe. The DNA concentrations were highest during the characteristic pollination periods but varied greatly between different years. In the inhalable fine particle fraction, ragweed exceeds the mugwort DNA concentration fivefold, while the coarse particle fraction, bearing intact pollen grains, contains more mugwort than ragweed DNA. The higher allergenic potential of ragweed might be linked to the humidity or long-range transport-induced bursting of ragweed pollen into smaller allergenic particles, which may reach the lower airways and cause more intense allergic reactions. Airborne ragweed DNA was detected also outside the local pollination periods, which can be explained by atmospheric long-range transport. Back-trajectory analyses indicate that the air masses containing ragweed DNA during winter had originated in regions with milder climate and large ragweed populations (Southern France, Carpathian Basin).

  4. Particulate matter (PM10) patterns in Europe: An exploratory data analysis using non-negative matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibert, Janez; Cedilnik, Jure; Pražnikar, Jure

    2016-05-01

    In last decade space-density of monitoring stations increased, in to addition also air pollution modeling made big progress. Using diversity of big data can lead to better knowledge about air pollution at continental scale. The focus of presented study is the data-driven approach using non-negative matrix factorization to provide new insights and to study the characteristic space-time particulate-matter patterns across Europe. We analyzed the PM10 concentrations obtained from 1097 monitoring stations (AirBase data) and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) modeled fields for a period of 3 years. We distinguished five characteristic patterns obtained from the AirBase data and five patterns from the MACC data. A comparison between the AirBase and MACC data shows a good spatial overlap for the east Europe, central Europe and the Mediterranean patterns. However, it should be noted that an analysis of the MACC data revealed two additional marine patterns: the Celtic and the North Seas. The Po Valley and Balkan patterns were very clearly identified when analyzing the AirBase data. In order to better understand the influence of the synoptic situation on the particulate-matter concentrations the synoptic meteorological situations were additionally analyzed. The cold season, low wind and very stable conditions, which can last for several days, is the most common situation linked to high concentrations of anthropogenic air pollution with particulate matter. In contrast, for the Mediterranean pattern the most common situation (high factor loadings) is observed during the summer period. This pattern also exhibits a clearer annual cycle. A closer look at the sea-salt patterns (Celtic and North Seas) shows low time-series correlations between these two factors. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism is the same: a steep gradient between the cyclone and the anti-cyclone that causes high winds and, consequently, higher sea-salt production.

  5. Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts : Results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuertes, Elaine; MacIntyre, Elaina; Agius, Raymond; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Bucci, Simone; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cirach, Marta; Cyrys, Josef; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Gruzieva, Olena; Hoffmann, Barbara; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Keuken, Menno; Kluemper, Claudia; Kooter, Ingeborg; Korek, Michal; Kraemer, Ursula; Moelter, Anna; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Pershagen, Goran; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje S.; Simpson, Angela; Smit, Henriette A.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Sunyer, Jordi; Wang, Meng; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven

  6. Understanding Particulate Matter Dynamics in the San Joaquin Valley during DISCOVER-AQ, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, G.; Zhang, X.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Pusede, S. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Zhang, Q.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Air quality in the California San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during winter continues to be the worst in the state, failing EPA's 24-hour standard for particulate matter. Despite our improved understanding of the sources of particulate matter (PM) in the valley, air-quality models are unable to predict PM concentrations accurately. We aim to characterize periods of high particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley based on ground and airborne measurements of aerosols and gaseous pollutants, during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign, 2013. A highly instrumented aircraft flew across the SJV making three transects in a repeatable pattern, with vertical spirals over select locations. The aircraft measurements were complemented by ground measurements at these locations, with extensive chemically-speciated measurements at a ground "supersite" at Fresno. Hence, the campaign provided a comprehensive three-dimensional view of the particulate and gaseous pollutants around the valley. The vertical profiles over the different sites indicate significant variability in the concentrations and vertical distribution of PM around the valley, which are most likely driven by differences in the combined effects of emissions, chemistry and boundary layer dynamics at each site. The observations suggest that nighttime PM is dominated by surface emissions of PM from residential fuel combustion, while early morning PM is strongly influenced by mixing of low-level, above-surface, nitrate-rich layers formed from dark chemistry overnight to the surface.

  7. Respiratory symptoms, lung function and particulate matter pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the indoor PM10 levels was done by filtration using the Gent stacked filter unit sampler for collection of atmospheric aerosol in two size fractions (PM2.5 and PM10). The Medical Research Council (MRC) questionnaire was administered followed by spirometry test. Results: The mean PM10 concentration in ...

  8. Physico-chemical properties of radionuclides emitted as particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work done to improve the representation in European decision support tools of physico-chemical forms of radiocontaminants released to the atmosphere from a major nuclear power plant accident. The task is to accommodate those types of scenarios where fuel particles are at play....

  9. Effects of simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter on photosynthesis and the generation of oxidative stress in Schinus terebinthifolius Radii and Sophora tomentosa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuki, Kacilda Naomi [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil)], E-mail: naomikuki@hotmail.com; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmao; Costa, Alan Carlos [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Cambraia, Jose [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    Particulate matter is a natural occurrence in the environment, but some industries, such as the iron ore sector, can raise the total amount of particles in the atmosphere. This industry is primarily a source of iron and sulfur dioxide particulates. The effects of the pollutants from the iron ore industries on representatives of restinga vegetation in a Brazilian coastal ecosystem were investigated using physiological and biochemical measures. Two species, Schinus terebinthifolius and Sophora tomentosa, were exposed to simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter in acrylic chambers in a greenhouse. Parameters such as gas exchange, fluorescence emission, chlorophyll content, total iron content, antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content were assessed in order to evaluate the responses of the two species. Neither treatment was capable of inducing oxidative stress in S. terebinthifolius. Nevertheless, the deposition of iron ore particulates on this species increased chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the electron transport rate, while iron content was unaltered. On the other hand, S. tomentosa showed a greater sensitivity to the treatments. Plants of S. tomentosa that were exposed to acid mist had a decrease in photosynthesis, while the deposition of iron particulate matter led to an increase in iron content and membrane permeability of the leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutase, were enhanced by both treatments. The results suggested that the two restinga species use different strategies to overcome the stressful conditions created by the deposition of particulate matter, either solid or wet. It seems that while S. terebinthifolius avoided stress, S. tomentosa used antioxidant enzyme systems to partially neutralize oxidative stress. The findings also point to the potential use of S. tomentosa as a biomarker species under field conditions.

  10. Particulate organic matter predicts bacterial productivity in a river dominated estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries act as coastal filters for organic and inorganic fluvial materials in which microbial, biogeochemical, and ecological processes combine to transform organic matter and nutrients prior to export to the coastal ocean. The function of this estuarine 'bioreactor' is linked to the residence times of those materials and to rates of microbial heterotrophic activity. Our ability to forecast the impact of global change on estuarine bioreactor function requires an understanding of the basic controls on microbial community activity and diversity. In the Columbia River estuary, the microbial community undergoes a dramatic seasonal shift in species composition during which a spring bacterioplankton community, dominated by Flavobacteriaceae and Oceanospirillales, is replaced by a summer community, dominated by Rhodobacteraceae and several common marine taxa. This annual shift occurs in July, following the spring freshet, when river flow and river chlorophyll concentration decrease and when estuarine water residence time increases. Analysis of a large dataset from 17 research cruises (1990-2014) showed that the composition of particulate organic matter in the estuary changes after the freshet with decreasing organic carbon and nitrogen content, and increasing contribution of marine and autochthonous estuarine organic matter (based on PO13C and pigment ratios). Bacterial production rates (measured as leucine or thymidine incorporation rates) in the estuary respond to this change, and correlate strongly with labile particulate nitrogen concentration and temperature during individual sampling campaigns, and with the concentration of chlorophyll in the Columbia River across all seasons. Regression models suggest that the concentration of labile particulate nitrogen and the rate of bacterial production can be predicted from sensor measurements of turbidity, salinity, and temperature in the estuary and chlorophyll in the river. These results suggest that the quality of

  11. Atmospheric ammonia and particulate inorganic nitrogen over the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We use in situ observations from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE network, the Midwest Ammonia Monitoring Project, 11 surface site campaigns as well as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI satellite measurements with the GEOS-Chem model to investigate inorganic aerosol loading and atmospheric ammonia concentrations over the United States. IASI observations suggest that current ammonia emissions are underestimated in California and in the springtime in the Midwest. In California this underestimate likely drives the underestimate in nitrate formation in the GEOS-Chem model. However in the remaining continental United States we find that the nitrate simulation is biased high (normalized mean bias > = 1.0 year-round, except in Spring (due to the underestimate in ammonia in this season. None of the uncertainties in precursor emissions, the uptake efficiency of N2O5 on aerosols, OH concentrations, the reaction rate for the formation of nitric acid, or the dry deposition velocity of nitric acid are able to explain this bias. We find that reducing nitric acid concentrations to 75% of their simulated values corrects the bias in nitrate (as well as ammonium in the US. However the mechanism for this potential reduction is unclear and may be a combination of errors in chemistry, deposition and sub-grid near-surface gradients. This "updated" simulation reproduces PM and ammonia loading and captures the strong seasonal and spatial gradients in gas-particle partitioning across the United States. We estimate that nitrogen makes up 15−35% of inorganic fine PM mass over the US, and that this fraction is likely to increase in the coming decade, both with decreases in sulfur emissions and increases in ammonia emissions.

  12. Characteristics of organic compounds in aerosol particulate matter from Dhahran city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Rushdi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic chemical pollutants in atmospheric particulate matter (PM have a potential toxicity hazard resulting in human responses that vary from no discernible effect to premature death. The formation and sources of PM also affect air quality of metropolitan areas as well as climate change. The new developments and industrial activities in the Middle East, especially Saudi Arabia, are expected to contribute to the natural, regional, and anthropogenic input sources of organic matter (OM. Here we report the occurrence, concentrations and sources of organic tracers, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, plasticizers, and petroleum biomarkers, in ambient atmospheric PM from the city of Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The major compounds were unresolved complex mixtures (UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons (489 ± 296 ng m−3, plasticizers (131 ± 119 ng m−3 for phenyl phosphates, 87 ± 42 ng m−3 for phthalates, n-alkanes (73 ± 53 ng m−3, hopane biomarkers (11 ± 8 ng m−3, n-alkanones (6.7 ± 6.3 ng m−3, PAHs (2.0 ± 2.1 ng m−3, n-alkanols (1.2 ± 1.2 ng m−3, sterane biomarkers (0.4 ± 0.3 ng m−3, and sterols (0.5 ± 0.4 ng m−3. Obviously, UCM and plasticizers were the major components (56 ± 9% and 26 ± 10% of the total extracts, respectively in the PM of Dhahran, which might have adverse public health effects. The major sources of this OM are emissions from industrial factories north of the city, plastics and biomass burning, and petroleum product combustion (traffic/refining.

  13. Photochemically Driven Reduction of Hg(II) in the Presence of Particulate Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocar, B. D.; Gelfond, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury(Hg) is a global pollutant with high toxicity that accumulates in biota and biomagnifies, posing a risk to organisms throughout the food chain. Hg is known to strongly associate with natural organic matter (NOM), affecting its speciation, solubility, mobility and toxicity. This project investigates Hg2+ photo-reduction in the presence of particulate organic matter (POM), a critical yet enigmatic process known to drive Hg re-emission from aqueous systems to the atmosphere. Two coupled processes transpiring during irradiation of Hg-POM are hypothesized to impart dominant controls on the fate of Hg: 1) photochemical transformations of POM resulting in altered chemical reactivity with Hg, and 2) photo-reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0 in the presence of POM. The former will affect the capacity of POM to bind Hg, thereby imparting controls on the photochemically driven transformation of POM-Hg. Owing to a high density of reactive functional groups, POM sorbs appreciable quantities of Hg, resulting in a large pool susceptible to transformation when exposed to sunlight. This capacity may be altered by irradiation, which results in changes to POM-associated functional groups known to bind Hg (e.g. sulfhydryl, carboxyl groups). Accordingly, we performed (batch) sorption isotherms of Hg to dark and irradiated POM, using ground Phragmites australis ("common reed") as a model source of POM. Analysis was performed using ICP-MS. We expected that coordination of Hg to POM would be lower in irradiated samples, resulting from the decrease in Hg associated (reduced) sulfur bearing functional groups as measured using XANES and EXAFS. However, an increase in oxygenated functional groups associated with POM lead to a large increase in the extent of Hg sorption to irradiated POM. Further analysis of the dark and irradiated POM was performed using FT-IR microscopy and STXM to determine changes in distribution and alteration of functional groups responsible for Hg sorption. Our results

  14. College Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter Across Reaction Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James Mochoge

    Research in chemical education has shown that while students (K-20) can perform well on tasks that require use of algorithmic and symbolic skills, they struggle with tasks that require conceptual understanding of chemistry. One area where such a trend has been observed is the Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM). A number of factors have been attributed to this struggle in developing conceptual understanding, for example, the abstract nature of the subject and concepts, the fact that most teaching and assessments focus on algorithmic understanding of content, and a missing connections to students' everyday lives. This semester-long grounded theory study examined college level general chemistry students' conceptual understanding of the particulate nature of matter across three different types of reactions. Students were asked to balance the chemical equations, and then draw particulate representations of the reactions. A sample of 10 participants was interviewed to probe for their understanding of underlying chemistry concepts represented by the equations and their particulate drawings. The study sought to compare students' understanding at the symbolic and particulate levels, look at trends across the different reactions, how the trends changed over the semester, and to reveal struggles with fundamental chemistry concepts. Analysis of the results shows that there is a gap between students' understanding at the particulate and symbolic levels, inconsistency in students' understanding across the three chemical reactions over the course of the semester, and struggles with fundamental chemistry concepts. This study reinforces the need to teach and assess for conceptual understanding, not just in chemistry, but in other subject areas as well. Suggestions for teaching and research are also made.

  15. Spatiotemporal distribution and short-term trends of particulate matter concentration over China, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Air quality problems caused by atmospheric particulate have drawn broad public concern in the global scope. In the paper, the spatiotemporal distributions of fine particle (PM2.5) and inhalable particle (PM10) concentrations estimated with the artificial neural network (ANN) over China during 2006 to 2010 have been discussed. Most high PM10 concentration appears in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Hubei, and parts of Inner Mongolia. The distribution of PM2.5 concentration is consistent with China's three gradient terrains. The seasonal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations both indicate that they are higher in north China in spring and winter, lowest in summer. In autumn, most provinces in south China appear high value. In particular, high PM2.5 concentration appears in the southeast coastal cities while high PM10 concentration prefers the central regions in south China. On this basis, seasonal Mann-Kendall test method is utilized to analyze the short-term trends. The results also show significant changes of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations of China in the past 5 years, and most provinces present the tendency of reduction (3-5 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 10-20 μg/m(3) for PM10 per year) while a fraction of provinces appear the increasing trend of 8-16 μg/m(3) (PM2.5) and 16-30 μg/m(3) (PM10). Simultaneously, PM2.5 population exposure is discussed with the combination of population density-gridded data. Municipalities get much higher exposure level than other provinces. Shanghai suffers the highest population exposure to PM2.5, followed by Beijing and then Tianjin, Jiangsu province. Most provincial capitals, such as Guangzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, and Wuhan, face much higher exposure level than other regions of their province. Moreover, the PM2.5 exposure situation is more serious in southeast than northwest regions for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Also, per capita PM2.5 concentration and population-weighted PM2.5 concentration are calculated. The former shows that

  16. Spatial distribution of respirable and inhalable particulate matter concentration in sawmills of South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Ediagbonya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust particles in the air that can be respired into the nose or mouth during normal breathing are known as inhalable particle. Inhalation decreases gradually with increasing particle diameter. The respirable and inhalable sawdust were collected from nine different sawmills in Benin City from November 2009 to February 2010 using portable programmable SKC Air Check XR5000 High Volume Gravimetric Sampler Model 210-5000 Serial No. 20537 and I.O.M (Institute Occupational Medicine Edinburg Multi dust sampler, Batch No. 221442/1. The objective of this study is to know the concentration of inhalable suspended particulate matter fraction and the respirable suspended particulate matter fraction in sawmill particulate. The mean concentration range of the respirable suspended particulate matter was 173.61-520.83 g/m3 and the inhalable suspended particulate matter was in a range of 555.56-2,013.98 g/m3. A strong positive correlation existed for inhalable suspended particulate matter and respirable suspended particulate matter. And the spatial variation was significant and remarkable.

  17. Optical and Gravimetric Partitioning of Coastal Ocean Suspended Particulate Inorganic Matter (PIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavn, R. H.; Zhang, X.; Falster, A. U.; Gray, D. J.; Rick, J. J.; Gould, R. W., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Recent work on the composition of suspended particulates of estuarine and coastal waters increases our capabilities to investigate the biogeochemal processes occurring in these waters. The biogeochemical properties associated with the particulates involve primarily sorption/desorption of dissolved matter onto the particle surfaces, which vary with the types of particulates. Therefore, the breakdown into chemical components of suspended matter will greatly expand the biogeochemistry of the coastal ocean region. The gravimetric techniques for these studies are here expanded and refined. In addition, new optical inversions greatly expand our capabilities to study spatial extent of the components of suspended particulate matter. The partitioning of a gravimetric PIM determination into clay minerals and amorphous silica is aided by electron microprobe analysis. The amorphous silica is further partitioned into contributions by detrital material and by the tests of living diatoms based on an empirical formula relating the chlorophyll content of cultured living diatoms in log phase growth to their frustules determined after gravimetric analysis of the ashed diatom residue. The optical inversion of composition of suspended particulates is based on the entire volume scattering function (VSF) measured in the field with a Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter and a LISST 100 meter. The VSF is partitioned into an optimal combination of contributions by particle subpopulations, each of which is uniquely represented by a refractive index and a log-normal size distribution. These subpopulations are aggregated to represent the two components of PIM using the corresponding refractive indices and sizes which also yield a particle size distribution for the two components. The gravimetric results of partitioning PIM into clay minerals and amorphous silica confirm the optical inversions from the VSF.

  18. Toxic and inflammatory effects of filters frequently used for the collection of airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, C. A. J.; Stone, V.; Brown, D. M.; Watt, M.; Cherrie, J. W.; Howarth, S.; Seaton, A.; Donaldson, K.

    Epidemiological studies indicate that exacerbations of airway diseases and cardio-respiratory mortality have been associated with high levels of particulate air pollution. In the search for explanatory mechanisms, there is a need to collect particulate matter (such as PM 10/PM 2.5) onto filters for biological analysis. The removal of airborne particulate matter from a filter into solution involves agitation of the samples to release the particles and this is done by such methods as high-speed vortexing. Since it is possible that components of filters could contaminate the preparation and interfere with biological investigations it is necessary to find an inert filter suitable for both particulate collection and biological analysis. Extracts of the following six filters were assessed for toxicological activity both in vivo and in vitro:-Millipore AP20, Whatman GF/A, Whatman WCN, Gelman TF1000, Gelman DM800 and polycarbonate (PC). Treatment with the extract of either Whatman GF/A, Gelman DM800 or Millipore AP20 filters for 24 h significantly ( prat lungs was carried out to investigate their ability to cause inflammation. The cellular components of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed for the number of neutrophils, as markers of inflammation. After 24 h the filter extract of the Millipore AP20, polycarbonate (PC), Whatman WCN and Whatman GF/A induced a significant ( Prat lung. Finally the ability of each filter to absorb phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was assessed. The Whatman GF/A increased in weight 13 fold and the Millipore AP20 8 fold. In comparison the polycarbonate and the Gelman TF1000 were hydrophobic. These results suggest that of the six filters tested, the Teflon Gelman TF1000 filter was the most suitable for the collection and subsequent biological analysis of airborne particulate matter, as it releases little in the way of toxic material.

  19. Application of a Backwards Lagrangian Stochastic Model to Estimate Particulate Matter Emissions from Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K. D.; Wojcik, M.; Martin, R. S.; Pfeiffer, R.; Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J.

    2013-12-01

    Advancements in elastic light detection and ranging (Lidar) data analysis have made possible the conversion of return signals due to scattering by aerosols to particulate matter (PM) concentrations. This has enabled the use of Lidar systems in PM emissions calculation. Bingham et al. (2009, J. Appl. Rem. Sens., 033510) describes the application of a mass balance technique to estimate emissions from a facility or operation. Additional techniques that utilize the PM calibrated Lidar data are being investigated for use in non-ideal measurement situations, such as limitations on scanning due to physical constraints and obstacles or U.S. Federal Aviation Authority restrictions. The authors are investigating the application of inverse modeling, which uses measured pollutant concentrations resulting from the activity (downwind minus upwind) and an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate the emission rate input into the model that results in the best fit between measured and modeled concentration impacts. Lagrangian stochastic (LS) models, or random flight models, have been shown to simulate atmospheric dispersion and transport fairly well in the surface layer of the atmosphere. A LS model simulates the motion of numerous particles (marked fluid elements or particles) in a fluid based on the fluid's transport and dispersion characteristics plus randomized variations. Several gaseous air pollutant emissions studies have used LS models in inverse modeling in agricultural settings over the past decade. Unlike most gases, particles may have significant settling and deposition due to gravitation forces depending on particle size and density. This may be an important factor, especially in plumes initially dominated by large particles (>~2 μm in diameter), such as in agriculture. Estimates of PM emissions, therefore, should account for particle deposition velocity (vs). In this work we will convert a forward LS model given by Wang et al. (2008, Trans. ASABE, 1763-1774) that

  20. A study of bacteria, fungi and biomass in particulate matter in ambient air of Khorramabad during summer and autumn 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hatam Godini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Particulate matter refers to the combination of atmospheric pollutants that a portion of this particulate is bioaerosol. The aim of this study was the evaluation of bacteria, fungi and biomass in particulate matter in ambient air of Khorramabad during summer and autumn 2012. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross sectional study that conducted in Khorramabad city during summer and fall 2012. Sampling has been done via high-volume sampler. The special cultures were used for cultivation and determination of fungal and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC (and Bradford method were used to determine bacteria and protein as biomass indicator, respectively. Relationship between these variables with metrological parameters was evaluated too. Results: The highest PM10 in July (257.18 µg/m3 and lowest in September (92.45 µg/m3 had been recorded. The highest amount of bacteria and fungi were measured as monthly in November (605 No/m3 and December (120 No/m3, respectively. The highest of protein concentration was measured in August, September and December (27-30 µg/m3. With the increase in PM10, biomass concentration in the air showed a meaningful increase. Conclusion: Biomass concentration in the air increased with increasing PM10 but it had no significant effect on the concentration of bacteria and fungi in the air. Meteorological factors such as temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation and the amount of exposure time had a significant impact on bioaerosol concentrations in the air.

  1. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  2. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  3. Evidence of molybdenum association with particulate organic matter under sulfidic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, T. W.; Chappaz, Anthony; Hoek, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical behavior of molybdenum (Mo) in the oceans is closely linked to the presence of sulfide species in anoxic environments, where Fe availability may play a key role in the Mo scavenging. Here, we show that Mo(VI) is reduced in the presence of particulate organic matter (represented...... by sulfate-reducing bacteria). Molybdenum was immobilized at the surface of both living cells and dead/lysed cells, but not in cell-free control experiments. Experiments were carried out at four different Mo concentrations (0.1 to 2 mm) to yield cell-associated Mo precipitates with little or no Fe......, consisting of mainly Mo(IV)-sulfide compounds with molecular structures similar to Mo enzymes and to those found in natural euxinic sediments. Therefore, we propose that Mo removal in natural sulfidic waters can proceed via a non-Fe-assisted pathway that requires particulate organic matter (dead or living...

  4. Seasonal Variability of Concentration and Air Quality of Ambient Particulate Matter in Sosnowiec City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposing the population to more than standard concentration of particulate matter (PM is a crucial factor shaping the public health on urbanized areas both in Europe and Poland. In most cases, exceeded air quality standards relate to the winter period, in which there has been the greatest amount. Many studies have indicated, that exposure to PM can cause adverse health effects. Human exposure especially to fine particles (with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm, causes risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, due to daily mortality and hospital admissions. Various types of epidemiological studies have indicated, that ambient air pollution is responsible for increasing risk of lung cancer. For this reason, in 2013 The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1.

  5. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  6. n-alkane profiles of engine lubricating oil and particulate matter by molecular sieve extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Gianni A; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Macdonald, Penny; Graham, Lisa

    2007-05-15

    As part of the Canadian Atmospheric Fine Particle Research Program to obtain reliable primary source emission profiles, a molecular sieve method was developed to reliably determine n-alkanes in lubricating oils, vehicle emissions, and mobile source dominated ambient particulate matter (PM). This work was also initiated to better calculate carbon preference index values (CPI: the ratio of the sums of odd over even n-alkanes), a parameter for estimating anthropogenic versus biogenic contributions in PM. n-Alkanes in lubricating oil and mobile source dominated PM are difficult to identify and quantify by gas chromatography due to the presence of similar components that cannot be fully resolved. This results in a hump, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that leads to incorrect n-alkane concentrations and CPI values. The sieve method yielded better chromatography, unambiguous identification of n-alkanes and allowed examination of differences between n-alkane profiles in light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) lubricating oils that would have been otherwise difficult. These profile differences made it possible to relate the LDV profile to that of the PM samples collected during a tunnel study in August 2001 near Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). The n-alkane PM data revealed that longer sampling times result in a negative artifact, i.e., the desorption of the more volatile n-alkanes from the filters. Furthermore, the sieve procedure yielded n-alkane data that allowed calculation of accurate CPI values for lubricating oils and PM samples. Finally, this method may prove helpful in estimating the respective diesel and gasoline contributions to ambient PM.

  7. Diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in fine particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing-Feng; Fan, Xiao-Yan; Pan, Kai-Ling; Li, Hong-Yu; Sun, Li-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Increasing ammonia emissions could exacerbate air pollution caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Therefore, it is of great importance to investigate ammonia oxidation in PM2.5. This study investigated the diversity, abundance and activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and complete ammonia oxidizers (Comammox) in PM2.5 collected in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei megalopolis, China. Nitrosopumilus subcluster 5.2 was the most dominant AOA. Nitrosospira multiformis and Nitrosomonas aestuarii were the most dominant AOB. Comammox were present in the atmosphere, as revealed by the occurrence of Candidatus Nitrospira inopinata in PM2.5. The average cell numbers of AOA, AOB and Ca. N. inopinata were 2.82 × 104, 4.65 × 103 and 1.15 × 103 cell m-3 air, respectively. The average maximum nitrification rate of PM2.5 was 0.14 μg (NH4+-N) [m3 air·h]-1. AOA might account for most of the ammonia oxidation, followed by Comammox, while AOB were responsible for a small part of ammonia oxidation. Statistical analyses showed that Nitrososphaera subcluster 4.1 was positively correlated with organic carbon concentration, and Nitrosomonas eutropha showed positive correlation with ammonia concentration. Overall, this study expanded our knowledge concerning AOA, AOB and Comammox in PM2.5 and pointed towards an important role of AOA and Comammox in ammonia oxidation in PM2.5.

  8. Vis-NIR characterization of particulate matter in urban and industrial sites in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, R.; Montagnoli, M.; Salvatori, R.; Perrino, C.

    2010-12-01

    The optical properties of particulate matter are key parameters for the definition of the radiative balance of the atmosphere and require a deeper comprehension for improving modelling. Considering the cognitive gap evidenced by IPCC guidelines, additional tools are necessary for understanding how size distribution and mineralogy contribute to the complexity of a matrix such as particulate matter. Knowing that concentration and chemical composition are nowadays features that are “traditionally” investigated, the role of mineralogy and size distribution on the physico-chemical behaviour of airborne particles represent evidently primary goals for emerging approaches. From this point of view Vis-NIR spectroscopy could be considered an innovative technique. It is in fact a non-destructive and a relatively low-cost technique that provide information on the optical properties of materials. It is largely applied for Earth sciences purposes (for example: Pedology, Geology and Remote sensing) and requires a “calibration” with chemical or physical parameters. The difference between this technique and already developed methods (such as Aethalometry or other optical systems) consists on the simultaneous investigation of several wavelengths of the visible and near infrared regions instead of single bands. The development of this approach, focused on the relationship between light scattering and properties of materials, can provide important knowledge on the mineralogical composition of airborne particles and on the size distribution of particles. In addition of that the development of a database, constituted by airborne materials collected in different sites, can represent the link between remote or ground observations, radiative modelling and in situ sampling. The work carried out until now is based on field campaigns performed in the Mediterranean basin where PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in urban, traffic, industrial and background sites. Samples were

  9. Study of the particulate matter emitted from residual oil combustion and natural gas reburning

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran,Celso A.; Marques,Carla S. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a study of the particulate matter emitted from standard residual oil combustion and from natural gas reburning during oil combustion in a pilot scale furnace was carried out. The sizes, morphologies and chemical element distribution of particles were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy coupled to an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The microscopy results show three sorts of particles: spherical, very compact and smooth cenospheres with sizes of 0.6-1.5 mum; ...

  10. Assessment of diesel particulate matter exposure in the workplace: freight terminals†

    OpenAIRE

    Sheesley, Rebecca J.; James J. Schauer; Smith, Thomas J.; Garshick, Eric; Laden, Francine; Marr, Linsey C.; Molina, Luisa T.

    2008-01-01

    A large study has been undertaken to assess the exposure to diesel exhaust within diesel trucking terminals. A critical component of this assessment is an analysis of the variation in carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) across trucking terminal locations; consistency in the primary sources can be effectively tracked by analyzing trends in elemental carbon (EC) and organic molecular marker concentrations. Ambient samples were collected at yard, dock and repair shop work stations in 7 terminal...

  11. Evaluation of the Pulmonary Toxicity of Ambient Particulate Matter from Camp Victory, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Lewis, R. S. Thomas, and G. D. Chapman. 2012. Biological responses in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and Middle East sand (dust). Inhal. Toxicol. 24...Toxicol. 21: 327–336. Esmaeil, N., M. Gharagozloo, A. Rezaei, and G. Grunig. 2014. Dust events, pulmonary dis- eases and immune system . Am. J. Clin...online DOI: 10.1080/15287394.2015.1072611 EVALUATION OF THE PULMONARY TOXICITY OF AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER FROM CAMP VICTORY, IRAQ K. L. Porter1, F. H. Y

  12. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  13. Retrieving of particulate matter from optical measurements: A semiparametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, B.; Santer, R.; Vidot, J.

    2007-03-01

    The fine particle abundance, i.e., particle matter (PM) concentration, is one of the indicators of air quality and is therefore subject to ground-based measurements. Complementary satellite aerosol remote sensing techniques provide one with maps of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), which is sensitive to particle abundance. This paper investigates the problem of retrieving the PM concentration from the AOT, both on daily average values, on the basis of a large data set where data from the air quality networks are combined with ground-based measurements of the AOTs. It is found that a linear model fails at explaining the data well but that the performance may be significantly improved when such a linear relationship is conditioned on auxiliary parameters, mainly meteorological variables. The proposed model is expressed as an additive varying coefficient model (AVCM), which is defined as a linear model where the coefficients are additive functions of the auxiliary parameters. The model is represented using penalized smoothing splines, allowing for a proper control of the overall number of degrees of freedom via multiple smoothness parameters selection. The methodology is applied to data collected around Lille (France). The PM10 concentrations are retrieved with an average uncertainty of less than 20%, leading to a correlation coefficient of 0.87 between fitted and expected PM10.

  14. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  15. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Gong, Zhaoning; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Tao

    2015-09-22

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office) and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office) of the study area. Correspondingly, PM₁ (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um) concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  16. Stroke Damage Is Exacerbated by Nano-Size Particulate Matter in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghai; Babadjouni, Robin; Radwanski, Ryan; Cheng, Hank; Patel, Arati; Hodis, Drew M; He, Shuhan; Baumbacher, Peter; Russin, Jonathan J; Morgan, Todd E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Finch, Caleb E; Mack, William J

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nano-size particulate matter (nPM) exposure in the setting of murine reperfused stroke. Particulate matter is a potent source of inflammation and oxidative stress. These processes are known to influence stroke progression through recruitment of marginally viable penumbral tissue into the ischemic core. nPM was collected in an urban area in central Los Angeles, impacted primarily by traffic emissions. Re-aerosolized nPM or filtered air was then administered to mice through whole body exposure chambers for forty-five cumulative hours. Exposed mice then underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion/ reperfusion. Following cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion, mice exposed to nPM exhibited significantly larger infarct volumes and less favorable neurological deficit scores when compared to mice exposed to filtered air. Mice exposed to nPM also demonstrated increases in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the region of the ischemic core. The findings suggest a detrimental effect of urban airborne particulate matter exposure in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.

  17. Characterization of particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage: A landscape analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yan, Jingli; Ma, Keming; Zhou, Weiqi; Chen, Guojian; Tang, Rongli; Zhang, Yuxin

    2017-12-01

    Plants can mitigate ambient particulate matter by cleaning the air, which is crucial to urban environments. A novel approach was presented to quantitatively characterize particulate matter deposited on urban tree foliage. This approach could accurately quantify the number, size, shape, and spatial distribution of particles with different diameters on leaves. Spatial distribution is represented by proximity, which measures the closeness of particles. We sampled three common broadleaf species and obtained images through field emission scanning electron microscopy. We conducted the object-based method to extract particles from images. We then used Fragstats to analyze the landscape characteristics of these particles in term of selected metrics. Results reveal that Salix matsudana is more efficient than Ailanthus altissima and Fraxinus chinensis in terms of the number and area of particles per unit area and the proportion of fine particulate matter. The shape complexity of the particles increases with their size. Among the three species, S. matsudana and A. altissima particles respectively yield the highest and lowest proximity. PM1 in A. altissima and PM10 in F. chinensis and S. matsudana show the highest proximity, which may influence subsequent particle retention. S. matsudana should be generally considered to collect additional small particles. Different species and particle sizes exhibit various proximities, which should be further examined to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  18. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  19. Characteristics of particulate matter emissions from toy cars with electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Williams, Brent J; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from toy cars with electric motors were characterized. Particle emission rates from the toy cars, as high as 7.47×10(7) particles/s, were measured. This emission rate is lower than other indoor sources such as smoking and cooking. The particles emitted from toy cars are generated from spark discharges inside the electric motors that power the toy cars. Size distribution measurements indicated that most particles were below 100 nm in diameter. Copper was the dominant inorganic species in these particles. By deploying aerosol mass spectrometers, high concentrations of particulate organic matter were also detected and characterized in detail. Several organic compounds were identified using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography. The mass size distribution of particulate organic matter was bimodal. The formation mechanism of particulate organic matter from toy cars was elucidated. A possible new source of indoor air pollution, particles from electric motors in toy cars, was identified. This study characterized aerosol emissions from toy cars in detail. Most of these particles have a diameter less than 100 nm. Copper and some organics are the major components of these particles. Conditions that minimize these emissions were determined.

  20. Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yauk Carole L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter and wildtype littermates (C57BL/6 background were exposed by inhalation for 4 h to particulate matter (0 or 42 mg/m3 EHC-6802 and euthanized 0 or 24 h post-exposure. The low alveolar dose of particles (16 μg did not provoke an inflammatory response in the lungs of wildtype mice, nor exacerbate the chronic inflammation in TNF animals. Real-time PCR confirmed particle-dependent increases of CYP1A1 (30–100%, endothelin-1 (20–40%, and metallothionein-II (20–40% mRNA in wildtype and TNF mice (p Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that health effects of acute exposure to urban particles are dominated by activation of specific physiological response cascades rather than widespread changes in gene expression.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  2. NAAQS Designated Area Polygons - Fine Particulate Matter (24-Hr, PM-2.5), Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for Particulate Matter < 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are geographic...

  3. Fine Particulate Matter (24-Hr, PM-2.5) NAAQS Designations, Region 9, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for particulate matter less than 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are...

  4. 2010 Lead (Pb) Air Monitoring Requirements & 2013 Method for Determination of Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulate Matter Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a variety of fact sheets and other documents that are supplementary to the 2010 final revisions to lead (Pb) ambient air monitoring requirements and the 2013 final method for determination of Pb in total suspended particulate matter.

  5. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  6. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  7. Effect of Cetane Number on Specific Fuel Consumption and Particulate Matter and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cataluña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of ignition delay time in diesel engines on the formation of particulate matter, using fuel formulations with different sulfur concentrations from various sources. Our findings indicate that the cetane number has a significant influence on particulate matter emissions, especially in engines with mechanical fuel injection. The maximum pressure in the combustion chamber increases as the cetane number increases, favoring the increase in the cracking reactions of high molecular weight fractions remaining in the liquid state and thus increasing the production of particulate matter. In certain conditions, this increase in pressure has a beneficial effect on the thermal efficiency of the cycle. Higher temperatures in the combustion chamber augment the speed of oxidation, reducing unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The ignition delay time of fuel has a strong effect on the formation of particulate matter and on the emission of unburned hydrocarbons.

  8. Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

  9. CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERSENSITIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDIOPULMONARY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN NORMO- AND SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS: IMPACT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE. SS Nadadur UP Kodavanti, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, ORD, NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

  10. Characterization and speciation of fine particulate matter inside the public transport buses running on bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Air pollution with respect to particulate matter was investigated in Toledo, Ohio, USA, a : city of approximately 300,000, in 2009. Two study buses were selected to reflect typical : exposure conditions of passengers while traveling in the bus. Monit...

  11. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasan, Raquel C.; Pla, Rita R.; Invernizzi, Rodrigo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza. Grupo Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares], E-mail: jasan@cae.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: rpla@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Santos, Marina dos [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Lab. de Contaminacion del Aire], E-mail: mdossant@cnea.gov.ar

    2007-07-01

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  12. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  13. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among children in Jinan, China: A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explores confoundings factors of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM10 concentrations 2 days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and PM10 was correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02--1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM2.5 and PM10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China, and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  14. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplissy, J.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Dommen, J.; Alfarra, M. R.; Metzger, A.; Barmpadimos, I.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Weingartner, E.; Tritscher, T.; Gysel, M.; Aiken, A. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Collins, D. R.; Tomlinson, J.; Baltensperger, U.

    2011-01-01

    A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f44). m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO2+ for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfraujoch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation between the hygroscopicity of OA at subsaturated RH, as given by the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) or "κorg" parameter, and f44 was determined and is given by κorg = 2.2 × f44 - 0.13. This approximation can be further verified and refined as the database for AMS and HTDMA measurements is constantly being expanded around the world. Finally, the use of this approximation could introduce an important simplification in the parameterization of hygroscopicity of OA in atmospheric models, since f44 is correlated with the photochemical age of an air mass.

  15. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Duplissy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f44. m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO2+ for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfraujoch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation between the hygroscopicity of OA at subsaturated RH, as given by the hygroscopic growth factor (GF or "ϰorg" parameter, and f44 was determined and is given by ϰorg = 2.2 × f44 − 0.13. This approximation can be further verified and refined as the database for AMS and HTDMA measurements is constantly being expanded around the world. The use of this approximation could introduce an important simplification in the parameterization of hygroscopicity of OA in atmospheric models, since f44 is correlated with the photochemical age of an air mass.

  16. Health risks attributed to particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less in Tehran air 2005-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Kermani; Mohsen Dowlati; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; Roshanak Rezaei Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Air pollution, especially particulate matter, is one of the main causes of mortality in humans. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate health risks attributed to particulate matters of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) in Tehran air in the last ten years (2005-2014). Methods: In this descriptive–analytical study, hourly data of pollutants were obtained from Tehran’s Environmental Protection Agency and Air Quality Control Company and validated according to the WHO guidelines...

  17. Conference particulate matter and indoor environment, I.N.E.R.I.S.; Particulate matter and indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Comprehensive characterisation of indoor and outdoor air as well as pollution emission sources Integrated health and environmental risk assessment Scientific and technical basis for airborne pollution management and control Fine and coarse particles. The sources of indoor air pollution are originate separately, are transported separately, are removed from atmosphere by different mechanisms, have different optical properties, have different chemical properties, require different control techniques. for the health effects due to particles, they decrease the lung function, increase respiratory symptoms, increase chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, increased cardiovascular disease, increased mortality. The different sources contributing to the highest concentrations are: concentrations: tobacco smoking, cooking, vacuuming, dusting and sweeping, heaters, stoves, fireplaces and some other non identified sources. In the future we want more focus on fine and ultra fine particles, investigate source apportionment of particles, better understanding and quantification of exposure, to implement guidelines for particle concentration in indoor air and find better cleaning technologies. (N.C.)

  18. Local and regional sources of fine and coarse particulate matter based on traffic and background monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify local and exogenous sources affecting particulate matter (PM) levels in five major cities of Northern Europe namely: London, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Stockholm. Besides local emissions, PM profile at urban and suburban areas of the European Union (EU) is also influenced by regional PM sources due to atmospheric transport, thus geographical city distribution is of a great importance. At each city, PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 air pollution data from two air pollution monitoring stations of the EU network were used. Different background characteristics of the selected two sampling sites at each city facilitated comparisons, providing a more exact analysis of PM sources. Four source apportionment methods: Pearson correlations among the levels of particulates and gaseous pollutants, characterisation of primal component analysis components, long-range transport analysis and extrapolation of PM size distribution ratios were applied. In general, fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles were highly correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion-originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to PM10 and PM2.5, primarily at areas severely affected by traffic. On the contrary, at background stations neighbouring important natural sources of particles or situated in suburban areas with rural background, natural emissions of aerosols were indicated. Series of daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed that minimum fraction values were detected during warm periods, due to higher volumes of airborne biogenic PM coarse, mainly at stations with important natural sources of particles in their vicinity. Hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory model was used, in order to extract 4-day backward air mass trajectories that arrived in the five cities which are under study during days with recorded PM10 exceedances. At all five cities, a significantly large fraction of those trajectories were classified

  19. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  20. Impact of fugitive sources and meteorological parameters on vertical distribution of particulate matter over the industrial agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbová, Kristína; Raclavská, Helena; Bílek, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize vertical distribution of particulate matter, in an area well known by highest air pollution levels in Europe. A balloon filled with helium with measuring instrumentation was used for vertical observation of air pollution over the fugitive sources in Moravian-Silesian metropolitan area during spring and summer. Synchronously, selected meteorological parameters were recorded together with particulate matter for exploration its relationship with particulate matter. Concentrations of particulate matter in the vertical profile were significantly higher in the spring than in the summer. Significant effect of fugitive sources was observed up to the altitude ∼255 m (∼45 m above ground) in both seasons. The presence of inversion layer was observed at the altitude ∼350 m (120-135 m above ground) at locations with major source traffic load. Both particulate matter concentrations and number of particles for the selected particle sizes decreased with increasing height. Strong correlation of particulate matter with meteorological parameters was not observed. The study represents the first attempt to assess the vertical profile over the fugitive emission sources - old environmental burdens in industrial region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental study on the nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter emissions from diesel engine retrofitted with particulate oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin

    2014-02-15

    A particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) was employed to perform experiments on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engine. The engine exhaust was sampled from both upstream and downstream of the POC. The results showed that the POC increased the ratios of NO2/NOx significantly in the middle and high loads, the ratio of NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased 4.5 times on average under all experiment modes with the POC. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used to study the particle number-weighted size distributions and the abnormal particle emissions with the POC. The results indicated that the average reduction rate of particle number (PN) was 61% in the operating range of the diesel engine. At the engine speed of 1,400 r/min, the reduction rates of PN tended to decrease with the larger particle size. In the long time run under the steady mode (520 Nm, 1,200 r/min), abnormal particle emissions after the POC happened seven times in the first hour, and the average PN concentration of these abnormal emission peaks was much higher than that in normal state. The particle emissions of peaks 1-5 equaled the particles emitted downstream of the POC in normal state for 1.9h in number concentration, and for 3.6h in mass concentration. The PN concentrations tended to increase over time in 5h under the steady engine mode and the increase of the PN in the size range of 6.04-14.3 nm was more evident. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of particulate matter size distributions and indoor concentrations from kerosene and diesel lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J; Vicente, R; Yarberry, A; Lohse, N; Mills, E; Jacobson, A; Poppendieck, D

    2010-10-01

    Over one-quarter of the world's population relies on fuel-based lighting. Kerosene lamps are often located in close proximity to users, potentially increasing the risk for respiratory illnesses and lung cancer. Particulate matter concentrations resulting from cook stoves have been extensively studied in the literature. However, characterization of particulate concentrations from fuel-based lighting has received minimal attention. This research demonstrates that vendors who use a single simple wick lamp in high-air-exchange market kiosks will likely be exposed to PM(2.5) concentrations that are an order of magnitude greater than ambient health guidelines. Using a hurricane lamp will reduce exposure to PM(2.5) and PM(10) concentrations by an order of magnitude compared to using a simple wick lamp. Vendors using a single hurricane or pressure lamp may not exceed health standards or guidelines for PM(2.5) and PM(10), but will be exposed to elevated 0.02-0.3 μm particle concentrations. Vendors who change from fuel-based lighting to electric lighting technology for enhanced illumination will likely gain the ancillary health benefit of reduced particulate matter exposure. Vendors exposed only to ambient and fuel-based lighting particulate matter would see over an 80% reduction in inhaled PM(2.5) mass if they switched from a simple wick lamp to an electric lighting technology. Changing lighting technologies to achieve increased efficiency and energy service levels can provide ancillary health benefits. The cheapest, crudest kerosene lamps emit the largest amounts of PM(2.5). Improving affordability and access to better lighting options (hurricane or pressure lamps and lighting using grid or off-grid electricity) can deliver health benefits for a large fraction of the world's population, while reducing the economic and environmental burden of the current fuel-based lighting technologies.

  3. Relationship between Particulate matter less than 10 microns exposures and health effects on humans in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Geravandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Particulate matters less than 10 microns can absorb into your lungs and reacting with the moisture and enter the circulatory system directly through the airways. The aim of this study is to assess Behavior PM 10 data in different seasons and Determination effects on human health in Ahvaz city during 2013. Materials & Methods: Data Particulate matters less than 10 microns were taken from Ahvaz Department of Environment and Meteorological Organization. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in 4 stations. Method of sampling and analysis were performed according to EPA guideline. Processing data include the instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering. Finally, health-effects of Particulate matters less than 10 exposures were calculated with impact of meteorological parameters and converted as input file to the Air Q model. Results: PM 10 concentration in winter season was maximum amount in the year 2013. According to the research findings, highest and the lowest Particulate matters less than 10 microns concentrations during 2013 had the Bureau of Meteorology “Havashenasi” and Head office of ADoE “Mohitzist”. Sum of total numbers of cardiovascular death and hospitals admission to respiratory diseases attributed to Particulate matters less than 10 microns were 923 and 2342 cases in 2013. Conclusions: Particulate matter emissions are highly regulated in most industrialized countries. Due to environmental concerns, most industries and dust storm phenomena are required to decrease in source produce particle mater and kind of dust collection system to control particulate emissions. Pollution prevention and control measures that reduce Particulate matters less than 10 microns can very useful for expected to reduce people’s exposures to Sulfur dioxide.

  4. Biogeochemical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic matter in Russian rivers entering the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbes, Jörg M.; Fitznar, Hans Peter; Kattner, Gerhard

    2000-09-01

    The biogeochemical signature of riverine matter in the Russian Arctic was investigated to establish a background for tracing terrestrial organic material in the Arctic Ocean. Elemental and lignin compositions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM), stable carbon isotope ratios of POM and nutrient concentrations are reported for 12 Russian rivers along 4000 km of coastline. The 12 rivers account for about 43% of the freshwater supply to the Arctic Ocean. Nine rivers drain both tundra and taiga areas and three rivers only tundra. Concentrations of nitrogenous nutrients and phosphate were low, whereas silicate values were generally high with only few exceptions. The concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC) varied between 25.5 and 291 μmol/L C, contributing 0.4-2.1% to the total suspended sediment (TSS). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranging from 230 to 1006 μmol/L C was on average eight times higher than POC. The concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic nitrogen were similar (ca. 11 μmol/L N) resulting in four times higher C/N ratios in the dissolved fraction (48) compared to the particulate fraction (11). The δ 13C ratios were uniform (-25.6 to -27.4‰) and similar in taiga and tundra draining rivers. The exclusively terrestrial component lignin, determined as lignin phenols after cupric oxide oxidation, ranged from 5.6 to 37.6 nmol/L in the particulate fraction and from 34 to 319 nmol/L in the dissolved fraction. The syringyl/vanillyl (S/V) and cinnamyl/vanillyl (C/V) ratios of the particulate and dissolved lignin phenols were significantly correlated with the proportion of tundra and taiga in the drainage areas. This is true despite different formation processes and diagenetic degree of POM and DOM, as evident from acid/aldehyde ratios of vanillyl phenols [(Ad/Al)v]. Export rates were calculated from the carbon and lignin data. The 12 rivers studied transport about 10 × 10 12 g of total organic carbon per year into the

  5. Performance of experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands fed with dissolved or particulate organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselles-Osorio, Aracelly; García, Joan

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the effect of the influent type of organic matter (dissolved or particulate) on the efficiency of two experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) was investigated. The SSF CWs' surface area was 0.54 m(2) and the water depth was 0.3m. They were monitored for a period of 9 months. One of the SSF CWs was fed with dissolved organic matter (glucose, assumed to be readily biodegradable), and the other with particulate organic matter (starch, assumed to be slowly biodegradable). The removal efficiency of the systems was tested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the presence or absence of sulphate. The removal efficiency of the COD was not different in the two systems, reaching eliminations of around 85% in the presence of sulphates and around 95% in their absence. Ammonia N removal was low in the two SSF CWs; the system fed with glucose generally had statistically significant higher removal (45%) than the one fed with starch (40%). Ammonia N removal was more affected by the HRT than by the presence or absence of sulphates. Hydraulic conductivity measurements showed that it was lower near the inlet of the SFF CW fed with glucose, probably connected to the fact that there was a more substantial development of the biofilm. The results of this study suggest that SSF CWs are not sensitive to the type of organic matter in the influents, whether it is readily (like glucose) or slowly (like starch) biodegradable, for the removal of COD.

  6. Characterisation of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter in the ambient air of Milan (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcazzan, Grazia M.; Vaccaro, Stefano; Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta [Milan Univ., Ist. di Fisica Generale Applicata, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    24-h simultaneous samplings of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter (PM) have been carried out during the period December 1997- September 1998 in the central urban area of Milan. The mass concentrations of the two fractions showed significant daily variations linked to different thermodynamics conditions of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and characterised by higher values during wintertime. The elemental composition, determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique, was quite different in the two fractions: in the finer one the presence of elements with crustal origin is reduced while the anthropogenic elements, with a relevant environmental and health impact, appear to be enriched. The composition data allowed a quantification of two major components of the atmospheric particulate: sulphates (mainly of secondary origin) and particles with crustal origin. An important but unmeasured component is likely constituted by organic and elemental carbon compounds. The multivariate analysis of elements, gaseous pollutants and mass concentration data-sets leads to the identification of four main sources contributing to PM10 and PM2.5 composition: vehicles exhaust emissions, resuspended crustal dust, secondary sulphates and industrial emissions. The existence of a possible background component with non-local origin is also suggested. (Author)

  7. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  8. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  9. Source contributions to radiocesium contaminated particulate matter deposited in a reservoir after the Fukushima accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laceby, J. Patrick; Huon, Sylvain; Hayashi, Seiji; Onda, Yuichi; Evrard, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the deposition of radiocesium over forested and rural landscapes northwest of the power plant. Although there have been several investigations into the dynamics of contaminated river sediment, less attention has been paid to the sources of deposited particulate matter in dams and reservoirs. In the Fukushima Prefecture, there are 10 significant dams and over a 1,000 reservoirs for both agricultural and surface water management. These reservoirs may have trapped a significant volume of radiocesium contaminated sediment, and understanding the sources of this material is important for the ongoing management of contamination in the region. Accordingly, the source of contaminated particulate matter (i.e. cultivated, forest and subsoils) deposited in the Mano Dam reservoir, Japan, was investigated with the analyses and modelling of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, total organic carbon and total nitrogen concentrations. Four sediment cores with lengths ranging from 29-41 cm were sampled in the Mano Dam, approximately 40 km northwest of the FDNPP. Source samples were taken from 46 forest soils, 28 cultivated soils and 25 subsoils in the region. Carbon-nitrogen parameters were analysed on all samples and a concentration-dependent distribution modelling approach was used to apportion source contributions. Three of the four cores sampled in the Mano Dam reservoir had distinct radiocesium peaks representative of the initial post-accident wash-off phase. Cultivated sources were responsible for 48% (SD 7%) of the deposited fine particulate matter in the three cores with the radiocesium peaks, whereas forests were modelled to contribute 27% (SD 6%) and subsoil sources 25% (SD 4%). Ongoing decontamination of cultivated sources in the Fukushima region should result in a decrease of contaminated matter deposited in reservoirs. More research is required to understand the potential ongoing source contributions from forested

  10. Particulate matter air pollution from the city of Quito, Ecuador, activates inflammatory signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos, Victoria M; Díaz, Valeria; Sirois, Cherilyn M

    2017-05-01

    Automobile traffic, industrial processes and natural phenomena cause notable air pollution, including gaseous and particulate contaminants, in urban centers. Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution affects human health, and has been linked to respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The mechanisms underlying inflammation in these diverse diseases, and to what extent health effects are different for PM obtained from different sources or locations, are still unclear. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient course (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter collected at seven sites in the urban and periurban zones of Quito, Ecuador. Material from all sites was capable of activating TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways, with differences in the activation related to particle size. Additionally, airborne particulate matter from Quito is an effective activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  11. SYSTEMIC VASCULAR DISEASE IN MALE B6C3F1 MICE EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER BY INHALATION: STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ambient particulate matter and cardiopulmonary diseases in humans. The mechanisms underlying these health effects are poorly understood. To better understand the potential relationship between particulate-ma...

  12. Analysis of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 over Hong Kong Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanling Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fine particulates (PM2.5; particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM2.5 and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007–2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM2.5 concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM2.5 concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM2.5 emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM2.5 vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM2.5 vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM2.5 concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies.

  13. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Capone, Domenico; Finelli, Carmine

    2013-07-07

    The present study was designed to alert the public opinion and policy makers on the supposed enhancing effects of exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. For far too long literature data have been fixated on pulmonary diseases and/or cardiovascular disease, as consequence of particulate exposure, ignoring the link between the explosion of obesity with related syndromes such as NAFLD and air pollution, the worst characteristics of nowadays civilization. In order to delineate a clear picture of this major health problem, further studies should investigate whether and at what extent cigarette smoking and exposure to ambient air PM2.5 impact the natural history of patients with obesity-related NAFLD, i.e., development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis, disease characterized by a worse prognosis due its progression towards fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma.

  14. A Comparison of Particulate Matter Concentrations in West Oakland and Berkeley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, M.; Bailey, D.; Delfin-Polk, S.; Figueroa, L.; Harris, S.; Haynes, C.; Johnson, K.; Lewis, K.; Marks-Block, T.; Martin, C.; Vieira, A.; Williams, J.

    2011-12-01

    Using a Dustrak 8530 aerosol sensor equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and a Fluke 983 particle counter our research team collected Particulate Matter (PM) data throughout the communities of West Oakland and Berkeley, California. Data was collected by walking on foot along paths that wound through residential areas as well as busy intersections in each community. Identical starting times and locations were implemented in association with each in West Oakland. To reach Berkeley, research team members traveled from West Oakland on a local commuter train (Bay Area Rapid Transit), on which data also was collected. Using the Dustrak instrument samples of particulate (heavy traffic did mirror PM averages in West Oakland, and above average PM levels were found in areas with ongoing construction in both communities.

  15. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of small cyclone separator to remove fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Han Gyul; Kim, Hong Seok [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A cyclone separator has been widely used in various industrial processes for removing fine particulate matter because it is easy to fabricate, cost effective, and adaptable to extremely harsh conditions. However, owing to the complex flow field in cyclones, a complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of particulate removal has not yet been gained. In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed for calculating the collection efficiency and cut off size in cyclones by taking into account the effects of geometrical and flow parameters. The collection efficiency and cut off size values predicted by the theoretical model showed good agreement with experimental measurements for particles with a diameter of 0.5-30{mu}m. It was also revealed that the surface friction, along with the flow and geometrical parameters, has a significant effect on the cyclone performance.

  16. Desorption of Herbicides from Atmospheric Particulates During High-Volume Air Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight V. Quiring

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can be present in the atmosphere either as vapours and/or in association with suspended particles. High-volume air sampling, in which air is aspirated first through a glass fibre filter to capture pesticides associated with atmospheric particulates and then polyurethane foam (PUF, often in combination with an adsorbent resin such as XAD-2, to capture pesticides present as vapours, is generally employed during atmospheric monitoring for pesticides. However, the particulate fraction may be underestimated because some pesticides may be stripped or desorbed from captured particulates due to the pressure drop created by the high flow of air through the filter. This possibility was investigated with ten herbicide active ingredients commonly used on the Canadian prairies (dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba, 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester, bromoxynil octanoate, diclofop methyl ester, fenoxaprop ethyl ester, trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin and seven hydrolysis products (2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, bromoxynil, diclofop, clopyralid and mecoprop. Finely ground heavy clay soil fortified with active ingredients/hydrolysis products was evenly distributed on the glass fibre filters of high-volume air samplers and air aspirated through the samplers at a flow rate of 12.5 m3/h for a 7-day period. The proportion desorbed as vapour from the fortified soil was determined by analysis of the PUF/XAD-2 resin composite cartridges. The extent of desorption from the fortified soil applied to the filters varied from 0% for each of the dimethylamine salts of 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba to approximately 50% for trifluralin, triallate and ethalfluralin.

  17. Biogeochemical consequences of vertical and lateral transport of particulate organic matter in the southern North Sea: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical and lateral transports are of importance in continental shelf systems such as the North Sea and play a major role in the processing of organic matter. We investigated the biogeochemical consequences of these transports on particulate organic matter at the molecular level in the southern

  18. Biogeochemical consequences of vertical and lateral transport of particulate organic matter in the southern North Sea: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical and lateral transports are of importance in continental shelf systems such as the North Sea andplay a major role in the processing of organic matter. We investigated the biogeochemical consequencesof these transports on particulate organic matter at the molecular level in the southern North

  19. How Do Biology Teacher Candidates Know Particulate Movements & Random Nature of Matter and Their Effects to Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Fulya; Oztas, Haydar

    2016-01-01

    The previous researches results seem to suggest that some aspects of learning of diffusion and osmosis concepts such as membranes, kinetic energy of matter, and elements of the particulate and random nature of matter could lead to misconceptions. The concept of diffusion is very common in science instruction, and understanding the concept is an…

  20. Long-term dynamics of organic matter and elements exported as coarse particulates from two Caribbean montane watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Heartsill Scalley; F.N. Scatena; S. Moya; A.E. Lugo

    2012-01-01

    In heterotrophic streams the retention and export of coarse particulate organic matter and associated elements are fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence water quality, food webs and the structural complexity of forested headwater streams. Nevertheless, few studies have documented the quantity and quality of exported organic matter over multiple years and...

  1. Diesel particulate matter and associated environmental concerns, health risks and tradeoffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, D.V.

    2000-03-03

    This study prepared for the Greater Vancouver Regional District and the Georgia Basin Ecosystem Initiative of Environment Canada focuses on diesel particulate emissions from road vehicles and their potential impact on human health in the Lower BC Mainland. The report reviews previous studies, in particular epidemiological studies done by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) involving exposure to diesel particulate matter which concluded that a reasonable estimate for continuous exposure to diesel particulate over a 70 year lifetime is about 300 cases of cancer per million of population per one microgram/cubic metre of average concentration of diesel PM{sub 2}.5 in the ambient air. Diesel particulate emissions were calculated for the Lower Fraser Valley to be 10,708 tonnes per year of PM{sub 1}0 and 6,475 tonnes of PM{sub 2}.5. Preliminary screening level air quality modeling results indicate that a resident living adjacent to a road with a heavy diesel and bus traffic may be exposed to a maximum 24-hour average diesel PM{sub 2}.5 concentration of about 2.4 microgram/cubic metre at the roadside, about 0.7 microgram/cubic metre at 20 metres away from the road and below 0.25 microgram/cubic metre at 150 metres or more from the road. Based on extrapolations from these studies it is concluded that the cancer risk per year in the GVRD equates to a probability of eight additional cases in approximately 2 million population, which may decrease to about one half of that by 2010 to 2015 as a result of replacement of the older existing trucks and buses with newer vehicles which meet current lower engine emission standards. The cancer risk exposure from diesel particulate emissions appears to be a small component of the current total lifetime risk from cancers of all kinds. Nevertheless, since the predicted 300 cases per million population over a 70 year lifetime exceed the level of one to ten cases per million population which is considered to represent a threshold of

  2. LIDAR Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Emissions from On-Road Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keislar, R. E.; Kuhns, H.; Mazzoleni, C.; Moosmuller, H.; Watson, J.

    2002-12-01

    DRI has developed a remote sensing method for on-road particulate matter emissions from gasoline-powered and diesel-powered vehicles called the Vehicle Emissions Remote Sensing System (VERSS). Remote sensing of gaseous pollutants in vehicle exhaust is a well-established, economical way to determine on-road emissions for thousands of vehicles per day. The VERSS adds a particulate matter channel to complement gaseous pollutant measurements. The VERSS uses 266-nm ultraviolet laser light to achieve greater sensitivity than visible light to sub-micrometer particles, where the greatest mass fraction has been reported. The VERSS system integrates the lidar channel with a commercial remote sensing device (RSD) for gaseous pollutants, and the RSD CO2 measurement can be used to estimate fuel-based particle mass emissions. We describe the interpretation and processing of lidar returns from field measurements taken by the combined VERSS during the Southern Nevada Air Quality Study (SNAQS), conducted in the Las Vegas area. With suitable assumptions regarding size distribution and particle composition, the lidar backscatter signal and the RSD yield three basic measurements of particulate matter in the exhaust plume. For each passing vehicle, these three channels are: 1) Columnar extinction in the infrared (IR at 3.9 micrometers) 2) Columnar extinction in the ultraviolet (UV at 266 nm) 3) Range-resolved backscatter at 266 nm (horizontal spatial resolution of 20-25 cm) The 3.9-micrometer channel is a good surrogate for absorption by elemental carbon (EC) in tailpipe emissions and has been utilized in previous studies. Opacity measurements at 266 nm provide optical extinction due to scattering from tailpipe organic carbon (OC) and EC emissions.

  3. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity properties of particulate matter fraction 2.5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełcik, Maciej K.; Trusz-Zdybek, Agnieszka; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    In the ambient is more than 2,000 chemical substances, some of them are absorbed on the surface of the particulate matter and may causes many health problems. Air pollution is responsible for more than 3.2 million premature deaths which classifies it as a second place environmental risk factor. Especially dangerous for health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro- and amino derivatives which shows mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Air pollutions were also classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer to group which carcinogenic properties on human were proved by available knowledge. Air pollutions, including particulate matter are one of the biggest problem in Polish cities. World Health Organization in report published in May 2016 set many of Polish cities on the top of the list most polluted in European Union. The article presents results of mutagenicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity researches conducted on a particulate matter fraction 2.5 μm collected during all year long in Wroclaw agglomeration. The material were collected on filters using high-flow air aspirator and extracted using dichloromethane. Additionally it was fractionated into 2 parts containing: all pollutants and only polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dry residue of this fractions were dissolving in DMSO and tested using biological methods. Biological methods include mutagenicity properties which are investigated by Salmonella assay (Ames assay). Other biological method was comet assay and 4 parameter cytotoxicity test PAN-I assay. Results of the conducted experiments shows differences in mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties between seasons of collection and between volume of dust pollutions fractions. The worst properties shows particles collected in autumn and winter season and this containing only polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons. Results showed also some correlations in results obtained during different methods and properties.

  4. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a South Asian Mega City: A case study of Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, imran

    2016-04-01

    Pakistan is facing unabated air pollution as a major issue and its cities are more vulnerable as compared to urban centers in the developed world. During the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, transportation and other human activities. In year June 2015 heat wave in largest South Asian mega city Karachi more than 1500 people died in one week. Unfortunately no air quality monitoring system is operation in any city of Pakistan. There is a sharp increase in both the variety and quantity of air pollutants and their corresponding sources. In this study contributions of different sources to particulate matter concentration has estimated in urban area of Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were measured in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March - April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). Average concentrations of PM2.5 were 75μg/m3 and of PM10 437μg/m3. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and „siliceous dust" were the overall dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. 20 Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC+OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in 22 PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC+OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. Of secondary inorganic constituents (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity to PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to

  5. Source Apportionment of Primary and Secondary Fine Particulate Matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Zhang, H.; Ying, Q.

    2015-12-01

    In the past few decades, China have been facing extreme particulate matter (PM) pollution problems due to the combination of fast increase of population, industrialization, urbanization and associated energy consumption and lagging of sufficient emission control measures. Studies have identified the major components of fine PM (PM2.5) in China include primary PM (which is directly emitted into the atmosphere), sulfate and nitrate (which are mainly secondary PM, i.e., formed from gaseous precursors), and organic aerosols (which can be primary or secondary). Contributions of different source sectors to the different PM components are substantially different; therefore source apportionment of these components can provide critical information needed for policy makers to design effective emission control strategies. In the current study, a source-oriented version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that directly tracks the contributions from multiple emission sources to primary and secondary PM2.5 is developed, and then applied to determine the regional contributions of power, industry, transportation and residential sectors to primary PM, nitrate and sulfate concentrations in China. Four months in 2012-2013 are simulated to predict the seasonal variations of source contributions. Model predictions are evaluated with ambient measured concentrations. The source-oriented CMAQ model is capable of reproducing most of the available PM10 and PM2.5 mass, and PM2.5 EC, POC, nitrate and sulfate observations. Predicted source contributions for EC also generally agree with to the source contributions estimated by receptor models reported in previous studies. Model predictions suggest residential is a major contributor to primary PM (30-70%) in the spring and winter, and industrial contributes 40-60% of primary PM in the summer and fall; Transportation is an important source for EC (20-30%); Power sector is the dominating source of nitrate and sulfate in both

  6. Estimating Ground-Level Particulate Matter (PM) Concentration using Satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seohui; Im, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are strongly associated with adverse human health effects. In particular, particulate matter less than 10 micrometers and 2.5 micrometers (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) can cause cardiovascular and lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Air quality including PM has typically been monitored using station-based in-situ measurements over the world. However, in situ measurements do not provide spatial continuity over large areas. An alternative approach is to use satellite remote sensing as it provides data over vast areas at high temporal resolution. The literature shows that PM concentrations are related with Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) that is derived from satellite observations, but it is still difficult to identify PM concentrations directly from AOD. Some studies used statistical approaches for estimating PM concentrations from AOD while some others combined numerical models and satellite-derived AOD. In this study, satellite-derived products were used to estimate ground PM concentrations based on machine learning over South Korea. Satellite-derived products include AOD from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), soil moisture from AMSR-2, elevation from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and land cover, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). PM concentrations data were collected from 318 stations. A statistical ordinary least squares (OLS) approach was also tested and compared with the machine learning approach (i.e., random forest). PM concentration was estimated during spring season (from March to May) in 2015 that typically shows high concentration of PM. The randomly selected 80% of data were used for model calibration and the remaining 20% were used for validation. The developed models were further tested for prediction of PM

  7. Metals distribution on the surface of quartz fiber filters used for particulate matter collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widziewicz Kamila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented study aimed to determine metals distribution on the quartz fiber filters surface coated with particulate matter by using high and low-volume samplers. The distribution pattern was tested using two different sub-sampling schemes. Each sub-sample was mineralized in the nitric acid in a microwave oven. An analysis was performed by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization GF-AAS technique, and the determined elements were: As, Cd, Pb and Ni. A validation of the analytical procedure was carried out using NIES 28 Urban Aerosols standard reference material.

  8. Distribution and sources of suspended particulate matter in the Kara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kravchishina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentration in the Kara Sea was analysed based on ship and satellite data during the lowest ice cover periods in the Arctic (2007 and 2011. The distance of the river runoff with terrigenous SPM was recognized up to at least 76–76.5° N on the basis of isotope data and SPM concentrations and composition. The complex studies of SPM in the water column and in the benthic boundary layer provided new information about the supply and transformation of particles in the marine ecosystem.

  9. Emission estimates of particulate matter and heavy metals from mobile sources in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, R.; K Arun; Int Panis, Luc; Bhola, R

    2013-01-01

    An attempt has been made to make a comprehensive emission inventory of particulate matter (PM) of various size fractions and also of heavy metals (HMs) emitted from mobile sources (both exhaust and non-exhaust) from the road transport of Delhi, India (1991-2006). COPERT-III and 4 models were mainly used toestimate these emissions. Results show that the annual exhaust emission of PM of size upto 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5) has increased from 3Gg to 4.5Gg during 1991-2006 irrespective of'improvement...

  10. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yixing; Xu, Xiaohan; Chu, Ming; Guo, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is now becoming an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous epidemiological, biomedical and clinical studies indicate that ambient particulate matter (PM) in air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, vascular dysfunction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms for PM-caused cardiovascular disease include directly toxicity to cardiovascular system or indirectly injury by inducing systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in peripheral circulation. Here, we review the linking between PM exposure and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the observed PM induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26904258

  11. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  12. Influence of particulate matter on microfouling biomass in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    slations from the Arabian Sea and analysed for suspended matter (SM) and particulate organic carbon (POC). Microfouling material from aluminium panels at the same stations was analysed for dry weight andior organic carbon. Microfouling biomass (as dry... the SM of the seawater and the dry weight of microfouling material (r=0·84;P~O·OOI).as well as between the poe of the seawater and the organic carbon of the fouling material (r=0·74 and 0·84;P~O·(}OI).Microfouling biomass on aluminium panels in deep...

  13. Heterogeneous ozonation reactions of PAHs and fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.

    2018-02-01

    Numerous studies have examined the oxidation of PAHs found in diesel particulate matter (PM) by ozone, but no studies have investigated the ozone oxidation of biodiesel exhaust PM. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), found in high abundance in biodiesel PM, can potentially alter the kinetics of the reactions between atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and particle-phase PAHs. In this study, the heterogeneous reactivity of 16 EPA PAHs upon 24 h exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone in the presence (PAH + FAMES) and absence (PAH-only) of FAMEs was investigated at room temperature and 50% relative humidity. The ozone-reactivity of the PAHs detected in 20% biodiesel (B20) exhaust PM was also investigated. In the absence of FAMEs, the pseudo-first order ozone reaction rate constant, kO 3 , of PAHs varied from 0.086 ± 0.030 hr-1 (chrysene) to 0.184 ± 0.078 hr-1 (anthracene). In the presence of FAMEs, kO 3 of the PAHs varied between 0.013 ± 0.012 hr-1 (benzo[b]fluoranthene) and 0.168 ± 0.028 hr-1 (benzo[a]pyrene), and with the exception of benzo[a]pyrene, the kO 3 of PAHs were 1.2-8 times lower compared to those obtained during the PAH-only ozone exposure. Only one PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), did not show a significant change in kO3 with addition of FAMEs. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, the only PAHs detected in the B20 PM, had kO 3 values about 4 times lower in B20 PM than those obtained when spiked PAHs-only were exposed to ozone. The kO 3 values of phenanthrene and fluoranthene in the B20 PM were 2 times higher than rates obtained when the PAH mix was exposed to ozone in the presence of the FAMEs. In contrast, pyrene's kO 3 in the B20 PM was about 2 times lower than that obtained for the PAH + FAMEs exposure. Observed differences in PAH behavior demonstrate individual PAH heterogeneous reactivity with gas-phase ozone is sensitive to PAH (vapor pressure, solubility/sorption to matrix components, chemical reactivity) as well as substrate properties (PAH and O3 diffusivity

  14. The persistence of pesticides in atmospheric particulate phase: An emerging air quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Joanna; Durand, Amandine; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gligorovski, Sasho; Wortham, Henri; Quivet, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    The persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their physicochemical properties can be widely spread all over the globe; as such they represent a serious threat to both humans and wildlife. According to Stockholm convention out of 24 officially recognized POPs, 16 are pesticides. The atmospheric life times of pesticides, up to now were estimated based on their gas-phase reactivity. It has been only speculated that sorption to aerosol particles may increase significantly the half-lives of pesticides in the atmosphere. The results presented here challenge the current view of the half-lives of pesticides in the lower boundary layer of the atmosphere and their impact on air quality and human health. We demonstrate that semivolatile pesticides which are mostly adsorbed on atmospheric aerosol particles are very persistent with respect to the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) that is the self-cleaning agent of the atmosphere. The half-lives in particulate phase of difenoconazole, tetraconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, deltamethrin, cyprodinil, permethrin, and pendimethalin are in order of several days and even higher than one month, implying that these pesticides can be transported over long distances, reaching the remote regions all over the world; hence these pesticides shall be further evaluated prior to be confirmed as POPs.

  15. Multi-faceted monitoring of estuarine turbidity and particulate matter provenance: Case study from Salem Harbor, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, J Bradford; Kenney, Melanie; Warren, Barbara; Louisos, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Turbidity is a water quality parameter that is known to adversely affect aquatic systems, however the causes of turbid water are often elusive. We present results of a study designed to constrain the source of particulate matter in a coastal embayment that has suffered from increased turbidity over past decades. Our approach utilized monitoring buoys to quantify turbidity at high temporal resolution complemented by geochemical isotope analysis of suspended sediment samples and meteorological data. Results reveal a complex system in which multiple sources are associated with particulate matter. Weight of evidence demonstrates that phytoplankton productivity in the water column, however, is the dominant source of particulate matter associated with elevated turbidity in Salem Harbor, Massachusetts. Allochthonous matter from the watershed was observed to mix into the pool of suspended particulate matter near river mouths, especially in spring and summer. Resuspension of harbor surface sediments likely provides additional particulates in the regions of boat moorings, especially during summer when recreational boats are attached to moorings. Our approach allows us to constrain the causes of turbidity events in this embayment, is helping with conservation efforts of environmental quality in the region, and can be used as a template for other locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  17. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  18. Biomass Burning Smoke Climatology of the United States: Implications for Particulate Matter Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Jaffe, Daniel; Christopher, Sundar A; Goodrick, Scott

    2017-10-17

    We utilize the NOAA Hazard Mapping System smoke product for the period of 2005 to 2016 to develop climatology of smoke occurrence over the Continental United States (CONUS) region and to study the impact of wildland fires on particulate matter air quality at the surface. Our results indicate that smoke is most frequently found over the Great Plains and western states during the summer months. Other hotspots of smoke occurrence are found over state and national parks in the southeast during winter and spring, in the Gulf of Mexico southwards of the Texas and Louisiana coastline during spring season and along the Mississippi River Delta during the fall season. A substantial portion (20%) of the 24 h federal standard for particulate pollution exceedance events in the CONUS region occur when smoke is present. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations continue to reduce anthropogenic emissions, wildland fire emissions will become the major contributor to particulate pollution and exceedance events. In this context, we show that HMS smoke product is a valuable tool for analysis of exceptional events caused by wildland fires and our results indicate that these tools can be valuable for policy and decision makers.

  19. Removal of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Vehicle Using a Self-Powered Triboelectric Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang Bao; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Chi; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Chaoying; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution from automobile exhaust has become one of the main pollution sources in urban environments. Although the diesel particulate filter has been used in heavy diesel vehicles, there is no particulate filter for most gasoline cars or light-duty vehicles because of high cost. Here, we introduce a self-powered triboelectric filter for removing PMs from automobile exhaust fumes using the triboelectrification effect. The finite element simulation reveals that the collision or friction between PTFE pellets and electrodes can generate large triboelectric charges and form a space electric field as high as 12 MV/m, accompanying an open-circuit voltage of ∼6 kV between the two electrodes, which is comparable to the measured value of 3 kV. By controlling the vibration frequency and fill ratio of pellets, more than 94% PMs in aerosol can be removed using the high electric field in the triboelectric filter. In real automobile exhaust fumes, the triboelectic filter has a mass collection efficiency of ∼95.5% for PM2.5 using self-vibration of the tailpipe.

  20. Utilization, cycling and vertical transport of particulate organic matter in the coastal marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    This project was funded as part of the California Basin Study (CaBS), a DOE-funded regional program investigating production, cycling, transport, and fate of organic matter, chemical tracers, and pollutants in the Southern California Bight. The study area, adjacent to Los Angeles, was of programmatic interest due to its heavy concentration of energy-related activities, including offshore oil drilling and natural seeps, shipping, nuclear power facilities, and industrial and municipal ocean waste disposal. It was also of scientific interest because the wide continental margin in the region, pot-marked with natural sediment traps in the form of deep basins with restricted inputs and outputs, was ideal for integrating water-column and benthic studies and tracing the fates of in situ production and introduced pollutants. Our role in the CABS Program was to investigate the flux of particulate matter through the water column, emphasizing the relationship between macrozooplankton feeding and particle flux.

  1. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  2. Chemical composition and mass closure for airborne particulate matter in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy A. Vargas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter, measured as PM10, is the most concerning airborne pollutant in Bogotá. Determining its chemical com- position is important for understanding its potential effects and to estimate various sources’ contribution to such pollution. This paper gives the results of characterizing the ionic species, carbonaceous material, metals and crustal elements present in airborne PM10 in Bogotá. An ion charge balance and mass reconstruction were done for determining consistency between chemical characterization and gravimetric PM10. The composition was different in each area; however, the fractions contributing most to PM10 were crustal, 37% to 42% was related to fugitive and suspended dust, 12% to 11% was related to carbonaceus fractions, 43% to elemental carbon, 34% for organic matter and 5% to 8% for ionic fractions.

  3. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from a current technology natural gas engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Kappanna, Hemanth; Carder, Daniel K; Ayala, Alberto; Herner, Jorn; Gautam, Mridul

    2014-07-15

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the particulate matter (PM)-size distribution, number concentration, and chemical composition emitted from transit buses powered by a USEPA 2010 compliant, stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC). Results of the particle-size distribution showed a predominant nucleation mode centered close to 10 nm. PM mass in the size range of 6.04 to 25.5 nm correlated strongly with mass of lubrication-oil-derived elemental species detected in the gravimetric PM sample. Results from oil analysis indicated an elemental composition that was similar to that detected in the PM samples. The source of elemental species in the oil sample can be attributed to additives and engine wear. Chemical speciation of particulate matter (PM) showed that lubrication-oil-based additives and wear metals were a major fraction of the PM mass emitted from the buses. The results of the study indicate the possible existence of nanoparticles below 25 nm formed as a result of lubrication oil passage through the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress (OS) analysis on the PM samples indicated strong correlations with both the PM mass calculated in the nanoparticle-size bin and the mass of elemental species that can be linked to lubrication oil as the source.

  4. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and term birth weight in New York, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, David A; Bobb, Jennifer F; Carr, Jessie L; Clougherty, Jane E; Dominici, Francesca; Elston, Beth; Ito, Kazuhiko; Ross, Zev; Yee, Michelle; Matte, Thomas D

    2014-02-15

    Building on a unique exposure assessment project in New York, New York, we examined the relationship of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and nitrogen dioxide with birth weight, restricting the population to term births to nonsmokers, along with other restrictions, to isolate the potential impact of air pollution on growth. We included 252,967 births in 2008-2010 identified in vital records, and we assigned exposure at the residential location by using validated models that accounted for spatial and temporal factors. Estimates of association were adjusted for individual and contextual sociodemographic characteristics and season, using linear mixed models to quantify the predicted change in birth weight in grams related to increasing pollution levels. Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy, respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth.

  5. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  6. Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter alters the expression of genes in primary human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Saffari, Arian; Sioutas, Constantinos; Bondy, Stephen C; Campbell, Arezoo

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the onset of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. To gain insight into this neurotoxicity, this study sought to examine global gene expression changes caused by exposure to ambient ultrafine PM. Microarray analysis was performed on primary human neurons derived from fetal brain tissue after a 24h exposure to 20μg/mL of ambient ultrafine particles. We found a majority of the changes in noncoding RNAs, which are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thereby could impact the expression of several other protein coding gene targets. Although neurons from biologically different lot numbers were used, we found a significant increase in the expression of metallothionein 1A and 1F in all samples after exposure to particulate matter as confirmed by quantitative PCR. These metallothionein 1 proteins are responsible for neuroprotection after exposure to environmental insult but prolonged induction can be toxic. Epidemiological studies have reported that in utero exposure to ultrafine PM not only leads to neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormalities, but may also predispose the progeny to neurodegenerative disease later in life by genetic imprinting. Our results pinpoint some of the PM-induced genetic changes that may underlie these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiota and Particulate Matter Assessment in Portuguese Optical Shops Providing Contact Lens Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Pacífico, Cátia; Dos Santos, Mateus; Monteiro, Ana; Lança, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Susana; Cabo Verde, Sandra

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this work was to assess the microbiota (fungi and bacteria) and particulate matter in optical shops, contributing to a specific protocol to ensure a proper assessment. Air samples were collected through an impaction method. Surface and equipment swab samples were also collected side-by-side. Measurements of particulate matter were performed using portable direct-reading equipment. A walkthrough survey and checklist was also applied in each shop. Regarding air sampling, eight of the 13 shops analysed were above the legal requirement and 10 from the 26 surfaces samples were overloaded. In three out of the 13 shops fungal contamination in the analysed equipment was not detected. The bacteria air load was above the threshold in one of the 13 analysed shops. However, bacterial counts were detected in all sampled equipment. Fungi and bacteria air load suggested to be influencing all of the other surface and equipment samples. These results reinforce the need to improve air quality, not only to comply with the legal requirements, but also to ensure proper hygienic conditions. Public health intervention is needed to assure the quality and safety of the rooms and equipment in optical shops that perform health interventions in patients.

  8. Comparison of discriminant analysis methods: Application to occupational exposure to particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. Rosário; Carolino, E.; Viegas, Carla; Viegas, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Health effects associated with occupational exposure to particulate matter have been studied by several authors. In this study were selected six industries of five different areas: Cork company 1, Cork company 2, poultry, slaughterhouse for cattle, riding arena and production of animal feed. The measurements tool was a portable device for direct reading. This tool provides information on the particle number concentration for six different diameters, namely 0.3 µm, 0.5 µm, 1 µm, 2.5 µm, 5 µm and 10 µm. The focus on these features is because they might be more closely related with adverse health effects. The aim is to identify the particles that better discriminate the industries, with the ultimate goal of classifying industries regarding potential negative effects on workers' health. Several methods of discriminant analysis were applied to data of occupational exposure to particulate matter and compared with respect to classification accuracy. The selected methods were linear discriminant analyses (LDA); linear quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), robust linear discriminant analysis with selected estimators (MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimators), MVE (Minimum Volume Elipsoid), "t", MCD (Minimum Covariance Determinant), MCD-A, MCD-B), multinomial logistic regression and artificial neural networks (ANN). The predictive accuracy of the methods was accessed through a simulation study. ANN yielded the highest rate of classification accuracy in the data set under study. Results indicate that the particle number concentration of diameter size 0.5 µm is the parameter that better discriminates industries.

  9. A Prototype Sensor for In Situ Sensing of Fine Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Loon Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2.5 from incense burning inside the chamber was measured using the AtmOptic. The weight of PM2.5 particles was collected and measured with a filter to determine their concentration and the sensor signal-to-concentration correlation. The results of the AtmOptic were also compared and found to trend well with the Dylos DC 1100 Pro air quality monitor. The absorbance spectrum of VOCs emitted from various laboratory chemicals and household products as well as a two chemical mixtures were recorded. The quantification was demonstrated, using toluene as an example, by calibrating the AtmOptic with compressed gas standards containing VOCs at different concentrations. The results demonstrated the sensor capabilities in measuring PM2.5 and volatile organic compounds.

  10. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  11. A review of the effects of particle types on oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2016-12-01

    Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate (OSA) can form naturally when oil and particles interact. The interaction between oil and suspended particulate matter makes oil less sticky, and facilitates its dispersion in the water column. The high oil-water surface contact enhances the biodegradation of oil and thus increases the efficiency of remediation processes. There are many factors that affect OSA formation, but, particle type is one of the most important. Because different particle types have different physical, chemical, and biological properties, their interactions with oil differ greatly. Particle properties such as interlayer spaces, hydrophobicity, surface charges, polarity, organic content, and size affect the interactions between materials and oil. These different interactions determine the type, buoyancy, size, and stability of OSA that forms, thus determining its fate in the environment. This review provides a current understanding of (1) OSA formation mechanisms, (2) sources and classes of marine materials, (3) oil-particle interactions, (4) material properties and their effects on oil interaction, and (5) future research needs.

  12. Composition and distribution of particulate matter (PM10) in a mechanically ventilated University building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed Yasreen Mohamed; Hanafiah, Marlia Mohd; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-11-01

    This study analyses the composition and distribution of particulate matter (PM10) in the Biology department building, in UKM. PM10 were collected using SENSIDYNE Gillian GilAir-5 Personal Air Sampling System, a low-volume sampler, whereas the concentration of heavy metals was determined using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of PM10 recorded in the mechanically ventilated building ranges from 89 µgm-3 to 910 µgm-3. The composition of the selected heavy metals in PM10 were dominated by zinc, followed by copper, lead and cadmium. It was found that the present of indoor-related particulate matter were originated from the poorly maintained ventilation system, the activity of occupants and typical office equipments such as printers and photocopy machines. The haze event occured during sampling periods was also affected the PM10 concentration in the building. This results can serve as a starting point to assess the potential human health damage using the life cycle impact assessment, expressed in term of disability adjusted life year (DALY).

  13. Ambient particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular diseases: a focus on progenitor and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuqi; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution is a major challenge to public health. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) is the key component for air pollution, and associated with significant mortality. The majority of the mortality following PM exposure is related to cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms for the adverse effects of PM exposure on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown and under active investigation. Endothelial dysfunction or injury is considered one of the major factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of vasculature. Particulate matter exposure significantly suppressed the number and function of EPCs in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms for the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs remain to be fully defined. One of the important mechanisms might be related to increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation. Bone marrow (BM) is a major source of EPCs. Thus, the number and function of EPCs could be intimately associated with the population and functional status of stem cells (SCs) in the BM. Bone marrow stem cells and other SCs have the potential for cardiovascular regeneration and repair. The present review is focused on summarizing the detrimental effects of PM exposure on EPCs and SCs, and potential mechanisms including ROS formation as well as clinical implications. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Results of measurements of particulate matter concentrations inside a pig fattening facility

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    Ulens, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. This research note discusses the results of measurements of particulate matter concentrations inside a pig fattening facility. Objectives. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the correlations between the different size fractions of indoor particulate matter (PM inside a pig fattening facility and to investigate the evolution of particle size distribution (PSD through a fattening period and between two housing systems and two cleaning protocols. Method. Data from two consecutive fattening periods in a commercial pig barn were used. Results. Very high correlations were found between PM10 and PM2.5 indoor concentrations. Depending on the measuring instrument, high or low correlations were found between PM1 and PM10 or PM2.5 indoor concentrations. No differences in PSD could be found between the two housing systems or the two cleaning protocols. Conclusions. The results from the present study showed high correlations between the indoor concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. In the present study, no differences in PSD were found.

  15. Exposure to Particulate Matter and its Health Impacts (an AirQ Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Daryanoosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Recent studies indicated that particulate matter can have the lung irritation, chronic lung diseases, lung tissue, etc. The aim objective of this study was to assess the mortality associated with exposure to PM10 concentrations in Ilam, Iran, during 2013. Materials & Methods: PM10 data were taken from Ilam's Local Agency of Environment (I-LAE. The annual mortality, including total, cardiovascular, and respiratory due to PM10 were estimated, using AirQ2.2.3 software model. The relative risk (RR and baseline incidence (BI defaulted by WHO were used for this purpose. Results: The number of excess cases for total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was estimated 161, 85 and 17 persons, respectively for a year exposure to PM10 among the people. About 3.95% of mortalities were occurred in the days with concentration levels less than 20 μg/m3. The most percentage of person-days attributed to different levels of PM10 was found to be in concentration of 40-49 µg/m3. Conclusions: In order to diminish the health impacts of particulate matter in Ilam city, health training by health systems should be conducted to public people especially persons with chronic lung and heart diseases, elderly and children to reduce their activities in the dusty days.

  16. Exploration Mission Particulate Matter Filtration Technology Performance Testing in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Mccormick, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human deep space exploration missions will require advances in long-life, low maintenance airborne particulate matter filtration technology. As one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) developments in this area, a prototype of a new regenerable, multi-stage particulate matter filtration technology was tested in an International Space Station (ISS) module simulation facility. As previously reported, the key features of the filter system include inertial and media filtration with regeneration and in-place media replacement techniques. The testing facility can simulate aspects of the cabin environment aboard the ISS and contains flight-like cabin ventilation system components. The filtration technology test article was installed at the inlet of the central ventilation system duct and instrumented to provide performance data under nominal flow conditions. In-place regeneration operations were also evaluated. The real-time data included pressure drop across the filter stages, process air flow rate, ambient pressure, humidity and temperature. In addition, two video cameras positioned at the filtration technology test articles inlet and outlet were used to capture the mechanical performance of the filter media indexing operation under varying air flow rates. Recent test results are presented and future design recommendations are discussed.

  17. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Ilaria; Mavris, Christian; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  18. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  19. Influence of freshwater inflow on source of particulate organic matter in a subtropical estuary, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, N. E.; Hardison, A.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The Mission-Aransas National Estuarine Research Reserve (MANERR) in subtropical Texas is characterized by arid climate, drought, and sporadic precipitation events that affect the water quality of the system. Changes in the inflow regime in turn may alter the source and composition of the particulate organic matter (POM). The MANERR implements a system-wide monitoring program (SWMP) that continuously records water quality data and collects monthly nutrient samples at five stations across the estuarine salinity gradient. To evaluate the impact of freshwater inflow on the source of POM, monthly samples of surface water POM were collected at each station beginning in 2012 and analyzed for carbon and nitrogen concentrations and stable isotope content and pigment concentrations. These data were combined with a six-year time series (2010-2015) of SWMP salinity, stream flow and nutrient data. An increase in particulate organic carbon (POC) (54 to 136 µM) and particulate nitrogen (PN) (7 to 33 µM) concentrations was observed beginning in early 2015, as well as a depletion in the δ13C-POC (-24.56 to -26.82 permil); this pattern is consistent with a series of storm events during this time frame, which caused an increase in freshwater inflow and thus a precipitous drop in estuarine salinity. These results suggest a shift in the POM pool from dominance by marine algae towards terrestrial organic matter in the system as a result of increased freshwater inflow. This change of POC source likely occurred previously in our time series. In late 2009, the system experienced high rates of river discharge due to a series of recurring storm events which lasted until early 2011. This resulted in 2010 being a "wet" year with a much lower mean annual salinity ( 8 ppt) than that of 2013, a "dry" year ( 36 ppt). Data analysis of POC, PN, δ13C-POC, δ15N-PN, and pigments are still ongoing and will be presented.

  20. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  1. Transport and diagenesis of dissolved and particulate terrigenous organic matter in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Benner, Ronald

    2002-12-01

    Lignin measurements were made on suspended particulate organic matter (POM), total dissolved organic matter (DOM), high-molecular-weight (HMW) DOM, and low-molecular-weight (LMW) DOM in the North Pacific at Station Aloha. Carbon-normalized yields of lignin and δ13C measurements indicate that while terrigenous organic matter accounts only for ˜1% of DOM in seawater, submicron POM has a substantial terrigenous component. The apparent size distribution and terrigenous nature of the particles is consistent with an aerosol source, but these particles could also be delivered to the ocean via rivers. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl phenols as well as the fraction of dissolved lignin in HMW DOM provide molecular evidence of photochemical oxidation. Several differences in lignin composition and concentrations were evident between water masses. In particular, concentrations in North Pacific Intermediate Water were a factor of two greater than at all other depths. This is likely a reflection of higher riverine input via the Sea of Okhotsk. These trends suggest that lignin could serve as a general circulation tracer in addition to tracing riverine input and diagenetic processing of terrigenous organic matter in the ocean.

  2. Photochemistry of excited-state species in natural waters: a role for particulate organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Barbara A; Timko, Stephen A; Devera, Lianne; Robinson, Alice K; Gonsior, Michael; Vizenor, Ashley E; Simpson, André J; Cooper, William J

    2013-09-15

    Laser flash photolysis (LFP) was used to characterize a triplet excited state species isolated from Black River and San Joaquin wetlands particulate organic matter (POM). The solubilized organic matter, isolated from POM by pH-independent diffusion in distilled water, was named PdOM. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs), and (1)H NMR were used to characterize the PdOM. While LFP of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is known to generate the solvated electron, LFP of the PdOM transient in argon-, air-, and nitrous oxide-saturated solutions indicated that this was a triplet excited state species ((3)PdOM*). The lifetime and the reactivity of (3)PdOM* with sorbic acid, a triplet state quencher, were compared with that of the triplet excited state of benzophenone, a DOM proxy. A second excited state species (designated DOM*), with a longer lifetime, was reported in a number of previous studies but not characterized. The lifetime of DOM*, measured for seventeen organic matter isolates, lignin, tannic acid, and three wetlands plant extracts, was shown to differentiate allochthonous from autochthonous DOM. (3)POM* and DOM* were also observed in lake water and a constructed wetlands' water. Aqueous extracts of fresh and aged plant material from the same wetland were shown to be one source of these excited state species. This study provides evidence of a role for POM in the photochemistry of natural and constructed wetland waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogenic vanadium in total suspended particulate matter from Cabo Frio upwelling region, Southeast, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Silvia M.; Neves, Alessandra F.; Moreira, Josino Costa; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    In this work total suspended particulate (TSP) was collected during a year, in two municipalities located in a coastal region of Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast, Brazil, from February 2004 to January 2005. Two sites were chosen: site 1 located in front of the sea and representative of sea salt spray influence; site 2 in a tall booth of a highway representing vehicle exhaust influence. Samples were collected in glass fibre filters using Hi-Vol samplers and stored. 1/8 of those loaded filters were cut and digested in a microwave oven. The extract obtained was used to determine metal Ca, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ti, V, Zn and K concentration in the atmosphere. The results showed that TSP levels in site 1 (23.1-659 μg m -3) was higher than in site 2 (24.5-55.6 μg m -3) due to marine aerosol which is responsible for particle emissions with higher diameter. Vanadium was the only element studied whose concentration were higher in site 1 (0.840-20.9 ng m -3) compared to site 2 (0.655-7.07 ng m -3). The highest vanadium concentrations in site 1 were obtained during upwelling events, with NE winds predominance at high speed, which indicates the influence of this phenomena in V presence in the atmosphere. Principal components analysis was able to identify atmospheric particulate sources distributed in four factors. In site 1, those factors explain 86.5% of total data variance and indicate two sources: continental and marine. In site 2, those factors explain 89.2% of total data variance and indicate that vehicle exhaust is the main metals source in the atmosphere.

  4. Effects of particulate matter exposure during pregnancy on birth weight: A retrospective cohort study in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Ji, Yinwen; Kang, Suya; Dong, Tianyu; Zhou, Zhu; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Wei; Tang, Qiuqin; Chen, Ting; Wang, Yun; Xia, Yankai

    2018-02-15

    Recent studies have identified that exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy could result in adverse birth outcomes, but the effects of exposure at trimester-specific intervals are inconsistent. Our primary goal was to investigate whether particulate matter exposure during pregnancy could affect birth weight and gestational age of neonates. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between maternal particulate matter exposure and neonatal birth weight. We collected 14,455 births records linked to hospital admission records (delivery and antenatal) from January 2013 to December 2015 in Suzhou Municipal Hospital. Air monitoring data in the same timeframe were also collected from Suzhou Environmental Protection Agency. The risk of low birth weight due to the exposure to PM2.5 (with median aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm) and PM10 (with median aerodynamic diameter≤10μm) at each trimester and throughout the entire pregnancy were assessed. Linear regression models were applied and potential confounding factors were adjusted for data analysis. Gestational age, which was another important birth outcome, and its association with maternal particulate matter exposure were also studied. The final analysis included 10,915 singleton live births. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that gestational exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 at 10μg/m3 increments in the second trimester led to decreases in birth weight of 4.94g (95% confidence interval: -9.828, -0.046) and 5.65g (95% confidence interval: -10.110, -1.188), respectively. However, gestational age was not significantly associated with maternal particulate matter exposure in term neonates. These findings indicate that pregnant women might be more susceptible to particulate matter during the second trimester which may lead to decreased neonatal birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Integrated Analysis of Particulate Matter Episodes over Megacities using Multi-scale Modelling, Ground-based and Space-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R.; Sokhi, R.; Chemel, C.; Fisher, B.

    2009-09-01

    Particulate Matter (or aerosol) Episodes have significant effect on atmospheric composition and air quality. High levels of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations are often observed over megacities. The cause of such episodes is not fully understood yet. In this study, we use the state-of-the-art CMAQ-WRF-SMOKE regional air quality modelling system to simulate the formation, evolution and dissipation of episodes over megacities and examine the dominant factors such as emission, meteorological and chemical processes. The simulations have been directly compared with ground-based and space-based observations. We analyses the chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM10 or PM2.5) concentrations over megacities such as London and Paris from model simulations and ground-based measurements. The model simulations of major aerosol species including sulphate, ammonium, nitrate, black carbon and organics have been evaluated with ground-based measurements. The new boundary conditions generated from a global chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem) are used to improve the CMAQ-WRF-SMOKE modelling results. In order to understand the emission, meteorological and chemical processes, the detailed emission sources and meteorological parameters simulated from WRF such as wind speed, pressure, and mixing height have been analyzed. The favourable meteorological conditions have been found to enhance the long range transport of air pollutants. We synergically retrieve particulate matter concentrations from the measurements of multiple satellite sensors such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameter (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiameter (MISR). The global model (GEOS-Chem) and regional model (CMAQ) are used to constrain the aerosol profiles. In particular, we use backscatter profiles from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) measurements to explore the potential for

  6. Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only.......Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only....

  7. Enzymatic biofilm digestion in soil aggregates facilitates the release of particulate organic matter by sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büks, Frederick; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The stability of soil aggregates against shearing and compressive forces as well as water-caused dispersion is an integral marker of soil quality. High stability results in less compaction and erosion and has been linked to enhanced water retention, dynamic water transport and aeration regimes, increased rooting depth, and protection of soil organic matter (SOM) against microbial degradation. In turn, particulate organic matter is supposed to support soil aggregate stabilization. For decades the importance of biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) regarding particulate organic matter (POM) occlusion and aggregate stability has been canonical because of its distribution, geometric structure and ability to link primary particles. However, experimental proof is still missing. This lack is mainly due to methodological reasons. Thus, the objective of this work is to develop a method of enzymatic biofilm detachment for studying the effects of EPSs on POM occlusion. The method combines an enzymatic pre-treatment with different activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, DNAse and lipase with a subsequent sequential ultrasonic treatment for disaggregation and density fractionation of soils. POM releases of treated samples were compared to an enzyme-free control. To test the efficacy of biofilm detachment the ratio of bacterial DNA from suspended cells and the remaining biofilm after enzymatic treatment were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Although the enzyme treatment was not sufficient for total biofilm removal, our results indicate that EPSs may attach POM within soil aggregates. The tendency to additional POM release with increased application of enzymes was attributed to a slight loss in aggregate stability. This suggests that an effect of agricultural practices on soil microbial populations could influence POM occlusion/aggregate stability and thereby carbon cycle/soil quality.

  8. Aerosol particulate matter in the Baltimore metropolitan area: Temporal variation over a six-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Daniel; Delgado, Ruben; Wesloh, Daniel; Powers, Richard J; Hoff, Raymond

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the sources of fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM(2.5)) composition for the Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area, covering a 6-year period (2008-2013). Data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) were used for the identification of eight chemical speciation clusters (factors), which, as a percentage of the average concentration, were identified as secondary sulfate (31.9%), secondary nitrate (14.3%), gasoline (17.4%), diesel (10.1%), soil (4.0%), biomass burning (11%), marine aerosol (4.1%), and industrial processing (7.2%). The results show predominant influence from vehicle emissions transiting major highways I-695 and I-95 located in the vicinity of the sampling site. Strong influence on PM2.5 mass from biomass burning was found in the first 2 years (2008-2009) due to particulate matter remnants from forest fire events in North Carolina and a strong contribution in 2013 that was due mainly to wood burning during winter. Sulfate, nitrate, soil, and marine aerosol fractions registered very low variability over the 6-year period analyzed. In addition, this study shows a significant reduction in particulate matter from industrial origins after a major industrial source in Baltimore shut down. The results obtained from Baltimore were compared with those from the Beltsville, Maryland, sampling station located 25 miles south of Baltimore for 2011 and 2012, where good agreement was found for most of the factors. This paper presents the first long-term aerosol speciation analysis in a Mid-Atlantic United States metropolitan area, which is essential for the air quality management agencies in order to revise regulations and reduce human exposure to adverse air quality conditions. The results suggest that although a declining trend in the overall PM2.5 was observed, no significant tendency was observed in the identified sources besides exceptional events such as the impact of

  9. Analysis of airborne particulate matter pollution in Timisoara city urban area and correlations between measurements and meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Mihai; Lungu, Antoanetta; Stefu, Nicoleta; Neculae, Adrian; Strambeanu, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution is known to have many adverse effects, among which those on human health are considered the most important. Healthy people of all ages can be adversely affected by high levels of air pollutants. Nanoparticles can be considered among the most harmful of all pollutants as they can penetrate straight into the lungs and blood stream. Their role in the aging process has also recently been revealed. In Romania, practically in all important urban areas (Bucureşti, Iaşi, Timişoara, Braşov, Baia Mare, etc.) the daily limit values for airborne particulate matter are exceeded, so more efforts in controlling air quality are required, along with more research and policies with positive impact on reducing the pollutants concentration in air. The approaches that have been developed to assess the air quality and health impacts of pollution sources are based on analytical methods such as source apportionment, factor analyses, and the measurement of source-relevant indicator compounds. The goal of the present study is to offer preliminary but relevant information on the particulate matter distribution in the city of Timisoara, Romania. Measurements of inhalable coarse and fine particles in two areas of the city, the most affected by industrial particulate emissions, were performed in days with various meteorological conditions. Meteorological parameters for the specific measurement days were recorded (wind speed and direction, humidity, temperature, pressure, etc.) and the influence of these parameters on the particulate matter dispersion was studied. The results show that the meteorological conditions cause differences between airborne particulate matter distributions in different days in the same zones. Measurements were made in northern and southern areas of the city of Timisoara because previous results have shown high levels of airborne particulate matter in these areas.

  10. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun

    2010-01-01

    Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? 60.1815 Section 60.1815 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device. ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of...

  13. Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Roux, Ana V; Auchincloss, Amy H; Franklin, Tracy Green; Raghunathan, Trivellore; Barr, R Graham; Kaufman, Joel; Astor, Brad; Keeler, Jerry

    2008-03-15

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter has been linked to cardiovascular events. Whether this finding reflects an effect of particulate matter exposure on the triggering of events or development of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis collected at baseline (2000-2002), the authors investigated associations of 20-year exposures to particulate matter with measures of subclinical disease (coronary calcium, common carotid intimal-medial thickness, and ankle-brachial index) in 5,172 US adults without clinical cardiovascular disease. Particulate matter exposures for the 20 years prior to assessment of subclinical disease were obtained from a space-time model of Environmental Protection Agency monitor data linked to residential history data for each participant. Intimal-medial thickness was weakly, positively associated with exposures to particulate matter aerodynamic diameter and aerodynamic diameter after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, diet, smoking, physical activity, blood lipids, diabetes, hypertension, and body mass index (1-4% increase per 21-microg/m(3) increase in particulate matter aerodynamic diameter or a 12.5-microg/m(3) increase in particulate matter aerodynamic diameter). No consistent associations with other measures of atherosclerosis were observed. There was no evidence of effect modification by sociodemographic factors, lipid status, smoking, diabetes, body mass index, or site. Results are compatible with some effect of particulate matter exposures on development of carotid atherosclerosis.

  14. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  15. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

  16. Contrasting biological potency of particulate matter collected at sites impacted by distinct industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Breznan, Dalibor; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; MacKinnon-Roy, Christine; Vuong, Ngoc Q; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Kumarathasan, Prem; Brook, Jeffrey R; Vincent, Renaud

    2016-12-01

    Industrial sources contribute a significant proportion of anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions, producing particles of varying composition that may differentially impact health. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected near industrial sites in relation to particle size and composition. Size-fractionated particles (ultrafine, PM0.1-2.5, PM2.5-10, PM>10) were collected in the vicinity of steel, copper, aluminium, and petrochemical industrial sites. Human lung epithelial-like A549 and murine macrophage-like J774A.1 cells were exposed for 24 h to particle suspensions (0, 30, 100, 300 μg/cm(2)). Particle potency was assessed using cytotoxic (resazurin reduction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release) and inflammatory (cytokine release) assays, and regressed against composition (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), endotoxin). Coarse (PM2.5-10, PM>10) particle fractions were composed primarily of iron and aluminium; in contrast, ultrafine and fine (PM0.1-2.5) fractions displayed considerable variability in metal composition (especially water-soluble metals) across collection sites consistent with source contributions. Semi-volatile and PM-associated PAHs were enriched in the fine and coarse fractions collected near metal industry. Cell responses to exposure at equivalent mass concentrations displayed striking differences among sites (SITE x SIZE and SITE x DOSE interactions, p Industrial sources produce particulate emissions with varying chemical composition that differ in their in vitro potency in relation to particle size and the levels of specific constituents.

  17. Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nel Andre E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air Pollution has been associated with significant adverse health effects leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Cumulative epidemiological and experimental data have shown that exposure to air pollutants lead to increased cardiovascular ischemic events and enhanced atherosclerosis. It appears that these associations are much stronger with the air particulate matter (PM component and that in urban areas, the smaller particles could be more pathogenic, as a result of their greater propensity to induce systemic prooxidant and proinflammatory effects. Much is still unknown about the toxicology of ambient particulates as well as the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the induction of adverse cardiovascular health effects. It is expected that better understanding of these effects will have large implications and may lead to the formulation and implementation of new regulatory policies. Indeed, we have found that ultrafine particles ( Extensive epidemiological evidence supports the association of air pollution with adverse health effects 123. It is increasingly being recognized that such effects lead to enhanced morbidity and mortality, mostly due to exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases and predominantly those of ischemic character 4. Indeed, in addition to the classical risk factors such as serum lipids, smoking, hypertension, aging, gender, family history, physical inactivity and diet, recent data have implicated air pollution as an important additional risk factor for atherosclerosis. This has been the subject of extensive reviews 56 and a consensus statement from the American Heart Association 7. This article reviews the supporting epidemiological and animal data, possible pathogenic mechanisms and future perspectives.

  18. Exposure assessment of particulate matter and blood chromium levels in people living near a cement plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2017-11-21

    This study evaluates the effect of air pollution caused by cement plants on nearby residential areas and performs an exposure assessment of particulate matter (PM) and total Cr, Cr(6+), Pb, and Al. Further, the blood Cr levels of residents exposed to PM released by cement plants are also assessed. Nine buildings (eight residential and one elementary school building) close to cement plants were selected for this study, which were located in Pyeongtaek port, in west of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. A total of 51 suspended particulate samples were collected at a flow rate of 2.0 L/min. Total Cr was more widely detected in residents' houses and elementary schools. PM levels were higher at distances of 4.1 and 4.8 km than those at closer distances of 2.7 km. This was due to the influence of wind direction. The estimated mean blood level of Cr for the study participants was 3.80 μg/L, which is higher than levels estimated by other studies on Cr blood levels. Therefore, cement plants could cause an increase in total Cr and blood Cr levels in residential areas, and more continuous monitoring is necessary to better understand their impacts.

  19. Applicability and limitations of instruments for particle sizing and real time evaluation of airbone particulate matter; Applicabilita` e limiti di strumenti per la separazione granulometrica e per la valutazione in tempo reale del particolato in sospensione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zaiacomo, T. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    After a brief of difficulties in characterizing airbone particulates by means of particle sizing instruments, the accumulation mode of the atmospheric aerosol is highlighted as carrier of many noxious substances. Two different types of impactors are described in detail, and examples of particle size distributions obtainable by means of these instruments are shown; a miniaturized real-time aerosol monitor is briefly described too. Results of some tests are shown, carried on by sampling both a laboratory produced aerosol and ambient airbone particulate, by means of two identical impactors, with the aim of verifying their responses in term of collected ponderal mass; examples of the aerosol size distributions obtained are reported, together with some comments about problems arising when sampling morphologically complex (agglomerates) and hygroscopic urban particulate matter in different meteorological conditions. Then aerosol size distribution data are presented, obtained by simultaneously sampling airbone particulate matter both in an urban and extra-urban area, by means of the two cited impactors. Some proposals are finally made, in order to use a portable system, equipped with two optical monitors and a miniaturized personal-type impactor, to evaluate both fine and coarse mode of urban particulate matter, with the aim of better estimate the contribution of these two aerosol fractions both in personal exposures and in environmental monitoring data.

  20. The distribution of soiling by coarse particulate matter in the museum environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Y H; Brimblecombe, P

    2001-12-01

    Soiling measurements are needed to address strategies to control dust and determine its sources. There is no widely recognized method for dust monitoring in museums, but we used sticky samplers to collect deposited coarse particulate matter, and both manual microscopic observations and image analysis for determining soiling potential in the museum environment. We adopt fractional area covered by deposited particles as a surrogate for soiling and the covering rate (unit: s-1) as a measure of the rate of soiling. It was clear that visitor flow was a major contributor to soiling, such that soiling mechanisms in different museums could be compared after measurements were normalised on a per capita basis. The proximity of visitors to objects was another important factor with the soiling declining with distance from visitor pathways (a half-distance of about 0.5 m), which suggests soiling of objects on open display could be reduced by increasing the distance from visitors.