WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric particulate matter

  1. Carbon in Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon compounds account for a large fraction of airborne particulate matter ('carbonaceous aerosols'). Their presence raises a number of scientific questions dealing with climate issues and possible effects on human health. This review describes the current state of knowledge with respect to the ambient concentrations levels (elemental carbon, organic carbon and organic matter) and the various emission sources, and summarizes the role of atmospheric carbon in the various environmental issues. The report finishes by identifying the actual gaps in knowledge and gives (related) suggestions for future research

  2. Chemical Coupling Between Atmospheric Ozone and Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Z.; DABDUB, D; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A major fraction of ambient particulate matter arises from atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion. Attempts to reduce particulate matter levels require control of the same organic and nitrogen oxide (NO_x) emissions that are precursors to urban and regional ozone formation. Modeling of the gas-aerosol chemical interactions that govern levels of particulate components showed that control of gas-phase organic and NO_x precursors does not lead to proportionate reductions of the gas-phase–derived...

  3. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  4. Environmental atmosphere suspended particulate matter analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the environmental indicators of the atmosphere environment is suspended particulate matter (SPM). Recently, the concentration of particulate matter under 2.5 micro-meters (PM2.5) among SPM is regarded as important, and an environmental standard has been established for PM2.5 concentration. S.H.I. Examination and Inspection (SEI), Ltd. analyzes the components of PM2.5 by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a Van de Graaff accelerator. SEI's PIXE analysis system quantifies the components by an external standard method. As a method for validating the reliability, the certified values of standard matter SRM2783 were compared with SEI's analysis values, and it was confirmed that the uncertainty of the analysis values of PM2.5 with this analysis system was within 10%. (author)

  5. Spatial statistics of atmospheric particulate matter in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghui; Wang, Yangjun; Huang, Yongxiang; Zhou, Quan; Lu, Zhiming; Shi, Xiang; Liu, Yulu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the spatial dynamics of the atmospheric particulate matters (resp. PM10 and PM2.5) are studied using turbulence methodologies. It is found experimentally that the spatial correlation function ρ(r) shows a log-law on the mesoscale range, i.e., 50 ≤ r ≤ 500 km, with an experimental scaling exponent β = 0.45. The spatial structure function shows a power-law behavior on the mesoscale range 90 ≤ r ≤ 500 km. The experimental scaling exponent ζ(q) is convex, showing that the intermittent correction is relevant in characterizing the spatial dynamic of particulate matter. The measured singularity spectrum f(α) also shows its multifractal nature. Experimentally, the particulate matter is more intermittent than the passive scalar, which could be partially due to the mesoscale movements of the atmosphere, and also due to local sources, such as local industry activities.

  6. Free amino acids in atmospheric particulate matter of Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Zangrando, Roberta; Moret, Ivo; Barbante, Carlo; Cescon, Paolo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The concentrations of free amino acids were determined in atmospheric particulate matter from the city of Venice (Italy) in order to better understand their origin. The analysis of aerosol samples was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometric detector (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The internal standard method was used and the analytical procedure was validated by evaluating the trueness, the precision, the recovery, the detection and the quantification limits. The particulate matter was collected using quartz fiber filters and extracted in methanol; after filtration the extract was directly analyzed. Forty samples were collected from April to October 2007 and the average concentrations of free amino acids in the aerosol were: alanine 35.6 pmol m -3, aspartic acid 31.1 pmol m -3, glycine 30.1 pmol m -3, glutamic acid 32.5 pmol m -3, isoleucine 2.4 pmol m -3, leucine 2.7 pmol m -3, methionine, cystine and 3-hydroxy-proline below the limit of detection, phenylalanine 2.8 pmol m -3, proline 43.3 pmol m -3, serine 8.6 pmol m -3, threonine 2.8 pmol m -3, tyrosine 1.7 pmolm -3, valine 3.8 pmol m -3, asparagine 70.2 pmol m -3, glutamine 38.0 pmol m -3, 4-hydroxy-proline 2.5 pmol m -3, methionine sulfoxide 1.1 pmol m -3, and methionine sulfone 0.1 pmol m -3. The total average concentration of these free amino acids in aerosol samples of Venice Lagoon was 334 pmol m -3. The temporal evolution and multivariate analysis indicated the photochemical origin of 4-hydroxy-proline and methionine sulfoxide and for other compounds an origin further away from the site of sampling, presumably reflecting transport from terrestrial sources.

  7. Source apportionment of atmospheric fine particulate matter collected at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The trends in secondary organic aerosol at a remote location are studied using atmospheric fine particulate matter samples collected at Seney National Wildlife...

  8. Sources of atmospheric carbonaceous particulate matter in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabada, J.C.; Pandis, S.N.; Robinson, A.L. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) tracer method is applied to the Pittsburgh, PA, area to estimate the contribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) to the monthly average concentration of organic particulate matter (PM) during 1995. An emissions inventory is constructed for the primary emissions of OC and EC in the area of interest. The ratio of primary emissions of OC to those of EC ranges between 2.4 in the winter months and 1.0 in summer months. A mass balance model and ambient measurements were used to assess the accuracy of the emissions inventory. It is estimated to be accurate to within 50%. The results from this analysis show a strong monthly dependence of the SOA contribution to the total organic PM concentration, varying from near zero during winter months to as much as 50% of the total OC concentration in the summer. Local wood and fugitive sources combustion are major sources of primary OC in western Pennsylvania on an annual basis (33 and 22% respectively), and wood burning is the dominant source during winter months. The coke producing industry and diesel combustion are the dominant sources of the primary EC emissions (21 and 30% respectively). The EC emissions show a weaker monthly dependence compared with that shown by OC sources. 57 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) B Appendix B to Part 50... Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High-Volume Method) 1.0 Applicability. 1.1...

  10. Method for determination of stable carbon isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moukhtar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A technique for the measurement of the stable isotope ratio of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter is presented. Atmospheric samples from rural and suburban areas were collected for evaluation of the procedure. Particulate matter was collected on quartz fibre filters using dichotomous high volume air samplers. Methylnitrophenols were extracted from the filters using acetonitrile. The sample was then purified using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. The final solution was then divided into two aliquots. To one aliquot, a derivatising agent, Bis(trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, was added for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis. The second half of the sample was stored in a refrigerator. For samples with concentrations exceeding 1 ng μl−1, the second half of the sample was used for measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios by Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry.

    The procedure described in this paper provides a method for the analysis of methylnitrophenols in atmospheric particulate matter at concentrations as low as 0.3 pg m−3 and for stable isotope ratios with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰ for concentrations exceeding 100 pg m−3.

    In all atmospheric particulate matter samples analysed, 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol was found to be the most abundant methylnitrophenol, with concentrations ranging from the low pg m−3 range in rural areas to more than 200 pg m−3 in some samples from a suburban location.

  11. Interactions between Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Stone Surfaces by Means of Laboratory and Field Studies

    OpenAIRE

    CASATI, M.

    2016-01-01

    The PhD work is focused on the interactions between atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and stone surfaces, particularly with reference to the decay phenomena that can happen as a consequence of PM deposition. Laboratory studies have been focused on the relationship between PM’s chemical composition and the decay hazards to which the stone surfaces subjected to PM deposition are exposed. A new evaluation method has been proposed. The method exploits experimental measurements of deliquescence ...

  12. [Analyzer Design of Atmospheric Particulate Matter's Concentration and Elemental Composition Based on β and X-Ray's Analysis Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang-quan; Liu, He-fan; Zeng, Guo-qiang; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ren, Mao-qiang; Li, Dan; Gu, Yi; Luo, Yao-yao; Zhao, Jian-kun

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring atmospheric particulate matter requires real-time analysis, such as particulate matter's concentrations, their element types and contents. An analyzer which is based on β and X rays analysis techniques is designed to meet those demands. Applying β-ray attenuation law and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis principle, the paper introduces the analyzer's overall design scheme, structure, FPGA circuit hardware and software for the analyzer. And the analyzer can measure atmospheric particulate matters' concentration, elements and their contents by on-line analysis. Pure elemental particle standard samples were prepared by deposition, and those standard samples were used to set the calibration for the analyzer in this paper. The analyzer can monitor atmospheric particulate matters concentration, 30 kinds of elements and content, such as TSP, PM10 and PM2.5. Comparing the measurement results from the analyzer to Chengdu Environmental Protection Agency's monitoring results for monitoring particulate matters, a high consistency is obtained by the application in eastern suburbs of Chengdu. Meanwhile, the analyzer are highly sensitive in monitoring particulate matters which contained heavy metal elements (such as As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb and so on). The analyzer has lots of characteristics through technical performance testing, such as continuous measurement, low detection limit, quick analysis, easy to use and so on. In conclusion, the analyzer can meet the demands for analyzing atmospheric particulate matter's concentration, elements and their contents in urban environmental monitoring. PMID:27400540

  13. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources. PMID:22797225

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter associated to particulate matter emitted from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the organic matter (OM) content associated with particulate matter (PM) emissions from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion have been studied. The two main aims of the work have been (a) to study OM and PAH emissions as a function of the coal fluidized bed combustion (FBC) variables in solid phase and (b) to check if there is any correlation between OM and PAH contained in the PM. The combustion was carried out in a laboratory scale plant at different combustion conditions: temperature, percentage of oxygen excess, and total air flow. PAH associated on the particulate matter have been analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy in the synchronous mode (FS) after PM extraction by sonication with dimethylformamide (DMF). It can be concluded that there is not a direct relationship between the OM content and the PAH supported in the PM emitted. In addition, neither PM or OM show dependence between themselves

  15. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Most ... issues final PM Implementation Rule Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  16. Particulate matter dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.

  17. Seasonal variations in the concentration and solubility of elements in atmospheric particulate matter: a case study in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canepari S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is characterized by a variety of chemical components, generally produced by different sources. Chemical fractionation of elements, namely the determination of their extractable and residual fractions, may reliably increase the selectivity of some elements as tracers of specific PM sources. Seasonal variations of atmospheric particulate matter concentration in PM10 and PM2.5, of elemental concentration in PM10 and PM2.5, of the extractable and residual fraction of elements in different size fractions in the range 0.18 – 18 μm are reported in this paper. The effect of the ageing of the air masses is discussed.

  18. Assessment of Elemental Content in Airborne Particulate Matter in Bratislava Atmosphere using INAA and AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresova, J.; Florek, M.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Holy, K.; Sykora, I.

    2007-11-01

    The wide range concentration of elements including heavy metals, halogens and rare earths in airborne particulate matter were investigated. Sixteen samples were collected on filters in Meteorological station, Comenius University Bratislava (Slovak Republic) in different seasons. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) the concentrations of 29 elements (Na, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, In, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Dy, Tm, W, Au, Hg, Th, U) were determined. The concentrations of other 6 elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The obtained results allow us to better understand the dynamic processes in the atmosphere and to quantify the air pollution and its trends.

  19. Development of methods for the speciation of metals in atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majestic, Brian J.

    2007-12-01

    This study focuses on advancing methods to measure and speciate trace-elements in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) to support human exposure and health studies. Methods were developed to measure Fe(II) and Fe(III) in PM samples using samplers collecting daily average particulate matter samples and personal exposure samples. Low-cost wet-chemical methods were also developed to measure the oxidation state of leachable iron, chromium and manganese present in low-volume PM samples. In addition, a study was conducted to determine if metals collected by different personal exposure samplers currently used in exposure and health studies were comparable. Results from the intercomparison study between co-located personal and fixed-site ambient samplers showed that different personal sampler designs display biases that are largest for metals predominating in the super-micron fraction. Using one consistent personal exposure sampler, a pilot study was conducted to examine trace-metal concentrations in personal exposure samples from individuals residing in an assisted-living home. These results were compared to ambient outdoor and fixed-indoor concentrations, and generally, outdoor > indoor > personal exposure concentrations. The pilot study demonstrated that adequate tools exist to measure trace-element exposures under real-world conditions. Using the methods developed in the study, labile Fe(II) and Fe(III) as well as total soluble manganese and soluble oxidized manganese from atmospheric PM were routinely detected in ambient and personal exposure samples. Samples extracted in a variety of environmentally and biologically relevant fluids showed that leachable iron and manganese strongly depends on the extractant. Atmospheric samples from a residential location in Toronto (which uses the fuel additive, MMT) showed that a significant fraction of oxidized labile manganese is present in the PM2.5 fraction, in contrast to US cities that do not use MMT. Both the wet-chemical and

  20. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere O Appendix O to Part 50 Protection of... Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere 1.0Applicability and Definition 1.1This...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere L Appendix L to Part 50 Protection of... Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere 1.0 Applicability. 1.1This method provides for...

  2. A bacterial bioreporter panel to assay the cytotoxicity of atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Nivi; Schauer, James J.; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Melamed, Sahar; Tirosh, Ofir; Belkin, Shimshon; Erel, Yigal

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that elevated concentrations of suspended atmospheric particulate matter (PM) are associated with adverse health effects. In order to minimize the adverse public health effects of atmospheric PM by exposure management, there is a need for a greater understanding of the toxic mechanisms and the components that are responsible for the toxic effects. The aim of this study was to utilize bioassay techniques to investigate these aspects. For this purpose a reporter panel of 9 genetically engineered bacterial (Escherichia coli) strains was composed. Each panel member was designed to report on a different stress condition with a measurable light signal produced by the luciferase enzyme. Toxic mechanisms and components were studied using six anthropogenic PM source samples, including two vehicle combustion particles, three coal fly ash (CFA) samples and an urban dust sample. The most prominent outcome of the panel exposure results were broad panel responses observed for two of the CFA samples, indicating oxidative stress, respiration inhibition and iron deficiency. These responses were relieved when the samples were treated with EDTA, a non-specific metal chelator, suggesting the involvement of metals in the observed effects. Bioavailability analysis of the samples suggests that chromium was related to the toxic responses induced by two of the CFA samples. Oxidative stress was also observed in several samples of ambient atmospheric aerosols and excess metal toxicity in an urban dust sample collected in a parking lot. The reporter panel approach, as demonstrated in this study, has the potential of providing novel insights as to the mechanisms of atmospheric PM toxicity. Furthermore, combining the panel's results with bioavailability data can enlighten about the role of different PM components in the observed toxicity.

  3. Toxicity assessment of atmospheric particulate matter in the Mediterranean and Black Seas open waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Sofia R; Dachs, Jordi; van Drooge, Barend L; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition of particulate matter (PM) is recognized as a relevant input vector for toxic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), into the marine environment. In this work we aimed to analyse the biological activity and potential adverse effects of PM constituents to aquatic organisms. Organic extracts of atmospheric PM samples from different sub-basins of the Mediterranean and Black Seas were screened using different toxicological tests. A yeast-based assay (AhR-RYA) revealed that dioxin-like activity correlated with the concentration of total PAHs in the PM samples, as well as with their predicted toxic equivalent values (TEQs). Although the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (the ZET assay) showed no major phenotypical adverse effects, up-regulation of mRNA expression of cyp1a, fos and development-related genes (previously described as related to PM toxicity) was observed in exposed embryos when compared to controls. Results showed that mRNA patterns of the studied genes followed a similar geographic distribution to both PAH content and dioxin-like activity of the corresponding extracts. The analysis also showed a distinct geographical pattern of activation of pancreatic markers previously related to airborne pollution, probably indicating a different subset of uncharacterized particle-bound toxicants. We propose the combination of the bioassays tested in the present study to be applied to future research with autochthonous species to assess exposure and potential toxic effects of ambient PM. The present study emphasizes the need for more in-depth studies into the toxic burden of atmospheric PM on aquatic ecosystems, in order to improve future regulatory guidelines. PMID:26745302

  4. A study of the association between atmospheric particulate matter and blood pressure in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Qian, Jin; Zhao, Haiping; Wang, Jinda; Zhu, Hang; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Juan; Guo, Jin; Gehendra, Mahara; Qiu, Hongyan; Sun, Zhijun; He, Dian

    2016-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between the level of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and the increase in blood pressure (BP) for different exposure terms (≤ 7 vs > 7 days) and age groups (levels and higher BP. The β values were 0.270mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.068-0.482) for SBP and 0.215mmHg (95% CI 0.058-0.372) for DBP. These β values mean that, for every 10 mg/m(3) increase in PM10, SBP increased by 0.270mmHg and DBP by 0.215 mmHg. Subgroup analyses were conducted for different exposure terms and age groups. A positive association was seen between PM2.5 and SBP. The β value of SBP was 0.495mmHg (95% CI 0.03-0.96) with every 10 mg/m(3) increase in PM2.5. There were no significant associations in both age groups and non-older groups. There was no significant association between PM2.5 and DBP, either in the overall effect or in the subgroup effects. In conclusion, significant associations were found between higher BP and higher PM10 levels, but the association between BP and levels of PM2.5 levels was unclear. PMID:26634767

  5. Seasonal variations and source estimation of saccharides in atmospheric particulate matter in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Linlin; Engling, Guenter; Du, Zhenyu; Cheng, Yuan; Duan, Fengkui; Liu, Xuyan; He, Kebin

    2016-05-01

    Saccharides are important constituents of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In order to better understand the sources and seasonal variations of saccharides in aerosols in Beijing, China, saccharide composition was measured in ambient PM samples collected at an urban site in Beijing. The highest concentrations of total saccharides in Beijing were observed in autumn, while an episode with abnormal high total saccharide levels was observed from 15 to 23 June, 2011, due to extensive agricultural residue burning in northern China during the wheat harvest season. Compared to the other two categories of saccharides, sugars and sugar alcohols, anhydrosugars were the predominant saccharide group, indicating that biomass burning contributions to Beijing urban aerosol were significant. Ambient sugar and sugar alcohol levels in summer and autumn were higher than those in spring and winter, while they were more abundant in PM2.5 during winter time. Levoglucosan was the most abundant saccharide compound in both PM2.5 and PM10, the annual contributions of which to total measured saccharides in PM2.5 and PM10 were 61.5% and 54.1%, respectively. To further investigate the sources of the saccharides in ambient aerosols in Beijing, the PM10 datasets were subjected to positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Based on the objective function to be minimized and the interpretable factors identified by PMF, six factors appeared to be optimal as to the probable origin of saccharides in the atmosphere in Beijing, including biomass burning, soil or dust, isoprene SOA and the direct release of airborne fungal spores and pollen. PMID:26921589

  6. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK

    OpenAIRE

    Tallis, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence creat...

  7. Characterisation of atmospheric particulate matter by diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregušová, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    University of Antwerp, 2012. s. 222. [International Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry /37./. 22.05.2012-25.05.2012, Antwerp] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : particulate matter * DGT technique * platinum group metals Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Linked to Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cardiorespiratory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Josephine T; Weber, Rodney J; Abrams, Joseph; Verma, Vishal; Fang, Ting; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Chang, Howard H; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-11-17

    Exposure to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We assess the hypothesis that PM2.5 induces oxidative stress in the body via catalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A dithiothreitol (DTT) assay was used to measure the ROS-generation potential of water-soluble PM2.5. Source apportionment on ambient (Atlanta, GA) PM2.5 was performed using the chemical mass balance method with ensemble-averaged source impact profiles. Linear regression analysis was used to relate PM2.5 emission sources to ROS-generation potential and to estimate historical levels of DTT activity for use in an epidemiologic analysis for the period of 1998-2009. Light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGV) exhibited the highest intrinsic DTT activity, followed by biomass burning (BURN) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) (0.11 ± 0.02, 0.069 ± 0.02, and 0.052 ± 0.01 nmol min(-1) μg(-1)source, respectively). BURN contributed the largest fraction to total DTT activity over the study period, followed by LDGV and HDDV (45, 20, and 14%, respectively). DTT activity was more strongly associated with emergency department visits for asthma/wheezing and congestive heart failure than PM2.5. This work provides further epidemiologic evidence of a biologically plausible mechanism, that of oxidative stress, for associations of adverse health outcomes with PM2.5 mass and supports continued assessment of the utility of the DTT activity assay as a measure of ROS-generating potential of particles. PMID:26457347

  9. Molecular composition of sugars in atmospheric particulate matter from interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kim, Yongwon

    2015-04-01

    Sugars can account for 0.5-8% of carbon in atmospheric particulate matter, affecting the earth climate, air quality and public health. Total of 33 total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected from Fairbanks, Alaska in June 2008 to June 2009 using a low volume air sampler. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), primary saccharides (xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and trehalose) and sugar alcohols (erythritol, arabitol, mannitol and inositol). The average contribution of sugars to the organic carbon (OC) was also determined to be 0.92%. Sugar compounds were measured using solvent extraction/TMS-derivatization technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The concentrations of total quantified sugar compounds ranged from 2.3 to 453 ng m-3 (average 145 ng m-3). The highest concentration was recorded for levoglucosan in summer, with a maximum concentration of 790 ng m-3 (average 108 ng m-3). Levoglucosan, which is specifically formed by a pyrolysis of cellulose, has been used as an excellent tracer of biomass burning. The highest level of levoglucosan indicates a significant contribution of biomass burning in ambient aerosols. Galactosan (average 20 ng m-3) and mannosan (average 27 ng m-3), which are also formed through the pyrolysis of cellulose/hemicelluloses, were identified in all samples. The average concentrations of arabitol, mannitol, glucose and sucrose were also found 14.7, 14.6, 14.1 and 16.8 ng m-3, respectively. They have been proposed as tracers for resuspension of surface soil and unpaved road dust, which contain biological materials including fungi and bacteria. These results suggest that there is some impact of bioaerosols on climate over Interior Alaska. We will also measure water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic ions for all samples.

  10. A Preliminary Assessment of Chemical Constituents of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and their Sources in Faisalabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric total suspended particulate matter (TSP) mass and chemical constituents were characterized, collected on glass fiber filters using high volume air sampler in Faisalabad, Pakistan from May 2012 to April 2013. Two receptor models Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and UNMIX were used for the source identification in the study area. High volume TSP samples (n=288) were subjected to gravimetric and quantitative chemical analyses for determining trace elements (Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe) using atomic absorption spectroscopy and water-soluble cations (Ca/sup 2+/, Mg/sup 2+/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, NH/sub 4/ /sup +/) and anions (Cl/sup -/, SO/sub 4/ /sup 2-/ and NO/sub 3 /sup -/) by ion chromatography. The average TSP concentration was 575 meu g m/sup -3/ that is 1.6 and 8 times higher than Pak NEQS (360 meu g m/sup -3/) and US EPA (75 meu g m/sup -3/) annual limits, respectively. The crustal elements Ca, Fe, Mg and Na were the largest contributors to TSP mass while elements of anthropogenic origin Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu and Zn had relatively lower concentrations. The enrichment factors (EFs) for elements indicated that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni (with EFs>100) were highly enriched and are of anthropogenic origin. Both PCA and UNMIX models produced comparable factor compositions and identified four possible sources: (1) crude oil combustion, (2) re-suspended crustal/road dust, (3) combination of coal and biomass burning and (4) secondary particles. Results of EF, cluster analysis and correlation analysis also duly supported the model results of source identification. (author)

  11. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Particulate Matter as PM10 in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Particulate Matter as PM10 in the Atmosphere J Appendix J to Part 50 Protection of Environment... as PM10 in the Atmosphere 1.0 Applicability. 1.1 This method provides for the measurement of the mass... particle distribution in the atmosphere during the sampling period. The use of a flow control...

  12. Atmospheric lead pollution in fine particulate matter in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaolin; ZHANG Yuanxun; TAN Mingguang; LIU Jiangfeng; BAO Liangman; ZHANG Guilin; LI Yan; IIDA Atsuo

    2009-01-01

    The Pb-monitoring program was extended for 6 years from 2002 to 2007 at 17 representative urban sites (6 traffic, 5 industrial, and 6 residential sites), and 3 suburban sites to assess the lead pollution in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) after phasing out leaded gasoline in Shanghai. Compared with Pb levels reported in other places, the Pb pollution in Shanghai still serious after phasing out leaded gasoline, which remains at high concentration range (213--176 ng/m3) in PM2.5 in winter. Significant spatial variation of Pb concentrations and strong seasonal variation of higher Pb concentration in winter than that in summer were detected. The size distribution of Pb in particulate matter has a unimodal mode that peaks at approximately 0.154--1.59 mm particle diameter, indicating that Pb is mainly concentrated in fine fraction. Lead in the fine fraction is enriched by a factor of 103--104 relative to Pb abundance in crust. Eight categories of Pb pollution sources were identified in the PM2.5 in the winter of 2007 in Shanghai. The important emission sources among them are vehicle exhaust derived from combustion of unleaded gasoline, metallurgic industry emission, and coal combustion emission.

  13. Characterization of atmospheric particulate matter by diffusive gradient in thin film (DGT) technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregušová, Michaela; Dočekal, Bohumil

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.; Boček, P.), s. 331-332 ISBN 978-80-904959-1-3. [CECE 2012. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /9./. Brno (CZ), 01.11.2012-02.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/2002; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : DGT * particulate matter * metals Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0215430

  14. Thermodynamics of the formation of atmospheric organic particulate matter by accretion reactions—2. Dialdehydes, methylglyoxal, and diketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.

    Predicting the formation of organic particulate matter (OPM) in the atmosphere by absorptive gas/particle partitioning requires a knowledge of the identities, atmospheric levels, and physical properties of all condensable species. Data from field and chamber experiments have shown that a portion of atmospheric OPM samples are comprised of products generated during oxidation of volatile organic compounds. It has been suggested that some of these initially formed oxidation products also contribute to the formation of atmospheric OPM via molecular-weight (MW) building "accretion reactions". The role of such reactions as well as a general theoretical approach for evaluating their thermodynamic relevance in regard to atmospheric OPM formation, have been discussed in prior work. This work utilizes that approach in considerations of accretion reactions of glyoxal, two other dialdehydes, methylglyoxal, and two diketones. The methods used to predict free energy of formation ( ΔG°) values (and hence equilibrium constant ( K) values) indicate that: (1) for 1,4-butanedial, 2,3-butanedione, and 2,5-hexanedione, the accretion reactions considered are not favorable; (2) for C 6 and higher dialdehydes, reaction by aldol condensation may contribute to atmospheric OPM formation under certain circumstances, if kinetically favorable; and (3) for glyoxal, diol and subsequent oligomer formation, and for methylglyoxal, aldol condensation, are thermodynamically favorable, and may contribute significantly to OPM in the atmosphere, if kinetically favorable.

  15. Atmospheric particulate matter and hospital admission due to lower respiratory tract infection: a case-cross study in Shijiazhuang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-na BAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the association between atmospheric particulate matter (PM10/PM2.5 levels and hospital admissions due to lower respiratory tract infection in Shijiazhuang. Methods  Data of air pollution, meteorologic data, and the data of patients admitted to hospital due to lower respiratory tract infection were retrospectively analyzed. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to analyze correlations between atmospheric particulate matter and meteorologic factors. Data of hospital admission due to lower respiratory tract infection and of atmospheric air pollution levels in Shijiazhuang were obtained, a bidirectional case-crossover design was used to investigate the association between hospital admissions due to lower respiratory tract infection and levels of atmospheric particles. Stratified analyses of exposure based on age, gender, complications and season were performed to evaluate the effect. Results  Pearson's correlation analysis showed positive correlations among PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and CO. The concentration of all these five pollutants were negatively correlated with O3 and daily mean temperature, while a positive correlation was found between concentrations of the 5 pollutants and daily average temperature and O3. In single-pollutant model, every 10μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 at lag5 brought the corresponding OR values (95%CI up to 1.010(1.005-1.015 and 1.006(1.003-1.009 respectively. In the multi-pollutant models, the observed effects of PM2.5 remained significant. Stratified analysis based on gender, age, season and comorbidities showed that the effect of PM2.5 exposure on lower respiratory tract infection admissions was stronger in males, persons younger than 60 years of age and persons without comorbidities, and even more stronger in cold season. The effect of PM10 exposure on lower respiratory tract infection admissions was stronger in females, persons older than 60 years of age and persons with

  16. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess...

  17. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm...

  18. Chemical speciation of vanadium in particulate matter emitted from diesel vehicles and urban atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Martin M; Toner, Brandy M; Overdier, Joel T; Schauer, James J; Fakra, Sirine C; Hu, Shaohua; Herner, Jorn D; Ayala, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development and application of an integrated set of analytical tools that enable accurate measurement of total, extractable, and, importantly, the oxidation state of vanadium in sub-milligram masses of environmental aerosols and solids. Through rigorous control of blanks, application of magnetic-sector-ICPMS, and miniaturization of the extraction/separation methods we have substantially improved upon published quantification limits. The study focused on the application of these methods to particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel vehicles, both in baseline configuration without after-treatment and also equipped with advanced PM and NO(x) emission controls. Particle size-resolved vanadium speciation data were obtained from dynamometer samples containing total vanadium pools of only 0.2-2 ng and provide some of the first measurements of the oxidation state of vanadium in diesel vehicle PM emissions. The emission rates and the measured fraction of V(V) in PM from diesel engines running without exhaust after-treatment were both low (2-3 ng/mile and 13-16%, respectively). The V(IV) species was measured as the dominant vanadium species in diesel PM emissions. A significantly greater fraction of V(V) (76%) was measured in PM from the engine fitted with a prototype vanadium-based selective catalytic reductors (V-SCR) retrofit. The emission rate of V(V) determined for the V-SCR equipped vehicle (103 ng/mile) was 40-fold greater than that from the baseline vehicle. A clear contrast between the PM size-distributions of V(V) and V(IV) emissions was apparent, with the V(V) distribution characterized by a major single mode in the ultrafine (vanadium-containing fine-particle PM from the V-SCR identified V(2)O(5) as the dominant vanadium species. PMID:22050708

  19. Determination of lead isotopic composition of airborne particulate matter by ICPMS: implications for lead atmospheric emissions in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quadrupole ICPMS was used for determination of trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected at selected sites within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance network, from February 2005 to February 2007. High enrichment factors indicated that lead is mostly of anthropogenic origin and consequently, the lead isotopic composition is directly related to that of pollution sources. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios were measured and the results were compared to the isotopic signatures of lead from different sources. Various approaches were used to assess the impact of relevant sources and the meteorological conditions in the occurrence and distribution of lead in Canadian atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  20. Determination of Vanadium, Tin and Mercury in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cement Dust Samples by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Kamal T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution study applies direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) to samples of total suspended particulate matter collected in two industrial areas and one residential area, and cement dust collected near major cement factories. These samples were analyzed for vanadium, tin, and mercury. The results indicate the…

  1. Large-scale atmospheric circulation and local particulate matter concentrations in Bavaria - from current observations to future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Weitnauer, Claudia; Brosy, Caroline; Hald, Cornelius; Lochbihler, Kai; Siegmund, Stefan; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) may have distinct adverse effects on human health. Spatial and temporal variations in PM10 concentrations reflect local emission rates, but are as well influenced by the local and synoptic-scale atmospheric conditions. Against this background, it can be furthermore argued that potential future climate change and associated variations in large-scale atmospheric circulation and local meteorological parameters will probably provoke corresponding changes in future PM10 concentration levels. The DFG-funded research project „Particulate matter and climate change in Bavaria" aimed at establishing quantitative relationships between daily and monthly PM10 indices at different Bavarian urban stations and the corresponding large-scale atmospheric circulation as well as local meteorological conditions. To this end, several statistical downscaling approaches have been developed for the period 1980 to 2011. PM10 data from 19 stations from the air quality monitoring network (LÜB) of the Bavarian Environmental Agency (LfU) have been utilized as predictands. Large-scale atmospheric gridded data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data base and local meteorological observational data provided by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) served as predictors. The downscaling approaches encompass the synoptic downscaling of daily PM10 concentrations and several multivariate statistical models for the estimation of daily and monthly PM10, i.e.monthly mean and number of days exceeding a certain PM10 concentration threshold. Both techniques utilize objective circulation type classifications, which have been optimized with respect to their synoptic skill for the target variable PM10. All downscaling approaches have been evaluated via cross validation using varying subintervals of the 1980-2011 period as calibration and validation periods respectively. The most suitable - in terms of model skill determined from cross

  2. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric particulate matter of Northern China: distribution, sources, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuangshuang; Dong, Faqin; Wang, Bin; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Liufei; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Mei; He, Ping

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work are to track the contamination levels, distribution characteristics, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in atmospheric particulate matter (APM) of Northern China and to provide more comprehensive and fundamental data for risk assessment of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in environments. Samples were extracted and purified by the microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction system, respectively. PCBs and OCPs were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged from 0.73 to 112.65 ng/g and 0.14 to 34.73 ng/g, respectively. PCBs in atmospheric particulates collected from Shijiazhuang City had the highest concentration, whereas OCP congeners were at the relatively low levels. However, the highest concentration of OCPs occurred in Yongning City. The principal component analysis indicated that the predominant compositions of PCBs in most of samples were tetrachlorobiphenyl (Tetra-CB), pentachlorobiphenyl (Penta-CB), hexachlorobiphenyl (Hexa-CB), and heptachlorbiphenyl (Hepta-CB), while hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, chlordanes, and endosulfans were the dominant components of OCPs, which was attributed to their application characteristics. OCs in those particles were further used to assess a potential cancer risk to humans via ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Cancer risk was evaluated in airborne particles caused by PCBs and OCPs. TEQPCBs values suggested that the representative areas were subject to different pollution degrees. However, the pollution of OCPs in certain areas should be a concern due to 41.6% of the high risk, which could pose a potential risk to organisms. PMID:26139408

  4. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  5. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal spores in atmosph...

  6. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal...

  7. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the eastern mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lang-Yona; Dannemiller, K.; Yamamoto, N; N. Burshtein; Peccia, J; O. Yarden; Rudich, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal spores in atmosph...

  8. Lead isotopic compositions of atmospheric suspended particulate matter in Nagoya City as measured by HR-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead isotope ratios in atmospheric suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected in Nagoya City were measured by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. Before analyzing SPM samples, the present method was evaluated by analyzing standard reference material (SRM 981) for common lead isotopic standard from NIST. The analytical results for 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb for SRM 981 were 0.9160±0.0006 and 2.136±0.003, respectively, which were almost coincident with the certified values of 0.91464±0.00033 and 2.1681±0.0008, respectively. The lead isotope ratios in SPM samples collected daily in Nagoya University were analyzed in order to elucidate their origins, and the results were compared with various kinds of ores. It was found that most SPM samples showed some mixed compositions of lead isotope ratios of lead ores from USA and Australia, which suggested utilization of large amount of lead ores imported from these two countries. On the other hand, some samples showed mixed compositions of lead ores from Asian continent, which might be resulted from the long-range transportation of atmospheric SPM from Asian continent to Japan. (author)

  9. Magnetic particles in atmospheric particulate matter collected at sites with different level of air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Zbořil, R.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Kotlík, B.; Novák, J.; Kapička, Aleš; Grison, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2013), s. 755-770. ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/0554 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : magnetite * atmospheric dust * pollution * rock magnetism Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2013

  10. Pollution of atmospheric air with toxic and radioactive particulate matter investigated by means of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of spectrometric methods of nuclear techniques to the investigations of atmospheric air pollution by toxic and radioactive elements and results of these investigations conducted in the highly industrialized and urbanized regions of Poland have been presented. The method of precipitation of the samples, the measurements and analysis of radiation spectra of alpha and gamma radiation emitted by isotopes present in the samples have been described. The concentrations of toxic metal dust in the air have been evaluated by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Appropriate methods of measurement, calibration of instrument and the discussion of results have been presented. The work presents the results of investigations performed in Siersza within the years 1973-1974 and in Warsaw in the period of 1975-1977, which have permitted to estimate the mean monthly values of concentration in the atmospheric air of the following radioisotopes: 7Be, 54Mn, 95Zr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 125Sb, 131I, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce, 226Ra, Th-nat, U-nat and the following stable elements: Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Sb, W, Pb. The analysis of changes in concentration of each particular artificial radioisotope in the air for the region of Poland in connection with Chinese nuclear explosions have been given. On the basis of the performed environmental investigations the method of analysis of relations between the concentrations of particular elements present in the dust has been discussed. The applications of this method have been presented. The hazard to the population and the environment caused by the radioactive and toxic dust present in the atmospheric air has been estimated. (author)

  11. A simplified method for levoglucosan quantification in wintertime atmospheric particulate matter by high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection

    OpenAIRE

    Piazzalunga, A.; P. Fermo; Bernardoni, V.; VECCHI, R; Valli, G.; M. Gregorio

    2010-01-01

    Levoglucosan, a tracer for the assessment of the biomass burning contribution to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) concentrations, was determined by means of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). In this work we propose a modification in the instrumental set-up aiming at an improvement in the detector response by adding NaOH after chromatographic separation to increase the pH. The comparison betwe...

  12. Identification, abundance and origin of atmospheric organic particulate matter in a Portuguese rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C. A.; Alves, C. A.; Duarte, A. C.

    Respirable suspended particles high-volume samples were collected from a coastal-rural site in the centre of Portugal in August 1997 and their solvent-extractable organic compounds were subjected to characterisation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Particles were also analysed by a thermal/optical technique in order to determine their black and organic carbon content. The total lipid extract yields ranged from 20 to 63 μg m -3, containing mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The higher input of vascular plant wax components was demonstrated by the distribution patterns of the n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols homologous series, with C max at C 29, C 22/C 24 and C 30, respectively. The CPI values for these series were in the range 1.8-9.7, being indicative of recent biogenic input from microbial lipid residues and flora epicuticular components. Specific natural constituents (e.g. phytosterols, terpenes, etc.) were identified as molecular markers. Some oxidation products from volatile organic precursors were also present in the aerosols. In addition, all samples had a component of petroleum hydrocarbons representing urban and vehicular emissions probably transported from the nearest cities and from the motorway in the vicinity. This data set could be used to make a mass balance with organic carbon, organic extracts and elutable matter, permitting also the comparison with lipid signatures observed for other regions.

  13. Characterisation of the organic composition of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter at traffic exposed and background sites in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirante, F.; Perez, R.; Alves, C.; Revuelta, M.; Pio, C.; Artiñano, B.; Nunes, T.

    2010-05-01

    The growing awareness of the impact of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on climate, and the incompletely recognised but serious effects of anthropogenic aerosols on air quality and human health, have led to diverse studies involving almost exclusively the coarse or the fine PM fractions. However, these environmental effects, the PM formation processes and the source assignment depend greatly on the particle size distribution. The innovative character of this study consists in obtaining time series with a size-segregated detailed chemical composition of PM for differently polluted sites. In this perspective, a summer sampling campaign was carried out from 1 of June to 1 of July 2009. One of the sampling sites was located at a representative urban monitoring station (Escuelas Aguirre) belonging to the municipal network, located at a heavy traffic street intersection in downtown Madrid. Other sampling point was positioned within the CIEMAT area, located in the NW corner of the city, which can be considered an urban background or suburban site. Particulate matter was sampled with high volume cascade impactors at 4 size stages: 10-2.5, 2.5-0.95, 0.95-0.45 and sampling was carried out on quartz fibre filters. Based on meteorological conditions and PM mass concentrations, each one of the 7 groups of filters collected during the first week were combined with the corresponding filters of the third week. The same procedure was undertaken with samples of the second and fourth weeks. Filters of 0.95-0.45 and samples were subjected to organic analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), after solvent extraction of filters and an appropriate derivatisation technique. Besides the homologous compound series of organic classes (e.g. n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids), special attention was given to the determination of specific molecular markers for different sources (e.g. vehicular). Carbon preference indices (CPI) close to the unity and the presence of

  14. Thermodynamics of the formation of atmospheric organic particulate matter by accretion reactions—Part 1: aldehydes and ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, Kelley C.; Pankow, James F.

    The term "accretion reactions" is introduced here to refer to the large collection of reactions by which atmospheric organic molecules can add mass, especially as by combination with other organic molecules. A general thermodynamic approach is developed for evaluating the tendency of atmospheric constituents (e.g., C 10 aldehydes) to undergo accretion reactions (e.g., dimerization) and thereby form less volatile molecules (e.g., aldol condensation products) that may subsequently condense and so contribute to the levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) observed in the atmosphere. As an example, gaseous compounds A and B may contribute to OPM formation by the net overall reaction A g+B g=C liq. This reaction may occur according to any of three kinetic schemes. Scheme I: (1) A g+B g=C g (accretion in the gas phase): then (2) C g=C liq (condensation of the accretion product); Scheme II: (1) B g=B liq (condensation of B); then (2) A g+B liq=C liq (heterogeneous accretion reaction of gaseous A with condensed B); or Scheme III: (1) A g+B g=A liq+B liq (condensation of A and B); then (2) A liq+B liq=C liq (accretion of A with B within the PM phase). For all three schemes, the net overall reaction remains A g+B g=C liq. The overall thermodynamic tendency of the net reaction remains the same regardless of the actual predominating kinetic mechanism. If an accretion reaction between two atmospheric components is to produce significant new OPM, appreciable amounts of the product C must form, and the vapor pressure of C must be relatively low so that a significant proportion of C can condense into the multicomponent liquid OPM phase. This study considers the thermodynamics of accretion reactions of atmospheric aldehydes including: (a) hydration, polymerization (i.e., oligomer formation), hemiacetal/acetal formation; and (b) aldol condensation. It was concluded regarding OPM formation that: (1) the reactions in the first group are not thermodynamically favored, either in the

  15. Development of methods to examine the effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zussman, Lisa Ann

    In vitro methods to study the effect of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on leukocyte function using human peripheral blood were developed. These methods were demonstrated using the blood of 1-5 individuals and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urban PM #1648, diesel PM #1650, silica PM, and a locally collected PM sample (New Jersey PM10). For the blood samples analyzed in this study NIST urban PM and New Jersey PM10 treatment mediated the release of granule contents from peripheral blood leukocytes and induced structural changes associated with degranulation. Flow cytometry revealed PM-induced changes in phagocytosis and cell structure associated with degranulation. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed NIST urban PM-induced cell structure changes were associated with PM internalization. Colorametric and electrophoretic methods showed no PM-induced release of primary granules and a slight PM-induced release of secondary granules associated with only NIST urban PM. Enzyme Immunosorbent Assays detected increased histamine release from basophils treated with NIST urban PM, a locally collected PM, and the soluble and insoluble components of these particles. NIST urban PM was found to be a potent inducer of histamine release in 4 out of 6 individuals tested. Fractionation studies revealed that soluble (aqueous) and insoluble fractions of NIST urban PM contain histamine-releasing activity. This was also demonstrated for the New Jersey PM10 sample for which the soluble fraction exhibited the most activity. Complementary studies with inhibitors of IgE-mediated histamine release conducted on one test subject suggest that PM-induced histamine release was partially mediated by IgE. A new hypothesis has been formed, suggesting that particle toxicity is related to PM-induced histamine release. Due to the bioactive nature of histamine and its association with many cardiopulmonary responses, the PM- mediated release of histamine should be investigated

  16. Analysis of Phytosterols and N-Alkanols in Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter Collected in Vancouver During the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, A.; Li, S.

    2002-12-01

    As part of Pacific 2001, HiVol samples were collected from 5 sites in the Vancouver area. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ACE), concentrated with nitrogen blow down, and separated into fractions by silica gel chromatography. For this portion of the study, an aliquot of one of the polar fraction was derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The results for n-alkanols and phytosterols will be reported and discussed. Previous studies have shown that the biogenic components of particulate matter are major constituents of the total organic material in atmospheric samples. Phytosterols are present in wood smoke, epicuticular waxes of many plants and microbial sources. In addition, cholesterol has been proposed as a potential tracer for emissions from cooking. The most abundant phytosterols are cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. It has been hypothesized that the phytosterol signature may be useful in identifying particulate matter from different source areas. The phytosterol signature for these samples will be reported and compared. The n-alkanol CPI and Cmax will also be reported. N-alkanols in atmospheric samples generally show a strong even to odd predominance indicating that their main source in particulate matter is biogenic. The n-alkanol signature for each sampling site will be compared.

  17. On the Fractal Mechanism of Interrelation Between the Genesis, Size and Composition of Atmospheric Particulate Matters in Different Regions of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, Vitaliy D; Jacimovic, Radojko R; Pavlovich, Vladimir N; Bondarchuk, Yuriy A; Vaschenko, Vladimir N; Zelentsova, Tatiana N; Beglaryan, Margarita E; Linnik, Elena P; Smolyar, Vladimir P; Kosenko, Sergey I; Gudyma, Alla A

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data from the National Air Surveillance Network of Japan from 1974 to 1996 and from independent measurements performed simultaneously in the regions of Ljubljana (Slovenia), Odessa (Ukraine) and the Ukrainian "Academician Vernadsky" Antarctic station (64{\\deg}15'W; 65{\\deg}15'S), where the air elemental composition was determined by the standard method of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collection on nucleopore filters and subsequent neutron activation analysis, were analyzed. Comparative analysis of different pairs of atmospheric PM element concentration data sets, measured in different regions of the Earth, revealed a stable linear (on a logarithmic scale) correlation, showing a power law increase of every atmospheric PM element mass and simultaneously the cause of this increase - fractal nature of atmospheric PM genesis. Within the framework of multifractal geometry we show that the mass (volume) distribution of atmospheric PM elemental components is a log normal distribution, which on a l...

  18. Molecular view modeling of atmospheric organic particulate matter: Incorporating molecular structure and co-condensation of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.; Marks, Marguerite C.; Barsanti, Kelley C.; Mahmud, Abdullah; Asher, William E.; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Most urban and regional models used to predict levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) are based on fundamental equations for gas/particle partitioning, but make the highly simplifying, anonymized-view (AV) assumptions that OPM levels are not affected by either: a) the molecular characteristics of the condensing organic compounds (other than simple volatility); or b) co-condensation of water as driven by non-zero relative humidity (RH) values. The simplifying assumptions have allowed parameterized chamber results for formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) (e.g., "two-product" (2p) coefficients) to be incorporated in chemical transport models. However, a return towards a less simplistic (and more computationally demanding) molecular view (MV) is needed that acknowledges that atmospheric OPM is a mixture of organic compounds with differing polarities, water, and in some cases dissolved salts. The higher computational cost of MV modeling results from a need for iterative calculations of the composition-dependent gas/particle partition coefficient values. MV modeling of OPM that considered water uptake (but not dissolved salts) was carried out for the southeast United States for the period August 29 through September 7, 2006. Three model variants were used at three universities: CMAQ-RH-2p (at PSU), UCD/CIT-RH-2p (at UCD), and CMAQ-RH-MCM (at TAMU). With the first two, MV structural characteristics (carbon number and numbers of functional groups) were assigned to each of the 2p products used in CMAQv.4.7.1 such that resulting predicted Kp,i values matched those in CMAQv.4.7.1. When water uptake was allowed, most runs assumed that uptake occurred only into the SOA portion, and imposed immiscibility of SOA with primary organic aerosol (POA). (POA is often viewed as rather non-polar, while SOA is commonly viewed as moderately-to-rather polar. Some runs with UCD/CIT-RH-2p were used to investigate the effects of POA/SOA miscibility.) CMAQ-RH-MCM used MCM to

  19. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  20. Characterisation of carbonaceous particulate matter in Edinburgh

    OpenAIRE

    Hammonds, Mark David

    2012-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has important harmful effects on human health, as well as a number of other important atmospheric effects. Although progress has been made in understanding the sources and effects of PM, there remains considerable uncertainty on a number of issues, including the nature of a lot of the carbonaceous material, which comprises 30{50% on average of PM mass. This project aims to compare different methods of PM measurement, and contribute understanding...

  1. Determination of water-soluble inorganic species in airborne atmospheric particulate matter in an Urban Area in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major water soluble cations and anions in inhalable (INP) and noninhalable (Nip) airbome particulate matter samples have been determined in an urban area of Amman city of Jordan during Winter, 1996 by ion chromatography. The total average level of F-, CI+, NO3+, SO42- and total suspended particles (Tsp) were 1.48, 3.84, 6.40, 45.85 and 221μg/m3, respectively. For cations, the total average levels were 25.42, 6.68, 4.06, 5.84, and 25.05 μg/m3 for Na+, NH4+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, respectively. This study show ss that the concentrations of FΛ, NO3Λ, SO42, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ in the INP fraction were significantly greater than in the Nip fraction while the CI+ and NH4+ levels are greater than in the Nip, In the same sampling site, it was found that the nitrate and sulfate concentrations in air particulate matter are significantly higher in winter, 1996 than in summer season, 1995. However, the levels of fluoride and chloride are greater in summer than in winter. (authors). 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 table

  2. Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric particulate matter in a developing megacity, the Greater Cairo, Egypt Egipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakey, A.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre of Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: azakey@ictp.it; Abdel-Wahab, M.M. [Cairo University, Department of Meteorology, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Pettersson, J.B.C.; Gatari, M.J.; Hallquist, M. [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    As an example of a developing megacity the Greater Cairo (GC) area in Egypt has been evaluated with respect to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and lead (Pb). Particulate matter was collected during 2001-2002 in the two size fractions PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 at 17 sites representing different activities (industrial, urban, residential and background condition). The PM concentrations were generally high, with yearly average PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 values of 85 {+-} 12 and 170 {+-} 25 {mu}g/m{sup -}3, respectively. On an annual scale, the high PM levels were due to many sources that included traffic, waste burning and wind blown dust particles emitted from the desert outside GC and the Moqattam hill inside GC. On a seasonal scale, the PM concentrations were highest in the industrial sector during spring, the dusty season, due to the combined effect of dust storm events and anthropogenic emissions over GC. The lowest seasonal concentrations were recorded in the summer season at the background sites. There was a marked increase in PM levels during the period October to December due to burning of waste from harvested rice in the agriculture area in the Nile Delta (north of Cairo). The highest PM{sub 2}.5/PM{sub 1}0 ratio was recorded in the urban sector (0.59) while the lowest ratio was recorded in the residential sector (0.32). The PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 samples were also analyzed for Pb in order to address the influence of different emission sources. The monthly average concentrations of Pb in both PM{sub 2}.5 (Pb{sub 2}.5) and PM{sub 1}0 (Pb{sub 1}0) varied between 0.4 and 1.8 {+-} {mu}g m{sup -}3 at the non industrial sites. The concentrations were significantly higher in the industrial areas, where concentration up to a maximum of 16 {+-} g m{sup -}3 could be observed. Both the high lead and PM concentrations measured are contributing to local environmental pollution. GC is subjected to high concentrations of particulates most of the year. There is no

  3. Atmospheric mercury and fine particulate matter in coastal New England: implications for mercury and trace element sources in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark A.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Krabbenhotft, David P. Krabbenhoft; Bothner, Michael H. Bothner; Tate, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Intensive sampling of ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter was conducted at Woods Hole, Massachusetts over a four-month period from 3 April to 29 July, 2008, in conjunction with year-long deployment of the USGS Mobile Mercury Lab. Results were obtained for trace elements in fine particulate matter concurrently with determination of ambient atmospheric mercury speciation and concentrations of ancillary gasses (SO2, NOx, and O3). For particulate matter, trace element enrichment factors greater than 10 relative to crustal background values were found for As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn, indicating contribution of these elements by anthropogenic sources. For other elements, enrichments are consistent with natural marine (Na, Ca, Mg, Sr) or crustal (Ba, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, La, Rb, Sc, Th, Ti, U, Y) sources, respectively. Positive matrix factorization was used together with concentration weighted air-mass back trajectories to better define element sources and their locations. Our analysis, based on events exhibiting the 10% highest PM2.5 contributions for each source category, identifies coal-fired power stations concentrated in the U.S. Ohio Valley, metal smelting in eastern Canada, and marine and crustal sources showing surprisingly similar back trajectories, at times each sampling Atlantic coastal airsheds. This pattern is consistent with contribution of Saharan dust by a summer maximum at the latitude of Florida and northward transport up the Atlantic Coast by clockwise circulation of the summer Bermuda High. Results for mercury speciation show diurnal production of RGM by photochemical oxidation of Hg° in a marine environment, and periodic traverse of the study area by correlated RGM-SO2(NOx) plumes, indicative of coal combustion sources.

  4. Composition of Indoor Particulate Matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Dohányosová, Pavla

    -: -, 2006 - (Fernandes, D.), s. 283-286. (Indoor Climate. II). [Healthy Buildings 2006. Lisboa (PT), 04.06.2006-08.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/04/1190; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/1560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : indoor particulate matter * chemical composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. Activation analysis of air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review on activation analysis of air particulate matter is an extended and updated version of a review given by the same authors in 1985. The main part is aimed at the analytical scheme and refers to rules and techniques for sampling, sample and standard preparation, irradiation and counting procedures, as well as data processing, - evaluation, and - presentation. Additional chapters deal with relative and monostandard methods, the use of activation analysis for atmosphere samples in various localities, and level of toxic and other elements in the atmosphere. The review contains 190 references. (RB)

  6. Particulate Organic Matter (POM) Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on soil organic matter (SOM) pools is of vital importance for studying the impact of soil management and environmental factors on soil organic carbon, an important part of the global carbon cycle. Several conceptual SOM pools with different turnover rates are available to feed models or to study carbon cycles. The fractionation scheme of Zimmermann allows isolating the labile particulate organic matter (POM) pool. Besides its use in conventional soil organic carbon dynamics studies and modelling, this pool can be determining as well in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stability based on the use of stable 15N and 13C isotopes

  7. Design, testing and demonstration of a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) and payload for measuring wind speed and particulate matter in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Kevin Donald Alexander

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is the layer of air directly influenced by the Earth's surface and is the layer of the atmosphere most important to humans as this is the air we live in. Methods for measuring the properties of the ABL include three general approaches: satellite based, ground based and airborne. A major research challenge is that many contemporary methods provide a restricted spatial resolution or coverage of variations of ABL properties such as how wind speed varies across a landscape with complex topography. To enhance our capacity to measure the properties of the ABL, this thesis presents a new technique that involves a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) equipped with a customized payload for measuring wind speed and particulate matter. The research presented herein outlines two key phases in establishing the proof of concept of the payload and its integration on the sUAS: (1) design and testing and (2) field demonstration. The first project focuses on measuring wind speed, which has been measured with fixed wing sUASs in previous research. but not with a helicopter sUAS. The second project focuses on the measurement of particulate matter, which is a major air pollutant typically measured with ground-based sensors. Results from both proof of concept projects suggest that ABL research could benefit from the proposed techniques. .

  8. Numerical study of atmospheric particulate matters: source apportionment to characterize 3D transport and transformation of precursors and secondary pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongwei

    In recent years, Mainland China, and in particular the industrial hotbed of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) has experienced an increasingly serious problem of high concentrations of airborne particulate matter. Following the tightening-up of China's air quality policies in recent years, and with especially fine particles now added to a new air quality objective, the identification of major source regions and major types of pollutants has become critically important. In this study, a source-oriented method (Particulate Source Apportionment Technology: PSAT) implemented in 3-D Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx), has been applied to analyze how different emission activities impact fine particle concentration in the PRD region. By using this method, a detailed source region and emission category contribution matrix is derived for all regions within the Hong Kong/PRD region. Source appointment results shows that, in summer and spring time, emissions inside PRD region are the major fine particle sources, contribution 70.7% (11.2 mug/m3) and 52.5% (13.1 mug/m3) to the total figure. Super-regional transports are found to be significant in autumn and winter, contribution 58.5% (20.2 mug/m3) and 64.6% (27.8 mug/m3) of the total fine particles in PRD and Hong Kong region. Another important cause of high PM levels has been the transport of fine particles between cities within the PRD region, with three different regions selected for detailed analysis. Results show that mobile vehicle and industry emission are the two major sources for fine particles. Meanwhile, over the same period in Hong Kong, marine proved to be another very significant source of particle pollutant in addition to the significant impact from motor vehicle. Results show that for the Hong Kong/PRD region local reduction of mobile sources and collaboration between different areas could have succeeded in alleviating the air pollution problem.

  9. Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)

  10. Organic composition of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter, during summer and winter sampling campaigns at representative sites in Madrid, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirante, Fátima; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Pindado, Oscar; Perez, Rosa; Revuelta, M.a. Aranzazu; Artiñano, Begoña

    2013-10-01

    Madrid, the largest city of Spain, has some and unique air pollution problems, such as emissions from residential coal burning, a huge vehicle fleet and frequent African dust outbreaks, along with the lack of industrial emissions. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) was studied during summer and winter sampling campaigns, conducted in order to obtain size-segregated information at two different urban sites (roadside and urban background). PM was sampled with high volume cascade impactors, with 4 stages: 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5 and < 0.5 μm. Samples were solvent extracted and organic compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alcohols and fatty acids were chromatographically resolved. The PM1-2.5 was the fraction with the highest mass percentage of organics. Acids were the organic compounds that dominated all particle size fractions. Different organic compounds presented apparently different seasonal characteristics, reflecting distinct emission sources, such as vehicle exhausts and biogenic sources. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations were lower than 1 ng m- 3. The estimated carcinogenic risk is low.

  11. Chemical characterization of particulate matter suspended in the atmosphere of two Brazilian cities using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective was to evaluate the chemical composition of suspended particulate matter in the atmospheres of Londrina (Parana State) and Piracicaba (Sao Paulo State) - two southern Brazilian cities. The sampling was carried- out in the winter/2002 and summer/2003, with a stacker filter holder, which allowed for the simultaneous collection of fine particles (with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) and coarse particles (between 2.5 and 10 μm), using 47 mm diameter filters of 0.4 and 8 μm pore diameters, respectively. The sample analyses were carried out with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, using a Mo target X-ray tube and a Si(Li) detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The excitation and detection of the characteristic X-rays were done in vacuous (Fe filter, 10 kV, 40 mA) and air atmospheres (Zr filter, 25 kV, 10 mA), quantifying 16 chemical elements in the particulate matter in the range-from Al to Zr. The obtained X-ray spectra were interpreted using the AXIL software and- the chemical element quantification was carried out by the fundamental parameters methodology, employing thin standard films produced by MicroMatter. The accuracy of the analytical method was assessed using a thin glass film, Standard Reference Material produced by the National Bureau of Standards. The average element concentrations in the fine and coarse fractions were different, with S being the major element in the fine fraction in the winter and summer in both cities, and Si, Fe, Al and Ca-in the coarse fraction. The grouping analysis revealed that the elements in the aerosol particles came basically from two sources: soil re-suspension and industrial/anthropogenic activities.

  12. LIDAR vertical profiles over the Oil Sands Region: an important tool in understanding atmospheric particulate matter transport, mixing and transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    LIDAR technology is an excellent tool to probe the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere at high spatial and temporal resolution. This provides the critical vertical context for the interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements, airborne measurements and model verification and validation. In recent years, Environment Canada has designed an autonomous aerosol LIDAR system that can be deployed to remote areas such as the oil sands. Currently two autonomous LIDAR systems are making measurements in the oil sands region, one since December, 2012 and the other since July, 2013. The LIDAR transmitter emits two wavelengths (1064nm and 532nm) and the detector assembly collects four channels (1064nm backscatter, 532nm backscatter and 532nm depolarization, 607 nm nitrogen channel). Aerosol profiles from near ground to 20 km are collected every 10-60 s providing sufficient resolution to probe atmospheric dynamics, mixing and transport. The depolarization channel provides key information in identifying and discriminating the various aerosol layers aloft such as dust, forest fire plumes, industrial plume sources or ice crystals. The vertical resolution of the LIDAR can determine whether industrial plumes remain aloft or mix down to the surface and also provide estimates as to the concentration of the particulate at various altitudes. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week except during precipitation events. The system is operated remotely and the data are updated every hour to a website to allow near real-time capability. An intensive measurement campaign will be carried out in August and September of 2013 and will provide coincident airborne and ground-based measurements for the two LIDAR systems. The first results from this field study will be presented as well as some statistics on the frequency and evolution of plume events that were detected by the LIDARs.

  13. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate ...

  14. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profiles and sources in pine needles and particulate matter in Dayton, Ohio, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashuk, Timothy A.; Truong, Triet M.; Mantha, Madhavi; McGowin, Audrey E.

    2012-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in pine needles (passive sampling) and on high-volume particulate matter (PM) filters (active sampling) over a period of eight to ten months at two separate sites in the Dayton, Ohio, USA metropolitan area: Moraine and Yellow Springs. Total PAH concentrations for PM ranged from 77.4 μg g-1 to 837 μg g-1 (dry wt.) at both sites with high molecular weight PAHs being the predominant form that tended to be higher in concentration during the colder months. Total PAH concentrations for pine needles varied by tree species and location. With an average concentration of 4187 ng g-1, Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) needles in Moraine ranged from 2543 ng g-1to 6111 ng g-1 (dry wt.) with the lowest and highest concentrations occurring in October and August, respectively. The amount of phenanthrene was extremely high for August, 4200 ± 112, which could have resulted from the close proximity of the tree to the parking lot at a firehouse. White pine (Pinus strobus) needles in Yellow Springs had an average concentration of 384 ng g-1and ranged from 127 ng g-1 to 589 ng g-1 (dry wt.) with September and November, respectively, having the lowest and highest PAH concentrations. The 2- and 3-ring PAHs were the predominant form in P. nigra, while the 4-ring PAHs predominated in P. strobus. Total PAH concentrations in P. nigra were an order of magnitude greater than for P. strobus. A bivariate plot of BaA/(BaA + Chry) versus Flt(Flt + Pyr) allowed the PM and pine needle data to be included in the same source analysis and indicated sources of PM at both sites were biomass and/or coal combustion. This plot also suggested PAHs in Yellow Springs P. strobus originated from petroleum combustion sources, whereas PAHs in Moraine P. nigra originated from petroleum combustion with some sources more aged or remote.

  15. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m3, respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  16. Pressurized liquid extraction technique for the analysis of pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs, OPEs, PAHs, alkanes, hopanes, and steranes in atmospheric particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adelaide E; Yoon, Subin; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Usenko, Sascha

    2015-10-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of a wide range of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from atmospheric particulate matter. Approximately 130 SVOCs from eight compound classes were selected as molecular markers of (1) agricultural activity (30 current and historic-use pesticides), (2) industrial activity (18 PCBs), (3) consumer products and building materials (16 PBDEs, 11 OPEs), and (4) motor vehicle exhaust (22 PAHs, 16 alkanes, 9 hopanes, 8 steranes). Currently, there is no analytical method validated for the extraction of all eight compound classes in a single automated technique. The extraction efficiencies of varying solvents and solvent combinations at high temperatures and pressures were examined. Extracts were concentrated and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The optimized PLE method utilized methylene chloride:acetone (2:1 v/v) at 100 °C with three (5 min) static cycles, flush volume of 80%, and a 100 s N2 purge. Spike and recovery experiments (n=7) provided average percent recoveries for pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs, OPEs, PAHs, alkanes, hopanes, and steranes of 88.8±4.0%, 86.9±2.6%, 83.8±2.9%, 101±6%, 90.3±6.1%, 74.4±8.8%, 104±8%, and 86.5±8.6%, respectively. The developed method was applied to atmospheric particulate matter samples collected in the greater Houston, TX metropolitan area. Ambient concentrations of eight classes of compounds (92 SVOCs) were reported in pg m(-3). PMID:25985427

  17. Seasonal dynamics of coarse atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 μm and 80 μm in Beijing and the impact of 2008 Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norra, Stefan; Yu, Yang; Dietze, Volker; Schleicher, Nina; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yuan; Stüben, Doris; Cen, Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Beijing is well known as a megacity facing severe atmospheric pollution problems. One very important kind of pollution is the high amount of particles in Beijing's atmosphere. Numerous studies investigated the dynamics of fine particles smaller 10 μm. Less information is available on the coarse particle fraction larger 10 μm, although geogenic dusts, which often are composed by those coarser particles, frequently affect the air quality in Beijing. Therefore, systematic sampling and analysis of size fractionated particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm was performed in Beijing from April 2005 till October 2009. Atmospheric particles were collected in the North-West of Beijing using a cost-effective passive sampling method called Sigma-2. Altogether, 200 weeks could be analysed and assessed. Concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric coarse particles were determined by automated microscopic single particle analysis. Seasonal variability of the total mass of different size fractions was identified as follows: spring > winter > autumn > summer. High concentrations of transparent mineral particles indicate the activity of geogenic sources in spring and winter time, due to asian dust events and resuspension of soil from local bare land during dry and windy periods. The percentage of opaque particle components differs seasonally with relatively high values in winter, confirming combustion of fossil fuels for heating purposes as a predominant pollution source in this season. The influence of meteorological conditions on concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm is demonstrated for the whole sampling period. Lowest pollution by coarse aerosols occurred during the period of the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. A general trend of decreasing total coarse particle mass concentrations was observed. Due to frequently observed high total coarse particle mass concentrations of several 100 μg·m-³ it is strongly recommended

  18. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from a blast (cupola) or reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2... shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any pot furnace any gases which...

  19. Estimation of particulate matter from simulation and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Makiko; Nakano, Tomio; Okuhara, Takaaki; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2011-11-01

    The particulate matter is a typical indicator of small particles in the atmosphere. In addition to providing impacts on climate and environment, these small particles can bring adverse effects on human health. Then an accurate estimation of particulate matter is an urgent subject. We set up SPM sampler attached to our AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) station in urban city of Higashi-Osaka in Japan. The SPM sampler provides particle information about the concentrations of various SPMs (e.g., PM10 and PM2.5) separately. The AEROENT program is world wide ground based sunphotometric observation networks by NASA and provides the spectral information about aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent (α). Simultaneous measurements show that a linear correlation definitely exists between AOT and PM2.5. These results indicate that particulate matter can be estimated from AOT. However AOT represents integrated values of column aerosol amount retrieved from optical property, while particulate matter concentration presents in-situ aerosol loading on the surface. Then simple way using linear correlation brings the discrepancy between observed and estimated particulate matter. In this work, we use cluster information about aerosol type to reduce the discrepancy. Our improved method will be useful for retrieving particulate matter from satellite measurements.

  20. MEMANFAATKAN TANAMAN UNTUK MENGURANGI POLUSI PARTICULATE MATTER KE DALAM BANGUNAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhabitants of a building are difficult to escape particulate matter emission. Within this condition, buildings should have vertical element that could block the dispersion of particulate matter to living spaces. Vegetation, a part of vertical elemen for fencing, is considered to do this task. The use of vegetation is chosen with reference to nature and behaviour of particulate matter. Earlier research found that dispersion of particulate matter is mostly at lower atmospheric layer and that particulate matter could be deposited. Therefore, low growing vegetation or climbing plants with particular leaf condition to encourage deposition is predicted suitable. Four vegetation was examined: Duranta repens, Polyscias fruticosa, Stephanotis floribunda and Scindapsus sp. As a preliminary study, there is no valid conclusion could be made from this experiment. However, there are indications that Duranta repens and Stephanotis floribunda block and deposit slightly more particulate matter than the two others. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Polusi particulate matter atau partikel halus tidak hanya terjadi di jalan raya, tetapi juga masuk ke dalam bangunan yang terletak di sepanjang jalan. Oleh karenanya, bangunan seyogyanya memiliki elemen vertikal yang mampu bertugas menghalangi masuknya polusi partikel halus. Salah satu kemungkinan penggunaan elemen vertikal, yaitu tanaman yang ditempatkan pada posisi pagar diteliti dalam studi ini. Mempelajari bahwa partikel halus dengan ukuran tertentu dapat diendapkan dan penyebarannya umumnya terjadi pada lapisan udara rendah, maka studi terhadap tanaman semak atau perdu atau tanaman rambat dengan jenis permukaan daun tertentu lebih diutamakan. Empat jenis tanaman diuji kemampuannya, yaitu: Duranta repens, Polyscias fruticosa, Stephanotis floribunda and Scindapsus sp. Sebagai studi yang sangat awal, masih belum ada hasil valid yang ditawarkan, namun setidaknya ditemukan indikasi bahwa Duranta repens and Stephanotis

  1. Analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne particulate matter (APM) consists of many kinds of solid and liquid particles in air. APM analysis methods and the application examples are explained on the basis of paper published after 1998. Books and general remarks, sampling and the measurement of concentration and particle distribution, elemental analysis methods and the present state of analysis of species are introduced. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) method can collect continuously the integrating mass, but indicates lower concentration. Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Fe(2), Mn, Cd, Fe(3) and Pb, the water-soluble elements, are determined by ion-chromatography after ultrasonic extraction of the aqueous solution. The detection limit of them is from 10 to 15 ppb (30 ppb Cd and 60 ppb Pb). The elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) are separated by the thermal mass measurement-differential scanning calorimeter by means of keeping at 430degC for 60 min. 11 research organizations compared the results of TC (Total Carbon) and EC by NIOSH method 5040 and the thermal method and obtained agreement of TC. ICP-MS has been developed in order to determine correctly and quickly the trace elements. The determination methods for distinction of chemical forms in the environment were developed. GC/MS, LC/MS and related technologies for determination of organic substances are advanced. Online real-time analysis of APN, an ideal method, is examined. (S.Y.)

  2. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the eastern mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lang-Yona

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal spores in atmospheric samples. In this study we sampled and characterized total and specific airborne fungal spores from PM10 samples collected in Rohovot, Israel over an entire year. The total fungal spore concentrations vary throughout the year although the species variability was nearly the same. Seasonal equivalent spore concentrations analyzed by real-time quantitative-PCR-based methods were fall > winter > spring > summer. Reported concentrations based on ergosterol analysis for the same samples were and fall > spring > winter > summer. Correlation between the two analytical methods was found only for the spring season. These poor associations may be due to the per-spore ergosterol variations that arise from both varying production rates, as well as molecular degradation of ergosterol. While conversion of genome copies to spore concentration is not yet straightforward, the potential for improving this conversion and the ability of qPCR to identify groups of fungi or specific species makes this method preferable for environmental spore quantification. Identifying tools for establishing the relation between the presence of species and the actual ability to induce allergies is still needed in order to predict the effect on human health.

  3. Annual distribution of allergenic fungal spores in atmospheric particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean; a comparative study between ergosterol and quantitative PCR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lang-Yona

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores are an important fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and are major causative agents of allergenic and infectious diseases. Predicting the variability and species of allergy-causing fungal spores requires detailed and reliable methods for identification and quantification. There are diverse methods for their detection in the atmosphere and in the indoor environments; yet, it is important to optimize suitable methods for characterization of fungal spores in atmospheric samples. In this study we sampled and characterized total and specific airborne fungal spores from PM10 samples collected in Rehovot, Israel over an entire year. The total fungal spore concentrations vary throughout the year although the species variability was nearly the same. Seasonal equivalent spore concentrations analyzed by real-time quantitative-PCR-based methods were fall > winter > spring > summer. Reported concentrations based on ergosterol analysis for the same samples were and fall > spring > winter > summer. Correlation between the two analytical methods was found only for the spring season. These poor associations may be due to the per-spore ergosterol variations that arise from both varying production rates, as well as molecular degradation of ergosterol. While conversion of genome copies to spore concentration is not yet straightforward, the potential for improving this conversion and the ability of qPCR to identify groups of fungi or specific species makes this method preferable for environmental spore quantification. Identifying tools for establishing the relation between the presence of species and the actual ability to induce allergies is still needed in order to predict the effect on human health.

  4. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

    2014-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day. A correlation matrix was used to explore the origins of the different compounds. The data suggested that during the daytime, direct emissions (mainly in vehicle exhaust) contributed to the presence of PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs in air. Photochemical production also appeared to be a source of the majority of nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, while photolysis could have contributed to removal of the nitro-PAHs during the daytime. At night, sugar cane burning emissions were the primary source of the PAHs and nitro-PAHs, with additional sources also contributing to the levels of oxy-PAHs in the atmosphere.

  5. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26289646

  6. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  7. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  8. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf... subpart shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any blast (cupola) or electric furnace any gases which exhibit 10 percent opacity or greater....

  9. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  10. A Study of the inorganic chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter in the region of Chekka, North lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In North Lebanon, the region of Chekka represents a group of villages scattered around an industrial complex of cement factories and a chemical fertilizer industry. In order to understand the nature of atmospheric aerosols in this region, 20 samples of atmospheric total suspended particles were collected next to the region of industrial activities. The analysis of inorganic water soluble ions and metal composition of the sampled particles was achieved using ion chromatography (I.C.) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Higher global particle concentrations and NO-3 concentrations were identified in the sites near the cement factories. However, this nitrate concentration was attributed to long range transport and accumulation phenomenon happening in the region. Peaks in potassium concentrations were confirmed in some samples and most probably emitted by a secondary source of emissions, possibly from local biomass combustion. On the other hand, low levels of calcium were identified in the samples, despite the presence of cement quarries next to the sampling sites, because of the dominant low wind activity during the sampling period. (author).

  11. Ecological effect of airborne particulate matter on plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Prajapati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate matter is a mixture of diverse elements. Deposition of particulate matter to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of these particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. Effects of particulate matter on vegetation may be associated with the reduction in light required for photosynthesis and an increase in leaf temperature due to changed surface optical properties. Changes in energy exchange are more important than the diffusion of gases into and out of leaves which is influenced by dust load, color and particle size. Alkaline dust materials may cause leaf surface injury while other materials may be taken up across the cuticle. A more probable route for metabolic uptake and impact on vegetation and ecosystems is through the rhizosphere. Interception of dusts by vegetation makes an important contribution to the improvement of air quality in the vicinity of vegetation. Although the effect of particulate matter on ecosystem is linked to climate change, there is little threat due to un-speciated particulate matter on a regional scale.

  12. 灰霾期间大气颗粒物污染特征研究进展%Research Progresses on Pollution Characteristics of Atmospheric Particulate Matter during Haze Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; 徐美; 叶霞; 张翠华; 张文育

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of economy and the speeding up of urbanization, the haze weather shows increasing trend and causes the attention of the society. The contamination level, size distribution and vertical distribution of atmospheric particulate matter during the haze period were introduced, the concentration level and the size distribution of water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon and metal elements in the atmospheric particulate matter were described, and the source analysis methods of atmospheric particulate matter were summarized. Some advices on the prevention and control measures of the haze weather were proposed.%近年来,随着经济的迅速发展和城市化进程的加快,灰霾天气呈现增加的趋势,引起了社会的高度关注。综述了灰霾发生时大气颗粒物污染水平、粒径分布和垂直分布特征,大气颗粒物重要化学成分(水溶性离子、有机碳和元素碳、金属元素)的浓度水平和粒径分布特征及大气颗粒物的来源解析方法,并提出灰霾主要防治措施。

  13. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per...

  14. The iron component of particulate matter is antiapoptotic: A clue to the development of lung cancer after exposure to atmospheric pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera-Leroux, Melanie; Crobeddu, Belinda; Kassis, Nadim; Petit, Patrice X; Janel, Nathalie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Andreau, Karine

    2015-11-01

    The classification of outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic for humans strengthens the increasing concern about particulate matter (PM). We previously demonstrated that PM exposure produces an antiapoptotic effect resulting from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and water-soluble components. In this study, we investigated transition metallic compounds, particularly iron, in order to decipher their underlying molecular mechanisms that prevent apoptosis. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed for 4 h to different PM samples with established antiapoptotic effect (e.g. PM-AW) or not (e.g. PM-VS) or to their metallic components (Fe, Mn, Zn and Al) before apoptosis induction by the calcium ionophore A23187 or Staurosporine. PM-AW, Fe, Mn and Al significantly reduced induced apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of Fe was enhanced by benzo(a)pyrene, a typical PAH compound, but was totally reversed by the iron chelator, deferiprone. Furthermore, particles and iron triggered cellular ROS generation and prevented the depletion in glutathione levels observed during A23187-induced apoptosis. In contrast to benzo(a)pyrene, PM-AW and Fe rapidly activated NRF2, subsequently upregulated several target genes (HO1, NQO1 and GPX1) and modulated some genes which control cell death (BCL2, BAX and p53). The key role of the NRF2 pathway in the antiapoptotic effect mediated by Fe and PM was demonstrated using siRNA technology. Our results suggest that the iron component participates in the antiapoptotic effect of PM by activating a NRF2-dependent antioxidant process. As resisting to cell death is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, these findings provide additional clues for understanding the development of lung cancer after atmospheric pollution exposure. PMID:26419736

  15. Fine airborne particulate matter: secondary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical speciation of over 750 samples of PM2,5 collected in urban area of Milan, provides preliminary information about the role of the sources. In particular the research points out the large importance of the secondary source, i. e. the secondary production in atmosphere from gaseous precursors, that accounts for the 60- 70% of the total particulate. These findings affect the intervention policy, that must be oriented also to control the gaseous precursors of the fine particulate

  16. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  17. Characterization and source identification of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere of downtown Shanghai using μ-SXRF and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the characteristic and sources of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and the major sources affecting particulate air pollution in Shanghai, China, the individual aerosol particles were analyzed using the synchrotron radiation micro-beam X-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-SXRF), and the PM2.5 multi-elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results show that the mass concentration and chemical elements have seasonal variation, and the enrichment factors show that the chemical elements in the inhalable particles could come from the earth crust and anthropogenic pollution. The extent of metal pollution was assessed by comparing the measured concentrations with those reported in the literature. Nine categories of PM2.5 pollution sources identified at the center of Shanghai show that the vehicle exhaust, emission of metallurgic industry and coal combustion are important. (authors)

  18. Biomass burning as an important source of reactive oxygen species associated with the atmospheric aerosols in Southeastern United States - Implications for health effects of ambient particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, V.; Weber, R. J. J.; Fang, T.; Xu, L.; Ng, N. L.; Russell, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the potential of water-soluble fraction of atmospheric fine aerosols in the southeastern US to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS-generation potential of particles was quantified by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay and involved analysis of fine particulate matter (PM) extracted from high-volume quartz filters (23 h integrated daily samples) collected for one year at various sites in different environmental settings in the southeast, including three urban Atlanta sites, and one rural site in Yorkville. Water-soluble PM extracts were further separated into the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions using a C-18 column, and both fractions were analyzed for the DTT activity. Organic aerosol (OA) composition was measured at selected sites using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrophotometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The various factors of the organic aerosols, i.e. Isoprene OA (Isop-OA), hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), less-oxidized oxygenated OA, (LO-OOA), more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA) were also resolved, and their ability to generate ROS investigated by linear regression techniques. Among all OA factors, BBOA was most consistently associated with ROS, with the highest intrinsic DTT activity of 151±20 pmol/min/μg. The water-soluble bioavailable fraction of BBOA-DTT activity is 2-3 times higher than the reported total-DTT activity of diesel exhaust particles. The total contribution of various aerosol sources to the ROS generating potential was also determined by the positive matrix factorization approach. Interestingly, biomass burning appears as the strongest source of ROS generation, with its annual contribution of 35 % to DTT activity; the contribution was higher in winter (47 %), than summer (24 %) and fall (17 %) seasons. The good agreement between the hydrophobic DTT activity with that estimated from the summed OA components, indicates that humic-like substances (HULIS), which are abundantly emitted

  19. Investigation of time-resolved atmospheric conditions and indoor/outdoor particulate matter concentrations in homes with gas and biomass cook stoves in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Heather A; Pardyjak, Eric R

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports findings from a case study designed to investigate indoor and outdoor air quality in homes near the United States-Mexico border During the field study, size-resolved continuous particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured in six homes, while outdoor PM was simultaneously monitored at the same location in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, during March 14-30, 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to compare PM in homes using different fuels for cooking, gas versus biomass, and to obtain a spatial distribution of outdoor PM in a region where local sources vary significantly (e.g., highway, border crossing, unpaved roads, industry). Continuous PM data were collected every 6 seconds using a valve switching system to sample indoor and outdoor air at each home location. This paper presents the indoor PM data from each home, including the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM. The meteorological conditions associated with elevated ambient PM events in the region are also discussed. Results indicate that indoor air pollution has a strong dependence on cooking fuel, with gas stoves having hourly averaged median PM3 concentrations in the range of 134 to 157 microg m(-3) and biomass stoves 163 to 504 microg m(-1). Outdoor PM also indicates a large spatial heterogeneity due to the presence of microscale sources and meteorological influences (median PM3: 130 to 770 microg m(-3)). The former is evident in the median and range of daytime PM values (median PM3: 250 microg m(-3), maximum: 9411 microg m(-3)), while the meteorological influences appear to be dominant during nighttime periods (median PM3: 251 microg m(-3), maximum: 10,846 microg m(-3)). The atmospheric stability is quantified for three nighttime temperature inversion episodes, which were associated with an order of magnitude increase in PM10 at the regulatory monitor in Nogales, AZ (maximum increase: 12 to 474 microg m(-3)). Implications: Regulatory air quality standards are based on outdoor

  20. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C).

    The analytical performance...

  1. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C). The analytical performance of the method was verif...

  2. Particulate Matter and Ozone: Remote Sensing and Source Attribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sungshik

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and tropospheric ozone are air pollutants that are harmful to human health and have broad implications for climate. Despite their importance, there remain large uncertainties related to their sources, evolution in the atmosphere, and impact downwind. In this thesis, I work to address some of these uncertainties through integrated analysis of ground, aircraft, and satellite observations and using both forward and inverse modeling approaches. A new, high-resolution d...

  3. Ultra fined-grained atmospheric particulate studied by magnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragnese, F.; Lanci, L.; Lanza, R.

    2009-04-01

    We present the result of an investigation on the presence of ultrafine atmospheric particulate in the urban area of Turin by magnetic methods. Magnetic minerals are a common component of atmospheric particulate, mostly arising from a number of anthropogenic activities. Atmospheric particulate is well known to represent a serious health problem in urban area and recently the attention focused especially on fine (traffic area also support the previous finding that anthropogenic particulate has a large concentration of magnetic minerals compared to natural sources. Moreover the low temperature measurements have shown the presence of a relevant amount of ultrafine particles which are superparamagnetic at room temperature, their concentration increase in areas of high traffic and also appear to be related to anthropogenic sources. The magnetization carried by of ultrafine particles is site dependent but always larger than room temperature magnetization suggesting that about 60-70% of the particulate matter in urban area is made of ultrafine particles of nanometric size (< 30 nm). At given environmental conditions (site) the ratio between superparamagnetic and stable single domain magnetizations was found to remain fairly constant over time, thus allowing effortless predictions.

  4. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed...

  5. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20...

  6. 40 CFR 60.162 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.162... Smelters § 60.162 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  7. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50...

  8. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard...

  9. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from...

  10. 40 CFR 60.472 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacture § 60.472 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the...) Particulate matter in excess of: (i) 0.04 kg/Mg (0.08 lb/ton) of asphalt shingle or mineral-surfaced...

  11. 40 CFR 60.142a - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... 20, 1983 § 60.142a Standards for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraphs (b) and...-blown BOPF and contain particulate matter in excess of 23 mg/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf). (3) Exit from...

  12. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton)...

  13. 40 CFR 60.532 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Wood Heaters § 60.532 Standards for particulate matter. Unless exempted under § 60.530, each affected... comply with the following particulate matter emission limits as determined by the test methods...

  14. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.732 Standards for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and...

  15. 40 CFR 60.292 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacturing Plants § 60.292 Standards for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the..., particulate matter at emission rates exceeding those specified in table CC-1, Column 2 and Column...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not...

  17. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from...

  18. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023...

  19. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf)....

  20. 40 CFR 60.682 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.682... Insulation Manufacturing Plants § 60.682 Standard for particulate matter. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 5.5 kg/Mg (11.0 1b/ton) of glass pulled....

  1. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1476 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met since the plan does not provide for the attainment and maintenance of the national standards for particulate matter...

  3. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent...

  4. Thermogravimetric analysis of diesel particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuerta, M.; Ballesteros, R.; Rodríguez-Fernández, J.

    2007-03-01

    The regulated level of diesel particulate mass for 2008 light-duty diesel on-road engines will be 0.005 g km-1 in Europe. Measurements by weighing and analysis of this low level of particulate mass based on chemical extraction are costly, time consuming and hazardous because of the use of organic solvents, potentially carcinogenic. An alternative to this analysis is proposed here: a thermal mass analyser that measures the volatile fraction (VOF) as well as the soot fraction of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned fibre glass filter. This paper evaluates this new thermal mass measurement (TGA) as a possible alternative to the conventional chemical extraction method, and presents the results obtained with both methods when testing a diesel engine fuelled with a reference diesel fuel (REF), a pure biodiesel fuel (B100) and two blends with 30% and 70% v/v biodiesel (B30 and B70, respectively).

  5. Heterogeneous Reactions of Particulate Matter-Bound PAHs and NPAHs with NO3/N2O5, OH Radicals, and O3 under Simulated Long-Range Atmospheric Transport Conditions: Reactivity and Mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    JARIYASOPIT, NARUMOL; Zimmermann, Kathryn; Schrlau, Jill; AREY, JANET; Atkinson, Roger; Yu, Tian-Wei; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Tao, Shu; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of ambient particulate matter (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) with NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3 were studied in a laboratory photochemical chamber. Ambient PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected from Beijing, China, and Riverside, California, and exposed under simulated atmospheric long-range transport conditions for O3 and OH and NO3 radicals. Changes in the masses of 23 PAHs and 20 NPAHs, as well as the direct and indirec...

  6. 长清地区春季大气中颗粒物的SEM观察与分析%SEM Observation and Analysis of Atmospheric Particulate Matters in Spring Season at Changqing Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永成; 张晓凯; 李超群; 李学; 康丽莎

    2015-01-01

    利用扫描电镜观察分析了长清地区春季大气中颗粒物显微形态及粒径分布状况,采用统计回归分析方法绘制了连续30 d的大气颗粒物粒径与数量分布状况关系曲线及相应的柱状图.试验结果表明:大气颗粒物主要集中在0~1.0μm和1.0~2.5μm的粒径范围内,显微形态有不规则的颗粒状、块状、圆球状、棒状和片状等.另外,还观察到了杆菌和花粉的显微形态.试验结果对于研究大气中PM2.5、PM10及大气污染状况具有一定的参考价值.%The microstructure and particle size and distribution of the atmospheric particulate matters were observed in the spring time in Changqing area by use of a scanning electron microscope. The relation curve and histogram of the particle size and distribution of the quantity of atmospheric particulates during a continuous thirty days was drawn using the statistical regression analysis method. The experimental results showed that atmospheric particulates were mainly in a particle size range of 0 ~1. 0 μm and 1. 0 ~2. 5 μm. The microstructure of atmospheric particulate matters included irregular particle, block, spherosome, clava, chip, etc. In addition, the microstructures of Escherichia coli and pollen are observed. The experimental results have reference value to the research of PM2. 5 and PM10 in atmosphere and the atmospheric contamination to some extent. And the experimental method is worthy to be applied widely.

  7. Leaf-deposition of particulate matter as a monitoring tool for the urban distribution of atmospheric particles: an experimental and modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle

    Throughout this Ph.D. research, the applicability of biomagnetic monitoring of leaf-deposited particles is evaluated for both monitoring and modelling purposes, using different spatial and temporal scales. First, biomagnetic monitoring of Platanus x acerifofia Willd. leaves was applied to assess the spatial distribution of atmospheric particles throughout an urban street canyon. To investigate the temporal variation of the biomagnetic signal, we evaluated the accumulation behaviour of SIRM by collecting 2-weekly leaf samples of a typical roadside Platanus x acerifolia Willd. tree throughout an entire in-leaf season and examined the seasonal development of the total leaf SIRM signal as well as the leaf-encapsulated fraction. Furthermore, the relevancy of the biomagnetic monitoring approach was evaluated by comparing gravimetric results with SIRM results of leaf-deposited particles within three different size fractions. As biomagnetic monitoring showed to be related to the atmospheric particulate concentration and applicable in urban areas at different Spatial and temporal resolution, the SIRM signal was used for comparison with air quality models at different spatial scales. A micro scale air quality model (ENVI-met RTM) was evaluated, using 96 tree crown sampling locations in a typical urban street canyon, while modelled atmospheric PM10 and NO2 concentrations at the urban scale were compared with leaf SIRM results of ivy (Hedera sp.) at 1 10 locations throughout Antwerp. The last part of this Ph.D. focussed on the influence of tree crown morphology on the distribution and leaf-deposition of atmospheric particles. A model study was conducted to investigate the influence of a detailed LiDAR-derived tree crown, not only on the amount of leaf-deposited particles, but also on the local atmospheric PM distribution in the vicinity of the tree crown. Overall, this Ph.D. demonstrated the application potential of biomagnetic monitoring to gain insights on local ambient PM

  8. 40 CFR 60.62 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.62... Plants § 60.62 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... particulate matter in excess of 0.15 kg per metric ton of feed (dry basis) to the kiln (0.30 lb per ton)....

  9. 40 CFR 60.102 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.102... Refineries § 60.102 Standard for particulate matter. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking... regenerator: (1) Particulate matter in excess of 1.0 kg/Mg (2.0 lb/ton) of coke burn-off in the...

  10. 40 CFR 60.152 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.152... Plants § 60.152 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (1) Particulate matter at a rate in excess of 0.65 g/kg dry sludge input (1.30 lb/ton dry...

  11. The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

  12. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Canepari, S.; C. Farao; E. Marconi; C. Giovannelli; C. Perrino

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C).

    The analytical performance of the method was verified ...

  13. Simultaneously catalytic removal of NOx and particulate matter on diesel particulate filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The simultaneous removal of NOx and particulate matter (PM) exhausted from diesel engine was studied with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) on which a mixed metal oxide catalyst, Cu0.95K0.05Fe2O4 was loaded. The NOx reduction was observed in the same temperature range of the CO2 formation, implying the occurrence of the simultaneous removal of NOx and PM in an oxidizing atmosphere. It was shown that SOF and soot in PM are attributed to the reduction of NOx at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The oxidation of PM was enhanced by the coexistence of NO and O2. The ignition and exhaustion temperatures of PM decrease as the order NO>O2>NO+O2. This is a combined process of PM trapping as well as the catalytic reactions of soot oxidation and NOx reduction, promising the most desirable after-treatment of diesel exhausts.

  14. Chemical and biological characterization of urban particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter has been collected on glass fiber filter by high volume sampling in the Goeteborg urban area. The samples were, after extraction with respect to organic components, tested for biological effect in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, affinity to the cytosol TCDD receptor and toxicity towards a mammalian cell system and analysed chemically for selected polycyclic aromatic compounds. A series of samples collected simultaneously at a street level location and a rooftop site showed that most parameters associated with the organic compounds adsorbed to airborne particulate matter has similar concentrations at the two levels. The differences observed for the mutagenic effect in different strains and conditions showed that the rooftop samples had a different composition compared to the street samples indicating that atmospheric transformations have occurred. Chemical fractionation of representative samples showed that the distribution of mutagenic activity among different fractions is dissimilar to the distribution obtained in the fractionation of both gasoline and diesel engine exhaust particles. Partial least squares regression analysis showed qualitatively that diesel exhaust is a major source of airborne particulate mutagenic activity and source apportionment with chemical mass balance and multilinear regression corroborated this quantitatively. The multilinear regression analysis gave the result that the airborne activity in Salmonella TA90-S9 originated to 54±4% from diesel exhaust and to 26±3% from gasoline exhaust. The contribution is more equal for the activity measured with TA98+S9. The usefulness of short-term bioassays as an addition to chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter depends on whether only polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are major carcinogens, as has been suggested in the literature, or whether also other polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) are of importance. (au)

  15. Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, E.; Donateo, A.; Gambaro, A.; Cesari, D.; Gregoris, E.; Barbaro, E.; Dinoi, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Masieri, S.; Contini, D.

    2016-08-01

    Ship emissions are a growing concern, especially in coastal areas, for potential impacts on human health and climate. International mitigation strategies to curb these emission, based on low-sulphur content fuels, have proven useful to improve local air quality. However, the effect on climate forcing is less obvious. Detailed information on the influence of shipping to particles of different sizes is needed to investigate air quality and climate interaction. In this work, the contributions of maritime emissions to atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and of particles (sizes from 0.009 μm to 30 μm) were investigated considering manoeuvring (arrival and departure of ships) and hotelling phases (including loading/unloading activities). Results showed that the size distributions of shipping contributions were different for the two phases and could be efficiently described, using measured data, considering four size-ranges. The largest contribution to particles concentration was observed for Dp < 0.25 μm, however, a secondary maximum was observed at Dp = 0.35 μm. The minimum contribution was observed at Dp around 0.8-0.9 μm with a negligible contribution from hotelling for size range 0.4-1 μm. The comparison of 2012 and 2014 datasets showed no significant changes of gaseous and particulate pollutant emissions and of the contribution to particle mass concentration. However, an increase of the contribution to particle number concentration (PNC) was observed. Results suggested that harbour logistic has a relevant role in determining the total impact of shipping on air quality of the nearby coastal areas. Additionally, future policies should focus on PNC that represents an important fraction of emissions also for low-sulphur fuels. DOAS remote sensing proved a useful tool to directly measure NO2 and SO2 ship emissions giving estimates comparable with those of emission inventory approach.

  16. 40 CFR 52.2429 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. Determination of Attainment. EPA has determined, as of January...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1880 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The requirements of subpart G of this chapter are not met because...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2526 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAAQS. These determinations, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for these... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) EPA approves West Virginia's November 15, 1991 SIP submittal...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1131 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1131 Section 52.1131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) Revisions to the following regulations submitted on March...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1025 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1025 Section 52.1025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... strategy: Particulate matter. (a) The revisions to the control strategy resulting from the modification...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1374 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate matter. 52.1374 Section 52.1374 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control strategy: Particulate matter. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted...

  2. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.; Kranenburg, R.; Kuenen, J.; Gijlswijk, R. van; Wichink Kruit, R.; Segers, A.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the orig

  3. Urban particulate matter pollution: a tale of five cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Florou, Kalliopi; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Hasa, Erion; Presto, Albert A

    2016-07-18

    Five case studies (Athens and Paris in Europe, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles in the United States, and Mexico City in Central America) are used to gain insights into the changing levels, sources, and role of atmospheric chemical processes in air quality in large urban areas as they develop technologically. Fine particulate matter is the focus of our analysis. In all cases reductions of emissions by industrial and transportation sources have resulted in significant improvements in air quality during the last few decades. However, these changes have resulted in the increasing importance of secondary particulate matter (PM) which dominates over primary in most cases. At the same time, long range transport of secondary PM from sources located hundreds of kilometres from the cities is becoming a bigger contributor to the urban PM levels in all seasons. "Non-traditional" sources including cooking, and residential and agricultural biomass burning contribute an increasing fraction of the now reduced fine PM levels. Atmospheric chemistry is found to change the chemical signatures of a number of these sources relatively fast both during the day and night, complicating the corresponding source apportionment. PMID:27310460

  4. Atmospheric particulate pollution in Kenitra (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities of Morocco are exposed to a high atmospheric particulate pollution due to automobile traffic, industrialization, but also to soil dusts (in relation with aridity and desert proximity). Monitoring networks and data about air pollution still rare. The present study is a preliminary work about particulate and heavy metals pollution in Kenitra city. Aerosols had been collected with a PM10 sampler (Partisol), a dichotomous sampler (P M2.5 and P M2.5-10 fractions) and stacked filter unit (Gent type) with a fine fraction (below 2.5 um) and a coarse fraction. In summer, the average PM10 concentration is near 80 u g/N m3, above the EEC rule and OMS recommendations, but similar to some other african towns. The ratio P M2.5/PM 10 is low (below 0.5), with seasonal variation in relation with meteorology. The lead and nickel concentrations are also very low, in relation with the use of leaded gasoline and the oldness of many vehicles. This preliminary work reveals high levels of pollution (especially PM10, Pb and Ni) in the town of Kenitra. The major sources are traffic, soil dusts and resuspension of deposited particles. It is necessary to develop monitoring network and sanitary and and environmental impact studies in these cities

  5. Chemical Speciation of Thorium in Marine Biogenic Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Katsumi Hirose

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL) and uranium in particulate matter (PM). The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10−12 M), and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in sur...

  6. Current state of particulate matter research and management in Serbia (Introductory paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Jovašević-Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is the air pollutant that currently receives most attention from the atmospheric research community, the legislative authorities and the general public. Limiting particulate matter in the atmosphere which will result in significant benefits for human health, with associated positive economic consequences. Successful management of particulate matter requires scientific knowledge about particulate matter “from cradle to grave”, covering sources of particles, processes that govern their formation, composition, dispersion and fate in the atmosphere, as well as knowledge about human exposure and associated health and well being. Such knowledge allows to design and perform effective and efficient abatement measures and monitoring. This paper provides an introduction to the research and monitoring regarding particulate matter in Serbia. The contributions were first partly presented at the 2nd international workshop of the WeBIOPATR “Outdoor concentration, size distribution and composition of respirable particles in WB urban area” project in September 2009. This information provides context to the contributions in this number, and was part of the rationale of the project WeBIOPATR.

  7. Characterization of Particulate Matter from a Heavily Industrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarini, Simone; Ynoue, Rita Yuri

    2011-01-01

    A characterization of PM aerosols collected in Cubatão, Brazil is presented. Throughout 2009, 5 sampling campaings were carried out at CEPEMA (Centro de Capacitação e Pesquisa em Meio Ambiente da Universidade de São Paulo), in the vicinity of PETROBRAS oil refinery. Mini-vol portable air sampler was deployed to collect coarse and fine particles. Size-fractionated particle samples were collected by a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor (MOUDI) device. Gravimetric analysis showed three peaks for mass size distributions: the After-Filter stage (cut point diameter of less than 0,1μm), stage 7A (d=0,32μm) and stage 3A (d= 3,2μm). Fine particle matter (FPM) concentrations were almost always lower than coarse particle matter (CPM) concentrations. Comparison between the PM2.5 (particulate matter lower than 2.5μg.m-3) measurements by the MOUDI and Mini-Vol sampler reveals good agreement. However, MOUDI underestimates CPM. Reflectance analysis showed that almost all the Black Carbon is found in the Mini-Vol FPM and lower stages of the MOUDI, with higher concentrations at the After-Filter. The atmospheric loading of PM 2.5 was elevated at night, mainly due to more stable atmospheric conditions. Aerosol samples were analyzed for water- soluble ions, black carbon (BC), and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques.

  8. Sub-micrometre particulate matter is primarily in liquid form over Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Zhaoheng; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter influences the Earth’s energy balance directly, by altering or absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by influencing cloud formation. Whether organic particulate matter exists in a liquid, semi-solid, or solid state can affect particle growth and reactivity, and hence particle number, size and composition. The properties and abundance of particles, in turn, influence their direct and indirect effects on energy balance. Non-liquid particulate matter was identified over a boreal forest of Northern Europe, but laboratory studies suggest that, at higher relative humidity levels, particles can be liquid. Here we measure the physical state of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 1 μm over the tropical rainforest of central Amazonia in 2013. A real-time particle rebound technique shows that the particulate matter was liquid for relative humidity greater than 80% for temperatures between 296 and 300 K during both the wet and dry seasons. Combining these findings with the distributions of relative humidity and temperature in Amazonia, we conclude that near-surface sub-micrometre particulate matter in Amazonia is liquid most of the time during both the wet and the dry seasons.

  9. Characteristics of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere in an urban environment at Faisalabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of trace and major elements from the atmosphere to the ground is an important factor for plants, animals and humans as well. Total suspended particulate matter was measured by a standard gravimetric technique. A scanning electron microscope was used for the evaluation of the size distribution and morphological structures of the aerosol particulates trapped on the surface of filter paper. The aerosol particulates were studied by a scanning electron microscope at various magnification. The trace elemental composition in the atmosphere of Faisalabad was studied by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Concentrations of 23 trace elements and a major one were determined in samples of aerosol particulates collected during a longe sampling period in the atmosphere at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Their amount was two times higher than the limits adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the urban environment. (author)

  10. ULTRAFINE PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE AUGMENTS ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of thi...

  11. Simulations of dispersion and deposition of coarse particulate matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the dispersion and deposition of coarse anthropogenic particulate matter (PMc, aerodynamic diameters> 10 mm), a FORTRAN simulator based on the numerical integrator of Bulirsch and Stoer has been developed. It calculates trajectories of particles of several shapes released into the atmosphere under very general conditions. This first version, fully three-dimensional, models the meteorology under neutral stability conditions. The simulations of such pollutants are also important because the standard software (usually originating in the United States Environmental Protection Agency-EPA-) describe only the behavior of PM10 (diameter less than 10 mm). Bulirsch and Stoer integrator of widespread use in astrophysics, is also very fast and accurate for this type of simulations. We present 2D and 3D trajectories in physical space and discuss the final deposition in function of various parameters. PMc simulations results in the range of 50-100 mm and densities of 5.5 g cm-3 emitted from chimneys, indi...

  12. CFD Modeling of Particulate Matter Dispersion from Kerman Cement Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panahandeh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: The dispersion of particulate matter has been known as the most serious environmental pollution of cement plants. In the present work, dispersion of the particulate matter from stack of Kerman Cement Plant was investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modeling."nMaterials and Methods: In order to study the dispersion of particulate matter from the stack, a calculation domain with dimensions of 8000m × 800m × 400m was considered. The domain was divided to 936781 tetrahedral control volumes. The mixture two-phase model was employed to model the interaction of the particulate matter (dispersed phase and air (continuous phase. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES method was used for turbulence modeling."nResults: The concentration of particulate matter in the whole calculation domain was computed. The predicted concentrations were compared to the measured values from the literature and a good agreement was observed. The predicted concentration profiles at different cross sections were analyzed."nConclusion:The results of the present work showed that CFD is a useful tool for understanding the dispersion of particulate matter in air. Although the obtained results were promising, more investigations on the properties of the dispersed phase, turbulent parameters and the boundary layer effect is needed to obtain more accurate results.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST Reference Materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the Reference Material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative determination of water in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canepari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the optimization and validation of a new simple method for the quantitative determination of water in atmospheric particulate matter (PM. The analyses are performed by using a coulometric Karl-Fisher system equipped with a controlled heating device; different water contributions are separated by the application of an optimized thermal ramp (three heating steps: 50–120 °C, 120–180 °C, 180–250 °C.

    The analytical performance of the method was verified by using standard materials containing 5.55% and 1% by weight of water. The recovery was greater than 95%; the detection limit was about 20 μg. The method was then applied to NIST reference materials (NIST1649a, urban particulate matter and to real PM10 samples collected in different geographical areas. In all cases the repeatability was satisfactory (10–15%.

    When analyzing the reference material, the separation of four different types of water was obtained. In real PM10 samples the amount of water and its thermal profile differed as a function of the chemical composition of the dust. Mass percentages of 3–4% of water were obtained in most samples, but values up to about 15% were reached in areas where the chemical composition of PM is dominated by secondary inorganic ions and organic matter. High percentages of water were also observed in areas where PM is characterized by the presence of desert dust.

    A possible identification of the quality of water released from the samples was tried by applying the method to some hygroscopic compounds that are likely contained in PM (pure SiO2, Al2O3, ammonium salts, carbohydrates and dicarboxylic acids and by comparing the results with those obtained from field samples.

  15. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  16. Monitoring Technology and Methods of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Particulate Matter, China%中国大气颗粒物中重金属监测技术与方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霖琳; 薛荔栋; 滕恩江; 吕怡兵; 王业耀

    2015-01-01

    大气颗粒物中的重金属极易富集在细颗粒物中,并对人体带来危害。文章对中国大气颗粒物中重金属的监测技术方法进行梳理和汇总,从点位布设、样品采集、样品前处理、分析测试以及全过程的质量保证和质量控制等方面。探讨和分析颗粒物监测的各个环节应遵循的技术规范和相关方法。大气颗粒物的采样主要包括环境空气样品和无组织排放样品两大类,前处理方法包括全消解和酸浸提,而全消解中又包括酸消解法和碱熔法,消解方式包括电热板、马弗炉、高压密闭消解罐、微波消解等。测试方法主要包括分光光度法、X射线荧光光谱法(XRF)、原子吸收分光光度法(AAS)、原子荧光光谱法(AFS)、电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法(ICP-AES)、电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)等,根据不同的监测需求和仪器设备水平,选择不同的标准测试方法作为依据。在颗粒物重金属监测的全过程中,从布点、试剂空白、滤膜/滤筒空白的控制,到采样、前处理、实验室分析等各个环节,均需要考虑可能影响分析准确度的因素,建立起与监测方法同步的全程序质量保证和控制措施。完善大气颗粒物中重金属监测技术与方法体系,可为大气环境监测和管理部门的决策提供科学依据和技术支持,为源解析等颗粒物组分分析相关工作提供方法依据。%Heavy metals in atmospheric particle matters were easily enriched in PM2.5, and brought harm to human. In this paper, the Chinese monitoring technology and methods of heavy metals in ambient air particulate matters was collected sort and aggregated. All of the monitoring aspects were introduced such as sampling points laid, sample collection, sample pretreatment, sample analysis and quality assurance and quality control throughout the whole process. The technical specifications and

  17. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  18. Particulate Matter Assessment in the Air Based on the Heavy Metals Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandačka Dušan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matters are the result of various processes in the atmosphere that are part of everyday life. The chemical composition of these particles is mainly influenced by their origin. Their behavior is also dependent on meteorological conditions and other factors as well. The aim of this paper was to identify sources of particulate matters by means of statistical methods due to the presence of 17 heavy metals. The problem solving assumes the knowledge of multivariate statistical data analysis methods as principal components analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multivariate regression and vector algebra. For the application of methodology suitable software may prove appropriate.

  19. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  20. Data quality in airborne particulate matter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole Marie

    Environmental measurements are complicated by uncontrollable natural variations in the environment, which cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. These variations affect the measurement uncertainty and detection capabilities -- two measures of data quality. Variations in a measurement series that arise from uncertainty in the measurements should not be interpreted as variations in the environment. Accurate estimates of measurement uncertainty are thus important inputs to data analyses. Collocated (duplicate) measurements are the most direct approach to characterizing uncertainty and detection capabilities because the observed differences reflect the actual measurement performance under the natural environmental variability. This dissertation uses collocated measurements of airborne particulate matter chemical speciation collected by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) to explore data quality issues. In addition to the complications introduced by uncontrollable environmental factors, the concepts of measurement precision and detection capabilities are often complicated by incomplete and inconsistent definitions. In this dissertation, collocated IMPROVE data are used to illustrate different formulations for precision and their ability to fit the observed differences. Collocated IMPROVE data are also used to show that measurement precision is typically better at concentrations well above the detection limit, when the analysis is performed on the whole filter instead of just a fraction of the filter, and for species predominantly in the smaller size fractions. For most species, the collocated differences are worse than the differences predicted by the current uncertainty model, suggesting that some sources of uncertainty are not accounted for or have been underestimated in the model. In addition, collocated measurement differences are shown to be correlated among several species. In both IMPROVE and

  1. Anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control for selective and effective particulate matter filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Wang, Yang; Tan, Yingling; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Jia

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is widely considered as one of the most pressing environmental health issues. Particularly, atmospheric particulate matters (PM), a complex mixture of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere, are a harmful form of air pollution due to its ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams, causing permanent damages such as DNA mutations and premature death. Therefore, porous materials which can effectively filter out particulate matters are highly desirable. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that anodic aluminum oxide with fine pore size control fabricated through a scalable process can serve as effective and selective filtering materials for different types of particulate matters (such as PM2.5, PM10). Combining selective and dramatic filtering effect, fine pore size control and a scalable process, this type of anodic aluminum oxide templates can potentially serve as a novel selective filter for different kinds of particulate matters, and a promising and complementary solution to tackle this serious environmental issue.

  2. Hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 at monitoring stations for suspended particulate matter in and south of Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Haruo; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Ohara, Toshimasa; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    No data has been found of continuous monitoring of radioactive materials in the atmosphere in Fukushima area after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FD1NPP) accident on March 11, 2011, although it greatly contributes to accurate evaluation of the internal exposure dose, to reconstruction of emission time series of released radionuclides, and to validation of numerical simulations by atmospheric transport models. Then, we have challenged to retrieve the radioactivity in atmospheric aerosols collected every hour on a filter tape of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) monitoring system with beta ray attenuation method used at air pollution monitoring stations in east Japan. A test measurement for hourly atmospheric concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs-137 was successfully performed with a Ge detector for the used filter tapes during March 15-23, 2011, at three stations in Fukushima City 60 km northwest of the FD1NPP and four stations in southwest Ibaraki prefecture more than 150 km southwest of the FD1NPP. The data in Fukushima City revealed high Cs-137 concentrations of 10-30 Bq m-3 from the evening of March 15 to the early morning of March 16, when a large amount of radioactive materials was simultaneously deposited on the land surface by precipitation according to the measurement of radiation dose rate. Higher Cs-137 concentrations of 10-50 Bq m-3 were also found from the afternoon of March 20 to the morning of March 21, and which could not be detected by the radiation dose rate due to no precipitation. In contrast, much higher concentrations with the maximum of 320 Bq m-3 in southwest Ibaraki than in Fukushima City were found on the morning of March 15 and 21 under strong temperature inversion near the surface. The polluted air masses with high radioactive materials were passed away within a few hours as a plume in southwest Ibaraki, while the high Cs-137 concentrations lasted for 10-16 hours in Fukushima City where the polluted air masses after their transport

  3. Anthropogenic versus geogenic contribution to total suspended atmospheric particulate matter and its variations during a two-year sampling period in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chai, Fahe; Chen, Yizhen; Wang, Shulan; Stüben, Doris

    2010-02-01

    Weekly samples of total suspended particles in air (TSP) were taken in south-east Beijing for a two-year period continuously from August 2005 to August 2007. Mass concentrations varied between 76 and 1028 microg m(-3) with an average concentration of 370 microg m(-3) for the whole period. The chemical composition and the mass concentration of aerosols in combination with meteorological data are reflecting specific influences of distinct aerosol sources on the pollution of Beijing's atmosphere. Lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were chosen as indicator elements for different sources. Their amounts considerably varied over the course of the year. Element ratios, such as Pb/Ti, supported the distinction between periods of predominant geogenic or anthropogenic caused pollution. However, the interactions between aerosols from different sources are numerous and aerosol pollution still is a big and complex challenge for the sustainable development of Beijing. PMID:20145883

  4. Monitoring Particulate Matter with Commodity Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David

    Health effects attributed to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, annually accounting for over 3.2 million premature deaths and over 76 million lost disability-adjusted life years. Existing PM2.5 monitoring infrastructure cannot, however, be used to resolve variations in ambient PM2.5 concentrations with adequate spatial and temporal density, or with adequate coverage of human time-activity patterns, such that the needs of modern exposure science and control can be met. Small, inexpensive, and portable devices, relying on newly available off-the-shelf sensors, may facilitate the creation of PM2.5 datasets with improved resolution and coverage, especially if many such devices can be deployed concurrently with low system cost. Datasets generated with such technology could be used to overcome many important problems associated with exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology. Chapter 2 presents an epidemiological study of PM2.5 that used data from ambient monitoring stations in the Los Angeles basin to observe a decrease of 6.1 g (95% CI: 3.5, 8.7) in population mean birthweight following in utero exposure to the Southern California wildfires of 2003, but was otherwise limited by the sparsity of the empirical basis for exposure assessment. Chapter 3 demonstrates technical potential for remedying PM2.5 monitoring deficiencies, beginning with the generation of low-cost yet useful estimates of hourly and daily PM2.5 concentrations at a regulatory monitoring site. The context (an urban neighborhood proximate to a major goods-movement corridor) and the method (an off-the-shelf sensor costing approximately USD $10, combined with other low-cost, open-source, readily available hardware) were selected to have special significance among researchers and practitioners affiliated with contemporary communities of practice in public health and citizen science. As operationalized by

  5. Recent Trends in Atmospheric Lead Levels at an Urban-Industrial District of Metropolitan Lisbon, Portugal, through PIXE Analysis of Air-Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite a steep decline in primary, traffic-related loads, lead in the environment is still much of an issue. Current atmospheric levels may be unmistakably reflecting the widespread use of cleaner fuels, yet decades of uncontrolled emissions from mobile sources have made lead to pervade every terrestrial (and aquatic) ecosystem, from where it keeps re-entering the lower troposphere, at least in terms of local circulation. The continuing surveillance of airborne-lead levels is thus necessary, not just for ensuring a strict compliance with regulatory decisions, but also for assisting in the implementation of remediation and/or rehabilitation policies. In Portugal, unleaded gasoline was made generally available in 1990, yet both leaded and lead-free varieties were commercialised until 1998. After that, all vehicles were compelled to use unleaded gasoline. Even though it is certainly too early for a full trend analysis of airborne levels and their response to the ban on lead, concentrations in ambient air over an important urban-industrial corridor within the Lisbon metropolitan area show a steady, sharp decrease through the last decade. Since 2000, airborne-lead data seems somewhat stabilised and, as far as busy conurbations are concerned, roughly within the values that were usually observed in the rural hinterland back in the mid 1990s

  6. Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, E.; Donateo, A.; Gambaro, A.; Cesari, D.; Gregoris, E.; Barbaro, E.; Dinoi, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Masieri, S.; Contini, D.

    2016-08-01

    Ship emissions are a growing concern, especially in coastal areas, for potential impacts on human health and climate. International mitigation strategies to curb these emission, based on low-sulphur content fuels, have proven useful to improve local air quality. However, the effect on climate forcing is less obvious. Detailed information on the influence of shipping to particles of different sizes is needed to investigate air quality and climate interaction. In this work, the contributions of maritime emissions to atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and of particles (sizes from 0.009 μm to 30 μm) were investigated considering manoeuvring (arrival and departure of ships) and hotelling phases (including loading/unloading activities). Results showed that the size distributions of shipping contributions were different for the two phases and could be efficiently described, using measured data, considering four size-ranges. The largest contribution to particles concentration was observed for Dp DOAS remote sensing proved a useful tool to directly measure NO2 and SO2 ship emissions giving estimates comparable with those of emission inventory approach.

  7. Association between maternal exposure to particulate matter and premature birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiza Agostini Córdoba de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this time-series study carried out in São José dos Campos, a southeastern Brazilian city, between 01.01.2005 and 31.12.2009, was to estimate the role of maternal exposure to air pollutants and preterm births. Preterm newborns of mothers aged between 18 and 34 years, with at least eight years of schooling, singleton pregnancies and whose delivery was vaginal were included in the study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the role of particulate matter, ozone and sulfur dioxide on preterm delivery with lags of zero up to 30 days. Exposure to particulate matter was associated significantly with preterm newborns in lags of 0, 1 and 3 days; but no association was found between cumulative maternal exposure in lags of 7, 15 and 30 days and the outcome. Maternal exposure to particulate matter therefore has an acute effect on preterm births in a medium-sized Brazilian town.

  8. [Determination of particulate matter in small volume antibiotic injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, M; Tanno, K

    1989-03-01

    Amounts of particulate matter present in 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan were determined using light obscuration particle analyzer (HIAC). The vial volume range of each batch of product was 7-20 ml, and each vial contained 1 g as antibiotic potency. In 4 products, contents of particles between 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter were counted 2,000-7,000 per vial, and particles in other products were counted less than 2,000 per vial. Numbers of particles greater than or equal to 10 microns in diameter were much less than the USP XXI criteria for particulate matter in small volume injections. The product of the highest counts for particles between 10 and 25 microns in diameter showed counts amounted to 0.13% of the USP XXI criteria. In the 25-50 microns particulate diameter range, particulate matters were detected only in 2 products, and they were less than 0.2% of the USP XXI criteria. Particles over 50 microns in diameter were not detected in any products. These results showed that 17 small volume antibiotic injections marketed in Japan had good qualities regarding contents of particulate matter. PMID:2746842

  9. Chemical Speciation of Thorium in Marine Biogenic Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Hirose

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of particulate thorium in seawater were determined together with the strong organic ligand (SOL and uranium in particulate matter (PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface waters of the western North Pacific and the Sea of Japan ranged from 0.05 to 1.5 pM (1 x 10−12 M, and showed relatively large temporal and spatial variations. In order to chemically characterize the particulate Th in seawater, the relationship between particulate Th and SOL concentrations in surface PM was examined. The result reveals that particulate Th in surface PM was well correlated with the SOL concentration in PM. The concentrations of particulate Th in surface water were linearly related to those of particulate U. Mass balance analysis suggests that the dominant chemical form of Th(IV, as well as of U, in surface PM is a surface complex with the SOL in PM. Our findings suggest that the SOL in PM is a nonmetal-specific chelator originating from the cell surface of microorganisms.

  10. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  11. Characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in a museum in an urban area; Caratterizzazione del particolato aerosospeso all'interno di un museo situato in area urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In February 2001 the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory of ENEA Institute for Radioprotection carried out a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in a museum, in the urban area of Bologna, in the frame of GIANO project of ENEA. The aerosol mass size distribution was measured and a high mass concentration of aerosol, 39.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, with an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.5 {mu}m was found. A comparison with the composition of the outdoor aerosol was made as well. In an urban area fine particles are generally generated by vehicles exhaust (particularly diesel-powered ones) and are constituted essentially of carbon black. Because of their surface adsorption properties these carbon black particles typically contain varying quantities of substances. Deposition of fine particles on the surfaces of works of art can lead to visual degradation and further damages due to chemical reactions with the adsorbed compounds. [Italian] Nell'ambito del progetto di Grafica Innovativa per il patrimonio Artistico Nazionale e per l'Occupazione Giovanile (GIANO) dell'ENEA, il laboratorio di dosimetria interna dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA, che ha competenze nella caratterizzazione fisica dell'aerosol, ha effettuato una campagna preliminare di misura del particolato aerosospeso presente all'interno di un museo nell'area urbana della citta' di Bologna. I dati dei campionamenti hanno rilevato la presenza di un'alta concentrazione in massa, 44.7 {mu}/m{sup 3}, di particolato aerosospeso inferiore a 10.5 {mu}m, composta per circa il 90%, 39.5% {mu}/m{sup 3}, da particelle con diametro aerodinamico inferiore a 0.5 {mu}m. La provenienza dalle emissioni dei motori a combustibili fossili, del particolato con queste dimensioni, ha consentito il confronto con i dati relativi alle misure di concentrazione di particolato aerosospeso effettuate presso un incrocio ad alta intensita' di traffico della citta'. Dalle

  12. Heterogeneous reactions of particulate matter-bound PAHs and NPAHs with NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3 under simulated long-range atmospheric transport conditions: reactivity and mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyasopit, Narumol; Zimmermann, Kathryn; Schrlau, Jill; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger; Yu, Tian-Wei; Dashwood, Roderick H; Tao, Shu; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2014-09-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of ambient particulate matter (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) with NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3 were studied in a laboratory photochemical chamber. Ambient PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected from Beijing, China, and Riverside, California, and exposed under simulated atmospheric long-range transport conditions for O3 and OH and NO3 radicals. Changes in the masses of 23 PAHs and 20 NPAHs, as well as the direct and indirect-acting mutagenicity of the PM (determined using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with TA98 strain), were measured prior to and after exposure to NO3/N2O5, OH radicals, and O3. In general, O3 exposure resulted in the highest relative degradation of PM-bound PAHs with more than four rings (benzo[a]pyrene was degraded equally well by O3 and NO3/N2O5). However, NPAHs were most effectively formed during the Beijing PM exposure to NO3/N2O5. In ambient air, 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NF) is formed from the gas-phase NO3 radical- and OH radical-initiated reactions of fluoranthene, and 2-nitropyrene (2-NP) is formed from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reaction of pyrene. There was no formation of 2-NF or 2-NP in any of the heterogeneous exposures, suggesting that gas-phase formation of NPAHs did not play an important role during chamber exposures. Exposure of Beijing PM to NO3/N2O5 resulted in an increase in direct-acting mutagenic activity which was associated with the formation of mutagenic NPAHs. No NPAH formation was observed in any of the exposures of the Riverside PM. This was likely due to the accumulation of atmospheric degradation products from gas-phase reactions of volatile species onto the surface of PM collected in Riverside prior to exposure in the chamber, thus decreasing the availability of PAHs for reaction. PMID:25119270

  13. Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Mašková, Ludmila; Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, 3 April (2013). ISSN 2050-7445 R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : fine particulate matter * deposition * brownian diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.heritagesciencejournal.com/content/1/1/7

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF COTTON GIN PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS – FIRST YEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns, the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt, including the National, Texas, Southern, Southeastern, and California associations, agreed that there is an urgent...

  15. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  16. Airborne endotoxin in fine particulate matter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tianjia; Yao, Maosheng; Wang, Junxia; Fang, Yanhua; Hu, Songhe; Wang, Yan; Dutta, Anindita; Yang, Junnan; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2014-11-01

    Endotoxin is an important biological component of particulate matter (PM) which, upon inhalation, can induce adverse health effects, and also possibly complicate the diseases in combination with other pollutants. From 1 March 2012 to 27 February 2013 we collected air samples using quartz filters daily for the quantification of airborne endotoxin and also fine PM (PM2.5) in Beijing, China. The geometric means for endotoxin concentration and the fraction of endotoxin in PM were 0.65 EU/m3 (range: 0.10-75.02) and 10.25 EU/mg PM2.5 (range: 0.38-1627.29), respectively. The endotoxin concentrations were shown to vary greatly with seasons, typically with high values in the spring and winter seasons. Temperature and relative humidity, as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were found to be significantly correlated with airborne endotoxin concentrations (p dithiothreitol (DTT) of PM. This study provided the first continuous time series of airborne endotoxin concentrations in Beijing, and identifies its potential associations with atmospheric factors. The information developed here can assist in the assessment of health effects of air pollution in Beijing.

  17. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  18. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction ha...

  19. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. 57Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  20. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Fernanda V.F.; Ardisson, Jose Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo Cesar H.; Brito, Walter de; Macedo, Waldemar Augusto A.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria F., E-mail: ferufv@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work soil samples, iron ore and airborne atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are investigated with the aim of identifying if the sources of the particulate matter are of natural origin, such as, resuspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic origins from mining and processing of iron ore. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results showed that soil samples studied are rich in quartz and have low contents of iron mainly iron oxide with low crystallinity. The samples of iron ore and PM have high concentration of iron, predominantly well crystallized hematite. {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed the presence of similar iron oxides in samples of PM and in the samples of iron ore, indicating the anthropogenic origin in the material present in atmosphere of the study area. (author)

  1. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions in rabbit farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Adell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extent of the potential health hazards of particulate matter (PM inside rabbit farms and the magnitude of emission levels to the outside environment are still unknown, as data on PM concentrations and emissions in and from such buildings is scarce.  The purpose of this study was to quantify airborne PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and emissions on two rabbit farms in Mediterranean conditions and identify the main factors related with farm activities influencing PM generation.  Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were determined continuously using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM in one farm with fattening rabbits and one reproductive doe farm in autumn.  At the same time as PM sampling, the time and type of human farm activity being performed was recorded. Additionally, temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rate were recorded continuously.  Emissions were calculated using a mass balance on each farm.  Results showed PM concentrations in rabbit farms are low compared with poultry and pig farms.  Average PM10 concentrations were 0.082±0.059 mg/m3 (fattening rabbits, and 0.048 ±0.058 mg/m3 (reproductive does. Average PM2.5 concentrations were 0.012±0.016 mg/m3 (fattening rabbits, and 0.012±0.035 mg/m3 (reproductive does. Particulate matter concentrations were significantly influenced by the type of human farm activity carried out in the building rather than by animal activity.  The main PM-generating activity on the fattening rabbit farm was sweeping, and the major PM-generating activity in reproductive does was sweeping and burning hair from the cages.  Average PM10 emissions were 5.987±6.144 mg/place/day (fattening rabbits, and 14.9±31.5 mg/place/day (reproductive does.  Average PM2.5 emissions were 0.20±1.26 mg/place/day (fattening rabbits, and 2.83±19.54 mg/place/day (reproductive does.  Emission results indicate that rabbit farms can be considered relevant point sources of PM emissions, comparable to

  2. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  3. Development of analytical techniques for the characterization of natural and anthropogenic compounds in fine particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Piazzalunga,

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol is of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, for the biosphere, the climate and public health. The primary parameters that determine the environmental and health effects of aerosol particles are their concentration and chemical composition. In this work we have developed the analytical techniques to study particulate matter composition. The knowledge of PM composition can be useful to identify the main PM sources, the health risk and the formation or depositio...

  4. Elemental compositions of atmospheric particulates collected in Japan from 2002 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical compositions of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in atmosphere collected at Hachioji and Sakata in Japan from 2002 to 2004 were determined by prompt gamma-ray analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis. About 40 elemental concentrations in SPM could be determined, and enrichment factors and elemental correlations were examined. Several elements such as Cl, Cr, Ag, Sb, and W were largely different between Hachioji and Sakata, although their sources are not clear at present. (author)

  5. Losses of arsenic during the low temperature ashing of atmospheric particulate samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation and atomic absorption procedures have been used to study arsenic losses during low temperature ashing at power levels between 50 and 125 watts (RF). Losses of arsenic from ambient atmospheric particulate matter and various synthetic sea salt matrices containing known quantities of arsenic was observed. In general, the magnitude of arsenic losses by this treatment will depend on applied power levels and the physical and chemical properties of the arsenic sample matrix

  6. SIMPLEX OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIELEMENT ULTRASONIC EXTRACTION OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Simplex search was used to locate an optimum for an ultrasonic extraction of trace elements from atmospheric particulates collected on glass fiber high-volume sampler filters. The optimized procedure produced quantitative results for 13 elements with precisions of 10% or less, ...

  7. Gene-particulate matter-health interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter-individual variation in human responses to air pollutants suggests that some subpopulations are at increased risk to the detrimental effects of pollutant exposure. Extrinsic factors such as previous exposure and nutritional status may influence individual susceptibility. Intrinsic (host) factors that determine susceptibility include age, gender, and pre-existing disease (e.g., asthma), and it is becoming clear that genetic background also contributes to individual susceptibility. Environmental exposures to particulates and genetic factors associated with disease risk likely interact in a complex fashion that varies from one population and one individual to another. The relationships between genetic background and disease risk and severity are often evaluated through traditional family-based linkage studies and positional cloning techniques. However, case-control studies based on association of disease or disease subphenotypes with candidate genes have advantages over family pedigree studies for complex disease phenotypes. This is based in part on continued development of quantitative analysis and the discovery and availability of simple sequence repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Linkage analyses with genetically standardized animal models also provide a useful tool to identify genetic determinants of responses to environmental pollutants. These approaches have identified significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci on mouse chromosomes 1, 6, 11, and 17. Physical mapping and comparative mapping between human and mouse genomes will yield candidate susceptibility genes that may be tested by association studies in human subjects. Human studies and mouse modeling will provide important insight to understanding genetic factors that contribute to differential susceptibility to air pollutants

  8. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  9. Samplings of urban particulate matter for mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of a specific program relating to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of urban particulate matter, an experimental arrangement has been developed to sample aerosuspended particles from the external environment carried indoor by means of a fan. Instrumentation was placed directly in the air flow to minimize particle losses, and consisted of total filter, collecting particles without any size separation; cascade impactor, fractioning urban particulate to obtain separate samples for analyses; an optical device, for real time monitoring of aerosol concentration, temperature and relative humidity sensors. Some of the samples obtained were analysed to investigate: particle morphology, aerosol granulometric distributions, effect of relative humidity on collected particulate, amount of ponderal mass compared with real time optical determinations. The results obtained are reported here, together with some considerations about carbonaceous particles, in urban areas mainly originated from diesel exhausts, their degree of agglomeration and role to vehiculate substances into the human respiratory

  10. Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter in Venice air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Barbaro, Elena; Morabito, Elisa; Toscano, Giuseppa; Donateo, Antonio; Cesari, Daniela; Contini, Daniele; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Harbours are important hubs for economic growth in both tourism and commercial activities. They are also an environmental burden being a source of atmospheric pollution often localized near cities and industrial complexes. The aim of this study is to quantify the relative contribution of maritime traffic and harbour activities to atmospheric pollutant concentration in the Venice lagoon. The impact of ship traffic was quantified on various pollutants that are not directly included in the current European legislation for shipping emission reduction: (i) gaseous and particulate PAHs; (ii) metals in PM10; and (iii) PM10 and PM2.5. All contributions were correlated with the tonnage of ships during the sampling periods and results were used to evaluate the impact of the European Directive 2005/33/EC on air quality in Venice comparing measurements taken before and after the application of the Directive (year 2010). The outcomes suggest that legislation on ship traffic, which focused on the issue of the emissions of sulphur oxides, could be an efficient method also to reduce the impact of shipping on primary particulate matter concentration; on the other hand, we did not observe a significant reduction in the contribution of ship traffic and harbour activities to particulate PAHs and metals. Graphical abstract Impact of maritime traffic on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and particulate matter and evaluation of the effect of an European Directive on air quality in Venice. PMID:26681325

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  12. Gaseous pollutants in particulate matter epidemiology: confounders or surrogates?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarnat, J A; Schwartz, J.; Catalano, P J; Suh, H H

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiologic studies use ambient pollutant concentrations as surrogates of personal exposure. Strong correlations among numerous ambient pollutant concentrations, however, have made it difficult to determine the relative contribution of each pollutant to a given health outcome and have led to criticism that health effect estimates for particulate matter may be biased due to confounding. In the current study we used data collected from a multipollutant exposure study conducted i...

  13. Electrically heated particulate matter filter soot control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2016-03-15

    A regeneration system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A control module determines a current soot loading level of the PM filter and compares the current soot loading level to a predetermined soot loading level. The control module permits regeneration of the PM filter when the current soot loading level is less than the predetermined soot loading level.

  14. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Cox, Jill; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Zell, Erica

    2013-12-01

    Fine particulate matter is one of the key global pollutants affecting human health. Satellite and ground-based monitoring technologies as well as chemical transport models have advanced significantly in the past 50 years, enabling improved understanding of the sources of fine particles, their chemical composition, and their effect on human and environmental health. The ability of air pollution to travel across country and geographic boundaries makes particulate matter a global problem. However, the variability in monitoring technologies and programs and poor data availability make global comparison difficult. This paper summarizes fine particle monitoring, models that integrate ground-based and satellite-based data, and communications, then recommends steps for policymakers and scientists to take to expand and improve local and global indicators of particulate matter air pollution. One of the key set of recommendations to improving global indicators is to improve data collection by basing particulate matter monitoring design and stakeholder communications on the individual country, its priorities, and its level of development, while at the same time creating global data standards for inter-country comparisons. When there are good national networks that produce consistent quality data that is shared openly, they serve as the foundation for better global understanding through data analysis, modeling, health impact studies, and communication. Additionally, new technologies and systems should be developed to expand personal air quality monitoring and participation of non-specialists in crowd-sourced data collections. Finally, support to the development and improvement of global multi-pollutant indicators of the health and economic effects of air pollution is essential to addressing improvement of air quality around the world.

  15. Establishing the origin of particulate matter across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Martijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. In this paper we like to provide an overview of recent source apportionment studies aimed at PM and its precursors carried out at TNO. The source apportionment module that tracks the origin of modelled particulate matter distributions throughout a LOTOS-EUROS simulation will be explained. To optimally apply this technology dedicated emission inventories, e.g. fuel type specific, need to be generated. Applications to Europe shows that in northwestern Europe the contribution of transport and agricultural emissions dominate the PM mass concentrations, especially during episodic events. In eastern Europe, the domestic and energy sector are much more important. In southern Europe the picture is more mixed, although the frequent high levels of desert dust stand out. Evaluation of the source allocation against experimental data and PMF analyses is challenging as there is only a limited availability of source specific tracers or factors that can be used for direct comparison. Nonetheless, for the available tracers such as vanadium for heavy fuel oil combustion an evaluation is very well possible. The source apportionment technique can also be used to interpret particulate matter formation efficiencies. It will be shown that the conversion rates for the secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (NOx, NH3 and SO2) have changed during the last 20 years. A particular problem is related to the fact that CTMs systematically underestimate observed PM levels, which means that the contribution of certain source categories (natural, agriculture, combustion) are underestimated. Future developments needed to improve the source apportionment information concerning process knowledge, data assimilation as well as model implementation will be discussed. Specific challenges concerning the

  16. Quality assessment on airborne particulate matter of k0-INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of airborne particulate matter (APM) by k0-NAA was assessed using: BCR reference material (RM) simulated air-filters, synthetic air-filters prepared by spiking blank filters with standard solutions, and real APM filters. k0-INAA is a suitable technique for the analysis of APM, delivering accurate and precise results. However, the quality assessment of APM analysis appears to be a difficult task. (author)

  17. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological and environmental monitoring was carried out at a steel processing sector of a steel plant in Portugal. Approximately 70 workers were surveyed for their respiratory function and blood elemental contents as indicators for a long-term exposure. The characterisation of chemical elements in air at the workplace was also evaluated taking in account the separation of particles by their aerodynamic diameter. Two fractions were collected, a coarse fraction for particles below 10 μm and above 2 μm, and a fine fraction for particles below 2 μm. PIXE and INAA analytical techniques were used for the determination of blood and aerosol elemental concentrations. Up to 12 elements (Na, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb) were determined in blood and so far, up to 18 elements for aerosols (e.g., Na, Al Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg, and Pb). The concentrations of the essential elements in blood (e.g., Fe, Zn and Se) were found to be altered relative to a reference Portuguese group constituted by non-exposed persons. Relative to the blood average elemental contents for As, Sb, Hg and Pb, the levels determined were below maximum permissible concentrations or reference values, except for Pb. Nevertheless, concentrations above maximum limit values were determined for some of the surveyed subjects. There are evidences that the levels of Se, Cu, and Sb in blood are influenced by exposure. Also, living habits (smoking and other activities) and pulmonary affections may modulate As, Pb and Zn concentrations in blood. For all the chemical elements identified in the particulate matter of the working atmosphere the limit values indicated in the Portuguese regulation were not exceeded, except for Fe. (author)

  18. Evaluation of total suspended particulate matter in some urban and industrial cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental studies are very important as the living beings depend greatly on the conditions of the environment. Air is an important component of the environment, which greatly affects the health of humans, animals and plants. Environmental problems in Pakistan are growing with the rise in total sectorial growth in population, economy and industrialization. In connection with atmospheric pollution, measurement of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Wah Cantt. and Khanispur (background area) has been carried out and compared to that of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Standards. (author)

  19. Toward the Complete Characterization of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter: Derivatization and Two-Dimensional Comprehensive Gas Chromatography/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry as a Method for the Determination of Carboxylic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Alexandra Jeanne

    Understanding the composition of atmospheric organic particulate matter (OPM) is essential for predicting its effects on climate, air quality, and health. However, the polar oxygenated fraction (PO-OPM), which includes a significant mass contribution from carboxylic acids, is difficult to speciate and quantitatively determine by current analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method of chemical derivatization and two-dimensional GC with time of flight MS (GCxGC/TOF-MS) was examined in this study for its efficacy in: 1) quantifying a high percentage of the total organic carbon (TOC) mass of a sample containing PO-OPM; 2) quantitatively determining PO-OPM components including carboxylic acids at atmospherically relevant concentrations; and 3) tentatively identifying PO-OPM components. Two derivatization reagent systems were used in this study: BF3/butanol for the butylation of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and acidic ketones, and BSTFA for the trimethylsilylation (TMS) of carboxylic acids and alcohols. Three alpha-pinene ozonolysis OPM filter samples and a set of background filter samples were collected by collaborators in a University of California, Riverside environmental chamber. Derivatization/GCxGC TOF-MS was used to tentatively identify some previously unidentified α-pinene ozonolysis products, and also to show the characteristics of all oxidation products determined. Derivatization efficiencies as measured were 40-70% for most butyl derivatives, and 50-58% for most trimethylsilyl derivatives. A thermal optical method was used to measure the TOC on each filter, and a value of the quantifiable TOC mass using a gas chromatograph was calculated for each sample using GCxGC separation and the mass-sensitive response of a flame ionization detector (FID). The TOC quantified using TMS and GCxGC-FID (TMS/TOCGCxGC FID) accounted for 15-23% of the TOC measured by the thermal-optical method. Using TMS and GCxGC/TOF-MS, 8.85% of the

  20. Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of atmospheric particulates in western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; Mirnejad, Hassan; Feiznia, Sadat; McQueen, Ken G.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the mineralogy and physico-chemical properties of atmospheric particulates collected at Abadan (southwestern Iran) near the Persian Gulf coast and Urmia (northwestern Iran) during ambient and dust events over 6 months (winter 2011; spring 2012). Particle sizes collected were: TSP (total suspended particulates); PM10 (particulates calcareous soils of the region. SEM observations indicated a wide range of particle morphologies over the 1-50 μm size range, with spherical, platy, cubic, elongate and prismatic shapes and rounding from angular to rounded. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of TSP samples from both sites for non-dusty periods indicated that the sampled mineral suite contained Al, Mg, Na, Cl, P, S, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, and Si, mostly reflecting calcite, quartz, aluminosilicates, clays, gypsum and halite. Additionally, As, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sc, Nd, W, Ce, La, Ba and Ni were detected in TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected during dust events.

  2. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-01

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs (wash waters, first-order desorption rates for PAHs with log Kow > 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples. PMID:27312518

  3. Application of 2D-GCMS reveals many industrial chemicals in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammed S.; West, Charles E.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Rowland, Steven J.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2013-02-01

    Samples of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) have been collected in Birmingham, UK and extracted with dichloromethane prior to analysis by two-dimensional GC separation and TOFMS analysis. Identification of compounds using the NIST spectral library has revealed a remarkable diversity of compounds, some of which have not been previously reported in airborne analyses. Groups of compounds identified in this study include a large number of oxygenated VOC including linear and branched compounds, substituted aromatic compounds and alicyclic compounds, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic and alicyclic compounds, organic nitrogen compounds, branched chain VOC and substituted aromatic VOC, phthalates, organo-phosphates and organo-sulphate compounds. Many of the compounds identified are mass production chemicals, which due to their semi-volatility enter the atmosphere and subsequently partition onto pre-existing aerosol. Their contribution to the toxicity of airborne particulate matter is currently unknown but might be significant. The diverse industrial uses and potential sources of the identified compounds are reported.

  4. Spatial correlativity of atmospheric particulate components simultaneously collected in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Oku, Yuichiro; Kishikawa, Naoya; Deguchi, Yuya; Sera, Nobuyuki; Seiyama, Tetsurou; Horasaki, Kazunori; Arashidani, Keiichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takako; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Inaba, Yohei; Tonokura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kokunai, Osamu; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-02-01

    The simultaneous sampling of total suspended particles was performed at 14 sites in Japan during July 2008-June 2009. The spatial correlativity of each particulate composition toward Osaka was obtained for nine selected sites to overview the chemical composition and geographical distribution of particulate components across a wide range of areas nationwide. The spatial correlatives of atmospheric particulate components were extended to an even wider range of areas up to 950 km distance (meso-alpha scale region, >200 km) for a far-reaching distance analysis unique in the literature. Overall, the spatial correlations of ionic species and both organic and elemental carbons were significant, suggesting their shared advections, including their long-range transport from East Asia. Although sulfate ions are widely dispersed across Japan, such is not necessarily correlated with organic and elemental carbon, possibly indicating that the sulfate emission source, including long-range transport, differs from that of carbonaceous particulates. By contrast, the characteristics of spatial correlatives of metallic constituents vary; for example, particulate Pb and Cd show a significantly wide range of spatial correlatives to Osaka, while Mn-though limited to cities neighboring Osaka-shows significant spatial correlations. Other metallic constituents showed no significant spatial correlatives, indicating the effects of local pollutants. Moreover, the extent of the spatial dispersion of the particulate components and the relationships among chemical components were analyzed via factor analysis to highlight the effects of long-range inflow and local original emissions. In this treatment, 13 particulate components among the 19 measured were implicated in long-range transport. PMID:26753629

  5. Distribution of particulate organic matter in Rajapur and Vagothan estuarines (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tulaskar, A.S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    The distribution of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and particulate proteins (PP) in the suspended particulate matter was studied. The POC, PCHO and PP concentrations ranged from 176 to 883 mu g.l/1, 115 to 647 mu...

  6. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    Even in well-studied, data-rich regions of the United States and Europe, understanding ambient particulate matter (PM, aka aerosols) remains a challenge. Atmospheric aerosols exhibit chemical heterogeneity, spatial and seasonal variability, and result in a wide range of health impacts (mortality, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, eye irritation, and others). In addition, aerosols play an important role in climate, exerting warming effects (black carbon), cooling effects (sulfate and organic carbon), and affecting precipitation and cloud cover. Characterizing the emission sources, concentrations, transport patterns, and impacts is particularly difficult in developing countries, where data are scarce, emissions are high, and health impacts are often severe. We are pleased to present this focus issue of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) devoted to the study of PM on an international scale. Our authors are leading researchers who each bring cross-cutting analysis to this critical health and environmental issue. Collectively, the research presented here contributes to our understanding of PM sources, processes, and impacts, while highlighting key steps forward. In this issue, Zhang et al examine the size distribution and composition of emitted anthropogenic PM in China, finding that the characteristics of primary aerosol emissions differ significantly between industrialized and developing regions in China. Concentration measurements of PM, like detailed emissions inventories, are rare in the developing world. van Vliet and Kinney analyze fine particles in Nairobi based on monitoring data for PM2.5 and black carbon. Using measurements from multiple locations of differing proximity to roadways, the authors evaluate traffic-source contributions to PM exposure. The impact of emission location and exposed population are also evaluated by Liu and Mauzerall, but on a continent-to-continent scale. The authors quantify the connection between SO2 emissions and

  7. Quality control technique for high-volume atmospheric particulate sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control technique was developed for high-volume atmospheric particulate sampler. The flow meter of PMS-800 sampler was calibrated by an ISA1932 nozzle flow meter, and the global collection efficiency of PMS-800 sampler was tested by a type 2031 mobile sampler. The results show that the flowrate relative deviation between ISA1932 nozzle flow meter and PMS-800 sampler flow meter is less than 5%., and the global collection efficiency relative deviation between type 2031 sampler and PMS-800 sampler is less than 10%. The performance of PMS-800 sampler meets the specifications with the request of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This method can be applied to quality control for high-volume atmospheric particulate sampler. (authors)

  8. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  9. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  10. Particulate matter and health - from air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to search for respiratory system particular aggressors to which workers are submitted in their labouring activity. The work plan under the current IAEA contract comprise a prospective study to identify particulate matter deposited in the human respiratory ducts and lung tissue and workers respiratory health status survey at a steel plant, Siderurgia Nacional (SN). So far, the selection of areas of interest at SN, workers exposed, airborne particulate monitoring sites according to the periodicity of labouring cycles, and the beginning of workers medical survey have been achieved and/or initiated. The SN selected area, where steel is processed and steel casting is achieved, involve approximately 80 workers, most of them working at that location for more than 15 years. Blood elemental content data determined by PIXE and INAA and a preliminary health status evaluation from 32 of the 80 workers included in this survey are presented and discussed. (author)

  11. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  13. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  14. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  15. Elemental compositions of atmospheric particulates collected in Japan in 2002 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, fine SPM (atmospheric suspended particulate matter) is concerned for its impact to human heath. In USA, concentration of fine SPM, PM2.5, in the atmosphere is regulated legally. In the Metropolitan area of Japan, concentration of particulate matter in exhaust from diesel cars, which is one of major sources of PM2.5, is regulated. We have been collecting SPM at Hachioji and Sakata in Japan from 2002 and determining elemental concentrations in SPM by nuclear analytical methods. In this study, elemental characteristics of SPM collected at Hachioji and at Sakata in Japan from 2002 to 2004 are described. Atmospheric particulates were collected using NILU filter holder included PM10 inlet and two Nuclepore polycarbonate filters of different pore sizes (8.0 μm and 0.4 μm) at Hachioji and Sakata, Japan. Hachioji is an urban area and about 40 km west to the center of Tokyo. Sakata is a rural area and faces to the Japan Sea. Polycarbonate filters with SPM were cut in half. One half was folded in square- (10 mm x 10 mm), and was firstly subjected to prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA). Then, INAA was performed for the same sample as used for PGA. In INAA, elemental concentrations were determined by ko standardization method. Mean particulate concentrations of coarse and fine particulates were 15 and 14 g/m3 at Hachioji, and 9.4 and 9.7 g/m3 at Sakata, respectively. And mean weight ratios (fine/coarse) were 1.0 and 1.5 for Hachioji and Sakata, respectively. At Sakata, high particulate concentrations caused by the yellow sand storm were observed in March and April in 2002. About 40 elemental concentrations in SPM were determined by PGA and INAA. Mean elemental concentration values for 3 years vary from ∼l03 ng/m3 for S to ∼10-3 ng/m3 for Au. The concentration level of coarse and fine particulates for most elements are not largely different between the two cities, except for several elements. It was found that concentrations of some elements such as Ag, Cu, and W

  16. Atmospheric particulate mercury at the urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    did not occur. Our investigations confirmed that Hg in urban aerosol samples was predominantly related to local industrial and commercial emissions, whereas the main source of Hg in particulate matter collected at the forest site was connected with regional anthropogenic processes. This paper provides the results of the first long-term measurements of size-fractionated particulate mercury conducted in central Poland, which could be an important insight into atmospheric Hg processes within such a scarcely investigated part of Europe. PMID:26411447

  17. Size-resolved particulate matter composition in Beijing during pollution and dust events

    OpenAIRE

    Dillner, Ann M.; Schauer, James J; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Cass, Glen R.

    2006-01-01

    Each spring, Beijing, China, experiences dust storms which cause high particulate matter concentrations. Beijing also has many anthropogenic sources of particulate matter including the large Capitol Steel Company. On the basis of measured size segregated, speciated particulate matter concentrations, and calculated back trajectories, three types of pollution events occurred in Beijing from 22 March to 1 April 2001: dust storms, urban pollution events, and an industrial pollution event. For eac...

  18. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on particulate organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate organic matter (POM) is a key organic matter fraction which can influence soil fertility. Its interactions with hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) have not been characterized and the mechanisms of retention of HOCs by POM remain unclear. In the present study, sorption behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) by POMs separated from different soils were examined and the POMs were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that POMs were mainly composed of aliphatic components with high polarity. The different original POMs showed similar chemical composition and configuration. Sorption behaviors of PAHs indicated that there was no significant difference in sorption capacity among the POMs. Sorption of NAP and PHE by POMs displayed a nonlinear isotherm, while sorption of PYR yielded a linear isotherm. No significant hysteresis and ionic strength effect were observed for PAH desorption from the POMs.

  19. Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzzi, S.; Baltensperger, U.; Carslaw, K.; Decesari, S.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Facchini, M. C.; Fowler, D.; Koren, I.; Langford, B.; Lohmann, U.; Nemitz, E.; Pandis, S.; Riipinen, I.; Rudich, Y.; Schaap, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Spracklen, D. V.; Vignati, E.; Wild, M.; Williams, M.; Gilardoni, S.

    2015-07-01

    The literature on atmospheric particulate matter (PM), or atmospheric aerosol, has increased enormously over the last 2 decades and amounts now to some 1500-2000 papers per year in the refereed literature. This is in part due to the enormous advances in measurement technologies, which have allowed for an increasingly accurate understanding of the chemical composition and of the physical properties of atmospheric particles and of their processes in the atmosphere. The growing scientific interest in atmospheric aerosol particles is due to their high importance for environmental policy. In fact, particulate matter constitutes one of the most challenging problems both for air quality and for climate change policies. In this context, this paper reviews the most recent results within the atmospheric aerosol sciences and the policy needs, which have driven much of the increase in monitoring and mechanistic research over the last 2 decades. The synthesis reveals many new processes and developments in the science underpinning climate-aerosol interactions and effects of PM on human health and the environment. However, while airborne particulate matter is responsible for globally important influences on premature human mortality, we still do not know the relative importance of the different chemical components of PM for these effects. Likewise, the magnitude of the overall effects of PM on climate remains highly uncertain. Despite the uncertainty there are many things that could be done to mitigate local and global problems of atmospheric PM. Recent analyses have shown that reducing black carbon (BC) emissions, using known control measures, would reduce global warming and delay the time when anthropogenic effects on global temperature would exceed 2 °C. Likewise, cost-effective control measures on ammonia, an important agricultural precursor gas for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), would reduce regional eutrophication and PM concentrations in large areas of Europe, China

  20. Validation of the determination of Pb, Cd, As, and Ni in particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Determination of metals in atmospheric aerosols is important because of their toxic effects on human health. Analysis of Pb, Cd, As, and Ni in the PM10 fraction of suspended particulate matter was carried out by ICPMS. Digestion of samples was performed in a closed vessel microwave digestion system at 220 oC using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Accurate results can be obtained only by application of a validated method. In this contribution, results of several validation performance characteristic (e.g. method detection limit, recovery rate, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, homogeneity) will be presented. (author)

  1. Particulate matter in the indoor environment of museums in the megacity of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavicchioli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollutants can have serious impacts on the preservation of São Paulo's tangible cultural heritage. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a monitoring campaign focussed on particulate matter (PM that was conducted in three of the most important museums of the São Paulo megacity (Brazil: the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE-USP, the Museu Paulista (MP-USP, and the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo (PE. These museums exhibit indoor PM and black carbon (BC concentrations consistent with their urban locations and their specific methods for managing the indoor environment.

  2. Photoinduced particulate matter in a parenteral formulation for bisnafide, an experimental antitumor agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, J T; Chan, L L; Walker, J T; Segretario, J; Everlof, J G; Hussain, M A

    1999-08-01

    This paper assesses the cause of particulate formation in vials of the experimental antitumor agent bisnafide and investigates pharmaceutical techniques to reduce the number of particulates in the product. Solution preparation and particulate isolation were performed under Class 100 laminar air flow. Reversed-phase HPLC and infrared microscopy were used to characterize drug and isolated particulate matter, whereas a Hiac particle counter was used to quantify the particulate matter. Particulate matter was observed following agitation of the drug solutions and was found to be associated with specific lots of drug substance. HPLC of the isolated particulate matter indicated that the particulates consisted largely of bisnafide and impurities that were identified as the products of photodegradation, confirmed to be the result of the photolytic cleavage of bisnafide to form a poorly soluble aldehyde. The aldehyde may, in turn, interact with bisnafide molecules to form the particulate matter as suggested by the observed pH-dependent reversibility of the particulate phenomenon. The particulate matter could be reduced by protecting solutions of bisnafide from light during chemical synthesis and production of the dosage form and, alternatively, by reducing the solution pH to 3.0 or less, addition of surfactants below their critical micelle concentration, and removal of impurities by froth flotation of the bisnafide solutions. PMID:10434290

  3. Tracking Petroleum Refinery Emission Events Using Lanthanum and Lanthanides as Elemental Markers for Fine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P.; Chellam, S.; Fraser, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation reports the development and application of an analytical method to quantify the rare earth elements (REEs) in atmospheric particulate matter and emissions of catalyst material from the petroleum refining industry. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry following high temperature/high pressure microwave digestion has been used to study the REE composition of several fresh and spent catalysts used in fluidized-bed catalytic cracking (FCC) units in petroleum refineries as well as in ambient atmospheric fine particulate matter collected in Houston, TX. The results show that the routine emissions from local FCC units in Houston contribute a constant and low amount to ambient PM2.5 of ~0.1 micrograms per cubic meter. However, a significant (33 - 106 fold) increase in the contributions of FCC emissions to PM2.5 is quantified during an upset emission event compared with background levels associated with routine operation. The impact of emissions from the local refinery that reported the emission event was tracked to a site approximately 50 km downwind from the source, illustrating the potential exposure of humans over a large geographical area through the long-range transport of atmospheric fine particles as well as the power of elemental signatures to understand the sources of fine particles.

  4. Particulate matter analysis at elementary schools in Curitiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigo, Devanir; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Janissek, Paulo R.; Godoi, Ricardo H.M. [Positivo University, Curitiba (Brazil); Makarovska, Yaroslava; Krata, Agnieszka; Grieken, Rene van [University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Antwerp (Belgium); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [University of the Witwatersrand, Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, Wits (South Africa); Alfoldy, Balint [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Health Physics Department, Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-06-15

    The particulate matter indoors and outdoors of the classrooms at two schools in Curitiba, Brazil, was characterised in order to assess the indoor air quality. Information concerning the bulk composition was provided by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). From the calculated indoor/outdoor ratios and the enrichment factors it was observed that S-, Cl- and Zn-rich particles are of concern in the indoor environment. In the present research, the chemical compositions of individual particles were quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis low Z EPMA. Samples were further analysed for chemical and morphological aspects, determining the particle size distribution and classifying them according to elemental composition associations. Five classes were identified based on major elemental concentrations: aluminosilicate, soot, organic, calcium carbonate and iron-rich particles. The majority of the respirable particulate matter found inside of the classroom was composed of soot, biogenic and aluminosilicate particles. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory system were calculated revealing the deposition of soot at alveolar level. The results showed that on average 42% of coarse particles are deposited at the extrathoracic level, whereas 24% are deposited at the pulmonary region. The fine fraction showed a deposition rate of approximately 18% for both deposition levels. (orig.)

  5. Capture of air particulate matter and gaseous Hg0 by ionic liquids analyzed by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been extensively employed to study the elements associated to air particulate matter (Pm). However, the atmosphere is a very complex system and inorganic pollutants may be also in gaseous phases. Aerosol monitoring does not allow the determination of all the volatile inorganic compounds, since they are not retained in the filters, or if they are trapped, the analysis under vacuum results in a partial or total loss of them. In order to extend the applications of PIXE there is a need to develop new methods to simultaneously capture particulate matter and volatile substances. Ionic liquids (Il) result from combinations of organic cations and anions that may be liquid at room temperature. The physicochemical characteristics of Il s allow them to absorb atmospheric trace metals present in solid and gaseous phases, a task normally performed with independent sampling methods. In this work we explored this capability of Il s as monitors of chemical species which can be found in the gas phase and as particulate matter. The tested Il s included 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium-Hexafluorophosphate (BMIM) (PF6) for Pm and Hg capture; and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (BMIM) (Scn) only for Hg capture. Elemental analysis of both experiments was performed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Changes in the molecular structure on BMIM PF6 due to the Hg binding were followed by infrared spectroscopy. (BMIM( (PF6) proved to be successful as passive collector of Pm. However when both were used for Hg capture, (BMIM) (Scn) showed better selectivity. These preliminary results showed the potential of Il s for simultaneous uptake of Pm and volatile inorganic compounds. (Author)

  6. Composition of particulate organic matter sampled in the troposphere over Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Voronetskaya, Natalya G.; Pevneva, Galina S.; Golovko, Anatoly K.; Kozlov, Alexander S.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present some results of the analysis of organic compounds contained in the particulate matter sampled in the Siberian air shed during monthly research flights in 2012-2013. Aerosol sampling was performed in the tropospheric layer from 500 to 7000 m over the Karakan pine forest located on the east bank of the Novosibirsk Reservoir (River Ob). The Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory was used as a research platform for in-situ measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and aerosols, as well as a particulate matter collection on PTFE filters. Analysis of the particulate organic matter sampled in the Siberian air shed in 2012-2013 allowed us to draw the following conclusions: the total content of n-alkanes increases in the spring and decreases in the winter. the length of the n-alkane homologous series had no seasonal dependence. maximum in the molecular weight distribution of n-alkanes varies depending on the season; compounds with C17, C22 and C25 chains dominated in winter and spring 2012, whereas in summer - C17 ones; in 2013 compounds with C17 chains dominated in winter, C18-C20 - in spring, and C21 and C23 - in summer. Carbon preference index (CPI) value for a given chain length of the homologous series (on the average from C12 to C28) did not reflect the contribution of sources of n-alkanes in the atmosphere. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  7. Large scale air monitoring: lichen vs. air particulate matter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossbach, M; Jayasekera, R; Kniewald, G; Thang, N H

    1999-07-15

    Biological indicator organisms have been widely used for monitoring and banking purposes for many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between organisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and particular matrix characteristics of air particulate matter as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution is discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300-500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of 3-4 months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per 3 months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichens such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Hg and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cz, Zn and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). PMID:10474261

  8. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 52, 53, and 58 RIN 2060-AO47 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... revise the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM). This action...: Questions concerning the ``National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter'' proposed...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1637 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On August 19, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments, from the Director...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1489 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On March 29, 1989, the Air Quality Officer for the... inventory, and other tasks that may be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the PM-10 Group II SIPs....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2306 - Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP... Particulate Matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. On July 18, 1988, the Governor of Texas submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that contained commitments for implementing all of...

  12. Particulate matter and health - From air to human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the environmental influence in the respiratory health of workers exposed to metal pollutants in their labour activities (metal processing industry). The clinical, respiratory functional and morphological changes were related with blood elemental concentrations in order to evaluate the influence of exposure to inhaled metal airborne particles. In addition, the deposition of particulate matter in the respiratory system was assessed in humans and in an animal model to infer possible mechanisms of interaction of metals with the respiratory tissue. The respiratory affections encountered for the exposure group through clinical, functional and morphological data are related with the number of years of exposure and with high levels of Zn in blood. Methodologies applied have into account the quality of results produced. Interlaboratory checks were carried out using certified reference materials and standard procedures were initiated to assure traceability in chemical analysis of biological matrices using analytical techniques based on X ray spectrometry. (author)

  13. Characterization of coarse particulate matter in school gyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the mass concentration, mineral composition and morphology of particles resuspended by children during scheduled physical education in urban, suburban and rural elementary school gyms in Prague (Czech Republic). Cascade impactors were deployed to sample the particulate matter. Two fractions of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5 and PM2.5-1.0) were characterized by gravimetry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. Two indicators of human activity, the number of exercising children and the number of physical education hours, were also recorded. Lower mass concentrations of coarse particulate matter were recorded outdoors (average PM10-2.5 4.1-7.4 μg m-3 and PM2.5-1.0 2.0-3.3 μg m-3) than indoors (average PM10-2.5 13.6-26.7 μg m-3 and PM2.5-1.0 3.7-7.4 μg m-3). The indoor concentrations of coarse aerosol were elevated during days with scheduled physical education with an average indoor-outdoor (I/O) ratio of 2.5-16.3 for the PM10-2.5 and 1.4-4.8 for the PM2.5-1.0 values. Under extreme conditions, the I/O ratios reached 180 (PM10-2.5) and 19.1 (PM2.5-1.0). The multiple regression analysis based on the number of students and outdoor coarse PM as independent variables showed that the main predictor of the indoor coarse PM concentrations is the number of students in the gym. The effect of outdoor coarse PM was weak and inconsistent. The regression models for the three schools explained 60-70% of the particular dataset variability. X-ray spectrometry revealed 6 main groups of minerals contributing to resuspended indoor dust. The most abundant particles were those of crustal origin composed of Si, Al, O and Ca. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, in addition to numerous inorganic particles, various types of fibers and particularly skin scales make up the main part of the resuspended dust in the gyms. In conclusion, school gyms were found to be indoor microenvironments with high concentrations of coarse particulate

  14. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  15. Some improvements in air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, M. M.; Freitas, M. C.; Almeida, S. M.; Reis, M. A.

    2001-06-01

    At ITN, analysis of air particulate matter has been made since 1999, stimulated by a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Samples are analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedures for filter analysis have recently been changed, leading to the present comparison between the old and the new procedures. For INAA, in this new procedure we look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of 115mIn in addition to the gamma-ray line of 527.9 keV used for the detection of 115Cd. Cd evaluations obtained by both gamma lines are compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Preliminary results for Cd, As, Ni, and Hg are shown for a region in the north of Lisbon.

  16. Some improvements in air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinha, M.M. E-mail: mmanuelf@itn1.itn.pt; Freitas, M.C.; Almeida, S.M.; Reis, M.A

    2001-06-01

    At ITN/ analysis of air particulate matter has been made since 1999/ stimulated by a contract for air quality monitoring of an urban waste incinerator. Samples are analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedures for filter analysis have recently been changed/ leading to the present comparison between the old and the new procedures. For INAA/ in this new procedure we look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of {sup 115m}In in addition to the gamma-ray line of 527.9 keV used for the detection of {sup 115}Cd. Cd evaluations obtained by both gamma lines are compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Preliminary results for Cd/ As/ Ni/ and Hg are shown for a region in the north of Lisbon.

  17. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  18. Inhibition of intercellular communication by airborne particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussen, G.A.H. (Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Toxicology)

    1991-04-01

    To investigate the inhibition of gap junction mediated intercellular communication (IC) by extracts of airborne particulate matter (APM), V79 cells were incubated with extracts of APM and subsequently microinjected with the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow, after which the number of fluorescent (= communicating) cells was determined. To compare inhibitory effects on IC with mutagenicity, APM was also tested in the Salmonella microsome assay. Six different extracts were tested, two outdoor extracts representing a heavily polluted and a relatively clean sample, and four indoor extracts, taken either in livingrooms with or without wood combustion in an open fire place, or in a room with or without cigarette smoking. Non-cytotoxic doses of outdoor and indoor APM inhibited IC in V79 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Mutagenicity data and IC data were correlated. These results suggest that APM has tumor promoter activity in addition to mutagenic activity. (orig.).

  19. Transport of airborne particulate matters originating from Mentougou, Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a coupled regional air quality modeling system is applied to investigate the time spatial variations in airborne particulate matters (PM10), originating from Mentougou to Beijing municipal area in the period of April 1-7, 2004, and the influences of complex terrain and meteorological conditions upon boundary layer structure and PMio concentration distributions. An intercomparison of the performance with CALPUFF against the observed data is presented and an examination of scatter plots is provided. The statistics show that the correlation coefficient and STD between the modeled and observed data are 0.86 and 0.03, respectively. Analysis of model results illustrates that the pollutants emitted from Mentougou can be transported to Beijing municipal area along certain transport pathways, and PMio concentration distributions show heterogeneity characteristics. Contributions of the Mentougou sources to the PMio concentrations in Beijing municipal area are up to 0.1-15 μg/m3.

  20. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release of...... cytokines and changes of the respiratory function. Experimental exposures of eight atopic but otherwise healthy subjects were performed in a climate chamber under controlled conditions. The three controlled exposures were about 75 microg/m3 total suspended particulate matter, 0.3 p.p.m. ozone, and the...... combination of these. The exposure duration was 3 h. The outcome measures were interleukins and cells in nasal lavages (NAL), respiratory function, bronchial metacholine responsiveness, rhinometry symptoms and general well-being in a questionnaire and time course of general irritation on a visual analogue...

  1. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  2. The origin of ambient particulate matter concentrations in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kranenburg, Richard; Kuenen, Jeroen; van Gijlswijk, René; Wichink Kruit, Roy; Segers, Arjo; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Schaap, Martijn

    2013-04-01

    Particulate matter poses a significant threat to human health. To be able to develop effective mitigation strategies, the origin of particulate matter needs to be established. The regional air quality model LOTOS-EUROS, equipped with a newly developed labeling routine, was used to establish the origin of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Netherlands for 2007-2009 at the source sector level, distinguishing between national and foreign sources. The results suggest that 70-80% of modeled PM10 and 80-95% of PM2.5 in the Netherlands is of anthropogenic origin. About 1/3 of anthropogenic PM10 is of Dutch origin and 2/3 originates in foreign countries. Agriculture and transport are the Dutch sectors with the largest contribution to PM10 mass in the Netherlands, whereas the foreign contribution is more equally apportioned to road transport, other transport, industry, power generation and agriculture. For the PM2.5 fraction, a larger share is apportioned to foreign and anthropogenic origin than for PM10, but the same source sectors are dominant. The national contribution to PM levels is significantly higher in the densely populated Randstad area than for the country on average and areas close to the borders. In general, the Dutch contribution to the concentration of primary aerosol is larger than for secondary species. The sectoral origin varies per component and is location and time dependent. During peak episodes, natural sources are less important than under normal conditions, whereas especially road transport and agriculture become more important.

  3. Some improvements on air particulate matter analysis by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At ITN analysis of air particulate matter is being made since 1994. Use is being made of PM10 Gent samplers with separation in two fractions: E.A.D. (equivalent aerodynamic diameter) < 2.5 μm and 2.5 μm < E.A.D. <10 μm. Costar-Nuclepore polycarbonate filters are used. Filters are routinely analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Heavy metals and other elements are determined. The procedure used consists in cutting the filter in three parts: one half for INAA, one quarter for PIXE and one quarter left for other eventual uses. For INAA, the half filter was rolled up, irradiated in pure polyethylene container and gamma measurement made including the irradiated polyethylene container. Blanks consisting of polyethylene container + half filter (clean) were also irradiated for impurity content correction. For some elements correction was quite relevant; therefore decision was taken is irradiating the rolled filter within a tin foil which after irradiation was removed and the half filter put into a polyethylene container not-irradiated. In this work comparison is made between the two situations, showing advantages and disadvantages of both procedures. For INAA, Cd-115 was used for Cd determination and very seldom the 527.9 keV gamma line was visible. Now we also look for the 336.2 keV gamma line of In-115m. In this work Cd results obtained by both gamma lines are shown and compared and detection limits for Cd are presented. Taking into account the EU directive 96/62/CE, which will demand very soon determination of Cd, As, Ni, and Hg, some results on these elements in air particulate matter collected in the neighbourhood of Lisbon are shown. (author)

  4. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  5. Assessment of bacterial pathogens in fresh rainwater and airborne particulate matter using Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) and in rainwater (RW) were detected using a robust and sensitive Real-Time PCR method. Both RW and PM were collected simultaneously in the tropical atmosphere of Singapore, which were then subjected to analysis for the presence of selected bacterial pathogens and potential pathogen of health concern ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila). These pathogens were found to be prevalent in both PM and RW samples with E. coli being the most prevalent potential pathogen in both types of samples. The temporal distribution of these pathogens in PM and RW was found to be similar to each other. Using the proposed microbiological technique, the atmospheric deposition (dry and wet deposition) of bacterial pathogens to lakes and reservoirs can be studied in view of growing concerns about the outbreak of waterborne diseases.

  6. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATION AND EMISSION FACTOR IN THREE DIFFERENT LAYING HEN HOUSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 concentration in three different laying hens houses (traditional battery cages with aerated open manure storage, aviary system and vertical tiered cages with manure belts with forced air drying and to evaluate particulate matter emission into atmosphere during one year of observation. Internal and external temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate, PM10 concentration have been continuously monitored in order to evaluate particulate matter concentration changes during the day and the season and to define PM10 emission factors. PM10 concentration was corrected by gravimetric technique to lower measurements error. In the aviary system house, TSP and fine particulate matter (particles smaller than 2.5 micron concentration was measured. Average yearly PM10 concentration was remarkably higher in the aviary system house with 0.215 mg m-3 vs 108 mg m-3 for the ventilated belt house and vs 0.094 mg m-3 for the traditional battery cages house. In the Aviary system housing, TSP concentration was 0.444 mg m-3 and PM2.5 was 0.032 mg m-3, highlighting the existence of a severe working environment for men and animals. Recorded values for PM10 emission were 0.433 mg h-1 hen-1 for battery cages housing type, 0.081 mg h-1 hen-1 for ventilated belt cages house, values lower than those available in literature, while the aviary system housing type showed the highest PM10 emission (1.230 mg h-1 hen-1 with appreciable peaks during the morning, together with the increased animal activity and daily farmer operations, as feed administration, cleaning and droppings removal.

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission limit for particulate matter. 2. Fabric filter control a. Install and operate a bag leak detection... Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection... Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits As stated in § 63.7500, you must comply with...

  8. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Teófilo

    2010-05-01

    Particulate air pollutants from industrial emissions and natural resource exploitation represent an important contribution to soil contamination. These atmospheric particles, usually settleable particulate matter form (which settle by gravity) are deposited on soil through both dry and wet. The most direct consequences on soil of air pollutants are acidification and salinization, not to mention the pollution that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution in soil composition. For this purpose, has been conducted a study of the composition of heavy metals in the settleable particulate matter in two locations (Almazora and Vila-real) with high industrial density (mainly ceramic companies) located in the ceramic cluster of Castellón (Spain). Settleable air particles samples were collected with a PS Standard Britannic captor (MCV-PS2) for monthly periods between January 2007 and December 2009. We analyzed the following elements: Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb and Bi which are highly toxic and have the property of accumulating in living organisms. It has been determined the concentration of heavy metals in the soluble fraction of settleable air particles by ICP-MS. The annual variation of the results obtained in both populations shows a decline over the study period the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed. This fact is associated with the steady implementation of corrective measures in the main industrial sector in the area based on the treatment of mineral raw materials. Moreover, this decline is, in turn, a lower intake of heavy metals to the soil. REFERENCES Gómez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330 Moral R., Gilkes R.J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Distribution of heavy

  9. The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Hualiang; Zeng, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; You, Jing; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Though rainfall is recognized as one of the main mechanisms to reduce atmospheric particulate pollution, few studies have quantified this effect, particularly the corresponding lag effect and threshold. This study aimed to investigate the association between rainfall and air quality using a distributed lag non-linear model. Daily data on ambient PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and from 2.5 to 10 μm) and meteorological factors were collected in Guangzhou and Xi'an from 2013 to 2014. A better washout effect was found for PM2.5-10 than for PM2.5, and the rainfall thresholds for both particle fractions were 7 mm in Guangzhou and 1 mm in Xi'an. The decrease in PM2.5 levels following rain lasted for 3 and 6 days in Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. Rainfall had a better washout effect in Xi'an compared with that in Guangzhou. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the washout effects of rainfall on particulate pollution, which may help to understand the category and sustainability of dust-haze and enforce anthropogenic control measures in time. PMID:27203467

  10. Study of particulate matter in Limeira (Brazil) using SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteras, Felippe B.; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2011-07-01

    Air pollution is a growing problem mainly in metropolitan areas in the world. The atmospheric pollutants are responsible for various environmental problems including the human health. Among the pollutants, the particulate matter is important, since it has a heterogeneous composition. The goal of this work was to analyze quantitatively the particulate matter in Limeira city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The sampling was made using a sequential filtering system, containing two filters putted in series, to collect fine and coarse fractions. After a removal in an acid medium, with ultrasound bath, the samples were analyzed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF). The results obtained for PM10 were in agreement with the standards defined by the Brazilian legislation and also with the standards established by USEPA. In all analyzed samples S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. Employing multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and cluster analysis) was possible to identify the emission sources. For coarse fraction the main emission source was soil dusty responsible for 57% of the total in the coarse fraction, followed by vehicular emission with 30% and industrial 13%. In the fine fraction soil dusty was the mainly emission source contributing with 79% of the total, followed by vehicular emission with 13% and finally the industrial emission responsible just for 8%. (author)

  11. Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter and NO(x) emissions using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B

    2013-05-01

    The next generation of diesel emission control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx reduction (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel emissions into the atmosphere in a single control device. PMID:23550802

  12. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1) at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Jungang Chen; Xinxiao Yu; Fenbing Sun; Xiaoxiu Lun; Yanlin Fu; Guodong Jia; Zhengming Zhang; Xuhui Liu; Li Mo; Huaxing Bi

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1) the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2) the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3) the particle interceptio...

  13. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter from small-scale peat fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I. J.; Black, R.; Walker, J. T.; Hays, M. D.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution emitted from peat fires can negatively impact regional air quality, visibility, climate, and human health. Peat fires can smolder over long periods of time and, therefore, can release significantly greater amounts of carbon into the atmosphere per unit area compared to burning of other types of biomass. However, few studies have characterized the gas and particulate emissions from peat burning. To assess the atmospheric impact of peat fires, particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified from controlled small-scale peat fire experiments. Major carbon emissions (i.e. CO2, CO, methane and total hydrocarbons) were measured during the peat burn experiments. Speciated PM mass was also determined from the peat burns from filter and polyurethane foam samples. Whole air samples were taken in SUMMA canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 82 trace VOCs. Additional gaseous carbonyl species were measured by sampling with dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated cartridges and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. VOCs with highest observed concentrations measured from the peat burns were propylene, benzene, chloromethane and toluene. Gas-phase carbonyls with highest observed concentrations included acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone. Emission factors of major pollutants will be compared with recommended values for peat and other biomass burning.

  14. Source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fine atmospheric particulates using stable carbon isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method is established to quantitatively partition fractional contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine atmospheric particulate matters by using stable carbon isotopic analysis. Dichloromethane extraction, TLC purification, and gas chromatography-combustion system and isotope mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), are used to measure the stable carbon isotope compositions (δ13C). The fractional contributions of coal combustion, vehicle exhaust and biomass burning to the PAHs in the fine particulate matters (PM2.5) collected in Jiading district, a suburb of Shanghai, are estimated. The results show that the δ13C values increase with decreasing molecular weight. The coal combustion and biomass burning play bigger role than vehicle exhaust in the PAHs, compared to the δ13C values of PAHs in all kinds of potential pollution sources. The estimated contributions from coal combustion,vehicle exhaust and biomass burning to PAHs of PM2.5 range from 3%- 21%, 29%- 33% and 46%- 67%, respectively, which agree well with the surrounding condition of the sampling site, indicating that it is feasible to estimate the fractional contributions of PAHs quantitatively by using stable carbon isotopic analysis. (authors)

  15. Determination of metals in atmospheric particulates using atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nineteen trace metals in atmospheric samples have been determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, using a graphite furnace for most elements. Paper filters have been used to collect air samples. The sample preparation procedure involves the removal of organic matter and the conversion of the metals to soluble salts by ashing the filters in an oxygen plasma at 125 deg C for 6 h. and by subsequent dissolution in HN03HCl solution. The sensitivities achieved are in the range of 2,5.10-5 and 6,3.10-3 μg/m3, for an air volume of 2000 m3. (author)

  16. Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Beelen, R; Wang, M.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We...... meta-analysis. RESULTS: The 245,782 cohort members contributed 3,229,220person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean, 13.1years), 1878 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. In the meta-analyses, elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer were associated with all elements except V; none was.......59; 1.12-2.26 per 2ng/m(3)) and PM10 K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PM10 and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed to...

  17. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Natalia D; Muresan, Ximena M; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Cervellati, Franco; Sticozzi, Claudia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Miracco, Clelia; Marchini, Timoteo; Evelson, Pablo; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased airborne particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O(2) species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles. PMID:26507108

  18. Airborne particulate matter collection and analysis by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) continues to pursue its air pollution research in support of the implementation of the 1999 Clean Air Act. The primary tool for analysis is X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) since the PPP-I is still on extended shut down. Following the workplan approved during the 1991 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactors, the PNRI collected airborne particulate matter using the Gent sampler. The sampling site selected for the program was Poveda Learning Center, located beside a major highway, the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue (EDSA) where the principal source of pollution is vehicular emissions. Samples collected up to August were analyzed by XRF using three sets of analytical parameters to allow optimized analysis of a wider range of elements including Na and Pb. Although the PNRI has no operating reactor, it has personnel who have trained in NAA but are unable to apply the technique. As mentioned in the 2001 Workshop, the PNRI is considering several options to resume reactor-related activities. Thus, it is necessary to ensure continuing availability of expertise in NAA in the PNRI. It looks forward to collaborating with other Institutes through the FNCA program for the analysis of samples by NAA and using reactor parameters from collaborating Institute, to obtain experience in the use of Ko. This would also allow validation of XRF data obtained for these samples. In return it can analyze samples for collaborating institutions to generate data on Pb and S, which are important for pollutant source apportionment. (author)

  19. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM2.5 and PM10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  20. Characteristics and cellular effects of ambient particulate matter from Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro tests using human adenocarcinomic alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and small mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line J774A.1 were conducted to test toxicity of six PM (particulate matter) samples from Beijing. The properties of the samples differ significantly. The production of inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α for J774A.1) and chemokine (IL-8 for A549) and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were used as endpoints. There was a positive correlation between water soluble organic carbon and DTT-based redox activity. Both cell types produced increased levels of inflammatory mediators and had higher level of intracelllar ROS, indicating the presence of PM-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which were dose-dependent and significantly different among the samples. The releases of IL-8 from A549 and TNF-α from J774A.1 were significantly correlated to PM size, Zeta potential, endotoxin, major metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. No correlation between ROS and these properties was identified. - Highlights: • Six PMs from Beijing were tested for toxicity using A549 and J774A.1 cell lines. • The properties of the PM samples differ significantly. • Dose-dependent inflammatory response and oxidative stress were found. • The release of inflammatory cytokine was significantly correlated to PM properties. • No correlation between ROS and PM properties was identified. - Cellular toxicity of PM2.5 from Beijing depends on their properties

  1. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2015-07-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM2.5 and PM10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. PMID:25795175

  2. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  3. 40 CFR 52.528 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.528 Section 52.528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... and Port Everglades plants of Florida Power and Light Company from the particulate emission limits...

  4. Seasonally varying nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of particulate organic matter in Lake Kinneret, Israel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hadas, O.; Altabet, M.A.; Agnihotri, R.

    Large temporal variations in the nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) species in Lake Kinneret occurred in response to seasonal phasing of dominant nitrogen cycle...

  5. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  6. Trueness, Precision, and Detectability for Sampling and Analysis of Organic Species in Airborne Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recovery. precision, limits of detection and quantitation, blank levels, calibration linearity, and agreement with certified reference materials were determined for two classes of organic components of airborne particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes usin...

  7. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Schaap, Martijn [TNO, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France); Drebszok, Kamila; Wyrwa, Artur [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Stetter, Daniel [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  8. Ambient particulate matter affects cardiac recovery in a Langendorff ischemia model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagate, Karim; Meiring, James J; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Cassee, Flemming R; Wiegand, Herbert; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Borm, Paul J A

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity among subjects with cardiovascular impairment. We hypothesized that exposure of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats to PM impairs the recovery of cardiovascular performance after coronary occlusion and

  9. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  10. On-Board Engine Exhaust Particulate Matter Sensor for HCCI and Conventional Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Matt; Matthews, Ron

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the research was to refine and complete development of an on-board particulate matter (PM) sensor for diesel, DISI, and HCCI engines, bringing it to a point where it could be commercialized and marketed.

  11. Cardiac Effects of Seasonal Ambient Particulate Matter and Ozone Co-exposure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundThe potential for seasonal differences in the physicochemical characteristics of ambient particulate matter (PM) to modify interactive effects with gaseous pollutants has not been thoroughly examined. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac responses in conscio...

  12. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  13. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  14. Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Yauk Carole L; Williams Andrew; Thomson Errol M; Vincent Renaud

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α under the control of ...

  15. Chronic exposure to particulate matter and risk of cardiovascular mortality: cohort study from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Eva; Ho, Wen-Chao; Lin, Meng-Hung; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality is limited in Asian populations. Methods We conducted a cohort study on the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality using 43,227 individuals in a civil servants health service in Taiwan. Each participant was assigned an exposure level of particulate matter based on their district of residence using air pollution data collected by the Taiwan E...

  16. Reduction of fine particulate matter in urban areas through biological fixation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article retrieves an experiment carried out in Milan under the tunnel connecting Viale Brianza and Viale Lunigiana that was aimed at assessing the efficacy of the system patented by the company Eurovix for the reduction of particulate matter by means of biological fixation of PM10 to the ground. at the same time we evaluated the reduction, by means of selective enzymatic degradation of IPA concentration absorbed on particulate matter

  17. Atmospheric Radio Signals From Galactic Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    If the dark matter of our galaxy is composed of nuggets of quarks or antiquarks in a colour superconducting phase there will be a small but non-zero flux of these objects through the Earth's atmosphere. A nugget of quark matter will deposit only a small fraction of its kinetic energy in the atmosphere and is unlikely to be detectable. If however the impacting object is composed of antiquarks the energy deposited can be quite large and contain a significant charged particle content. These relativistic secondary particles will subsequently be deflected by the earth's magnetic field resulting in the emission of synchrotron radiation. This work will argue that this radiation should be detectable at radio frequencies and that present and proposed experiments are capable of detecting such a signal.

  18. Quantitative elemental determination of the particulate matter in the atmosphere of Pachuca city and the Real del Monte village, Hidalgo by means of PIXE technique; Determinacion elemental cuantitativa de la materia particulada en la atmosfera de la ciudad de Pachuca y el poblado de Real del Monte, Hidalgo, mediante la tecnica PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasso G, C.L. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    All the pollutants that are generated so much of anthropogenic activities as natural cause effects to the health, and of course its increase the atmospheric pollution. Today in day for the great advance of the technology other pollutants are even generated but noxious to the human being's health, such it is the case of the particles, which are also called particulate matter airborne (MPA). This has motivated, to establish control measures leaning in collection strategies and certified analysis techniques, accurate and reliable. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) they have been carried out studies on particulate matter airborne. In 1991 it was installed, calibrated and validated the nuclear technique of atomic origin based on proton beams known as PIXE. The characterization of the (MPA) it is carried out applying this technique and the collection by means of Dichotomous collectors (SFU). The thesis work that is presented next, includes the topic of the atmospheric pollution by particulate matter airborne (MPA) in a mining region, inside the Hidalgo State. The study was carried out during the 1998 winter season, only embracing the whole month of March in alternate days giving a total of 112 samples. Two sites that are highly active in the mining were studied, these are: the Real del Monte town and the Hidalgo state capital: Pachuca. Four samples per day were collected beginning to the 7:00 am--7:00 pm (daytime period) and concluding to the 7:00 pm -7:00 am (nocturne period). The characterization of its elementary content is carried out using the X-ray emission induced by particles technique (PIXE) that is a nuclear technique able to analyze 23 chemical elements beginning from the Al to the Pb, it requires of a very small sample quantity, it is very sensitive and it is not destructive. This characterization one carries out so much for fraction PM{sub 2.5} (fine) like as PM{sub 10} (thick) in both sites, also it was analyzed the temporary

  19. Emissions of particulate matter from animal houses in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W. G.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Aarnink, André J. A.

    2015-06-01

    In the Netherlands, emissions from animal houses represent a major source of ambient particulate matter (PM). The objective of the present paper was to provide accurate and up to date concentrations and emission rates of PM10 and PM2.5 for commonly used animal housing systems, under representative inside and outside climate conditions and ventilation rates. We set up a national survey which covered 13 housing systems for poultry, pigs, and dairy cattle, and included 36 farms. In total, 202 24-h measurements were carried out, which included concentrations of inhalable PM, PM10, PM2.5, and CO2, ventilation rate, temperature, and relative humidity. On an animal basis, geometric mean emission rates of PM10 ranged from 2.2 to 12.0 mg h-1 in poultry and from 7.3 to 22.5 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM10 emission rate in dairy cattle was 8.5 mg h-1. Geometric mean emission rates of PM2.5 ranged from 0.11 to 2.41 mg h-1 in poultry and from 0.21 to 1.56 mg h-1 in pigs. The mean PM2.5 emission rate in dairy cattle was 1.65 mg h-1. Emissions are also reported per Livestock Unit and Heat Production Unit. PM emission rates increased exponentially with increasing age in broilers and turkeys and increased linearly with increasing age in weaners and fatteners. In laying hens, broiler breeders, sows, and dairy cattle, emission levels were variable throughout the year.

  20. Exposure to airborne particulate matter in the subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vânia; Moreno, Teresa; Minguillón, María Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; de Miguel, Eladio; Capdevila, Marta; Querol, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Barcelona subway system comprises eight subway lines, at different depths, with different tunnel dimensions, station designs and train frequencies. An extensive measurement campaign was performed in this subway system in order to characterise the airborne particulate matter (PM) measuring its concentration and investigating its variability, both inside trains and on platforms, in two different seasonal periods (warmer and colder), to better understand the main factors controlling it, and therefore the way to improve air quality. The majority of PM in the underground stations is generated within the subway system, due to abrasion and wear of rail tracks, wheels and braking pads caused during the motion of the trains. Substantial variation in average PM concentrations between underground stations was observed, which might be associated to different ventilation and air conditioning systems, characteristics/design of each station and variations in the train frequency. Average PM2.5 concentrations on the platforms in the subway operating hours ranged from 20 to 51 and from 41 to 91 μg m(-3) in the warmer and colder period, respectively, mainly related to the seasonal changes in the subway ventilation systems. The new subway lines with platform screen doors showed PM2.5 concentrations lower than those in the conventional system, which is probably attributable not only to the more advanced ventilation setup, but also to the lower train frequency and the design of the stations. PM concentrations inside the trains were generally lower than those on the platforms, which is attributable to the air conditioning systems operating inside the trains, which are equipped with air filters. This study allows the analysis and quantification of the impact of different ventilation settings on air quality, which provides an improvement on the knowledge for the general understanding and good management of air quality in the subway system. PMID:25616190

  1. Chemical-morphological analysis and evaluation of the distribution of particulate matter in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breathable fraction of the suspended particles is the main pollutant in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (ZMVT), to have the bigger number of days outside of standard, especially during the winter and low water time, its registered maximum value is of 367 IMECA points in 2004. The particles present a potential risk for the lungs, its increase the chemical reactions in the atmosphere; its reduce the visibility; its increase the possibility of the precipitation, the fog and the clouds; its reduce the solar radiation, with the changes in the environmental temperature and in the biological growth rates of those plants; and it dirties the soil matters. For that reason it is very important to characterize physicochemical and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy the particulate material of the Toluca Valley, to determine to that type of particles is potentially exposed the population before drastic scenarios of air pollution of the Toluca Valley, as well as to evaluate the distribution of the one particulate material in the ZMVT. (Author)

  2. [Testing of Concentration and Characteristics of Particulate Matters Emitted from Stationary Combustion Sources in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-qi; Wu, Xiao-dong; Wang, Chen; Liang, Yun-ping; Ma, Zhao-hui

    2016-05-15

    A self-built monitoring sampling system on particulate matters and water soluble ions emitted from stationary combustion sources and a size separated sampling system on particulate matters based on FPS4000 and ELPI + were applied to test particulate matters in fumes of typical stationary combustion sources in Beijing. The results showed that the maximum concentration of total particulate matters in fumes of stationary combustion sources in Beijing was 83.68 mg · m⁻³ in standard smoke oxygen content and the minimum was 0.12 mg · m⁻³. And particle number concentration was in the 10⁴-10⁶ cm⁻³ number of grade. Both mass and number concentration ranking order of particulate matters emitted from stationary combustion sources in Beijing was: heating gas fired boilers power plant coal fired boilers coal fired boilers. And two or three peaks existed under 1 µm of particulate size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution. The number concentration for PM₂.₅ accounted for over 99.8% of that for PM₁₀ and that for PM₀.₁ accounted for over 83% of that for PM₂.₅. But the proportions of PM₀.₁, and PM₂.₅ in PM₁₀ were significantly lower in quality analysis,the proportion of PM₂.₅ in PM₁₀ was about 82%, and that of PM₀.₁ in PM₂.₅ was about 27%-33%. PMID:27506016

  3. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  4. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  5. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

  6. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Oyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV and Heavy (HDV duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel. The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5 in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS, and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT. The organic aerosol (OA desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF organic aerosol (OA and organic carbon (OC were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the

  7. 40 CFR 60.48b - Emission monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matter and nitrogen oxides. 60.48b Section 60.48b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... monitoring for particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this... nitrogen content of 0.30 weight percent or less, natural gas, distillate oil, gasified coal, or any...

  8. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m-3, in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r13C/12C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d13C = 26 +- 20//sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols (13C = -21 +- 20/00) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere

  9. Characteristic of black carbon in fine particulate matter at Bandung and Lembang sites 2004 - 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black carbons (BC) are impure forms of carbon produced by incomplete combustion of fossils fuels or biomass. It has a significant influence in climate forcing due to its light absorption capabilities. In the atmosphere main source of BC are anthropogenic include biomass burning, motor vehicles and industrial sources such as coal combustion. Black carbon typically 10-40% of the fine particulate matter size less than 2.5 µm, therefore it is important to measure the BC correctly. In this study, the measurement of black carbon in fine fractions PM2.5 was done based on reflectance method using EEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer. The sampling was carried out using Gent Stacked Filter Unit twice a week in two locations (BATAN Bandung and Bureau of Meteorological and Geophysics Station Lembang). The results showed there was a significant increasing in both sampling sites in 2005 compared to previous year. The annual average of BC in 2004 at sampling site Bandung and Lembang were 3.16 and 2.42 µg/m3 respectively; in 2005 similarly BC levels at Bandung were higher than that of Lembang with annual average of 3.90 and 2.61 µg/m3 respectively. These concentrations contribute around 18 - 25 % of the fine particulate matter. Comparison the BC concentration with other countries in Asia that used the same method and formula is also presented to show the distribution of BC in Asia. The results showed that BC concentration in Indonesia was lower compared to other countries in Asia. (author)

  10. Application of the polarization Raman Mie lidar system to monitor the particulate matter and water vapor in the aerosol pollution and haze episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chenbo; Zhao, Ming; Shang, Zhen; Wang, Bangxin; Zhong, Zhiqing; Liu, Dong; Wang, Yingjian

    2014-11-01

    To monitor the temporal and spatial characteristics of particulate matter and water vapor in the aerosol pollution and haze episodes, the polarization Raman Mie lidar system has been developed. The lidar system includes four detection channels and it can measure the extinction coefficient and depolarization ratio of particulate matter as well as water vapor mixing ratio. The extinction coefficient indicates the visibility of atmosphere and it associates with the concentration of particulate matter. The depolarization ratio demonstrates the nonsphericity of particulate matter and is useful to distinguish the dust and pollution aerosol. The water vapor mixing ratio denotes the content of water vapor in the air and it is an important factor to influence of the hygroscopic growth on the pollution aerosol. The lidar system can operate in the automatic and continuous modes through a window on the roof of the observation room regards of the weather, and it takes continuous measurement from 20 November 2013 to 6 February 2014 over Hefei, China. During the experiment, the typical results of particulate matter measured with lidar in clear air, aerosol pollution and haze, and dust episodes are analyzed and given. The lidar observations are also compared with the air quality data and the meteorological data on the ground.

  11. METEOROLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM. PARTICULATE MATTER AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING REPORT, JANUARY THROUGH DECEMBER 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental field studies in the Yucca Mountain site characterization activities have included monitoring ambient levels of particulate matter since April 1989. The monitoring and reporting work was performed by the Management and Operating Environmental Field Programs Division. The parameters monitored, methods used in the monitoring, and the sampling schedule complied with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations and monitoring guidance. The inhalable particulate matter results have been reported to the State of Nevada since July 1991 to comply with State of Nevada air quality permit requirements. Three previous project reports presented the results obtained through 1995 (Environmental Field Programs Division 1992a; 1992b; 1996). This report presents the results obtained during 1996. Results of this monitoring program continue to identify that particulate matter remains well below applicable ambient air quality standards. The maximum inhalable particulate matter result was 60 micrograms per standard cubic meter; this result is less than one-half of the applicable 24-hour National (and Nevada) Ambient Air Quality Standard of 150 micrograms per standard cubic meter. The annual inhalable particulate matter averages for the period were approximately one-fifth of the applicable annual standard of 50 micrograms per standard cubic meter. The 1996 results were similar to results from 1989 to 1995

  12. Evaluation of sampling inhalable PM10 particulate matter (≤ 10 μm) using co-located high volume samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the determination of the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), collected simultaneously by six PM10 high volume samplers from two different manufacturers installed in the same location. Fifteen samples of 24 h were obtained with each equipment at a selected urban area of Rio de Janeiro city. The concentration of PM10 ranged between 10.73 and 54.04 μg m−3. The samplers were considered comparable to each other, as the adopted methodology presented good repeatability

  13. Radiocarbon in organic compound classes in particulate organic matter and sediment in the deep northeast Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xu-Chen; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Lee, Cindy

    1996-01-01

    Radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were measured for total amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and acid-insoluble organic fractions separated from sinking particulate organic matter (POMsink), detrital aggregates, sediment floe and sediments collected from the deep Northeast Pacific Ocean. The results show distinct Δ14C signatures among these organic compound classes. Bomb 14C, produced 3–4 decades ago in the atmosphere, was present in all organic fractions in the POMsink in ...

  14. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  15. Organic composition of aerosol particulate matter during a haze episode in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzi Bin Abas, M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Maah, M. Jamil; Abu Samah, Azizan; Oros, Daniel R.; Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    The solvent-extractable compounds of urban airborne particulate matter were analyzed to determine the distributions of homologous and biomarker tracers. Samples were collected by high-volume air filtration during the haze episode of 1997 around the University of Malaya campus near Petaling Jaya, a suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These results show that the samples contain n-alkanes, n-alkan-2-ones, n-alkanols, methyl n-alkanoates, n-alkyl nitriles, n-alkanals, n-alkanoic acids, levoglucosan, PAHs, and UCM as the dominant components, with minor amounts of terpenoids, glyceryl esters and sterols, all derived from natural biogenic sources (vascular plant wax), from burning of biomass, and from anthropogenic utilization of fossil fuel products (lubricating oil, vehicle emissions, etc.). Some compositional differences are observed in the samples and greater atmospheric concentrations were found for almost all organic components in the samples collected near a roadway. The results interpreted in terms of major sources are due to local build-up of organic contaminants from vehicular emissions, smoke from biomass burning, and natural background as a result of the atmospheric stability during the haze episodes. The organic components transported in from areas outside the region, assuming all smoke components are external to the city, amount to about 30% of the total organic particle burden.

  16. Chemical speciation of chlorine in particulate matter by wavelength-dispersive PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical speciation of chlorine (Cl) in atmospheric particulate matter (APM) was performed by using a wavelength-dispersive PIXE spectrograph based on high-resolution measurement of Cl-Kβ emission. Samples of atmospheric particles were size-fractioned and collected by a cascade impactor at an urban area in Tokyo. The target position with respect to the spectrograph was precisely adjusted by a 2D laser displacement sensor to achieve high detection efficiency. The samples were irradiated with 2 MeV protons from a tandem electrostatic accelerator. The beam current was 300–500 nA. During the irradiation, the target was cooled by liquid nitrogen to avoid the evaporation of volatile Cl compounds. The measured spectra for the NaCl standard samples clearly showed the Cl-Kβ series composed of the Kβ1 and the satellite Kβx, Kβ5 lines. From the measured X-ray yields, it was found that the chemical speciation of samples with Cl concentrations as low as ≈1% is possible by this method. The Cl-Kβ series were also successfully observed in the case of APM samples with particle sizes of 11.0–2.1 μm. The spectra shapes of the NaCl standard samples and an APM sample were slightly different from each other, because of some possible mixing of non-sea salt component in the APM sample.

  17. Ultrafine ambient particulate matter enhances cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a consistent link between exposure to ambient particulate air pollutant (PM) and the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiac effects of ambient PM. Mice were exposed to 1...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1081 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS has attained the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52..., in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspend the requirements for this area to submit an attainment... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2059 - Control strategy: Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52.1004(c), suspends the... nonattainment areas have clean data for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 52... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Particulate...

  20. Distribution and composition of suspended particulate matter in the Atlantic Ocean: Direct measurements and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitzin, A. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Burenkov, V. I.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Politova, N. V.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkina, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the real distribution and spatial-temporal variations of suspended particulate matter and its main components in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean on the basis of direct and satellite measurements for development of new and perfection of available algorithms for converting satellite data. The distribution fields of suspended particulate matter were calculated and plotted for the entire Atlantic Ocean. It is established that its distribution in the open ocean is subordinate to the latitudinal climatic zonality. The areas with maximum concentrations form latitudinal belts corresponding to high-productivity eutrophic and mesotrophic waters of the northern and southern temperate humid belts and with the equatorial humid zone. Phytoplankton, the productivity of which depends primarily on the climatic zonality, is the main producer of suspended particulate matter in the surface water layer.

  1. Assessment of the natural sources of particulate matter on the opencast mines air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, J I; Huertas, M E; Cervantes, G; Díaz, J

    2014-09-15

    Particulate matter is the main air pollutant in open pit mining areas. Preferred models that simulate the dispersion of the particles have been used to assess the environmental impact of the mining activities. Results obtained through simulation have been compared with the particle concentration measured in several sites and a coefficient of determination R(2)0.95) between meteorological variables and particulate matter concentration being humidity, humidity of the previous day and temperature, the meteorological variables that contributed most significantly in the variance of the particulate matter concentration measured in the mining area while the contribution of the AERMOD estimations to the short term TSP (Total Suspended Particles) measured concentrations was negligible (<5%). The multiple regression model was used to identify the meteorological condition that leads to pollution episodes. It was found that conditions drier than 54% lead to pollution episodes while humidities greater than 70% maintain safe air quality conditions in the mining region in northern Colombia. PMID:25016110

  2. Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain. Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB, one traffic (T and one heavy traffic (HT location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn showed the largest REs (>70%. Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd showed lower but still consistent REs (25–40%, similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30–40%. The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%, suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear.

    Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes.

  3. Origin of fine carbonaceous particulate matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin: fossil versus modern sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María.; Perron, Nolwenn; Querol, Xavier; Szidat, Sönke; Fahrni, Simon; Wacker, Lukas; Reche, Cristina; Cusack, Michael; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2010-05-01

    The present work was carried out in the frame of the international field campaign DAURE (Determination of the sources of atmospheric Aerosols in Urban and Rural Environments in the western Mediterranean). The objective of this campaign is to study the aerosol pollution episodes occurring at regional scale during winter and summer in the Western Mediterranean Basin. As part of this campaign, this work focuses on identifying the origin of fine carbonaceous aerosols. To this end, fine particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected during two different seasons (February-March and July 2009) at two sites: an urban site (Barcelona, NE Spain) and a rural European Supersite for Atmospheric Aerosol Research (Montseny, NE Spain). Subsequently, 14C analyses were carried out on these samples, both in the elemental carbon (EC) fraction and the organic carbon (OC) fraction, in order to distinguish between modern carbonaceous sources (biogenic emissions and biomass burning emissions) and fossil carbonaceous sources (mainly road traffic). Preliminary results from the winter period show that 40% of the OC at Barcelona has a fossil origin whereas at Montseny this percentage is 30%. These values can be considered as unexpected given the nature of the sites. Nevertheless, the absolute concentrations of fossil OC at Barcelona and Montseny differ by a factor of 2 (the first being higher), since the total OC at Montseny is lower than at Barcelona. Further evaluation of results and comparison with other measurements carried out during the campaign are required to better evaluate the origin of the fine carbonaceous matter in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Acknowledgements: Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for a Postdoctoral Grant awarded to M.C. Minguillón in the frame of Programa Nacional de Movilidad de Recursos Humanos del Plan nacional de I-D+I 2008-2011. Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, for the Acción Complementaria DAURE CGL2007-30502-E/CLI.

  4. Biomonitoring of Toxic Compounds of Airborne Particulate Matter in Urban and Industriel Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    The toxicity and ecotoxicity of airborne particulate matter is determined by its physical features, but also by its chemical composition. The standardised exposure of accumulative bioindicator plants is suggested as an efficient and reliable tool to assess and monitor effects of particulate matter...... on man and environment. Two widely applied biomonitoring procedures, namely the standardised ryegrass exposure for monitoring of trace metals, and the standardised exposure of curly kale for monitoring of PAH compounds, is presented taking examples from a Europe-wide biomonitoring study conducted in...... these methods in environmental monitoring programmes are made...

  5. The nature of particulate organic matter settled on solid substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, M.O.; Wagh, A.B.

    National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, India. Received 25/0 I/90, in revised form 16/02/90, accepted 22/03/90. Particulate material settled on aluminium and glass panels during their immersion in estuarine water was analysed... etre principale ment d'origine hactcrienne. Oceollo!ogica Acta, 1990, 13.4,471-474. INTRODUCTION Solid substrata placed in an aquatic environment adsorb organic molecules from the ambient waters onto their surfaces, making them readily available...

  6. Determination and analysis of trace metals and surfactant in air particulate matter during biomass burning haze episode in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Manan; Guo, Xinxin; Zhao, Xing-Min

    2016-09-01

    Trace metal species and surface active agent (surfactant) emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic source can cause various health related and environmental problems. Limited data exists for determinations of atmospheric particulate matter particularly trace metals and surfactant concentration in Malaysia during biomass burning haze episode. We used simple and validated effective methodology for the determination of trace metals and surfactant in atmospheric particulate matter (TSP & PM2.5) collected during the biomass burning haze episode in Kampar, Malaysia from end of August to October 2015. Colorimetric method of analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactant as methylene blue active substance (MBAS) and cationic surfactant as disulphine blue active substance (DBAS) using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Particulate samples were also analyzed for trace metals with inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by extraction from glass microfiber filters with close vessel microwave acid digestion. The result showed that the concentrations of surfactant in both samples (TSP & PM2.5) were dominated by MBAS (0.147-4.626 mmol/m3) rather than DBAS (0.111-0.671 mmol/m3) and higher than the other researcher found. Iron (147.31-1381.19 μg/m3) was recorded leading trace metal in PM followed by Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and others. During the haze period the highest mass concentration of TSP 313.34 μg/m3 and 191.07 μg/m3 for PM2.5 were recorded. Furthermore, the backward air trajectories from Kampar in north of peninsular Malaysia confirmed that nearly all the winds paths originate from Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  7. Characteristics of inhalable particulate matter concentration and size distribution from power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Honghong; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei; Li, Xinghua; Guo, Xingming

    2006-09-01

    In this investigation, the collection efficiency of particulate emission control devices (PECDs), particulate matter (PM) emissions, and PM size distribution were determined experimentally at the inlet and outlet of PECDs at five coal-fired power plants. Different boilers, coals, and PECDs are used in these power plants. Measurement in situ was performed by an electrical low-pressure impactor with a sampling system, which consisted of an isokinetic sampler probe, precut cyclone, and two-stage dilution system with a sample line to the instruments. The size distribution was measured over a range from 0.03 to 10 microm. Before and after all of the PECDs, the particle number size distributions display a bimodal distribution. The PM2.5 fraction emitted to atmosphere includes a significant amount of the mass from the coarse particle mode. The controlled and uncontrolled emission factors of total PM, inhalable PM (PM10), and fine PM P(M2.5) were obtained. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse total collection efficiencies are 96.38-99.89% and 99.94%, respectively. The minimum collection efficiency of the ESP and the baghouse both appear in the particle size range of 0.1-1 microm. In this size range, ESP and baghouse collection efficiencies are 85.79-98.6% and 99.54%. Real-time measurement shows that the mass and number concentration of PM10 will be greatly affected by the operating conditions of the PECDs. The number of emitted particles increases with increasing boiler load level because of higher combustion temperature. During test run periods, the data reproducibility is satisfactory. PMID:17004679

  8. Mercury in particulate matter over Polish zone of the southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldowska, M.; Saniewska, D.; Falkowska, L.; Lewandowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Important Hg transformations can occur at the air-water interface where polluted terrestrial air masses meet humid, halogen-rich marine air masses over the southern Baltic Sea. These chemical and physical processes include gas-to-particle conversion that led to an increase of Hg associated with coarse particles, which due to higher dry deposition rates, enhanced local scale deposition and limited the transport of this toxic trace metal. Daily (24 h) sampling of size-segregated atmospheric particles revealed the sea to be a sink for Hg during winter months and as a source of Hg during summer months. Poland is one of the major Hg emitters among the Baltic States according to International HELCOM Reports. Thus, important measurements in this region were conducted over a one-year period from December 18, 2007 to December 15, 2008. The range in concentrations of Hg in particulate matter (2-142 pg m -3) at the Polish site are comparable to other measurements at sites along the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. Annual Hg(p) represents 1% of the total atmospheric Hg (Hg TOT) under unpolluted or background ambient conditions. A major source of atmospheric Hg in this area is the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal burning used for home heating. This was clearly seen in the statistically higher mean concentration of 24 pg m -3 observed during the heating season compared to the 15 pg m -3 measured during the non-heating season. Construction activities e.g., cement manufacturing, gravel extraction, and waste incineration during the warm season strongly influenced Hg concentrations and led to an increase in Hg(p) on working days compared to weekend days.

  9. Establishment of Exposure-response Functions of Air Particulate Matter and Adverse Health Outcomes in China and Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHANG-HONG CHEN; BING-YAN WANG; QING-YAN FU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To obtain the exposure-response functions that could be used in health-based risk assessment of particulate air pollution in China. Methods Meta analysis was conducted on the literatures on air particulate matter and its adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Results For each health outcome from morbidity to mortality changes, the relative risks were estimated when the concentration of air particulate matter increased to some certain units. Conclusion The exposure-response functions recommended here can be further applied to health risk assessment of air particulate matter in China.

  10. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  11. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. PMID:24607629

  12. Particulate matter size distribution and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content from indirect and direct injection diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, F.; Gonnord, M.F. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. DCMR, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Momique, J.C.; Monier, R. [PSA Peugeot Citroen, La Garenne-Colombes (France); Walter, Ch. [Association Gradient, Compiegne (France)

    2001-03-28

    Within the framework of atmospheric aerosol study, evaluation of the contribution of the particle source to global atmospheric pollution is a challenge that requires an improvement in the knowledge of particulate matter. As a part of this knowledge improvement, this study has been focused on particles emitted from diesel vehicles. Two light-duty diesel vehicles were studied for particulate matter size distribution and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. A diffusional and inertial spectrometer was used, allowing particles from 7.5 nm to 15 {mu}m to be collected and analysed. Teflon-coated glass fibre filters were employed as collector substrates, and weighted prior to and after sampling. Each of them was extracted with methylene chloride in an accelerated solvent extractor, cleaned on a silica gel micro-column and analysed for PAHy by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using internal standards for quantitation. Both analytical and sampling methods were validated. The highest particle mass was found to be emitted at 0.2 {mu}m for the direct injection engine and 0.07 {mu}m for the indirect injection engine. PAHs were found to be essentially distributed on particles in the accumulation mode, at about 0.2 {mu}m, and high molecular weight PAH distributions were found to be bimodal or trimodal, depending on the engine injection. (Author)

  13. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  14. MERIS imagery of Belgian coastal waters: mapping of suspended particulate matter and chlorophyll-a

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddick, K.; PARK, Y.; B. Nechad

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a first application-oriented analysis of MERIS products for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (CHL) concentration in Belgian coastal waters. Regional algorithms designed for Belgian waters have been implemented and compared with the standard MERIS products, termed Total Suspended Matter and Algal2 respectively. The standard and regional SPM products seem robust and give similar data. Notwithstanding a more complete match-up validation analysis, these pr...

  15. Simulation of Height of Stack Pile using SCREEN3 module for Particulate Matter Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi Musalaiah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is regarding the air pollution in selected areas near to port (beside stack yards of port interested in particulate matter pollution. In this study, the amount of air pollution due to particulates is analyzed. The amount of air pollution is estimated using SCREEN 3 Methodology. In this study, SCREEN 3 methodology is a predefined software tool which can be used to estimate particulate matter pollution levels at different source release heights, terrain heights and at particular receptor height. The results obtained are reported and finally concluded that to avoid the pollution in the selected area, it is better to construct a periphery along the sides of stack yard (source of pollution

  16. Impact of Long-term Exposure to Air Particulate Matter on Life Expectancy and Survival Rate of Shanghai Residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of long-term air particulate matter exposure on the life expectancy and survival rate of Shanghai residents. Methods Epidemiology - based exposureresponse function was used for the calculation of attributable deaths to air particulate matter in Shanghai, and the effect of long-term exposure to particulate matter on life expectancy and survival rate was estimated using the life table of Shanghai residents in 1999. Results It was shown that in 1999, the long-term air particulate matter exposure caused 1.34-1.69 years reduction of life expectancy and a decrease of survival rate for each age group of Shanghai residents. Conclusion The effect of long-term exposure to air particulate matter on life expectancy is substantial in Shanghai.

  17. The added value of a proposed satellite imager for ground level particulate matter analyses and forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.M.A.; Segers, A.J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Vautard, R.; Siddans, R.; Elbern, H.; Tjemkes, S.A.T.; Schaap, M.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring aerosols over wide areas is important for the assessment of the population's exposure to health relevant particulate matter (PM). Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can contribute to the improvement of highly needed analyzed and forecasted distributions of PM when combi

  18. 40 CFR 49.128 - Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. (e) Definitions of terms used in this section. The following terms that are used in this... emissions from wood products industry sources. 49.128 Section 49.128 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rule for limiting particulate matter emissions from wood products industry sources. (a) What is...

  19. Behaviour of Particulate Matter in the Indoor Environment of the National Library in Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Jiří; Ondráčková, Lucie; Mašková, Ludmila; Ondráček, Jakub; Zíková, Naděžda

    -: -, 2012, s. 45. ISBN N. [International Conference Indoor Air Quality in Heritage and Historic Environments "Standards and Guidelines" /10./. London (GB), 17.06.2012-20.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK DF11P01OVV020 Keywords : particulate matter * indoor environment * measuring campaigns Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.ucl.ac.uk/iaq2012/index

  20. Detailed Study of Fine Particulate Matter during 2013 New Year’s Celebrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubelová, Lucie; Vodička, Petr; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Ždímal, Vladimír

    Prague : Czech Aerosol Society, 2013, A115. ISBN N. [European Aerosol Conference (EAC 2013). Prague (CZ), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/11/1342 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fine particulate matter * firrworks * aerosol mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://eac2013.cz/index.php

  1. PIXE analysis of suspended particulate matter originally collected for beta-ray absorption mass monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of transferring suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the used filter of a beta-absorption mass monitor to a polycarbonate filter for subsequent PIXE analysis has been developed. The method allows determination of the relative elemental composition of SPM. It was demonstrated that PIXE analysis can detect S, Cl, Fe and Zn in SPM sampled over a one-hour period. (author)

  2. IMPROVED SOURCE APPORTIONMENT AND SPECIATION OF LOW-VOLUME PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research will examine methods with the high sensitivity and low limits of detection needed to analyze a wide range of chemical species in particulate matter collected with personal samplers. Dr. Schauer and colleagues will develop sensitive methods to detect trace meta...

  3. INSTILLATION OF COARSE ASH PARTICULATE MATTER AND LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCES A SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary ischemic events increase significantly floowing a “bad air” day. Ambient particulate matter (PM10) is the pollutant most strongly associated with these events. PM10 causes inflammatory injury to the lower airways. It is not clear, however, if pulmonary inflation transl...

  4. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP... (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 28, 1988, the Governor's designee for Arizona submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford,...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1638 - Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. 52.1638 Section 52.1638 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1638 Bernalillo County particulate matter (PM10) Group II SIP commitments. (a) On December 7, 1988, the Governor of New Mexico submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  6. Trace elements present in airborne particulate matter-Stressors of plant metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Zemanová, V.; Hnilička, F.; Urbanová, V.; Száková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, May 2012 (2012), s. 101-107. ISSN 0147-6513 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/09/1150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Airborne particulate matter * Amino acids * Gas- exchange parameters Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2012

  7. APPLYING DATA ASSIMILATION AND ADJOINT SENSITIVITY TO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND POLICY STUDIES OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Source-resolved fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations are needed at high spatial and temporal resolutions for epidemiological studies aimed at identifying more- and less-harmful types of PM. Building on recent advances in air quality modeling, data assimilation, and s...

  8. Elemental constituents of particulate matter and newborn’s size in eight European cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, M.; Gehring, U.; Beelen, R.; Wang, M.; Giorgis-Allemand, L.; Andersen, A.M.N.; Basagaña, X.; Bernard, C.; Cirach, M.; Forastiere, F.; Hoogh, K. de; Gražuleviĉvienė, R.; Gruzieva, O.; Hoek, G.; Jedynska, A.; Klümper, C.; Kooter, I.M.; Krämer, U.; Kukkonen, J.; Porta, D.; Postma, D.S.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Rossem, L. van; Sunyer, J.; Sørensen, M.; Tsai, M.Y.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Wilhelm, M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Pershagen, G.; Brunekreef, B.; Kogevinas, M.; Slama, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM) may depend on its chemical composition. Associations between maternal exposure to chemical constituents of PM and newborn’s size have been little examined. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to elemental

  9. Patients with asthma demonstrate airway inflammation after exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ..To the Editor"': Of the three major particulate matter (PM) size fractions (ultrafme, fine and coarse),coarse PM (PM2.5- 10) has been the least examined in terms of its health effects on susceptible populations, this despite having characteristics that make it particula...

  10. 40 CFR 52.62 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. 52.62 Section 52.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Electric Cooperative—Lowman Steam Plant; Alabama Power Company-Gorgas Steam Plant, Gaston Steam...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2231 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and... § 52.2231 Control strategy: Sulfur oxides and particulate matter. (a) Part D conditional approval. The... area are approved on condition that the State submit by December 31, 1987, a definition of the...

  12. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Redal, María Ana [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina Experimental, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Muñoz, Manuel J., E-mail: mmunoz@fbmc.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, IFIBYNE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón 2, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  13. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer

  14. Indoor/outdoor Particulate Matter Number and Mass Concentration in Modern Offices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chatoutsidou, S.E.; Ondráček, Jakub; Tesař, Ondřej; Tørseth, K.; Ždímal, Vladimír; Lazaridis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 462-474. ISSN 0360-1323 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : modern offices * particulate matter * mechanical ventilation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.341, year: 2014

  15. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - Final year of field work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter (PM) with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt agreed that there is an urgent need to collect gin emission data. The primary issues surrounding PM re...

  16. Characterization of airborne particulate matter collected at Jakarta roadside of an arterial road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 44 pairs of airborne particulate matter samples were collected in the intersection of Simprug, Pondok Indah, South Jakarta. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2008-July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler in two size fractions of <2.5 μm (fine) and 2.5-10 μm (coarse). Mass concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations were investigated as a pre-study in step to the evaluation of air quality in these roadside areas. Black carbon was determined by reflectance and elemental analysis was performed using proton induced X-ray emission, PIXE. The data set of fine particulate matters obtained from the characterization was then analyzed using receptor modeling EPA PMF3 for source apportionment. Source apportionment identified 5 factors, i.e. soil (9.2 %), construction mixed with road dust (20.9 %), motor vehicles (31.5 %), biomass burning mixed with seasalt (30.9 %), and industry (7.5 %). Motor vehicles is the dominant sources that contributes to the fine particulate matter in Jakarta. (author)

  17. Levels of particulate matter in rural, urban and industrial sites in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Viana, M.M. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra del CSIC, C/Luis Sole y Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Artinano, B.; Salvador, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Mediambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mantilla, E. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, CEAM. Parque tecnologico, C-4, sector oeste, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Santos, S. Garcia do; Patier, R. Fernandez [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra. Majadahonda-Pozuelo, km n. 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); De La Rosa, J.; De la Campa, A. Sanchez [Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Huelva, Campus Universitario de la Rabida, La Rabida, 21819 Huelva (Spain); Menendez, M.; Gil, J.J. [Departamento Mineralogia y Petrologia. Universidad del Pais Vasco, Aptdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    This paper summarises the results of a series of studies on the interpretation of time series of levels of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter (PM, <10 {mu}m) in six regions of Spain in the period 1996-2000. In addition to the local pollution events, high PM10 episodes are recorded during African dust outbreaks, regional atmospheric recirculation events (mainly in spring to autumn), and to a lesser extent, under the influence of European and Mediterranean long range transported air masses. The lowest PM10 levels are usually recorded under Atlantic air mass advective conditions. All these regional and large-scale processes account for the relatively high PM10 levels recorded in regional background stations in Spain. Thus, the PM10 levels recorded at EMEP (Cooperative Program for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) regional background stations between March 2001 and March 2002 are very close to the annual limit value proposed for 2010 by the EU Air Quality Directive 1999/30/CE. Chemical data obtained for the different monitoring stations during 2001 show a high mineral load in PM10 for most of the study sites in Spain. Furthermore, a high marine aerosol load is evidenced in the Canary Islands. These mineral and marine loads are lower when considering PM2.5, but a relatively high proportion (8-21%) of mineral dust is still present.

  18. Particulate organic matter delta C-13 variations across the Drake Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Takahashi, T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Sullivan, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) was sampled during two cruise transects across the Drake Passage during March 1986 to investigate the unusual C-13 depletion in high-latitude Southern Ocean plankton. This POM delta C-13 transition from -23.2 o/oo at 53.3 deg S to values as low as -30.3 o/oo at above 62 deg S does not track previously reported abrupt changes in water chemistry and plankton species composition associated with the Polar Front Zone. The north-south isotopic trend is not accompanied by significant changes in POM carbon or nitrogen concentrations, or in POM C/N. Differences in plankton standing crop or biochemistry (e.g. lipid content) do not appear responsible for the isotopic trends observed. The latitudinal change in POM delta C-13 is highly correlated with water temperature and with the calculated concentration of CO2 (aq) at equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that CO2 (aq) significantly influences POM delta C-13 in ocean surface waters.

  19. Evaluation of regional background particulate matter concentration based on vertical distribution characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Han

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy regional particulate matter (PM pollution in China has resulted in an important and urgent need for joint control actions among cities. It's advisable to improve the understanding of regional background concentration of PM for the development of efficient and effective joint control policies. With the increase of vertical height the influence of source emission on local air quality is weakening, but the characteristics of regional pollution gradually become obvious. A method to estimate regional background PM concentration is proposed in this paper, based on the vertical variation periodic characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer structure and particle mass concentration, as well as the vertical distribution of particle size, chemical composition and pollution source apportionment. According to the method, the averaged regional background PM2.5 concentration, being extracted from the original time series in Tianjin, was 40.0 ± 20.2, 63.6 ± 16.9 and 53.2 ± 11.1 μg m−3, respectively, in July, August and September.

  20. Accumulation of three different sizes of particulate matter on plant leaf surfaces: Effect on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.

  1. Levels of particulate matter in rural, urban and industrial sites in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X; Alastuey, A; Rodríguez, S; Viana, M M; Artíñano, B; Salvador, P; Mantilla, E; García do Santos, S; Fernandez Patier, R; de La Rosa, J; Sanchez de la Campa, A; Menéndez, M; Gil, J J

    2004-12-01

    This paper summarises the results of a series of studies on the interpretation of time series of levels of total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter (PM, pollution events, high PM10 episodes are recorded during African dust outbreaks, regional atmospheric recirculation events (mainly in spring to autumn), and to a lesser extent, under the influence of European and Mediterranean long range transported air masses. The lowest PM10 levels are usually recorded under Atlantic air mass advective conditions. All these regional and large-scale processes account for the relatively high PM10 levels recorded in regional background stations in Spain. Thus, the PM10 levels recorded at EMEP (Cooperative Program for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe) regional background stations between March 2001 and March 2002 are very close to the annual limit value proposed for 2010 by the EU Air Quality Directive 1999/30/CE. Chemical data obtained for the different monitoring stations during 2001 show a high mineral load in PM10 for most of the study sites in Spain. Furthermore, a high marine aerosol load is evidenced in the Canary Islands. These mineral and marine loads are lower when considering PM2.5, but a relatively high proportion (8-21%) of mineral dust is still present. PMID:15504522

  2. Lateral supply and downward export of particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, Catherine; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Hardge, Kristin; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Fahl, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Time-series sediment traps were deployed at 4 depths in the eastern Fram Strait from July 2007 to June 2008 to investigate variations in the magnitude and composition of the sinking particulate matter from upper waters to the seafloor. Sediment traps were deployed at 196 m in the Atlantic Water layer, at 1296 and 2364 m in the intermediate and deep waters, and at 2430 m on a benthic lander in the near-bottom layer. Fluxes of total particulate matter, particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic matter, lithogenic matter, biogenic particulate silica, calcium carbonate, dominant phytoplankton cells, and zooplankton fecal pellets increased with depth, indicating the importance of lateral advection on fluxes in the deep Fram Strait. The lateral supply of particulate matter was further supported by the constant fluxes of biomarkers such as brassicasterol, alkenones, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and IP25 at all depths sampled. However, enhanced fluxes of diatoms and appendicularian fecal pellets from the upper waters to the seafloor in the presence of ice during spring indicated the rapid export (15-35 days) of locally-produced large particles that likely contributed most of the food supply to the benthic communities. These results show that lateral supply and downward fluxes are both important processes influencing the transport of particulate matter to the seafloor in the deep eastern Fram Strait, and that particulate matter size dictates the prevailing sinking process.

  3. Characterization of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban atmosphere of central-southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-12-01

    Over 1-year period, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter PM10 have been monitored for the first time in the atmosphere of Ciudad Real, situated at the central-southern Spain. PM10-bound PAHs were collected using a high-volume sampler from autumn 2012 to summer 2013 and were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The most abundant PAHs were pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The ∑PAH concentrations in Ciudad Real were 888, 368, 259 and 382 pg m(-3) for winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons, respectively. The diurnal variation of PAH was also investigated presenting the highest concentrations during the evening (19:00-23:00). Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 110 pg m(-3), these values are lower than the target value proposed by the European legislation, 1 ng m(-3). Diagnostic ratios were used to identify potential sources of PAHs. Results suggest that vehicle emissions are the major source of identified PAHs, with a higher contribution of diesel engines although other anthropogenic sources could also have an impact on the PAH levels. PMID:26201660

  4. Seasonal trends in the composition and ROS activity of fine particulate matter in Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Samera Hussein; Shafer, Martin Merrill; Kadhim, Ahmed K. H.; Al-Omran, Sabah M.; Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Baghdad suffers from severe atmospheric particulate matter (PM) pollution and has limited infrastructure to monitor and control PM-pollution. To help better understand the nature of particulate matter in Baghdad, daily PM2.5 samples were collected every 6th day from September, 2012 to September, 2013. The samples were analyzed for chemical composition and cellular oxidative stress activity using a macrophage-based assay. The annual average PM2.5 concentration was 50 ± 19 μg m-3, and was comprised of approximately 28% crustal materials, 26% organic carbon (OC), 17% sulfate, 12% elemental carbon (EC), and 8.0% ammonium ion. No clear seasonal trend was observed for the total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 OC, but EC exhibited higher concentrations in the warmer months, likely due to the extensive use of electric generators operated by diesel and gasoline for cooling. April showed the lowest levels of both EC and OC compared with other months due to both sand and rainstorm events which led to increased deposition and dispersion of local emissions. Concentrations of nitrate ion were low in all seasons due to the high temperatures and low humidity, but slightly higher levels were observed in the cooler months of winter. The oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) activity (59 ± 35 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3) of the PM was relatively lower than in other studied areas. Association between the water soluble PM constituents and the oxidative activity was investigated using a multi-linear regression model which showed no strong relationships between ROS activity and the water soluble components of PM2.5, but a moderate correlation of water soluble organic carbon from biomass burning (WSOC-BB) was observed (R2 = 0.52). Biomass burning PM has been shown to be an important contributor to ROS activity in other published studies, but additional work is needed to better understand the sources leading to the ROS activity in Baghdad.

  5. Temporal and spatial variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in the urban area of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, O.; Bidokhti, A. A.; Ghafarian, P.; Najafi, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    Being hemmed in on two sides by high mountains, the urban area of Tehran is characterized by high levels of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which have adverse consequences on human health, ecosystems and environment. Using air quality measurements taken in different regions of Tehran, spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants are analyzed to identify the typical climatological aspects of air pollutants. In terms of particulate matter concentrations, South Tehran is more polluted than Central to North Tehran, while West Tehran is more polluted than the East. Concentrations of particles in North Tehran are lower in the midday compared to the midnight, whereas the opposite is true in South Tehran. The observed annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in North Tehran were 37.5 and 76.3 μg m-3, respectively, which are substantially greater than the national annual mean safety limits of 10 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 20 μg m-3 for PM10. The observed high levels of particulate matter underline the essential need for a coordinated action to reduce the rapidly increasing air pollution over the growing urban area of Tehran. Noticeable monthly (seasonal) variations are evident in the observed PM10 concentrations, with a minimum of 61.5 μg m-3 in March (spring) and a maximum of 82.9 μg m-3 in July (summer), reflecting contribution of weather conditions. Analyzing daily PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations indicate that mid-week Wednesdays (Mondays) are the most polluted days. The higher mid-week concentrations reflect contribution of heavy vehicular traffic, industrial operation and increased commercial activities. Strong diurnal variations in the concentrations of particulate matter in North Tehran are detected, varying from a peak in late night to a minimum in late afternoon, indicating contribution of deeper daytime convective boundary layer and stronger winds in dispersion of particles.

  6. The Contribution of Local and Regional Sources to Particulate Matter in European Megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Megaritis, Athanasios; Fountoukis, Christos; Murphy, Benjamin; Pandis, Spyros

    2013-04-01

    ., Charalampidis P. E., Pilinis C., Wiedensohler A., Dall'Osto M., O'Dowd C., and S. N. Pandis: Evaluation of a three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) in the European domain during the EUCAARI May 2008 campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10331-10347, 2011. Seinfeld, J. H., and Pandis, S. N. (2006) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change, 2nd ed.; John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ. United Nations Populations Fund, UNFPA, State of the world population (2007) Unleashing the potential of urban growth , available at: http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2007/presskit/pdf/sowp2007eng.pdf. Wagstrom K., Spyros N. Pandis: Source receptor relationships for fine particulate matter concentrations in the Eastern United States, Atmospheric Environment, Atmos. Environ., 45, 347-356, 2011a. Wagstrom K., Spyros N. Pandis: Contribution of long range transport to local fine particulate matter concerns, Atmos. Environ., 45, 2730-2735, 2011b.

  7. [Geochemical characteristics and sources of atmospheric particulates in Shanghai during dust storm event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Peng; Zheng, Xiang-min; Zhou, Li-min

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric particulates were sampled from three sampling sites of Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts in Shanghai between Oct. , 2009 and Oct. , 2010. In addition, particulate samples were also collected from Nantong, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, and Beijing city where dust storm dust transported along during spring. Element compositions of atmospheric particulates were determined by XRF and ICP-MS. The concentrations of major and trace elements in atmospheric particulates from Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts were similar, indicating their common source. The UCC standardization distribution map showed that the major element composition of dust storm samples was similar to that of loess in northwestern China, indicating that the dust storm dust was mainly derived from Western desert and partly from local area. The REE partition patterns of dust storm dusts among different cities along dust transport route were similar to each other, as well as to those of northern loess, which indicates that the dust storm samples may have the same material source as loess, which mainly comes from crust material. However, the REE partition patterns of non-dust storm particulates were different among the studied cities, and different from those of loess, which suggests that the non-dust storm samples may be mixed with non-crust source material, which is different from dust storm dust and loess. The major element composition and REE partition pattern are effective indicators for source tracing of dust storm dust. PMID:23914561

  8. Gas-phase and particulate products from the atmospheric degradation of the organothiophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos-methyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Esther; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Ródenas, Milagros; Vera, Teresa; Coscollá, Clara; Yusá, Vicent; Muñoz, Amalia

    2015-11-01

    The phosphorothioate structure is highly present in several organophosphorus pesticides. However, there is insufficient information about its degradation process after the release to the atmosphere and the secondary pollutants formed. Herein, the atmospheric reaction of chlorpyrifos-methyl (o,o-dimethyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate), is described for semi-urban or rural locations. The photo-oxidation under low NOx conditions (5-55 ppbV) was reproduced in a large outdoor simulation chamber, observing a rapid degradation (lifetime<3.5 h). The formation of gaseous products and particulate matter (aerosol yield 2-8%) was monitored. The chemical composition of minor products (gaseous and particulate) was studied, identifying 15 multi-oxygenated derivatives. The most abundant products were ring-retaining molecules such as o,o-dimethyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate, dimethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphate, o-methyl o-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) hydrogen phosphorothioate, 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl dihydrogen phosphate, 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol, and 3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2,4-diol. An atmospheric degradation mechanism has been proposed based on an oxidation started with OH-nucleophilic attack to P=S bond. The results have been extrapolated to other organothiophosphorus molecules, such as malathion, parathion, diazinon and methidathion, among many others, to estimate their photo-oxidative degradation and the expected products. PMID:25548033

  9. A new approach for determination of soluble trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter using a dynamic extraction procedure coupled to ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The current interest in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is mainly due to its effect on human health. A fraction that is associated with several adverse health effects - including cancer - is the metallic portion. For this reason, a great deal of research has focused on the metal composition of airborne particulate matter. Until now in most studies total elemental concentrations were determined. However, toxic effects of trace metals in airborne PM are only expected if the metals are biologically available. Thus for risk assessment detailed knowledge about the solubility of the investigated metals is required since bioavailability depends thereon. Recently various extraction schemes have been developed for batch-wise fractionation of various metals in airborne particulate matter. Although these batch-wise liquid/solid extraction methods have gained widespread acceptance in literature the eco-toxicological relevance of the information provided with these techniques is questionable, since naturally occurring processes occur always under dynamic conditions. In this study a procedure for the sequential extraction of airborne particulate matter with various leaching solutions and the subsequent on-line ICP-AES measurement of selected trace metals in the derived extracts is presented. For analysis several punches of the filter substrate were packed into indigenously developed micro-columns and treated successively with the different extraction solutions. Evaluation of the derived elution profiles provided information about the kinetics of the extraction process and allowed differentiation between individual soluble fractions.

  10. Contribution of fungal spores to particulate matter in a tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polyols arabitol and mannitol, recently proposed as source tracers for fungal spores, were used in this study to estimate fungal contributions to atmospheric aerosol. Airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) was collected at Jianfengling Mountain, a tropical rainforest on Hainan Island situated off the south China coast, during spring and analyzed for arabitol and mannitol by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The average concentrations of arabitol and mannitol exhibited high values with averages of 7.0 and 16.0 ng m-3 respectively in PM2.5 and 44.0 and 71.0 ng m-3 in PM10. The two tracers correlated well with each other, especially in the coarse mode aerosol (PM2.5-10), indicating they were mainly associated with coarse aerosol particles and had common sources. Arabitol and mannitol in PM10 showed significant positive correlations with relative humidity, as well as positive correlations with average temperature, suggesting a wet emissions mechanism of biogenic aerosol in the form of fungal spores. We made estimations of the contribution of fungal spores to ambient PM mass and to organic carbon, based on the observed ambient concentrations of these two tracers. The relative contributions of fungal spores to the PM10 mass were estimated to range from 1.6 to 18.2%, with a rather high mean value of 7.9%, and the contribution of fungal spores to organic carbon in PM10 ranged from 4.64 to 26.1%, with a mean value of 12.1%, implying that biological processes are important sources of atmospheric aerosol.

  11. Contribution of fungal spores to particulate matter in a tropical rainforest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ting; Chan Chuenyu; Zhang Yinan; Zhang Zhisheng; Lin Mang; Sang Xuefang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Engling, Guenter [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Y D [Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Bureau of Forestry, Guangzhou (China); Li, Yok-Sheung, E-mail: guenter@gate.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: chzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2010-04-15

    The polyols arabitol and mannitol, recently proposed as source tracers for fungal spores, were used in this study to estimate fungal contributions to atmospheric aerosol. Airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}) was collected at Jianfengling Mountain, a tropical rainforest on Hainan Island situated off the south China coast, during spring and analyzed for arabitol and mannitol by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The average concentrations of arabitol and mannitol exhibited high values with averages of 7.0 and 16.0 ng m{sup -3} respectively in PM{sub 2.5} and 44.0 and 71.0 ng m{sup -3} in PM{sub 10}. The two tracers correlated well with each other, especially in the coarse mode aerosol (PM{sub 2.5-10}), indicating they were mainly associated with coarse aerosol particles and had common sources. Arabitol and mannitol in PM{sub 10} showed significant positive correlations with relative humidity, as well as positive correlations with average temperature, suggesting a wet emissions mechanism of biogenic aerosol in the form of fungal spores. We made estimations of the contribution of fungal spores to ambient PM mass and to organic carbon, based on the observed ambient concentrations of these two tracers. The relative contributions of fungal spores to the PM{sub 10} mass were estimated to range from 1.6 to 18.2%, with a rather high mean value of 7.9%, and the contribution of fungal spores to organic carbon in PM{sub 10} ranged from 4.64 to 26.1%, with a mean value of 12.1%, implying that biological processes are important sources of atmospheric aerosol.

  12. Particulate matter (PM10) patterns in Europe: An exploratory data analysis using non-negative matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibert, Janez; Cedilnik, Jure; Pražnikar, Jure

    2016-05-01

    In last decade space-density of monitoring stations increased, in to addition also air pollution modeling made big progress. Using diversity of big data can lead to better knowledge about air pollution at continental scale. The focus of presented study is the data-driven approach using non-negative matrix factorization to provide new insights and to study the characteristic space-time particulate-matter patterns across Europe. We analyzed the PM10 concentrations obtained from 1097 monitoring stations (AirBase data) and the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) modeled fields for a period of 3 years. We distinguished five characteristic patterns obtained from the AirBase data and five patterns from the MACC data. A comparison between the AirBase and MACC data shows a good spatial overlap for the east Europe, central Europe and the Mediterranean patterns. However, it should be noted that an analysis of the MACC data revealed two additional marine patterns: the Celtic and the North Seas. The Po Valley and Balkan patterns were very clearly identified when analyzing the AirBase data. In order to better understand the influence of the synoptic situation on the particulate-matter concentrations the synoptic meteorological situations were additionally analyzed. The cold season, low wind and very stable conditions, which can last for several days, is the most common situation linked to high concentrations of anthropogenic air pollution with particulate matter. In contrast, for the Mediterranean pattern the most common situation (high factor loadings) is observed during the summer period. This pattern also exhibits a clearer annual cycle. A closer look at the sea-salt patterns (Celtic and North Seas) shows low time-series correlations between these two factors. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism is the same: a steep gradient between the cyclone and the anti-cyclone that causes high winds and, consequently, higher sea-salt production.

  13. Export of particulate matter from Tokyo Bay studied with radiochemical tracers, 210Po and 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sediment traps were deployed at the mouth of Tokyo Bay in the winter of 1991 and the summer of 1993, each for a few days. The fluxes of total mass, 210Pb (parent) and 210Po (daughter) increased with depth, especially in the near-bottom layer. All the fluxes of total mass, 210Po and 210Pb decreased offshore at the same depth, while they increased offshore at the same distance above the bottom. The observed particulate flux of 210Pb in the water column was one to two orders of magnitude larger than the sedimentation rate at the bottom. The activity ratio of 210Po/210Pb in the near-bottom layer was largest at each station and did not vary from station to station. These findings indicate that enormous amounts of particulate matter are transported fairly quickly offshore through the near-bottom layer at the entrance. The variation in total mass flux was well synchronized with the tidal cycle at a mid-depth of 85 m in the water column of 240 m in winter of 1991, where the fluxes were larger during ebb and smaller during flood tides. The particulate flux of 210Po was also larger by a factor of about 2 during ebb, while the concentration of 210Pb was about 40 % larger during flood than ebb. These findings indicate that the tidal current is a major conveyor of particulate matter at the mid-depths. The tidal variation, however, was weak for the results obtained in the near-bottom layer in 1993, where much particulate matter was transported toward the Kuroshio region along the valley of Tokyo Bay. Our results suggest that even bays having narrow mouths, such as Tokyo Bay, are a large source of particulate material to the open oceans. (author)

  14. Elemental quantification of airborne particulate matter in Bandung and Lembang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELEMENTAL QUANTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER IN BANDUNG AND LEMBANG REGION: The contaminated airborne particulates by toxic gases and elements have a potential affect to the human health. Some toxic elements related to air pollution have carcinogenic affect. The quantification of those elements is important to monitor a level of pollutant contained in the airborne particulate. The aim of this work is to analyze the air particulate sample using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other related technique. Two sampling points of Bandung and Lembang that represent and urban and rural area respectively have been chosen to collect the air particulate sample. The samplings were carried out using Gent Stacked Filter Unit Sampler for 24 hours, and two cellulose filters of 8 μm and 0.45 μm pore size were used. Trace elements in the sample collected were determined using NAA based on a comparative method. Elemental distribution on PM2.5 and PM10 fraction of airborne particulate was analyzed, the enrichment factor was calculated using Al as reference elements, and the black carbons contents were determined using FEL Smoke Stain Reflectometer analyzed. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Particulate organic matter dynamics in coastal systems of the northern Beibu Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, David; Unger, Daniela; Qiu, Guanglong

    2014-07-01

    Estuarine particle fluxes are an integral part of land-ocean-connectivity and influence coastal environmental conditions. In areas with strong anthropogenic impact they may contribute to coastal eutrophication. To investigate the particulate biogeochemistry of a human affected estuary, we sampled suspended, sedimentary and plant particulate matter along the land-ocean continuum from Nanliu River to Lianzhou Bay in southern China. Riverine particle fluxes exceed inputs from land based pond aquaculture. Elemental (C/N) and isotopic composition of particulate organic carbon (δ13C) and total nitrogen (δ15N) showed that suspended and sedimentary organic matter (OM) mainly derive from freshwater and marine phytoplankton, with minor contributions from terrestrial and aquaculture derived particles. Amino acid composition indicates subseasonal variability of production and freshness of phytoplankton OM. Strongest compositional changes of suspended particles are associated with storm-related extreme precipitation events, which introduce soil derived OM. High concentrations of chlorophyll a reflect eutrophic conditions in riverine and coastal waters. Human impact results in high δ15N signals in suspended, sedimentary and plant particulate matter. Using these in a comparison with two little affected sites shows that anthropogenic influence disperses from the Nanliu River to remote estuaries and mangrove areas. Our results suggest that autochthonous production binds anthropogenic nutrients in particles that are transported along the coast.

  16. Particulate matter test in small volume parenterals: critical aspects in sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanetto, F; Conti, B; Genta, I; Ponci, R; Montanari, L; Grassi, M

    1989-06-01

    The following critical steps of the particulate matter test sampling methodology for small volume parenteral products (SVPs), conduct by light blockage method, were considered: 1) reliability of the small volume aspirator sampler for different sample volumes; 2) particulate matter distribution inside each ampoule in liquid products (8 liquid SVPs tested); 3) influence of the sample preparation method on the evaluation of the final contamination of the sample. Nine liquid SVPs were tested by preparing samples following the three U.S.P. XXI methods: 1) unit as it is (direct analysis), II) unit diluted, III) sample obtained by combining several units. Particles counts were performed by a HIAC/ROYCO model 3000 counter fitted with a small volume sampler. The validation of the sampler shows that it should be improved. A more accurate and strict validation than the one stated by U.S.P. XXI is suggested. The particulate matter distribution in liquid products is found to be uniform inside the ampoule in the size range greater than or equal to 2 microns-greater than or equal to 10 microns; the analysis can be performed examining only a portion of the whole content. The three sample preparation methods lead to significantly different contamination results. The particulate control test should be conduct by direct analysis, as it is carried out under the same conditions as for product use. The combining method (III) is suggested for products of less than 2 ml volume that cannot be examined by direct analysis. PMID:2803449

  17. ON LINE MEASUREMENT OF PRIMARY FINE PARTICULATE MATTER; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of fine particulate in pulverized coal flames has several applications of importance. These include but are not limited to: (1) The detection of fine particulate in the effluent for pollution control; (2) The detection of soot and fuel burnout in real time within a boiler; and (3) The quantification of soot within coal flame for improved understanding of pulverized coal flame heat transfer and soot modeling. A method has been investigated using two-color extinction along a line of sight within the flame which provides a continuous real-time measurement of the soot concentration. The method uses two inexpensive HeNe lasers and simple light detectors. The results of testing the method on a pilot scale 0.2 MW pulverized coal reactor demonstrate the method is working well in a qualitative sense and an error analysis performed on the uncertainty of the assumed values demonstrates the method to be accurate to within(+-) 30%. Additional experiments designed to quantify the measurement more accurately are ongoing. Measurements at the end of the reactor just prior to the exit showed soot could not be detected until the overall equivalence ratio became greater than 1.0. The detection limit for the method was estimated to be 1 x 10(sup -8) soot volume fraction. Peak soot concentration was found to approach a level of 0.88 x 10(sup -6) at the sootiest condition. The method was used to obtain an axial profile of soot concentration aligned with the down-fired pulverized coal flame for three different flame swirls of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 and an overall equivalence ratio of 1.2. The axial measurements showed the soot concentration to increase initially and level off to a constant maximum value. At 0.5 swirl the soot volume fraction increased more rapidly near the burner and both the 0.5 and 1.5 swirl cases showed that soot had reached a maximum by 0.9 m, but the 0 swirl soot concentration was still increasing. Previous measurements of species and velocity in the reactor

  18. Particulate Matter Pollution and Population Exposure Assessment over Mainland China in 2010 with Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Yao; Ning Lu

    2014-01-01

    The public is increasingly concerned about particulate matter pollution caused by respirable suspended particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5). In this paper, PM10 and PM2.5 concentration are estimated with remote sensing and individual air quality indexes of PM10 and PM2.5 (IPM10 and IPM2.5) over mainland China in 2010 are calculated. We find that China suffered more serious PM2.5 than PM10 pollution in 2010, and they presented a spatial differentiation. Consequently, a particulate-base...

  19. Collaborative monitoring study of airborne particulate matters among seven Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven Asian countries have been collaborating in collecting airborne particulate matter (APM) in their individual countries and analyzing them by neutron activation analysis as a common analytical tool. APM samples were collected into two fractions of fine and coarse grains (PM2 and PM2- 10, respectively). Analytical data were compared from several viewpoints such as particulate sizes, locality of sampling sites (either urban or rural) and geographical location of participating countries. Chemical composition and their monthly variations as well as mass concentrations appear to be highly characteristic for individual sampling sites, suggesting that NAA data are suitable for evaluating the air quality in each site. (author)

  20. Effects of simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter on photosynthesis and the generation of oxidative stress in Schinus terebinthifolius Radii and Sophora tomentosa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate matter is a natural occurrence in the environment, but some industries, such as the iron ore sector, can raise the total amount of particles in the atmosphere. This industry is primarily a source of iron and sulfur dioxide particulates. The effects of the pollutants from the iron ore industries on representatives of restinga vegetation in a Brazilian coastal ecosystem were investigated using physiological and biochemical measures. Two species, Schinus terebinthifolius and Sophora tomentosa, were exposed to simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter in acrylic chambers in a greenhouse. Parameters such as gas exchange, fluorescence emission, chlorophyll content, total iron content, antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content were assessed in order to evaluate the responses of the two species. Neither treatment was capable of inducing oxidative stress in S. terebinthifolius. Nevertheless, the deposition of iron ore particulates on this species increased chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the electron transport rate, while iron content was unaltered. On the other hand, S. tomentosa showed a greater sensitivity to the treatments. Plants of S. tomentosa that were exposed to acid mist had a decrease in photosynthesis, while the deposition of iron particulate matter led to an increase in iron content and membrane permeability of the leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutase, were enhanced by both treatments. The results suggested that the two restinga species use different strategies to overcome the stressful conditions created by the deposition of particulate matter, either solid or wet. It seems that while S. terebinthifolius avoided stress, S. tomentosa used antioxidant enzyme systems to partially neutralize oxidative stress. The findings also point to the potential use of S. tomentosa as a biomarker species under field conditions

  1. Effects of simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter on photosynthesis and the generation of oxidative stress in Schinus terebinthifolius Radii and Sophora tomentosa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuki, Kacilda Naomi [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil)], E-mail: naomikuki@hotmail.com; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmao; Costa, Alan Carlos [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Cambraia, Jose [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    Particulate matter is a natural occurrence in the environment, but some industries, such as the iron ore sector, can raise the total amount of particles in the atmosphere. This industry is primarily a source of iron and sulfur dioxide particulates. The effects of the pollutants from the iron ore industries on representatives of restinga vegetation in a Brazilian coastal ecosystem were investigated using physiological and biochemical measures. Two species, Schinus terebinthifolius and Sophora tomentosa, were exposed to simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter in acrylic chambers in a greenhouse. Parameters such as gas exchange, fluorescence emission, chlorophyll content, total iron content, antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content were assessed in order to evaluate the responses of the two species. Neither treatment was capable of inducing oxidative stress in S. terebinthifolius. Nevertheless, the deposition of iron ore particulates on this species increased chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the electron transport rate, while iron content was unaltered. On the other hand, S. tomentosa showed a greater sensitivity to the treatments. Plants of S. tomentosa that were exposed to acid mist had a decrease in photosynthesis, while the deposition of iron particulate matter led to an increase in iron content and membrane permeability of the leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutase, were enhanced by both treatments. The results suggested that the two restinga species use different strategies to overcome the stressful conditions created by the deposition of particulate matter, either solid or wet. It seems that while S. terebinthifolius avoided stress, S. tomentosa used antioxidant enzyme systems to partially neutralize oxidative stress. The findings also point to the potential use of S. tomentosa as a biomarker species under field conditions.

  2. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several trace elements are being introduced into the atmosphere from various sources. Since many of the trace elements are highly toxic, the concentrations of them should be measured and controlled continuously for public health. Concentrations of trace elements have been determined in air samples collected from seven different districts of Ankara by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.)

  3. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kerrie A; Whitelaw, Jane L; Jones, Alison L; Davies, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engines have been a mainstay within many industries since the early 1900s. Exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM) is a major issue in many industrial workplaces given the potential for serious health impacts to exposed workers; including the potential for lung cancer and adverse irritant and cardiovascular effects. Personal respiratory protective devices are an accepted safety measure to mitigate worker exposure against the potentially damaging health impacts of DPM. To be protective, they need to act as effective filters against carbon and other particulates. In Australia, the filtering efficiency of respiratory protective devices is determined by challenging test filter media with aerosolised sodium chloride to determine penetration at designated flow rates. The methodology outlined in AS/NZS1716 (Standards Australia International Ltd and Standards New Zealand 2012. Respiratory protective devices. Sydney/Wellington: SAI Global Limited/Standards New Zealand) does not account for the differences between characteristics of workplace contaminants like DPM and sodium chloride such as structure, composition, and particle size. This study examined filtering efficiency for three commonly used AS/NZS certified respirator filter models, challenging them with two types of diesel emissions; those from a diesel generator and a diesel engine. Penetration through the filter media of elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC), and total suspended particulate (TSP) was calculated. Results indicate that filtering efficiency assumed by P2 certification in Australia was achieved for two of the three respirator models for DPM generated using the small diesel generator, whilst when the larger diesel engine was used, filtering efficiency requirements were met for all three filter models. These results suggest that the testing methodology specified for certification of personal respiratory protective devices by Standards Australia may not ensure adequate protection for

  4. Interaction of DNA with aromatic hydrocarbons fraction in atmospheric particulates of Xigu District of Lanzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Voluminously epidemiological studies show that the relationships exist between the air pollution and human health and cancer. Aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in air form a large class of organic pollutants, which are widely in environment and many of them are known to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic and contribute to ambient air pollution. In the past decades, bioassays mainly have been used to evaluate the toxicity of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates or aqueous environment. However, it is well known that the covalent complexes formed by carcinogens with DNA may be exert negative results in bioassay. So the main aim of this paper is to develop an evaluation method of toxicity effects of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates from chemical standpoint. In this study, the in virto interaction of the AHs with DNA was investigated by absorption, fluorescence and resonance light scattering (RLS) spectroscopic techniques. The results showed that the AHs in the atmospheric particulates could combine with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and herring sperm DNA (hsDNA) without being activated or metabolized by organism, respectively. Intercalation may be present in the mechanism of interaction. The binding constants of the AHs with ctDNA and hsDNA were 2.5×102 and 2.0×103, respectively, which indicated that the interaction of the AHs with hsDNA is stronger than that with ctDNA. In addition, the relationships of dose-effect between the total mole concentration of chemical components and the ability of binding ct DNA and hsDNA were confirmed. This research made it possible to study the toxicity effects of chemical mixtures in atmospheric particulates by chemical method. It is believed that the composition and contents of unknown AHs and the interaction of DNA with AHs in atmospheric particulates of Xigu District of Lanzhou City, China are first reported in the past twenty years.

  5. Size and time-resolved roadside enrichment of atmospheric particulate pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Size and time-resolved roadside enrichments of atmospheric particulate pollutants in PM10 were detected and quantified in a Mediterranean urban environment (Barcelona, Spain. Simultaneous data from one urban background (UB, one traffic (T and one heavy traffic (HT location were analysed, and roadside PM10 enrichments (RE in a number of elements arising from vehicular emissions were calculated. Tracers of primary traffic emissions (EC, Fe, Ba, Cu, Sb, Cr, Sn showed the largest REs (>70%. Other traffic tracers (Zr, Cd showed lower but still consistent REs (25–40%, similar to those obtained for mineral matter resulting from road dust resuspension (Ca, La, Ce, Ti, Ga, Sr, 30–40%. The sum of primary and secondary organic carbon showed a RE of 41%, with contributions of secondary OC (SOC to total OC ranging from 46% at the HT site, 63% at the T site, and 78% in the UB. Finally, other trace elements (As, Co, Bi showed unexpected but consistent roadside enrichments (23% up to 69%, suggesting a link to traffic emissions even though the emission process is unclear.

    Hourly-resolved PM speciation data proved to be a highly resourceful tool to determine the source origin of atmospheric pollutants in urban environments. At the HT site, up to 62% of fine Mn was attributable to industrial plumes, whereas coarse Mn levels were mainly attributed to traffic. Similarly, even though Zn showed on average no roadside enrichment and thus was classified as industrial, the hourly-resolved data proved that at least 15% of coarse Zn may be attributed to road traffic emissions. In addition, our results indicate that secondary nitrate formation occurs within the city-scale, even in the absence of long atmospheric residence times or long-range atmospheric transport processes. Characteristic tracer ratios of road traffic emissions were identified: Cu/Sb = 6.8–8.0, Cu/Sn = 4.7–5.4 and Sn/Sb = 1.5.

  6. Deposition measurement of particulate matter in connection with corrosion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferm, Martin; Watt, John; O'Hanlon, Samantha; De Santis, Franco; Varotsos, Costas

    2006-03-01

    A new passive particle collector (inert surrogate surface) that collects particles from all directions has been developed. It was used to measure particle deposition at 35 test sites as part of a project that examined corrosion of materials in order that variation in particulate material could be used in development of dose-response functions in a modern multi-pollutant environment. The project, MULTI-ASSESS, was funded by the EU to examine the effects of air pollution on cultural heritage. Passive samplers were mounted rain-protected, and both in wind-protected and wind-exposed positions, to match the exposure of the samples for corrosion studies. The particle mass and its chemical content (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, calcium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and potassium) were analysed. The loss of light reflectance on the surrogate surface was also measured. Very little ammonium and potassium was found, and one or more anions are missing in the ion balance. There were many strong correlations between the analysed species. The mass of analysed water-soluble ions was fairly constant at 24% of the total mass. The particle mass deposited to the samplers in the wind-protected position was about 25% of the particles deposited to an openly exposed sampler. The Cl-/Na+ ratios indicate a reaction between HNO(3) and NaCl. The deposited nitrate flux corresponds to the missing chloride. The Ca2+ deposition equals the SO4(2-) deposition and the anion deficiency. The SO4(2-) deposition most likely originates from SO2 that has reacted with basic calcium-containing particles either before or after they were deposited. The particle depositions at the urban sites were much higher than in nearby rural sites. The deposited mass correlated surprisingly well with the PM(10) concentration, except at sites very close to traffic. PMID:16518649

  7. The organic composition of diesel particulate matter, diesel fuel and engine oil of a non-road diesel generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyan; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Liu, Zifei; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2005-10-01

    Diesel-powered equipment is known to emit significant quantities of fine particulate matter to the atmosphere. Numerous organic compounds can be adsorbed onto the surfaces of these inhalable particles, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered potential occupational carcinogens. Guidelines have been established by various agencies regarding diesel emissions and various control technologies are under development. The purpose of this study is to identify, quantify and compare the organic compounds in diesel particulate matter (DPM) with the diesel fuel and engine oil used in a non-road diesel generator. Approximately 90 organic compounds were quantified (with molecular weight ranging from 120 to 350), which include alkanes, PAHs, alkylated PAHs, alkylbenzenes and alkanoic acids. The low sulfur diesel fuel contains 61% alkanes and 7.1% of PAHs. The identifiable portion of the engine oil contains mainly the alkanoic and benzoic acids. The composition of DPM suggests that they may be originated from unburned diesel fuel, engine oil evaporation and combustion generated products. Compared with diesel fuel, DPM contains fewer fractions of alkanes and more PAH compounds, with the shift toward higher molecular weight ones. The enrichment of compounds with higher molecular weight in DPM may be combustion related (pyrogenic). PMID:16193170

  8. Determination of 206/207Pb isotope ratios by ICP-MS in particulate matter from the North Sea environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of lead isotope ratios can be used for source and pathway characterization of lead in the environment. The suitability of inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was evaluated for the measurement of 206/207Pb isotope ratios in several marine compartments as marine aerosols from different source regions and suspended particulate matter from the North Sea. Two different ICP-MS systems were used to carry out these investigations. First optimization studies have been performed to yield a sufficient precision (RSD<0.5%) incombination with a reasonable measuring time. This study has been carried out using the standard reference material NBS 981 with certified lead isotope ratios. Furthermore, it could be shown for marine environmental samples, that a precision of less than 0.5% RSD is attainable for counting rates of above approximately 50000 cps. As the following measurements of lead isotope ratios in marine aerosols from main source regions surrounding the North Sea demonstrated, this precision is sufficient to determine significant differences due to the origin of atmospheric lead. The analysis of aerosol samples revealed isotope ratios varying from as low as 1.10, which is close to that ratio for leaded gasoline in Europe to near background (modern lead) values of 1.20. The lead isotope ratios for the investigated suspended particulate matter ranges between 1.13 and 1.18. These values can be related to the solid discharge, the urban density and anthropogenic activity of the drainage basin. (orig.)

  9. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  10. Bioaccumulation of cadmium bound to ferric hydroxide and particulate organic matter by the bivalve M. meretrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferric hydroxide and particulate organic matter are important pools of trace metals in sediments and control their accumulation by benthic animals. We investigated bioaccumulation of cadmium in bivalve Meretrix meretrix by using a simplified system of laboratory synthesized iron oxides and commercially obtained humic acids to represent the inorganic and organic matrix found in nature. The results showed that bioaccumulation characteristics were distinctly different for these two substrates. Bioaccumulation from ferric hydroxide was not observed at 70 and 140 mg/kg, while the clams started to absorb Cd at 140 mg/kg from organic matter and the bioaccumulation rate was faster than that from ferric hydroxide. Within 28 d, accumulation of Cd from organic matter appeared to reach a steady state after rising to a certain level, while absorption from ferric hydroxide appeared to follow a linear profile. The findings have implications about the assimilation of trace metals from sediments by benthic animals. - Highlights: ► Accumulation of Cd adsorbed on ferric hydroxide and particulate organics was studied. ► Bioaccumulation characteristics were distinctly different for the substrates. ► The result was attributed to different properties and bio-responses of the particles. ► Bivalves may not accumulate more metals associated with more bioavailable particles. - Bioaccumulation characteristics of adsorbed Cd on ferric hydroxide and particulate organic matter by bivalve M. meretrix are distinctly different.

  11. Concentrations of particulate matter and humic substances in deep groundwaters and estimated effects on the adsorption and transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of particulate matter such as colloids and microbes in deep Swedish groundwaters has been measured and has been found to be low in all waters. The results are summarized in this paper. The sorption capacity of relevant radionuclides on the particulate matter has been assessed based on many direct measurements and on comparisons with measurements on similar systems. The maximum transport capacity of nuclides by the particulate matters has been estimated for reversible as well as irreversible sorption of nuclides to particles. (au)

  12. Characterization of polar organics in airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Y.; Ambe, Y.

    The methanol-extractable highly polar organics in atmospheric aerosol were characterized using GC-MS. Dicarboxylic acids having 2-16 carbon numbers were detected with a total concentration of 172 ng m -3. Azelaic acid ( C9) was the most abundant diacid and it possibly originated from the ozonolysis of unsaturated carboxylic acids such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which mainly originate from terrestrial plants. A compound, which was tentatively identified as tetrahydrofuroic acid, contributed to about 10% of the highly polar organics. Other polyfunctional compounds found in the samples included some ketocarboxylic acids and aromatic acids such as phthalic acids, anisic acid and vanillic acid.

  13. Development of a Low-Cost Particulate Matter Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Richard M.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Black, Justin

    2008-08-01

    We describe a small, inexpensive portable monitor for airborne particulates, composed of the following elements: a. A simple size-selective inlet (vertical elutriator) that permits only particles below a pre-set diameter to pass and enter the measurement section; b. A measurement section in which passing particles are deposited thermophoretically on a micro-fabricated resonant piezoelectric mass sensor; c. An optical characterization module co-located with the mass sensor module that directs infrared and ultraviolet beams through the deposit. The emergent optical beams are detected by a photodiode. The optical absorption of the deposit can be measured in order to characterize the deposit, and determine how much is due to diesel exhaust and/or environmental tobacco smoke; and d. A small pump that moves air through the device, which may also be operated in a passive mode. The component modules were designed by the project team, and fabricated at UCB andLBNL. Testing and validation were performed in a room-sized environmental chamber at LBNL in to which was added either environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, produced by a cigarette smoking machine) or diesel exhaust (from a conventional diesel engine). Two pilot field tests in a dwelling compared the monitor with existing aerosol instruments during exposure to infiltrated ambient air to which cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, wood smoke and cooking fumes were added. The limit of detection (LOD) derived from statistical analysis of field data is 18 mu g m-3, at the 99percent confidence level. The monitor weighs less than 120 g and has a volume of roughly 250 cm3. Power consumption is approximately 100 milliwatts. During this study, the optical component of the device was not fully implemented and has been left for future efforts. Suggested improvements in the current prototype include use of integrated thermal correction, reconfiguration of the resonator for increased particle collection area, increased thermophoretic

  14. Air quality modelling : effects of emission reductions on concentrations of particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, L.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) has adverse effects on human health. PM acts primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular (due to their small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs), but they are also known effects on the skin. In France, the "Particulate Plan" - developed as part of the second National Environmental Health Plan - aims to reduce by 30% fine PM (noted PM2.5because these particles have an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) by 2015. A recent study by Airparif (the organization in charge of monitoring air quality in the Paris region, the Île-de-France) and LSCE (Laboratory of climate and the environmental science, France) has allowed, through a large measurement campaign conducted between 2009 and 2011, to quantify the proportion of PM produced in Île-de-France and those transported from the surrounding areas. The study by numerical modelling of air pollution presented here complements these results by investigating future emission scenarios. The CEREA develops and uses an air quality model which simulates the concentrations of pollutants from an emission inventory, meteorological data and boundary conditions of the area studied. After an evaluation of simulation results for the year 2005, the model is used to assess the effects of various scenarios of reductions in NOx and NH3 emissions on the concentrations of PM2.5in Île-de-France. The effects of the controls on the local pollution and the long-range pollution are considered separately. For each emitted species, three scenarios of emission reductions are identified: an emission reduction at the local level (Île-de-France), a reduction at the regional scale (France) and a reduction at the continental scale (across Europe). In each case, a 15% reduction is applied. The comparison of the results allows us to assess the respective contributions of local emissions and long-range transport to PM2.5 concentrations. For instance, the reduction of NOx emissions in Europe leads to a

  15. Black carbon and elemental concentration of ambient particulate matter in Makassar Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less or equal to 10 um or PM10, has been collected on a weekly basis for one year from February 2012 to January 2013 at one site of Makassar, Province of South Sulawesi Indonesia. The samples were collected using a size selective high volume air sampler sited at Daya, a mixed urban, commercial and industrial area in the city of Makassar. The concentration of black carbon (BC) along with a total of 14 elements (i.e Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Ba, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti and Zn) were determined from the sample. Results showed that the average particulate mass concentration was 32.9 ± 11.6 μg/m3 with BC and elemental concentration constituted 6.1% and 10.6% of the particulate concentration, respectively. Both BC and elemental constituents contributed 16.7% while 83.3% of the particulate matter remained to be counted for. The black carbon concentration was higher during the dry months which may be attributed to rampant biomass burning during hot and dry weather conditions, apart from other possible sources. Most of the elements were enriched relative to soil origin illustrating of their possible associations with other sources such as marine and anthropogenic derived aerosols, particularly Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which are known to originate from man-made activities

  16. A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona C. Fang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI, and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26, however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes.

  17. Removal efficiency of particulate matters at different underlying surfaces in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Mo, Lichun; Zhu, Lijuan; Yang, Yilian; Liu, Jiatong; Qiu, Dongdong; Zhang, Zhenming; Liu, Jinglan

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution has been increasingly becoming serious in Beijing and has drawn the attention of the local government and general public. This study was conducted during early spring of 2013 and 2014 to monitor the concentration of PM at three different land surfaces (bare land, urban forest, and lake) in the Olympic Park in Beijing and to analyze its effect on the concentration of meteorological factors and the dry deposition onto different land cover types. The results showed that diurnal variation of PM concentrations at the three different land surfaces had no significant regulations, and sharp short-term increases in PM10 (particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter lake's PM10 removal efficiency is higher than that of the bare land because of the relatively higher PM resuspension rates on the bare land. However, the PM2.5 removal efficiency is lower than that of the bare land because of the significantly lower dry deposition velocity. PMID:26308922

  18. Multi-elemental semi-quantitative analyses of suspended particulate matter by glow discharge MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the possibilities for multi-elemental analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) by glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). To cope with the small sample volume, SPM sample was deposited on the surface of a high purity (7N grade) indium electrode. NIST SRM 1648 Urban Particulate Matter was analyzed to evaluate the method. For 34 elements, GDMS results agreed well with their reference values within a factor of 2 from the major constituents (12.5 wt% of Si) to the trace constituents (down to 0.8 μg/g of Eu), even when using typical relative sensitivity factors (RSF). A total of 53 elements including halogens were analyzed using approximately 10 mg of SPM sample by GDMS with sub-μg/g sensitivity. (author)

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total extractable particulate organic matter in the Arctic aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of total suspended particulate matter were collected in March and August 1979 at Barrow, Alaska, a remote site in the Arctic. Ambient concentrations of extractable particulate organic matter (POM), of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and of 210Pb were determined. The samples were also examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Average concentrations of POM and PAH were similar to those reported for other remote sites in the northern hemisphere, but the concentrations were considerably higher in March than in August. The presence of fly ash in the samples collected during the March sampling period, as well as seasonal differences in the concentrations of the organic species and 210Pb and in meteorology indicate that the principal source of POM and PAH was fossil fuel combustion in the mid-latitudes during the March sampling period. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a portable photometer for estimating diesel particulate matter concentrations in an underground limestone mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Winthrop F; Gladis, David D; Schumacher, Matthew F; Ragatz, Adam C; Kittelson, David B

    2010-07-01

    A low cost, battery-operated, portable, real-time aerosol analyzer is not available for monitoring diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations in underground mines. This study summarizes a field evaluation conducted at an underground limestone mine to evaluate the potential of the TSI AM 510 portable photometer (equipped with a Dorr-Oliver cyclone and 1.0-mum impactor) to qualitatively track time-weighted average mass and elemental, organic, and total carbon (TC) measurements associated with diesel emissions. The calibration factor corrected correlation coefficient (R2) between the underground TC and photometer measurements was 0.93. The main issues holding back the use of a photometer for real-time estimation of DPM in an underground mine are the removal of non-DPM-associated particulate matter from the aerosol stream using devices, such as a cyclone and/or impactor and calibration of the photometer to mine-specific aerosol. PMID:20410071

  1. Satellite constraints on surface concentrations of particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Hotmann, Bonne

    Because of the increasing evidence of the widespread adverse effects on human health from exposure to poor air quality and the recommendations of the World Health Organization to significantly reduce PM2.5 in order to reduce these risks, better estimates of surface air quality globally are required. However, surface measurements useful for monitoring particulate exposure are scarce, especially in developing countries which often experience the worst air pollution. Therefore, other methods are necessary to augment estimates in regions with limited surface observations. The prospect of using satellite observations to infer surface air quality is attractive; however, it requires knowledge of the complicated relationship between satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface concentrations. This dissertation explores how satellite observations can be used in conjunction with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand this relationship. First, we investigate the seasonality in aerosols over the Southeastern United States using observations from several satellite instruments (MODIS, MISR, CALIOP) and surface network sites (IMPROVE, SEARCH, AERONET). We find that the strong summertime enhancement in satellite-observed aerosol optical depth (factor 2-3 enhancement over wintertime AOD) is not present in surface mass concentrations (25-55% summertime enhancement). Goldstein et al. [2009] previously attributed this seasonality in AOD to biogenic organic aerosol; however, surface observations show that organic aerosol only accounts for ~35% of PM2.5 mass and exhibits similar seasonality to total surface PM2.5. The GEOS-Chem model generally reproduces these surface aerosol measurements, but under represents the AOD seasonality observed by satellites. We show that seasonal differences in water uptake cannot sufficiently explain the magnitude of AOD increase. As CALIOP profiles indicate the presence of additional aerosol in the lower troposphere

  2. Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    . Mar. Syst.: 77(1-2); 2009; 137-147 Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal Loreta Fernandes a,* , Narayan B. Bhosle a , S. G. Prabhu Matondkar a , Ravi Bhushan b a National Institute... result, low or no nutrients are injected into the surface waters thereby, influencing biological production (Prasanna Kumar et al., 2007). However, it is not known how these physical and chemical parameters influenced the quality and the quantity...

  3. Monitoring Automotive Particulate Matter Emissions with LiDAR: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Mazzoleni; Hampden D. Kuhns; Hans Moosmüller

    2010-01-01

    Automotive particulate matter (PM) causes deleterious effects on health and visibility. Physical and chemical properties of PM also influence climate change. Roadside remote sensing of automotive emissions is a valuable option for assessing the contribution of individual vehicles to the total PM burden. LiDAR represents a unique approach that allows measuring PM emissions from in-use vehicles with high sensitivity. This publication reviews vehicle emission remote sensing measurements using ul...

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone Protects Endothelial Cells against Inflammatory Events Induced by Urban Particulate Matter and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Huerta-García; Angélica Montiél-Dávalos; Ernesto Alfaro-Moreno; Gisela Gutiérrez-Iglesias; Rebeca López-Marure

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and nanoparticles (NPs) induce activation and dysfunction of endothelial cells characterized by inhibition of proliferation, increase of adhesion and adhesion molecules expression, increase of ROS production, and death. DHEA has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in HUVEC activated with proinflammatory agents. We evaluated if DHEA could protect against some inflammatory events produced by PM10 and TiO2 NPs in HUVEC. Adhesion was evaluated by a coculture...

  5. A Bayesian Multivariate Receptor Model for Estimating Source Contributions to Particulate Matter Pollution using National Databases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Time series studies have suggested that air pollution can negatively impact health. These studies have typically focused on the total mass of fine particulate matter air pollution or the individual chemical constituents that contribute to it, and not source-specific contributions to air pollution. Source-specific contribution estimates are useful from a regulatory standpoint by allowing regulators to focus limited resources on reducing emissions from sources that are major cont...

  6. Experimental Measure Of Drh And Crh Of Particulate Matter For Cultural Heritage Applications

    OpenAIRE

    CASATI, M.; Rovelli, G; D'Angelo, L.; Ferrero, L.; Perrone, MG; E. Bolzacchini

    2014-01-01

    Phase transitions and moisture adsorption property of Particulate Matter deposed on surfaces can determine decay process. Number of dissolution-crystallization cycles and time of wetness are very important decay-indicators. Deliquescence and crystallization of complex mixtures show an hysteresis behavior that depends on the chemical composition. In this work DRH and CRH experimental measurement of PM are used to compute decay-indicators for heritage materials. In this way t...

  7. Rancang Bangun Alat Pereduksi Particulate Matter (PM) Gas Buang Mesin Diesel Dengan Metode Cyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Revari; I Made Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Gas buang dari hasil proses pembakaran berpengaruh terhadap pencemaran udara dan lingkungan khususnya motor diesel. Proses pembakaran bahan bakar pada motor bakar menghasilkan gas buang yang mengandung unsur Nitrogen Oksida (NOx), Sulfur Oksida (SOx), Particulate Matter (PM), Karbon Monoksida (CO), dan Hidrokarbon (HC) yang bersifat mencemari udara. Agar motor diesel yang digunakan tidak mengakibatkan pencemaran udara berlebih, perlu dilakukan suatu penelitian menurunkan emisi gas buang motor...

  8. Foam fractionation efficiency of a vacuum airlift—Application to particulate matter removal in recirculating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barrut, Bertrand; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Callier, Myriam; Champagne, Jean-yves; Grasmick, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of particulate organic matter (POM) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) has become an important issue with the intensification of finfish production. The objective of this study was to assess the foam fractionation efficiency of a vacuum airlift in different conditions (POM concentrations, airflow rates, bubble sizes, water renewal rates and feed addition). In sea water, the vacuum airlift allowed removing 20% of the initial POM concentration per hour (foam fractionati...

  9. Trace elements in suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction of the Arno River waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 46 elements along the course of the Arno River (Tuscany, Italy) have been determined by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Both suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction have been investigated. No chemical treatment has been performed on the samples, either before or after irradiation. Anticoincidence techniques have been employed in the γ spectroscopy. Results are briefly discussed also from a methodological point of view. 4 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  10. Impact of the 2002 Canadian Forest Fires on Particulate Matter Air Quality in Baltimore City

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, A.; Symons, J. M.; J. Kleissl; Wang, L.; Parlange, M. B.; Ondov, J.; Breysse, P. N.; Diette, G B; Eggleston, P.A.; T. J. Buckley, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With increasing evidence of adverse health effects associated with particulate matter (PM), the exposure impact of natural sources, such as forest fires, has substantial public health relevance. In addition to the threat to nearby communities, pollutants released from forest fires can travel thousands of kilometers to heavily populated urban areas. There was a dramatic increase in forest fire activity in the province of Quebec, Canada, during July 2002. The transport of PM released from these...

  11. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy; Ashley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were ...

  12. Chronic Residential Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Systemic Inflammatory Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Stang, Andreas; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Memmesheimer, Michael; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Mann, Klaus; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to urban air pollution may accelerate atherogenesis, but mechanisms are still unclear. The induction of a low-grade systemic inflammatory state is a plausible mechanistic pathway. Objectives: We analyzed the association of residential long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and high traffic with systemic inflammatory markers. Methods We used baseline data from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 4,814 parti...

  13. Personal Exposure to Household Particulate Matter, Household Activities and Heart Rate Variability among Housewives

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ya-Li; Chen, Hua-Wei; Han, Bor-Cheng; Liu, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV) has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM) and household activities. Methods We performed 24-h continuous monitoring of electrocardiography and measured household PM exposure among 50 housewives. The outcome variables...

  14. Outdoor Particulate Matter Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamra, Ghassan B.; Guha, Neela; Cohen, Aaron; Laden, Francine; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jonathan M. Samet; Vineis, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Saldiva, Paulo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution was recently designated a Group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This determination was based on the evidence regarding the relationship of PM2.5 and PM10 to lung cancer risk; however, the IARC evaluation did not include a quantitative summary of the evidence. Objective: Our goal was to provide a systematic review and quantitative summary of the evidence regarding the relationship between PM an...

  15. Possible Noncausal Bases for Correlations Between Low Concentrations of Ambient Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Valberg, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of populations living in areas with good air quality have reported correlations between daily average levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality rates. These associations persist at PM levels below current air quality standards and are difficult to reconcile with the toxicology of PM chemical constituents. The unusual level of lethality per unit PM mass predicted by these associations may result from confounding by unmeasured societal, behavioral, or stress...

  16. Bioavailable transition metals in particulate matter mediate cardiopulmonary injury in healthy and compromised animal models.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, D L; Dreher, K. L.

    1997-01-01

    Many epidemiologic reports associate ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) with human mortality and morbidity, particularly in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infection, asthma). Because much ambient PM is derived from combustion sources, we tested the hypothesis that the health effects of PM arise from anthropogenic PM that contains bioavailable transition metals. The PM samples studied derived from three emission sources (two...

  17. The mass distribution of coarse particulate organic matter exported from an Alpine headwater stream

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Turowski; A. Badoux; Bunte, K.; Rickli, C.; Federspiel, N.; M. Jochner

    2013-01-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) particles span sizes from 1 mm, with a dry mass less than 1 mg, to large logs and entire trees, which can have a dry mass of several hundred kilograms. Pieces of different size and mass play different roles in stream environments, from being the prime source of energy in stream ecosystems to macroscopically determining channel morphology and local hydraulics. We show that a single scaling exponent can describe the mass distribution of...

  18. Analytical Methods INAA and PIXE Applied to Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter in Bandung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    D.D. Lestiani; M. Santoso

    2011-01-01

    Urbanization and industrial growth have deteriorated air quality and are major cause to air pollution. Air pollution through fine and ultra-fine particles is a serious threat to human health. The source of air pollution must be known quantitatively by elemental characterization, in order to design the appropriate air quality management. The suitable methods for analysis the airborne particulate matter such as nuclear analytical techniques are hardly needed to solve the air pollution problem....

  19. Elemental Constituents of Particulate Matter and Newborn's Size in Eight European Cohorts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Marie; Basaga??a Flores, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Sunyer Deu, Jordi; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, R??my

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The health effects of suspended particulate matter (PM) may depend on its chemical composition. Associations between maternal exposure to chemical constituents of PM and newborn's size have been little examined. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to elemental constituents of PM with term low birth weight (LBW; weight < 2,500 g among births after 37 weeks of gestation), mean birth weight, and head circumference, relying on standardized fine-scale exposu...

  20. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Reifferscheid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  1. Low-wind/high particulate matter episodes in the Calexico/Mexicali region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry E; Jaramillo, Isabel C; Quintero-Núñez, Margarito; Wagner, David A; Collins, Kimberly; Meuzelaar, Henk L C; Lighty, JoAnn S

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently classifies Imperial County, CA, as a nonattainment area for PM10 (particulate matter [PM] agricultural burning accounted for 6.7% of organic-fraction PM10 for low-wind/high-PM episodes versus 0.25% at other times. This preliminary source attribution also revealed that motor vehicles were the most important relative contributor to organic PM10. PMID:21243902

  2. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Li; Ma, Zeyu; Xu, Yansen; Sun, Fengbin; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Liu, Xuhui; Chen, Jungang; Yu, Xinxiao

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution causes serious problems in spring in northern China; therefore, studying the ability of different plants to accumulate particulate matter (PM) at the beginning of the growing season may benefit urban planners in their attempts to control air pollution. This study evaluated deposits of PM on the leaves and in the wax layer of 35 species (11 shrubs, 24 trees) in Beijing, China. Differences in the accumulation of PM were observed between species. Cephalotaxus sinensis, Euonymus jap...

  3. DETERMINATION OF MOBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN THE URBAN AIR PARTICULATES MATTER OF ISFAHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, A.; M. Talebi; B BINA

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: In addition to, Carbohyrates, Lipids, Amino acids and vitamins, some of the trace metals are known vital for biological activity. But some of them not only are not necessary, but also they are very toxic and carcinogen. In this research the rate of Mobility and Bioavailability of heavy metals associated with airborne particulates matter such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr have been measured. Methods: The sequential extraction has been used for releasing of heavy metales f...

  4. Genotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Suspended Particulate Matter of River Water and Waste Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Reifferscheid; Oepen, Britta v.

    2002-01-01

    Suspended particulate matter of samples of river water and waste water treatment plants was tested for genotoxicity and mutagenicity using the standardized umu assay and two versions of the Ames microsuspension assay. The study tries to determine the entire DNA-damaging potential of the water samples and the distribution of DNA-damaging substances among the liquid phase and solid phase. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the bioassays are compared.

  5. NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission reduction potential by biodiesel usage

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    The transport in many countries is the most significant source for NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Therefore, the possibility of reducing NOx and PM emissions is experimentally investigated using biodiesel and some of its blends with mineral diesel. Attention is focused on the optimal bus dieselengine adjustments for each tested fuel. The obtained engine characteristics are compared to each other by considering the 13 modes of the European stationary cycle test. The optimal injecti...

  6. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo; Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu; Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola; Raymond Paul Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease...

  7. Vis-NIR characterization of particulate matter in urban and industrial sites in the Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, R.; Montagnoli, M.; Salvatori, R.; Perrino, C.

    2010-12-01

    The optical properties of particulate matter are key parameters for the definition of the radiative balance of the atmosphere and require a deeper comprehension for improving modelling. Considering the cognitive gap evidenced by IPCC guidelines, additional tools are necessary for understanding how size distribution and mineralogy contribute to the complexity of a matrix such as particulate matter. Knowing that concentration and chemical composition are nowadays features that are “traditionally” investigated, the role of mineralogy and size distribution on the physico-chemical behaviour of airborne particles represent evidently primary goals for emerging approaches. From this point of view Vis-NIR spectroscopy could be considered an innovative technique. It is in fact a non-destructive and a relatively low-cost technique that provide information on the optical properties of materials. It is largely applied for Earth sciences purposes (for example: Pedology, Geology and Remote sensing) and requires a “calibration” with chemical or physical parameters. The difference between this technique and already developed methods (such as Aethalometry or other optical systems) consists on the simultaneous investigation of several wavelengths of the visible and near infrared regions instead of single bands. The development of this approach, focused on the relationship between light scattering and properties of materials, can provide important knowledge on the mineralogical composition of airborne particles and on the size distribution of particles. In addition of that the development of a database, constituted by airborne materials collected in different sites, can represent the link between remote or ground observations, radiative modelling and in situ sampling. The work carried out until now is based on field campaigns performed in the Mediterranean basin where PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in urban, traffic, industrial and background sites. Samples were

  8. Indoor Air Quality Investigations on Particulate Matter, Carbonyls, and Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sarah E.

    Americans spend upwards of 90% of their time indoors, hence indoor air quality (IAQ) and the impact of IAQ on human health is a major public health concern. IAQ can be negatively impacted by outdoor pollution infiltrating indoors, the emission of indoor pollutants, indoor atmospheric chemistry and poor ventilation. Energy saving measures like retrofits to seal the building envelope to prevent the leakage of heated or cooled air will impact IAQ. However, existing studies have been inconclusive as to whether increased energy efficiency is leading to detrimental IAQ. In this work, field campaigns were conducted in apartment homes in Phoenix, Arizona to evaluate IAQ as it relates to particulate matter (PM), carbonyls, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA). To investigate the impacts of an energy efficiency retrofit on IAQ, indoor and outdoor air quality sampling was carried out at Sunnyslope Manor, a city-subsidized senior living apartment complex. Measured indoor formaldehyde levels before the building retrofit exceeded reference exposure limits, but in the long term follow-up sampling, indoor formaldehyde decreased for the entire study population by a statistically significant margin. Indoor PM levels were dominated by fine particles and showed a statistically significant decrease in the long term follow-up sampling within certain resident subpopulations (i.e. residents who reported smoking and residents who had lived longer at the apartment complex). Additionally, indoor glyoxal and methylglyoxal exceeded outdoor concentrations, with methylglyoxal being more prevalent pre-retrofit than glyoxal, suggesting different chemical pathways are involved. Indoor concentrations reported are larger than previous studies. TSNAs, specifically N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal (NNA) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were evaluated post-retrofit at Sunnyslope Manor. Of the units tested, 86% of the smoking units and

  9. Synopsis of the temporal variation of particulate matter composition and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerjian, Kenneth L; Mohnen, Volker A

    2008-02-01

    A synopsis of the detailed temporal variation of the size and number distribution of particulate matter (PM) and its chemical composition on the basis of measurements performed by several regional research consortia funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) PM Supersite Program is presented. This program deployed and evaluated a variety of research and emerging commercial measurement technologies to investigate the physical and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols at a level of detail never before achieved. Most notably these studies demonstrated that systematic size-segregated measurements of mass, number, and associated chemical composition of the fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) fraction of ambient aerosol with a time resolution down to minutes and less is achievable. A wealth of new information on the temporal variation of aerosol has been added to the existing knowledge pool that can be mined to resolve outstanding research and policy-related questions. This paper explores the nature of temporal variations (on time scales from several minutes to hours) in the chemical and physical properties of PM and its implications in the identification of PM formation processes, and source attribution (primary versus secondary), the contribution of local versus transported PM and the development of effective PM control strategies. The PM Supersite results summarized indicate that location, time of day, and season significantly influence not only the mass and chemical composition but also the size-resolved chemical/elemental composition of PM. Ambient measurements also show that ultrafine particles have different compositions and make up only a small portion of the PM mass concentration compared with inhalable coarse and fine particles, but their number concentration is significantly larger than their coarse or fine counterparts. PM size classes show differences in the relative amounts of nitrates, sulfates, crustal materials, and most especially

  10. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  11. The variability in iron speciation in size fractionated residual oil fly ash particulate matter (ROFA PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2016-08-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) containing iron can catalyze Fenton reaction leading to the production of reactive oxygen species in cells. It can also catalyze atmospheric redox reaction. These reactions are governed by the physicochemical characteristics of iron in ambient PM. As a surrogate for ambient PM, we prepared residual oil fly ash PM (ROFA PM) in a practical fire tube boiler firing residual oils with varying sulfur and ash contents. The ROFA particles were resolved into fine PM or PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter (AD)<2.5μm) and coarse PM or PM2.5+ (AD between 2.5μm and 50μm). The iron speciation in PM2.5+ was ascertained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and leaching method while that in PM2.5 was reported earlier. The results of both studies are compared to get an insight into the variability in the iron speciation in different size fractions. The results show the predominance of ferric sulfate, with a minor spinal ferrite in both PM (i.e. ZnxNi1-xFe2O4 in PM2.5, ZnFe2O4 in PM2.5+). The iron solubility in ROFA PM depends on its speciation, mode of incorporation of iron into particle's carbonaceous matrix, the grade and composition of oils, and pH of the medium. The soluble fraction of iron in PM is critical in assessing its interaction with the biological systems and its toxic potential. PMID:27125683

  12. The UK particulate matter air pollution episode of March–April 2014: more than Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieno, M.; Heal, M. R.; Twigg, M. M.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Braban, C. F.; Lingard, J. J. N.; Ritchie, S.; Beck, R. C.; Móring, A.; Ots, R.; Di Marco, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.; Reis, S.

    2016-04-01

    A period of elevated surface concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the UK in spring 2014 was widely associated in the UK media with a Saharan dust plume. This might have led to over-emphasis on a natural phenomenon and consequently to a missed opportunity to inform the public and provide robust evidence for policy-makers about the observed characteristics and causes of this pollution event. In this work, the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) was used in conjunction with speciated PM measurements to investigate the sources and long-range transport (including vertical) processes contributing to the chemical components of the elevated surface PM. It is shown that the elevated PM during this period was mainly driven by ammonium nitrate, much of which was derived from emissions outside the UK. In the early part of the episode, Saharan dust remained aloft above the UK; we show that a significant contribution of Saharan dust at surface level was restricted only to the latter part of the elevated PM period and to a relatively small geographic area in the southern part of the UK. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the capability of advanced ACTMs, corroborated with chemically-speciated measurements, to identify the underlying causes of complex PM air pollution episodes. Specifically, the analyses highlight the substantial contribution of secondary inorganic ammonium nitrate PM, with agricultural ammonia emissions in continental Europe presenting a major driver. The findings suggest that more emphasis on reducing emissions in Europe would have marked benefits in reducing episodic PM2.5 concentrations in the UK.

  13. Inhable particulate matter from lime industries: Chemical composition and deposition in human respiratory tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H. M.; Braga, Darci M.; Makarovska, Yaroslava; Alfoldy, Balint; Carvalho Filho, Marco A. S.; Van Grieken, Réne; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.

    Air pollution caused by the lime production industry has become a serious problem with potential effects to human health, especially in developing countries. Colombo is a city included in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (capital of Paraná State) in South Brazil. In Colombo city, a correlation has been shown between the lime production and the number of persons who need respiratory treatment in a local hospital, indicating that the lime industry can cause deleterious health effects in the exposed workers and population. This research was conducted to deal firstly with the characterization of the size distribution and chemical compositions of particles emitted from lime manufacturing and subsequently to assess the deposition rate of inhaled dolomitic lime aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract. The elemental chemical composition and particle size of individual atmospheric particles was quantitatively elucidated, including low-Z components like C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements, using automated electron probe microanalysis. Information concerning the bulk composition is provided by energy-dispersive X-ray detection. The majority of the respirable particulate matter identified was composed of aluminosilicates, Ca-Mg oxides, carbon-rich particles, mixtures of organic particles and Ca-Mg carbonates, soot and biogenic particles. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the human respiratory system were calculated, revealing the deposition of CaO·MgO at extrathoracic, tracheobronchial and pulmonary levels. The results of this study offer evidence to the threat of the fine and coarse particles emitted from dolomite lime manufacturing, allowing policy-makers to better focus their mitigation strategies in an effective way, as well as to the dolomite producers for the purpose of designing and/or implementing improved emission controls.

  14. Particulate matter concentration mapping from MODIS satellite data: a Vietnamese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate Matter (PM) pollution is one of the most important air quality concerns in Vietnam. In this study, we integrate ground-based measurements, meteorological and satellite data to map temporal PM concentrations at a 10 × 10 km grid for the entire of Vietnam. We specifically used MODIS Aqua and Terra data and developed statistically-significant regression models to map and extend the ground-based PM concentrations. We validated our models over diverse geographic provinces i.e., North East, Red River Delta, North Central Coast and South Central Coast in Vietnam. Validation suggested good results for satellite-derived PM2.5 data compared to ground-based PM2.5 (n = 285, r2 = 0.411, RMSE = 20.299 μg m−3 and RE = 39.789%). Further, validation of satellite-derived PM2.5 on two independent datasets for North East and South Central Coast suggested similar results (n = 40, r2 = 0.455, RMSE = 21.512 μg m−3, RE = 45.236% and n = 45, r2 = 0.444, RMSE = 8.551 μg m−3, RE = 46.446% respectively). Also, our satellite-derived PM2.5 maps were able to replicate seasonal and spatial trends of ground-based measurements in four different regions. Our results highlight the potential use of MODIS datasets for PM estimation at a regional scale in Vietnam. However, model limitation in capturing maximal or minimal PM2.5 peaks needs further investigations on ground data, atmospheric conditions and physical aspects. (letter)

  15. Modeling Particulate Matter Plumes from 2007 California Wildland Fires Using a Coupled Emissions-Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, B. W.; Owen, R. C.; Erickson, T. A.; French, N. H.

    2010-12-01

    Transport of particulate matter (PM) emissions from 2007 wildland fires in San Diego County were modeled using the HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model). Fire PM sources (2.5 and 10) were estimated using a statistical, empirically-based fuel consumption and emission model (CONSUME) parameterized using weather data and fuel loadings from the Fuel Characteristics Classification System (FCCS). Using vectorized temporal burn perimeters derived from geostatistical interpolation of fire progression remote sensing images and local physiographic indicators, CONSUME emissions outputs were generated for the daily burned area and entered into HYSPLIT for the transport component. Total daily PM fire emissions were equally distributed over a 24-hour time period. Emissions are then transported in the model for three days. This poster describes the modeling system and reports on calibration and validation methods as well as results for the 2007 PM concentration time series. We evaluate the effectiveness of HYSPLIT’s fully 3-D particle plume scheme and its combined Gaussian-horizontal puff and vertical particle plume scheme. The primary source of calibration data are atmospheric monitoring stations located in the San Diego region. Also detailed are effects of fuel model spatial resolution (30-meter and 1-kilometer fuel beds modeled as separate CONSUME/HYSPLIT scenarios) and influential CONSUME parameters on modeled HYSPLIT concentrations at receptor locations. In addition, potential methods to identify the PM “signal” associated with fire v. anthropogenic emissions are discussed. These methods involve time series comparisons of modeled and in situ PM data in association with HYSPLIT-modeled anthropogenic PM source inventories. PM concentrations estimates from this coupled transport system will be used in a larger project assessing acute respiratory health impacts of fire-emitted pollutants in San Diego County.

  16. Wintertime chemical compositions of coarse and fine fractions of particulate matter in Bolu, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Fatma; Keleş, Melek

    2016-07-01

    Coarse (particulate matter (PM)2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction of PM samples were collected between December 2014 and February 2015 at an urban sampling site located at the Bolu plain, of the western Black Sea region of Turkey. The collected samples were analyzed in terms of metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Si, Ti, V, and Zn); elemental carbon (EC); and organic carbon (OC). Elevated concentrations measured in this wintertime study were ∼7.8 μg/m(3) in sum of PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 for SO4 (2-) and ∼59.9 μg/m(3) in PM2.5 for OC. The contributions of primary and secondary OC (POC and SOC, respectively) to total OC mass were 60 and 40 %, respectively, while contribution of SOC to OC increased by up to 74 % in stable atmospheric conditions. The significantly high OC/EC ratio (∼10.1) found in this study relative to other wintertime studies was attributed to increased emissions from residential heating and lower mixing height observed during the study. Two and three factors were resolved by factor analysis for PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, respectively. Two Saharan dust episodes were observed on 31 January and 1 February, during which crustal PM components such as Mg, Si, and Al increased as much as three times their background concentrations. PMID:27048328

  17. Real-time Diesel Particulate Matter ambient monitoring in underground mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gillies A D S

    2011-01-01

    A real-time Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) monitor has been developed on the base of the successful National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) designed Personal Dust Monitor (PDM) unit.The objectives of a recently completed Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) study was to modify the PDM to measure the submicrometre fraction of the aerosol in a real-time monitoring underground instrunent.Mine testing focused on use of the monitor in engineering evaluations of Longwall (LW) moves demonstrated how DPM concentrations from vehicles fluctuate under varying ventilation and operational conditions.The strong influence of mine ventilation systems is reviewed.Correlation between the current SKC DPM measurement system and real-time DPM monitors were conducted and results from eight mines show a correlation between elemental carbon (EC) and the new monitor DPM mass ranging from 0.45 to 0.82 with R2>0.86 in all but two cases.This differences in suspected to be due to variations from mine to mine in aspects such as mine atmospheric contamination,vehicle fleet variations,fuel type,engine maintenance,engine combustion efficiency,engine behavior or interference from other submicrometre aerosol.Real-time monitoring clearly reflects the movement of individual diesel vehicles and allows pin-pointing of high exposure zones such as those encountered where various vehicles engage in intense work in areas of constrained or difficult ventilation.DPM shift average monitoring approaches do not readily allow successful engineering evaluation exercises to determine acceptability of pollution levels.Identification of high DPM concentration zones allows efficient modification of mine ventilation,operator positioning and other work practices to reduce miners' exposures without waiting for laboratory analysis results.

  18. The UK particulate matter air pollution episode of March–April 2014: more than Saharan dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A period of elevated surface concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) in the UK in spring 2014 was widely associated in the UK media with a Saharan dust plume. This might have led to over-emphasis on a natural phenomenon and consequently to a missed opportunity to inform the public and provide robust evidence for policy-makers about the observed characteristics and causes of this pollution event. In this work, the EMEP4UK regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (ACTM) was used in conjunction with speciated PM measurements to investigate the sources and long-range transport (including vertical) processes contributing to the chemical components of the elevated surface PM. It is shown that the elevated PM during this period was mainly driven by ammonium nitrate, much of which was derived from emissions outside the UK. In the early part of the episode, Saharan dust remained aloft above the UK; we show that a significant contribution of Saharan dust at surface level was restricted only to the latter part of the elevated PM period and to a relatively small geographic area in the southern part of the UK. The analyses presented in this paper illustrate the capability of advanced ACTMs, corroborated with chemically-speciated measurements, to identify the underlying causes of complex PM air pollution episodes. Specifically, the analyses highlight the substantial contribution of secondary inorganic ammonium nitrate PM, with agricultural ammonia emissions in continental Europe presenting a major driver. The findings suggest that more emphasis on reducing emissions in Europe would have marked benefits in reducing episodic PM2.5 concentrations in the UK. (letter)

  19. Evaluation of atmospheric particulate concentrations derived from analysis of ratio Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, W. H.; Mausel, P. W.; Zhou, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    An approach for atmospheric particulate concentration evaluation above urban areas using ratio Thematic Mapper (TM) data is discussed. October 25, 1982 TM data over Chicago, IL are analyzed using TM band ratios of 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 1/6 and particulate concentration estimates derived from TM ratios are tested over low reflective turbid water sites and highly reflective concrete highways. From analysis of the data it is evident that for water, the pattern of increasing particulate concentration is associated with decreasing ratio values in all band combinations used. Over concrete features, the TM band 1/4 ratio values follow the predicted pattern, while the TM band 1/6 has ratios which are reversed from anticipated values.

  20. Toxicogenomic analysis of susceptibility to inhaled urban particulate matter in mice with chronic lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yauk Carole L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with chronic lung disease are at increased risk of adverse health effects from airborne particulate matter. Characterization of underlying pollutant-phenotype interactions may require comprehensive strategies. Here, a toxicogenomic approach was used to investigate how inflammation modifies the pulmonary response to urban particulate matter. Results Transgenic mice with constitutive pulmonary overexpression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter and wildtype littermates (C57BL/6 background were exposed by inhalation for 4 h to particulate matter (0 or 42 mg/m3 EHC-6802 and euthanized 0 or 24 h post-exposure. The low alveolar dose of particles (16 μg did not provoke an inflammatory response in the lungs of wildtype mice, nor exacerbate the chronic inflammation in TNF animals. Real-time PCR confirmed particle-dependent increases of CYP1A1 (30–100%, endothelin-1 (20–40%, and metallothionein-II (20–40% mRNA in wildtype and TNF mice (p Conclusion Our data support the hypothesis that health effects of acute exposure to urban particles are dominated by activation of specific physiological response cascades rather than widespread changes in gene expression.

  1. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results showed that the aerial fine particulate matter pollution was mainly distributed in the Zizhuyuan sub-district office. There was a certain association between respiratory health and fine particles. Outpatients with respiratory system disease in this study area were mostly located in the southeastern regions (Balizhuang sub-district office, Ganjiakou sub-district office, Wanshoulu sub-district office, and Yongdinglu sub-district office and east-central regions (Zizhuyuan sub-district office and Shuangyushu sub-district office of the study area. Correspondingly, PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1.0 um concentrations in these regions were higher than those in any other regions. Grey correlation analysis results showed that the correlation degree of the fine particle concentration with the number of outpatients is high, and the smaller fine particles had more obvious effects on respiratory system disease than larger particles.

  2. Characterization of particulate matter concentrations and bioaerosol on each floor at a building in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeon-Ju; Jeong, Na-Na; Chi, Woo-Bae; Seo, Ji-Hoon; Jun, Si-Moon; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul

    2015-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in buildings are mostly sourced from the transport of outdoor particles through a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and generation of particle within the building itself. We investigated the concentrations and characteristic of indoor and outdoor particles and airborne bacteria concentrations across four floors of a building located in a high-traffic area. In all the floors we studied (first, second, fifth, and eighth), the average concentrations of particles less than 10 μm (PM10) in winter for were higher than those in summer. On average, a seasonal variation in the PM10 level was found for the first, fifth, and eighth floors, such that higher values occurred in the winter season, compared to the summer season. In addition, in winter, the indoor concentrations of PM10 on the first, fifth, and eighth floors were higher than those of the outdoor PM10. The maximum level of airborne bacteria concentration was found in a fifth floor office, which held a private academy school consisting of many students. Results indicated that the airborne bacteria remained at their highest concentration throughout the weekday period and varied by students' activity. The correlation coefficient (R (2)) and slope of linear approximation for the concentrations of particulate matter were used to evaluate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor particulate matter. These results can be used to predict both the indoor particle levels and the risk of personal exposure to airborne bacteria. PMID:26062466

  3. Elemental characterization of air particulate matter in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina, is surrounded by 24 neighboring districts forming the so-called Buenos Aires metropolitan area (AMBA) that holds a population of 14 million people. In this work, the atmospheric aerosol of this metropolitan area was characterized through the determination of mass concentration, black carbon and elemental concentrations, on PM10 and PM2.5 samples taken using a 'Gent' sampler. The sampling site was located at an urban area characterized by fast and heavy traffic and samples were collected each third day, along 24 hours, between October 2005 and February 2006. A number of elements (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Yb and Zn) were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis and their results, as well as those of gravimetric mass concentrations, were compared with historical data. Enrichment factors were calculated for both fractions, using Sc as reference element and Mason's crustal concentration values, showing enrichment for As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn. Although the number of analyzed filters is still small, a preliminary factor analysis was run on both fraction results and different source profiles were found. The attribution of the sources to soil, high temperature processes including refuse incineration, fuel combustion and others, metal processes, traffic and other anthropogenic ones is discussed. (author)

  4. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  5. The impact of ambient particulate matter (PM10) on the population mortality for cerebrovascular diseasesa case-crossover study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between the concentration of ambient inhalable particulate matter(PM10) and population mortality for cerebrovascular diseases and to explore the impact of PM10 on cerebrovascular

  6. RECOVERY OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING SAMPLE PREPARATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide v...

  7. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  8. Can particulate organic matter reveal emerging changes in soil organic carbon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Magnus; Kirchmann, Holger; Magid, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether particulate organic matter (POM) in sand fractions, isolated by wet sieving after treatment with Na hexametaphosphate, can be a sensitive indicator of incipient changes in the content and composition of soil organic matter. In five long-term field experiments including....... Although organic matter in Fraction B had a higher intrinsic sensitivity to soil management, which was partly able to overcome the larger errors, we concluded that an observer would be more likely to detect changes by measuring total organic C and N, when monitoring decadal changes in C and N pools....... This makes the investigated POM fractions less suitable as indicators for changes in soil C stocks. However, the C/N ratio of Fraction B showed a distinct signature of the history of organic matter input to the soil, which was absent in the C/N ratio of the total fine earth. © Soil Science Society of America...

  9. Analysis of Volume Fraction, Diffusion and Electrification of Suspended Particulate Matter in a Two-Phase Couette Flow with Heat Transfer in an Inertial Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok MISRA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effects of volume fraction, diffusion and electrification of suspended particulate matter on a two-phase flow and heat transfer between 2 infinite parallel plates due to the impulsive start of the upper plate in an inertial frame of reference. The Crank-Nicholson finite difference implicit technique is employed to find the solutions of the governing equations of flow field. An illustration of dependence of physical variables on diffusion parameter, finite volume fraction & magnetic parameter is depicted through figures and tables. The electrification of particles has the effects of decreasing the velocities and increasing the temperature of carrier fluid and suspended particulate matter (SPM. This type of study helps in understanding large-scale phenomena in atmospheric and oceanic circulations.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.46

  10. Relating hygroscopicity and composition of organic aerosol particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Duplissy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA was used to measure the water uptake (hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formed during the chemical and photochemical oxidation of several organic precursors in a smog chamber. Electron ionization mass spectra of the non-refractory submicron aerosol were simultaneously determined with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, and correlations between the two different signals were investigated. SOA hygroscopicity was found to strongly correlate with the relative abundance of the ion signal m/z 44 expressed as a fraction of total organic signal (f44. m/z 44 is due mostly to the ion fragment CO2+ for all types of SOA systems studied, and has been previously shown to strongly correlate with organic O/C for ambient and chamber OA. The analysis was also performed on ambient OA from two field experiments at the remote site Jungfraujoch, and the megacity Mexico City, where similar results were found. A simple empirical linear relation between the hygroscopicity of OA at subsaturated RH, as given by the hygroscopic growth factor (GF or "κorg" parameter, and f44 was determined and is given by κorg=2.2×f44−0.13. This approximation can be further verified and refined as the database for AMS and HTDMA measurements is constantly being expanded around the world. The use of this approximation could introduce an important simplification in the parameterization of hygroscopicity of OA in atmospheric models, since f44 is correlated with the photochemical age of an air mass.

  11. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  12. Conference particulate matter and indoor environment, I.N.E.R.I.S.; Particulate matter and indoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Comprehensive characterisation of indoor and outdoor air as well as pollution emission sources Integrated health and environmental risk assessment Scientific and technical basis for airborne pollution management and control Fine and coarse particles. The sources of indoor air pollution are originate separately, are transported separately, are removed from atmosphere by different mechanisms, have different optical properties, have different chemical properties, require different control techniques. for the health effects due to particles, they decrease the lung function, increase respiratory symptoms, increase chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, increased cardiovascular disease, increased mortality. The different sources contributing to the highest concentrations are: concentrations: tobacco smoking, cooking, vacuuming, dusting and sweeping, heaters, stoves, fireplaces and some other non identified sources. In the future we want more focus on fine and ultra fine particles, investigate source apportionment of particles, better understanding and quantification of exposure, to implement guidelines for particle concentration in indoor air and find better cleaning technologies. (N.C.)

  13. Policy research programme on particulate matter. Main results and policy consequences; Beleidsgericht onderzoeksprogramma fijn stof. Resultaten op hoofdlijnen en beleidsconsequenties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, J.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.

    2010-06-15

    The Policy-Oriented Research on Particulate Matter (BOP) programme aimed at increasing knowledge on particulate matter so that future policy can be supported adequately. The main research objectives of BOP were to improve knowledge of the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations, composition and sources of particulate matter; Increasing the understanding of the behavior of particulate matter in the urban area; Determining the trends in concentrations of particulate matter and its components; and Clarify the impact of policies in the past and the future of PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations. The first part of this study presents the main findings of the study, discussing the (chemical) composition of particulate matter, concentration trends, expected developments, health impacts, policy implications, and how to proceed with the particulate matter dossier. In the second part of the study the underlying analysis are elaborated. [Dutch] Het Beleidsgericht Onderzoeksprogramma Particulate Matter (BOP) had als doel om de kennis over fijn stof te vergroten, zodat beleidsvorming in de toekomst adequater ondersteund kan worden. De belangrijkste onderzoeksdoelstellingen van BOP waren: Verbeteren van de kennis over de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties, de samenstelling en de bronnen van fijn stof; Vergroten van het inzicht in het gedrag van fijn stof in het stedelijke gebied; Bepalen van de trends in fijnstofconcentraties en de bestanddelen ervan; Verduidelijken van de invloed van beleidsmaatregelen in het verleden en de toekomst op de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties. Het eerste deel van deze studie, de Bevindingen, presenteert de belangrijkste uitkomsten van het onderzoek. Hierbij komen achtereenvolgens aan de orde: de (chemische) samenstelling van fijn stof, trends in concentraties, verwachte ontwikkelingen, gezondheidseffecten, beleidsconsequenties en hoe nu verder te gaan met het dossier fijn stof. In het tweede deel van de studie, de Verdieping, staat de verantwoording en worden de

  14. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  15. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban–rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003–2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3–4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter ≤2.5 and ≤10 μm emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  16. Exposure to airborne metals and particulate matter and risk for youth adjudicated for criminal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Erin N., E-mail: Erin.Haynes@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: Aimin.Chen@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ryan, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Ryan@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Succop, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Succop@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wright, John, E-mail: John.Wright@uc.edu [College of Education, Criminal Justice, and Human Services, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Dietrich, Kim N., E-mail: Kim.Dietrich@uc.edu [College of Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Antisocial behavior is a product of multiple interacting sociohereditary variables, yet there is increasing evidence that metal exposure, particularly, manganese and lead, play a role in its epigenesis. Other metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and exposure to traffic-related air pollution, such as fine particulate matter ({<=}2.5 {mu}m) have been associated with neurological deficits, yet largely unexplored with respect to their relationship with delinquent behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ecological relationship between county-wide reported airborne emissions of air metals, particulate matter, and youth adjudicated for criminal activity. Metal exposure data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency AirData. Population statistics were obtained from the United States Census 2000 and adjudication data was obtained from the Courts of Common Pleases from each Ohio County. Simple correlations were calculated with the percentage of adjudications, all covariates, and estimated metal air emissions. Separate negative binomial regression models for each pollutant were used to provide an estimated risk ratio of pollutant emissions on the risk of adjudication for all Ohio counties adjusting for urban-rural residence, percentage of African Americans, median family income, percentage of family below poverty, percentage of high school graduation in 25 years and older populations, and population density. Metal emissions and PM in 1999 were all correlated with adjudication rate (2003-2005 average). Metal emissions were associated with slightly higher risk of adjudication, with about 3-4% increased risk per natural log unit of metal emission except chromium. The associations achieved statistical significance for manganese and mercury. The particulate matter {<=}2.5 and {<=}10 {mu}m emissions had a higher risk estimate, with 12% and 19% increase per natural log unit emission, respectively, and also achieved statistical

  17. Characterization, sources and redox activity of fine and coarse particulate matter in Milan, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Ruprecht, Ario; Invernizzi, Giovanni; De Marco, Cinzia; Miller-Schulze, Justin; Heo, Jong Bae; Shafer, Martin M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2012-03-01

    The correlation between health effects and exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been of primary concern to public health organizations. An emerging hypothesis is that many of the biological effects derive from the ability of PM to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. Milan, one of the largest and most polluted urban areas in Europe, is afflicted with high particle levels. To characterize its ambient PM, fine and coarse PM (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively) samples were collected on a weekly basis for a year-long period. Samples were analyzed for their chemical properties and ROS-activity. A molecular marker chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model was also applied to apportion primary and secondary sources to fine organic carbon (OC) and PM. Findings revealed that PM2.5 is a major contributor to ambient particle levels in Milan, averaging 34.5 ± 19.4 μg m-3 throughout the year. Specifically, secondary inorganic ions and organic matter were the most dominant fine PM species contributing to 36 ± 7.1% and 34 ± 6.3% of its mass on a yearly-based average, respectively. Highest PM2.5 concentrations occurred during December-February and were mainly attributed to poor atmospheric dispersion. On the other hand, PM2.5-10 exhibited an annual average of 6.79 ± 1.67 μg m-3, with crustal elements prevailing. Source apportionment results showed that wood-smoke and secondary organic aerosol sources contribute to 4.6 ± 2.6% and 9.8 ± 11% of fine OC on a yearly-based average, respectively. The remaining OC is likely associated with petroleum-derived material that is not adequately represented by existing source profiles used in this study. Lastly, ROS-activity measurements indicated that PM2.5-induced redox activity expressed per m3 of air volume is greatest during January (837 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3) and February (920 μg Zymosan equivalents m-3). Conversely, intrinsic (per PM mass) ROS-activity peaked in July (22,587 μg Zymosan equivalents mg

  18. Sampling and analytical methodologies for instrumental neutron activation analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA supports a number of projects having to do with the analysis of airborne particulate matter by nuclear techniques. Most of this work involves the use of activation analysis in its various forms, particularly instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). This technique has been widely used in many different countries for the analysis of airborne particulate matter, and there are already many publications in scientific journals, books and reports describing such work. The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of INAA as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of INAA to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability, although they are presented here in a way that takes account of the particular requirements arising from the use of INAA as the analytical technique. The analytical part of the document, however, is presented in a form that is applicable only to INAA. (Subsequent publications in this series are expected to deal specifically with other nuclear related techniques such as energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) and particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) analysis). Although the methods and procedures described here have been found through experience to yield acceptable results, they should not be considered mandatory. Any other procedure used should, however, be chosen to be capable of yielding results at least of equal quality to those described

  19. Natural contributions to particulate matter and ozone concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, A.; Christensen, J. H.; Gross, A.; Irannejad, P.; Glasius, M.; Brandt, J.

    2013-12-01

    Natural emissions play an important role in determining ambient levels of harmful atmospheric pollutants, especially tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM). Natural sources have also become more important with the ongoing reductions of anthropogenic emissions and will be even more significant in the future in connection with planning of abatement strategies. Although efforts have been carried out to investigate and quantify natural emissions, the uncertainties and gaps with regard to these emissions are still quite large. Therefore, improvement of our understanding of natural emissions and quantifying their contribution to present and future air pollution levels have been defined as an important field of research in air pollution modeling. In this study, the large-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model, DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model) is further developed, evaluated and applied to study and quantify the contributions of natural emissions of VOCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, CH4, PM, CO and sea salt to the concentration of ozone and formation of PM for the year 2006. Natural source categories adopted in the recent model are vegetation, lightning, soils, wild animals and oceans. The relative contributions are calculated for the domain covering more than the Northern Hemisphere (the DEHM mother domain) as well as for the six continental regions: North America, Northern part of South America, Asia, Europe, Middle East and northern and central part of Africa. Our simulations indicate that at the Northern Hemisphere the contribution from natural emissions to the average annual ozone concentrations over land is between 4-30 ppbV. Among the natural emissions, biogenic VOCs are found to be the most significant contributors to ozone formation. Our results show that biogenic VOCs enhance the average ozone concentration with around 11% over land areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative contribution of all the natural emissions to ozone is found to be highest

  20. Development of analytical methodologies for iodine species in gaseous and particulate phases of the coastal atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that iodine does have an important influence on atmospheric chemistry, especially the formation of new particles and the enrichment of iodine in marine aerosols. It was pointed out that the most probable chemical species involved in the production or growth of these particles are iodine oxides, produced photochemically from biogenic halocarbon emissions and/or iodine emission from the sea surface. However, the iodine chemistry from gaseous to particulate phase in the ...

  1. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  2. Sampling and analytical methodologies for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present document represents an attempt to summarize the most important features of the different forms of ED-XFR as applied to the analysis of airborne particulate matter. It is intended to serve as a set of guidelines for use by participants in the IAEA's own programmes, and other scientists, who are not yet fully experienced in the application of ED-XRF to airborne particulate samples, and who wish either to make a start on using this technique or to improve their existing procedures. The methodologies for sampling described in this document are of rather general applicability. Emphasis is also placed on the sources of errors affecting the sampling of airborne particulate matter. The analytical part of the document describes the different forms of ED-XRF and their potential applications. Spectrum evaluation, a key step in X-ray spectrometry, is covered in depth, including discussion on several calibration and peak fitting techniques and computer programs especially designed for this purpose. 148 refs, 25 figs, 13 tabs

  3. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N [Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian, E-mail: umphsp@leeds.ac.u [Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research Division, Leeds Institute for Health, Genetics and Therapeutics, The LIGHT Laboratories, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  4. Assessment of the environmental exposure of honeybees to particulate matter containing neonicotinoid insecticides coming from corn coated seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapparo, Andrea; Marton, Daniele; Giorio, Chiara; Zanella, Alessandro; Soldà, Lidia; Marzaro, Matteo; Vivan, Linda; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2012-03-01

    Since seed coating with neonicotinoid insecticides was introduced in the late 1990s, European beekeepers have reported severe colony losses in the period of corn sowing (spring). As a consequence, seed-coating neonicotinoid insecticides that are used worldwide on corn crops have been blamed for honeybee decline. In view of the currently increasing crop production, and also of corn as a renewable energy source, the correct use of these insecticides within sustainable agriculture is a cause of concern. In this paper, a probable--but so far underestimated--route of environmental exposure of honeybees to and intoxication with neonicotinoid insecticides, namely, the atmospheric emission of particulate matter containing the insecticide by drilling machines, has been quantitatively studied. Using optimized analytical procedures, quantitative measurements of both the emitted particulate and the consequent direct contamination of single bees approaching the drilling machine during the foraging activity have been determined. Experimental results show that the environmental release of particles containing neonicotinoids can produce high exposure levels for bees, with lethal effects compatible with colony losses phenomena observed by beekeepers. PMID:22292570

  5. SYSTEMIC VASCULAR DISEASE IN MALE B6C3F1 MICE EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER BY INHALATION: STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ambient particulate matter and cardiopulmonary diseases in humans. The mechanisms underlying these health effects are poorly understood. To better understand the potential relationship between particulate-ma...

  6. High time resolution observation and statistical analysis of atmospheric light extinction properties and the chemical speciation of fine particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In recent years,the visibility deterioration caused by regional fine particulate pollution becomes one of the crucial air pollution problems in the urban areas of our country.The rapid variation of visibility and fine particulates make it difficult to estimate the relationship between them precisely and accurately unless high time resolution observation data can be accessed.This study aims to fill this gap in the field of atmospheric science by establishing a formula using multiple linear regressions.Excellent fitting goodness (R2=0.913,n=3167) was obtained using 10 min average of high-resolution real-time light scattering coefficients,light absorption coefficients,main chemical speciation concentration in PM1 and some meteorological parameters from 17 Jan to 16 Feb,2009.It shows that the average light extinction coefficient during the observation in the winter of Shenzhen was measured to be 290 ± 183 Mm?1,consisting of 72% of light scattering and 21% of absorption.In terms of the percentage contribution of PM1 chemical species to the total light extinction,the organic matter was estimated to be most with an average of 45%,followed by ammonium sulfate with an average of 24%.The contributions of black carbon and ammonium nitrate were 17% and 12%,respectively.Besides,the diurnal variation of light extinction was investigated as well in this study.

  7. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of small cyclone separator to remove fine particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Han Gyul; Kim, Hong Seok [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A cyclone separator has been widely used in various industrial processes for removing fine particulate matter because it is easy to fabricate, cost effective, and adaptable to extremely harsh conditions. However, owing to the complex flow field in cyclones, a complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of particulate removal has not yet been gained. In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed for calculating the collection efficiency and cut off size in cyclones by taking into account the effects of geometrical and flow parameters. The collection efficiency and cut off size values predicted by the theoretical model showed good agreement with experimental measurements for particles with a diameter of 0.5-30{mu}m. It was also revealed that the surface friction, along with the flow and geometrical parameters, has a significant effect on the cyclone performance.

  8. Theoretical analysis and experimental evaluation of small cyclone separator to remove fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cyclone separator has been widely used in various industrial processes for removing fine particulate matter because it is easy to fabricate, cost effective, and adaptable to extremely harsh conditions. However, owing to the complex flow field in cyclones, a complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of particulate removal has not yet been gained. In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed for calculating the collection efficiency and cut off size in cyclones by taking into account the effects of geometrical and flow parameters. The collection efficiency and cut off size values predicted by the theoretical model showed good agreement with experimental measurements for particles with a diameter of 0.5-30μm. It was also revealed that the surface friction, along with the flow and geometrical parameters, has a significant effect on the cyclone performance

  9. Fluxes, dynamics and chemistry of suspended particulate matter in a southeast Alaskan fjord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weighted mean fluxes over the June 1982-October 1983 were 290, 519, 812, 1124 g m-2 yr-1, respectively, determined using sediment traps deployed at 40, 120, 300 and 375 m depth in the 380 m water column. The long-term sedimentation rate was estimated at average 589 g m-2 yr-1 from sediment 210Pb profiles. Substantial SPM input to mid-depths (below 100 m) from the side arms was noted. Thus, the flux measured at 120 m depth was designated as the primary flux of the SPM to the basin. The sediment focusing resulting from the V shaped basin does not appear to be important. Using particulate Al as a tracer, resuspension rate was estimated at some 30-80% of the vertical flux below 280 m depth. Based on the SPM dynamics, the non-conservative behavior of particulate biogenic matter, Mn and Fe was investigated using a primary-resuspended-altered flux model

  10. Analysis of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 over Hong Kong Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanling Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fine particulates (PM2.5; particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm are receiving increasing attention for their potential toxicities and roles in visibility and health. In this study, we interpreted the behavior of PM2.5 and its correlation with meteorological parameters in Hong Kong, during 2007–2008. Significant diurnal variations of PM2.5 concentrations were observed and showed a distinctive bimodal pattern with two marked peaks during the morning and evening rush hour times, due to dense traffic. The study observed higher PM2.5 concentrations in winter when the northerly and northeasterly winds bring pollutants from the Chinese mainland, whereas southerly monsoon winds from the sea bring fresh air to the city in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of PM2.5 were observed in rush hours on weekdays compared to weekends, suggesting the influence of anthropogenic activities on fine particulate levels, e.g., traffic-related local PM2.5 emissions. To understand the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in the context of the built-up environment of Hong Kong, we utilized MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT 500 m data and visibility data to derive aerosol extinction profile, then converted to aerosol and PM2.5 vertical profiles. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS prototype was developed to integrate atmospheric PM2.5 vertical profiles with 3D GIS data. An example of the query function in GIS prototype is given. The resulting 3D database of PM2.5 concentrations provides crucial information to air quality regulators and decision makers to comply with air quality standards and in devising control strategies.

  11. Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particle Pollution. Video PSAs EPA's Burn Wise program released two ... announcements (PSAs) to help the public reduce PM pollution from wood smoke. Your Air Quality Good Moderate ...

  12. Biogeochemical consequences of vertical and lateral transport of particulate organic matter in the southern North Sea: A multiproxy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical and lateral transports are of importance in continental shelf systems such as the North Sea andplay a major role in the processing of organic matter. We investigated the biogeochemical consequencesof these transports on particulate organic matter at the molecular level in the southern North

  13. Particulate-matter content of 11 cephalosporin injections: conformance with USP limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, D A; Taylor, A J

    1987-05-01

    The particulate-matter content of 11 dry-powder cephalosporin injections was determined using a modified version of the official United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) method for particulate matter in small-volume injections (SVIs). Ten vials of each cephalosporin product were each constituted with 10 mL of Water for Injections BP that had been filtered through a 0.22-micron membrane. The pooled contents of the 10 vials for each product were allowed to stand under reduced pressure to ensure removal of gas bubbles. Particulate-matter content was determined using a HIAC/Royco particle counter on six 10-mL samples obtained from the pooled solutions for each product. All solution preparation and particle counting was performed in a horizontal-laminar-airflow hood. Modifications of the USP method used in this study included the use of six rather than two samples from each pooled solution, the addition of diluent to the injections through the rubber closure with a needle instead of into the open container, and changes in the degassing method. Particle counts for all products examined were lower than USP limits for SVIs. All but two products contained less than 15% of USP limits for particles greater than or equal to 10 microns in effective diameter and particles greater than or equal to 25 microns in effective diameter. The standard USP method for degassing (standing for two minutes) was inadequate. Application of reduced pressure for up to 10 minutes was necessary for thorough degassing of products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3605122

  14. Monitoring Automotive Particulate Matter Emissions with LiDAR: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Mazzoleni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Automotive particulate matter (PM causes deleterious effects on health and visibility. Physical and chemical properties of PM also influence climate change. Roadside remote sensing of automotive emissions is a valuable option for assessing the contribution of individual vehicles to the total PM burden. LiDAR represents a unique approach that allows measuring PM emissions from in-use vehicles with high sensitivity. This publication reviews vehicle emission remote sensing measurements using ultraviolet LiDAR and transmissometer systems. The paper discusses the measurement theory and documents examples of how these techniques provide a unique perspective for exhaust emissions of individual and groups of vehicles.

  15. Processes and modeling of hydrolysis of particulate organic matter in aerobic wastewater tratment - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Kommedal, Roald; Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    substrates and mixed populations. Most mathematical models use a simple one-step process to describe hydrolysis. In this article, mechanisms of hydrolysis and mathematical models to describe these processes in wastewater treatment processes are reviewed. Experimental techniques to determine mechanisms......Carbon cycling and the availability of organic carbon for nutrient removal processes are in most wastewater treatment systems restricted by the rate of hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable (particulate) organic matter. To date, the mechanisms of hydrolysis are not well understood for complex...

  16. A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Yeongkwon Son; Vladimir Mishin; William Welsh; Shou-En Lu; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Howard Kipen; Qingyu Meng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms linking ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with various adverse health effects. The oxidative potential of PM has been used to characterize the ability of PM induced oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most destructive radical produced by PM. However, there is currently no high-throughput approach which can rapidly measure PM-induced •OH for a large number of samples with an automated system. This study evaluated four existing mo...

  17. Saharan Dust and Associations between Particulate Matter and Daily Mortality in Rome, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Mallone, Sandra; Stafoggia, Massimo; Faustini, Annunziata; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Marconi, Achille; Forastiere, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Background: Outbreaks of Saharan-Sahel dust over Euro-Mediterranean areas frequently induce exceedances of the Europen Union's 24-hr standard of 50 μg/m3 for particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤ than 10 μm (PM10). Objectives: We evaluated the effect of Saharan dust on the association between different PM fractions and daily mortality in Rome, Italy. Methods: In a study of 80,423 adult residents who died in Rome between 2001 and 2004, we performed a time-series analysis to explo...

  18. Analysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter in Madrid urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been measured in the air particulate matter during six months, from January to June of 1987, in an urban area of Madrid. The hydrocarbons were collected on glass fiber filters by high volumen sampling. The extraction was carried out by Sohxlet and ultrasonic techniques. The extracts were clean-up on silicagel fractionation and the chromatographic analysis was performed by capillary column gas chromatographic. Final results are discussed as well as the immission values related to the possible emission sources. (Author)

  19. Exposures to Particulate Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Oxidative Stress in Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Sanghyuk; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Kim, Su-Young; Park, Kwangsik; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2009-01-01

    Background Air pollution is known to contribute to respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Oxidative stress has been suggested as one of the main mechanisms for these effects on health. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in schoolchildren. Methods The study population co...

  20. Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Subchronic Inhalation Particulate Matter 10 Coal Dust on Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Bambang; Darsuni, Asnawati; Muttaqien, Fauzan; Widodo, M. Aris

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was have to known an effect of inhaled particulate matter 10 (PM10) of coal dust on lipid profile, hematopoetic stem cells (HSC) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in rats. A total of 32 Wistar male rats, were randomly divided into four groups of 8 rats each, including one control group and three groups for inhaled coal dust (concentration 6.25 mg/m3; 12.5 mg/m3; and 25 mg/m3). The exposure to coal dust exposure was conducted using equipment that was designed by and av...

  1. Real-world exposure of airborne particulate matter triggers oxidative stress in an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Guohui; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Zhang, Kezhong

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between air pollution and the increase of cardio-pulmonary mortality and morbidity. In particular, inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure is closely associated with the pathogenesis of air pollution-induced systemic diseases. In this study, we exposed C57BIV6 mice to environmentally relevant PM in fine and ultra fine ranges (diameter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5) using a “real-world” airborne PM exposure system. We investigated the pathophysiolog...

  2. Formation of particulate matter monitoring during combustion of wood pellete with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacka, Matej; Holubčík, Michal; Vician, Peter; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Application additives into the material for the production of wood pellets achieve an improvement in some properties such as pellets ash flow temperature and abrasion resistance. Additives their properties influence the course of combustion, and have an impact on the results of issuance. The experiment were selected additives corn starch and dolomite. Wood pellets were produced in the pelleting press and pelletizing with the additives. Selected samples were tested for the production of particulate matter (PM) during their direct burn. The paper analyzing a process of producing wood pellets and his effect on the final properties.

  3. Seasonal variation of the metal composition in particulate matter (PM) in Graz determined with ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Graz, the 2nd biggest city of Austria, is not only famous for its cultural heritage but is also well known as one of the most heavily air-polluted cities of Austria. Samples of particulate matter (PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10), collected in Graz over a one year period, were analyzed for 36 metals by ICPMS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. Accumulation of PM in the city (Graz is located in a basin) and additional emissions (e.g. domestic combustion) during winter caused not only higher PM concentrations but also marked changes in the PM metal composition. (author)

  4. Workbook on reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) of airborne particulate matter (APM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents general aspects of reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to measurement of elemental composition of airborne particulate matter. It presents an introduction to the NAA, its' basic principles and brief history of the method and discusses its' advantages and disadvantages. This publication also presents experimental procedures of NAA including sampling and sample preparation; preparation of calibration standard samples; reactor neutron irradiation; gamma-spectroscopy of the irradiated samples; quantification and presentation of analytical results. The publication pays attention to the quality assurance and quality control procedures including internal quality control, analysis of certified reference materials, and interlaboratory and multi-method comparison studies, control charts

  5. Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiulin Xiong; Wenji Zhao; Zhaoning Gong; Wenhui Zhao; Tao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter has become the premier air pollutant of Beijing in recent years, enormously impacting the environmental quality of the city and the health of the residents. Fine particles with aerodynamic diameters of 0~0.3 μm, 0.3~0.5 μm, and 0.5~1.0 μm, from the yeasr 2007 to 2012, were monitored, and the hospital data about respiratory diseases during the same period was gathered and calculated. Then the correlation between respiratory health and fine particles was studied by spat...

  6. The Spatial Variation of Dust Particulate Matter Concentrations during Two Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova; Agnes Ösp Magnusdottir; Haraldur Olafsson; Olafur Arnalds

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from ...

  7. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  8. Characterization of particulate matter emission from open burning of rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Ly, Bich Thuy; Tipayarom, Danutawat; Manandhar, Bhai Raja; Prapat, Pongkiatkul; Simpson, Christopher D.; Sally Liu, L.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Emission from field burning of crop residue, a common practice in many parts of the world today, has potential effects on air quality, atmosphere and climate. This study provides a comprehensive size and compositional characterization of particulate matter (PM) emission from rice straw (RS) burning using both in situ experiments (11 spread field burning) and laboratory hood experiments (3 pile and 6 spread burning) that were conducted during 2003-2006 in Thailand. The carbon balance and emission ratio method was used to determine PM emission factors (EF) in the field experiments. The obtained EF varied from field to hood experiments reflecting multiple factors affecting combustion and emission. In the hood experiments, EF were found to be depending on the burning types (spread or pile), moisture content and the combustion efficiency. In addition, in the field experiments, burning rate and EF were also influenced by weather conditions, i.e. wind. Hood pile burning produced significantly higher EF (20 ± 8 g kg -1 RS) than hood spread burning (4.7 ± 2.2 g kg -1 RS). The majority of PM emitted from the field burning was PM 2.5 with EF of 5.1 ± 0.7 g m -2 or 8.3 ± 2.7 g kg -1 RS burned. The coarse PM fraction (PM 10-2.5) was mainly generated by fire attention activities and was relatively small, hence the resulting EF of PM 10 (9.4 ± 3.5 g kg -1 RS) was not significantly higher than PM 2.5. PM size distribution was measured across 8 size ranges (from 9.0 μm). The largest fractions of PM, EC and OC were associated with PM 1.1. The most significant components in PM 2.5 and PM 10 include OC, water soluble ions and levoglucosan. Relative abundance of some methoxyphenols (e.g., acetylsyringone), PAHs (e.g., fluoranthene and pyrene), organochlorine pesticides and PCBs may also serve as additional signatures for the PM emission. Presence of these toxic compounds in PM of burning smoke increases the potential toxic effects of the emission. For illustration, an estimation

  9. Source apportionment of particulate matter in a South Asian Mega City: A case study of Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, imran

    2016-04-01

    Pakistan is facing unabated air pollution as a major issue and its cities are more vulnerable as compared to urban centers in the developed world. During the last few decades, there has been a rapid increase in population, urbanization, industrialization, transportation and other human activities. In year June 2015 heat wave in largest South Asian mega city Karachi more than 1500 people died in one week. Unfortunately no air quality monitoring system is operation in any city of Pakistan. There is a sharp increase in both the variety and quantity of air pollutants and their corresponding sources. In this study contributions of different sources to particulate matter concentration has estimated in urban area of Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4--), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were measured in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particles collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March - April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). Average concentrations of PM2.5 were 75μg/m3 and of PM10 437μg/m3. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and „siliceous dust" were the overall dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. 20 Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC+OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in 22 PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC+OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. Of secondary inorganic constituents (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity to PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to

  10. Effective density measurements of fresh particulate matter emitted by an aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Durdina, Lukas; Mensah, Amewu; Brem, Benjamin; Corbin, Joel; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Wang, Jing; Lohmann, Ulrike; Sierau, Berko

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Carbonaceous particulate matter (commonly referred to as soot), once emitted into the atmosphere affects the global radiation budget by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. Furthermore, it can alter the formation, lifetime and distribution of clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). The ability of soot particles to act as CCN and IN depends on their size, morphology and chemical composition. Soot particles are known to consist of spherical, primary particles that tend to arrange in chain-like structures. The structure of soot particles typically changes in the atmosphere when the particles are coated with secondary material, thus changing their radiative and cloud microphysical properties. Bond et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013: Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System.) estimated the total industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon to be 1.1 W/m2 ranging from the uncertainty bonds of 0.17 W/m2 to 2.1 W/m2. Facing the large uncertainty range, there is a need for a better characterization of soot particles abundant in the atmosphere. We provide experimental data on physical properties such as size, mass, density and morphology of freshly produced soot particles from a regularly used aircraft engine and from four laboratory generated soot types. This was done using a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and a Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyzer (CPMA), a relatively new instrument that records mass distributions of aerosol particles. Experimental Aircraft engine exhaust particles were collected and analysed during the Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiments (A-PRIDE) campaigns in a test facility at the Zurich airport in November 2012 and August 2013. The engines were operated at different relative thrust levels spanning 7 % to 100 %. The sample was led into a heated line in order to prevent condensation of water and evolution of secondary

  11. Canadian and U.S. sources impacting the mercury levels in fine atmospheric particulate material across New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmez, I.; Ames, M.R.; Gullu, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.

    1998-10-15

    An extensive atmospheric sampling and analysis program has been completed in order to identify and apportion the sources of mercury associated with fine atmospheric particulate material. Samples of fine atmospheric particulate material were collected daily, at five remote sites in New York State, over a period of 2 years. The trace element composition of 1200 of these samples was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Results of both meteorological and statistical analyses of the data indicate that approximately 55% of the fine particulate mercury originated from smelters in Ontario and Quebec, and 25% originated from a mixture of regional sources in the Midwestern United States. A decline in the average measured particulate Hg concentration, beginning in February 1993, has been attributed to reduced emissions from one or more of the major Canadian smelters.

  12. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  13. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  14. Radionuclides in water and suspended particulate matter from the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing plants at Sellafield and La Hague are primarily the sources of artificial radionuclides in the North Sea. Due the prevailing transport of water masses, the contamination of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) with Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, Sb-125, and Ru-106 constitutes a characteristic pattern depending on the source of contamination. Th-234 gives the highest activity of natural radionuclides in suspended matter. Its activity depends mainly on the suspension load. Resuspension processes and biological activity are responsible for the specific activities in SPM of the North Sea. SPM was collected from several cubic meters of seawater by means of a continuous flow centrifuge. Results from several cruises to the North Sea are presented. (Author)

  15. Seasonal variability of particulate organic matter sampled in the free troposphere over south-western part of Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Voronetskaya, Natalya; Pevneva, Galina; Golovko, Anatoly; Kozlov, Alexandr; Malyshkin, Sergey; Simonenkov, Denis; Davydov, Denis; Tolmachev, Gennadii; Arshinov, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    The annual behavior of the concentration of components of atmospheric particulate organic matter sampled in the atmospheric layer from 500 to 8500 m is discussed. Compounds ranging from C8H18 to C35H72 were detected in the composition of aerosol particles. The identified part of organic aerosols showed a distinct seasonal pattern with a maximum in spring and a minimum during autumn. The range of hydrocarbons is the widest during the winter period (C12H26-C35H72) and during spring (C8H18-C31H64), and it is markedly narrower during summer (C18H38-C33H68) and during autumn (C16H34-C31H64). One mode (n-alkane C20H42) predominates in aerosol composition throughout the year. A secondary maximum, corresponding to n-alkane C29H60, appears during the summer period and, possibly, caused by forest fires This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  16. Relationship between redox activity and chemical speciation of size-fractionated particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Arthur K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanisms of airborne particulate matter (PM related health effects remain incompletely understood, one emerging hypothesis is that these adverse effects derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS within affected cells. Typically, ROS are formed in cells through the reduction of oxygen by biological reducing agents, with the catalytic assistance of electron transfer enzymes and redox active chemical species such as redox active organic chemicals and metals. The purpose of this study was to relate the electron transfer ability, or redox activity, of the PM samples to their content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various inorganic species. The redox activity of the samples has been shown to correlate with the induction of the stress protein, hemeoxygenase-1. Results Size-fractionated (i.e. Conclusion The results of this work demonstrate the utility of the dithiothreitol assay for quantitatively assessing the redox potential of airborne particulate matter from a wide range of sources. Studies to characterize the redox activity of PM from various sources throughout the Los Angeles basin are currently underway.

  17. Particulate Matter deposition on Quercus ilex leaves in an industrial city of central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have focused on urban trees to understand their mitigation capacity of air pollution. In this study particulate matter (PM) deposition on Quercus ilex leaves was quantitatively analyzed in four districts of the City of Terni (Italy) for three periods of the year. Fine (between 0.2 and 2.5 μm) and Large (between 2.5 and 10 μm) PM fractions were analyzed. Mean PM deposition value on Quercus ilex leaves was 20.6 μg cm−2. Variations in PM deposition correlated with distance to main roads and downwind position relatively to industrial area. Epicuticular waxes were measured and related to accumulated PM. For Fine PM deposited in waxes we observed a higher value (40% of total Fine PM) than Large PM (4% of total Large PM). Results from this study allow to increase our understanding about air pollution interactions with urban vegetation and could be hopefully taken into account when guidelines for local urban green management are realized. - Highlights: • A quantitative analysis of Particulate Matter deposition on urban Quercus ilex leaves was implemented. • Deposition data were correlated with pollutants sources such as roads and local steel factory, and with epicuticular waxes. • Results provide new insight about the capacity of trees in removing pollutants in urban environment. - This paper is providing useful information on PM deposition on urban vegetation

  18. Characterisation of air particulate matter in Klang Valley by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter is known to affect human health, impairs visibility and can cause climate change. Study on air particulate matter in term of particle size and chemical contents is very important to indicate the quality of air in a sampling area. Information on concentration of important constituents in air particles can be used to identify some of emission sources which contribute to the pollution problem. The data collected may also be, used as a basis to design a strategy in order to overcome the air pollution problem in the area. The study involved sampling of air dust at two stations, one in Bangi and the other in Kuala Lumpur using Gent Stack Sampler units. Each sampler capable of collecting air particle sizes smaller than 2.5 micron (PM 2.5) and between 2.5 - O micron on two different filters simultaneously. The filters were measured for their mass, elemental carbon and elemental concentrations using analytical equipment or techniques including reflectometer and Neutron Activation Analysis. The results of analysis on samples collected in 1997-1998 are discussed. (author)

  19. Spatial Interpolation of Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations Using the Shortest Wind-Field Path Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

    2014-01-01

    Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health. PMID:24798197

  20. Collection of airborne particulate matter for a subsequent analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bayer, H.; Bohlen, A. von; Schmeling, M.; Klockow, D. [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    The collection of airborne particulate matter by filtration and impaction was adapted to total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Cellulose nitrate filters were used for collecting in a Berner impactor. Single filter spots were punched out, placed on quartz-glass carriers, dissolved by tetrahydrofuran and re-precipitated prior to element determinations by TXRF. In a Battelle-type impactor, airborne dust was collected on Plexiglass carriers coated with medical Vaseline. The loaded carriers were directly analyzed by TXRF. In both cases, quantification was simply performed by the addition of an internal standard after sampling. Impactors were made of a suitable material in order to investigate high blank values, collection losses and memory effects. It could be shown that stainless steel, even coated with TiN, is less suitable and should be avoided as an impactor material. Although aluminum is partly recommendable, titanium and the polymer Makrolon are quite appropriate. By using an impactor made of these materials, a reliable multielement determination in airborne dust is made possible with low detection limits as low as 1 ng/m{sup 3} and a satisfactory repeatability of a few %. Short sampling times of only 1 h or less can be realized. The total procedure is simple and time-saving, and can be recommended for routine investigations of airborne particulate matter. (author).

  1. Genotoxicity of organic extracts of urban airborne particulate matter: an assessment within a personal exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Oussama R; Joyeux, Michel; Nerrière, Eléna; Strub, Marie-Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter, PM(10) and PM(2.5), are associated with a range of health effects including lung cancer. Their complex organic fraction contains genotoxic and carcinogenic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives. This study evaluates the genotoxicity of the PM(10) and PM(2.5) organic extracts that were sampled in the framework of a personal exposure study in three French metropolitan areas (Paris, Rouen and Strasbourg), using the comet assay, performed on HeLa S3 cells. In each city, 60-90 non-smoking volunteers composed of two groups of equal size (adults and children) carried the personal Harvard Chempass multi-pollutant sampler during 48h along two different seasons ('hot' and 'cold'). Volunteers were selected so as to live (home and work/school) in 3 different urban sectors contrasted in terms of air pollution within each city (one highly exposed to traffic emissions, one influenced by local industrial sources, and a background urban environment). Genotoxic effects are stronger for PM(2.5) extracts than for PM(10), and greater in winter than in summer. Fine particles collected by subjects living within the traffic proximity sector present the strongest genotoxic responses, especially in the Paris metropolitan area. This work confirms the genotoxic potency of particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) organic extracts to which urban populations are exposed. PMID:16901531

  2. Results of measurements of particulate matter concentrations inside a pig fattening facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulens, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. This research note discusses the results of measurements of particulate matter concentrations inside a pig fattening facility. Objectives. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the correlations between the different size fractions of indoor particulate matter (PM inside a pig fattening facility and to investigate the evolution of particle size distribution (PSD through a fattening period and between two housing systems and two cleaning protocols. Method. Data from two consecutive fattening periods in a commercial pig barn were used. Results. Very high correlations were found between PM10 and PM2.5 indoor concentrations. Depending on the measuring instrument, high or low correlations were found between PM1 and PM10 or PM2.5 indoor concentrations. No differences in PSD could be found between the two housing systems or the two cleaning protocols. Conclusions. The results from the present study showed high correlations between the indoor concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. In the present study, no differences in PSD were found.

  3. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longxiang; Gong, Jianhua; Zhou, Jieping

    2014-01-01

    Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health. PMID:24798197

  4. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  5. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  6. Ambient particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular diseases: a focus on progenitor and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuqi; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Zhenguo

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution is a major challenge to public health. Ambient fine particulate matter (PM) is the key component for air pollution, and associated with significant mortality. The majority of the mortality following PM exposure is related to cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms for the adverse effects of PM exposure on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown and under active investigation. Endothelial dysfunction or injury is considered one of the major factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of vasculature. Particulate matter exposure significantly suppressed the number and function of EPCs in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms for the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs remain to be fully defined. One of the important mechanisms might be related to increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation. Bone marrow (BM) is a major source of EPCs. Thus, the number and function of EPCs could be intimately associated with the population and functional status of stem cells (SCs) in the BM. Bone marrow stem cells and other SCs have the potential for cardiovascular regeneration and repair. The present review is focused on summarizing the detrimental effects of PM exposure on EPCs and SCs, and potential mechanisms including ROS formation as well as clinical implications. PMID:26988063

  7. Particulate matter and hospital admissions due to ischemic heart disease in Sorocaba, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara da Silva Gavinier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for ischemic heart diseases (IHD. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to particulate matter (PM10 and hospital admissions due to ischemic heart diseases. It was a time-series ecological study with individuals of both genders, 50 or more years old, and residents of Sorocaba, São Paulo. The admission data was obtained from the DATASUS site according to ICD-10 (I20 to I22 and I24 to I25.0, for the period from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2010. The concentrations of air pollutants (particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide and oxides of nitrogen, temperature and mean relative humidity were provided by the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. The generalized additive model Poisson regression with lags of up to four days was used. There were 1804 admissions during the period. Exposure to PM10 was significantly associated with hospitalization for IHD two and four days after exposure with RR = 1.006, 95% CI 1.001-1.012 and an increment of 21 μg m-³ was associated with an increase of 13% in risk of hospitalization two days after exposure and 14% after four days. It was therefore possible to identify an association with exposure to PM10 in hospitalizations due to ischemic heart diseases in individuals from a medium-sized city of Sao Paulo.

  8. Comparison of discriminant analysis methods: Application to occupational exposure to particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. Rosário; Carolino, E.; Viegas, Carla; Viegas, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Health effects associated with occupational exposure to particulate matter have been studied by several authors. In this study were selected six industries of five different areas: Cork company 1, Cork company 2, poultry, slaughterhouse for cattle, riding arena and production of animal feed. The measurements tool was a portable device for direct reading. This tool provides information on the particle number concentration for six different diameters, namely 0.3 µm, 0.5 µm, 1 µm, 2.5 µm, 5 µm and 10 µm. The focus on these features is because they might be more closely related with adverse health effects. The aim is to identify the particles that better discriminate the industries, with the ultimate goal of classifying industries regarding potential negative effects on workers' health. Several methods of discriminant analysis were applied to data of occupational exposure to particulate matter and compared with respect to classification accuracy. The selected methods were linear discriminant analyses (LDA); linear quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), robust linear discriminant analysis with selected estimators (MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimators), MVE (Minimum Volume Elipsoid), "t", MCD (Minimum Covariance Determinant), MCD-A, MCD-B), multinomial logistic regression and artificial neural networks (ANN). The predictive accuracy of the methods was accessed through a simulation study. ANN yielded the highest rate of classification accuracy in the data set under study. Results indicate that the particle number concentration of diameter size 0.5 µm is the parameter that better discriminates industries.

  9. Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter from Santiago City, Chile, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendez, M.; Ortiz, J.L.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1984-01-01

    In Chile, the State Public Health Office (Ministerio de Salud Publica) is responsible for pollution control and for air quality. This office has been monitoring only toxic gases and total suspended particulate matter. The present work is the first study in Chile designed to determine trace elements and their concentrations in particulate matter in the air. By use of enrichment factors, 25 trace elements were classified according to natural or anthropogenic origin. There were two sampling periods: July (winter) and September (spring) 1976. Four sites were studied, located about 6 km north, south, west and east of downtown Santiago. The south, north and west sites are urban and 55 m above sea level. The east site is suburban and approximately 270 m higher than the others. Twenty-four-hour samples were collected on Whatman-41 cellulose filter paper, in a modified stainless steel Buchner funnel. Approximately 10 m/sup 3/ were used at the urban sites and 200 m/sup 3/ at the suburban site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used as the analytical technique.

  10. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Mexico. A first survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first survey of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was performed using PIXE. This second largest industrial city is located 715 km north of Mexico City, and counts with a population of nearly three million inhabitants in its conurbation. Air pollution in the place comes from a great variety of industries ranging from iron smelters to furniture manufacturing, as well as from fuel combustion in vehicles and industries. This study presents results of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter in two particle size fractions: PM2.5 and PM15. The samples were collected during five weeks on working days, Monday-Friday, from 9 December 1996 to 14 January 1997. Two samples a day were collected, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. These first results show local pollution as typical from a large urban area in conjunction with an active industry. Thirteen elements were consistently detected in most of the samples and some episodes due to both industrial and human activities were identified. A general discussion about the results obtained is presented

  11. New insight into particulate mineral and organic matter in coastal ocean waters through optical inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Stavn, Robert H.; Falster, Alexander U.; Gray, Deric; Gould, Richard W.

    2014-08-01

    Suspended particulate inorganic matter (PIM) and particulate organic matter (POM) often exhibit significant variation both spatially and temporally in coastal oceans. The size distributions and optical properties of these particles are poorly known. Utilizing a newly developed inversion technique from the measured angular scattering pattern, we were able to examine POM and PIM in terms of detailed particle size distributions (PSD) and optical volume scattering functions (VSF), gaining further insights and knowledge of particles that will greatly improve biogeochemical investigations and remote-sensing algorithms. We report the results on two extremes or end-members of possible coastal environments, sediment-laden, turbid Mobile Bay, Alabama, USA and biologically productive, clear water Monterey Bay, California, USA. The optically inferred mass concentrations of PIM and POM, when accounting for the fractal nature of suspended particles, agreed well with the respective gravimetric determinations within the analysis and inversion uncertainty. Despite intra- and inter-site variability, the inferred PSDs in both coastal regions commonly showed an apparent background population of PIM at radii 50 μm. The clearly distinctive PSDs between PIM and POM provide evidence to support the Risović two-component model for suspended particulates. The shape of the VSFs, i.e., the scattering phase functions, for POM are similar between the two sites (backscattering ratio ≈ 0.0015), but the PIM in Monterey Bay exhibited a higher backscattering ratio than in Mobile Bay (backscattering ratios 0.012 vs. 0.008, respectively). At both sites, the mass-specific scattering cross section values for PIM (σ[PIM]) are about 70-80% lower than σ[POM], while the mass-specific backscattering cross section values for PIM (σb[PIM]) are 10-25% greater than σb[POM].

  12. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 microm) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 micro

  13. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L. as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Negri

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs. The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  14. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  15. Size distribution and probable sources of trace elements in submicron atmospheric particulate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size-segregated atmospheric particulate material was collected at a rural location in the Great Smokey Mountain National Park, Tennesse, and at an urban site in Pasaden, California. The elemental composition of this material was determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Elements identified as being of anthropogenic origin had mass median diameters of below one micron, while elements of crustal origin were generally found to have a mass median diameters well over one micron. Some of the Pasadena samples however had elevated concentrations of the typical crustal elements Al, Fe, La, and Ce in the finer size fractions, probably due to motor vehicle emissions. (author)

  16. Spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities and their correlation with particulate matter chemical composition across two urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, I; Bertolini, V; Bestetti, G; Ambrosini, R; Innocente, E; Rampazzo, G; Papacchini, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-06-01

    The study of spatio-temporal variability of airborne bacterial communities has recently gained importance due to the evidence that airborne bacteria are involved in atmospheric processes and can affect human health. In this work, we described the structure of airborne microbial communities in two urban areas (Milan and Venice, Northern Italy) through the sequencing, by the Illumina platform, of libraries containing the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and estimated the abundance of airborne bacteria with quantitative PCR (qPCR). Airborne microbial communities were dominated by few taxa, particularly Burkholderiales and Actinomycetales, more abundant in colder seasons, and Chloroplasts, more abundant in warmer seasons. By partitioning the variation in bacterial community structure, we could assess that environmental and meteorological conditions, including variability between cities and seasons, were the major determinants of the observed variation in bacterial community structure, while chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) had a minor contribution. Particularly, Ba, SO4 (2-) and Mg(2+) concentrations were significantly correlated with microbial community structure, but it was not possible to assess whether they simply co-varied with seasonal shifts of bacterial inputs to the atmosphere, or their variation favoured specific taxa. Both local sources of bacteria and atmospheric dispersal were involved in the assembling of airborne microbial communities, as suggested, to the one side by the large abundance of bacteria typical of lagoon environments (Rhodobacterales) observed in spring air samples from Venice and to the other by the significant effect of wind speed in shaping airborne bacterial communities at all sites. PMID:25592734

  17. Atmospheric input of dissolved and particulate metals to the northwestern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guieu, C.; Chester, R.; Nimmo, M.; Martin, J.-M.; Guerzoni, S.; Nicolas, E.; Mateu, J.; Keyse, S.

    Concentrations of trace elements (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined for aerosols, dry deposition, precipitation and total deposition samples collected from five stations on islands and in the coastal zone of the northwestern Mediterranean. Average concentrations of metals are very homogeneous over the sampled area, in particular at the three coastal sites. Cd and Pb are almost entirely of man-made origin, even in Saharan aerosols. For the other metals, the non-crustal fraction is lower in Saharan aerosols than in European aerosols, but there is an important man-made component in the Saharan aerosol, even for metals such as Fe and Cr. This confirms the results of Chester et al. (1992) who concluded that Mediterranean aerosols have a European background upon which are superimposed Saharan inputs. Dry deposition represents an important fraction of the total deposition. Partitioning of total atmospheric deposition between the dissolved and the particulate phases shows that Al, Fe and Cr originating from the atmosphere are mostly in a particulate form in the surface waters. For the other metals studied, the dissolved fraction represents more than 30% of the total input, and for Cd it is almost 100%. Extrapolation shows that more than 50% of the dissolved metals input to the northwestern Mediterranean originates from the atmosphere. Atmospheric input entirely dominates the total external input of pollution-derived elements, such as Pb and Cd. The dissolved input of atmospheric origin is also very important (> 80%) for elements of terrigeneous origin such as A1.

  18. MOLAR RATIOS OF C,N,P OF PARTICULATE MATTER AND THEIR VERTICAL FLUXES IN THE YELLOW SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保栋; 战闰; 徐明德

    2002-01-01

    The vertical fluxes and molar ratios of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of suspended particulate matter in the Yellow Sea were studied based on the analysis of suspended particulate matter, sediments and sinking particles obtained by use of moored sediment traps. The POC:PON ratios indicate that most of the particulate organic matter in the Yellow Sea water column comes from marine life rather than the continent. The vertical fluxes of SPM, POC, PON and POP in the Yellow Sea are much higher than those in other seas over the world, and present a typical pattern in shallow epicontinental seas. The estimated residence time of the bioactive elements showed that the speed of the biogeochemical process of materials in the Yellow Sea is much shorter than that in the open ocean as there was high primary productivity in this region.

  19. Characterization and source identification of trace elements in airborne particulates at urban and suburban atmospheres of Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Akbar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Taghipour, Hasan; Rafee, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Zahra; Faridi, Sasan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of particulate matter (PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP)) and their elemental constituents were measured to identify the major sources of elements in urban and industrial suburban sites in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2012 to June 2013. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume samplers. Concentrations of 31 elements in aerosols and crustal soil were determined by ICPMS. The most abundant detected metals in the urban sampling sites were Al (217.5-4019.9 ng m(-3)), Fe (272.5-7658.0 ng m(-3)), Pt (4.7-1994.4 ng m(-3)), and P (13.6-2054.8 ng m(-3) (for TSP and Al (217.6-3687.3 ng m(-3)), Fe (197.1-3724.9 ng m(-3)), Pt (65.9-2054.5 ng m(-3)), and P (11.0-756.6 ng m(-3)( for PM10. In the suburban sampling site, the most abundant detected metals were Al (2083.0-9664.0 ng m(-3)), Fe (360.0-7221.5 ng m(-3)), P (229.4-870.5 ng m(-3)), and Ti (137.3-849.7 ng m(-3)) for TSP and Al (218.5-4179.6 ng m(-3)), Fe (106.3-2005.1 ng m(-3)), P (251.9-908.4 ng m(-3)), and Ba (10.6-584.9 ng m(-3)) for PM10. For the crustal soil, the most abundant detected elements included Al (60,088-60,694 ppm), Fe (19,886-20,474 ppm), Ti (894-3481 ppm), and Si (365-4246 ppm). Key emission sources were identified, and the concentrations contributed from individual sources were estimated. Enrichment factor (EF) explaining a preponderance of the variance in the data was applied to the datasets. EF calculations revealed that non-crustal trace elements were more enriched in the urban than suburban sampling sites. Results of the factor analysis on the elements showed that emissions from road traffic (involving oil and fuel combustions by vehicles, platinum group elements from vehicle exhaust, and resuspension of particulate matter from polluted soil) and construction dust from nearby construction sites and electricity generation plant were the major contributors of anthropogenic metals at ambient atmosphere in Tabriz. Results of this study elucidated the need for

  20. Biomass Burning: The Cycling of Gases and Particulates from the Biosphere to the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    2003-12-01

    Biomass burning is both a process of geochemical cycling of gases and particulates from the biosphere to the atmosphere and a process of global change. In the preface to the book, One Earth, One Future: Our Changing Global Environment (National Academy of Sciences, 1990), Dr. Frank Press, the President of the National Academy of Sciences, writes: "Human activities are transforming the global environment, and these global changes have many faces: ozone depletion, tropical deforestation, acid deposition, and increased atmospheric concentrations of gases that trap heat and may warm the global climate."It is interesting to note that all four global change "faces" identified by Dr. Press have a common thread - they are all caused by biomass burning.Biomass burning or vegetation burning is the burning of living and dead vegetation and includes human-initiated burning and natural lightning-induced burning. The bulk of the world's biomass burning occurs in the tropics - in the tropical forests of South America and Southeast Asia and in the savannasof Africa and South America. The majority of the biomass burning, primarily in the tropics (perhaps as much as 90%), is believed to be human initiated for land clearing and land-use change. Natural fires triggered by atmospheric lightning only accounts for ˜10% of all fires (Andreae, 1991). As will be discussed, a significant amount of biomass burning occurs in the boreal forests of Russia, Canada, and Alaska.Biomass burning is a significant source of gases and particulates to the regional and global atmosphere (Crutzen et al., 1979; Seiler and Crutzen, 1980; Crutzen and Andreae, 1990; Levine et al., 1995). Its burning is truly a multidiscipline subject, encompassing the following areas: fire ecology, fire measurements, fire modeling, fire combustion, remote sensing, fire combustion gaseous and particulate emissions, the atmospheric transport of these emissions, and the chemical and climatic impacts of these emissions. Recently