WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric heavy metal

  1. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. (ed.)

    1994-03-01

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored by the moss technique. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicat the location of important heavy metal pollution sources. Samples of mainly the moss species Pleurozium schreberi, Hylocomium splendens and Hypnum cupresiforme were collected during the summertime 1990. The total concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, vanadium and zinc were determined and the results presented in the form of coloured contour maps of Europe. In the Nordic countries and adjacent areas the regional deposition pattern of all the metals shows a decreasing gradient from relatively high values in the southern parts of Scandinavia to low values towards the North. A significant decreas. in the concentrations of most elements was found in this area during the last 10-20 years. Important local enhancements of the concentrations in moss were found superimposed on the regional background pattern, especially at the great smelting combinates in Nikel, Zapolyarnyj and Monchegorsk in Russia in the western part of the Kola Peninsula. Higher levels of metals are found at Mazeikiai (oil refinery) in Lithuania, close to Liepaja (steel mill) and Riga in Latvia and in the industrial north-eastern area of Estonia and adjacent area of Russia. Higher levels of metals were found in the metropolitan area of St. Petersburg. In Central Europe, Poland, and the Czech Republic have numerous sources of air pollution, as well as area in Germany. The Netherlands is particularly affected by pollution from Belgium and western Germany. The Environmental Monitoring and Data Group in the Nordic Countries would like the next survey of heavy metals, including mercury, in moss to take place in 1995. (EG) (45 refs.)

  2. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe estimated by moss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehling, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe including 21 countries was monitored in 1990-1992 by the moss technique. This technique is based on the fact that the concentrations of heavy metals in moss are closely correlated to atmospheric deposition. This was the first attempt to map heavy metal deposition in this large area. The objectives of the project were to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively the regional atmospheric deposition pattern of heavy metals in background areas in Europe, to indicate the location of important heavy metal pollution sources and to allow retrospective comparisons with similar studies. The present survey is a follow-up of a joint Danish and Swedish project in 1980 and an extended survey in 1985 within the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers. In Sweden, heavy-metal deposition was first mapped on a nation-wide scale in 1968-1971 and 1975. (author)

  3. Source of atmospheric heavy metals in winter in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-Hua; Duan, Jing-Chun; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-Bin; Yu, Yong-Chang; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2014-09-15

    Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7 ± 378.5 ng/m(3)), As (76.6 ± 49.1 ng/m(3)) and Cd (42.6 ± 45.2 ng/m(3)) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220 ng/m(3), 20.5 times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most

  4. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway. Nationwide survey 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geographical distribution of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway was mapped in 2010 by analysis of moss samples from 464 sites all over the country. This report provides a presentation of the results and a comparison with data from a series of corresponding moss surveys starting 1977. The survey is part of an international program comprising large parts of Europe. The survey primarily concerns the ten metals of priority in the European program: vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. In addition data are reported for another 42 elements in the moss. The discussion of the obtained data mainly refers to contributions from air pollution. In addition influence from natural processes to the elemental composition of the moss and how it may influence the interpretation of the data is discussed. (Author)

  5. Study of Heavy Metals in the Atmospheric Deposition in Zanjan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A.Sh Hasanalizadeh; M.S Sekhawatju; M.R Mehrasbi; Z Farahmand kia; Z Ramezanzadeh

    2010-01-01

    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives : Heavy metals in dust can enter to the human body through ingestion andinhalation. They can pollute the water and soil resources via atmospheric precipitation and accumulate in the plants tissue and enter human body by water and food. The aim of this study was measurement of the heavy metals in wet and dry atmospheric precipitation and effects of pollution sources at the ground surface on the concentration of heavy metals in the atmospheric precipitations."nMa...

  6. Routine analysis of heavy metals in atmospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main advantage of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) for determination of content of heavy metal in air is the possibility to measure large series of samples with great exactness, sufficient detection limits and a minimum labour. The analysis of the amount of airborne metal pollutants is made on membrane filters and the measuring is fully nondestructive. The measurements are made on a Philips PW 1404 spectrometer and the filters with fonds of mylar foil of 6 y are in specially made sample holders. The main problem using XRFA is the calibration of the spectrometer. The set of standard calibration filters by measured precipitating elements has been prepared directly on the mylar film substrates. The calculation of calibration is made with a standard Philips software. A program designed by the author is used for the proper analysis of the exposed filters enabling a much easier work with the measurement and evaluation, specially for large series of samples. (author)

  7. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition accumulated in rural forest soils of southern Scandinavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three years of measurements of atmospheric heavy metal (HM) deposition (bulk precipitation) in Denmark combined with European emission inventories form the basis for calculating a 50-year accumulated atmospheric input to a remote forest plantation on the island of Laesoe. Soil samples taken in two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, at eight forest sites at the island were used to determine the increase in HM content in the eolian deposited top soils of the plantation. Concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) were determined in atmospheric deposition and in soils. The accumulated atmospheric deposition is of the same magnitude as the increase of these metals in the top soil. - The accumulated atmospheric input of heavy metals determined through continuous measurements during 33 years is compared to the rise in the metal content of forest top soils at rural remote sites

  8. Study of Heavy Metals in the Atmospheric Deposition in Zanjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Sh Hasanalizadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives : Heavy metals in dust can enter to the human body through ingestion andinhalation. They can pollute the water and soil resources via atmospheric precipitation and accumulate in the plants tissue and enter human body by water and food. The aim of this study was measurement of the heavy metals in wet and dry atmospheric precipitation and effects of pollution sources at the ground surface on the concentration of heavy metals in the atmospheric precipitations."nMaterials and Methods: In this study the zanjan city was divided into 5 zones and wet and dry precipitations were collected in autumn, winter and spring (2008- 2009 from zones. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn the collected precipitations were determined by Atomic Absorption spectroscopy method."nResults: The averages of concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn were 0.082, 0.286, 0.018, and 0.009 (mg/m 2.drespectively. The correlation coefficients between Pb-Zn was 0.8 (P<0.01 and for Cr-Cd, Cd-Pb, and Cr-Pb were 0.89, 0.58 and 0.61 respectively."nConclusion: The results showed that the industrial sources of heavy metals play the main role in concentration of heavy metals in wet and dry atmospheric precipitation in Zanjan.The correlation coefficients showed that the lead and zinc result from a common source. This source can be the lead and zinc factories locating around the city. The measurement of heavy metals in atmospheric precipitation shows the effects of anthropogenic sources in air quality. The heavy metals concentration in atmospheric precipitation can be use as air pollution index.

  9. Atmospheric heavy metal input to forest soils in rural areas of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M F; Kemp, Kaare

    Atmospheric bulk deposition of heavy metals (HM) was measured from 1972/73 to the present time at five to ten forest sites in rural areas of Denmark. From 1979, HM in aerosols were measured at one to four forest sites. On the basis of these long-term continuous measurements, the atmospheric inputs...

  10. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China: estimation based on native moss analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, G Geoff; Fang, Yan-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We studied atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Wuxi, China, using moss (Haplocladium microphyllum and H. angustifolium) as a biomonitoring agent. Moss samples were collected from 49 sites determined by a systematic sampling method. The top layer of soil on each site was also sampled. No significant correlation (P pollutants. Based on concentrations of the heavy metals in mosses and the calculated contamination factors, we evaluated the contamination level of each heavy metal on the 49 sampling sites. Spatial distribution maps of heavy metal deposition for each element were interpolated using ArcGIS 9.0. A total pollution coefficient was calculated for each sampling site to identify the seriously polluted areas in the region. PMID:27207630

  11. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in Varanasi City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Marshall, Fiona M

    2008-07-01

    Rapid growth in urbanization and industrialization in developing countries may significantly contribute in heavy metal contamination of vegetables through atmospheric depositions. In the present study, an assessment was made to investigate the spatial and seasonal variations in deposition rates of heavy metals and its contribution to contamination of palak (Beta vulgaris). Samples of bulk atmospheric deposits and Beta vulgaris for analysis of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were collected from different sampling locations differing in traffic density and land use patterns. The results showed that the sampling locations situated in industrial or commercial areas with heavy traffic load showed significantly elevated levels of Cu, Zn and Cd deposition rate as compared to those situated in residential areas with low traffic load. The deposition rates of Cu, Zn and Cd were significantly higher in summer and winter as compared to rainy season, however, Pb deposition rate was significantly higher in rainy and summer seasons as compared to winter season. Atmospheric depositions have significantly elevated the levels of heavy metals in B. vulgaris collected during evening as compared to those collected in morning hours. The study further showed that local population has maximum exposure to Cd contamination through consumption of B. vulgaris. The present study clearly points out the urban and industrial activities of a city have potential to elevate the levels of heavy metals in the atmospheric deposits, which may consequently contaminate the food chain and thus posing health risk to the local population. PMID:17879134

  12. Assessment of toxicity in waters due to heavy metals derived from atmospheric deposition using Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukurluoglu, Sibel; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2013-01-01

    Water toxicity originating from the atmospheric deposition of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) was investigated on Vibrio fischeri activity in Izmir, Turkey. A LUMIStox® test was applied to dry and wet deposition samples and metal solutions. The inhibition levels and effective toxicity concentrations of these samples and solutions were determined. Interactive toxicity effects among the metals were investigated. When the impacts of the synthetic single heavy metal solutions were compared with each other, a toxicity ranking of Cr>Cd>Pb>Cu>Zn>Ni was obtained in order of decreasing severity. The total effective concentrations of these six metals were in the ranges of 0.074-0.221 mg/L and 0.071-0.225 mg/L for receiving aqueous solutions of dry and wet atmospheric depositions, respectively. The toxicity data showed that the wet deposition samples were 15% more toxic than the dry deposition samples. The interactive toxicity effects of the heavy metals in both dry and wet deposition samples were classified as antagonistic. High levels of heavy metals deposited in dissolved form may constitute an important input in the biochemical cycle and may have significant impacts. PMID:23030388

  13. Biomagnetic monitoring of heavy metals contamination in deposited atmospheric dust, a case study from Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Samira; Khademi, Hossein; Cano, Angel Faz; Acosta, Jose A

    2016-05-15

    Tree leaves are considered as one of the best biogenic dust collectors due to their ability to trap and retain particulate matter on their surfaces. In this study, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the concentration of selected heavy metals of plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) leaves and deposited atmospheric dust, sampled by an indirect and a direct method, respectively, were determined to investigate the relationships between leaf magnetic parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in deposited atmospheric dust. The objective was to develop a biomagnetic method as an alternative to the common ones used for determining atmospheric heavy metal contaminations. Plane tree leaves were monthly sampled on the 19th of May to November, 2012 (T1-T7), for seven months from 21 different sites in the city of Isfahan, central Iran. Deposited atmospheric dust samples were also collected using flat glass surfaces from the same sites on the same dates, except for T1. MS (χlf, χhf) values in washed (WL) and unwashed leaves (UL) as well as Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in UL and deposited atmospheric dust samples were determined. The results showed that the MS content with a biogenic source was low with almost no significant change during the sampling period, while an increasing trend was observed in the MS content of UL samples due to the deposition of heavy metals and magnetic particles on leaf surfaces throughout the plant growth. The latter type of MS content could be reduced through washing off by rain. Most heavy metals examined, as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) in UL, showed statistically significant correlations with MS values. The correlation between heavy metals content in atmospheric dust deposited on glass surfaces and leaf MS values was significant for Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn. Moreover, the similarity observed between the spatial distribution maps of leaf MS and deposited atmospheric dust PLI provided convincing evidence regarding

  14. [Magnetic Response of Dust-loaded Leaves in Parks of Shanghai to Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Chu, Hui-min; Zheng, Xiang-min

    2015-12-01

    To reveal the magnetic response to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution in leaves along urban parks, Camphor leaf samples, widely distributed at urban parks, were collected along the year leading wind direction of Shanghai, by setting two vertical and horizontal sections, using rock magnetic properties and heavy metal contents analysis. The results showed that the magnetic minerals of samples were predominated by ferromagnetic minerals, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the winter monsoon direction from the main industrial district. A rigorous cleaning of leaves using ultrasonic agitator washer could remove about 63%-90% of low-field susceptibility values of the leaves, and this strongly indicated that the intensity of magnetic signal was mainly controlled by the PMs accumulated on the leaves surfaces. Moreover, there was a significant linear relationship between heavy metals contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V and Pb) and magnetic parameters (0.442 ≤ R ≤ 0.799, P < 0.05), which suggested that magnetic parameters of urban park leaves could be used as a proxy for atmospheric heavy metal pollution. The results of multivariate statistical analysis showed that the content of magnetic minerals and heavy metal indust-loaded tree leaves was affected by associated pollution of industry and traffic. PMID:27011970

  15. Risk assessment of atmospheric heavy metals exposure in Baotou, a typical industrial city in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexin; Liang, Tao; Wang, Lingqing

    2016-06-01

    Industrial activities have led to serious air pollution and the potentially toxic elements in atmospheric particles can cause various health problems to humans. In this study, inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) were collected from four typical sites in Baotou, an industrial city in northern China. We investigated both the mass concentrations of particulate matter and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn, Co, and Zn) in the collected samples. We assessed the public health risks associated with atmospheric heavy metal exposure. The results showed that the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 as well as these heavy metal concentrations varied notably influenced by the prevailing wind directions. Among the studied metals, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cr were the main metal pollutants in both PM10 and PM2.5. The results of the health assessment showed that the eight heavy metals studied pose significant non-carcinogenic risks and Cr, Cd, and Co pose lifetime lung cancer risks to local residents, especially to children. PMID:26350673

  16. Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: Spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmens, H., E-mail: hh@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Norris, D.A., E-mail: danor@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Steinnes, E., E-mail: Eiliv.Steinnes@chem.ntnu.n [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kubin, E., E-mail: Eero.Kubin@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Piispanen, J., E-mail: Juha.Piispanen@metla.f [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kirkkosaarentie 7, 91500 Muhos (Finland); Alber, R., E-mail: Renate.Alber@provinz.bz.i [Environmental Agency of Bolzano, 39055 Laives (Italy); Aleksiayenak, Y., E-mail: beataa@gmail.co [International Sakharov Environmental University, Minsk (Belarus); Blum, O., E-mail: blum@nbg.kiev.u [National Botanical Garden, Academy of Science of Ukraine, Timiryazevs' ka St. 1, 01014 Kyiv (Ukraine); Coskun, M., E-mail: coskunafm@yahoo.co [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Dam, M., E-mail: mariad@us.f [Environment Agency, Traoagota 38, FO-165 Argir (Faroe Islands); De Temmerman, L., E-mail: ludet@var.fgov.b [Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Leuvensesteenweg 17, 3080 Tervuren (Belgium); Fernandez, J.A., E-mail: jangel.fernandez@usc.e [University of Santiago de Compestela, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frolova, M., E-mail: marina.frolova@lvgma.gov.l [Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency, Maskavas Str. 165, Riga LV 1019 (Latvia); Frontasyeva, M., E-mail: marina@nf.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Str. Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Miqueo, L., E-mail: lgonzale2@alumni.unav.e [University of Navarra, Irunlarrea No 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    In recent decades, mosses have been used successfully as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Since 1990, the European moss survey has been repeated at five-yearly intervals. Although spatial patterns were metal-specific, in 2005 the lowest concentrations of metals in mosses were generally found in Scandinavia, the Baltic States and northern parts of the UK; the highest concentrations were generally found in Belgium and south-eastern Europe. The recent decline in emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals across Europe has resulted in a decrease in the heavy metal concentration in mosses for the majority of metals. Since 1990, the concentration in mosses has declined the most for arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead and vanadium (52-72%), followed by copper, nickel and zinc (20-30%), with no significant reduction being observed for mercury (12% since 1995) and chromium (2%). However, temporal trends were country-specific with sometimes increases being found. - Since 1990, heavy metal concentrations in mosses have declined in Europe for most metals.

  17. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Soil Affected by Different Soil Uses of Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J. A.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy metals are a natural constituent of rocks, sediments and soils. However, the heavy metal content of top soils is also dependent on other sources than weathering of the indigenous minerals; input from atmospheric deposition seems to be an important pathway. Atmospheric deposition is defined as the process by which atmospheric pollutants are transferred to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces and is commonly classified as either dry or wet. The interest in atmospheric deposition has increased over the past decade due to concerns about the effects of deposited materials on the environment. Dry deposition provides a significant mechanism for the removal of particles from the atmosphere and is an important pathway for the loading of heavy metals into the soil ecosystem. Within the last decade, an intensive effort has been made to determine the atmospheric heavy metal deposition in both urban and rural areas. The main objective of this study was to identification of atmospheric heavy metals deposition in soil affected by different soil uses. Study area is located in Murcia Province (southeast of Spain), in the surroundings of Murcia City. The climate is typically semiarid Mediterranean with an annual average temperature of 18°C and precipitation of 350 mm. In order to determine heavy metals atmospheric deposition a sampling at different depths (0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-30 cm) was carried out in 7 sites including agricultural soils, two industrial areas and natural sites. The samples were taken to the laboratory where, dried, passed through a 2 mm sieve, and grinded. For the determination of the moisture the samples were weighed and oven dried at 105 °C for 24 h. The total amounts of metals (Pb, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni and Cr) were determined by digesting the samples with nitric/perchoric acids and measuring with ICP-MS. Results showed that zinc contamination in some samples of industrial areas was detected, even this contamination reaches 30 cm depth; thus it is

  18. Fossil fuel consumption and heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades more and more attention has been paid to the problem of ecosystem pollution by heavy metals. Many trace elements are registered now as a global pollutant due to their toxic nature. Their negative influence on the environment is caused by accumulation in different ecosystem components and increased involvement in biochemical cycles. The atmosphere is the main medium through which pollutants transported from emission sources to background territories where heavy metals are deposited into water and on plants. Heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere cause certain global environmental problems due to their long lifetime and the long-term transport of these elements in the atmosphere, as well as the increasing rate of their accumulation in the environment even at most remote territories. Moreover, heavy metals have evidently entered human food chains. The influence of global ecosystem pollution by heavy metals on human health is not well known as yet. Most trace elements comes into the atmosphere with natural and man-made aerosols. The main sources of natural aerosols in the atmosphere are soil erosion and weathering of mountain rocks, volcanic and space dust, forest firing smoke, and others. Major anthropogenic sources of toxic elements are fossil fuel combustion, mining, industrial processes, and waste incineration. The anthropogenic flow of heavy metals to the atmosphere is about 94-97 per cent of the total. An inventory of emission sources should be the first step in developing a control strategy and modelling global and regional cycles of trace elements. In this article the situation with lead, cadmium and mercury emissions from coal combustion of power plants and gasoline combustion by road transport is discussed. Pollutant amounts released into the atmosphere in industrial regions induce not only local deterioration of air, but they also affect on remote areas, and areas sensitive to contamination, such as the Arctic region. Problems on the

  19. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition accumulated in rural forest soils of southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Kemp, Kaare; Kystol, J.;

    2008-01-01

    in two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, at eight forest sites at the island were used to determine the increase in HM content in the eolian deposited top soils of the plantation. Concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) were determined......Thirty-three years of measurements of atmospheric heavy metal (HM) deposition (bulk precipitation) in Denmark combined with European emission inventories form the basis for calculating a 50-year accumulated atmospheric input to a remote forest plantation on the island of Laesoe. Soil samples taken...... in atmospheric deposition and in soils. The accumulated atmospheric deposition is of the same magnitude as the increase of these metals in the top soil....

  20. Heavy Metal Determination in Atmospheric Deposition and Other Fluxes in Northern France Agrosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Azimi, Sam; Cambier, Philippe; Lecuyer, Isabelle; Thevenot, Daniel,

    2004-01-01

    International audience The aim of this study is to assess the annual balance of the fluxes of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn within different cropping systems, in an experimental site located near Versailles, France. Four fluxes through the cultivated horizon were considered to assess the annual heavy metal balance in these systems: 1) atmospheric depositions, 2) fertilisers as inputs, 3) crops and 4) leaching water as outputs. The water mass flow was estimated with a model (CERES) while the other ...

  1. A European survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background, administration and current status of the monitoring programme 'European Survey of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition' is described. All European states are invited to join the survey 2000- 2001. The co-ordination and responsibility for the survey will gradually be transferred from the Nordic Council of Ministers to the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation). (author)

  2. Model for the study of the impact of atmospheric heavy metals on soil microbial biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchionni, M.; Benedetti, A. [Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Rome (Italy); Riccardi, C.; Villarini, M. [Istituto Superiore per la Sicurezza e la Prevenzione del Lavoro, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    In the Castelporziano (Rome) protected area the inputs of atmospheric heavy metals on the soil-plant system were evaluated by the analysis of stem-flowing water from Quercus ilex L. The heavy metals detected in the soil under the canopies exhibited higher concentrations near to the tree trunks, highlighting the tree's capacity to concentrate such polluting substances. Microbial biomass, its specific respiration and the biomass calculated as a percentage of total soil organic matter, were utilised as indicators of the state of the soil and consequently also its quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. [Italian] Nell'area protetta di Castelporziano (Roma) e' stato valutato l'apporto dei metalli pesanti di origine atmosferica al sistema suolo-pianta analizzando le acque dilavanti di alberi d'alto fusto (Quercus ilex L.). I metalli pesanti rilevati nel suolo sottochioma presentano una piu' alta concentrazione in prossimita' del fusto, evidenziando la capacita' dell'albero di concentrare tali inquinanti. La biomassa microbica, la sua respirazione specifica e la biomassa espressa come percentuale della sostanza organica totale del suolo, sono state utilizzate quali indicatori dello stato del suolo, quindi della sua qualita', rispetto alla contaminazione da metalli pesanti.

  3. Role of traffic in atmospheric accumulation of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2012-07-01

    Traffic related emissions have been recognised as one of the main sources of air pollutants. In the research study discussed in this paper, variability of atmospheric total suspended particulate matter (TSP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metal (HM) concentrations with traffic and land use characteristics during weekdays and weekends were investigated. Data required for the study were collected from a range of sampling sites to ensure a wide mix of traffic and land use characteristics. The analysis undertaken confirmed that zinc has the highest concentration in the atmospheric phase during weekends as well as weekdays. Although the use of leaded gasoline was discontinued a decade ago, lead was the second most commonly detected heavy metal. This is attributed to the association of previously generated lead with roadside soil and re-suspension to the atmosphere. Soil related particles are the primary source of TSP and manganese to the atmosphere. The analysis further revealed that traffic sources are dominant in gas phase PAHs compared to the other sources during weekdays. Land use related sources become important contributors to atmospheric PAHs during weekends when traffic sources are at their minimal levels.

  4. Determination of atmospheric heavy metals using two lichen species in Katni and Rewa cities, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, G K; Mohabe, S; Upreti, Dalip K; Nayaka, S

    2011-03-01

    A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess the levels of atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Katni and Rewa cities of Madhya Pradesh, state in central India. The Pyxine cocoes and Phaeophyscia hispidula, two epiphytic foliose lichen were used as bioindicators in the present study and seven metals (As, Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn, Pb) were analyzed in naturally growing thallus. The concentrations of these metals was observed to be in higher range as maximum values of Al, Cd, Cr and Zn were reported from the lichen samples from Rewa city which was 561.8 +/- 2.4, 6.8 +/- 0.8, 35.2 +/- 1.4, 214.6 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. Whereas As, Fe and Pb were reported maximum in the lichen samples collected from Katni city areas with 33.4 +/- 0.05, 689.4 +/- 2.6, 13.3 +/- 0.5 microg g(-1) dry weight respectively. However the accumulation of Cd and Pb from both the cities are more or less similar in concentration. The selectivity sequence of metals were Fe>Al>Zn>As>Cr>Pb>Cd in Katni city, and Al>Fe>Zn>Cr>As>Pb>Cd in Rewa city. The findings of this study indicates that extent of heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere of the two cities which may lead to adverse health affects. PMID:21882655

  5. Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution with Heavy Metals in the Copper Mine Vicinity Located near Radovis, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Baceva, Katerina; Sajn, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the atmospheric pollution with heavy metals due to copper mining Bucim near Radovis, the Republic of Macedonia. Moss samples (Hyloconium splendens and Pleurozium schrebery) were used for biomonitoring the possible atmospheric pollution with heavy metals in mine vicinity. Sixteen elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) were analysed by application of flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (F...

  6. Source identification of heavy metals in atmospheric dust using Platanus orientalis L. leaves as bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Norouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on atmospheric dust have been limited by the high cost of instrumental monitoring methods and also sampling difficulties. The use of organisms acting as bioaccumulators has recently been proposed. In this study, the leaves of Platanus orientalis L., as a possible biomonitor of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, were evaluated to understand the likely source(s of pollution in Isfahan, Iran. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni and Mn and Magnetic susceptibility (χlf were determined in washed (WL and unwashed leaves (UL, monthly sampled from May to Nov., 2012. By subtracting the amount of metal concentrations and χlf in UL and WL, the amount of these parameters in dust deposited on the leaves (UL-WL were calculated. Enrichment factor analysis (EF, correlation coeficient, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA on the UL-WL data were employed to trace the heavy metals sources. Results showed that the metal concentration in UL and WL in primary sampling times was not statistically different. As time passed, this difference became more noticeable. Seasonal accumulation trends of elements concentration in UL-WL, referred to as accumulative biomonitors showing the accumulation of dust on the leaves are considerable and the contamination of plants by metal occurs mainly by retention of particulate matter. All the heavy metals are well correlated with χlf, indicating the potential of magnetic measurement as an inexpensive and less laborious method to estimate heavy metals. Cu and Zn exhibited a very strong correlation with each other and the highest correlation with χlf, suggesting an anthropogenic nature of these two metals. High EF of Cu and Zn showed that anthropogenic sources contribute a substantial amount of these metals to dust deposited on leaves. Whereas, less EF for Mn and Ni shows that natural source and local polluted soils might be the main origins of these metals. PCA results showed 2 principal components. Factor 1 with

  7. Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Precipitation in the Area of Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehbajraktarević, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals are natural components of the environment but they have become a matter of great concern because of the continuous increase in the concentrations of these metals in our environment. Atmospheric deposition is considered a major source of toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, Pb and several others in the ecosystem. The increasing use of rainwater as an alternative household water source has led to the increased interest in the monitoring of rainwater quality. The heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Hg in samples of atmospheric precipitation was determined in order to assess possible contamination of rainwater. The samples were collected continuously during three seasons (winter, spring and summer in the period from December 2009 to June 2010. The sampling was conducted at two sites of the Sarajevo Canton: Bjelave (urban area and Ivan Sedlo (rural area. The results showed that heavy metal contents (except copper and cadmium were higher in samples from Bjelave. The results showed levels of metals in all samples as: 0.52 – 19.08 μg L-1 (Cu, 0.007 – 2.55 μg L,-1 (Ni, 0.006 – 0.26 μg L-1 (Cr, 0.02 – 3.86 μg L-1 (Cd, 0.13 – 21.59 μg L-1 (Mn and 0.02 – 4.02 μg L-1 (Hg. The mean metal concentrations were below WHO’s limits for good quality drinking water. For most investigated metals, the highest content was obtained in precipitation sampled during spring/summer.

  8. Spatio-temporal variations of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Lisbon area by moss monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mosses as biomonitors of heavy metal deposition has been extensively applied in numerous studies in the last three decades. This type of organisms acquires almost their nutrients from the atmosphere, by dry or wet deposition. In Portugal, the first biomonitoring survey using mosses was done in 1992, which covered all national area. A new study is presently being implemented, where samples are collected in the same sampling points of the previous ones, so a comparison can be made between the results of the two campaigns. This work presents the results obtained for the Lisbon region. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme, or whenever unavailable, Scleropodium touretii were collected in 27 sites in this area, and the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was determined for each sample. Maps for each element were drawn after geostatistical estimation of the metal concentration in the moss. The spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of metal concentration are discussed. (author)

  9. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study in the South Ural Mountains

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E; Lyapunov, S M; Cherchintsev, V D

    2002-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Ural, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at the same 30 sites in order to investigate surface accumulation of heavy metals and to examine the correlation of elements in moss and soil samples in order to separate contributions from atmospheric deposition and from soil minerals. A total of 38 elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in soil and 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, U) in mosses were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis. The elem...

  10. Quantifying missing annual emission sources of heavy metals in the United Kingdom with an atmospheric transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric chemical transport model was adapted to simulate the concentration and deposition of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc) in the United Kingdom. The model showed that wet deposition was the most important process for the transfer of metals from the atmosphere to the land surface. The model achieved a good correlation with annually averaged measurements of metal concentrations in air. The correlation with measurements of wet deposition was less strong due to the complexity of the atmospheric processes involved in the washout of particulate matter which were not fully captured by the model. The measured wet deposition and air concentration of heavy metals were significantly underestimated by the model for all metals (except vanadium) by factors between 2 and 10. These results suggest major missing sources of annual heavy metal emissions which are currently not included in the official inventory. Primary emissions were able to account for only 9%, 21%, 29%, 21%, 36%, 7% and 23% of the measured concentrations for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. A likely additional contribution to atmospheric heavy metal concentrations is the wind driven re-suspension of surface dust still present in the environment from the legacy of much higher historic emissions. Inclusion of two independent estimates of emissions from re-suspension in the model was found to give an improved agreement with measurements. However, an accurate estimate of the magnitude of re-suspended emissions is restricted by the lack of measurements of metal concentrations in the re-suspended surface dust layer. - Highlights: • Concentrations and deposition of 9 heavy metals in the UK were simulated. • Modelled data were well correlated to measured concentrations and deposition. • The model greatly underestimated metal deposition and air concentrations. • Under-estimation was attributed to wind-driven re-suspension of surface dust.

  11. Heavy metal enrichment characteristics in ash of municipal solid waste combustion in CO2/O2 atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, YuTing; Ma, XiaoQian; Yu, QuanHeng; Zhang, Can; Lai, Zhiyi; Zhang, Xiaoshen

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigated the behavior of six heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn) in the bottom ashes of recycled polyvinyl chloride pellets (PVC), wood sawdust (WS) and paper mixture (PM), representing the common components of municipal solid waste (MSW), obtained during combustion in CO2/O2 atmosphere in a lab-scale electrically heated tube furnace. Replacement of N2 by CO2 did not obviously change the shape of relative enrichment factor (RE) curves and subsequent order of heavy metals, but increased enrichment of these heavy metals in bottom ashes of WS, PM and PVC. The increment of O2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmosphere further increased RE values. It was only when the temperature was higher than or equal to 700°C that the increment of the combustion temperature reduced the RE values of heavy metals. The effect of temperature on heavy metals evaporation was the most pronounced for the medium volatile metal Pb, and the least for the low volatiles Cr and Ni. The effect of temperature was more pronounced for PVC ash than for WS and PM ashes. This paper contributes to the control of heavy metals during MSW incineration and management of MSW oxy-fuel residues. PMID:26130169

  12. Mosses as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the territory of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In regional trace element studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to better distinguish between different source categories. In the present work the moss bio-monitoring technique and the combination of two analytical techniques - epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) - were applied to elucidate these problems. The total concentrations of 44 individual elements were determined in 86 samples of mosses. The mean, median, standard deviation and range values was determined for each elements. The use of terrestrial mosses as bio monitors is a well-established technique in Europe Comparison with the current median level in Norway shows strong pollution of the examined areas of Slovakia with the most of heavy metals. Strongly elevated Pb values with compare even South Ural Maintains is evident. The Cd value is 1.5 to 9 times higher than in other Europeans regions, only concentration of Zn are approximately equally. The most important feature of the sampling is that it correlates with the European Moss-Survey-2000, and the results obtained will be incorporated in the Atlas of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition in Europe. (authors)

  13. First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxhuni, Albert; Lazo, Pranvera; Kane, Sonila; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda; Harmens, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed. PMID:26336845

  14. Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ lichens (Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

  15. Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boamponsem, L.K. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University Post Office, Kumasi (Ghana); Department of Laboratory Technology, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Adam, J.I. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University Post Office, Kumasi (Ghana); Dampare, S.B., E-mail: dampare@cc.okayama-u.ac.j [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1, Tsushima-Naka 3-Chome, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Nyarko, B.J.B. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon-Accra (Ghana); Essumang, D.K. [Department of Laboratory Technology, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2010-05-01

    In situ lichens (Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

  16. Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmospheric contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Laura; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc; Ulrich, Erwin

    2003-01-01

    This study is one of very few dealing with the distribution and the origin of heavy metals in French soils from a priori non-polluted forest areas. The abundance of heavy metals measured in these soils decreases as follows: Cr) Zn)Pb)Ni)Cu)Co4Cd. Total concentrations of Pb, Cr and Ni in some soils exceed the European thresholds for non-polluted soils and even the French association of normalization critical values for sludge spreading. The lowest heavy metal contents are observed in aci...

  17. HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN PINE (Pinus eldarica Medw. TREE BARKS AS INDICATORS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Kord

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-monitoring of air quality in TehranCity was investigated by analyzing 36 pine tree (Pinus eldarica Medw. barks. The samples were taken from different locations with different degrees of metal pollution (urban, industrial, highway, and control sites. Then, the concentrations of lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, and chromium (Cr were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results of this study showed that the highest and lowest metal concentrations were found in the heavy traffic sites and the control site, respectively. Lead content was found to be the highest in high traffic density areas. The industrial part of the city was characterized by high Zn, Cr, and Ni contents. Variation in heavy metal concentrations between sites was observed and attributed to differences in traffic density and anthropogenic activities. The research also confirms the suitability of Pinus eldarica Medw barks as a suitable bio-indicator of aerial fallout of heavy metals.

  18. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot. PMID:26352643

  19. Modeling of Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Heavy Metals in the Katowice Province

    OpenAIRE

    M. Uliasz; Olendrzynski, K.

    1996-01-01

    A large part of Poland's heavy industry, notably hard coal mining, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and power generation, is located in the Katowice province. Therefore, this heavy industrialized region, which is populated by four million people, experiences considerable problems with air pollution. In the METKAT study launched by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis we attempt to model atmospheric depositions of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) which a...

  20. Atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals in Argentina employing Tillandsia capillaris as a biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, M L; Gudiño, G L; Wannaz, E D; Plá, R R; González, C M; Carreras, H A; Orellana, L

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric quality and distribution of heavy metals were evaluated throughout a wide region of Argentina. In addition, the biomonitor performance of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris was studied in relation to the accumulation of heavy metals and to its physiologic response to air pollutants. A sampling area of 50,000 km2 was selected in the central region of the Argentine Republic. This area was subdivided into grids of 25 x 25 km. Pools of T. capillaris, where present, were collected at each intersection point. From each pool three sub-samples were analyzed independently. Furthermore, five replicates were collected at 20% of the points in order to analyze the variability within the site. The content of Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Chemical-physiological parameters were also determined to detect symptoms of foliar damage. Chlorophylls, phaeophytins, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde and sulfur were quantified in T. capillaris. Some of these parameters were used to calculate a foliar damage index. Data sets were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis, principal component analysis and mapping. Geographical distribution patterns were obtained for the different metals reflecting the contribution of natural and anthropogenic emission sources. According to our results it can be inferred that Fe, Mn and Co probably originated in the soil. For Pb, the highest values were found in the mountainous area, which can be attributed to the presence of Pb in the granitic rocks. Ni showed mainly an anthropogenic origin, with higher values found in places next to industrial centers. For Zn the highest values were in areas of agricultural development. The same was observed for Cu, whose presence could be related to the employment of pesticides. The foliar damage index distribution map showed that the central and southeastern zones were the ones where the major damage in the bioindicator was

  1. MONITORING OF AIR POLLUTION AND ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF HEAVY METALS BY ANALYSIS OF HONEY

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Čéryová; Juraj Tóth; Tomáš Tóth; Ján Tomáš; Peter Lazor

    2012-01-01

    Honey is an important food for the human nutrition. Changes in the quality of bee honey are also caused by the contamination with micro-polluting agents, toxic to consumers. Heavy metals in honey are of interest not only for quality control, but can be used also as an environmental indicator. In this work honey samples were collected in different places of Slovakia. From the experimental results the average values for concentration heavy metals in honey in site Prievidza 2006 - 2008 were: 0.0...

  2. Identification of sources of heavy metals in the Dutch atmosphere using air filter and lichen analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol samples collected in an industrialized region were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Correlation with wind direction and factor analysis were applied to the concentration data to obtain information on the nature and position of the sources. Epiphytic lichens were sampled over the country and analyzed for heavy metals (As, Cd, Sc, Zn, Sb). The data were interpreted by geographically plotting element concentrations and enrichment factors, and by factor analysis. Some pitfalls are discussed which are associated with the use of aerosol and lichen data in studies of heavy metal air pollution. 14 references, 8 figures, 3 tables

  3. Biomonitoring atmospheric pollution with heavy metals in the copper mine vicinity located near Radoviš, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Baceva, Katerina; Sajn, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution with heavy metals due to copper mine activities was studied using Hyloconium splendens and Pleurozium sclzrebery moss samples. Sixteen elements (AI, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) were analysed in the moss samples by the application of flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS and ETAAS) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). The obtained results for content of the elements in moss s...

  4. A Study of Heavy Metals Pollution in Italy with the Atmospheric Modelling System of the MINNI project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work shows preliminary results for heavy metals concentrations simulated with the atmospheric modelling system (AMS of the MINNI project. The simulation has been carried out for the year 2005 with a horizontal resolution of 25 km. The simulated concentrations of As, Cd, Ni and Pb have, in general, the highest values in urban and industrial areas and compare well with available measurements.

  5. Magnetic response to atmospheric heavy metal pollution recorded by dust-loaded leaves in Shougang industrial area, western Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ShouYun; DUAN XueMei; SHEN MingJie; U BLAHA; W ROESLER; YAN HaiTao; E APPEL; V HOFFMANN

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-five evergreen tree's leaves growing less than one year were collected from Shougang industrial area in western suburb of Beijing, including steel plants and its ambient residential areas, recreational parks and farmlands. Rook magnetic properties and heavy metal contents were studied. The results show that the magnetic properties of leaf samples are predominated by Iow-coercivity magnetite, and both the concentration and grain size of magnetite particles gradually decreased with the distance from the main pollution source increases. Moreover, there is a significant linear relationship between mag-netic parameters (the low-field magnetic susceptibility, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization and anhysteretic remanent magnetization) and heavy metals contents (Fe, Pb, V, Cr and Zn) (0.73≤R≤0.88). Hence, the magnetic parameters of leaves can serve as a proxy for quick detecting of the recent atmospheric metallic pollution.

  6. Increasing heavy metals in the background atmosphere of central North China since the 1980s: Evidence from a 200-year lake sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dejun; Song, Lei; Yang, Jinsong; Jin, Zhangdong; Zhan, Changlin; Mao, Xin; Liu, Dongwei; Shao, Yue

    2016-08-01

    Long-term trends of atmospheric compositions are significant for assessing the influence of human activities on the atmosphere and protecting the atmospheric environment. In this study, based on heavy metal concentrations and Pb isotope ratios in a well-dated sediment core from a remote alpine lake in central North China, anthropogenic fluxes of As, Cd, Sb, and Pb were reconstructed and heavy metal evolutions in the atmosphere were revealed in the last 200 years. The heavy metals in the atmosphere were generally natural origins before 1980 A.D. Since the 1980s they began to increase gradually, but they increased the most in the 1990s resulting from rapid developments of rough and high energy-consuming industries in North China. After entering the 21st century the industries still developed rapidly, but the atmospheric Pb ceased increase and the As and Sb even decreased in the 2000s due to (1) phasing out of leaded gasoline and (2) implementing stricter industrial emission standards in 2000 A.D. in China. However, in the 2000s the atmospheric heavy metals still kept at a relatively high level and even likely began to increase again in the 2010s. Considering the lake relatively remote and seldom affected by local human activities, the results likely reflect heavy metal evolutions in the regional background atmosphere of central North China at the annual/decadal timescale in the last 200 years.

  7. Accumulation of atmospheric radionuclides and heavy metals in cryoconite holes on an Arctic glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Edyta; Zaborska, Agata; Kolicka, Małgorzata; Różycki, Michał; Zawierucha, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Surface of glaciers is covered by mineral and organic dust, together with microorganisms forming cryoconite granules. Despite fact that glaciers and ice sheets constitute significance part of land surface, reservoir of freshwater, and sites of high biological production, the knowledge on the cryoconite granules still remain unsatisfactory. This study presents information on radionuclide and heavy metal contents in cryoconites. Cryoconites collected from the Hans Glacier in SW Spitsbergen reveal high activity concentrations of anthropogenic ((238,239,240)Pu, (137)Cs, (90)Sr) and natural ((210)Pb) radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios in these cryoconites significantly exceed the mean global fallout ratio (0.025). The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu ranged from 0.064 to 0.118. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs varied from 0.011 ± 0.003 to 0.030 ± 0.007. Such activity ratios as observed in these cryoconites were significantly higher than the values characterizing global fallout, pointing to possible contributions of these radionuclides from other sources. Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in cryoconites exceed both UCC concentrations and local rocks' concentrations, particularly for cadmium. The concentration ratios of stable lead isotopes ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were determined to discriminate between the natural and anthropogenic sources of Pb in cryoconites and to confirm the strong anthropogenic contribution to heavy metal deposition in the Arctic. In investigated cryoconite holes, two groups of invertebrates, both extremophiles, Tardigrada and Rotifera were detected. Our study indicate that cryoconites are aggregates of mineral and organic substances on surfaces of glaciers are able to accumulate large amounts of airborne pollutants bound to extracellular polymeric substances secreted by microorganisms. PMID:27372266

  8. Modeling Atmospheric Transport of Heavy Metals Over Europe in the 50 km Grid System

    OpenAIRE

    Bartnicki, J.; Olendrzynski, K.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the collaborative project between IIASA and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute in Oslo, a new version of the Heavy Metals Eulerian Transport (HMET) model has been developed. This new version is presented in this paper, as well as the results of the model simulation for one year period of transport (1992). The main difference between the old version (here termed as HNIET-150), and a new version called HNIET-50, is the model grid size reduced from 150km in the o...

  9. Carbon nanostructures deposition in microwave plasma torch at atmospheric pressure on sensors for heavy metal detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jašek, O.; Hubálek, J.; Prášek, J.; Dostál, V.; Matějková, Jiřina; Rek, Antonín; Buršík, Jiří

    Bratislava: Library and Publishing Centre, Comenius University, 2007 - (Papp, P.; Országh, J.; Skalný, J.), s. 58 ISBN 978-80-89186-24-2. [Seminar on New Trends on Plasma Physics and Solid State Physics /3./. Bratislava (SK), 04.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * heavy metals * sensor Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  10. MONITORING OF AIR POLLUTION AND ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF HEAVY METALS BY ANALYSIS OF HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Čéryová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey is an important food for the human nutrition. Changes in the quality of bee honey are also caused by the contamination with micro-polluting agents, toxic to consumers. Heavy metals in honey are of interest not only for quality control, but can be used also as an environmental indicator. In this work honey samples were collected in different places of Slovakia. From the experimental results the average values for concentration heavy metals in honey in site Prievidza 2006 - 2008 were: 0.0599 mg.kg-1 As, 0.0948 mg.kg-1 Cd, 0.0747 mg.kg-1 Cr, 0.0394 mg.kg-1 Hg and 0.1252 mg.kg-1 Pb; in site Šaľa 2006 - 2008: 0.0862 mg.kg-1 As, 0.0942 mg.kg-1 Cd, 0.0736 mg.kg-1 Cr, 0.0341 mg.kg-1 Hg and 0.1626 mg.kg-1 Pb. The results suggested that honey could be used to detect contaminating agents in the environment.

  11. Monitoring the heavy metal atmospheric deposition in Romania using the neutron activation analysis of bio-indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is the direct result of a protocol between NIPNE-HH Bucharest, Romania and JINR-Dubna, Russia on one side, and NIPNE-HH Bucharest, Romania and the University of Trondheim, Norway on the other side. Since the summer of 1995, a systematic sampling of bio-indicators has been carried out. The bio-indicators are represented by three species of bryophytes with an endemic development in the Romanian area: Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupresiforme and Pleurozium schreberi. A large area of 45,000 km2, including the Carpathian Arch between the Olt River Gorge (Southern Carpathian Mountains) and the northern Romanian border (Eastern Carpathian Mountains) was covered. Some of the samples were prepared in the laboratory and analyzed by nuclear analysis methods of a high sensitivity and accuracy i.e., neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Other samples are to be prepared and analyzed. The results will be shown as distribution maps for heavy metal concentrations in the studied area. The analysis were carried out at NIPNE-HH-Bucharest, JINR-Dubna and Trondheim University. Part of the results have already been included in the European Atlas of the Heavy Metal Atmospheric Depositions, published by the Northern Countries Council. The distribution maps of atmospheric depositions in Romania will also be included in the above mentioned Atlas. (author)

  12. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway. Nationwide survey 2010.; Atmosfareisk nedfall av tungmetaller i Norge. Landsomfattende undersoekelse i 2010,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinnes, Eiliv; Berg, Torunn; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo

    2011-07-01

    The geographical distribution of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway was mapped in 2010 by analysis of moss samples from 464 sites all over the country. This report provides a presentation of the results and a comparison with data from a series of corresponding moss surveys starting 1977. The survey is part of an international program comprising large parts of Europe. The survey primarily concerns the ten metals of priority in the European program: vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead. In addition data are reported for another 42 elements in the moss. The discussion of the obtained data mainly refers to contributions from air pollution. In addition influence from natural processes to the elemental composition of the moss and how it may influence the interpretation of the data is discussed. (Author)

  13. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    is the species that presents a major concentration in most of the studied metals. The enrichment factor indicates that Cu, Zn and Pb present an anthropogenic origin mainly and that the sites of Reforma, Alameda and Tollocan could represent a risk for the population that inhabits or works inside these areas due to the heavy metals concentration in the particulate matter. (Author)

  14. Heavy metals and trace elements in atmospheric fall-out: their relationship with topsoil and wheat element composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Jasan, Raquel; Plá, Rita; Pignata, María L

    2012-04-30

    The objectives of this study were to determine the average concentrations and deposition rates of 28 elements in atmospheric bulk deposition and to elucidate associations among topsoil, bulk deposition and wheat element composition. The fluxes of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) deposition in Córdoba were higher than in other agro-ecosystems, which reflects both natural (geochemistry and topsoil removal) and anthropogenic sources. High lanthanide, uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations revealed the impact of an open cast uranium mine. The highest enrichment factors (EF) were those of Cu, Pb, Zn and nickel (Ni), with calcium (Ca) being the most prominent in the surroundings of a cement plant. Industries and the transport of airborne urban pollutants were the main anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and antimony (Sb). The concentrations of metals in wheat grain were predicted using the topsoil and atmospheric fall-out composition with R(2)=0.90, with the latter being the best explanatory variable. The present study highlights the potential health hazards of wheat consumption (Environmental Protection Agency) by the assessment of heavy metals in bulk atmospheric deposition. PMID:22390956

  15. Determination of historical emission of heavy metals into the atmosphere: Celje case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žibret, Gorazd

    2008-11-01

    The research shows that in the Celje area (Slovenia), the historical anthropogenical emissions are 1,712 tons of Zn and 9.1 tons of Cd. For Zn, this value represents approximately 0.3% of the total Zn production in that area. Close to the former zinc smelting plant, the “Zn precipitation” has been estimated to be up to 0.036 mm. The 100-year Zn production left behind a heavily contaminated area with maximum concentrations of Zn of up to 5.6% in attic dust and 0.85% in the soil, and 456 mg/kg of Cd in attic dust and 59.1 mg/kg in the soil. The calculation of historical emissions is based on the data of heavy metals concentration in the attic dust at 98 sampling points and on the data from 19 measurement sites of the weight of total monthly air deposit. The main idea behind determining past emissions is that when the weight of the deposited dust on a small area is multiplied by the concentration of the element in that area, the mass of the polluter which has been transported to the place of interest by air can be calculated. If we sum up all the weight over the whole geochemical anomaly, we get the quantity of historical emissions.

  16. Assessment of Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in North Egypt aerosols using neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to assess the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution of aerosols in different cities of North Egypt using the neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma techniques. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of particulate matter PM10 and total suspended particulate matter were close to industrial areas. From the results of the enrichment factor calculations, the most significant elements of anthropogenic origin are Ba, Sb, Ce and Zn. - Highlights: → Average concentration of Cd using OE-ICP is below detection limit for all the samples. → Maximum average concentration of Pb in PM10 and TSP is 5425 and 570.3, respectively. → Concentration of 20 elements in PM10 and TSP aerosols are determined using the NAA. → EF revealed that Pb, Ba, Br, Ce, Hf, La Sb and Zn are of anthropogenic origin.

  17. Assessment of Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in North Egypt aerosols using neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.H., E-mail: elaraby_20032000@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jezan University, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Abd El-Wahab, M., E-mail: wahab_magda@yahoo.com [Faculty of women for Arts, Science and Education, Physics Department, Ain Shams University, PO11757 Cairo (Egypt); Diab, H.M., E-mail: hnndiab@yahoo.co.uk [National Center of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority Cairo (Egypt); El-Desouky, T.M., E-mail: trkhegazy@yahoo.com [Faculty of women for Arts, Science and Education, Physics Department, Ain Shams University, PO11757 Cairo (Egypt); Mohsen, M., E-mail: m1mohsen@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science. Physics Department, Ain-Shams University, PO 11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of the present study is to assess the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution of aerosols in different cities of North Egypt using the neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma techniques. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of particulate matter PM{sub 10} and total suspended particulate matter were close to industrial areas. From the results of the enrichment factor calculations, the most significant elements of anthropogenic origin are Ba, Sb, Ce and Zn. - Highlights: > Average concentration of Cd using OE-ICP is below detection limit for all the samples. > Maximum average concentration of Pb in PM10 and TSP is 5425 and 570.3, respectively. > Concentration of 20 elements in PM{sub 10} and TSP aerosols are determined using the NAA. > EF revealed that Pb, Ba, Br, Ce, Hf, La Sb and Zn are of anthropogenic origin.

  18. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals studied by analysis of moss samples using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study of the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in different parts of Norway samples of the moss Hylocomium splendens were analyzed with respect to 26 elements. The determination of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, while an additional 21 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Several elements showed a substantially higher deposition in the southernmost parts of Norway than in places located farther north. As regards Pb, As and Sb, the difference amounted to a factor of ten or more. A similar but less pronounced trend was evident for elements such as V, Zn, Cd, Se and Ag. In some cases local pollution sources or marine aerosols had a significant effect on the results. For several heavy metals however long-distance transport from areas to the south and the south west of Norway was responsible for a major part of the air pollution

  19. Bio monitoring of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the lichen Parmelia sulcata in an urbanized area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigoli, G.; Quartieri, M. [Istituto Tecnico Statale A. Cesaris, Casalpusterlengo, LO (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    This work shows the preliminary results of an atmospheric pollution bio monitoring research made by means of bio accumulators epiphyte lichens in the school year 1997-98. It has led to locate a number of atmospheric pollution survey stations which could successfully express the situation of the whole area as for the pollution produced by vehicle traffic and by big industries and to verify the use of the leafy epiphyte lichen Parmelia saiclate as a bio accumulator of heavy metal. The research will be led during the following school years. [Italian] Questo lavoro mostra i risultati preliminari del biomonitoraggio di inquinamento atmosferico mediante bioaccumulatori costituiti da licheni epifita. La ricerca condotta nell'anno scolastico 1997-98 ha permesso di collocare un numero di stazioni di monitoraggio capaci di fornire informazioni complete per l'intera area riguardo all'inquinamento da traffico veicolare e da parte di grandi industrie della zona, e di verificare l'uso del lichene epifita Parmelia sulcata per la bioaccumulazione di metalli pesanti. La ricerca verra' proseguita nei prossimi anni scolastici.

  20. Trends in atmospheric heavy metals abundances over the Russian part of EMEP region in 1990‑2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Konkova, Elizaveta S.

    2016-04-01

    The European part of Russia is covered by two atmospheric environment monitoring networks established in the 1970s-1980s to monitor and evaluate anthropogenic pollution of regional/background natural environment. These are EMEP - European Monitoring and Evaluation Program of transboundary atmospheric pollutant transmission (under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution) and IBMoN - Integrated Background Monitoring Network of environmental toxic pollution (prior to 1990 under the UNEP/GEMS supervision, mostly for East European countries). IGCE laboratories operate as analytical centers for both networks. Historically, IBMoN was partly implemented at EMEP sites to support this international program with additional (optional) data. IBMoN datasets were selected for analysis of atmospheric heavy metal trends in the Russian territory of EMEP region for the last twenty three years due to more intensive operation up to now [1, 2]. Atmospheric heavy metals are collected at the remote sites with the air samples of atmospheric aerosols deposited on Petryanov's cellulose acetate filters through high-volume pumping during 24 hours. To measure lead and cadmium content, filters are transferred into the solution to determine total amounts by the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) with flameless atomization. Precipitation samples (collected monthly with acidic preserving) are directly injected into the AAS detection module after filtering. The sampling procedure, special processing and analytical techniques allow us to measure concentrations at substantially low levels [3, 2]. In this study we investigate the long term trends of lead and cadmium in air and precipitation at two stations, viz. Astrakhan Biosphere Reserve (46°N, 49°E) and Danki (Oka-Terrace Biosphere Reserve, 54.9°N, 37.8°E). Following the EMEP general recommendations, the evaluation was done for two continuous periods covering 1990‑2001 and 2002‑2012, respectively. We apply the

  1. High resolution of anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of 12 heavy metals in the three biggest metropolitan areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Zhu, C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. An integrated inventory of anthropogenic emissions of twelve HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) in the three biggest metropolitan areas, including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region and Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, are developed for 1980-2012 by combining with detailed activity data and inter-annual dynamic emission factors which are determined by S-shaped curves on account of technology progress, economic development, and emission control. The results indicate total emissions of twelve HMs in the three metropolitan regions have increased from 5448.8 tons in 1980 to 19054.9 tons in 2012, with an annual average growth rate of about 4.0%. Due to significant difference in industrial structures and energy consumption compositions, remarkable distinctions can be observed with respect to source contributions of total HM emissions from above three metropolitan areas. Specifically, the ferrous metal smelting sector, coal combustion by industrial boilers and coal combustion by power plants are found to be the primary source of total HM emissions in the BTH region (about 34.2%), YRD region (about 28.2%) and PRD region (about 24.3%), respectively. Furthermore, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2012 at a high spatial resolution of 9 km × 9 km grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). The peak of HM emissions are mainly distributed over the grid cells of Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan, Shijiazhuang, Handan and Baoding in the BTH region; Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Ningbo in the YRD region; Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan in the PYD region, respectively. Additionally, monthly emission profiles are established in order to further identify

  2. Quantitative assessment of atmospheric emissions of toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China: historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Z.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gao, J. J.; Cheng, K.; Hao, J. M.; Wang, K.; Hua, S. B.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals have caused worldwide concern due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available representation of time-varying emission factors with S-shape curves, we establish the multiyear comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in China for the period of 1949-2012 for the first time. Further, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2010 at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Our results show that the historical emissions of Hg, As, Se, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn, during the period of 1949-2012, increased by about 22-128 times at an annual average growth rate of 5.1-8.0 %, reaching about 526.9-22 319.6 t in 2012. Nonferrous metal smelting, coal combustion of industrial boilers, brake and tyre wear, and ferrous metal smelting represent the dominant sources of heavy metal emissions. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions are concentrated in relatively developed regions, especially for the northern, eastern, and southern coastal regions. In addition, because of the flourishing nonferrous metal smelting industry, several southwestern and central-southern provinces play a prominent role in some specific toxic heavy metals emissions, like Hg in Guizhou and As in Yunnan. Finally, integrated countermeasures are proposed to minimize the final toxic heavy metals discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China.

  3. Analyses of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Okinawa Archipelago, Japan by Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of bulk atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents in the bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (referred to "SRM", NIES No.28 of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies) on quartz filters for calibration curves in two different methods; 1) water-insoluble materials were collected after dispersing SRM in pure water and filtered with the quartz filters ("wet method"), and 2) SRM was dispersed in air in the plastic container and the aerosols were collected by using the low-volume air sampler ("dry method"). Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosols on the filter were seen in the following 9 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, and Pb (with wet method) and 12 metals; K, Ti, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu (with dry method). Furthermore, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals determined by the XRF method in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the three islands during June 2008 to June 2010, and for CHAAMS during June 2008 to October 2012.

  4. Quantitative assessment of atmospheric emissions of toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China: historical trend, spatial variation distribution, uncertainties and control policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Tian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available representation of time-varying emission factors with S-shape curves, we established the multiyear comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn from primary anthropogenic activities in China for the period of 1949–2012 for the first time. Further, we allocated the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2010 at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP. Our results show that the historical emissions of Hg, As, Se, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn during the period of 1949–2012, have been increased by about 22–128 times at an annual average growth rate of 5.1–8.0%, amounting to about 79 570 t in 2012. Nonferrous metal smelting, coal combustion of industrial boilers, brake and tyre wear, and ferrous metals smelting represent the dominant sources for Hg / Cd, As / Se / Pb / Cr / Ni / Mn / Co, Sb / Cu, and Zn, respectively. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions were concentrated in relatively developed regions, especially for the northern, eastern and southern coastal regions. In addition, because of the flourishing nonferrous metals smelting industry, several southwestern and central-southern provinces play a prominent role in some specific toxic heavy metals emissions, like Hg in Guizhou and As in Yunnan. Finally, integrated countermeasures are proposed to minimize the final toxic heavy metals discharge on accounting of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China.

  5. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Serbia Studied by Moss Biomonitoring, Neutron Activation Analysis and GIS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Kumar, M; Matavuly, M; Pavlov, S S; Radnovic, D; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    The results of a pilot study on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons. The observed levels of Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, etc. in the area surrounding the town of Bor (Serbia) are comparable to those reported from similar industrial areas in other countries such as the Copper Basin in Poland and the South Urals of Russia. In the same region the maximum Se and Mo concentrations are the highest ever recorded in biomonitoring studies using mosses. High median concentrations of Fe and Ni in Serbian mosses are associated with a crustal component as apparent from factor analysis of the moss data. This component could be a result of windblown soil dust (most ...

  6. Intercalibration of heavy metal accumulation in some indicator moss species as a basis for mapping atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The moss interspecies comparisons of elemental concentrations (Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were carried out. The moss species considered were both pleurocarpous - Pleurozium schreberi (Ps), Hylocomium splendens (Hs), Brachythecium curtum (Bc), Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (Rs), and acrocarpous moss - Dicranum polysetum (Dp). Samples of mosses were collected at selected lowland and mountainous locations in Ukrainian coniferous forests. Relative levels of the efficiency of heavy metal accumulation by these intercalibrated moss species (8-19 pairs) were compared. Each pair of mosses included Pleurozium schreberi as basic indicator species and one from the above-mentioned alternative species. The linear regression and coefficient of correlation equations have been calculated. The evaluation of adequacy of the obtained models was made using Fisher criterion. The significant correlations (P=0.05) using Fisher criterion was obtained for Zn and Hg (Ps vs. Hs, n=8), for Cd, Cu, and Hg (Ps vs. Bc, n=8) and for Cd, Cr, Cu, V, Zn, and Hg (Ps vs. Dp, n=19). Reliable correlation between Ps and Rs for the above mentioned 9 elements was not found. (author)

  7. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements Atmospheric Deposition Studies in Tula Region Using Moss Biomonitors Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitors technique was used in air pollution studies in Tula Region (Central Russia), applying NAA, AAS. Moss samples were collected at 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy adopted in European projects on biomonitoring atmospheric deposition. A wide set of trace elements in mosses was determined. The method of epithermal neutron activation at IBR-2 reactor of FLNP JINR has made it possible to identify 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) in the large-scale concentration range - from 10000 ppm for K to 0,001 ppm for Tb and Ta. Cu, Cd and Pb were determined by the flame AAS in the Norwegian Institute of Science and Technology. Using the graphical technique and principal component analysis allowed to separate plant, crustal and general pollution components in the moss. The obtained data will be used for constructing coloured maps of the distribution of elements over t...

  8. [Pollution Level and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM₂.₅ in Nanjing Before and After the Youth Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Xiong, Zheng-qin

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human activities on the atmospheric environment has attracted people's attention. This study reported the dynamic changes in PM₂.₅ concentration, its heavy metal compositions and health risk assessment from April to September, 2014 in Nanjing when the Youth Olympic Games ( YOG) was held. The results showed that the mass levels of PM₂.₅ ranged from 26.39 to 80.31 µg · m⁻³ from April to September. The mass levels of PM₂.₅ met the level II standard of ambient air quality in China (24 h average concentration, 75 µg · m⁻³) in months of April, May and July while met the level I standard (24 h average concentration, 35 µg · m⁻³) in August during the YOG. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ reached 76.14 µg · m⁻¹ after the YOG, showing resilience of air pollution. The variations of heavy metals were not consistent with each other throughout the observation period. Principal component analysis indicated that emission sources significantly affected the variations of PM₂.₅ and its heavy metals. PM₂.₅ and all of the heavy metals decreased to their minimum values during the YOG, indicating the effectiveness of those temporary measures for reducing atmospheric pollutant before and during the YOG. The health risks of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in PM₂.₅ via breathing and dermal contact exposure were all within the acceptable ranges, but potential carcinogenic risk existed for Cr in PM₂.₅. There was potential non-carcinogenic health risk for adult males via breathing of Mn and greater non-carcinogenic health risk for children via dermal contact exposures to all these 6 heavy metals. PMID:27078937

  9. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm3 and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm3. The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm3) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 μg/Nm3 for Pb and 0.02 μg/Nm3 for Zn. (author)

  10. Characterization of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Three Islands in Okinawa, Japan by X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents of bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (NIES No.28) of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies on quartz filters for calibration curves. Then, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosol on filter were seen in the following 10 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb and As. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. Okinawa islands, consisting of many small islands, are situated east of Asian continent, and its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants. Also, in Okinawa islands, maritime air mass prevails during summer, while Asian continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities such as industries and automobiles. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals

  11. Effects of Decreased Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in South Sweden on Terrestrial Birds and Small Mammals in Natural Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In southern Sweden, where exposure to long range distributed heavy metals is about the highest in Scandinavia, depositions of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) decreased about 20 and 70%,respectively, between mid-1980s and mid-1990s, as estimated by their concentrations in moss. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in tissues of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were also lower in 1996and 1997 compared to 1981 and 1982. It is concluded that the decreased deposition rate of these elements in southern Sweden had caused decreased exposure, and thus also to decreased potential risk of detrimental effects on insectivorous birds and herbivorous mammals. There was no indication that breeding results of pied flycatcher was influenced by the decreased deposition of toxic metals

  12. Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Upreti, D K; Dwivedi, S K

    2010-07-01

    Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road site exhibit the maximum concentration of Fe, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Iron exhibit maximum accumulation both in lichen thallus and the substratum with mean values of 2,195.63 microg g(-1) dry weight. As compared with other growth form of lichens, L. lobificans exhibits the higher accumulation of Fe than foliose and fruticose lichens. On the basis of these results, it can be hypothesized that L. lobificans is an excellent accumulator of different metals. The statistical analysis applied to the element concentration between the metals as well as between the sites by analysis of variance found the difference to be significant at 1% and 5%, respectively. Student-Newman-Keuls test also shows significant difference for iron between the different metals. PMID:19496009

  13. Heavy metal sorption by microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandau, E. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Sandau, P. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany); Pulz, O. [IGV - Inst. fuer Getreideverarbeitung GmbH, Bergholz-Rehbruecke (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Viable microalgae are known to be able to accumulate heavy metals (bioaccumulation). Against a background of the increasing environmental risks caused by heavy metals, the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their potential for the biological removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions were taken as an example for investigation. Small-scale cultivation tests (50 l) with Cd-resistant cells of Chlorella vulgaris have shown that approx. 40% of the added 10 mg Cd/l was removed from the solution within seven days. At this heavy metal concentration sensitive cells died. Non-viable microalgae are able to eliminate heavy metal ions in a short time by biosorption in uncomplicated systems, without any toxicity problems. Compared with original biomasses, the sorption capacity of microalgal by-products changes only insignificantly. Their low price makes them economical. (orig.)

  14. Heavy metal sorption by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viable microalgae are known to be able to accumulate heavy metals (bioaccumulation). Against a background of the increasing environmental risks caused by heavy metals, the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their potential for the biological removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions were taken as an example for investigation. Small-scale cultivation tests (50 l) with Cd-resistant cells of Chlorella vulgaris have shown that approx. 40% of the added 10 mg Cd/l was removed from the solution within seven days. At this heavy metal concentration sensitive cells died. Non-viable microalgae are able to eliminate heavy metal ions in a short time by biosorption in uncomplicated systems, without any toxicity problems. Compared with original biomasses, the sorption capacity of microalgal by-products changes only insignificantly. Their low price makes them economical. (orig.)

  15. Identification of heavy metals sources in the Mexico city atmosphere, using the proton induced x-ray analytical technique and multifactorial statistics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this work are: to identify the heavy metals present in the air, and its concentrations. To know the behavior from the polluting chemical elements to the long of an annual cycle corresponding to 1990, based on the concentrations of the same ones, obtained through the PIXE technique. To identify the suitable statistical methods to use to the data of metals concentration in form of total suspended particle (PST), found in this investigation. To relate the concentrations and the meteorological parameters considered to be able to suggest the possible pollution sources. In function of the obtained results, to serve as base to the decisions making and measures control that are planned by diverse institutions focused to the problem of the atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM). (Author)

  16. Heavy metals in linseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.; Weigert, P.

    1987-11-01

    Linseed offered on the German market was examined for the heavy metals Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, as well as As and Se. 490 samples were taken and examined by 31 laboratories of the official food control on the initiative of ALS (Working Group of Experts in Food Chemistry of the Laender and the Federal Health Office). Brown as well as yellow linseed, a new variety, was included in the investigations. The overall results of the investigations show that cadmium contents represent a certain problem from a health point of view. Brown linseed contains an average of 0.380 mg/kg and yellow linseed 0.231 mg/kg cadmium. Considering a weekly linseed intake of 140 g, the potential intake of cadmium corresponds to 10.1% of the WHO value fixed for the time being as tolerable weekly intake for an adult male and 12.2% for an adult female person. The guide value has been fixed at 0.3 mg/kg. Thus, the Cd intakes as related to the WHO value may be reduced by 50% and more.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY METALS ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION FOR ASSESSMENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN THE BOLOGNA CITY (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The suburban area of Bologna city in southeast portion of Po Valley (Northern Italy is characterized by high emission from industrial, urban, agriculture and traffic sources. The presence of an urban waste incinerator get inhabitants to require answers about impact of its emissions on the environmental quality related to human health. The concentrations of some pollutants (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined in topsoil, plants and mosses tissues sampled in sites selected according to different falling out conditions, due to the incinerator and other sources of atmospheric emissions that affect the monitoring area. No correlation was found between metal content and the distance of the incinerator plant. The pollution load index (PLI calculated for soil and moss indicated a low environmental pollution, while highest values in sites downwind of incinerator and in craft area indicate a moderate pollution.

  18. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  19. Changes in Atmospheric Deposition Rates of Heavy Metals in Sweden A Summary of Nationwide Swedish Surveys in 1968/70 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish nationwide surveys of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in 1968/70 - 1995 using bryophytes (carpet-forming mosses) as monitors are reviewed. Considered are cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). The close agreement between data obtained with deposition (precipitation) collectors and moss carpet analysis is documented briefly, as well as measures of quality control and assessment of reproducibility. Since 1968/70, the deposition rate of the heavy metals considered has declined gradually and evenly, particularly in the southern parts of the country, reflecting an improvement of general air quality due to decreasing dust emission from mainly industry and fossil fuel combustion in northern and western Europe. By far the greatest absolute decrease in deposition rate was measured in Fe, which is a main constituent of most man-generated dust particles. However, the greatest per cent decreases in deposition rates were measured for Pb. The Pb concentration of moss carpets in Sweden as a whole in 1995 was only 11% of the value in 1968/70. Corresponding figures for Fe was 20%, Cd 24%, Ni 28%, Hg 31%, V 43%, Zn 51%, and Cu 52%. For Zn the current deposition rate seems to approach a 'natural' baseline, whereas deposition of the other seven elements are still decreasing according to the surveys of 1990 and 1995

  20. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway studied by the analysis of moss samples using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a study of the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in different parts of Norway, samples of the moss Hylocomium Splendens were analyzed with respect to 28 elements. The determination of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while 24 additional elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. In samples from southemmost Norway, a substantially higher concentration was found for elements such as Pb, Sb, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag and Cd than in samples from places located in the more northerly parts of the country. The results indicate that sources which are to the south and south-west of Scandinavia, contribute significantly to heavy metal deposition in Norway. (author)

  1. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in transilvanian plateau of romania studied by the moss bio monitoring Technique employing nuclear and related analytical Techniques and gis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data for 39 elements of 69 moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected in the Transilvanian Plateau of Romania. This results have obtained in the framework of the project Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Bio monitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and GIS Technology carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.The samples collected have been analyzed by ENAA with the exception of Cu, Cd, and Pb which were determined by AAS. IAEA certified materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional concentration variations of selected elements are presented in the form of maps constructed by GIS technology. Extremely high values are observed for elements such as Cu, Zn, As and Sb in parts of this territory affected by local metal industries. The levels are among the highest observed in the world, and could be partly responsible for the unfortunate health situation in some of these areas

  2. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study Around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Employing the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, ENAA and FAAS

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R

    2001-01-01

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-20 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A total of 30 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals known to be released into the air from this kind of industry. Obtained concentrations for As and Cu are comparable with those observed in Karabash, South Ural Mountains, one of the most polluted regions in Europe. Besides, these two elements correlate very well with each other. The mean values for Zn (136 ppm) and Pb (41 ppm) are substantially higher than those normally found in the literature. The highest value for Pb (175 ppm) was obs...

  3. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  4. The advances on the studies of cross-contamination caused by heavy metals in atmosphere%大气重金属引发交叉污染的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传龙; 代朝猛; 张亚雷; 张伟贤

    2012-01-01

    大气重金属污染在国内影响范围广,危害严重,需要引起相当的重视.大气中的重金属污染物可沉降于水体或土壤,也可和其它污染物质发生反应,造成交叉污染.交叉污染不但改变了大气重金属污染物的迁移性,而且有可能增强其毒性,是需要密切关注的对象.本文综述分析了影响大气中重金属污染引起交叉污染的因素及其形式特点等问题,并对相关研究的前景进行了展望.%It should be paid more attention to the atmospheric heavy metal pollution due to its wide impact range and serious harm.Atmospheric heavy metal pollution could cause cross-contamination such as settlement of heavy metals in water or soil,or reacting with other pollutants to make new pollution.Cross-contamination enhanced the transference of heavy metals in atmosphere,and strengthened its toxicity,therefore,cross-contamination should be paid attention.This paper reviewed the influence factors of cross-contamination and its characteristics,and the perspectives of research was also presented.

  5. Heavy metal depositions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and importance of the measurement of dust precipitation and its metallic components are discussed. Test programs and results of heavy metal measurements in precipitations in Germany are summarized. The focus is on measurements of lead and cadmium. There is a clearly decreasing trend also seen in long-term test programs. The limiting values set in the Clean Air Act were hardly ever exceeded in recent years. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Atmospheric Deposition on Heavy Metal Accumulation in Tea Leaves%大气沉降对茶叶重金属积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳; 李宝刚; 章明奎

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the effects of atmospheric deposition on the heavy metal accumulation in tea leaves. The experiments concern three sites with different pollution sources of atmospheric deposition, including traffic pollution, industrial pollution and non-point pollution areas, and are under the conditions of open air and plastic film cover. The results show that the atmospheric deposition has a notable effect on the heavy metal accumulation in young tea leaves, but not for old tea leaves. The traffic pollution increases significantly the accumulation of Pb and Cd in young tea leaves. The industrial pollution increases significantly the accumulation of Pb, Cd, and Cr in young tea leaves, with its effect being decreased with the increase of the distance from a highway or factory. The altitude also affects the accumulation of Pb in the young tea leaves in the non-point pollution area. As compared with these, the accumulation of Pb, Cd and Cr in young tea leaves under plastic film cover conditions is decreased by 27%-46%, 21%-36% and 13%-33% for traffic pollution area, and 22%-44%, 23%-32%, and 24%-29% for industrial pollution area. The accumulation of Pb in young tea leaves under plastic film cover conditions in the non-point pollution area is 13%-19% lower than those under the open air condition. The contribution of atmospheric deposition to the accumulation of heavy metals in tea leaves is greater in industrial pollution areas than in traffic pollution areas. It is very important to control the atmospheric pollution in the tea production area and not to plant teas in the area with heavy atmospheric pollutions.%针对大气沉降对茶叶重金属积累的影响,选择了2个有明显污染源(分别受交通污染和工业污染影响)和1个无明显污染源(主要受大气循环物质沉降的影响)的3个茶园,采用覆膜和露天对比研究了茶叶中重金属Pb、Cd和Cr的积累状况.结果表明,试验

  7. Heavy metal pollution of industrial cities

    OpenAIRE

    Бувалец, Дарья Юрьевна; Капустин, Алексей Евгеньевич

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of cities is an urgent environmental problem. As an example we took Mariupol, on the territory of this city there are two large metallurgical plants. We have studied the heavy metal pollution of urban soils, river water and sediment, which are under the influence of the steel industry. Studies have established the degree and nature of pollution of the Mariupol by various heavy metals. Also, study revealed excess of some heavy metals in the river waters and sediments. We ...

  8. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements using the moss genera Brachythecium sp. (B. rutabulum and B. salebrosum) and Eurhynchium sp. (E. hians and E. striatum) collected in autumn 2004 in the urban area of Belgrade. The concentrations of 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil. High enrichment factors for As, Zn, Mo, Br, Sb, Se, Hg, and Cl, calculated to continental crust composition, gave an evidence for anthropogenic impact on urban area, mainly due to intensive vehicular traffic and fossil fuel combustion. The concentrations of elements in moss, characteristic for fossil fuel combustion, obtained in this study, were substantially lower than in the previous investigation (2000) conducted in the area of Belgrade. The level of concentrations for V, Cr, Ni, and As in moss from this study correlated to those measured for neighboring countries, and were several times higher than the base-level data from low polluted areas. The level of accumulated elements in both investigated moss genera were similar and all studied species could be combined for biomonitoring purposes in urban areas

  9. Spatially valid data of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen derived by moss surveys for pollution risk assessments of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Nickel, Stefan; Schönrock, Simon; Meyer, Michaela; Wosniok, Werner; Harmens, Harry; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Alber, Renate; Aleksiayenak, Julia; Barandovski, Lambe; Carballeira, Alejo; Danielsson, Helena; de Temmermann, Ludwig; Godzik, Barbara; Jeran, Zvonka; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Lazo, Pranvera; Leblond, Sebastien; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Liiv, Siiri; Magnússon, Sigurður H; Mankovska, Blanka; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Piispanen, Juha; Poikolainen, Jarmo; Popescu, Ion V; Qarri, Flora; Santamaria, Jesus Miguel; Skudnik, Mitja; Špirić, Zdravko; Stafilov, Trajce; Steinnes, Eiliv; Stihi, Claudia; Thöni, Lotti; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Zechmeister, Harald G

    2016-06-01

    For analysing element input into ecosystems and associated risks due to atmospheric deposition, element concentrations in moss provide complementary and time-integrated data at high spatial resolution every 5 years since 1990. The paper reviews (1) minimum sample sizes needed for reliable, statistical estimation of mean values at four different spatial scales (European and national level as well as landscape-specific level covering Europe and single countries); (2) trends of heavy metal (HM) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in moss in Europe (1990-2010); (3) correlations between concentrations of HM in moss and soil specimens collected across Norway (1990-2010); and (4) canopy drip-induced site-specific variation of N concentration in moss sampled in seven European countries (1990-2013). While the minimum sample sizes on the European and national level were achieved without exception, for some ecological land classes and elements, the coverage with sampling sites should be improved. The decline in emission and subsequent atmospheric deposition of HM across Europe has resulted in decreasing HM concentrations in moss between 1990 and 2010. In contrast, hardly any changes were observed for N in moss between 2005, when N was included into the survey for the first time, and 2010. In Norway, both, the moss and the soil survey data sets, were correlated, indicating a decrease of HM concentrations in moss and soil. At the site level, the average N deposition inside of forests was almost three times higher than the average N deposition outside of forests. PMID:27068915

  10. A heavy metal atmospheric deposition study around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, employing the moss biomonitoring technique, ENAA and FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-20 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A total of 30 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals known to be released into the air from this kind of industry. Obtained concentrations for As and Cu are comparable with those observed in Karabash, South Ural Mountains, one of the most polluted regions in Europe. Besides, these two elements correlate very well with each other. The mean values for Zn (136 ppm) and Pb (41 ppm) are substantially higher than those normally found in the literature. The highest value for Pb (175 ppm) was observed in a sample collected in the vicinity of the lead plant. The mean value for Sb (0.56 ppm) is much higher than the background level in Norway but 5 times lower than the mean Sb concentration in parts of the South Ural Mountains. A high correlation between Pb and Sb was observed. Moreover this study evidences the endemic character of the examined area due to iodine depletion. Its mean value in the moss is 2.5 times lower than the background level in Norway and systematically lower than the mean European values

  11. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  12. Heavy metals in trees and energy crops - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This literature review deals with the use of energy crops for cleaning of soils from heavy metals. It also deals with the use of low accumulating energy crops to be used on strongly contaminated soils where a low uptake of heavy metals is preferred, for example on mining deposits. In addition to the efforts to reduce the sources for heavy metal contamination of soils (for example commercial fertilizers and atmospheric deposition) the uptake and removal of heavy metals from the soils by the use of energy crops have recently been discussed as a method for cleaning of soils. Species from the Salix family (willow) have a greater potential for accumulating heavy metals than cereals which makes them interesting for this purpose. The Salix family consists of species with a great genetic variation. This will probably make it possible to find or develop clones with different characteristics suitable for cleaning of contaminated soils as well as for plant covering of soils that are extremely contaminated by heavy metals. In the former case an accumulation of heavy metals in the harvested parts, the shoots, is preferred. In the later case clones that do not accumulate heavy metals and maybe also clones with only root accumulation are preferred. There are also Salix clones with a specific accumulation of heavy metals which makes it possible to clean soils from a toxic metal and at the same time avoid the risk for deficiency of essential metals, for example Zn. The greatest potential to clean soils by the use of energy crops, is when the contamination levels in the soils are low, the areas to clean are large and when the time needed for cleaning is of minor importance. The most suitable soils are those where the metal contamination is located in the top soil layer and where the heavy metal concentrations in the sub soil layer are still low. 58 refs, 8 tabs, 1 fig

  13. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals due to dry, wet and occult deposition at the altitude profile Achenkirch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was to determine the height dependence of the three types of deposition throughout a one year time period to be able to get information about their elevational and seasonal behavior. In the time period from October 1998 to November 1999 measurements of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in aerosol, rain and cloud water were conducted in the Achenkirch-Valley in Tyrol, Austria. Afterwards the dry and occult deposition were modeled. The estimated annual inputs of metals at the two measurement sites Christlumkopf (1758 m a.s.l.) Mueeggerkoel (940 m a.s.l.) and the limits of the national law for protection of forest are shown. The measured depositions at both sites were far below the legal regulations. Due to the much higher occult deposition ratio at the top of the mountain the total annual input at the Christlumkopf was higher than at the Mueeggerkoel. This indicates the potential importance of occult deposition. (author)

  14. Atmospheric deposition and accumulation of heavy metals and nitrogen in Natura 2000 sites in Germany; Atmosphaerische Deposition und Anreicherung von Schwermetallen und Stickstoff in Natura-2000-Gebieten Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Kratz, Werner; Holy, Marcel [Hochschule Vechta (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Landschaftsoekologie; Zechmeister, Harald [Wien Univ. (Austria); Harmens, Harry [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd (United Kingdom); Fagerli, Hilde [Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway). Research and Development Dept.; Ilyin, Ilia [EMEP, Moscow (Russian Federation). Meteorological Synthesizing Centre East

    2010-12-15

    Under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution mosses are used to map the bioaccumulation of heavy metals and nitrogen throughout Europe. To this end, since 1990 mosses were sampled and analyzed chemically every five years. The goal of this article is to apply the moss survey data for assessing the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and N in German Natura 2000 Sites of Community Importance (SCI). The temporal trends of the heavy metal bioaccumulation within SCIs were analyzed using a multi metal index (MMI) calculated by means of geostatistics and percentile statistics. For nitrogen, only monitoring values for 2005 were available for the assessment. The geostatistically estimated values of the metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses were transformed to estimated deposition values by use of regression analyses. Subsequently, the results were integrated into the assessment of the German SCIs. Highest metal loads within SCIs were detected in 1990, followed by a continuous decrease to 2000 and a significant increase until 2005. Regarding N, a median of 1.5 % nitrogen in the dry mass was calculated. The deposition values calculated from the moss estimates resulted in median values of 0.33 g/ha/a for Cd, 8.2 g/ha/a for Pb and 16.7 kg/ha/a for nitrogen. The Moss-Monitoring is the only environmental monitoring programme which enables statistically sound estimations of the exposure of SCI to environmental contaminants in terms of heavy metal and nitrogen deposition and bioaccumulation. (orig.)

  15. Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HuYuan; WANG Bao; DONG XingLing; FENG Lei; FAN ZhiMing

    2009-01-01

    Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration when the pH of extract lowers than 6. The disintegration of solidified sludge and the transformation of heavy metals are the main reasons for the resolubilisation of contaminants. Flow-through leaching test indicated that leaching of heavy metals from solidified sludge occurs in a slow way. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the stabilization time of heavy metals in solidified sludge. The research results showed that decreasing hydraulic conductivity is more important than cement addition for controlling the release of heavy metals from solidified sludge.

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  17. Biosolids and heavy metals in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of sewage sludge or biosolids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. In general, domestic biosolids have lower heavy metal contents than industrial ones. Origin and treatment method of biosolids may markedly influence their characteristics. The legislation that controls the levels of heavy metal contents in biosolids and the maximum concentrations in soils is still controversial. In the long-term, heavy metal behavior after the and of biosolid application is still unknown. In soils, heavy metals may be adsorbed via specific or non-specific adsorption reactions. Iron oxides and organic matter are the most important soil constituents retaining heavy metals. The pH, CEC and the presence of competing ions also affect heavy metal adsorption and speciation in soils. In solution, heavy metals can be present either as free-ions or complexed with organic and inorganic ligands. Generally, free-ions are more relevant in environmental pollution studies since they are readily bioavailable. Some computer models can estimate heavy metal activity in solution and their ionic speciation. Thermodynamic data (thermodynamic stability constant, total metal and ligand concentrations are used by the GEOCHEM-PC program. This program allows studying heavy metal behavior in solution and the effect of changes in the conditions, such as pH and ionic strength and the application of organic and inorganic ligands caused by soil fertilization.

  18. Heavy metal dispersion and soil pollution alongside two french highways

    OpenAIRE

    LEGRET, M; Pagotto, C.

    2002-01-01

    Road traffic and maintenance induce a chronic heavy metal pollution of runoff water an roadside soil. Part of the pollutants could be dispersed in the atmosphere or deposited onto soils due to wind dispersion. The atmospheric deposition and the quality of roadside soil have been investigated alongside two major rural highways. Metal deposition decrease rapidly and seem to reach the background level at a distance less than 25 m. Zinc deposition are the most important, followed by Pb and Cu dep...

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in forest litter - indicators of pollutant depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of a comparison of the heavy metal concentrations in organic litter from different sites it was examined to what extent the heavy metal concentrations correlate with the atmospheric pollution situation. It follows from the variance analyses: The atmospheric pollution situation is the dominating factor for the heavy metal concentration in L litter. The elements Cd and Zn show a pH-sensitivity at the same time. The lead concentration in the Ln and Lv horizons reflects the atmospheric pollution situation of the corresponding site. Specific pollution patterns, e.g. in the case of hillside sites, are neither detected through the gravitational deposition (open land) nor through the airborne dust concentration; these can be recognized by the monitor 'litter'. Only horizons in the intercrown area with identical tree vegetation, which are characterized in detail, must be used for monitoring. (orig.)

  20. Heavy Metal Risk Management: Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Ae; Lee, Seung Ha; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ki Kyung; Park, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Myung Sil; Yoon, Hae Jung; Choi, Dal Woong

    2012-01-01

    To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint...

  1. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater. Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported about the capabilities of fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, waste and agricultural residues or materials containing chitosan derived from crustacean shells as a biosorbents. Biohydrometallurgy could be considered as a new “green” technology of heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  2. Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇİN, Göksel

    2001-01-01

    Wetland plants are successfully used in the biosorption of heavy metals in natural and constructed wetlands. In this study, the removal of heavy metals by water hyacinth [ Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)Solms)] were investigated. The plants were grown under control in the Turkish climate. The biosorption was dependent on factors such as metal concentration, constant temperature, pH and relative moisture. The plants were exposed to different metal concentrations of Chromium(III), Chromi...

  3. MICROBIAL REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization result in increase of heavy metals released into the environment (soil, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, groundwater). Studies on biosorption of heavy metals are aimed to specify types of microorganisms which could efficiently bind metals. This approach has a very important significance for both slowing down metals exploitation by recovery, and also reduction of environmental pollution by decrease of their excessive concentration. Recent studies have reported ab...

  4. Source and Air-sea Fluxes of Heavy Metals in the Atmospheric Particles of East China Sea%东海海洋大气颗粒物中重金属的来源及入海通量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓光; 程祥圣; 刘富平

    2011-01-01

    2006~2007年,对杭州湾以南的东海海域进行了春、夏、秋、冬4个航次的海洋大气调查,分析了大气颗粒物中重金属元素(Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd)的含量,根据调查结果,采用富集系数法对重金属的来源进行了初步分析,对干沉降入海通量进行了估算.结果表明,调查海域海洋大气颗粒物中的Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd含量相对于地壳和海水均表现为强富集,富集系数远远大于10,属于污染元素,主要来自人类活动污染.重金属元素的大气干沉降通量大小顺序为Zn[10.92 mg/(m2.a)]〉Pb[2.299mg/(m2.a)]〉Cu[1%From 2006 to 2007,four surveys for marine atmosphere in East China Sea were carried out included different seasons(spring,summer,autumn and winter).Based on the survey data of heavy metals in marine atmospheric particles,analyzed the source of heavy metals by the calculation of Enrichment Factors,calculated the air-sea fluxes via dry deposition.The results showed,comparing with the crustal and seawater,the heavy metals including Cu,Pb,Cd and Zn were highly concentrated,mainly from the pollutants of human activities.The fluxes of heavy metals via dry deposition were Zn[10.92mg/(m2·a)]Pb[2.299mg/(m2·a)]Cu[1.611mg/(m2·a)]Cd[0.017mg/(m2·a)].The fluxes of heavy metals in winter were highest,the summer and autumn were lower.The input of Cu,Pb,Zn and Cd from atmosphere to sea via dry deposition was 2 376 t,nearly 13% compared with the input of The Changjiang River(Yangtze River).

  5. Stream ecosystems in mountain grassland (West Carpathians). 4. Heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reczynska-Dutka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The level of heavy metals was determined in the water of the Biala Woda and Kamionka streams against the background of the natural conditions in their basins and the pastoral management of this territory. The level of heavy metals approximated that characteristic for natural waters. However, intensified use of the basins for sheep grazing and mineral fertilization was manifested by an increased zinc content in the water. The variation in the concentrations of some metals may also be connected with pollution introduced by means of atmospheric precipitation. 16 references, 2 tables.

  6. Research advances in heavy metal biosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of heavy metal has wide applications. The mechanisms of heavy metal biosorption, including complexation, ion exchange, microprecipitation and oxidation reduction, are presented. Thermodynamics and dynamics of biosorption are also discussed. Key factors of influencing biosorption, such as pH values, coexistence ions and temperature are explained. The research directions are explored. (authors)

  7. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  8. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consu

  9. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  10. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Waseem; Jahanzaib Arshad; Farhat Iqbal; Ashif Sajjad; Zahid Mehmood; Ghulam Murtaza

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food c...

  11. Poisoning of domestic animals with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Velev Romel; Krleska-Veleva Nataša; Ćupić Vitomir

    2009-01-01

    The term heavy metal refers to a metal that has a relatively high density and is toxic for animal and human organism at low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter animal organism via food, drinking water and air. Some heavy metals (e.g cooper, iron, chromium, zinc) are essential in very low concentrations for the survival of all forms of life. These are described as essential tra...

  12. Heavy metal deposition mapping: concentrations and deposition of heavy metals in rural areas of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Heath; Fowler, David; Crossley, Alan; Kentisbeer, John; Hallsworth, Steve; Lawlor, Alan; Rowland, Phil; Guyatt, Hayley; Beith, Sarah; Thacker, Sarah; Halford, Alan; ROGERS Stuart; Cape, J. Neil; Leeson, Sarah; Harmens, Harry

    2012-01-01

    CEH has been monitoring the concentrations of a range of heavy metals in rural locations across the UK since 2004. This report presents the annual average concentrations and deposition of heavy metals in air and rainfall samples collected from rural locations during 2011 and it reviews the temporal and spatial trends in heavy metal concentrations and deposition between 2004 and 2011. The monitoring network was established to measure the background concentration of a range of heavy meta...

  13. 图们市区大气PM10中7种重金属的监测与分析%Monitoring and Analysis of Seven Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM10 of Tumen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩成哲; 魏薇; 王建刚; 金丽灿; 李光善; 景丽洁

    2013-01-01

    2007年6月至2008年3月分4个季节在图们市区利用大气综合采样器采集4个监测点位的大气PM10样品,用硝酸-双氧水湿法消解,火焰原子吸收分光光度法检测样品中铬、锰、铁、铜、锌、镉、铅7种重金属含量,并对7种重金属元素的时空变化规律进行研究.结果表明:图们市大气PM10中重金属含量由高到低的顺序是铁>锌>锰>铅>铬>铜>镉,铁的含量明显高于其他重金属含量.铅的年平均值为1.436μg/m3,超出现行《环境空气质量标准》(GB 3095-1996)规定的浓度限值.重金属的季节性变化规律比较明显,冬季Cr、Cu、Zn、Pb的含量明显高于其他3个季节.区域性功能则不明显,在4个监测点位中7种重金属含量的变化不是很大.7种重金属含量年平均值的日变化规律也不是很明显,说明重金属来源除了天然源外,主要来自于煤和汽油燃烧过程中排放的飘尘.%The atmospheric PM10 samples were collected by atmospheric integrated sampler at four monitoring sites of Tumen city in four seasons during June 2007 to March 2008,the samples were digested by nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide,and the contents of Cr,M n,Fe,Cu,Zn,Cd and Pb were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer,spatial and temporal variation of the seven heavy metals were studied.The results showed that the contents of heavy metals were Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu >Cd in atmospheric PM10 of Tumen City,and content of iron was significantly higher than the other heavy metals.The annual average of lead was 1.436μg/m3,beyond the current concentration limits of ambient air quality standard (GB 3095-1996).The seasonal variation of heavy metals was obvious,contents of Cr,Cu,Zn,Pb in winter were significantly higher than the other three seasons.Regional function was not significant,the contents of seven heavy metals were not a big change in four monitoring sites.The diurnal variation of seven heavy metals contents was

  14. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  15. Stabilization of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2010-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the stabilization behaviours of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS). Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of sintering temperature, (Fe(2)O(3) + CaO + MgO)/(SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3)) (defined as F/SA ratios), pH, and oxidative condition. Results show that sintering exhibits good binding capacity for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb in ceramsite and leaching contents of heavy metals will not change above 1000 degrees C. The main crystalline phases in ceramsite sintered at 1000 degrees C are kyanite, quartz, Na-Ca feldspars, sillimanite, and enstatite. The main compounds of heavy metals are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. Leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase as the F/SA ratios increase. Heavy metals in ceramsite with variation of F/SA ratios are also in same steady forms, which prove that stronger chemical bonds are formed between these heavy metals and the components. Leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H(2)O(2) concentration increases. The results indicate that when subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the crystalline structures still exhibit good chemical binding capacity for heavy metals. In conclusion, it is environmentally safe to use ceramsite in civil and construction fields. PMID:20219229

  16. Research into Heavy Metals Pollution of Atmosphere Applying Moss as Bioindicator: a Literature Review Oro taršos sunkiaisiais metalais tyrimai naudojant samanas kaip bioindikatorių

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius PALIULIS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Atmospheric pollution causes serious damage for human health and to all natural ecosystems. Nowadays, the biggest provocative of atmospheric pollution is anthropogenic human activities and transport sector, main pollutants being heavy metals (HM.

    Biomonitoring of HM pollution of atmosphere by mosses is one of the most popular, perspective and cost - effective method to control, detect and evaluate changes in the air quality. The most important environmental features of mosses as a suitable tool of biomonitoring are: rootless, large surface, wide - spread population, a habit to grow in groups, long life - cycle, survival in a high - polluted environment, an ability to obtain nutrients from wet and dry deposition.

    This literature review presents environmental properties of mosses, what makes them to be suitable for biomonitoring, HM deposition trends in some European

  17. Review: Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISLAM Ejaz ul; YANG Xiao-e; HE Zhen-li; MAHMOOD Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants,particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  18. Determination of heavy metals in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of heavy metals in sludge has been investigated. The sludge was separated from waste water sewage by precipitation. The heavy metals analysis has been done using neutron activation (NAA) and x-ray fluorescence. The existence of some metals (Cu, Fe, Ca, K, and Ti) is very important for plants. Otherwise, Pb and Cr had polluted the environment. The results are compared with sheep dung, rubbish and cow dung that are used as natural fertilizer. It is found that the sludge has a low concentration of heavy metals than other. Tow standard samples derived from IAEA have been analyzed with our samples. It is found that our sludge contains some concentration of heavy metals less than the standard. It is found that the increase of Cu and Zn concentration due to uses of pesticides. (author)

  19. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  20. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb

  1. Speciation Analysis of Heavy Metal in Atmospheric Dust and Ecological Risk Assessment%大气降尘中重金属形态分析及生态风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡恭任; 戚红璐; 于瑞莲; 刘海婷

    2011-01-01

    总结国内外大气降尘重金属形态分析常用的两种方法——Tessier五步连续提取法和BCR连续提取法,用于土壤及沉积物中重金属生态风险评价,总结出适用于大气降尘重金属生态风险评价的方法——Hakanson潜在生态风险指数法和人工模拟酸雨淋溶法,提出了这些方法存在的问题和今后的发展方向.%The current two sequential extraction procedures about speciation of heavy metals in atmospheric dust, Tessier five-step method and BCR method are described, and the applied to the methods for ecological risk evaluation. The potential ecological risk indexes of Hakanson and the simulation of synthetic precipitation leaching procedure are suggested for the ecological risk assessment about heavy metal from atmospheric dust. It also refers to the problems about the current study and the future direction of development.

  2. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  3. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops*

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main rou...

  4. Combined Heavy Metal Pollution in Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHUAIMAN; ZHENGCHNURONG

    1996-01-01

    The effects of combined heavy metal pollution of red soil on the growth of wetland rice and the transfer of Pb,Cd,Cu and Zn from soil into plants were sudied by greenhouse pot experiment,The results showed that the plantyields were markedly affected by heavy metals,with the exception of Pb,in soils under the experimental conditions,without taking into consideration all the interactions among the elements.The concentrations of the elemets in plants were mainly affected by the specific element added to the soil.The effect of interactions among the heavy metals was very significant either on plant yields or on the concentration of the elements in plants.The risk assessment of a combined pollution by heavy metals in the soil is discussed preliminarily in terms of the relative pollution equivalent.

  5. DECONTAMINATION OF HEAVY METALS WITH BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: To discover, improve, understand the mechanisms and use naturally occurring bacteria to decontiminate in situ heavy metals from the soils, sediments and waters to protect human health and the environment. ABSTRACT: Our laboratory (Vesper et al. ...

  6. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth′s crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

  7. Heavy metals in packaging : a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    van Putten EM; IMG

    2011-01-01

    The use of the heavy metals cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead in packaging is forbidden internationally for some years because these substances are harmful to the environment. In 2002 the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment determined the presence of heavy metals in packaging for consumer products.
    A literature survey was commissioned by the Dutch national Inspectorate for the Environment. Objective was to gather information about actions and checks in other countries o...

  8. Heavy metal screening in compounds feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Toth

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are generally classified as basic groups of pollutants that are now a days found in different environmental compartments. This is quite a large group of contaminants, which have different characteristics, effects on the environment and sources of origin. For environment pose the greatest risks, especially heavy metals produced by anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the health and vitality of organisms and natural environmental conditions. Livestock nutrition is among t...

  9. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  10. Heavy metals in equine biological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the blood (Pb, Ni and Cd, serum (Cu and Zn and hair (Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu and Zn of horses raised in non-industrial and industrial areas (with steel mill, and to verify the possibility to use these data as indicators of environmental pollution. The samples were collected during summer and winter, aiming to verify animal contamination related to environment and season of the year. Copper and Zn contents determined in the serum and Cd and Ni contents obtained in the blood indicated no contamination effects of industries. For some animals, contents of Pb in the blood were higher than those considered acceptable for the species, but without relationship with industrialization and without clinical signs of Pb intoxication. The heavy metals evaluated on the hair of horses in this study were not increased with the presence of industries, but Cu and Cd contents were influenced by the season. The contents of some heavy metals in biological components analyzed were influenced by season sampling; however, serum, blood and hair may not be suitable to indicate differences in environmental contamination between the two contrasting areas. Most part of the heavy metal contents was lower or close to the reference values for horses. Serum, blood and hair components from horses may not be effective as indicators of environmental pollution with heavy metals. Industrialization and seasons have no effects on most part of heavy metals contents from those components.

  11. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils Downwind from Masaya Volcano (Nicaragua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfosse, T.; Delmelle, P.; Iserentant, A.; Delvaux, B.

    2003-12-01

    leaching of the metal inputs through the soil profiles is considered unlikely. Instead, metals in the plume may have been deposited during the first seconds of transport in the atmosphere, rapidly depleting the plume in these elements. Thus, in the case of plume emitted in the boundary layer, the volcanic contribution of metals to the atmosphere may be significantly lower than that extrapolated from emission rates measured at the source. Further studies are needed to better assess heavy metal deposition and the biogeochemical cycle of these compounds in volcanic environments.

  12. Plant transporters involved in heavy metal homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Podar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal ions (predominately manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc havean array of catalytic and regulatory roles in the growth and development of all living organisms.However, an excess of these metal ions can also be toxic to any life form and therefore every cell andwhole organism needs to maintain the concentration of these essential nutrient metals within a narrowrange: a process known as metal homeostasis. Heavy metal ions are taken up into cells by selectivetransporters and as they cannot be degraded, the “desired” levels of metal ions are achieved by anumber of strategies that involve: chelation, sequestration and export out of the cell. Cation DiffusionFacilitators (CDF is a large family of transporters involved in maintaining the cytosolic metalconcentration. They transport different heavy metal divalent ions, but exhibit main affinity for zinc, ironand manganese. Metal Tolerance Proteins (MTPs are a subfamily of the Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDFfamily found in plants. There has been much interest in these heavy metal transporters in order toprovide an insight into plant metal homeostasis, which has significant implications in human health andphytoremediation. Although data regarding the CDFs/MTPs mechanism is gathering there is still littleinformation with respect to metal selectivity determinants.

  13. ACTINOMYCETES: TOLERANCE AGAINST HEAVY METALS AND ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Singh, Shruti Pandey and Hotam Singh Chaudhary*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals can be both, essential as well as toxic for living beings. Micronutrients such as, Co, Fe, Mn have important role to play in living systems whereas, Pb Cd etc. pose harmful effects even at low concentrations. When these heavy metals get accumulated within the tissues of the organisms at various levels of the ecological chain, they cause decrease in the biomass and biological diversity by affecting the growth, morphology and activity of the organisms. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil also causes soil contamination, which can be overcome with the help of bioremediation. A large group of soil bacteria belonging to the Actinomycetes species are exposed to heavy metals in a variety of ways; although, they show resistance to heavy metals. The species of actinomycetes possess resistance for antibiotic synthesis as well. This makes the actinomycetes suitable agents for bioremediation. In this experiment, a total of 20 isolates from Shivpuri region of Madhya Pradesh were tested for the metal tolerance against selected heavy metals. After this, the most tolerant strains were tested to check their antibiotic susceptibility. Metal tolerance was tested by agar well diffusion method and tube dilution method. Out of the 20 isolates, Ash1, Ash 2, Ash 4,Ash 6, Ash 7, Ash 8, Ash 9, Ash 10, Ash 11, Ash 12, Ash 13, Ash 15 were resistant at 10 mM conc. of CuSo4, but their growth was inhibited at higher concentrations of metal salts. Isolates Ash 10, Ash 11, Ash 12, Ash 13, Ash 19, Ash 20 were found to be resistant at 10mM conc. of ZnSO4, but they were also inhibited at higher concentrations. For different concentrations of Pb(CH3COO2 most of the isolates showed same level of tolerance.

  14. Ultrastructural changes and Heat Shock Proteins 70 induced by atmospheric pollution are similar to the effects observed under in vitro heavy metals stress in Conocephalum conicum (Marchantiales – Bryophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in ultrastructure and induction of Heat Shock Proteins 70 have been studied in Conocephalum conicum (Marchantiales) collected in different urban and country sites in Italy. These results were compared to the effects in vitro of exposition to different heavy metals for several days. At urban sites, cellular ultrastructure was modified, and heavy metals could be observed accumulating in cell walls. Simultaneously, a strong increment in Hsp70 was detected, compared with results observed on control specimens. When C. conicum was exposed to heavy metals in vitro, comparable effects as in polluted sites were observed: Cd and Pb accumulated mostly within parenchyma and, within cells, were absorbed to cell walls or concentrated in vacuoles. Moreover, severe alterations were observed in organelles. Concomitantly, a progressive accumulation of Hsp70 was detected following heavy metals exposition. These effects are discussed in order to describe the dose and time-dependent response to heavy metal stress in C. conicum. -- Highlights: •Pollution induces ultrastructural changes and Hsp70 induction in C. conicum. •These changes can be mimicked by in vitro exposition to heavy metals. •The heavy metal induced changes, which are potential causes of toxitolerance. •C. conicum is a heavy metals tolerant liverwort that could be used as bioindicator. -- Pollution induces ultrastructural changes and Hsp70 induction in C. conicum, that can be mimicked in vitro. This liverworth could be used as bioindicator

  15. Heavy metal pollution of man and environment - A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Normal' levels of heavy metals are disturbingly close to toxic levels. This may be a man-made or natural phenomenon. The man-made exposure to heavy metals started thousands of years ago. In some European populations in the past the lead level was orders of magnitude higher than now, where it is comparable with the prehistoric level. The former high contamination of human populations was due to intake of metals from immediate sources (utensils, drugs, etc) not to their dispersion in the environment. A dramatic decrease of lead level in man occurred recently, when the majority of the immediate sources disappeared, but when at the local (but not at the global) scale the environmental level of metals increased. The current flow of metals into the global atmosphere, similar to the pre-industrial flow, is still dominated by natural processes, such as biological methylization of metals. This leads to an enrichment of the airborne particles in metals up to several orders of magnitude above the crustal abundances. It is not the magnitude of emissions of metals into the global atmosphere that marks a new role of man in the biosphere, but the mass of anthropogenic mobilization of raw materials now reaching the geological dimensions. (author)

  16. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    15th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment (15th ICHMET) is a continuation of a series of conferences that have been held since 1975. These conferences typically draw 500-1000 participants from countries in many parts of the world. The ICHMETs are the only forum that provide an integrated perspective on research and policy initiatives on all heavy metals in a trans-disciplinary context. There is a need to understand not only the unique features and behavior of individual heavy metals but also the differences, similarities and interactions of different metals at the ecosystem, systemic and cellular levels if we are to deal with the problems of global heavy metal pollution in a sustainable manner. The presented contributions concerned problems: (1) trend tracking/analysis of heavy metals data; (2) analytical tools and techniques; (3) heavy metals in the marine environment; (4) accumulation in foods and crops; (5) soil contamination; (6) heavy metals in sediments and remediation technologies; (7) effects on human health; (8) heavy metals in the atmosphere; (9) sources, emissions and control of heavy metals; (10) phytoremediation; (11) wastewater treatment; (12) heavy metals in the historical pollution record.

  17. 大气颗粒物重金属元素分析技术研究进展%Research Progress in Analytical Technology for Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玉洁; 涂振权; 周理; 迟永杰; 罗勤

    2015-01-01

    大气颗粒物已经成为当前大气环境首要污染物,而其中重金属由于具有非降解性和滞后性,严重威胁人类生命和自然环境,已成为当前研究热点。对分析大气颗粒物中重金属元素所用原子吸收光谱法、电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法、电感耦合等离子体质谱法、荧光光谱法、中子活化法、辉光放电原子发射光谱法、微波等离子体原子发射光谱法和激光诱导击穿光谱法进行了综述,并尝试对这些技术的不足之处提出一些改进建议:连续光源原子吸收光谱法同时测定多种元素,原子发射光谱法直接测定颗粒物,高分辨率激光剥蚀电感耦合等离子质谱法测定固体样品,低散射同步加速荧光法测定大气颗粒物和 k0中子活化法测定对流层发射性元素。大气颗粒物重金属元素的时空分布差异和人类对环境空气质量要求的提高以及现代仪器科学技术的高速发展促使大气颗粒物重金属元素分析技术朝着实时、快速、检出限低、直接测定和操作简便的方向发展。%Atmospheric particles have become the primary atmospheric pollutions ,of which the heavy metals ,owing to non‐de‐gradability and hysteresis ,a serious threat to human life and natural environment ,have become a hot research issue currently . The analytical methods of heavy metals in atmospheric particles are summarized in the present review ,including atomic absorp‐tion spectrometry ,inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry ,inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry , neutron activation analysis ,fluorescence spectrometry ,glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry ,microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry ,and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy ,and some proposals are tried to make for improving the shortcomings of these technologies :continuum source Atomic absorption spectrometry for simultaneously measuring multi

  18. Research Progress in Analytical Technology for Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Particles%大气颗粒物重金属元素分析技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玉洁; 涂振权; 周理; 迟永杰; 罗勤

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric particles have become the primary atmospheric pollutions ,of which the heavy metals ,owing to non‐de‐gradability and hysteresis ,a serious threat to human life and natural environment ,have become a hot research issue currently . The analytical methods of heavy metals in atmospheric particles are summarized in the present review ,including atomic absorp‐tion spectrometry ,inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry ,inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry , neutron activation analysis ,fluorescence spectrometry ,glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry ,microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry ,and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy ,and some proposals are tried to make for improving the shortcomings of these technologies :continuum source Atomic absorption spectrometry for simultaneously measuring multi‐ele‐ments ,atomic emission spectrometry for direct determination of particulates ,high resolution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of solid samples ,low scattering synchrotron fluorescence spectrum for determination of atmospheric particulate matter and k0 neutron activation analysis for determination of radioactive elements in the troposphere . Analysis techniques of heavy metals in atmospheric particulate matter are promoted to develop toward being real‐time ,fast ,low‐detection‐limit ,direct‐measurement and simple‐operation due to the spatial and temporal distribution difference of the heavy met‐als in atmospheric particles and human requirement for improvement of ambient air quality as well as rapid development of mod‐ern instrument science and technology .%大气颗粒物已经成为当前大气环境首要污染物,而其中重金属由于具有非降解性和滞后性,严重威胁人类生命和自然环境,已成为当前研究热点。对分析大气颗粒物中重金属元素所用原子吸收光谱法、电感耦合等离子体原子发射

  19. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three year's growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-17 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 31 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals characteristic of emissions from this kind industry. The observed data for Pb, As, Cu, and Cd are all high compared with those observed in other regions of Europe with similar industries, but the concentrations in moss approach regional background levels at a distance of about 8 km from the main source area. Factor analysis of the data distinguishes two industrial components, one characterized by Pb, Cu, As, and Sb, and another one by Zn and Cd. A strong crustal component including five major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe) and an additional number of trace elements (Sc, V, Cr, Cs, Ba, REE, Th) also appears to be derived mainly from industrial sources. The mean I value in the present material is 5 times lower than the corresponding level in moss in Norway, and also consistently lower than elsewhere in Europe, a fact which evidence the endemic character of the examined area due to iodine depletion

  20. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, Neutron Activation Analysis and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R

    2002-01-01

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-17 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 31 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals characteristic of emissions from this kind industry. The observed data for Pb, As, Cu, and Cd are all high compared with those observed in other regions of Europe with similar industries, but the concentrations in moss approach regional background levels at a distance of about 8 km from the main source area. Factor analysis of the data distinguishes two industrial components, one characterized by Pb, Cu, As, and Sb, and another one by Zn and Cd...

  1. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal so

  2. Toxic heavy metals: materials cycle optimization.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, R U

    1992-01-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are in...

  3. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) contamination of vegetables in urban India: A case study in Varanasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions of heavy metals in selected vegetables through atmospheric deposition were quantified in an urban area of India. Deposition rate of Zn was recorded maximum followed by Cu, Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Zn and Cu were highest in Brassica oleracea, Cd in Abelmoschus esculentus and B. oleracea, while Pb was highest in Beta vulgaris. Heavy metal pollution index showed that B. oleracea was maximally contaminated with heavy metals followed by A. esculentus and then B. vulgaris. The results of washing showed that atmospheric deposition has contributed to the increased levels of heavy metals in vegetables. Both Cu and Cd posed health risk to local population via test vegetables consumption, whereas Pb posed the same only through B. oleracea. The study concludes that atmospheric depositions can elevate the levels of heavy metals in vegetables during marketing having potential health hazards to consumers. - Atmospheric depositions can significantly increase the heavy metal concentrations in vegetables during marketing

  4. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  5. Atmospheric levels and cytotoxicity of PAHs and heavy metals in TSP and PM 2.5 at an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W. J.; Louie, P. K. K.; Liu, W. K.; Bi, X. H.; Fu, J. M.; Wong, M. H.

    Twenty-nine air samples of total suspended particles (TSP, particles less than 30-60 μm) and thirty samples of particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) were collected at Guiyu, an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in southeast China from 16 August 2004 to 17 September 2004. The results showed that mass concentrations contained in TSP and PM 2.5 were 124±44.1 and 62.12±20.5 μg m -3, respectively. The total sum of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with TSP and PM 2.5 ranged from 40.0 to 347 and 22.7 to 263 ng m -3, respectively. Five-ring and six-ring PAHs accounted for 73% of total PAHs. The average concentration of benzo(a) pyrene was 2-6 times higher than in other Asian cities. Concentrations of Cr, Cu and Zn in PM 2.5 of Guiyu were 4-33 times higher than in other Asian countries. In general, there were significant correlations between concentrations of individual contaminants in TSP with PM 2.5 (i.e. PAHs, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn except Ni and As). The high concentrations of both PAHs and heavy metals in air of Guiyu may impose a serious environmental and health concern. Cytotoxicity of the extract of TSP and PM 2.5 of ten 24 h samples collected against human promonocytic leukemia cell line U937 (ATCC 1593.2) was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that under the same concentrations of extract, PM 2.5 cytotoxicity was 2-4 times higher than TSP.

  6. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Alehashem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are an inevitable and important part of a healthy and balanced diet. They could be contaminated by heavy metals in many ways including irrigation by sewage water and industrial effluents sewage sludge, vehicular emissions, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. In this study, we sought to determine if some vegetables (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, potatoes, onions, carrots, persian leeks, dill, spinach, coriander, parsley) grown locally in the suburban of Isfahan cit...

  7. 大型铜冶炼厂周边农田区大气重金属沉降特征研究%Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Farmland Area Around a Copper Smelter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶美娟; 周静; 梁家妮; 崔红标; 徐磊; 祝振球

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition is one of transport approaches of heavy metals. Farmland is facing heavy metal pollution from the sur-rounding industries. In this study, we selected a typical farmland area to explore the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of heavy metal deposition around a copper smelter. Between May, 2012 to April, 2013, atmospheric deposition samples(dry and wet)were collected month-ly at 8 monitoring sites. The annual deposition fluxes of heavy metals were 638.0 mg·m-2·a-1, 6.56 mg·m-2·a-1, 70.0 mg·m-2·a-1, 225.0 mg· m-2·a-1, and 22.7 mg·m-2·a-1 for Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cr, respectively. These heavy metals showed temporal variations. Zinc and Cr deposi-tions had significant monthly and seasonal variations(P﹤0.05), but Cd showed significant monthly variation only(P﹤0.05, n=96), and Pb seasonal differences only(P﹤0.05, n=32). However, no significant monthly or seasonal variations were found for Cu deposition. The annual deposition fluxes of Cu, Cd and Pb had markedly difference between monitoring sites(P﹤0.01, n=8), but not for Zn and Cr(P﹥0.05, n=8).%为探索铜冶炼厂周边农田区大气重金属沉降的时空变异特征,以冶炼厂为中心,四周等距离均匀分设8个监测点,于2012年5月至2013年4月,根据酸沉降检测技术规范,采收大气干湿沉降混合样品,利用原子吸收分光光度法分析样品中Cu、Cd、Pb、Zn、Cr含量,计算各监测点所代表区域各类重金属沉降通量。结果显示,研究区重金属Cu、Cd、Pb、Zn、Cr的年沉降通量分别为638、6.56、70.0、225、22.7 mg·m-2·a-1。五种重金属沉降量具有一定的时间变化特征,其中Cd、Zn和Cr的月际间变化显著(P﹤0.05,n=96), Pb、Zn、Cr季节间变化显著(P﹤0.05,n=32),而Cu无显著的月间或季间变化。空间上,Cu、Cd、Pb年沉降通量有极显著性差异(P﹤0.01,n=8),以铜冶炼厂西南方向的九牛

  8. Atmospheric lead and heavy metal pollution records from a Belgian peat bog spanning the last two millenia: Human impact on a regional to global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe has been continuously polluted throughout the last two millennia. During the Roman Empire, these pollutions were mainly from ore extraction and smelting across Europe. Then, during the Middle Ages and the Early times of Industrial revolution (i.e. 1750), these pollutions extended to coal burning and combustion engine. Belgian ombrotrophic peat bogs have proved an effective archive of these pollutants and provide the opportunity to reconstruct the history of atmospheric deposition in NW Europe. The results of recent and past trace metal accumulation and Pb isotopes from a one-meter peat core (in the Misten peat bog) have been derived using XRF and Nu-plasma MC-ICP-MS. Combined with 14C and 210Pb dates these data have enabled us to trace fluxes in anthropogenic pollution back to original Roman times. Several periods of well-known Pb pollution events are clearly recorded including the Early and Late Roman Empire, the Middle Ages and the second industrial revolution. Also recorded is the introduction of leaded gasoline, and more recently the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Lead isotopes in this site have also enabled us to fingerprint several regional and global sources of anthropogenic particles

  9. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  10. 大气降水重金属含量特征及来源分析%Characteristics and source analysis of heavy metals in atmospheric precipitation of Boyang Lake basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春华; 柯丽; 童乐; 周文斌

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from 8 cities and counties of Poyang Lake basin during January to December of 2010. Heavy metal ions (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Fe) in atmospheric precipitation were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer to investigate the concentration and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in precipitation of Boyang Lake basin, the contamination source of these heavy metals were also analyzed. The results indicated that the annual mean concentration of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Fe was 9. 53, 11. 32, 33. 73, 1. 55, 9. 09, 142. 65 μg/L, respectively. Pb, Cu, Cd and Cr were major influenced by human factors, the second and the tertiary industry were the main source of these contamination. Zn and Fe in atmospheric precipitation were little affected by the human being, Zn was mainly from natural source and Fe was originated from mix source.%于2010年1月至12月采集鄱阳湖流域8个县市的大气降水样品,用原子吸收分光光度计测定大气降水中溶解态Pb、Cu、Zn、Cd、Cr、Fe等重金属离子,阐述鄱阳湖流域大气降水中重金属含量及分布特征,并分析各种重金属来源.结果表明,Pb年际平均质量浓度为9.53 μg/L,Cu为11.32 μg/L,Zn为33.73 μg/L,Cd为1.55 μg/L,Cr为9.09 μg/L,Fe为142.65 μg/L.Pb、Cu、Cd、Cr受人为因素影响较大,主要来源于第二产业和第三产业,Zn和Fe受人类影响较小,Zn主要来源为天然源,Fe来源于混合源.

  11. Tree rings as monitors of heavy metal air pollution histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of five species of trees as historical monitors of heavy metal air pollution has been investigated. The study was carried out at a site 2 km from an industrial complex including several metal refineries. Using neutron activation, heavy metal concentrations were measured in the xylem as a function of the year of wood formation. The manganese concentrations were by far the highest. In maple trees the high natural level of this essential trace element masked any increases due to pollution. In ash and cedar increased Mn concentrations were found, relative to control trees, but there is evidence for radial translocation. In hemlock the time variations of the average Mn concentrations followed the production rates of the refineries but large variations among individual trees were observed. Hemlock was estimated to accumulate up to 0.3% of the atmospheric Mn input. (author) 13 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Heavy metal speciation in the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Gillian M; Song, Qi Jun

    2002-04-01

    Composting is one of the more efficient and environment friendly methods of solid waste disposal and has many advantages when compared with landfill disposal on which the UK and Ireland are currently heavily dependent. Composting is a very complicated process involving intensive microbial activity and the detailed mechanisms of the process have yet to be fully understood. Metal speciation information can provide an insight into the metal-microbial interaction and would help in the evaluation of the quality of compost. This would facilitate the exploitation of composts in remediation of heavy metal contaminated land. In this work a systematic approach to metal speciation in compost has been taken by applying the three-step method for operationally defined metal speciation of soils and sediments, developed by the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme to monitor the change in metal speciation with time (up to 106 days) for four different waste composting processes. The results have shown that in general metals become less available for the first extraction step as the composting process proceeds. This implies that composting tends to redistribute the metals from more labile forms to more fixed forms which may explain why the application of composts could be useful for with heavy metal contaminated land. There are exceptions to this trend and in some cases, certain metals appear to behave differently depending on the source of the compost. PMID:11993774

  13. Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu

    2007-01-01

    Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FrIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82 mmol/g, 1.794 mmol/g and 0.964 mmol/g, respectively. The results proved its potential application to remove of the heavy metal.

  14. Size distribution, characteristics and sources of heavy metals in haze episode in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe

    2014-01-01

    Size segragated samples were collected during high polluted winter haze days in 2006 in Beijing, China. Twenty nine elements and 9 water soluble ions were determined. Heavy metals of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, V and Cd were deeply studied considering their toxic effect on human being. Among these heavy metals, the levels of Mn, As and Cd exceeded the reference values of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-2012) and guidelines of World Health Organization. By estimation, high percentage of atmospheric heavy metals in PM2.5 indicates it is an effective way to control atmospheric heavy metals by PM2.5 controlling. Pb, Cd, and Zn show mostly in accumulation mode, V, Mn and Cu exist mostly in both coarse and accumulation modes, and Ni and Cr exist in all of the three modes. Considering the health effect, the breakthrough rates of atmospheric heavy metals into pulmonary alveoli are: Pb (62.1%) > As (58.1%) > Cd (57.9%) > Zn (57.7%) > Cu (55.8%) > Ni (53.5%) > Cr (52.2%) > Mn (49.2%) > V (43.5%). Positive matrix factorization method was applied for source apportionment of studied heavy metals combined with some marker elements and ions such as K, As, SO4(2-) etc., and four factors (dust, vehicle, aged and transportation, unknown) are identified and the size distribution contribution of them to atmospheric heavy metals are discussed. PMID:24649706

  15. Determination of selected heavy metals in air samples from the northern part of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; El-Rjoob, Abdul-Wahab O; Harb, Mohammed K

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the atmospheric concentrations of selected heavy metals including lead (Pb), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) were measured for two different sampling sites (urban and rural) in the northern part of Jordan (Irbid city). Samples were collected according to a certain schedule for 1 year. High volume air samplers and glass fiber filters were used to collect the samples. Collected samples were digested using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and analytical grade hydrochloric acid, and analyzed to evaluate the levels of heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Six heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Zn) were measured in all samples; the concentrations of Cd and Co were not detected in Irbid atmosphere by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results were used to determine the levels of heavy metal pollutants in air, possible sources, and to compare the levels of selected heavy metals in the two studied sites. Aerosols from the rural site have lower concentrations for all the metals compared to those from the urban site. The daily and monthly variations of the elements were investigated. All heavy metals in urban and rural sites reached maximum concentrations in June, July, and August. This is consistent with the increased activities leading to particulate matter emission during the summer period. The enrichment factors with respect to earth crust and correlation coefficients of heavy metals were investigated to predict the possible sources of heavy metals in air. PMID:19083108

  16. Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla pinnata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, A.; Jana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1,2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/ each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L/sup -1/) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of 5 mg L/sup -1/. The harmful effects of the metals were, in general, found by the treatments in the order: Cd > Hg > Cu > As > Pb > Cr. There was no significant change in these parameters at 1 mg L/sup -1/ of the metals over control. Thus Azolla pinnata shows tolerance to the heavy metals tested up to 1 mg L/sup -1/ each.

  17. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  18. A Review of Heavy Metals Immunoassay Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Lv; Qiong Jiang; Cheng Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of heavy metals in soil has been a significant problem, which resulted in food pollution and diseases through bioaccumulation. Traditional methods utilized to determined content of metal ions are time-cost, expensive and laboratorial. Since the introduction of antibody against In-EDTA, immunoassay has been developing for several decades. It filled in the blank of determination in situ with lower price and a short period. In this study, we mainly presented the research process of...

  19. Heavy metal mining using microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Douglas E

    2002-01-01

    The use of acidiphilic, chemolithotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microbes in processes to recover metals from certain types of copper, uranium, and gold-bearing minerals or mineral concentrates is now well established. During these processes insoluble metal sulfides are oxidized to soluble metal sulfates. Mineral decomposition is believed to be mostly due to chemical attack by ferric iron, with the main role of the microorganisms being to reoxidize the resultant ferrous iron back to ferric iron. Currently operating industrial biomining processes have used bacteria that grow optimally from ambient to 50 degrees C, but thermophilic microbes have been isolated that have the potential to enable mineral biooxidation to be carried out at temperatures of 80 degrees C or higher. The development of higher-temperature processes will extend the variety of minerals that can be commercially processed. PMID:12142493

  20. Emission factors for heavy metals from diesel and petrol used in European vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Appelman, W.A.J.; Verheul, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Heavy metals constitute an important group of persistent toxic pollutants occurring in ambient air and other media. One of the suspected sources of these metals in the atmosphere is combustion of transport fuels in road vehicles. However estimates of the emissions of these metals from road

  1. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  2. Superoxide dismutases of heavy metal resistant streptomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Astrid; Schmidt, André; Haferburg, Götz; Kothe, Erika

    2007-02-01

    Heavy metal tolerant and resistant strains of streptomycetes isolated from a former uranium mining site were screened for their superoxide dismutase expression. From the strains tolerating high concentrations of different heavy metals, one was selected for its tolerance of concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe). This strain, Streptomyces acidiscabies E13, was chosen for the purpose of superoxide dismutase analysis. Gel electrophoresis and activity staining revealed only one each of a nickel (NiSOD) and an iron (FeZnSOD) containing superoxide dismutase as shown by differential enzymatic repression studies. The gene for nickel containing superoxide dismutase, sodN, was cloned and sequenced from this strain. The genomic sequence shows 92.7% nucleotide identity and 96.1% amino acid identity to sodN of S. coelicolor. Expression can be activated by nickel as well as other heavy metals and active enzyme is produced in media lacking nickel but containing copper, iron or zinc. Thus, the selected strain is well suited for further characterization of the enzyme encoded by sodN. PMID:17304620

  3. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil; Villumsen, Arne

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  4. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water, soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  5. Pollution status of Pakistan: a retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib; Iqbal, Farhat; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Zahid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health. PMID:25276818

  6. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness. Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  7. Polymers contamination by heavy metal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanić Saša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of important synthetic (surface unmodified polymers by various heavy metal compounds (such as copper, manganese and lead in aqueous medium was investigated in this study. The influence of the pH of the aqueous medium, temperature and metal type on contamination was investigated during a 10 day period. It was found that increasing pH contributed to higher polymer contamination (at higher pH 100 times for copper and up to 400 times for lead, as well as contact with easily penetrable substances. Increasing temperature decreased contamination by the metal compound for PELD and PET which was not the case for PEHD and PR.

  8. A Review of Heavy Metals Immunoassay Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Lv

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of heavy metals in soil has been a significant problem, which resulted in food pollution and diseases through bioaccumulation. Traditional methods utilized to determined content of metal ions are time-cost, expensive and laboratorial. Since the introduction of antibody against In-EDTA, immunoassay has been developing for several decades. It filled in the blank of determination in situ with lower price and a short period. In this study, we mainly presented the research process of monoclonal antibody special binding to metal-ligand and the immunoassay utilized in detection of food and environment.

  9. A new possible biological interface model useful to narrate the artificial negative events by the radioactive contaminations and heavy-metals pollution of the soil and the atmosphere in different areas of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of environmental negative effects are associated to the pollution and radioactive contaminations of the soil and the atmosphere. Actually the C.I.S.A.M. (Interforces Centre for Studies and Military Applications) receives increasing commitments to control and to knowledge about the risks of the population and soldiers employed as stabilization or keeping peace force in large areas of different territories of Europe and other sites of the Planet. The aim of this work is focused to compare the contents of radionuclides on specific natural interfaces in different areas as residual radioactive contamination in addition to the other possible heavy-metals pollution. We used barks, lichens and symbiontic microalgae as interfaces with the atmospheric events of the Chernobyl, Balkan, and the Italian areas. The qualitative analysis of these biological matters showed the constant presence of Radiocesium, along with other radionuclides, of which we report the concentrations. Even if these observations are not completely new, nevertheless we can suppose that this approach could be a new possible interface model useful to narrate the sequence of the the artificial negative events due to the human activities and contemporarely an indirect valuation of different risks pointed to the protection of the exposed population

  10. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g/kg for......Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system is...

  11. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-17 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A total of 31 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals characteristic of emissions from this kind of industry. The observed data for Pb, As, Cu, and Cd are all high compared with those observed in other regions of Europe with similar industries, but the concentrations in moss approach regional background levels at a distance of about 8 km from the main source area. Factor analysis of the data distinguishes two industrial components, one characterized by Pb, Cu, As, and Sb, and another one by Zn and Cd. A strong crustal component including five major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe) and an additional number of trace elements (Sc, V, Cr, Cs, Ba, REE, Th) also appears to be derived mainly from industrial sources. The mean I value in the present material is 5 times lower than the corresponding level in moss in Norway, and also consistently lower than elsewhere in Europe, a fact which evidences the endemic character of the examined area due to iodine depletion. (author)

  12. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel.

  13. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Maltese Potable Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Bugeja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in tap water samples of forty localities from around the Maltese Islands together with their corresponding service supply reservoirs. The heavy metal concentrations obtained indicated that concentrations of the elements were generally below the maximum allowed concentration established by the Maltese legislation. In terms of the Maltese and EU water quality regulations, 17.5% of the localities sampled yielded water that failed the acceptance criteria for a single metal in drinking water. Higher concentrations of some metals were observed in samples obtained at the end of the distribution network, when compared to the concentrations at the source. The observed changes in metal concentrations between the localities’ samples and the corresponding supply reservoirs were significant. The higher metal concentrations obtained in the samples from the localities can be attributed to leaching in the distribution network.

  14. Heavy metal tolerance in metal hyperaccumulator plant, Salvinia natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, B; Srivastava, S

    2013-06-01

    Metal tolerance capacity of Salvinia natans, a metal hyperaccumulator, was evaluated. Plants were exposed to 10, 30 and 50 mg L⁻¹ of Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Plant biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield, photochemical quenching, electron transport rate and elemental (%C, H and N) constitution remained unaffected in Salvinia exposed to 30 mg L⁻¹ of heavy metals, except for Cu and Zn exposed plants, where significant reductions were noted in some of the measured parameters. However, a significant decline was noted in most of the measured parameters in plants exposed to 50 mg L⁻¹ of metal concentration. Results suggest that Salvinia has fairly high levels of tolerance to all the metals tested, but the level of tolerance varied from metal to metal. PMID:23553503

  15. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  16. ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN BIOTA OF VYRLYTSA LAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Bilyk, Tetiana; Tsurkan, Katerina; Koren, Lyudmila

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The main task was to investigate the pollution by heavy metals of biota of Vyrlytsa Lake. Thecontents of movable forms of heavy metals in aquatic plants, fish and snails was determined by atomicabsorbtion method and were made the conclusions about general state of the water object.Keywords: heavy metals, accumulation, biota, pollution, atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses. The...... stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  19. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN; Oluwole FALEYE; Eki Tina AISIEN

    2010-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especia...

  20. Polymers contamination by heavy metal compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanić Saša; Stoiljković Dragoslav M.; Popović Ivanka G.

    2002-01-01

    The contamination of important synthetic (surface unmodified) polymers by various heavy metal compounds (such as copper, manganese and lead) in aqueous medium was investigated in this study. The influence of the pH of the aqueous medium, temperature and metal type on contamination was investigated during a 10 day period. It was found that increasing pH contributed to higher polymer contamination (at higher pH 100 times for copper and up to 400 times for lead), as well as contact with easily p...

  1. Heavy metal burden of the Pinnau river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water phase and sediment of the Pinnau river were investigated for their heavy-metal pollution. Tests for the elements chromium, mercury, nickel, arsenic, lead, copper, cadmium, zinc and iron were carried through with sediment samples in 1984 and 1989 and with water samples in 1987 and 1989. Whereas no significant changes in the levels of these metals were found in the water phase during the two-year period of invetigation, slightly reduced levels of zinc, cadmium and mercury were established in the sediment in 1989 as compared to 1984. (orig.)

  2. Phytoremediation of heavy metal from contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Kališová, Ivana; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Praha : ÚOCHB AV ČR, 2003 - (Vaněk, T.; Schwitzguébel, J.), s. 65 ISBN 80-86241-19-X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 837.10; GA AV ČR IBS4055014; GA AV ČR IAA6055902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : heavy metals * phytoremediation * corn Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  3. Evaluation of heavy metal complex phytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Vita Vasilyevna Datsenko; Nataliya Lvovna Khimenko

    2016-01-01

    The experimental data dealing with the effect of heavy metals contained in the technogenic contaminated soils on plant objects under controlled conditions was discussed. The aim of this work is to define the quantitative indicators of copper and zinc potential phytotoxicity, namely germination energy, simultaneous germination and duration of the test plants. It was found that the activity of the test plant growth is linked with copper and zinc complex action. Joint effect of copper and zinc i...

  4. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Brizio P.; Benedetto A.; Squadrone S.; Tarasco R.; Gavinelli S.; Pellegrino M.; Abete M. C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italia...

  5. Geogenic heavy metal concentrations in German soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the area of the German Federal Republic, 6,300 soil samples of 526 soil profiles were examined for the concentrations of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, mercury, antimony, arsenic and lithium. The soil profiles were selected so that the prevailing loose and solid rock floors of the German Federal Republic were represented. The analysis data of these samples formed the basis for the calculation of average geogenic heavy metal concentrations in the soils of the German Federal Republic. (orig.)

  6. Determination of heavy metals in fish scales

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Nováková; Markéta Holá; Jozef Kaiser; Jiří Kalvoda; Viktor Kanický*

    2010-01-01

    The outcomes from measurements of amount of selected elements in the fish scales of common carp are presented. Concentrations in the scales were identified and differences between storage of heavy metals in exposed and covered part of scale were studied. The spatial distribution of elements on the fish scale´s surface layer was measured by Laser Ablation–Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS). The average amount of elements in the dissolved scal...

  7. Monitoring Technology and Methods of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Particulate Matter, China%中国大气颗粒物中重金属监测技术与方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霖琳; 薛荔栋; 滕恩江; 吕怡兵; 王业耀

    2015-01-01

    大气颗粒物中的重金属极易富集在细颗粒物中,并对人体带来危害。文章对中国大气颗粒物中重金属的监测技术方法进行梳理和汇总,从点位布设、样品采集、样品前处理、分析测试以及全过程的质量保证和质量控制等方面。探讨和分析颗粒物监测的各个环节应遵循的技术规范和相关方法。大气颗粒物的采样主要包括环境空气样品和无组织排放样品两大类,前处理方法包括全消解和酸浸提,而全消解中又包括酸消解法和碱熔法,消解方式包括电热板、马弗炉、高压密闭消解罐、微波消解等。测试方法主要包括分光光度法、X射线荧光光谱法(XRF)、原子吸收分光光度法(AAS)、原子荧光光谱法(AFS)、电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法(ICP-AES)、电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)等,根据不同的监测需求和仪器设备水平,选择不同的标准测试方法作为依据。在颗粒物重金属监测的全过程中,从布点、试剂空白、滤膜/滤筒空白的控制,到采样、前处理、实验室分析等各个环节,均需要考虑可能影响分析准确度的因素,建立起与监测方法同步的全程序质量保证和控制措施。完善大气颗粒物中重金属监测技术与方法体系,可为大气环境监测和管理部门的决策提供科学依据和技术支持,为源解析等颗粒物组分分析相关工作提供方法依据。%Heavy metals in atmospheric particle matters were easily enriched in PM2.5, and brought harm to human. In this paper, the Chinese monitoring technology and methods of heavy metals in ambient air particulate matters was collected sort and aggregated. All of the monitoring aspects were introduced such as sampling points laid, sample collection, sample pretreatment, sample analysis and quality assurance and quality control throughout the whole process. The technical specifications and

  8. Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal capacity of toxic heavy metals by the reused eggshell was studied. As a pretreatment process for the preparation of reused material from waste eggshell, calcination was performed in the furnace at 800℃ for 2 h after crushing the dried waste eggshell. Calcination behavior, qualitative and quantitative elemental information, mineral type and surface characteristics before and after calcination of eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. After calcination, the major inorganic composition was identified as Ca (lime, 99.63%) and K, P and Sr were identified as minor components. When calcined eggshell was applied in the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals, a complete removal of Cd as well as above 99% removal of Cr was observed after 10 min. Although the natural eggshell had some removal capacity of Cd and Cr, a complete removal was not accomplished even after 60 min due to quite slower removal rate. However, in contrast to Cd and Cr, an efficient removal of Pb was observed with the natural eggshell rather than the calcined eggshell. From the application of the calcined eggshell in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater, the calcined eggshell showed a promising removal capacity of heavy metal ions as well as had a good neutralization capacity in the treatment of strong acidic wastewater.

  9. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  10. Heavy metal emissions for Danish road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, M.; Slentoe, E.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents new heavy metal emission factors for cars, vans, trucks, buses, mopeds and motorcycles for each of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission components covered are Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn), all of them relevant for emission reporting to the UNECE CLRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Convention on Long Range Transboundary Pollutants) convention. The report also presents a new Danish inventory for the year 2007. The following emissions in total TSP (in brackets) are calculated for the year 2007: As (8 kg), Cd (48 kg), Cr (197 kg), Cu (51 779 kg), Hg (28 kg), Ni (158 kg), Pb (6 989 kg), Se (33 kg) and Zn (28 556 kg). Per vehicle type cars are the most important source of emission for all heavy metal species, followed by vans, trucks, buses and 2-wheelers. By using the detailed emission factors and inventory calculation methods established in the present project, estimates of heavy metal emissions can be made for other years than 2007. (author)

  11. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley; Uso de briofitas como indicadores atmosfericos de metales pesados en la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-07-01

    is the species that presents a major concentration in most of the studied metals. The enrichment factor indicates that Cu, Zn and Pb present an anthropogenic origin mainly and that the sites of Reforma, Alameda and Tollocan could represent a risk for the population that inhabits or works inside these areas due to the heavy metals concentration in the particulate matter. (Author)

  12. Experience of excess heavy metal content in drinking water for human organizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г.І. Архіпова

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available  Heavy metals are toxic to a widespread of pollutants. Heavy metals are widely used in various industrial enterprises, and, despite the penetrating clearing actions, compounds of heavy metals in industrial waste water. A considerable number of these compounds into the water through the atmosphere. The environmental risk of heavy metals is that they are actively absorbed by phytoplankton and then transferred to humans by food chain. Into two groups of metals, different in their ecological significance. The first group of elements, maximum allowable concentration (MAC are close to their background values in natural water. This, for example, iron, manganese, strontium. The second group includes metals (copper, lead, zinc, which far exceed the MCL real natural background values. For the normal functioning of the human body requires to achieve a balanced exchange of microelements, the violation of which leads to serious diseases and poisonings.

  13. The Confluence of Heavy Metal Biooxidation and Heavy Metal Resistance: Implications for Bioleaching by Extreme Thermoacidophiles

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett Wheaton; James Counts; Arpan Mukherjee; Jessica Kruh; Robert Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Extreme thermoacidophiles (Topt > 65 °C, pHopt < 3.5) inhabit unique environments fraught with challenges, including extremely high temperatures, low pH, as well as high levels of soluble metal species. In fact, certain members of this group thrive by metabolizing heavy metals, creating a dynamic equilibrium between biooxidation to meet bioenergetic needs and mechanisms for tolerating and resisting the toxic effects of solubilized metals. Extremely thermoacidophilic archaea dominate bio...

  14. Heavy metals determinations in dry and wet meteoric deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain is now widely studied by analyzing the parameters that characterize it. As the latest researches demonstrate, it is possible to further understanding of meteoric deposition (i.e. bulk, wet and dry) by the metering of such micropollutants as heavy metals. These are released into the atmosphere as by-products of household heating fuels and industrial wastes. This paper seeks to provide an assessment of certain heavy metals present in meteoric samples and link their presence to the actual state of the environment in which they were detected. Samples of bulk and wet depositions were collected weekly and those of dry deposition monthly so as to achieve a uniform and representative quantity of the latter for subsequent determination. Both the wet and dry samples were collected from the center and outskirts of a large urban community, whereas only wet samples were also collected in the vicinity of a power plant. The wet samples were treated with HNO3 up to pH 1.8 and analyzed by atomic absorption in a Perkin-Elmer 4000 graphite furnace. The elements analyzed were Ni, V, Cd, As, Zn, Cr, Se, Pb. The dry samples were homogenized in an agate mortar and analyzed by high resolution neutron activation gamma spectrometry. Radiation time and flow of the Triga Mark II reactor varied depending on isotope, i.e. whether long, medium or short life. The heavy metals analyzed were Fe, Ni, V, Zn, Cr, Co, As, Sb and some others

  15. Sediment, water pollution indicators for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity of an aquatic system requires consideration of its dynamics: spatial and temporal variations of physical, chemical and biological. Heavy metals have peculiar behavior in the aquatic system and may not be available in the waters, but on sediments.The sub-basin of the Sarandi stream is responsible for the contamination of Pampulha Lake. The Instituto Mineiro das Águas – IGAM - uses tool for monitoring the quality of surface water for developing strategies for conservation, restoration and rational use of water resources. So through the indices: IQA ( Indice de qualidade de águas) Index of water quality, and TC- toxic contamination, reduces conflicts, implements the disciplining of the environmental economy.This study determined the monitoring of sediment and water of Sarandi Stream, so in the samples collected during dry and rainy seasons (2007- 2008) were analyzed heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb) and physical-chemical factors (conductivity, solids dissolved, temperature, turbidity). This allowed the determination of Hackanson factors of contamination and Muller Index geoaccumulation, indicating very high contamination in sediments regarding the elements Cr, Cu, and Cd, and high contamination for Pb, Zn, and Mn. The comparison with the indices of water quality- IQA (IGAM - 2006, 2007 and 2008), combined with exploratory data analysis and graphs of correlation between the variables indicated favorable conditions for metals contamination on water and sediment for these metals, besides allowing the identification of its source

  16. Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Aibuedefe AISIEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soil by toxic heavy metals. This study investigated the phytoremediation potential of water hyacinth, for the removal of cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Water hyacinths were cultured in bore-hole water, supplemented with 5mg/l of Zn and Pb and 1mg/l of Cd at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 8.5. The plants were separately harvested each week for six weeks. The results showed that removal of these metals from solution was fast especially in the first two weeks, after which it became gradual till saturation point was reached. The accumulation of Cd and Zn in leaves and roots increased with increase in pH. The highest accumulation was in the roots with metal concentration of 4870mg/kg, 4150mg/kg and 710mg/kg for Zn, Pb and Cd respectively at pH 8.5. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF for Zn, Pb and Cd were 1674, 1531 and 1479 respectively, suggesting that water hyacinth was good accumulator of Zn, Pb and Cd, and could be used to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd.

  17. Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium...) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization

  18. Magnetotactic bacteria. Promising biosorbents for heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong [Sichuan Agricultural Univ., Chengdu (China). Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. (orig.)

  19. Magnetotactic bacteria: promising biosorbents for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. PMID:22763846

  20. Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in rural and urban areas of Romania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique employing nuclear and related analytical techniques and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents data for 39 elements in moss samples collected in the Transylvanian Plateau of Romania. The analyses were carried out by ENAA with the exception of Cu and Pb which were determined by AAS. Extremely high values are observed for elements such as Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Sb in parts of this territory affected by local metal industries. The levels are among the highest observed in the world, and could be partly responsible for the unfortunate health situation in some of these areas. (author)

  1. Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souch, C.J.; Filippelli, G.M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

  2. Development of a fluorescence heavy metal sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work as part of the European project S.O.F.I.E. (spectroscopy using optical fibres In the marine environment; MAS3-CT97-0157) describes the development of a fluorescence based heavy metal sensor. The target analytes Cadmium, Copper, Mercury and Lead were detected in seawater, either separately or as the total selection of the metals above. Two different approaches of heavy metal detection have been investigated, one by immobilising a dye into a sol-gel matrix, the second one using the ion-pair technique in PVC. The suitability of different dyes to form a metal dye complex in solution has been investigated and these have been immobilized into a sol-gel matrix. Although a signal of an immobilized metal-dye complex into sol-gel could be seen, it was impossible to achieve a recognition of analytes diffusing through the membrane, while significant leaching of the dye was observed. An extensive study on varying the sol-gel process was undertaken. The covalent binding of 5-amino-8-hydroxy quinoline to a sol-gel precursor showed sensitivity to a high concentration of cadmium. Due to the basic catalysed sol-gel used, the polymerization was too fast in order to achieve reproducible sol-gel films, which resulted in varying sensitivities. The second approach made use of the ion-pair technique. A metal ion selective ionophore, a pH indicator and a lipophilic anionic site were immobilized in plasticised poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) matrix. The molar ratio of these compounds was found to be critical in terms of sensitivity and has been optimised in this work. To avoid leaching of any membrane component and thus to achieve a long lifetime of the sensor, highly hydrophobic, large compounds were used for the ion recognition layer. Employing this ion-pair technique resulted in a lead-sensor sensitive to the ppm concentration range with a response time of 45 minutes (while the reversible reaction took 15 hours). Finally, the achieved optode was tested together with those of the

  3. Detoxification of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea Damian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the heavy metals in the soils from the strong affected zones because of the mining and metallurgical industry, Baia Mare and Zlatna (Romania, is significant due to the high values of the contents and association of the four metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd. The efficacy of the natural zeolites in heavy metals immobilization from the studied soils was evaluated in experiments in which the plant growth was observed. Heavy metals contaminated soils have been treated with a mixture of organic substance and zeolites (organo – zeolitic material. Zeolitic tuffs were roll-crushed and ground in small grains with dimensions between 0.05 and 2.0 mm. Clinoptilolite is the predominant zeolite and appears as compact masses of tabular and prismatic micron – sized crystals that are evident in SEM images. In the mixture, the polluted soil represents 83% and the organo – zeolitic material represents 17%. The soils used in the experiment are excessive contaminated with Pb (40375-1054ppm in association with Zn (1175-490ppm, Cd (24.2-13.2ppm and Cu (409.5-37.6ppm in Baia Mare zone and with Cu (7000-360ppm in association with Zn (3100-1900ppm, Cd (80-40ppm and Pb (2000-50ppm in Zlatna zone. The original soil and the treated soil have been planted with Lolium perenne. The growth of the plants has demonstrated that the soil treated with organo–zeolitic material allows the growth of vegetation much faster than the original soil. These results show that growth of the plants was possible because the organo–zeolitic material mixed with the soil provides the substances necessary for the plants to develop (ammonium, humus, potassium, calcium. At the same time, heavy metals that inhibit the plant development are blocked through the cationic exchange mechanism that makes them enter the zeolites structure and they no longer directly have access to the plant roots.

  4. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Veeken, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Biowaste is referred to as an organic waste stream but surprisingly it was found that a large part of biowaste is composed of inorganic material, i.e. sand, silt and clay minerals. The i...

  5. Vitrification of MSWI Fly Ash by Thermal Plasma Melting and Fate of Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪国华; 赵鹏; 江贻满; 孟月东

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash with high basicity (about 1.68) was vitrified in a thermal plasma melting furnace system. Through the thermal plasma treatment, the vitrified product (slag) with amorphous dark glassy structure was obtained, and the leachability of hazardous metals in slag was significantly reduced. Meanwhile, it was found that the cooling rate affects significantly the immobility of heavy metals in slag. The mass distribution of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, As, Hg) was investigated in residual products (slag, secondary residues and flue gas), in order to analyze the behavior of heavy metals in thermal plasma atmosphere. Heavy metal species with low boiling points accounting for the major fraction of their input-mass were adsorbed in secondary residues by pollution abatement devices, while those with high boiling points tended to be encapsulated in slag.

  6. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs

  7. The Confluence of Heavy Metal Biooxidation and Heavy Metal Resistance: Implications for Bioleaching by Extreme Thermoacidophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Wheaton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme thermoacidophiles (Topt > 65 °C, pHopt < 3.5 inhabit unique environments fraught with challenges, including extremely high temperatures, low pH, as well as high levels of soluble metal species. In fact, certain members of this group thrive by metabolizing heavy metals, creating a dynamic equilibrium between biooxidation to meet bioenergetic needs and mechanisms for tolerating and resisting the toxic effects of solubilized metals. Extremely thermoacidophilic archaea dominate bioleaching operations at elevated temperatures and have been considered for processing certain mineral types (e.g., chalcopyrite, some of which are recalcitrant to their mesophilic counterparts. A key issue to consider, in addition to temperature and pH, is the extent to which solid phase heavy metals are solubilized and the concomitant impact of these mobilized metals on the microorganism’s growth physiology. Here, extreme thermoacidophiles are examined from the perspectives of biodiversity, heavy metal biooxidation, metal resistance mechanisms, microbe-solid interactions, and application of these archaea in biomining operations.

  8. Identification of heavy metals sources in the Mexico city atmosphere, using the proton induced x-ray analytical technique and multifactorial statistics techniques; Identificacion de fuentes de metales pesados en la atmosfera de la Ciudad de Mexico, usando la tecnica de analisis por induccion de rayos X con proton y tecnicas estadisticas multifactoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, B. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of this work are: to identify the heavy metals present in the air, and its concentrations. To know the behavior from the polluting chemical elements to the long of an annual cycle corresponding to 1990, based on the concentrations of the same ones, obtained through the PIXE technique. To identify the suitable statistical methods to use to the data of metals concentration in form of total suspended particle (PST), found in this investigation. To relate the concentrations and the meteorological parameters considered to be able to suggest the possible pollution sources. In function of the obtained results, to serve as base to the decisions making and measures control that are planned by diverse institutions focused to the problem of the atmospheric pollution in the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM). (Author)

  9. Heavy metal deposition and soil pollution along two major rural highways

    OpenAIRE

    LEGRET, M; Pagotto, C.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic and maintenance induce a chronic heavy metal pollution in runoff water and roadside soil. A portion of these pollutants could be dispersed into the atmosphere or deposited onto soils as a result of wind dispersion. The atmospheric deposition and quality of roadside soil have been investigated alongside two major rural highways. Metal deposition decreases rapidly and seems to reach the background level at a distance of less than 25 m. The deposition of zinc was found to be the mos...

  10. Heavy Metal Contents of Lake Sapanca

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇIN, Nevin; SEVİNÇ, Vahdettin

    2001-01-01

    The heavy metal pollution of Lake Sapanca located in the Marmara region (Turkey), was investigated over time. The lake is the drinking water source of the city of Adapazarı and its environs. The D-80 (TEM) motorway passes about 5 km along the lake's zero point in the Sapanca district. The motorway's wastewater drainages have been connected to the lake without having been subjected to any wastewater treatment. The motorway was opened to service in October 1990. Analyses w...

  11. Evaluation of heavy metal complex phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Vasilyevna Datsenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data dealing with the effect of heavy metals contained in the technogenic contaminated soils on plant objects under controlled conditions was discussed. The aim of this work is to define the quantitative indicators of copper and zinc potential phytotoxicity, namely germination energy, simultaneous germination and duration of the test plants. It was found that the activity of the test plant growth is linked with copper and zinc complex action. Joint effect of copper and zinc is manifested both in inhibition of lettuce growth and determined, above all, by the nature contamination, soil properties and biological specificity of the test plants.

  12. Geneticaly modified flax for heavy metal phytoremediation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Najmanová, J.; Kotrba, P.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, Martina

    Praha : VŠCHT, 2007 - (Macková, M.; Macek, T.; Demnerová, K.; Pazlar, V.; Nováková, M.), s. 167-168 ISBN 978-80-7080-026-3. [Symposium on Biosorption and Bioremediation /4./. Praha (CZ), 26.08.2007-30.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phytoremediation * heavy metal s * glutathione * flax * transformation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  13. Determination of heavy metals in fish scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Nováková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes from measurements of amount of selected elements in the fish scales of common carp are presented. Concentrations in the scales were identified and differences between storage of heavy metals in exposed and covered part of scale were studied. The spatial distribution of elements on the fish scale´s surface layer was measured by Laser Ablation–Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS. The average amount of elements in the dissolved scales was quantified by ICP–MS. The fine structure of fish scales was visualized by phase–contrast Synchrotron radiation (SR microradiography.

  14. Heavy metal utilization by locally available plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pallewad, Sushma; Mali, R P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper deals with removal of heavy metal namely Copper from polluted water using plant species oscimum and mint. The experiment was divided into 2 groups. Group one as control and group II treated as experimental which received 4ppm of Copper sulphate. In the experimental plants were exposed to 4ppm Cu  for 24 and 48 hrs. And the amount of Cu depleted from water was analyzed. From the experiment it is evident that the Cu from water was utilized by the plants was more during 48 hrs ...

  15. Heavy metal pollution in Tianjin Bohai Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Wei; QIN Yanwen; ZHENG Binghui; ZHANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    The contamination levels and distribution characters of heavy metals in coastal waters and sediments from Tianjin Bohai Bay, China were examined, and it was found that the main heavy metal pollutants in the coastal waters of the bay were Pb and Zn. High levels of Pb and Zn appeared especially near the estuary, indicating that river discharge was the main pollution source. Moreover, atmospheric deposition resulted in Pb contamination in the middle of the embayment. Analysis of data for the period 1987-2004 indicated that Pb pollution in coastal waters of Bohai Bay originated primarily from river discharge before 2001. Pb levels did not decrease after 2001 when annual runoff levels declined; indicating that Pb pollution by atmospheric deposition had increased due to the use of leaded petrol in motorcars. Pb, Zn and Cd were the dominant polluting elements in surficial sediments from Tianjin Bohai Bay, with levels in excess of the corresponding upper limits of environmental background values. Higher concentrations of polluting elements were found in tidal sediments near water bodies such as Qikou and Dagu estuaries.

  16. Trace metal determination in total atmospheric deposition in rural and urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Azimi, Sam; Ludwig, Alexandre; Thevenot, Daniel,; Colin, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    International audience The wet, dry and total atmospheric depositions of some metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Na, Pb and Zn) were sampled at two sites and atmospheric fallout fluxes were determined for these locations. This work, led by two different research groups, allowed to reach two main goals: to define a simple analytical procedure to secure accurate shipboard sampling and analysis of atmospheric deposition, and to assess anthropogenic impacts of heavy metals to the environment. The fir...

  17. Heavy metal decontamination of sludges and soils. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project deals with decontamination technology for contaminated soil and sediments. A pilot plant for the decontamination of soil contaminated with heavy metals has been erected and is operated. The process is arranged in two steps: - heavy metal contaminated solid is decontaminted with acidic extraction. - the heavy metals are separated in a recyclable formation from the process solution you gain in the first process step. Heavy metal contaminated soil, heavy metal contaminated sediments (habour sediments) as well as residue from a soil regeneration plant have been successfully decontaminated in the pilot plan. An adaption of the process is necessary for various materials. High rates of mobilisation of heavy metals (e.g. lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc) were obtained, especially with soil which contains less organic matter. (orig.). 54 figs., 30 tabs., 45 refs

  18. Heavy metals occurrence in Italian food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant increase in food supplements consumption has been observed, maybe in the belief that they couldn’t be dangerous for consumers health, even if they don’t achieved medical effects. However, environmental pollution can cause heavy metals contamination that could exceed maximum levels established by European legislation. Aim of this work was to evaluate arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury content in 12 food supplements seized in a Piedmont shop by the Italian authority against food adulteration. All metals were analysed after mineralization and dilution steps by ICP-MS, with the exception of mercury, detected by the direct analyser TDA-AAS. Only one sample exceed the European maximum limits for lead (3,00 mg/kg but warning levels of chromium (over 3,00 mg/Kg has been detected in three of them.

  19. Heavy metal adsorption by sulphide mineral surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gilles E.; Bancroft, G. Michael

    1986-07-01

    The adsorption of aqueous Hg 2+, Pb 2+, Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ complexes on a variety of sulphide minerals has been studied as a function of the solution pH and also as a function of the nature of the ligands in solution. Sulphide minerals are excellent scavengers for these heavy metals. The adsorption is strongly pH dependent, i.e. there is a critical pH at which the adsorption increases dramatically. The pH dependence is related to the hydrolysis of the metal ions. Indirect evidence suggests that the hydrolyzed species are adsorbed directly on the sulphide groups, probably as a monolayer. The results also suggest the presence of MCI n2- n species physisorbed on the adsorbed monolayer. A positive identification of the adsorbed species was not possible using ESCA/XPS.

  20. A Better Method for Evaluating Heavy Metal Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Hering, Janet

    2002-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, and even trace amounts of some, can be harmful to both plants and animals. The toxicity of heavy metal contamination, however, is highly dependent on the chemical form of the metal in question. Metals that are bound in particles or to organic (carbon-containing) compounds are less toxic than dissolved free ions, less toxic meaning that the metals are less readily available for uptake by marine organisms.

  1. Leaching of heavy metals from steelmaking slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, J. F. P

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaching tests with EAF and Ladle slags were performed, using a flow through test and the standard batch test DIN 38414-S4. The previous method was used to simulate the leaching behaviour of steel slags under landfill. The chemical analysis of the leachates during this period shows, in general, for both types of slag, an increase of heavy metal releases with ageing. Standard test method DIN 38414-S4 was used to evaluate leachability of heavy metals by water in unprocessed slags. After more than one year of trials, slag samples submitted to these trials presented very low total leaching levels. The most extracted elements are calcium and magnesium. Nevertheless, in flow-through test, calcium and magnesium leached from solid slags are below 0.5% and all other metals below 0.1%. Leachates obtained with DIN 38414-S4 present, as expected, higher leaching values; however, these are inferior to 5 % (Ca and 1% (other elements.

    Este articulo contiene los resultados obtenidos en ensayos de lixiviación de escorias de acero (horno electrico y cuchara ejecutados siguiendo la metodologia de flujo dinámico así como el ensayo normalizado DIN 38414-S4. El primer ensayo intenta simular el comportamiento de lixiviación de las escorias en vertedero. Para las escorias ensayadas se han complementado los ensayos con el análisis químico de los lixiviados y se ha verificado un aumento de la liberación de metales pesados. El ensayo DIN 38414-S4 se ha utilizado para evaluar la lixiviación por agua de metales pesados, en muestras de escorias originales. Despues de un año de ensayos, se han observado niveles muy bajos de lixiviación. Los elementos mas lixiviados han sido calcio y magnesio. No obstante, en los ensayos de flujo dinámico, el calcio y el magnesio lixiviados de las escorias sólidas era menor de 0,5% y el resto de los otros metales era inferior a 0,1%. Los lixiviados obtenidos con el ensayo DIN 38414-S4 presentan, como era de esperar, valores

  2. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are a common pollutant found in various industrial effluents. They are often encountered in mining operations and acid mine drainage. The heavy metals are highly toxic and are non-biodegradable, therefore they must be removed from the polluted streams in order to meet increasingly stringent environmental quality standards. Removal of heavy metals can be accomplished by a variety of techniques. Conventional methods typically involve the use of processes such as coag...

  3. HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SHEEP PRODUCTS FROM MIDLE SPIŠ

    OpenAIRE

    Slávik Marek; Tóth Tomáš; Kopernická Miriama; Árvay Július; Harangozo Ľuboš

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the risk of contamination of animal products by heavy metals. Samples of animal raw materials were obtained in 2013 in the municipalities of Porac and Matejovce nad Hornádom. Samples of muscle and internal organs were collected from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) reared in the village of Rudnianska burdened area where mercury along with other heavy metals contamination is above the limit value of agricultural soil. Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in the sam...

  4. Impact of heavy metals on the female reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Rzymski; Katarzyna Tomczyk; Pawel Rzymski; Barbara Poniedziałek; Tomasz Opala; Maciej Wilczak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. It has been recognized that environmental pollution can affect the quality of health of the human population. Heavy metals are among the group of highly emitted contaminants and their adverse effect of living organisms has been widely studied in recent decades. Lifestyle and quality of the ambient environment are among these factors which can mainly contribute to the heavy metals exposure in humans. Objective. A review of literature linking heavy metals and the female repr...

  5. Effects of heavy metal adsorption on silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2014-06-02

    Based on first-principles calculations, we study the effects of heavy metal atoms (Au, Hg, Tl, and Pb) adsorbed on silicene. We find that the hollow site is energetically favorable in each case. We particulary address the question how the adsorption modifies the band structure in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal adatoms result in substantial energy gaps and band splittings in the silicene sheet as long as the binding is strong, which, however, is not always the case. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH &Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Carbon nanotube flexible sponge was manufactured as high performance electromagnetic shielding material. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesized sponges with extreme light weight show an electromagnetic shielding above 20 dB and a specific electromagnetic shielding as high as 1100 dB cm3g-1 in the whole 1-18 GHz range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Heavy metal screening in compounds feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are generally classified as basic groups of pollutants that are now a days found in different environmental compartments. This is quite a large group of contaminants, which have different characteristics, effects on the environment and sources of origin. For environment pose the greatest risks, especially heavy metals produced by anthropogenic activities that adversely affect the health and vitality of organisms and natural environmental conditions. Livestock nutrition is among the main factors which affect not only the deficiency of livestock production and quality of food of animal origin, but they are also a factor affecting the safety and wholesomeness and the animal health. Compound feeds is characterized as a mixture of two or more feed grain. Containing organic, inorganic nutrients and specifically active compound feed meet the nutritional requirements of a given kind and age category of animals. They are used mainly in the diet of pigs, poultry, but also the nutrition of cattle, sheep, horses and other animal categories. The basic ingredients are cereals in proportion of 60-70 %. The aim of this thesis was to analyze the content of hazardous elements (copper, zinc, iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel, chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury in 15 samples of compound feeds and then evaluating their content in comparison with maximum limits laid down by Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic and Regulation Commission (EC.

  7. Source attributions of heavy metals in rice plant along highway in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinfei; Wang, Yinxi; Zhao, Jian; Zhu, Liqun; Bian, Xinmin; Zhang, Weijian

    2011-01-01

    Air and soil pollution from traffic has been considered as a critical issue to crop production and food safety, however, few efforts have been paid on distinguish the source origin of traffic-related contaminants in rice plant along highway. Therefore, we investigated metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) concentrations and stable Pb isotope ratios in rice plants exposed and unexposed to highway traffic pollution in Eastern China in 2008. Significant differences in metals concentrations between the exposed and unexposed plants existed in leaf for Pb, Cd and Zn, in stem only for Zn, and in grain for Pb and Cd. About 46% of Pb and 41% of Cd in the grain were attributed to the foliar uptake from atmosphere, and there were no obvious contribution of atmosphere to the accumulations of Cr, Zn and Cu in grain. Except for Zn, all of the heavy metals in stem were attributed to the root uptake from soil, although significant accumulations of Pb and Cd from atmosphere existed in leaf. This indicated that different processes existed in the subsequent translocation of foliar-absorbed heavy metals between rice organs. The distinct separation of stable Pb isotope ratios among rice grain, leaf, stem, soil and vehicle exhaust further provided evidences on the different pathways of heavy metal accumulation in rice plant. These results suggested that further more attentions should be paid to the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals from traffic emission when plan crop layout for food safety along highway. PMID:22125909

  8. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products

    OpenAIRE

    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; P Luangthuwapranit

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as li...

  9. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth; Július Árvay; Miriama Kopernická; Luboš Harangozo; Radovan Stanovič; Pavol Trebichalský; Petra Kavalcová

    2014-01-01

    In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86...

  10. Research on Distribution Pattern of Heavy Metals in Yanzhou Coalfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-zhu; YANG Feng-jie; CHENG Jian-guang; Wang Cui-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution brings extensive concerns since 1940s. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution on the farmland of Yanzhou coalfield, 216 soil samples and 54 combined samples were collected. Lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, zinc, and nickel contained in both topsoil and deep soil were analyzed using atomic absorbent spectrometry analyzer (AAS). Fuzzy clustering method was used in data processing. And fuzzy synthetic assessment was applied to assess the soil contamination by heavy metals. The result shows that Yanzhou coalfield has been polluted by the heavy metals to some extent.

  11. HEAVY METALS IN MIDDLE NITRA RIVERSIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Čéryová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Present state of environment is widely affected by various impacts of man which significantly eliminate negative affecting of its influence on the environment. In the past this fact was not so implemented and thus there was uncontrolled escape of contaminants of organic, but also inorganic origin into various components of environment. The most sensitive component is water ecosystem and its close plates (base sediments, banks sediments and biosphere near the flows. River Nitra ranks among the most affected water ecosystems in SR that was in 1965 the recipient of sludge, that was by accident in Zemianske Kostoľany uncontrolled spilled into the river with aftermath of long-term contamination of all sub-components in ecosystem, mainly by heavy metals (Hg, As, Pb, etc.. Soil contamination by Cd and Hg was analytically confirmed. The contents of these risk elements in soil extract of aqua regia 1.85 - 3.7 fold (Cd and 4.57- 36.3 fold (Hg exceeded the limit values (0.4 mg.kg-1 and 0.15 mg.kg-1 respectively given by the legislative. Other metals exceeding limit values were lead (1.064 - 1.072 fold, zinc (1.096 - 1.192 fold and chromium (1.172 – 1.644 fold. From assessed soil content of heavy metals only bioavailable forms of Pb determined in soil extract by NH4NO3 2.0 - 3.3 fold exceeded the limit value 0.1 mg.kg-1.

  12. Transport and deposition of heavy metals in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Andrea; Bertler, Nancy; Neff, Peter; Edwards, Ross; Emanuelsson, Daniel; Beers, Thomas; Mayewski, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Emissions and long-range transport of toxic metals and metalloids pose a global threat to ecosystems and human health. Global industrialization occurring from the late nineteenth century releases large quantities of pollutants into the Earth's atmosphere. Despite international efforts to mitigate emissions, accumulation of metals is still observed in the most remote regions of the planet. New baseline studies are needed to determine (i) natural background concentration of pollutants, (ii) contributions of anthropogenic emissions, and (iii) potential remobilization of previously deposited metals. Constructing such records requires distinguishing source strength from transport efficiency to the recording site and accounting for local depositional effects. Here we investigate the sensitivity and representation of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Al, Mn, Pb, Tl, and As) in the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core, a new coastal Antarctic ice core site. Concentration variability with precipitation is explored in daily surface snow samples collected over 70 days, while seasonal deposition is investigated through snow pit sampling. We find that snow sample concentrations increase with particular snow precipitation types (rime and fog) and enhanced meridional atmospheric transport to the site. Snow pit heavy metals peak in summer and also show variable intraannual peaks. Seasonal airmass modeling based on ERA Interim reanalysis data indicates a synoptic shift during the spring and summer months. We conclude that modern heavy metal concentrations are influenced by transport efficiency and scavenging behavior; and thus, time series records from RICE have the potential to provide representative data of regional changes in heavy metals.

  13. Heavy metals behavior during thermal plasma vitrification of incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the developed world, incineration of wastes is widely and increasingly practiced. Worldwide, a total of approximately 100 millions of tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) material is incinerated annually. Incineration of one ton of MSW leads to the formation of 30 to 50 kg of fly ash, depending on the type of incinerator. The waste disposal of these dusts already causes great problems today; they are of low bulk density, they contain high concentrations of hazardous water-soluble heavy metal compounds, organohalogen compounds (dioxines, furanes), sulfur, and chlorinated compounds. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, show great promise: the residues are melted at high temperature and converted in a relatively inert glass. A few tens of plants, essentially in Japan and Taiwan, have been in industrial operation for a few years. To be authorized to be dumped in a common landfill, the glassy product has to satisfy the leaching test procedure to ensure long-term durability. But to satisfy the regulation to be reused, for example as a nonhazardous standard material in road building, the glassy product would probably include contents in some heavy metals lower than critical limits. So today, there are two alternatives: the first one is to improve the heavy toxic metals evaporation to get a 'light' glassy product and to recycle separately the said separated metals; the second is on the contrary to improve the incorporation of a maximum of heavy metals into the vitreous silicate matrix. Whatever, it is highly required to control, in situ and in real time, volatility of these metals during ash melting under electrical arc. The objective of this work was to reach basic data about metals volatility under the plasma column of an electrical arc transferred on the melt: an experiment has been designed to examine the effects of processing conditions, such as melt temperature, melt composition, and furnace atmosphere, upon volatilization and glassy slag

  14. Keywords in heavy metal lyrics : A Data-Driven Corpus Study into the Lyrics of Five Heavy Metal Subgenres

    OpenAIRE

    Taina, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal -musiikkia on akateemisessa maailmassa tutkittu vain vÀhÀn. Tutkimuksen kohteena on yleensÀ ollut heavy metal genrenÀ tai kulttuurisena ilmiönÀ. Ne harvat tutkimukset, jotka ovat keskittyneet heavy metal -kappaleiden sanoituksiin, ovat useimmiten ottaneet lÀhtökohdakseen kvalitatiivisen metodin. TÀmÀ tutkimus hyödyntÀÀ kvantitatiivisia menetelmiÀ. Tutkimuksen lÀhtökohtana on tutkia heavy metal -kappaleiden sanoituksia tilastollisesti korpuslingvistisiÀ metode...

  15. Heavy liquid metal technologies development in Kalla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (Pb and Pb-Bi Eutectic) such as the low melting and high boiling temperatures, the chemical inertness in direct contact with typical reactor coolants, makes HLMs to relevant candidates as core coolant of critical and sub-critical nuclear systems. In addition the high neutron yield obtained by proton irradiation renders this material attractive for the development of neutron spallation sources. The practical use of HLM as core coolant and spallation material needs to be validated by experimental and computational activities. In this frame the KALLA (Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory) program, which consists of several stagnant and loop experiments, has been defined. Currently KALLA represents one of the most relevant infrastructures, which is in operation in Europe. The capabilities of KALLA make it possible to evaluate thermal-hydraulics parameters in complex geometries, to develop techniques for local and global quantities measurement, to assess the materials compatibility in different conditions and to evaluate basic chemical-physical data as for instance the wetting capability of the liquid metal. The aim of this article is to discuss the most significant development conducted at KALLA to support the activities of Accelerator Driven Transmutation Systems and to overview the experiences gained with the operation of liquid metal facilities. The loop experiments are now operated continuously since several years and a broad experience has been gained for the individual components typically appearing in reactors like pump systems (both electromagnetic and mechanical), oxygen monitoring and control systems, etc. (authors)

  16. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated

  17. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  18. Earthworms Eisenia fetida affect the uptake of heavy metals by plants Vicia faba and Zea mays in metal-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lemtiri, Aboulkacem; Liénard, Amandine; Alabi, Taofic; Brostaux, Yves; Cluzeau, Daniel; Francis, Frédéric; Colinet, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms increase the availability of heavy metals in some situations and aid in maintaining the structure and quality of soil. The introduction of earthworms into metal-contaminated soils has been suggested as an aid for phytoremediation processes. In Wallonia, Belgium, a century of industrial metallurgic activities has led to the substantial pollution of soils by heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), due to atmospheric dusts. Two plant species, Vicia ...

  19. Heavy metal retention of different roadside soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Emissions from major highways contain different kinds of contaminants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and road salts which can occur in both particulate and dissolved form. Pollutants are transferred to the environment via aerial transport or the infiltration of road runoff and spray water. A significant rate of the road runoff infiltrates into the Embankment which is usually built during road construction and located next to the road edge. Especially in the long term development there is an increasing problem of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. According to valid German law, newly constructed hard shoulders have to provide a specific bear-ing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases. Therefore the applicable materials consist of accurately defined gravel-soil mixtures, which can fulfil this requirement. To determine and com-pare the total and dissolved concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr in the road runoff and seep-age water of newly constructed embankments, we installed 6 Lysimeter along the edge of the German highway A115. Three lysimeter were filled with different materials which are recently used for embankment construction in Germany. Three further lysimeter where installed and filled with plain gravel, to observe the distribution, quantity and quality of road runoff. Fist results showed that heavy metal concentrations determined in the road runoff were compara-ble to literature values. The solute concentrations in the seepage water of the different embank-ment materials do not show considerable differences and exceed the trigger values of the German Federal Soil Protection & Contamination Ordinance (BBodSchV) only sporadically. Total concentra-tions of the seepage water are significantly higher than solute concentrations and clearly differ be-tween stable and non stable variant. In order to estimate the risk of groundwater pollution further monitoring of seepage water quality is necessary.

  20. Heavy Metal Biosorption Sites Studies of Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Aihong; WANG Xian; DENG Yongzhi; CHEN Lidan

    2005-01-01

    The role played by the functional groups of Laminaria japonica treated by methanol and formaldehyde in biosorption of the heavy metals was investigated.Infrared spectroscopy analysis and biosorption experiments show that both carboxyl and amino groups join in the sorption; chemical treatment decreased the biosorption efficiency of the heavy metals.

  1. Heavy metals detection using nanostructured screen printed electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Prasek*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problematic of heavy metals dissolved inaqueous solution detection using standard electrochemical methods. The problematic of low signal response of miniaturizedelectrochemical electrodes for electrochemical analysis is mentioned here. Finally some solutions for electrodes miniaturization and examples of fabricated electrodes and their heavy metals detection capabilities on a real sample are shown and discussed here.

  2. Adsorption of heavy metals ions from liquid media by palygorskite

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk, L; Bessarab, O.; Matko, S.; Malyovanyy, ?.

    2015-01-01

    The process of heavy metals adsorption by natural mineral palygorskite from wastewater and food (apple juice) has been investigated. The purification processes of copper, cadmium, lead, mercury and zinc have been studied. The rational technological parameters of these processes have been determined. The mechanism for heavy metals adsorbtion from juice by palygorskite has been defined. ?????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???????? ????...

  3. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik,Tomáš Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

  4. Removal of Heavy Metals in Effluent by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting LI; Xia LI; Bing Ru ZHANG; Qing Hua OUYANG

    2004-01-01

    The silicate colloids with an average diameter 100 nm, were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TES), NH4OH (30%) and then modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane ( APS). The colloids can adsorb heavy metals such as Pb and Cr in effluent and after adsorption the colloids can be separated by coagulation of aluminum sulfate. The removal of heavy metals is up to 99%.

  5. Indicators of Lake Temsah Potential by some heavy metals Heavy Metals in Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental impact of industrial, agricultural and domestic waster on heavy metals sediment content in lake Temsah has been investigated. Seven sites were chosen, differ in nature of activity and quantity of wastes, namely from south to north-west; Arab contractors shipyard workshop(A), The junction between the western logon and the lake(B), El-Temsah workshop (C), El-Temsah shipyard (private workshop) (D), El-Karakat workshop for SCA (E), El-Forsan drain out fall to the lake (F) and SCA Press outlet (G). Eight of heavy metal concentrations of concern (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb) were estimated in sediment samples collected from different chosen sites during the seasons; summer , autumn 1995 and winter , spring 1996. Results of this study reveal that pollution is directly related to the type of the activity in each site. Sediment samples results showed that the most suffering sites were found to be in the order of B> D> C> G> F, and the least polluted ones were E> A. And the highest polluted season was summer, whereas the least one was winter. It is obvious that the general mean values of Cu, Ni and Cd are exceeding the allowed concentrations documented for diverse trace components in coastal sediments. Strict regulations that must be followed in order to minimize this pollution specially, by heavy metals from marine workshop

  6. Black water sludge reuse in agriculture: are heavy metals a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervahauta, Taina; Rani, Sonia; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees J N; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal content of sewage sludge is currently the most significant factor limiting its reuse in agriculture within the European Union. In the Netherlands most of the produced sewage sludge is incinerated, mineralizing the organic carbon into the atmosphere rather than returning it back to the soil. Source-separation of black water (toilet water) excludes external heavy metal inputs, such as industrial effluents and surface run-offs, producing sludge with reduced heavy metal content that is a more favorable source for resource recovery. The results presented in this paper show that feces is the main contributor to the heavy metal loading of vacuum collected black water (52-84%), while in sewage the contribution of feces is less than 10%. To distinguish black water from sewage in the sludge reuse regulation, a control parameter should be implemented, such as the Hg and Pb content that is significantly higher in sewage sludge compared to black water sludge (from 50- to 200-fold). The heavy metals in feces and urine are primarily from dietary sources, and promotion of the soil application of black water sludge over livestock manure and artificial fertilizers could further reduce the heavy metal content in the soil/food cycle. PMID:24794814

  7. Study on the behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Wang, Ben; Qiao, Yu; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Yao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during pyrolysis and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) components at different heating rates and temperatures. The waste fractions comprised waste paper (Paper), disposable chopstick (DC), garbage bag (GB), PVC plastic (PVC), and waste tire (Tire). Generally, the release trend of heavy metals from all MSW fractions in rapid-heating combustion was superior to that in low-heating combustion. Due to the different characteristics of MSW fractions, the behavior of heavy metals varied. Cd exhibited higher volatility than the rest of heavy metals. For Paper, DC, and PVC, the vaporization of Cd can reach as high as 75% at 500 °C in the rapid-heating combustion due to violent combustion, whereas a gradual increase was observed for Tire and GB. Zn and Pb showed a moderate volatilization in rapid-heating combustion, but their volatilities were depressed in slow-heating combustion. During thermal treatment, the additives such as kaolin and calcium can react or adsorb Pb and Zn forming stable metal compounds, thus decreasing their volatilities. The formation of stable compounds can be strengthened in slow-heating combustion. The volatility of Cu was comparatively low in both high and slow-heating combustion partially due to the existence of Al, Si, or Fe in residuals. Generally, in the reducing atmosphere, the volatility of Cd, Pb, and Zn was accelerated for Paper, DC, GB, and Tire due to the formation of elemental metal vapor. TG analysis also showed the reduction of metal oxides by chars forming elemental metal vapor. Cu2S was the dominant Cu species in reducing atmosphere below 900 °C, which was responsible for the low volatility of Cu. The addition of PVC in wastes may enhance the release of heavy metals, while GB and Tire may play an opposite effect. In controlling heavy metal emission, aluminosilicate- and calcium-based sorbents can be co-treated with fuels. Moreover

  8. Bismuth film electrodes for heavy metals determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehacek, Vlastimil; Hotovy, Ivan; Vojs, Marian; Mika, Fedor

    2007-05-01

    Bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) have a potential to replace toxic mercury used most frequently for determination of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) by anodic stripping voltammetry. We prepared a graphite disc electrode (0.5 mm in diameter) from a pencil-lead rod and developed a nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (NDLC) microelectrode array consisting of 50 625 microdiscs with 3 μm in diameter and interelectrode distances of 20 μm on a highly conductive silicon substrate as a support for BiFEs. The disc graphite BiFE was used for simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) by square wave voltammetry (SWV) in an aqueous solution. We found the optimum bismuth-to-metal concentration ratio in the solution to be 20. The dependence of the stripping responses on the concentration of target metals was linear in the range from 1×10 -8 to 1.2×10 -7 mol/L. Detection limits 2.4×10 -9 mol/L for Pb(II), 2.9×10 -9 mol/L for Cd(II) and 1.2×10 -8 mol/L for Zn(II) were estimated. A bismuth-plated NDLC microelectrode array was used for Pb(II) determination by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in an aqueous solution. We found that the stripping current for bismuth-plated NDLC array was linear in the concentration range of Pb(II) from 2×10 -8 to 1.2×10 -7 mol/L. The detection limit 2.2×10 -8 mol/L was estimated from a calibration plot.

  9. Contamination, toxicity and speciation of heavy metals in an industrialized urban river: Implications for the dispersal of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Zhou, Haichao; Tam, Nora F Y; Tian, Yu; Tan, Yang; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Chen, Yongheng; Leung, Jonathan Y S

    2016-03-15

    Urban rivers are often utilized by the local residents as water source, but they can be polluted by heavy metals due to industrialization. Here, the concentrations, toxicity, speciation and vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment were examined to evaluate their impact, dispersal and temporal variation in Dongbao River. Results showed that the sediment in the industrialized areas was seriously contaminated with Cr, Cu and Ni which posed acute toxicity. Heavy metals, except Cr and Pb, were mainly associated with non-residual fractions, indicating their high mobility and bioavailability. The non-industrialized areas were also seriously contaminated, suggesting the dispersal of heavy metals along the river. The surface sediment could be more contaminated than the deep sediment, indicating the recent pollution events. Overall, when the point sources are not properly regulated, intense industrialization can cause both serious contamination and dispersal of heavy metals, which have far-reaching consequences in public health and environment. PMID:26856647

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Golnaz Karimi; Parisa Ziarati

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of d...

  11. Immunotoxicity of heavy metals in relation to Great Lakes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernier, J.; P. Brousseau; Krzystyniak, K; Tryphonas, H; Fournier, M

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals including mercury, lead, and cadmium are present throughout the ecosystem and are detectable in small amounts in the Great Lakes water and fish. The main route of exposure of humans to these metals is via the ingestion of contaminated food, especially fish. Extensive experimental investigations indicated that heavy metals alter a number of parameters of the host's immune system and lead to increased susceptibility to infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic manifestations. T...

  12. Heavy metals quantification on alkaline batteries incineration emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos; Silva, Margarida

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metals emissions associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a point of discussion and care due to the known harmful effects of these metals on humans and environment. Batteries are appointed as one of the main contributors for those emissions, particularly for mercury, cadmium, zinc and lead. In this paper, results for heavy metals emissions from alkaline batteries obtained in a laboratorial incinerator are presented. The incineration process took place in a tubular ove...

  13. Adaptation of plants to an environment polluted with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Antosiewicz, Danuta M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of tolerance of plants to heavy metals. Induction, development and stability of tolerance are described. Multiple and co-tolerance are presented in the context of specificity of acquired tolerance to heavy metals. Phenomena involved in the uptake and distribution of metals in plant tissues along with the mechanisms of exclusion and accumulation are discussed. The problem of tolerance development in plants is presented also in the light of the nutritional condit...

  14. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  15. Plants Role in Reducing Heavy Metals from Polluted Soil Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amouei A.* PhD,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims In the past few decades, more attention has been paid to clean up soils polluted with heavy metals by plants. A serious problem in this way is the amount of heavy metals uptake by plants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 local plants of Mazandaran province, Iran, in reducing and controlling the soil’s heavy metals. Instrument & Methods The removal amount of three heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium by native plants (maize, velvetleaf and wild amaranth was investigated in alkaline (pH=8 and acidic (pH=5 soils and also using three substances such as EDTA, ammonium citrate and phosphate. The concentrations of these metals in leachate were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry method. Findings Lead, cadmium and zinc levels in leachate in treatments with plants were less than unplanted ones. The concentrations of these metals in the produced leachate of treatments with acidic soils were higher than those with alkaline soils. In the treatments of soil polluted with additives, treatments containing ammonium phosphate and EDTA had the lowest and highest concentrations of heavy metals, respectively. Concentrations of these metals in treatments without plants were higher than those with plants. Conclusion Increasing of soil pH is effective on stabilization of heavy metals in soil. Ammonium phosphate plays an important role in stabilizing and EDTA and ammonium citrate increase the mobility of lead, zinc and cadmium in soil and groundwater.

  16. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubala, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.skubala@us.edu.pl [Department of Ecology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Zaleski, Tomasz [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Agricultural University in Krakow, Mickiewicza 21, 31-120 Cracow (Poland)

    2012-01-01

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (K{sub av}, P{sub av}, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals - the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  17. Heavy metal sensitivity and bioconcentration in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we aimed to identify different reactions of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution and to measure concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper in oribatid species sampled along a gradient. Oribatid mites were sampled seasonally during two years in five meadows located at different distances from the zinc smelter in the Olkusz District, southern Poland. Oribatids were shown to withstand critical metal concentration and established comparatively abundant and diverse communities. The highest abundance and species richness of oribatids were recorded in soils with moderate concentrations of heavy metals. Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognized. Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni) and various physical (bulk density, field capacity, total porosity) and chemical (Kav, Pav, N, C, pH) factors were recognized as the structuring forces that influence the distribution of oribatid species. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed large differences in metal body burdens among species. None of the species can be categorized as accumulators or non-accumulators of the heavy metals — the pattern depends on the metal. The process of bioconcentration of the toxic metal (regulated) and essential elements (accumulated) was generally different in the five oribatid species studied. - Highlights: ► Responses of oribatid mites to metal contamination along a gradient in meadow soils were studied. Small concentrations of heavy metals positively influenced the abundance of oribatid mites. ► Four different responses of oribatid species to heavy metal pollution were recognised. ► Bioaccumulation of the toxic metal and essential elements proceeded differently in oribatid species. ► Five studied oribatid species were deconcentrators of cadmium.

  18. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics - a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26940747

  19. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  20. HEAVY METAL LOADS IN THE SOIL OF DEBRECEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNDOR SZEGEDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy metal content of the soils have been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of the sample area have been studied after acidic extraction, using atomic absorption spectrometer with the flame technique. Close-to-background concentrations of heavy metals in unpolluted soils of the forested area of the Nagyerd were determined. Spatial differences in the heavy metal content of the soils for the whole area of Debrecen have been studied. Influence of soil properties (humus, Calcium- Carbonate content, pH and grain-size distribution on the binding and mobility of heavy metals in the soil has been examined. Vertical distribution and mobility of heavy metal compounds in acid sandy soils was determined. Heavy metal content of soil in the most sensitive areas, playgrounds, recreational areas, urban gardens and grazing fields along busy roads has been surveyed.

  1. Heavy metals in soil and water near mercury hotspots in Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Chinas fast-growing economy has led to an increase in the releases of many heavy metals. These releases affect both the local environment through soil and water contamination, but also the regional and global environment as many metals can be transported thousands of kilometres away from their original source through the atmosphere. The Sino-Norwegian Cooperation Project on Mercury Pollution (SINOMER) focuses on mercury releases in the People’s Republic of China, with Guizhou province as case...

  2. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Sediments from Dianchi Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ren-Ying; YANG Hao; ZHOU Zhi-Gao; L(U) Jun-Jie; SHAO Xiao-Hua; JIN Feng

    2007-01-01

    Fractionation of heavy metals in sediments can help in understanding potential hazards of heavy metals.The present study analyzed total concentrations and fractions of selected heavy metals(Cd,Cr,Cu,Pb,and Zn)in surfaca sediments from Dianchi Lake,Yunnan Province,China,as well as factors that may affect distributions of the various heavy metal fractions.Total concentrations of the heavy metals decreased in the order Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd.These heavy metals,except Cr,were much higher than their background levels,indicating that Dianchi Lake was polluted by Cd,Zn,Pb,and Cu.Cadmium occurred mainly as the non-residual fraction(sum of the HOAc-soluble,reducible,and oxidizable fractions)(97.6%),and Zn(55.7%)was also predominantly found in the non-residual fraction.In contrast,most of the Cr(88.5%),Pb(81.8%),and Cu(59.2%)occurred in the residual fraction.Correlation analysis showed that total heavy metal concentrations,organic matter and reducible Fe were the main factors affecting the distributions of the various heavy metal fractions.In the Waihai section of Dianchi Lake (comprising 97%of the lake area),the concentrations of Cd,Zn,Pb,and Cu in the non-residual fraction were significantly lower(P≤0.01 or 0.05)than those of the Caohai section (3% of the lake area).This indicated that potential heavy metal hazards in the Caohai section were greater than the Waihai section.

  3. Improving crop tolerance to heavy metal stress by polyamine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudek, Petr; Ursu, Marina; Petrová, Šárka; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2016-12-15

    Many areas have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals from industry and are not suitable for food production. The consumption of contaminated foods represents a health risk in humans, although some heavy metals are essential at low concentrations. Increasing the concentrations of essential elements in foods is one goal to improve nutrition. The aim of this study was to increase the accumulation of heavy metals in plant foods by the external application of putrescine. The levels of cadmium, zinc and iron were measured in different vegetables grown in hydroponic medium supplemented with heavy metals and compared with those grown in a reference medium. The estimated daily intake, based on the average daily consumption for various vegetable types, and the influence of polyamines on metal uptake were calculated. PMID:27451175

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals in mosses: a biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Miranda, G; Avila-Pérez, P; Gil-Vargas, P; Zarazúa, G; Sánchez-Meza, J C; Zepeda-Gómez, C; Tejeda, S

    2016-01-01

    The metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) extends over an area of 1208.55 km(2) and has 1,361,500 inhabitants making it the fifth highest populated area in the country and the second highest in the state. The MATV has several environmental problems, with regards to the air quality. Particles PM10 and PM2.5 are considered to be the main pollutant due to these particles frequently exceeding the limit laid down in the standards of the air quality in the country. For this reason, samples of the mosses Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata were collected at different sites in MATV, Mexico in order to establish the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals by means of the analysis of the mosses tissues. Results show the average metal concentrations in the mosses in the order of: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cd. The concentration capacities of heavy metals were higher in Fabriona ciliaris than Leskea angustata. Enrichment factors for Cr, Zn, Pb and Cd were obtained using the soils from the same sampling area. Enrichment factors results show that Cr is conservative in both sampling seasons with a terrigenous origin; Zn is moderately enriched in both sampling seasons and mainly associated to pedological-soil or substrate contribution and anthropogenic activities and Cd is highly enriched in the rainy season and Pb is highly enriched in both sampling seasons, with a predominantly anthropogenic origin. This study provides information to be considered in the strategies for similar environmental problems in the world. PMID:27375984

  5. Selective accumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous systems using microbial biomass has been described previously (Nakajima et al. 1982). To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, we extended our investigation of uranium uptake to 83 species of microorganisms, 32 bacteria, 15 yeasts, 16 fungi and 20 actinomycetes. Of these 83 species of microorganisms tested, extremely high uranium-absorbing ability was found in Pseudomonas stutzeri, Neurospora sitophila, Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces viridochromogenes. The selective accumulation of heavy metal ions by various microorganisms has also been examined. Uranyl, mercury and lead ions were readily accumulated by almost all the species of microorganisms tested. Actinomycetes and fungi differ from many bacteria and most yeasts in their selective accumulation of uranium and mercury. In addition to this fundamental research, uranium recovery was investigated in immobilized Streptomyces albus, a microorganism with high uranium-uptake ability. These immobilized cells adsorbed uranium readily and selectively. The immobilized cells recovered uranium almost quantitatively and almost all uranium absorbed was desorbed with 0.1 M Na2CO3. The dry weight of the free cells decreased by 50% during 5 adsorption-desorption cycles. However, the dry weight of the immobilized cells decreased by only 2% during 5 cycles. These results showed that microbial cells are more stable after immobilization and can be used repeatedly for the process of uranium adsorption-desorption. (orig.)

  6. Adsorption behavior of heavy metals on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, Mayumi; Minamisawa, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Takai, Nobuharu

    2004-09-01

    We have investigated adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) at pH 2-6.7 onto the biomaterials chitosan, coffee, green tea, tea, yuzu, aloe, and Japanese coarse tea, and onto the inorganic adsorbents, activated carbon and zeolite. High adsorptive capabilities were observed for all of the biomaterials at pH 4 and 6.7. In the adsorption of Cd(II), blend coffee, tea, green tea, and coarse tea have comparable loading capacities to activated carbon and zeolite. Although activated carbon, zeolite, and chitosan are utilized in a variety of fields such as wastewater treatment, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and analytical chemistry, these adsorbents are costly. On the other hand, processing of the test biomaterials was inexpensive, and all the biomaterials except for chitosan were able to adsorb large amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions after a convenient pretreatment of washing with water followed by drying. The high adsorption capability of the biomaterials prepared from plant materials is promising in the development of a novel, low-cost adsorbent. From these results, it is concluded that heavy metal removal using biomaterials would be an effective method for the economic treatment of wastewater. The proposed adsorption method was applied to the determination of amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples. PMID:15373400

  7. Heavy Metals in the raw Milk in Mitrovica

    OpenAIRE

    BAHTIR HYSENI; ALUSH MUSAJ

    2014-01-01

    Safe and quality of food are of primary importance for food industry. The aim of this study was to measure the heavy metals concentration in the raw milk in Mitrovica, a region with a rapid industrial development. Trepca complex, for example is one of the key sources of heavy metal contamination of the region. The purpose of this paper, initially, was to understand the role of food contaminants that until recently were considered as antidote for heavy metals. Samples were prepared in the oven...

  8. pfmdr2 confers heavy metal resistance to Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Elli; Litus, Ilena; Schwarzfuchs, Nurit; Sinay, Rosa; Schlesinger, Pnina; Golenser, Jacob; Baumeister, Stefan; Lingelbach, Klaus; Pollack, Yaakov

    2006-09-15

    Heavy metals are required by all organisms for normal function, but high levels of heavy metals are toxic. Therefore, homeostasis of these metals is crucial. In the human malaria-causing agent Plasmodium falciparum, the mechanisms of heavy metal transport have yet to be characterized. We have developed a P. falciparum line resistant to heavy metals from a wild-type line sensitive to heavy metals. A molecular and biochemical analysis of the involvement of the P. falciparum multidrug resistance 2 (pfmdr2) gene, an ABC-type transporter, in heavy metal homeostasis was studied. Using a novel uptake assay applied on these two strains, it was demonstrated that, when exposed to heavy metals, the sensitive line accumulates metal, whereas no accumulation was observed in the resistant line. The accumulation occurs within the parasite itself and not in the cytoplasm of the red blood cell. This difference in the accumulation pattern is not a result of amplification of the pfmdr2 gene or of a change in the expression pattern of the gene in the two lines. Sequencing of the gene from both lines revealed a major difference; a stop codon is found in the sensitive line upstream of the normal termination, resulting in a truncated protein that lacks 188 amino acids that contain a portion of the essential cytoplasmatic transporter domain, thereby rendering it inactive. In contrast, the resistant line harbors a full-length, active protein. These findings strongly suggest that the PFMDR2 protein acts as an efflux pump of heavy metals. PMID:16849328

  9. Heavy metals in trees and energy crops - a literature review; Tungmetaller i traed och energigroedor - en litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsson, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    1995-12-01

    This literature review deals with the use of energy crops for cleaning of soils from heavy metals. It also deals with the use of low accumulating energy crops to be used on strongly contaminated soils where a low uptake of heavy metals is preferred, for example on mining deposits. In addition to the efforts to reduce the sources for heavy metal contamination of soils (for example commercial fertilizers and atmospheric deposition) the uptake and removal of heavy metals from the soils by the use of energy crops have recently been discussed as a method for cleaning of soils. Species from the Salix family (willow) have a greater potential for accumulating heavy metals than cereals which makes them interesting for this purpose. The Salix family consists of species with a great genetic variation. This will probably make it possible to find or develop clones with different characteristics suitable for cleaning of contaminated soils as well as for plant covering of soils that are extremely contaminated by heavy metals. In the former case an accumulation of heavy metals in the harvested parts, the shoots, is preferred. In the later case clones that do not accumulate heavy metals and maybe also clones with only root accumulation are preferred. There are also Salix clones with a specific accumulation of heavy metals which makes it possible to clean soils from a toxic metal and at the same time avoid the risk for deficiency of essential metals, for example Zn. The greatest potential to clean soils by the use of energy crops, is when the contamination levels in the soils are low, the areas to clean are large and when the time needed for cleaning is of minor importance. The most suitable soils are those where the metal contamination is located in the top soil layer and where the heavy metal concentrations in the sub soil layer are still low. 58 refs, 8 tabs, 1 fig

  10. Coupling bioleaching and electrokinetics to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyun; Yu, Zhen; Pang, Ya; Wang, Yueqiang; Cai, Zhihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, bioleaching was coupled with electrokinetics (BE) to remove heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) from contaminated soil. For comparison, bioleaching (BL), electrokinetics (EK), and the chemical extraction method were also applied alone to remove the metals. The results showed that the BE method removed more heavy metals from the contaminated soil than the BL method or the EK method alone. The BE method was able to achieve metal solubilization rates of more than 70 % for Cu, Zn and Cr and of more than 40 % for Pb. Within the range of low current densities (bioleaching coupled with electrokinetics can effectively remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils and that preliminary tests should be conducted before field operation to detect the lowest current density for the greatest metal removal. PMID:25680933

  11. Heavy metals and epigenetic alterations in brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Maria; Caruso, Gerardo; Fata, Giuseppe La; Barresi, Valeria; Visalli, Maria; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals and their derivatives can cause various diseases. Numerous studies have evaluated the possible link between exposure to heavy metals and various cancers. Recent data show a correlation between heavy metals and aberration of genetic and epigenetic patterns. From a literature search we noticed few experimental and epidemiological studies that evaluate a possible correlation between heavy metals and brain tumors. Gliomas arise due to genetic and epigenetic alterations of glial cells. Changes in gene expression result in the alteration of the cellular division process. Epigenetic alterations in brain tumors include the hypermethylation of CpG group, hypomethylation of specific genes, aberrant activation of genes, and changes in the position of various histones. Heavy metals are capable of generating reactive oxygen assumes that key functions in various pathological mechanisms. Alteration of homeostasis of metals could cause the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and induce DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and alteration of proteins. In this study we summarize the possible correlation between heavy metals, epigenetic alterations and brain tumors. We report, moreover, the review of relevant literature. PMID:25646073

  12. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  13. Bioindication of atmospheric trace metals - With special references to megacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markert, Bernd, E-mail: markert@schlundmail.de [Fliederweg 17, D-49733 Haren/Erika (Germany); Wuenschmann, Simone [Fliederweg 17, D-49733 Haren/Erika (Germany); Fraenzle, Stefan [International Graduate School Zittau, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Graciana Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Ribeiro, Andreza P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Linea Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Wang Meie [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Centre for Eco-environmental Sciences, Beijing 110016 (China)

    2011-08-15

    After considering the particular problems of atmospheric pollution in megacities, i.e. agglomerations larger than 5 mio. inhabitants, with urbanization of World's population going on steadily, possibilities of active biomonitoring by means of green plants are discussed. Based on specific definitions of active and passive bioindication the chances of monitoring heavy metals in Sao Paulo megacity were demonstrated (first results published before). This is to show that there is need for increased use of bioindication to tackle the particular problems of megacities concerning environmental 'health', the data to be processed according to the Multi-Markered-Bioindication-Concept (MMBC). Comparison to other work shows this approach to be reasonable. - Highlights: > Chemical Pollution. > Bioindication. > Multi-Markered-Bioindication-Concept (MMBC). > Mega cities. - Bioindication is a relevant technique for observing the atmospheric deposition of chemical elements of the environment in megacities.

  14. Origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in polluted ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Notten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions of heavy metals result in pollution of the soil, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and this pollution is a potential threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. Biesbosch National Park (the Netherlands) is exposed to chronic and diffuse pollution of heavy metals. The park is the floodplain area in which the rivers Rhine and Meuse join. They contained high loads of heavy metals in the 1960s and 1970s, and polluted sediments were deposited in the floodplains. These polluted layer...

  15. RESPONSE MICROORGANISMS TO SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Kaczynska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to evaluate the effect that the soil contamination with zinc, copper and cadmium has on the number of (CFUAzotobacter, organotrophic bacteria and Streptomyces. The results of the experiment revealed their role in the CFU modification and the impact on the level of soil contamination with heavy metals. Organotrophic bacteria have a similar tolerance to the heavy metals as Streptomyces, since the lowest resistance characterizes the Azotobacter. The toxicity of the examined heavy metals can be ranked as follows (from the most sensitive to the least: Azotobacter>organotrophic bacteria>Streptomyces. It can be concluded that the succession of the microorganuisms is determined by the soil fertility, which stimulates both the characteristics and biochemical transformations, that occur in it through the mechanisms involved in reducing the negative impact of the heavy metals on the number of microorganisms.

  16. Polysiloxane based CHEMFETs for the detection of heavy metal ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtenberg, Ronny J.W.; Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Egberink, Richard J.M.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1996-01-01

    The development of polysiloxane based chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs) for heavy metal ions is described. Different polar siloxane copolymers have been synthesized via an anionic copolymerization of hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane, [3-(methacryloxy)propyl]pentamethylcyclotrisiloxan

  17. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

  18. Toxicity of heavy metals to thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahring, B.K.; Westermann, P.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on the thermophilic digestion of sewage sludge was studied in three semicontinuous digesters step-fed with cadmium, copper and nickel, respectively. The daily gas production, gas composition, the quantitative accumulation of volatile fatty acids, and the distribution of the heavy metals were measured. The fermentations were carried out at 58 degrees C with a retention time of 10 days and an addition of 1.7 g volatile solids/l of reactor volume per day. Nickel was found to be 2-3 times more water soluble than cadmium and copper when the digesters were fed raw sludge containing heavy metals. The three digesters all showed tendencies to acclimate to the heavy metals up to a certain level. 200 mg nickel/l was completely inhibitory while the same response was observed for cadmium and copper at 300 mg/l. (Refs. 20).

  19. Heavy metals removal from dredged sediments using electro kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammami M. T.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the use of a remediation process to remove particle-bound recalcitrant pollutants (heavy metals from dredged harbor sediments which must be previously treated before reuse in civil engineering. Electrokinetic (EK remediation is generally accepted as one of the most suitable technologies for extracting cationic heavy metals from fine grained sediments. Many batch tests were performed to better understand the capacity of various additives to improve sediment decontamination (when applying a constant voltage gradient of 1 V.cm-1, and the combination of enhancing agents (acids + surfactants were assessed to obtain an efficient removal of heavy metals. We succeeded in proving that mixing citric acid and a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20, additives which are environmentally friendly, was a good association to enhance heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn removal.

  20. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Risks from electromagnetic devices are of considerable concern. Electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons attribute a variety of rather unspecific symptoms to the exposure to electromagnetic fields. The pathophysiology of EHS is unknown and therapy remains a challenge. Objectives: Heavy metal load has been discussed as a potential factor in the symptomatology of EHS patients. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis of a link between EHS and heavy metal exposure. Methods: We measured lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in the blood of 132 patients (n = 42 males and n = 90 females) and 101 controls (n = 34 males and n = 67 females). Results: Our results show that heavy metal load is of no concern in most cases of EHS but might play a role in exceptional cases. Conclusions: The data do not support the general advice to heavy metal detoxification in EHS.

  1. Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ahmadi, David, E-mail: david.ahmadi@web.de [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany); Engel, Alice; Weidemann, Joerg [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany); Budnik, Lygia Therese; Baur, Xaver [Institute for Occupational Medicine and Maritime Medicine (ZfAM), University of Hamburg (Germany); Frick, Ulrich [Department of Psychiatry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Healthcare Management, Carinthia University of Applied Sciences (Austria); Hauser, Simone [Department of Psychiatry, University of Regensburg (Germany); Dahmen, Norbert [Department of Psychiatry, University of Mainz (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Risks from electromagnetic devices are of considerable concern. Electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons attribute a variety of rather unspecific symptoms to the exposure to electromagnetic fields. The pathophysiology of EHS is unknown and therapy remains a challenge. Objectives: Heavy metal load has been discussed as a potential factor in the symptomatology of EHS patients. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis of a link between EHS and heavy metal exposure. Methods: We measured lead, mercury and cadmium concentrations in the blood of 132 patients (n = 42 males and n = 90 females) and 101 controls (n = 34 males and n = 67 females). Results: Our results show that heavy metal load is of no concern in most cases of EHS but might play a role in exceptional cases. Conclusions: The data do not support the general advice to heavy metal detoxification in EHS.

  2. Heavy metal pollution disturbs immune response in wild ant populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorvari, Jouni [Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: jouni.sorvari@utu.fi; Rantala, Liisa M. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rantala, Markus J. [Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 USA (United States); Hakkarainen, Harri [Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Eeva, Tapio [Section of Ecology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    Concern about the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in both humans and wildlife is growing and practically nothing is known about this impact on terrestrial invertebrates, even though they are known to easily accumulate pollutants. We studied the effect of industrial heavy metal contamination on immune defense of a free-living wood ant (Formica aquilonia). To find out whether ants show an adapted immune function in a polluted environment, we compared encapsulation responses between local and translocated colonies. Local colonies showed higher heavy metal levels than the translocated ones but the encapsulation response was similar between the two groups, indicating that the immune system of local ants has not adapted to high contamination level. The encapsulation response was elevated in moderate whereas suppressed in high heavy metal levels suggesting higher risk for infections in heavily polluted areas. - Heavy metal pollution affects immune function in ants.

  3. Heavy metal pollution disturbs immune response in wild ant populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern about the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in both humans and wildlife is growing and practically nothing is known about this impact on terrestrial invertebrates, even though they are known to easily accumulate pollutants. We studied the effect of industrial heavy metal contamination on immune defense of a free-living wood ant (Formica aquilonia). To find out whether ants show an adapted immune function in a polluted environment, we compared encapsulation responses between local and translocated colonies. Local colonies showed higher heavy metal levels than the translocated ones but the encapsulation response was similar between the two groups, indicating that the immune system of local ants has not adapted to high contamination level. The encapsulation response was elevated in moderate whereas suppressed in high heavy metal levels suggesting higher risk for infections in heavily polluted areas. - Heavy metal pollution affects immune function in ants

  4. Biomonitoring of heavy metals: Definitions, possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing attention given to heavy metals as components of the pollutant load in ecosystems makes it necessary to find reliable biological indicators. Fundamental investigations into the effect of heavy metals on organisms are therefore required. Different organisms (mosses, snails, etc.) were chosen as indicator organisms to optimize the indication of heavy metal loads at the physiological and biochemical level. All current programmes are designed to observe and measure pollutant inputs on a short or long-term basis. However, the changes in the environment of a phenological, physiological, sociological, genetic and physiological/biochemical nature have been investigated by biologists since the beginning of biological scientific research. So far excellent scientific results have been produced by qualification of the heavy metal status in ecosystems. Until now, the quantification of the results with regard to pollutant inputs in ecosystems (mass balances) and their action in these ecosystems have been investigated inadequately. (author)

  5. Detection of heavy metal by paper-based microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Gritsenko, Dmitry; Feng, Shaolong; Teh, Yi Chen; Lu, Xiaonan; Xu, Jie

    2016-09-15

    Heavy metal pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide. Current methods for the detection of heavy metals require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Various microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have been developed recently as simple, cheap and disposable alternatives to conventional ones for on-site detection of heavy metals. In this review, we first summarize current development of paper-based analytical devices and discuss the selection of paper substrates, methods of device fabrication, and relevant theories in these devices. We then compare and categorize recent reports on detection of heavy metals using paper-based microfluidic devices on the basis of various detection mechanisms, such as colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical methods. To finalize, the future development and trend in this field are discussed. PMID:27131999

  6. Responses of the lichen Cladonia convoluta to high CO{sub 2} level and heavy metal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, Z.; Csintalan, Z.; Tuba, Z. [Agricultural Univ. of Goedoello (Hungary). Dept. of Botany and Plant Physiology

    1999-10-01

    Despite of the downward acclimation of photosynthesis in C. convoluta, increased net photosynthesis and carbon balance can be anticipated in response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. CO{sub 2} exchange measurement seems to be more indicative when detecting heavy metal stress than fluorescence parameters. Among these, the relative fluorescence decrease ratio (RFd690) shows damage first, suggesting that the primary attack site for heavy metal ions is CO{sub 2} fixation and reaction centres are harmed last. Long-term elevated CO{sub 2} ameliorates partly this damage by improving C-balance to a greater extent in the heavy-metal stressed lichens. (orig.)

  7. Trend of heavy metal and sulphur deposition in Finland from the 1980`s to 1990`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubin, E.; Lippo, H. [Forest Research Inst., Muhos (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The moss technique to survey atmospheric heavy metal deposition was developed in Sweden in the late 1960`s. The surveys has extended from regional and national basis to cover all the Nordic countries in 1985, to northern Europe in 1990 and to a large part of Europe in 1990-92. National reports have also been published in many countries. The Forest Research Institute established a network of 3009 secret permanent monitoring sites all over the country in 1985 and 1986 for forest inventory and for monitoring the situation and changes in the forests. One essential part has been to study the effects of air pollution - including heavy metal and sulphur deposition on forests. Deposition has been monitored by collecting bioindicators and analysing the element concentrations. The purpose of this report is to show the trend of the heavy metal and sulphur deposition from the 1980`s to 1990`s and in addition to produce information about the emission sources. (author)

  8. Estimating of a stationary metal atmospheric corrosion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A function determining stabilized rate of atmospheric corrosion of ferrous and nonferrous metals is suggested. The calculated value of stabilized corrosion rate is used as a standard one for evaluating corrosion resistance of metals in different atmospheric conditions

  9. Variation in dry grassland communities along a heavy metals gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woch, Marcin W; Kapusta, Paweł; Stefanowicz, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in plant communities growing on metal-enriched sites created by historical Zn–Pb mining. The study sites were 65 small heaps of waste rock covered by grassland vegetation and scattered mostly over agricultural land of southern Poland. The sites were described in terms of plant coverage, species richness and composition, and the composition of plant traits. They were classified using phytosociological methods and detrended correspondence analysis. Identified plant communities were compared for vegetation parameters and habitat properties (soil characteristics, distance from the forest) by analysis of variance. The variation in plant community parameters was explained by multiple regression, in which the predictors were properties of the habitat selected on the basis of factor analysis. Grasslands that developed at low and high concentrations of heavy metals in soil were similar to some extent: they were composed on average of 17–20 species (per 4 m(2)), and their total coverage exceeded 90%. The species composition changed substantially with increasing contamination with heavy metals; metal-sensitive species withdrew, while the metal-tolerant became more abundant. Other important predictors of community structure were: proximity to the forest (responsible for the encroachment of competitive forest species and ruderals), and the thickness of the surface soil (shallow soil favored the formation of the heavy metal grassland). The heavy metal grassland was closely related to the dry calcareous grasslands. The former was an earlier succession stage of the latter at low contamination with heavy metals. PMID:26493699

  10. Study of heavy metals in urban runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted through Tehran city and a field study was conducted to prepare main and accessory drainage channels map. Three main drainage channels were identified for this research and some sampling stations were chosen. Three stations selected in south of Tehran. The reason for selecting these stations is that all urban surface run off completely pass through these points and samples taken from these points are representative of all kinds of pollutants that transit from city surface. Another three stations were selected in center and further three stations were selected at north of Tehran. Surface runoff flow in three main channels, from north of south of Tehran, converge at south of Rey city and finally end up to Ghom Salt lake. The stations were chosen at three trajectories Sorkhe Hesar, Emad Avard, Kan. At each month two samples were from nine different stations. After collection of samples with respect to standard methods, they were dissolved in nitric acid and then analyzed by atomic absorption device. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants increased from north to south. For instance, Zinc had most concentration with monthly average of 0.98 mg/l and Nickel had the lowest amount with 0.02 mg/l in southern stations. Average concentration of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were: 0.638, 0.97, 0.04 and 0.035 mg/l respectively. Total average concentrations of heavy metals at three main channels were of 0.177, 0.176 and 0.145 mg/l. Emad Avard was the most polluted channel

  11. RESPONSE MICROORGANISMS TO SOIL CONTAMINATION WITH HEAVY METALS

    OpenAIRE

    Grazyna Kaczynska; Aneta Lipinska; Jadwiga Wyszkowska; Jan Kucharski

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of our work was to evaluate the effect that the soil contamination with zinc, copper and cadmium has on the number of (CFU)Azotobacter, organotrophic bacteria and Streptomyces. The results of the experiment revealed their role in the CFU modification and the impact on the level of soil contamination with heavy metals. Organotrophic bacteria have a similar tolerance to the heavy metals as Streptomyces, since the lowest resistance characterizes the Azotobacter. The toxicity of the ...

  12. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    OpenAIRE

    Vukojević Vanja; Sabovljević Marko; Jovanović S.

    2005-01-01

    Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators) can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils) or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals). Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia). The content of various heavy meta...

  13. Semen quality and heavy metal and pesticides toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jaime Mendiola Olivares; Alberto Manuel Torres-Cantero

    2014-01-01

    Male reproductive function has deteriorated significantly in the past 50 years and this change could be related to an exposure to occupational and environmental pollutants and toxicants. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the negative impact of human exposure to heavy metals and pesticides on the male reproductive function. Most pesticides and heavy metals are considered reproductive toxicants and may adversely harm the male reproductive system due to their disrupting effect on the hyp...

  14. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Najiah, M.; L.W. Tee

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+). Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%), oleandomycin (72.7%) an...

  15. Heavy Metals Contamination of Table Salt Consumed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Kobarfard, Farzad; Faeizy, Noroldin

    2010-01-01

    Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are the most important heavy metals which may cause health risks following consumption of contaminated foods. Table salt is one the mostly used food additive with unique place in food consumption. Although purified table salt is expected to have lower level of contamination, some Iranians still prefer to use rock salt. Use of rock salt for food purposes has been banned by Iranian health authorities. In this study, heavy metal contamination of table salt cons...

  16. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN HERBAL PLANTS FROM SOME GHANAIAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah; Juliana Boateng; Jacob Asomaning; Stephen Boahen Asabere

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the magnitude of heavy metals (arsenic [As], copper [Cu], cadmium [Cd] and mercury [Hg]) contamination that may be present in some Ghanaian medicinal herbs/plants available in local markets and also to compare the levels with recommended levels by the International Organization. A total of 267 samples of herbal plants representing 18 different plants collected from several markets in Ghana were tested for heavy metals contamination. Atomic Absorption Spect...

  17. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    OpenAIRE

    Huixuan Li; Yingru Li; Ming-Kuo Lee; Zhongwei Liu; Changhong Miao

    2015-01-01

    China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1) spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2) spatial statistical...

  18. Assessment of heavy metal contents of green leafy vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sapana; Jena, V.; Jena, S.; Davić, Neda; Matić, Natalija; Radojević, D.; Solanki, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and have beneficial antioxidative effects. Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main routes through which these elements enter the human body. Slowly released into the body, however, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. In this study we investigated the concentrations of copper, chromium, zinc, and lead in the most frequently consumed vegetables including Pimpinella anisum, Spinacia oleracea, Amara...

  19. Heavy metals removal from dredged sediments using electro kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Ammami M. T.; Benamar A.; Koltalo F.; Wang H. Q.; LeDerf F.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the use of a remediation process to remove particle-bound recalcitrant pollutants (heavy metals) from dredged harbor sediments which must be previously treated before reuse in civil engineering. Electrokinetic (EK) remediation is generally accepted as one of the most suitable technologies for extracting cationic heavy metals from fine grained sediments. Many batch tests were performed to better understand the capacity of various additives to improve sediment decontaminat...

  20. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; S. C. Obiora

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  1. Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sethy, Sunil Kumar; Ghosh, Shyamasree

    2013-01-01

    With the expansion of the world population, the environmental pollution and toxicity by chemicals raises concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, acids and heavy metals in the natural resources like soil, water and air thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting both plants and animals. Heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt, chromium and m...

  2. An optical dosimeter for monitoring heavy metal ions in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Regan, Fiona; Leamy, D.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Ciaccheri, L.

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an optochemical dosimeter for determining and discriminating nickel, copper, and cobalt ions in water that can be used as an early warning system for water pollution. An inexpensive fiber optic spectrophotometer monitors the sensor's spectral behavior under exposure to water solutions of heavy metal ions in the 1-10 mg/l concentration range. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method quantitatively determines the heavy metals and discriminates their type and combination.

  3. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soil and water in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Thi Kim Anh; Dang, Dinh Kim; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh,; Nguyen, Quang Trung; Nguyen, Hong Chuyen

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation has been intensively studied during the past decade due to its cost-effectiveness and environmental harmonies. Most of the studies on treatment of heavy metal pollution in soil and water by plant species have been done in developed countries but are limited in Vietnam. In this study, we presented some research results of phytoremediation of polluted soils and water with heavy metals that were done by Institute of Environmental Technology for several last years. For treatment ...

  4. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Monge; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Antonio García-Alix; Francisca Martínez-Ruiz; Nadine Mattielli; Clive Finlayson; Naohiko Ohkouchi; Miguel Cortés Sánchez; Jose María Bermúdez de Castro; Ruth Blasco; Jordi Rosell; José Carrión; Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal; Geraldine Finlayson

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution ...

  5. Heavy Metal Pollution in the Boatin Reserve (Bulgaria)

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELOV, Georgi Borisov

    2008-01-01

    Background concentrations of the heavy metals Mn, Ni, Cd, Co, Zn, Cu, and Pb in the soils and plant monitors of the Boatin Reserve were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Surface soil layers of the Boatin Reserve were polluted with Cu, as its concentration exceeded both the national legal standards and the content of Cu in non-polluted areas. Analysis of heavy metals accumulation in all studied plant monitors indicated that the content of Cu, Pb, ...

  6. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM MINE SOILS USING HYPERACCUMULATOR PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Ruiz Fernández, Juan; Masaguer Rodríguez, Alberto; Moliner Aramendia, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Phytoextraction is an environmental-friendly and cost-effective technology that uses metal hyperaccumulator plants to remove heavy metals from soils. The metals are absorbed by the roots, transported and accumulated in the aerial parts of the plants, which can be harvested and eliminated. The aim of this work was to study some hyperaccumulator species that could be useful to decontaminate mine soils and also to investigate the bioavailability and uptake of these metals by plants with the addi...

  7. Selective adsorption of heavy and light metals by natural zeolites

    OpenAIRE

    Fosso-Kankeu, Elvis; Reitz, Magdali; Waanders, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that zeolite can be applied through an ion-exchange process to remove metals from solutions. In this paper the potential of two zeolites to perform as sorbents for treatment of multi-metal system is investigated. Parameters such as initial metal concentration, contact time, zeolite type and affinity for heavy versus light metals are taken into consideration. All the samples were prepared and characterized by XRD, XRF and FTIR. Evaluating suitable model for the det...

  8. Comparison of eleven heavy metals in moringa oleifera lam. products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Limmatvapirat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health.

  9. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  10. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Egodawatta, Prasanna; McGree, James; Liu, An; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-07-01

    Toxic chemical pollutants such as heavy metals (HMs) are commonly present in urban stormwater. These pollutants can pose a significant risk to human health and hence a significant barrier for urban stormwater reuse. The primary aim of this study was to develop an approach for quantitatively assessing the risk to human health due to the presence of HMs in stormwater. This approach will lead to informed decision making in relation to risk management of urban stormwater reuse, enabling efficient implementation of appropriate treatment strategies. In this study, risks to human health from heavy metals were assessed as hazard index (HI) and quantified as a function of traffic and land use related parameters. Traffic and land use are the primary factors influencing heavy metal loads in the urban environment. The risks posed by heavy metals associated with total solids and fine solids (human health. These findings suggest that stormwater guidelines should consider the combined risk from multiple heavy metals rather than the threshold concentration of an individual species. Furthermore, it was found that risk to human health from heavy metals in stormwater is significantly influenced by traffic volume and the risk associated with stormwater from industrial areas is generally higher than that from commercial and residential areas. PMID:27046140

  11. Surficial and vertical distribution of heavy metals in different estuary wetlands in the Pearl river, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Kejiang [Xinjiang Research Center of Water and Wastewater Treatment, Xinjiang Deland Co., LTD., Urumqi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A total of 87 soil profiles sampled from five types of wetlands in the Pearl River estuary were analyzed to investigate the surficial and vertical distributions of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The results show that wetlands directly connected with rivers (e.g., riparian wetlands, estuarine wetlands, and mangrove wetlands) has much higher metal concentrations than those indirectly connected with rivers (e.g., pond wetlands and reclaimed wetlands). The river water is the major pollution source for all investigated heavy metals. The vertical distribution of heavy metals can be classified into three patterns: (i) linear distribution pattern. The concentration of heavy metals gradually decreases with an increase in soil depth (for riparian and estuarine wetlands); (ii) irregular and stable pattern (for pond and reclaimed wetlands); and (iii) middle enrichment pattern (for mangrove wetlands). In addition to river-borne inputs, a variety of vegetation composition, hydraulic conditions, and human activities also contribute to the variation in distribution of heavy metals in different wetlands. Soil properties (e.g., particle size, pH, salinity, and SOM) also affect the distribution of trace metals in each soil layer. The major pollution source of heavy metals is industrial wastewater. Other sources include agriculture and domestic premises, and atmospheric deposition. This study provides a sound basis for the risk assessment of heavy metals in the studied wetlands and for wetland conservation in general. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Determination of heavy metal pollution in Zonguldak (Turkey) by moss analysis (hypnum cupressiforme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, G.; Avcil, E.; Oren, M.; Karaca, F.; Oncel, M.S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Science & Arts

    2009-01-15

    This paper explores the first attempt at determining the levels of atmospheric heavy metal contamination in the Zonguldak province through the analysis of moss (Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw.). Sampling was performed at 24 sites after a wet period to avoid contamination from soil compounds in the province. Dried samples, which were unwashed but cleaned of soil particles and other extraneous material, were digested with HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4}. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and As) were analyzed by ICP-OES to estimate the geographic distribution of the atmospheric heavy metal depositions. The general order of the concentrations of the heavy metal content in Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. was observed to be Fe > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > As > Co. Mean levels of the measured elements were higher when compared to European levels. Arsenic, iron, and chromium were the most elevated elements when compared with European data. The mean concentrations of these elements in the studied area were 8.3 (Co), 6.7 (Fe), 5.2 (Cr), 4.6 (As), and 2.7 (Ni) times the background levels of the reference site (C3). Among the studied heavy metals, only lead showed little variation in measured values due to traffic in the area. Main sources of increased heavy metal content of the moss samples were found to be: I) the Catalagzi Power Plant (CATES); ii) the Eregli Iron-Steel Plant (ERDEMIR); iii) space heating; and iv) traffic-related emissions. Results are presented in the form of color-scaled contour maps using a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based mapping technique.

  13. Factors Affecting the Binding of a Recombinant Heavy Metal-Binding Domain (CXXC motif Protein to Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Boonyodying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of heavy metal-binding proteins have been used to study bioremediation. CXXC motif, a metal binding domain containing Cys-X-X-Cys motif, has been identified in various organisms. These proteins are capable of binding various types of heavy metals. In this study, heavy metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein encoded from mcsA gene of S. aureus were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The factors involved in the metal-binding activity were determined in order to analyze the potential of recombinant protein for bioremediation. A recombinant protein can be bound to Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. The thermal stability of a recombinant protein was tested, and the results showed that the metal binding activity to Cu2+ and Zn2+ still exist after treating the protein at 85ºC for 30 min. The temperature and pH that affected the metal binding activity was tested and the results showed that recombinant protein was still bound to Cu2+ at 65ºC, whereas a pH of 3-7 did not affect the metal binding E. coli harboring a pRset with a heavy metal-binding domain CXXC motif increased the resistance of heavy metals against CuCl2 and CdCl2. This study shows that metal binding domain (CXXC motif recombinant protein can be effectively bound to various types of heavy metals and may be used as a potential tool for studying bioremediation.

  14. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied in......-moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases are...... lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected that the...

  15. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied in...... lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected that the......-moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases are...

  16. Magnetic Properties and Heavy Metals in topsoils from Mexico City: Implications for Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Bermea, O.; Hernandez-Alvarez, E.; Acosta, T.; Martinez, E.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2006-12-01

    Initial results of a long-term geochemical and magnetic mineralogy study of the heavy metal pollution as recorded in topsoils in Mexico City are reported. We concentrate on investigating the contents and distribution of heavy metals and magnetic minerals in sediments associated to atmospheric particulate pollutants. The geological setting, environmental characteristics and development history of Mexico City make this extensive urban and industrial area a natural laboratory to investigate air-, land- and water-pollution. Thirty-eight samples from surface soils were collected from localities within the metropolitan area, which represent different traffic conditions and heavy metal pollution levels. Elemental determinations are made with induced-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Magnetic mineralogy is investigated by low-field susceptibility, remanence intensity, magnetic hysteresis and coercivity spectra analyses on natural and laboratory-induced magnetizations. Soils show high pollution levels indicated by increase concentrations of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd, and by high contents of iron minerals (iron-titanium oxides). Urban soils close to dense slow traffic condition zones show the higher heavy metal concentrations, like it was to be expected, some of them exceeding the allowed limits.

  17. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on heavy metal decontamination in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porova, Nataliya; Botvinnikova, Valentina; Krasulya, Olga; Cherepanov, Pavel; Potoroko, Irina

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound has been found useful in increasing the efficiency and consumer safety in food processing. Removal of heavy metal (lead, mercury, and arsenic) contamination in milk is extremely important in regions of poor ecological environment - urban areas with heavy motor traffic or well established metallurgical/cement industry. In this communication, we report on the preliminary studies on the application of low frequency (20kHz) ultrasound for heavy metal decontamination of milk without affecting its physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. PMID:24746508

  18. Heavy metals effect in Drosophila melanogaster germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metals occur naturally and some of them are very important in cellular metabolism. Industrial development has increased metal concentration in the environment and in the living organisms tissues. This increase promotes the human risk to suffer teratogenesis, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Different biological systems have been used to proof the genetic effect of heavy metals including Drosophila. In the present work chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc and arsenic salts were administered to Drosophila females and males adults in order to determine the genetic effect produced by these compounds, in both femenine and masculine germinal cells. The mating system used (''Oster males'' and y2wsup(a)/y2wsup(a); e/e females) permited to determine among two succesive generations, the mutagenic effects produced by heavy metals in Drosophila. The salts administration to adult flies was made by injection. Non-disjunction, X-chromosome loss, and sex linked recessive lethals frequency was increased by heavy metals. It was observed a fertility disminution between F 1 descendants from individuals treated with the metalic salts. It was demonstrated that heavy metals can interact with genetic material at different levels in the two types of gametic cells to produce genetic damage. (author)

  19. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen. PMID:27127923

  20. Evidence for Significantly Enriched Heavy Oxygen in Mars Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, Timothy A.; Kostiuk, T.; Hewagama, T.; Smith, R. L.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.; Stangier, T.

    2012-10-01

    The loss of primordial atmosphere from Mars should have resulted in significant enrichment of heavy isotopes in Mars carbon dioxide, which has not previously been observed. Atmospheric isotope ratios provide important context in which to interpret the geochemistry of Mars meteorites and future returned samples. Biotic and abiotic isotope-fractionation occur relative to the available chemical reservoirs, enabling a tool to interpret chemical fossils for Mars astrobiology. We report on high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of Mars obtained in October 2007 from the NASA IRTF, targeting the sub-solar latitude in late southern summer. The measured spectra include fully-resolved pressure-broadened absorption features due to cool tropospheric carbon dioxide above the warm surface and an absorption feature that is definitively due to the isotopologue that is singly-substituted with oxygen-18. The ratio of oxygen-18 to the normal isotope can be recovered from fitting the whole spectrum in absorption against the warm surface. The mean value of the retrieved oxygen-18 fraction differs insignificantly from the terrestrial VSMOW standard, consistent with prior in situ and remote-spectroscopy efforts, which found only modest differences from VSMOW. Comparison between the retrieved isotope ratio and the surface temperature reveals that the concentration of isotopically heavy carbon dioxide is correlated with the local surface temperature, suggesting that the heavy gas is preferentially adsorbed by the regolith at low night temperatures and released in warm day temperatures. The minimum retrieved isotope fraction is consistent with the solar wind ratio measured by the Genesis mission, indicating that any accuracy error in the spectroscopic parameters used for the retrieval must have resulted in underestimating heavy-isotope enrichment. The maximum retrieved isotope ratio is significantly enhanced relative to VSMOW and relative to prior retrievals on Mars. We provide additional

  1. Body burdens of heavy metals in Lake Michigan wetland turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dayna L; Cooper, Matthew J; Kosiara, Jessica M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    Tissue heavy metal concentrations in painted (Chrysemys picta) and snapping (Chelydra serpentina) turtles from Lake Michigan coastal wetlands were analyzed to determine (1) whether turtles accumulated heavy metals, (2) if tissue metal concentrations were related to environmental metal concentrations, and (3) the potential for non-lethal sampling techniques to be used for monitoring heavy metal body burdens in freshwater turtles. Muscle, liver, shell, and claw samples were collected from painted and snapping turtles and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. Turtle tissues had measurable quantities of all eight metals analyzed. Statistically significant correlations between tissue metal concentrations and sediment metal concentrations were found for a subset of metals. Metals were generally found in higher concentrations in the larger snapping turtles than in painted turtles. In addition, non-lethal samples of shell and claw were found to be possible alternatives to lethal liver and muscle samples for some metals. Human consumption of snapping turtles presents potential health risks if turtles are harvested from contaminated areas. Overall, our results suggest that turtles could be a valuable component of contaminant monitoring programs for wetland ecosystems. PMID:26832725

  2. Origin, transfer and effects of heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in polluted ecosystems of Biesbosch National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions of heavy metals result in pollution of the soil, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and this pollution is a potential threat to the health of humans and ecosystems. Biesbosch National Park (the Netherlands) is exposed to chronic and diffuse pollution of heavy metals. The park is the flo

  3. Magnetic filtration of heavy metals containing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-intensity magnetic separation is applied above all in the beneficiation of fine-grained weakly magnetic ores, but also in the treatment of industrial, especially metallurgical and mining waters as well as of wastewaters from nuclear power stations. Similarly, it can be used in the field of geothermal energy supply and gases filtration. The magnetic separation or filtration respectively, directly enables the treatment of waters contaminated by solid ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles. The magnetic filtration can remove heavy metals ions and even the oil substances by means of magnetic sorbents or special additives. The filtration of solid magnetic particles can be carried out in matrix-less and matrix separators. On the basis of mathematical description of particles dynamics and hydrodynamic conditions of suspension flow which resulted in the determination of geometrical parameters of separating zone the design of matrix-less magnetic separator was carried out. A strong, high-intensity magnetic field was created by means of a superconductive magnetic circuit. It was found out that for the achievement of optimal technological parameters during the magnetic separation of solid particles with grain size under 40 mm, the maximal solids concentration is to be 200 g/L. The design of matrix parameters and selection of inductive filling resides in theoretical considerations as well as in experimental works. Under laboratory condition the influence of following parameters on magnetic filtration process have been observed: the diameter of inductive ferromagnetic balls, the thickness of filtration layer, the intensity of magnetic field, the flow velocity of suspension, the density of suspension, the grain size of solids and the temperature of suspension. It was found that a spatial arrangement of inductive bodies in filtration layer influences not only the velocity of suspension flow but also a room size for catching of magnetic particles. The acting of magnetic

  4. Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of soil, the contaminant's chemical and physical characteristics and environmental factors such as climate and hydrology interact to determine the accumulation, mobility, toxicity, and overall significance of the contaminant in any specific instance. Although many metals are essential, all metals are toxic at higher concentrations, because they cause oxidative stress by formation of free radicals. Another reason why metals may be toxic is that they can replace essential metals in enzymes disrupting their function. Thus, metals render the land unsuitable for plant growth and destroy the biodiversity. Metal contaminated soil can be remediated by chemical, physical and biological techniques

  5. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface. PMID:25919648

  6. Possibility of using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review of metal uranium properties including irradiation in the reactor core lead to the following conclusions. Using metal uranium in the heavy water reactors would be favourable from economic point of view for ita high density, i.e. high conversion factor and low cost of fuel elements fabrication. Most important constraint is swelling during burnup and corrosion

  7. 大气沉降及土壤扬尘对天津城郊蔬菜重金属含量的影响%Effects of Atmospheric and Dust Deposition on Content of Heavy Metals in Vegetables in Suburbs of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程珂; 杨新萍; 赵方杰

    2015-01-01

    Soils in the suburban vegetable fields in China may have a high risk of heavy metal contamination. A field experiment was con-ducted in a vegetable field with an elevated cadmium content in the soil near Tianjin to investigate the effects of zinc and manganese fertiliz-ers on cadmium uptake by different leafy vegetables and to estimate the contribution of atmospheric and dust deposition on heavy metal con-tent in vegetables. Results showed that the availability of cadmium and other heavy metals in the soils was low and all vegetables produced met the national food safety standards for heavy metals. Furthermore, applications of organic fertilizers enriched with either zinc or man-ganese had no significant effects on heavy metal content in the vegetables. Three methods were used to investigate the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in vegetables, including monitoring atmospheric deposition, comparing heavy metal content in washed and un-washed vegetables and calculating the relationship between heavy metals and titanium content in vegetables. Results showed that atmo-spheric deposition and soil dust contributed to 33.7%, 83.7%, 72.8%and 71.0%, respectively, of the total content of cadmium, arsenic, lead and chromium in unwashed vegetables. Washing significantly reduced heavy metal content in vegetables. Therefore, priority should be given to monitoring heavy metal contamination in vegetables caused by atmospheric deposition.%为探究土壤重金属污染对蔬菜中重金属含量的影响,并分析蔬菜中重金属的主要来源,以天津城郊存在土壤重金属镉(Cd)超标风险的蔬菜基地为对象,施用特制含锌(Zn)、含锰(Mn)商品有机肥,对土壤和当地常见叶菜类蔬菜(油菜、芹菜、大白菜、生菜、葱)中重金属含量进行了测定。结果显示,该蔬菜基地土壤重金属有效性低,蔬菜中重金属含量均符合国家食品安全标准,施用含Zn、含Mn有机肥对蔬

  8. New Regeneration process of heavy metals loaded chelating resin

    OpenAIRE

    Menoud, P.; Cavin, L.; Renken, A.

    2000-01-01

    An alternative to the classical acid-base regeneration of chelating resins loaded with heavy metals is investigated. The new process consists in recovering the heavy metals with recyclable soluble complexing agents. The semiclosed reactor includes a fixed bed and a stirred tank. A three-parameter model, which implies a double equilibrium in series, is introduced. When less than 10 % of the metal is still fixed on the resin at the end of the desorption, a simplified form of the model with two ...

  9. Ecotoxicology of heavy metals: Liquid-phase extraction by nanosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, A.; Romantsova, I.; Babkin, A.; Neskoromnaya, E.; Kucherova, A.; Kashevich, Z.

    2015-11-01

    The paper considers the problem of extreme toxicity heavy metal compounds dissolved in wastewater and liquid emissions of industrial enterprises to living organisms and environment as a whole. The possibility of increasing extraction efficiency of heavy metal ions by sorption materials was demonstrated. The porous space of the latter was modified by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during process of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of carbon on metal oxide catalysts. The increasing of the sorption capacity (10-30%) and the sorption rate of nanomodified activated carbons in comparison with standard materials in the example of absorption of Co2+ and Ni2+ ions from aqueous solutions was proven.

  10. Mobility of heavy metals in soils amended with sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Luzán, María Teresa; Echeverría Morrás, Jesús; Garrido Segovia, Julián José

    2001-01-01

    Sewage sludges added to arable land can improve soil fertility and physical properties. However, the concentrations of heavy metals commonly found in sludges limits their application to soil. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in four soils amended with different rates (0, 80, 60 and 320 t ha-1) of anaerobically stabilized urban sewage sludge. Total metal content in the sewage sludge was Zn much greater than Cu > Pb > Ni much grea...

  11. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  12. Influence of Agriculture on Water Quality: Significance of Heavy Metals Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Nusreta Đonlagić; Amra Odobašić; Amra Bratovčić

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural activities directly influence the quality of water systems. Investigations showed that application of various agro-technical measures results with the pollution of water streams with heavy metals and other polluters. Increased concentrations of heavy metals result with intake of heavy metals and their transfer to food chains, and for that reason it is necessary to monitor the content of heavy metals regularly. Broad investigations of bio-geochemical cycling of heavy metals in the...

  13. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type

  14. Molecular Indicators of Soil Humification and Interaction with Heavy Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Teresa W.-M.; Higashi, Richard M.; Cassel, Teresa; Green, Peter; Lane, Andrew N.

    2003-03-26

    For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, interaction of soil organic matter (SOM) with heavy metal ions is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Using 13C- and 15N-labeled soil humates (HS), we investigated the turnover of five organic amendments (celluose, wheat straw, pine shavings, chitin and bone meal) in relation to heavy metal ion leaching in soil column experiments. The labeled molecular substructures in HS were examined by multinuclear 2-D NMR and pyrolysis GC-MS while the element profile in the leachates was analyzed by ICP-MS. Preliminary analysis revealed that peptidic and polysaccharidic structures were highly enriched, which suggests their microbial origin. Cd(II) leaching was significantly attenuated with humification of lignocellulosic materials. Correlation of 13C and 15N turnovers of HS substructures to metal leaching is underway.

  15. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators

  16. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummelin, Matti [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)]. E-mail: matti.nummelin@helsinki.fi; Lodenius, Martin [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Tulisalo, Esa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hirvonen, Heikki [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Alanko, Timo [Statistics Finland, FIN-00022 (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators.

  17. Increased Tolerance to Heavy Metals Exhibited by Swarming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, M.; Shrout, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes several different modes of motility to colonize surfaces, including swarming, which is the coordinated movement of cells over surfaces in groups. Swarming facilitates surface colonization and biofilm development for P. aeruginosa, and it is known that swarming behavior is influenced by changes in nutrient composition and surface moisture. To understand the fate and cycling of heavy metals in the environment, it is important to understand the interaction and toxicity of these metals upon bacteria. While previous studies have shown surface-attached bacterial biofilms to be highly resistant to heavy metal toxicity, little is known about the influence of heavy metals upon surface motile bacteria and developing biofilms. Using a combination of laboratory assays we examined differences in bacterial behavior in response to two metals, Cd and Ni. We find that surface swarming bacteria are able to grow on 4x and 2.5x more Cd and Ni, respectively, than planktonic cells (i.e., test tube cultures). P. aeruginosa was able to swarm in the presence ≤0.051mM Ni and ≤0.045mM Cd. To investigate the bioavailability of metals to bacteria growing under our examined conditions, we separated cell and supernatant fractions of P. aeruginosa cultures, and used ICP-MS techniques to measure Cd and Ni sorption. A greater percentage of Cd than Ni was sorbed by both cells and supernatant (which contains rhamnolipid, a surfactant known to sorb some metals and improve swarming). While we show that cell products such as rhamnolipid bind heavy metals (as expected) and should limit metal bioavailability, our results suggest at least one additional mechanism (as yet undetermined) that promotes cell survival during swarming in the presence of these heavy metals.

  18. Characterisation and distribution of heavy metals at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, M.; Rymer, H.; Gillman, M.; Blake, S.

    2011-12-01

    Activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is characterised by periodic cycles of intense gas emission that last years to decades. The volcano entered its current phase of degassing in 1993, which resulted in a low-level persistent gas plume. As a result of this continuous emission, the substantial deposition of heavy metals onto the surrounding soils (andosols) is thought to be occurring (Delfosse et al., 2003). The deposition of these heavy metal plume components, and their incorporation into soil, is of key interest because once discharged to the environment they accumulate throughout the food chain and may pose a serious ecological threat (Alloway, 1995). Although many studies have focused on the impacts of volcanic gases on the environment, few have addressed the fate of the metals released by persistent gas plumes. This study therefore investigates the patterns of heavy metal transport, deposition and distribution at Masaya in order to provide additional information on the processes that govern the behaviour of volcanic heavy metals. A number of agricultural and non-agricultural soils at two horizons (A: 0-10 cm and B: 20-30 cm) were collected and their trace metal content analysed. Twenty sites were sampled from the active vent to ~5 km downwind, as well as two control sites upwind of the volcano. Preliminary data suggest that a rapid deposition of metals occurs close to the source, with metal concentrations in the soil generally decreasing with distance away from the active vent. Cr and As clearly follow this trend, with maximum concentrations of 20.71 and 7.61 mg/kg respectively occurring closest to the vent. Concentration peaks for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn (959.30, 21.57, 13.44, 152.85, and 72.73 mg/kg respectively) occur slightly further away from the vent, implying that these metals are transported further. The concentration of Cr, Co, Al, Ni and Mn was found to increase from soil horizon A to B, whereas the abundance of Zn decreases with depth. Heavy metal

  19. Investigation of heavy metal stress on chemoheterotrophic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Monballiu, Annick; Chiang, Yi Wai; Cardon, Nele; Cornelly, Christel; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching uses microorganisms to extract valuable metals from minerals. It has risen as a sustainable alternative to conventional metal recovery processes for low grade ores and industrial waste materials such as incineration ashes as it could be more economical and environmentally friendly [1-2]. However, inherently to these materials is the presence of the hazardous heavy metals that can become toxic to the bioleaching microorganisms when released from its solid form, and potentially can ...

  20. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by fimbrial designer adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Kjærgaard, Kristian; Klemm, Per

    1999-01-01

    . By serial selection and enrichment procedures specific sequences were identified which conferred the ability on recombinant cells to adhere to various metal oxides (PbO2, CoO, MnO2, Cr2O3 ) The properties inherent in these sequences permitted the distinct recognition of metals to varying degrees...... for the bioaccumulation of heavy metals from the environment. (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against p...

  2. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation and Toxicity with Special Reference to Microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results from their binding to the sulphydryl groups in proteins or disrupting protein structure or displacing essential elements. Metals can break the oxidative balance of the algae, inducing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The amount of oxidized proteins and lipids in the algal cells thus indicates the severity of the stress. Algal tolerance to heavy metal is highly dependent upon the defense response against the probable oxidative damages. Production of binding factors and proteins, exclusion of metals from cells by ion-selective transporters and excretion or compartmentalization have been suggested with regard to reducing heavy metal toxicity. However, a comprehensive description on the mechanisms underlining metal toxicity of microalgae and gaining tolerance is yet to be elaborated.

  3. New trends in removing heavy metals from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meihua; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Chaosheng; Rong, Hongwei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    With the development of researches, the treatments of wastewater have reached a certain level. Whereas, heavy metals in wastewater cause special concern in recent times due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Therefore, it is important to get rid of the heavy metals in wastewater. The previous studies have provided many alternative processes in removing heavy metals from wastewater. This paper reviews the recent developments and various methods for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. It also evaluates the advantages and limitations in application of these techniques. A particular focus is given to innovative removal processes including adsorption on abiological adsorbents, biosorption, and photocatalysis. Because these processes have leaded the new trends and attracted more and more researches in removing heavy metals from wastewater due to their high efficency, pluripotency and availability in a copious amount. In general, the applicability, characteristic of wastewater, cost-effectiveness, and plant simplicity are the key factors in selecting the most suitable method for the contaminated wastewater. PMID:27318819

  4. [Immobilization impact of different fixatives on heavy metals contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lie-shan; Zeng, Dong-mei; Mo, Xiao-rong; Lu, Hong-hong; Su, Cui-cui; Kong, De-chao

    2015-01-01

    Four kinds of amendments including humus, ammonium sulfate, lime, superphosphate and their complex combination were added to rapid immobilize the heavy metals in contaminated soils. The best material was chosen according to the heavy metals' immobilization efficiency and the Capacity Values of the fixative in stabilizing soil heavy metals. The redistributions of heavy metals were determined by the European Communities Bureau of Referent(BCR) fraction distribution experiment before and after treatment. The results were as follows: (1) In the single material treatment, lime worked best with the dosage of 2% compared to the control group. In the compound amendment treatments, 2% humus combined with 2% lime worked best, and the immobilization efficiency of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn reached 98.49%, 99.40%, 95.86%, 99.21%, respectively. (2) The order of Capacity Values was lime > humus + lime > ammonium sulfate + lime > superphosphate > ammonium sulfate + superphosphate > humus + superphosphate > humus > superphosphate. (3) BCR sequential extraction procedure results indicated that 2% humus combined with 2% lime treatment were very effective in immobilizing heavy metals, better than 2% lime treatment alone. Besides, Cd was activated firstly by 2% humus treatment then it could be easily changed into the organic fraction and residual fraction after the subsequent addition of 2% lime. PMID:25898680

  5. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS AT WATER-SEDIMENT INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ferronato

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to understand the equilibrium relationship between the heavy metals concentrations in superficial water and pore water. At  water-sediment interface, the equilibrium rapidly changed and it is influenced by chemico-physical parameters of aquatic ecosystems. The hydraulic safety of Bologna plain (North Italy depends on network of artificial canals and they are related with natural rivers of Reno basin (Reno river and its tributaries. The natural and artificial water courses flowed in agricultural, urban and industrial land. The heavy metals concentration in water and sediment discriminated the human pressure on the land and their spatial distribution in sediment could predict the hazard of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. We compared the heavy metals concentrations in pore water and superficial water determined in natural rivers and artificial canals, and more pollution in artificial canals than natural rivers was found. Furthermore, the coefficient of partition (log Kd between water and sediments was calculated to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals adsorbed on the sediments. The heavy metals extracted in deionised water at equilibrium after 16 h showed higher concentrations than those determined directly on water samples.

  6. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METAL IN COASTAL WATER AT KELANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Wannahari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five sites were selected representing the studied sites of the coastal water in Kelantan, Malaysia during 1996 until May 2012. These selected sites are the popular beaches in Kelantan which are Sri Tujuh Beach (STB located in Tumpat region, Cahaya Bulan Beach (PCB and Sabak Beach (SB in Kota Bharu region, Irama Beach (PI in Bachok region and Bisikan Bayu Beach (PBB in Pasir Putih region. In other to identify the quality of coastal water in this five popular coasts along Kelantan, study of heavy metals contamination in coastal water has been done. Evaluation of heavy metal contamination in Kelantan coastal water has doing by combine the data from Department of Environment (DOE Malaysia and the data was got from this research. There are four types of heavy metal concentration has evaluated in this research; Cadmium (Cd, Cupper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Chromium (Cr. From this evaluation, we can see the fluctuation of concentration the four type heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr from 1996 until May 2012. Most of the year, the concentration of heavy metal is between the range of Malaysia marine quality standard except for Lead. Lead was proven to be the highest concentration pollutant in the five beaches in certain time and also exceed the Malaysia marine standard.

  7. HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SHEEP PRODUCTS FROM MIDLE SPIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávik Marek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the risk of contamination of animal products by heavy metals. Samples of animal raw materials were obtained in 2013 in the municipalities of Porac and Matejovce nad Hornádom. Samples of muscle and internal organs were collected from domestic sheep (Ovis aries reared in the village of Rudnianska burdened area where mercury along with other heavy metals contamination is above the limit value of agricultural soil. Measuring the concentration of heavy metals in the samples was performed in accordance with the general requirements set out in the tenth chapter of the Food Code of the Slovak Republic. Mercury content in biological materials were assessed by total mercury as on the AMA 254 in fresh samples. The other heavy metal content, was determined after wet mineralization (HNO3: H2O - 1: 1 using the device AAS Varian 240 FS. The contamination of the environment showed increased accumulation of heavy metals in the - studiet sheep tissues intended for consumption. Such as Hg content in the kidneys of domestic sheep exceed the limit value by 1.3 times, whereas, in the case of cadmium 3 times exceeding the limit value in meat was recordered. Exceed limit was recorded in the case of lead and copper in the liver.

  8. Elimination of radionuclides and heavy metals from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption and desorption of radionuclides and heavy metals, their vertical migration and gradual extraction from soils were studied. Tessier sequential extraction method was used for determination the physicochemical forms of radionuclides and heavy metals absorbed by root system of plants and leached into ground water. Fixed forms of heavy metals and radionuclides are prevailing in soils. As to artificial (90Sr, 137Cs) isotope ratio of fixed forms bound with soil components, it is higher for 137Cs (black earth - 95%, sandy soil - 62%) as compared to 90Sr. Mobilization procedures for elimination of unfavourable influence of these pollutants in soils were used. The bacteria Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus l. are applied for this purpose. At the same time the growing of technical plants (Linum usitatissimum L. and Brassica napus L. var.) was studied as a method for mobilizing the heavy metals and radionuclides from soils. Retardation influence of bacteria on 85Sr was noticed after as much as 3 months. The sum of water-soluble and exchangeable fractions reached 60%. Values of Cs distribution proved that microorganisms or plants used had no appreciable influence on Cs-mobility. After 3 months the relative ratio of accessible fraction increased with about 5%. As to heavy metals, both bacteria and plant growing influenced their retardation. In the case of Cd, one month operation of microorganisms resulted in important increase of easily available Cd-ratio (about 25%) in soils. (author)

  9. National pattern for heavy metal contamination of topsoil in remote farmland impacted by haze pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhuanxi; Gao, Meirong; Luo, Xiaosan; Yan, Changzhou

    2016-03-01

    The influence of haze pollution on heavy metal transport into farmland topsoil has received little attention. This study reports on heavy metal concentrations in topsoil from remote farmland in China as well as the spatial similarity and correlation to such heavy metals in atmospheric particulate matter (APM). Heavy metal concentrations in topsoil from remote farmland significantly increased over time. Moreover, stations in the mid-eastern region of China accounted for greater than 55% of total stations that exhibited higher concentrations in 2010 than 2005. This spatial trend was consistent with changes observed in APM where mass concentrations of heavy metals were also found to be higher in the mid-eastern region of China. Heavy metals in APM have already likely caused contamination in remote farmland topsoil, particularly in the mid-eastern region of China. This is primarily due to long-range transport and deposition of APM owing that no pesticides or fertilizers have been used in the remote farmland stations selected and no industries were situated nearby. Regarding the large-scale, severe haze pollution occurring in China today, it is urgent to ascertain the accumulation of heavy metals in farmland topsoil resulting from APM as well as its subsequent potential mechanisms and ecological risks.

  10. Heavy metal immobilization in mineral phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful waste form for toxic or radioactive metals must not only have the ability to chemically incorporate the elements but it must also be extremely stable in the geological environment. Thus, ceramic wasteforms are sought which mimic those minerals that have sequestered the hazardous metals for billions of years. One method for producing ceramics, metal organic deposition (MOD) is outstanding in its simplicity, versatility, and inexpensiveness. The major contribution that the MOD process can make to ceramic waste forms is the ability to mix the toxic metals at a molecular level with the elements which form the ceramic matrix. With proper choice of organic ligands, the inclusion of significant amounts of alkali metals in the ceramic and, hence, their detrimental effect on durability may be avoided. In the first stage of our research we identified thermally-unstable ligands which could fulfill the role of complexing toxic metal species and allowing their precipitation or extraction into nonaqueous solvents

  11. Heavy metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, John

    2009-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential e...

  12. Heavy Metal Exposure Influences Double Strand Break DNA Repair Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Maria E.; Derbes, Rebecca S.; Ade, Catherine M.; Ortego, Jonathan C.; Stark, Jeremy; Deininger, Prescott L.; Roy-Engel, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium, arsenic and nickel are classified as carcinogens. Although the precise mechanism of carcinogenesis is undefined, heavy metal exposure can contribute to genetic damage by inducing double strand breaks (DSBs) as well as inhibiting critical proteins from different DNA repair pathways. Here we take advantage of two previously published culture assay systems developed to address mechanistic aspects of DNA repair to evaluate the effects of heavy metal exposures on competing DNA repair outcomes. Our results demonstrate that exposure to heavy metals significantly alters how cells repair double strand breaks. The effects observed are both specific to the particular metal and dose dependent. Low doses of NiCl2 favored resolution of DSBs through homologous recombination (HR) and single strand annealing (SSA), which were inhibited by higher NiCl2 doses. In contrast, cells exposed to arsenic trioxide preferentially repaired using the “error prone” non-homologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) while inhibiting repair by HR. In addition, we determined that low doses of nickel and cadmium contributed to an increase in mutagenic recombination-mediated by Alu elements, the most numerous family of repetitive elements in humans. Sequence verification confirmed that the majority of the genetic deletions were the result of Alu-mediated non-allelic recombination events that predominantly arose from repair by SSA. All heavy metals showed a shift in the outcomes of alt-NHEJ repair with a significant increase of non-templated sequence insertions at the DSB repair site. Our data suggest that exposure to heavy metals will alter the choice of DNA repair pathway changing the genetic outcome of DSBs repair. PMID:26966913

  13. Daily Variation of Heavy Carbon Dioxide in Mars Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, T. A.; Kostiuk, Th; Kolasinski, J.; Hewagama, T.; Henning, W. G.; Sornig, M.; Stangier, T.; Krause, P.; Sonnabend, G.

    2015-10-01

    The atmosphere of Mars is significantly enriched in C and O heavy isotopes, detected by ground based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy as well as in situ measurements by the Phoenix lander and Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. Heavy isotope enrichment is consistent with the preferential loss of light isotopes in eroding Mars' primordial atmosphere. Infrared spectroscopy of Mars collected in May 2012 as well as in March and May of 2014 from the NASA IRTF resolves rovibrational transitions of normal-isotope carbon dioxide as well as singly-substituted minor isotopologues, enabling remote measurements of carbon and oxygen isotope ratios as a function of latitude and local time of day. Earlier measurements obtained in October 2007 demonstrated that the relative abundance of O-18 increased linearly with increasing surface temperature over a relatively warm early-afternoon temperature range, but did not extend far enough to inspect the effect of late-afternoon cooling. These results imply that isotopically enriched gas is sequestered overnight when surface temperature is minimum and desorbs through the course of the day as temperature increases. Current spectroscopic constants indicate that the peak isotopic enrichment could be significantly greater than what has been measured in situ, apparently due to sampling the atmosphere at different time of day and surface temperature. The observing runs in 2012 and 2014 measured O-18 enrichment at several local times in both morning and afternoon sectors as well as at the subsolar, equatorial, and anti-subsolar latitudes. The two runs in 2014 have additionally observed O-17 and C-13 transitions in the morning sector, from local dawn to noon. These observations include a limited sampling of measurements over Gale Crater, which can be compared with contemporary in situ measurements by the Curiosity rover to investigate the degree of agreement between in situ and remote methods and potentially to calibrate the

  14. Sources, transport and deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacyna, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a study on the behaviour of heavy metals (HMs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. The conclusion is that many of these compounds create serious problems due their toxicity and bioaccumulation in various environmental compartments. Several scientific questions have been posed for improved understanding of the nature and the extent of these problems. The present paper addresses questions related to sources, fluxes, and atmospheric pathways of HMs and POPs in Europe

  15. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838

  16. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecchio, A; Finoli, C; Di Simine, D; Andreoni, [No Value

    1998-01-01

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the a

  17. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM FROM PHOSPHOGYPSUM WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ADRIANA STEFANESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to characterize the bioaccumulation capacity of heavy metals by Bacillus megaterium from phosphogypsum waste. The Bacillus megaterium strain (BM30 was isolated from soil near the phosphogypsum (PG dump. For the bioaccumulation quantification produced by BM30 strain were used three experimental treatments respectively with 2, 6 and 10 gL-1 PG. Cellular biomass samples were collected punctually at ages corresponding to the three stages of the development cycle of the microorganism: exponential phase, stationary phase and decline phase and the heavy metals concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The bioaccumulation yields in cell biomass, relative to the total amount of analyte introduced in the reaction medium were between 20 - 80 %, the lowest value was recorded by Cu and highest by Mn. The study results indicated that the isolated strain near the dump PG, BM30, bioaccumulate heavy metals monitored in cell biomass in the order Cu > Fe > Zn = Mn.

  18. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  19. Heavy metals and organic micropollutants in Norwegian sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedland, Kjell Terje; Storhaug, Ragnar

    2003-07-01

    The heavy metal concentration in sewage sludge is one of the most important factors affecting sewage sludge use. During the last 20 years there has been a constant decline in the heavy metals concentration. Occasional point discharges and diffuse sources are now the main sources for heavy metals in sludge. In 1996-97 and in 2001-02 similar surveys of organic micropollutans in Norwegian sewage sludge have been performed. Monthly composite samples from 7 WWTPs have been analysed for PCDD/PCDF, PCB (7), PAH (16), NPE, DBP, DEHP and LAS. The two studies have used the same methods in the same months and at the same treatment plants. The results show a decline of between 23 and 92 % of different organic micropollutants in Norwegian sludge from 1996-97 to 2001-02. (author)

  20. Deena Weinstein, Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Grassy, Elsa

    2009-01-01

    Au moment où la sociologue Deena Weinstein publie Heavy Metal : The Music and Its Culture, en 1991, le heavy metal fait l’objet de controverses très médiatisées aux États-Unis. Le procès de Judas Priest pour incitation au suicide vient de faire les gros titres, et tous les conservateurs du pays passent leurs journées à écouter des disques à l’envers, à la recherche de paroles sataniques. Le livre de Weinstein s’inspire de ce climat sulfureux qui entoure le heavy metal depuis ses débuts mais a...

  1. Computer Modeling of Leaching of Heavy Metal from Cementitious Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic equilibrium model was used to simulate the results of leaching heavy metal from cementitious wastes. Modeling results of the leached major element concentrations for samples agreed well with the leaching test using the set of pure minerals and solid solutions present in the database. The model revealed Pb and Cd were predominantly incorporated within the calcium silicate hydrate matrix while a greater portion of Cd exist as discrete particles in the cement pores. Precipitation was found to be the dominant mechanism controlling heavy metal solubility with carbonate and silicate species governing the solubility of Pb and carbonate, silicate and hydroxide species governing the solubility of Cd. In the presence of acetic acid, at low pH values Pb and Cd acetate complexes were predominant whereas, at high pH values, hydroxide species dominated. In the presence of municipal landfill leachate, Pb and Cd organic complexes dominated the heavy metal species in solution.

  2. Accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation sewage sludges from Quibu plant, located in City of the Havana, with the objective of evaluating the capacity of accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol when in the wheat plants are cultivated (Triticum aestivum L.) , as well as the potential damages in this plants. Rates of 0, 60, 180 and 300 sludges tons/ soil hectare was applied and the plants were growth in recipient of 5 L of capacity. The levels of heavy metals were evaluated before the and after the crop. The extraction one carries out with the mixture HCl:HNO3 and they were determined by spectroscopy inductively coupled to plasma. Presence of Zn, Cu and Pb were detected in sludges and a tendency decrease is observed to heavy metals retention is observed in soil with the increase of the disposition rate together to a differential behavior of the different chemical species

  3. [Heavy metal mass accumulation of urban surface dust in Shanghai City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Liu, Min; Li, Xian-hua; Yu, Jie; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Li-li; Gao, Lei

    2008-12-01

    This paper investigated heavy metal accumulative process of road dust on paved urban surfaces of Shanghai City in April, 2006. The data indicate that the surface dust load mean value for traffic area is 12.4 g/m and the range is 5.04-23.2 g/m; the mean value for the university area is 6.1 g/m with the range of 3.8-10.0 g/m. The research indicated that long duration and high intensity rainfall has the obvious reduction function to the dust particles load, but the light rain can enable it to increase. Land use and road traffic conditions are the important factors controlling "source-sink" effect of surface dust particulate emission. Dust load buildup occurs and the particles become coarser over the dry days. In high-traffic flow area, the dust displays "source effect" on atmospheric particulate with heavy metal concentration decreasing, while in low-traffic area, the dust displays "sink effect" on atmospheric particulate with heavy metal concentration increasing. The results also show that over the dry days, with S-type growth tendency, pollutant load depends on the couple-variation of dust load and pollutant concentrations. After the rainfall, the rate of accumulation of heavy metal load remain slow within 10 days, and during the following period of 5 days, pollution load increase rapidly. Then after 15 days, the load accumulation rate of heavy metal decrease due to the equilibrium of dust deposition and emission. PMID:19256389

  4. Effect of heavy metals on growth and heavy metal content of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenhage, L.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, singly and in combination, on yield, heavy metal content and the mineral composition of Allium porrum L. and Pisum sativum L. have been investigated. The Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations of shoots and roots of Allium porrum increased with increasing heavy metal contamination of soil. However, no visible symptoms of heavy metal toxicity were recognized. The dry matter production was reduced as a function of heavy metal concentration and combination. The mechanisms of combinations were mostly synergistic. The correlation between pollutant contents (nmol/shoot) and yield was higher than the correlation between heavy metal concentrations of soil or shoots (ppm) and yield. Results of regression analyses showed that the inhibition of copper translocation caused by Cd, Pb and Zn was responsible for the yield depressions. The antagonism between Cd and N-deficiency showed that the level of N-supply was without negative effects on yield depressions of Pisum sativum caused by Cd. In contrast to this, the N-form played an important role in Cd-toxicity as the synergism between Cd and NH4 illustrated. K-deficiency as well as acidic nutrient solution (pH=4) diminished the root/shoot-barrier for Cd and therefore Cd-translocation from roots to shoots increased. Concerning calcium, magnesium and iron the decrease of ion uptake caused by Cd was statistically significant higher than yield depression.

  5. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  6. Novel forward osmosis process to effectively remove heavy metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a novel forward osmosis (FO) process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater was demonstrated for the first time. The proposed FO process consists of a thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane made from interfacial polymerization on a macrovoid-free polyimide support and a novel bulky hydroacid complex Na4[Co(C6H4O7)2]·r2H2O (Na-Co-CA) as the draw solute to minimize the reverse solute flux. The removal of six heavy metal solutions, i.e., Na2Cr2O7, Na2HAsO4, Pb(NO3)2, CdCl2, CuSO4, Hg(NO3)2, were successfully demonstrated. Water fluxes around 11L/m2/h (LMH) were harvested with heavy metals rejections of more than 99.5% when employing 1M Na-Co-CA as the draw solution to process 2000ppm(1 ppm=1 mg/L) heavy metal solutions at room temperature. This FO performance outperforms most nanofiltration (NF) processes. In addition, the high rejections were maintained at 99.5% when a more concentrated draw solution (1.5M) or feed solution (5000ppm) was utilized. Furthermore, rejections greater than 99.7% were still achieved with an enhanced water flux of 16.5LMH by operating the FO process at 60°C. The impressive heavy metal rejections and satisfactory water flux under various conditions suggest great potential of the newly developed FO system for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heavy metal contamination in coastal areas of South China has been reviewed. • Heavy metal levels were closely related to economic development in past decades. • Heavy metal levels from Hong Kong continually decreased from the early 1990s. • Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in mollusk. • Levels of heavy metals in part of seafood exceeded the safety limit. -- Abstract: Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit

  8. Science Letters: Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhi-wei; XU Xin-hua; JIN Jian; HE Ping; LIU Yong; WANG Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitrate removal when both are removed simultaneously. Even a little amount of copper can enhance nitrate removal efficiently.Different mechanisms of these contaminants removal by iron metal were also discussed.

  9. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild;

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound...

  10. Equations of state of heavy metals: ab initio approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of equations of states of heavy metals through ab initio calculation, i.e. without any adjustable parameter, allows to access to pressure and temperature thermodynamic conditions sometimes inaccessible to experiment. To perform such calculations, density functional theory (DFT) is a good starting point: when electronic densities are homogeneous enough, the local density approximation (LDA) remarkably accounts for thermodynamic properties of heavy metals, such as tantalum, or the light actinides, as well for static properties - equilibrium volume, elastic constants - as for dynamical quantities like phonon spectra. For heavier elements, like neptunium or plutonium, relativistic effects and strong electronic interactions must be taken into account, which requires more sophisticated theoretical approaches. (authors)

  11. Heavy metal pollution at mine sites: Rehabilitation of Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse effects from release of heavy metals into the aquatic environment are briefly described. The importance of bacterial leaching in pyritic waste heaps is noted, together with current research at a mine site in Australia. The operational history and waste management practices at the former uranium mine site at Rum Jungle leading to a sustained annual input of heavy metals into the Finniss River are discussed. The objectives and measures adopted for physical rehabilitation of the Rum Jungle site, completed in June 1986 at a cost of about $A16 million (1982 $), are outlined. (author). 23 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  12. Heavy metals in the Ljubljanica catchment area (Slovenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Branka Trček

    2006-01-01

    In main springs and swallowholes of the Ljubljanica River Basin the monitoring of heavy metals was established at the beginning of 2005 with the intention to study the solute transport in the water body and to analyse the risk of contamination with heavy metals. The results of the first monitoring phase are presented–elements that indicate the load of environment due to industry, traffic,agriculture and urbanisation:Al,As,Cd,Cl,Cr,Cu,Mn in Pb. The results point out that the vulnerability of k...

  13. Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil. An Innovative Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1997-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build.......Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build....

  14. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using opalized tuff

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Boris; Jakupi, Shaban

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the examination of the possibility of applying opalized tuff as a natural raw material for disposal of heavy metals (copper, zinc, manganese and lead) from aqueous solutions. Of actual experiments obtained results show that working conditions attaching to the removal of Cu and Pb ions is more than 91% of zinc ions is above 81%, while manganese ions are removed about 77% .On this can be concluded that the removal of examined heavy metals using opalized tuff i...

  15. HEAVY METAL LOADS IN THE SOIL OF DEBRECEN

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNDOR SZEGEDI

    2007-01-01

    Results of examinations on the amount, and spatial distribution of heavy metal compounds in the soil of Debrecen, their geographic, pedologic and ecologic aspects are presented in this study. The effects of the differences in traffic conditions, build-up/land use and the density of vegetation on the heavy metal content of the soils have been examined in city of Debrecen and its closer environment.Cadmium-, cobalt-, nickel-, lead-, and copper-contents of the soil samples taken from 88 sites of...

  16. Heavy metal behaviour in peat - A mineralogical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineralogical composition of a 40 cm subsurface layer of transitional mire 'Bagno Bruch' (southern Poland) polluted with atmospheric dust was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The mire is located 9 km to the east of a zinc smelter on the northern limit of industrial Upper Silesia in southern Poland. Concentrations of zinc, lead and cadmium reach values of 494, 238 and 16 mg kg-1, respectively, in the peat layer. Inorganic particles in the peat were grouped into two main categories based on their origin: air dust particles of anthropogenic- and natural sources, and authigenic minerals that originated within the mire. Anthropogenic particles comprise an important part of the inorganic particles in the peat. As they are typically enriched in heavy metals, their stability is critical to controlling metal mobilities. Spheroidal aluminosilicate fly-ash particles are the most common- and most stable anthropogenic pollutants. Partially dissolved Pb-bearing particles (sulphides, chlorides and oxides) and ZnS occur as trace components throughout the peat profile. The prolonged existence of the particles made them susceptible to gravitational relocation in the peat and limits the biogeochemical cycling of the constituent elements. The least resistant Fe (hydro)oxides release Zn and minor amounts of Mn, Mg and Sn due to reductive dissolution. The released Zn is immobilized in the form of ZnS spherules, 1-3 μm in diameter, approximately 10 cm further down in the profile. The investigation shows that the behaviour of trace elements in polluted peatland is controlled by mineral dissolution/precipitation processes. The formation of authigenic minerals (ZnS, barite, gypsum) indicates complex redox conditions and element redistribution in the transitional mire.

  17. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not. PMID:27239687

  18. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp

    OpenAIRE

    Soudek, P. (Petr); Petrová, Š. (Šárka); Vaňková, R. (Radomíra); Song, J.; Vaněk, T. (Tomáš)

    2014-01-01

    The essential requirement for the effective phytoremediation is selection of a plant species which should be metal tolerant, with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The above mentioned criteria are met by crop plant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The response of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants to cadmium and zinc stress was followed. The impact of metal application on physiological parameters, including changes in chlorophylls contents and antioxidative enzymes activit...

  19. Bioavailability of heavy metals in drilling muds

    OpenAIRE

    Schaanning, M.; Ruus, A.; Bakke, T.; Hylland, Ketil; Olsgard, Frode

    2002-01-01

    Experimental work on uptake of metals from sediments spiked with barite, ilmenite and hematite were performed using the ragworm Nereis diversicolor and the netted dog whelk Hinia (Nassarius) reticulata as test organisms. The present report also provides a brief review of recent litterature on biological effects of metals in drill cuttings, including relevant results from the UKOOA Drill Cuttings Initiative - an international research programme completed in December 2001. The review suggest lo...

  20. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE PHYTOMASS AND THE METHOD OF ITS DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for constant monitoring of the environmental situation due to the fact that at the present time almost all the ecosystems of our planet suffer in one way or another degradation under the influence of the anthropogenic factor. In the present work we summarize the results of 6 years of monitoring to determine heavy metals in the air. Industries and domestic waste and, in particular, road transport is the main source of pollution. The share of vehicles to air pollution in cities reaches 70-90%. The greatest danger to public health is compounds of lead, cadmium and mercury relate to 1 class of danger. We have studied the dynamics of accumulation of heavy metals and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Krasnodar on the streets with different intensity of car traffic. The data obtained indicate a significant excess compared to the control of the content of such metals as lead, iron, cadmium, and copper in all samples; chromium and zinc at three positions of the four. We pay due attention to the increase in the concentration of cadmium compared with data from previous years. It is established that the dynamics of accumulation of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the city is well correlated with population, the intensity of traffic and has a steady tendency to increase the content of these toxic substances. We have proposed a way of disposal of the biomass of fallen leaves by the method of their biological degradation under anaerobic conditions

  1. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchio, A.; Finoli, C.; Di Simine, D.; Andreoni, V. [Department of Food Science and Microbiology, State University, Milan (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the assessment of the capability of Brevibacterium sp. cells to remove bivalent ions, when present alone or in pairs, from aqueous solutions, using immobilized polyacrylamide cells of the microorganism in a flow-through system. The biosorption capacity of Brevibacterium cells was studied for lead, cadmium and copper. The metal cell binding capacity followed the order Cu > Pb > Cd, based on estimated q{sub max}. These values, expressed as mmol metal/g dry weight cells, were 0.54 for Cu, 0.36 for Pb and 0.14 for Cd. Polyacrylamide-gel immobilized cells were effective in Pb, Cu and Cd removal. Lead removal was not affected by the presence of Cd and Cu; lead instead inhibited Cd and Cu removal. The desorption of the metal, by fluxing a chelating solution, restored the metal binding capacity of the cells, thus affording the multiple use of the same biomass in the remediation treatment. (orig.) (orig.) With 5 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  2. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  3. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected. PMID:22840499

  4. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetables from Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELJAN KASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the heavy metals in vegetables cultivated in private gardens in Bregu i Matit, an important agricultural area in the NW Albania.The plant and soil samples taken from irrigated and non-irrigated fields in this area were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, after extraction by HNO3 and H2O2.The transfer factors (TF were used to evaluate the risk of metal transfer from soil to plant and the FAO/WHO safe limits to assess the potential hazards of heavy metals to human health. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations ± standard deviation in vegetable samples were (mg kg- 1: Cu 2.98-12.90 (±3.08, Ni 4.82-35.79 (±7.68, Zn Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb. The TF values indicate that only Cd was accumulated in plants.The contents of Cd in three vegetable samples, Pb in four samples, and Cu in one sample were above the safe limits set by the FAO/WHO for heavy metals in foods and vegetables indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in the studied soils could be dangerous to human health.

  5. Spatial Evaluation of Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Surface Sediment of Taihu Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Niu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the size of China’s freshwater lakes, Taihu Lake ranks third and it plays an important role in the supply of drinking water, flood prevention, farming and navigation, as well as in the travelling industry. The problem of environmental pollution has attracted widespread attention in recent years. In order to understand the levels, distribution and sources of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, random selection was carried out to obtain 59 samples of surface sediment from the entire lake and study the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni. Toxic units were also calculated to normalize the toxicities caused by various heavy metals. As a result, Cd and Cu in sediment were considered lower than the effect range low (ERL at all regions where samples were gathered, while Pb and Ni were categorized into ERL-effect range median (ERM at over 22% of the regions where samples were obtained. Nevertheless, all average concentrations of the samples were below the level of potential effect. According to the findings of this research, significant spatial heterogeneity existed in the above heavy metals. In conclusion, the distribution areas of heavy metals with higher concentrations were mainly the north bays, namely Zhushan Bay, Meiliang Bay as well as Gonghu Bay. The distribution areas of Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni with higher concentration also included the lake’s central region, whereas the uniform distribution areas of those with lower concentrations were the lake’s southeast region. In addition, it was most probable that the spatial distribution of heavy metals was determined by river inputs, whereas atmospheric precipitation caused by urban and traffic contamination also exerted considerable effects on the higher concentrations of Pb and Cd. Through evaluating the total amount of toxic units (ΣTU, it was found that higher toxicity existed primarily in the north bays and central region of the lake. If the heavy metals were sorted by

  6. Spatial Evaluation of Heavy Metals Concentrations in the Surface Sediment of Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yong; Jiao, Wei; Yu, Hui; Niu, Yuan; Pang, Yong; Xu, Xiangyang; Guo, Xiaochun

    2015-12-01

    With regard to the size of China's freshwater lakes, Taihu Lake ranks third and it plays an important role in the supply of drinking water, flood prevention, farming and navigation, as well as in the travelling industry. The problem of environmental pollution has attracted widespread attention in recent years. In order to understand the levels, distribution and sources of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, random selection was carried out to obtain 59 samples of surface sediment from the entire lake and study the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni. Toxic units were also calculated to normalize the toxicities caused by various heavy metals. As a result, Cd and Cu in sediment were considered lower than the effect range low (ERL) at all regions where samples were gathered, while Pb and Ni were categorized into ERL-effect range median (ERM) at over 22% of the regions where samples were obtained. Nevertheless, all average concentrations of the samples were below the level of potential effect. According to the findings of this research, significant spatial heterogeneity existed in the above heavy metals. In conclusion, the distribution areas of heavy metals with higher concentrations were mainly the north bays, namely Zhushan Bay, Meiliang Bay as well as Gonghu Bay. The distribution areas of Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni with higher concentration also included the lake's central region, whereas the uniform distribution areas of those with lower concentrations were the lake's southeast region. In addition, it was most probable that the spatial distribution of heavy metals was determined by river inputs, whereas atmospheric precipitation caused by urban and traffic contamination also exerted considerable effects on the higher concentrations of Pb and Cd. Through evaluating the total amount of toxic units (ΣTU), it was found that higher toxicity existed primarily in the north bays and central region of the lake. If the heavy metals were sorted by the reduction of mean

  7. Degradative Plasmid and Heavy Metal Resistance Plasmid Naturally Coexist in Phenol and Cyanide Assimilating Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bahig E.  Deeb; Abdullah D. Altalhi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Heavy metals are known to be powerful inhibitors of xenobiotics biodegradation activities. Alleviation the inhibitory effect of these metals on the phenol biodegradation activities in presence of heavy metals resistant plasmid was investigated. Approach: Combination of genetic systems of degradation of xenobiotic compound and heavy metal resistance was one of the approaches to the creation of polyfunctional strains for bioremediation of s...

  8. Flow measurement techniques in heavy liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes several flow measurement systems qualified in the operation of different lead-bismuth loops in the KArslruhe Liquid Metal LAboratory (KALLA) during the last 5 years. There are several experimental techniques which were well proven in air and water and thus could be transferred similarly to liquid metals: these techniques are split into measuring local quantities as temperature, pressure e.g. by means of pressure taps or velocities using Pitot and Prandtl tubes or the Ultrasound Doppler velocimetry (UDV) for local flow velocities, as well as an integral quantity like the flow rate. Since the knowledge of the flow rate acts in terms of the operational safety of nuclear liquid metal systems as one of the most crucial parameters, this aspect is discussed widely herein. Unfortunately, as liquid metals are opaque, an optical access is not possible. Instead, one can take advantage of the high electric conductivity of liquid metals to measure integral and local quantities, like electromagnetic flow meters and miniaturised permanent magnetic probes for local velocity measurements. In this context especially the electromagnetic frequency flow meter (EMFM) is discussed as a prospective and reliable option to measure the flow rate without demanding extensive precognitions with respect to the fluid-wall interface behaviour. This article describes some of the techniques used in KALLA for different liquid metals, explains the measurement principle and shows some of the typical results obtained using these techniques. Also the measurement accuracy as well as the temporal and spatial resolution of each device is discussed and typical error sources to be expected are illuminated. Moreover, some hints for a correct placement of the individual sensor in the liquid metal environment are given.

  9. 空气重金属元素在悬铃木叶中的亚细胞分布及其区隔化效应%Subcellular Distribution and Compartmentalization Effects of Heavy Metal Elements from Atmosphere in Platanus hispanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱霞; 方炎明

    2011-01-01

    .900.Therefore this indicates that cell wall is an important organ to absorb heavy metal elements from the atmosphere, which means its barrier is really exist.The segregation coefficient of intracellular organelles and the pollution index for Pb and Cu were the largest,and indicated that double membrane of organelles in plant cells against heavy metals into the cells.In addition,the pollution index of subcellular fractionsin in leaves and petioles of P.hispanica showed as follows:cytoplasmi supernatant fraction>cell wall components>cell organelle fractions,and indicated that cytoplasmi supernatant fraction including vacuoles liquid is accumulation place of heavy metal elements in cell.The results showed leaves and petioles of P.hispanica could absorb heavy metal pollutants to different extent depending on heavy metal kinds and subcellular fraction.Therefore heavy metal elements accumulated in cytoplasmi supernatant fraction and compartmentalization of the cell wall.Plasma membrane and double membrane of organelles in cells may be intricately linked with 5 elements detoxification in P.hispanica.

  10. Smouldering peat fires in polluted landscapes and their impact on heavy metal mobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gareth; Rothwell, James; Shuttleworth, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are commonly viewed as a threat confined to Southern Europe, Australia, and North America, recognition of wildfire hazard in the UK has been growing in recent years. UK wildfires often occur on heathland vegetation underlain by peat. These areas can contain industrially-derived legacy pollutants, such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. Ignition of the peat can lead to long-term smouldering fires that are difficult to extinguish, leading to large-scale damage. While work on assessing post-fire damage of peatlands has focussed on carbon and nutrient dynamics, there has been little attention on the release of heavy metals following wildfires. This paper presents initial data from a preliminary study to assess heavy metal release from smouldering peat fires. A homogenised sample of peat from the Peak District National Park, UK was ignited, monitored using thermocouples and an IR camera, and left to smoulder until self-extinguished (~9 hours). Total mass loss was 61%. Samples of pre- and post-burn peat were analysed for their heavy metal concentrations using XRF, ICP-MS, and CVAFS. Sample analysis is ongoing, but initial data shows that there is a substantial (3x) relative enrichment in heavy metal concentrations in post-fire ash. This has important implications for subsequent mobilisation in the aquatic and terrestrial environments, as well as consequences for human health risk through atmospheric redistribution.

  11. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the river water quality with respect to heavy metals contamination. To get the extend of trace metals contamination, water samples were collected from twelve different locations along the course of the river and its tributaries on summer and the winter seasons. The concentrations of trace metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, mercury and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit of Indian drinking water standard (IS: 10500). The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index of river water. The mean values of HPI were 36.19 in summer and 32.37 for winter seasons and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100 because of the sufficient flow in river system. Mercury and chromium could not be traced in any of the samples in the study area.

  12. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Hiren; Seth, Chetan; Ray, Arabinda; Kothari, I L

    2008-03-01

    The biosorption of metal ions (Cr(+3), Cr(2)O(7)(-2), Cu(+2), and Ni(+2)) on two algal blooms (designated HD-103 and HD-104) collected locally was investigated as a function of the initial metal ion concentration. The main constituent of HD-103 is Cladophora sp., while Spirulina sp. is present significantly in the bloom HD-104. Algal biomass HD-103 exhibited the highest Cu(+2) uptake capacity (819 mg/g). This bloom adsorbed Ni(+2) (504 mg/g), Cr(+3) (347 mg/g), and Cr(2)O(7)(-2), (168 mg/g). Maximum of Ni(+2) (1108 mg/g) is taken by HD-104. This species takes up 306, 202, and 576 mg/g Cr(+3), Cr(2)O(7)(-2), and Cu(+2), respectively. Equilibrium data fit very well to both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherm models. The sorption process followed the Freundlich model better. Pseudo-first-order kinetic model could describe the kinetic data. Infrared (IR) spectroscopic data were employed to identify the site(s) of bonding. It was found that phosphate and peptide moieties participate in the metal uptake by bloom HD-103. In the case of bloom HD-104, carboxylate and phosphate are responsible for the metal uptake. The role of protein in metal uptake by HD-103 was investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:18167026

  13. Experimental techniques for heavy liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the most interesting measurement systems which were tested in the Pb-Bi loops of the KALLA laboratory in Karlsruhe with the last 5 years. There are several experimental techniques which were well proven in air and water and thus could be transferred similarly to liquid metals: These techniques are split into measuring local quantities as temperature, pressure e.g. by means of pressure taps or velocities using Pitot and Prandtl tubes or the Ultra-Sound- Velocimetry (UDV) for local flow velocities, as well as global states like flow rate utilizing nozzles, orifices or turbines. Unfortunately, as liquid metals are opaque, an optical access is not given. Instead, one can take advantage of the high electric conductivity of liquid metals to measure integral and local quantities, like electromagnetic flow meters and miniaturized permanent magnetic probes for local velocity measurements. This article describes some of the techniques used in the KALLA for different liquid metals, explains the measurement principle and shows some of the results obtained using these techniques. Additionally a few words are spent with respect to the measurement errors to be expected and some hints for a correct placement of the individual sensor in the liquid metal environment. (authors)

  14. Magnetic fluctuations in heavy-fermion metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Petersen, T.; Aeppli, G.; Buyers, W.J.L.; Bucher, E.; Garrett, J.D.; Clausen, K.N.; Menovsky, A.A.

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering have been used to study the antiferromagnetic ordering and magnetic excitations of the U heavy-fermion superconductors UPd2Al3 and URu2Si2 above and below T-N. While both materials exhibit the coexistence of superconductivity and antiferromagnetic order, the...... nature of the antiferromagnetic order and magnetic fluctuations is qualitatively quite different. UPd2Al3 resembles a rare earth magnetic system with coupling of the 4f electrons to the conduction electrons manifested in a broadening of otherwise conventional spin wave excitations. This is in marked...

  15. Possibilities of using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are serious economic reasons for using metal uranium in heavy water reactors, because of its high density, i.e. high conversion factor, and low cost of fuel elements production. Most important disadvantages are swelling at high burnup and corrosion risk. Some design concepts and application of improved uranium obtained by alloying are promising for achievement of satisfactory stability of metal uranium under reactor operation conditions

  16. Concentration and partitioning of heavy metals in the Scheldt estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Van Alsenoy, V.

    1993-01-01

    The continuous growth of technology has lead to an (uncontrolled) introduction of contaminants into the biosphere. The efforts of removing man-made pollutants from the natural environment have been unable to cope with the increasing amounts of waste materials and growing population. This work studies one group of substances which have a particular lasting effect on the natural balance in aquatic systems; the heavy metals. Trace metals are present in all the abiotic reservoirs of the aquatic s...

  17. Routine soil testing to monitor heavy metals and boron

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu Cleide Aparecida de; van Raij Bernardo; Abreu Mônica Ferreira de; González Antonio Paz

    2005-01-01

    Microelements are an important issue in agriculture, due to their need as micronutrients for plants and also to the possibility of the build-up of toxic levels for plants and animals. Five micronutrients (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) are routinely determined in soil analysis for advisory purposes. Other four elements (Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni) are considered environmentally important heavy metals in farmland soils. Thus high contents of these metals in cropland might go eventually unnoticed. In this pape...

  18. Chelate-Assisted Heavy Metal Movement Through the Root Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, M.; Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.

    2001-12-01

    Chelating agents are added to soil as a means to mobilize heavy metals for plant uptake during phytoremediation. Yet almost no studies follow the displacement of heavy metals through the vadose zone following solubilization with chelating agents. The objective of this work was to determine the movement of heavy metals through the soil profile and their absorption by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a soil amended with biosolids and in the presence of a chelating agent (EDTA). Twelve columns 75 cm in height and 17 in diameter were packed with a Haynie very fine sandy loam (coarse-silty, mixed, calcareous, mesic Mollic Udifluvents) and watered with liquid biosolids applied at the surface at a rate of 120 kg N/ha. Three weeks after plants germinated, soil was irrigated with a solution of the disodium salt of EDTA added at a rate of 0.5 g/kg soil. Four treatments were imposed: columns with no plants and no EDTA; columns with no plants plus EDTA; columns with plants and no EDTA; and columns with plants and EDTA. Columns were watered intensively for 35 days until two pore volumes of water had been added, and the leachates were collected daily. With or without plants, columns with EDTA had lower total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb in the surface 20 cm than columns without EDTA. Concentrations of the heavy metals in this layer were not afffected by the presence of roots. Iron in leachate was followed as an indicator metal for movement to groundwater. No iron appeared in the leachate without EDTA, either in the columns with plants or without plants. The peak concentration of iron in the leachate occurred three days earlier in the columns without plants and EDTA compared to the columns with plants and EDTA. The results indicated the importance of vegetation on retarding heavy metal leaching to groundwater during chelate-facilitated phytoremediation.

  19. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  20. Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We review the recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. ► Different types of nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, different carbon nanomaterials or nanochannels have been applied on the electrochemical analysis of heavy metals in various sensing formats/configurations. ► The great properties of nanomaterials allow the new devices to show advantages in terms of sensing performance (i.e. increase the sensitivity, decrease the detection limits and improve the stability). ► Between the various electrochemical techniques, voltammetric and potentiometric based ones are particularly taking interesting advantages by the incorporation of new nanomaterials due to the improved electrocatalytic properties beside the increase of the sensor's transducing area. - Abstract: Recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals are shown. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanochannels, graphene, etc. have been explored either as modifiers of electrodes or as new electrode materials with interest to be applied in electrochemical stripping analysis, ion-selective detection, field-effect transistors or other indirect heavy metals (bio)detection alternatives. The developed devices have shown increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits between other improvements of analytical performance data. The phenomena behind nanomaterials responses are also discussed and some typical responses data of the developed systems either in standard solutions or in real samples are given. The developed nanomaterials based electrochemical systems are giving new inputs to the existing devices or leading to the development of novel heavy metal detection tools with interest for applications in field such as diagnostics, environmental and safety and security controls or other industries.

  1. Mechanisms of heavy metal removal using microorganisms as biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Vahid; Alavi, Seyed Amir; Zilouei, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Release and distribution of heavy metals through industrial wastewaters has adverse affects on the environment via contamination of surface- and ground-water resources. Biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions has been proved to be very promising, offering significant advantages such as low cost, availability, profitability, ease of operation, and high efficiency, especially when dealing with low concentrations. Residual biomasses of industrial microorganisms including bacteria, algae, fungi, and yeast have been found to be capable of efficiently accumulating heavy metals as biosorbent. This paper presents and investigates major mechanisms of biosorption and most of the functional groups involved. The biosorption process includes the following mechanisms: transport across cell membrane, complexation, ion exchange, precipitation, and physical adsorption. In order to understand how metals bind to the biomass, it is essential to identify the functional groups responsible for metal binding. Most of these groups have been characterized on the cell walls. The biosorbent contains a variety of functional sites including carboxyl, imidazole, sulfydryl, amino, phosphate, sulfate, thioether, phenol, carbonyl, amide, and hydroxyl moieties that are responsible for metal adsorption. These could be helpful to improve biosorbents through modification of surface reactive sites via surface grafting and/or exchange of functional groups. PMID:24804650

  2. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS BY SORGHUM BICOLOR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrová, Šárka; Jusková, K.; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014 - (Kalogerakis, N.; Fava, F.) [European Bioremediation Conference /5./. Chania (GR), 04.07.2011-07.07.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08058 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : metal accumulation * roots * quenching capacity Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  3. Elimination of heavy metals from leachates by membrane electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Siedlungs- und Industriewasserwirtschaft, Mommsenstrasse 13, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Seidel, H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Rahner, D. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie und Eektrochemie, Mommsenstrasse 13, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Morgenstern, P. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Analytik, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Loeser, C. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Lebensmittel- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Bergstrasse 120, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    The elimination of heavy metals from bioleaching process waters (leachates) by electrolysis was studied in the anode and cathode region of a membrane electrolysis cell at current densities of 5-20 mA/cm{sup 2} using various electrode materials. The leaching waters containing a wide range of dissolved heavy metals, were high in sulfate, and had pH values of approx. 3. In preliminary tests using a rotating disc electrode the current density-potential curve (CPK) was recorded at a rotation velocity of 0, 1000 and 2000 rpm and a scan rate of 10 mV/s in order to collect information on the influence of transport processes on the electrochemical processes taking place at the electrodes. The electrochemical deposition-dissolution processes at the cathode are strongly dependent on the hydrodynamics. Detailed examination of the anodic oxidation of dissolved Mn(II) indicated that the manganese dioxide which formed adhered well to the electrode surface but in the cathodic return run it was again reduced. Electrode pairs of high-grade steel, lead and coal as well as material combinations were used to investigate heavy metal elimination in a membrane electrolysis cell. Using high-grade steel, lead and carbon electrode pairs, the reduction and deposition of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and some Cd in metallic or hydroxide form were observed in an order of 10-40 % in the cathode chamber. The dominant process in the anode chamber was the precipitation of manganese dioxide owing to the oxidation of dissolved Mn(II). Large amounts of heavy metals were co-precipitated by adsorption onto the insoluble MnO{sub 2}. High-grade steel and to some extent lead anodes were dissolved and hence were proven unsuitable as an anode material. These findings were largely confirmed by experiments using combination electrodes of coal and platinized titanium as an anode material and steel as a cathode material.The results indicate that electrochemical metal separation in the membrane electrolysis cell can represent a

  4. Effects of heavy metal pollution on soil microbial biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of heavy metals on microbial biomass in metal-polluted soils. Laboratory and field investigations where metals were applied ass inorganic or organic salts demonstrated a significant decline in the size of s oil microbial biomass. In most of the cases, negative effects were evident at metal concentrations below the European Community's (EC) current permissible metal levels in the soil. Application of metal-enriched sludges and composts caused significant inhibition of microbial biomass at surprisingly modest concentrations of metals in the soil that were indeed smaller than those likely to decrease the growth of sensitive crop species. On the whole, relative toxicity of metals decreased in the order of Cd>Cu>Zn>Pb, but a few exceptions to this trend also existed. A significant decline in the biomass carbon to organic carbon ratio(Cmin/Corg) in metal-polluted soils indicated that this parameter can serve as a good indicator of the toxicity of metals on soil microflora. The knowledge regarding the response of soil biota to metal interactions and the factors affecting metal toxicity to soil microorganisms is still very limited and warrants further study.

  5. Organic matter and heavy metals in Prague streams and ponds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benešová, L.; Komínková, D.; Pivokonský, Martin; Tonika, J.

    Aachen : RWTH Aachen university, 2003, s. 101/1 - 101/8. [Ecohazard 2003. Aachen (CZ), 14.09.2003-17.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : organic matter, heavy metals, loss on ignition Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  6. Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

  7. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  8. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  9. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  10. Bats as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: history and prospect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.; Bandouchová, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2015), s. 220-227. ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bioaccumulation * Chiroptera * Heavy metals * Metalloids * Review Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2014

  11. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Heavy Metal Water Pollution in Transitional China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s socioeconomic transitions have dramatically accelerated its economic growth in last three decades, but also companioned with continuous environmental degradation. This study will advance the knowledge of heavy metal water pollution in China from a spatial–temporal perspective. Specifically, this study addressed the following: (1 spatial patterns of heavy metal water pollution levels were analyzed using data of prefecture-level cities from 2004 to 2011; and (2 spatial statistical methods were used to examine the underlying socioeconomic and physical factors behind water pollution including socioeconomic transitions (industrialization, urbanization, globalization and economic development, and environmental characteristic (natural resources, hydrology and vegetation coverage. The results show that only Cr pollution levels increased over the years. The individual pollution levels of the other four heavy metals, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, declined. High heavy metal water pollution levels are closely associated with both anthropogenic activities and physical environments, in particular abundant mineral resources and industrialization prosperity. On the other hand, economic development and urbanization play important roles in controlling water pollution problems. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and strategies for protecting water sources and controlling water pollution; thus improving the quality of living environments.

  12. Willow Trees from Heavy Metals Phytoextraction as Energy Crops

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Habart, J.; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2012), s. 106-113. ISSN 0961-9534 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/07/0977; GA MŠk 2B08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : phytoextraction * heavy metal * incineration Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.975, year: 2012

  13. Antibiogram and heavy metal tolerance of bullfrog bacteria in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Najiah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from 30 farmed bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus weighing 500-600 g at Johore, Malaysia with external clinical signs of ulcer, red leg and torticollis were tested for their antibiograms and heavy metal tolerance patterns. A total of 17 bacterial species with 77 strains were successfully isolated and assigned to 21 antibiotics and 4 types of heavy metal (Hg2+, Cr6+, Cd2+, Cu2+. Results revealed that bacteria were resistant against lincomycin (92%, oleandomycin (72.7% and furazolidone (71.4% while being susceptible to chloramphenicol and florfenicol at 97.4%. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for C. freundii, E. coli and M. morganii was high with the value up to 0.71. Bacterial strains were found to exhibit 100 % resistance to chromium and mercury. High correlation of resistance against both antibiotics and heavy metals was found (71.4 to 100% between bullfrog bacteria isolates, except bacteria that were resistant to kanamycin showed only 25% resistance against Cu2+. Based on the results in this study, bacterial pathogens of bullfrog culture in Johore, Malaysia, were highly resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  14. Plant response on heavy metal contamination - summary of results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Makhmudova, M.; Barazani, O.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Golan-Goldhirsh, A.

    Parma: Universita degli studi di Parma, 2004, s. 41. [COST Action 859. Phytotechnologies to Promote Sustainable Land Use Management and Improve Food Safety . Parma (IT), 04.11.2004-06.11.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : heavy metal * contamination Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  15. Plant uptake of heavy metal and radionuclides - summary of results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Warsaw: IBB PAS, 2004, s. 50. [COST 859. Phytotechnologies to promote sustainable land use managment and improve food safety . Working Group Meeting Plant uptake/exclusion and translocation of nutriens and contaminants. Warsaw (PL), 18.10.2004-19.10.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : uptake * heavy metal Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality

  16. PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-04-29

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium and the impurities associated therewith. The separation is effected by adding, to the solution containing hexavalent uranium and plutonium, acetate ions and the ions of an alkali metal and those of a divalent metal and thus forming a complex plutonium acetate salt which is carried by the corresponding complex of uranium, such as sodium magnesium uranyl acetate. The plutonium may be separated from the precipitated salt by taking the same back into solution, reducing the plutonium to a lower valent state on reprecipitating the sodium magnesium uranyl salt, removing the latter, and then carrying the plutonium from ihe solution by means of lanthanum fluoride.

  17. Electroremediation of heavy metals in sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Elicker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of electrokinetic remediation in the treatment of sludge in a sewage treatment station. The study consisted of, in a first step, the characterization of physicochemical parameters of sludge and, in a second step, the implementation of the electrokinetic remediation technique. The concentrations of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn in sludge samples, before and after the experiment, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 40 hours of experiment, considering an electrolyte flow-rate of 1.34 L.h-1 at a voltage of 20 V, the removal rate of all the metals accompanied was over 50%; the highest removal efficiency was for Pb, with 72.49%. The results show the feasibility of using the electrochemical technique of electrokinetic remediation for metal removal from a sludge sewage treatment station.

  18. Identification and Quantification of Heavy Metals Concentrations in Pistacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The levels of heavy metals are very important in pistachio nuts, because the edible nuts have an important and increasing role in human nutrition. Pistachio is one of the native nuts of Iran which contains high genetic resources, but there is insufficient information regarding nutritional properties and other elements like heavy metals. The objective of the present study was to investigate and compare heavy metals contents in the kernels of various pistachio samples including; ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Sephid’, ‘Garmeh’, ‘Momtaz’, ‘Ahmad Aghaei’, ‘Badami Zarand’, Pistacia atlantica Desf. (‘Baneh’, Pistacia vera ‘Sarakhs’ and chance seedling as ‘Non-grafted 1’, ‘Non-grafted 2’ and ‘Non-grafted 3’. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer (ICP was used for the determination of aluminium, chromium, nickel, copper, strontium, arsenic, cadmium and cobalt concentrations in pistachio kernels. This study showed that there were significant differences among the samples in all measured heavy metals except the arsenic, cadmium and cobalt. The content of aluminium varied from 3.22 to 9.59 (mg kg-1 of dry matter and chromium concentration from 0.60 to 1.86 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The nickel content of examined pistachio samples was found between 0.43 and 3.63 (mg kg-1 of dry matter and copper ranged from 3.20 to 12.33 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The strontium content was observed between 4.96 and 24.93 (mg kg-1 of dry matter. The contents of arsenic, cadmium and cobalt not reported, because their amounts were lower than the detection limit of the applied measuring method (ICP. These data demonstrated that the concentrations of heavy metals in pistachios varied by cultivar.

  19. Utilizing heavy metal-laden water hyacinth biomass in vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, Natalya N; Akimova, Elena E; Pisarchuk, Anna D; Yunusova, Tatyana V; Minaeva, Oksana M

    2015-05-01

    We studied the efficiency of water treatment by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu), as well as a possibility of using water hyacinth biomass obtained during treatment for vermicomposting by Eisenia fetida and the vermicompost quality in a model experiment. The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals in the trials with water hyacinth decreased within 35 days. We introduced water hyacinth biomass to the organic substrate for vermicomposting, which promoted a significant weight gain of earthworms and growth in their number, as well as a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in coprolite production. In the trial with 40 % of Eichhornia biomass in the mixture, we observed a 26-fold increase in the number and a 16-fold weight gain of big mature individuals with clitellum; an increase in the number of small individuals 40 times and in the number of cocoons 140 times, as compared to the initial substrate. The utilization of water hyacinth biomass containing heavy metals in the mixture led to a 10-fold increase in the number of adult individuals and cocoons, which was higher than in control. We found out that adding 10 % of Eichhornia biomass to the initial mixture affected slightly the number of microorganisms and their species diversity in the vermicompost. Adding Eichhornia biomass with heavy metals reduced the total number of microorganisms and sharply diminished their species diversity. In all trials, adding water hyacinth in the mixture for vermicomposting had a positive impact on wheat biometric parameters in a 14-day laboratory experiment, even in the trial with heavy metals. PMID:25501861

  20. BIOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS USING BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayanand.S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate degradation of heavy metals in effluent waste water samples using microorganisms. The physical and chemical properties of the effluent samples were analyzed using standard methods. The soil sample collected from the heavy metal contaminated sites was subjected to serial dilution and streak-plating methods and six different strains were isolated from the samples. The activity of the isolates for hemolysis was studied on the Blood-Agar plates. The isolated strains were studied for its biochemical and morphological characteristics. The dark-blue colonies were observed by CTAB method, which confirmed the anionic bio surfactant produced by the isolate. The isolates were subjected to other screening tests like emulsification activity and oil displacement technique. These strains were used in the degradation of heavy metals present in the effluent waste water samples. The organism KDM 4 showed better degradation with 93.18% ability in reducing zinc when incubated for 72 hours and 86.36% when incubated for 24 hours in sample 3. The lead reduction was found to be 84.13% by the organism KDM3 when incubated at 37°C for 72 hours incubation. The chromium was reduced by the organism KDM 6 with 87.9% ability when incubated for 72 hours. The organisms had capacity to reduce the heavy metals depending on the factors like time and concentration of inoculum. As the time of incubation increases, more reduction was observed. The least amount of degradation was found in the organism KDM5 with only 27.08%. The percentage of reduction of heavy metals varies from one sample to another sample.

  1. Heavy metals determination in the Medellin River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Medellin River has been a constant preoccupation for the inhabitants of the Aburra Valley. When the city began to grow took the river as its shaft and all the tailing produced by the domestic action, commercial and industrial were begun to pour of continuous way to its waters, what has caused the degradation that today is observed. Various industries established to what is long of the Medellin River, as are the metal mechanics, those of tanneries, of photographs, paintings and nutritional products, between other. These industries unload its effluents, without no type of treatment, to the river and to its affluent, became these water bodies in receiving of the industrial and domestic liquids effluents of the city. In the present study was sought to determine the presence of some metals in the water bulk and in the sediments of the Medellin River, such as the cadmium, chrome, copper and zinc. The content of these metals plays a role very important in the pollution of the water bodies, upon causing great impact by its toxicity and bio - accumulation. The investigation was accomplished in the section located between the municipalities of Caldas and Copacabana, in four sampling stations during a period of four months, from August until November of 1996

  2. Simultaneous heavy metal removal mechanism by dead macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miretzky, Patricia; Saralegui, Andrea; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The use of dead, dried aquatic plants, for water removal of metals derived from industrial activities as a simple biosorbent material has been increasing in the last years. The mechanism of simultaneous metal removal (Cd2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+) by 3 macrophytes biomass (Spirodela intermedia, Lemna minor and Pistia stratiotes) was investigated. L. minor biomass presented the highest mean removal percentage and P. stratiotes the lowest for all metals tested. Pb2+ and Cd2+ were more efficiently removed by the three of them. The simultaneous metal sorption data were analysed according to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Data fitted the Langmuir model only for Ni and Cd, but Freundlich isotherm for all metals tested, as it was expected. The K(F) values showed that Pb was the metal more efficiently removed from water solution. The adsorption process for the three species studied followed first order kinetics. The mechanism involved in biosorption resulted ion exchange between monovalent metals as counter ions present in the macrophytes biomass and heavy metal ions and protons taken up from water. No significant differences were observed in the metal exchange amounts while using multi-metal or individual metal solutions. PMID:15990152

  3. Heavy metal content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos from main production areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the influence of growing conditions on heavy metal content in virginia (flue cured and burley (air cured tobacco type. Moreover, some of these metals could appear in the tobacco cigarette smoke. This fact may cause negative consequences for cigarette consumers. Examinations were carried out in five various production areas, for each tobacco type, during two years, 1998 and 1999; those were extreme years for production.Considering the results, it can be concluded: The most important factor for heavy metal content in tobacco leaves are weather conditions especially the amount of rainfall, since there is a direct correlation between the rainfall and size of roots, a dominant vegetation organ. It is inevitable that the metals content in flue cured and air cured tobaccos grown at different experimental lots, is still below the legally prescribed values. Tobacco leaves from Šabac production area have a little higher metal content than tobacco grown in other production areas, because a larger amount of copper was found. The metal content in plants can increase because of its absorption from soil, atmosphere, or mineral fertilizers and pesticides, and, what is very important, the content of metals can be high due to the vicinity of large industrial centers.

  4. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  5. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals. PMID:25603034

  6. Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadevall, Miquel; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-08-01

    Between their many applications bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) are showing interest as pre-concentrators in heavy metals detection while being applied as working electrode modifiers used in electrochemical stripping analysis. From the different reported methods to synthesize BiNPs we are focused on the typical polyol method, largely used in these types of metallic and semi-metallic nanoparticles. This study presents the strategy for an easy control of the shape and size of BiNPs including nanocubes, nanosferes and triangular nanostructures. To improve the BiNP size and shape, different reducing agents (ethylene glycol or sodium hypophosphite) and stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, in different amounts) have been studied. The efficiency of BiNPs for heavy metals analysis in terms of detection sensitivity while being used as modifiers of screen-printed carbon electrodes including the applicability of the developed device in real sea water samples is shown. A parallel study between the obtained nanoparticles and their performance in heavy metal sensing has been described in this communication. PMID:25994368

  7. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL ADSORPTION BY MARINE ALGAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  8. A sensitive rapid on-site immunoassay for heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, R.; Blake, D.; Flowers, G.

    1996-05-02

    This project concerns the development of immunoassays for heavy metals that will permit the rapid on-site analysis of specific heavy metals, including lead and chromium in water and soil samples. 2 refs.

  9. Heavy metal adsorption by modified oak sawdust: Thermodynamics and kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by oak (Quercus coccifera) sawdust modified by means of HCl treatment. Our study tested the removal of three heavy metals: Cu, Ni, and Cr. The optimum shaking speed, adsorbent mass, contact time, and pH were determined, and adsorption isotherms were obtained using concentrations of the metal ions ranging from 0.1 to 100 mg L-1. The adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics, as well as Langmuir and D-R adsorption isotherms. The paper discusses the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption (the Gibbs free energy, entropy, and enthalpy). Our results demonstrate that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic under natural conditions. The maximum removal efficiencies were 93% for Cu(II) at pH 4, 82% for Ni(II) at pH 8, and 84% for Cr(VI) at pH 3

  10. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Benedikt; Perutka, Libor; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Kraus, Petra; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2011-06-01

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 ± 100°C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl(2). Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900°C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 ms(-1). Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl(2) from CaCl(2); diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl(2) out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit. PMID:21333519

  11. Phytoremediation potential of Lemna minor L. for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Syeda Huma; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Mohammad, Ashiq

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of L. minor for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) from two different types of effluent in raw form was evaluated in a glass house experiment using hydroponic studies for a period of 31 days. Heavy metals concentration in water and plant sample was analyzed at 3, 10, 17, 24, and 31 day. Removal efficiency, metal uptake and bio-concentration factor were also calculated. Effluents were initially analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters and results indicated that municipal effluent (ME) was highly contaminated in terms of nutrient and organic load than sewage mixed industrial effluent (SMIE). Results confirmed the accumulation of heavy metals within plant and subsequent decrease in the effluents. Removal efficiency was greater than 80% for all metals and maximum removal was observed for nickel (99%) from SMIE. Accumulation and uptake of lead in dry biomass was significantly higher than other metals. Bio-concentration factors were less than 1000 and maximum BCFs were found for copper (558) and lead (523.1) indicated that plant is a moderate accumulator of both metals. Overall, L. minor showed better performance from SMIE and was more effective in extracting lead than other metals. PMID:26114480

  12. Heavy metal speciation and toxicity characteristics of tannery sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Md. Ariful Islam; Chowdhury, Zia Uddin Md.; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metals present in tannery sludge can get mobilized in the environment in various forms and can be a cause for concern for the natural ecosystem and human health. The speciation of metals in sludge provides valuable information regarding their toxicity in the environment and determines their suitability for land application or disposal in landfills. Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, As and Cu) in tannery sludge were determined to evaluate their toxicity levels. Metal contents ranged over the following intervals: As: 1.52-2.07 mg/kg; Pb: 57.5-67 mg/kg; Cr: 15339-26501 mg/kg; Cu: 261.3-579.5 mg/kg; Zn: 210.2-329.1 mg/kg and Ni: 137.5-141.3 mg/kg (dry weight basis). The concentrations of all heavy metals in the sludge samples were lower compared to EPA guidelines except chromium which was found to be several orders of magnitude higher than the guideline value. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test indicated that the leaching potential of chromium was higher compared to the other heavy metals and exceeded the EPA land disposal restriction limits. To quantitatively assess the environmental burden of the chromium associated with tannery sludge, the IMPACT 2002+ methodology was adopted under the SimaPro software environment. Considering the USEPA limit for chromium as the baseline scenario, it was found that chromium in the tannery sludge had 6.41 times higher impact than the baseline in the categories of aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and non-carcinogens. Chromium has the highest contribution to toxicity in the category of aquatic ecotoxicity while copper is the major contributor to the category of terrestrial ecotoxicity in the tannery sludge.

  13. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain 150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

  14. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g/kg for...... zinc, 2,4 g/kg for lead, 1,7 g/kg for iron, and 7,9 g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91 mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash....

  15. Assessment of heavy metals contents in soil from an industrial plant of southern part of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Florescu; Andreea Iordache; Iuliana Piciorea; Ionete, Roxana E.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of soils is performed in order to establish the impact of heavy metal pollutionnear an industrial power plant. The use of synthetic products (e.g. pesticides, paints, batteries, industrialwaste and land application of industrial or domestic sludge) can result in heavy metal contamination ofsoils. Heavy metals also occur naturally, but rarely at toxic levels. Soil samples from different depth weredrawn. Heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn were analysed to establish the leve...

  16. Changes of Heavy Metals in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Su Kwon; Mi-Jung Bae; Young-Seuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Industrial effluent containing heavy metals discharged into streams may pose high toxicity risks to aquatic organisms and to human health. Therefore, it is important to understand how to change the amount of effluent with heavy metals discharged from industries into open aquatic ecosystems both for effective management of heavy metals and to foster sustainable ecosystems. This study was conducted to characterize the release of heavy metals from industries based on the Pollutant Release and Tr...

  17. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hang Zhou; Wen-Tao Yang; Xin Zhou; Li Liu; Jiao-Feng Gu; Wen-Lei Wang; Jia-Ling Zou; Tao Tian; Pei-Qin Peng; Bo-Han Liao

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the...

  18. Use of non-hyperaccumulator plant species for the phytoextraction of heavy metals using chelating agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Anjos Souza; Fernando Angelo Piotto; Roberta Corrêa Nogueirol; Ricardo Antunes Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals is a challenge faced by many countries, and engineering technologies to solve this problem are expensive and can cause negative impacts on the environment. One way to minimise the levels of heavy metals in the soil is to use plants that can absorb and accumulate heavy metals into harvestable parts, a process called phytoextraction. Typical plant species used in research involving phytoextraction are heavy metal hyperaccumulators, but plants from this group a...

  19. Mechanism Analysis and Propagation Model of Heavy Metals Contamination in Urban Topsoil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao-wei Wang; Yuan-biao Zhang; Zi-yue Chen; Ke-jia Li; Jia-lin Hu; Yu-jie Liu

    2013-01-01

    In order to further research on the polluting condition and spreading features of heavy metals in urban surface soil, this study makes statistical analysis on indexes of 8 heavy metal concentrations. Then Are GIS geo-statistical analyst was used for Kriging interpolation of each kind of heavy metal concentration before figuring out the spatial distribution. Firstly, heavy metal contamination was analyzed by single-element pollution evaluation and multi-element pollution evaluation, before rat...

  20. Multivariate-Statistical Assessment of Heavy Metals for Agricultural Soils in Northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Pingguo Yang; Miao Yang; Renzhao Mao; Hongbo Shao

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated eight heavy metals content and soil pollution from agricultural soils in northern China. Multivariate and geostatistical analysis approaches were used to determine the anthropogenic and natural contribution of soil heavy metal concentrations. Single pollution index and integrated pollution index could be used to evaluate soil heavy metal risk. The results show that the first factor explains 27.3% of the eight soil heavy metals with strong positive loadings on Cu, Zn, and C...

  1. Heavy metal analysis in soils and vegetation for assessing emission fields near tunnel ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environment of the ventilation system of the Tauern and Katschberg tunnels, lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were determined in soil and vegetation samples in order to determine the emission fields. Thalli of Pseudevernia furfuracea in addition were used as active monitors. The surface-level exhaust portals produce relatively small atmospheric pollution fields. Via the detached exhaust tower at Urbanalm/Mosermandl (2.000 msm), a long-distance transport: Lead concentrations in soils are above average as far away as 1.5 kms of distance. The solubility of heavy metals increases in the order Pb< Cu< Zn< Cd; it is higher in silicate soils than in carbonate soils. In the hay samples from Urbanalm, no appreciable heavy metal concentrations could be recognized. The changes are not significant in the last 4 years. (orig.)

  2. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants. PMID:26989941

  3. Concentration and speciation of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2012-11-01

    The Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate the changes in heavy metals speciation (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr) during water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) composting. Results showed that, the contents of total metals concentration were increased during the composting process. The largest proportion of metals was found in the residual fraction which was in more stable form and is consequently considered unavailable for plant uptake. Reducible and oxidizable fractions of Ni, Pb and Cd were not found in all trials during water hyacinth composting. The concentrations of Cu and Cd were very low comparative to the other metals, but the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions were similar as other metals. From this study it can be concluded that the appropriate proportion of cattle manure addition (Trial 4) significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during the composting process. PMID:22989643

  4. Does spatial auto-correlation call for a revision of latest heavy metal and nitrogen deposition maps?

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Harmens, Harry; Fagerli, Hilde; Ilyin, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Within the framework of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution atmospheric depositions of heavy metals and nitrogen as well as critical loads/levels exceedances are mapped yearly with a spatial resolution of 50 km by 50 km. The maps rely on emission data and are calculated by use of atmospheric modelling techniques. For validation, EMEP monitoring data collected at up to 70 sites across Europe are used. This spatially sparse coverage gave reason to te...

  5. Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kouji; Tainosho, Yoshiaki

    2004-10-01

    Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX). In 60 samples of tire dust, we detected 2288 heavy metal particles, which we classified into four groups using cluster analysis according to the following typical elements: cluster 1: Fe, cluster 2: Cr/Pb, cluster 3: multiple elements (Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb), cluster 4: ZnO. According to their morphologies and chemical compositions, the possible sources of each cluster were as follows: (1) brake dust (particles rich in Fe and with trace Cu, Sb, and Ba), (2) yellow paint (CrPbO(4) particles), (3) brake dust (particulate Ti, Fe, Cu, Sb, Zr, and Ba) and heavy minerals (Y, Zr, La, and Ce), (4) tire tread (zinc oxide). When the chemical composition of tire dust was compared to that of tire tread, the tire dust was found to have greater concentrations of heavy metal elements as well as mineral or asphalt pavement material characterized by Al, Si, and Ca. We conclude that tire dust consists not only of the debris from tire wear but also of assimilated heavy metal particles emitted from road traffic materials such as brake lining and road paint. PMID:15337346

  6. Deposition of heavy metals from particulate settleable matter in soils of an industrialized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfeliu, Teófilo

    2010-05-01

    Particulate air pollutants from industrial emissions and natural resource exploitation represent an important contribution to soil contamination. These atmospheric particles, usually settleable particulate matter form (which settle by gravity) are deposited on soil through both dry and wet. The most direct consequences on soil of air pollutants are acidification and salinization, not to mention the pollution that can cause heavy metals as components of suspended particulate matter. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of air pollution in soil composition. For this purpose, has been conducted a study of the composition of heavy metals in the settleable particulate matter in two locations (Almazora and Vila-real) with high industrial density (mainly ceramic companies) located in the ceramic cluster of Castellón (Spain). Settleable air particles samples were collected with a PS Standard Britannic captor (MCV-PS2) for monthly periods between January 2007 and December 2009. We analyzed the following elements: Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb and Bi which are highly toxic and have the property of accumulating in living organisms. It has been determined the concentration of heavy metals in the soluble fraction of settleable air particles by ICP-MS. The annual variation of the results obtained in both populations shows a decline over the study period the concentrations of heavy metals analyzed. This fact is associated with the steady implementation of corrective measures in the main industrial sector in the area based on the treatment of mineral raw materials. Moreover, this decline is, in turn, a lower intake of heavy metals to the soil. REFERENCES Gómez E.T.; Sanfeliu T.; Rius J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Evolution, sources and distribution of mineral particles and amorphous phase of atmospheric aerosol in an industrial and Mediterranean coastal area" Water, air and Soil Pollution 167:311-330 Moral R., Gilkes R.J.; Jordán M.M. (2005) "Distribution of heavy

  7. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  8. SULFIDE PRECIPITATION OF NICKEL AND OTHER HEAVY METALS FROM SINGLE- AND MULTI-METAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation behavior of heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cd, Cu, and Zn) was studied extensively in single- and multi-metal systems. Kinetic studies showed that NiS oxidation (as a function of pH, oxygen, and reaction time) caused the dissolution of NiS. CoS precipitation would require hi...

  9. Heavy metal contents of the karasu creek sediments, Nigde, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, M Gurhan; Narin, Ibrahim; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination in sediments of the Karasu spring was investigated in the presented study. In this respect, sediment samples were collected from contaminant sites along the spring starting from the spring water manifestation site, base of the Akkaya dam to the dam exit site. Heavy metal concentrations were determined by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. Cobalt, copper, arsenic, tin, nickel, zinc, cadmium, lead, aluminum, iron, titan, chromium and manganese contents of the Karasu creek sediments are found as 18.30-69.00, 12.40-595.0 5.50-345.3, 5.80-15.1, 10.9-64.1, 28.90-103,300, 4.1-356.2, 7.70-37,840, 13,460-109,400, 11,740-62,900, 22.18-59.04, 41.70-369 and 12.09-3,480 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicate the presence of a contamination in the Karasu creek. All the metal concentrations were found to be exceeding their acceptable limit values. Eutrophication is developed in the Karasu creek and the Akkaya dam. It is thought that heavy metal accumulation in the creek is originated from discharge from mine quarries, industrial and domestic wastes. Protection zones should be defined and all necessary measures must be taken along the Karasu creek. PMID:17057990

  10. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC5 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l-1, LC5) and lead (0.12 mg l-1, LC5), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l-1, LC5). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments

  11. Heavy Metal Pollution Evolution in Sediments from Urdaibai Bay (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full Text: The Urdaibai bay is a biosphere reservoir located in the north of Spain. The mayor components of bay sediments come from marls and clays eroded which are deposited together with metallic pollutants present in water, air and rain. For this reason it is possible to study the temporal evolution of the bay pollution by measuring the heavy metal concentrations in the sediments and considering the correspondence with its age. To this aim, sediments cores were taken in two different points of the Urdaibai bay. The cores were cut into 1 cm thick horizontal sections. Sediment dating was performed using a low background gamma spectrometry with GeHP to determine Cs-137, Ra-226 and Pb-210 activities and applying the CIC and CRS models. The heavy metal concentrations in sediments were determined by ICP-MS. The obtained results in one of the studied positions show an increment of the Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr concentrations in the first 10 cm of the sediment core. This fact can be related to an increase of the bay pollution in the last 100 years. In the second studied core the heavy metal concentrations are constant in depth or lower in the superficial layers. This could be due to an increment the deposition rate of eroded material

  12. Effects of irradiation of sewage sludge on heavy metal bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludges are a valuable resource to agriculture, but their use is limited by the hazards of pathogens, toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Irradiation can control the pathogens and deactivate some of the toxic chemicals. The relative cost of industrial-scale irradiation using accelerators has decreased progressively. This, coupled with the increasing necessity to recycle wastes, has led to renewed interest in irradiation of sludges. In response to this renewed interest, this report examines what is known about the effects of irradiation on the bioavailability of heavy metals. Very few studies have addressed this topic, although workers in the U.S. have claimed decreased solubility of metals in irradiated sludges. We have also briefly reviewed the general literature on sludge to gain indirect evidence on the likely effects. The scant data, often based on less than ideal experimental methodologies, show no major consistent effects of irradiation on the availability of heavy metals from sludge. The data are not sufficient to rule out such effects entirely, but the effects appear to be fairly subtle and not likely to persist beyond one growth season. 85 refs

  13. Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M; Sandhya, S; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, H

    2012-01-01

    "Phytoremediation" know-how to do-how is rapidly expanding and is being commercialized by harnessing the phyto-microbial diversity. This technology employs biodiversity to remove/contain pollutants from the air, soil and water. In recent years, there has been a considerable knowledge explosion in understanding plant-microbes-heavy metals interactions. Novel applications of plant-associated microbes have opened up promising areas of research in the field of phytoremediation technology. Various metabolites (e.g., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, organic acids, etc.) produced by plant-associated microbes (e.g., plant growth promoting bacteria, mycorrhizae) have been proposed to be involved in many biogeochemical processes operating in the rhizosphere. The salient functions include nutrient acquisition, cell elongation, metal detoxification and alleviation of biotic/abiotic stress in plants. Rhizosphere microbes accelerate metal mobility, or immobilization. Plants and associated microbes release inorganic and organic compounds possessing acidifying, chelating and/or reductive power. These functions are implicated to play an essential role in plant metal uptake. Overall the plant-associated beneficial microbes enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation process directly by altering the metal accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass production. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review of some of the promising processes mediated by plant-associated microbes and to illustrate how such processes influence heavy metal uptake through various biogeochemical processes including translocation, transformation, chelation, immobilization, solubilization, precipitation, volatilization and complexation of heavy metals ultimately facilitating phytoremediation. PMID:22580219

  14. Fate and effects of heavy metals in salt marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate and effects of selected heavy metals were examined in sediment from a restored salt marsh. Sediment cores densely covered with Spartina patens were collected and kept either un-amended or artificially amended with nickel (Ni) under standardized greenhouse conditions. Ni-amendment had no significant effect on the fate of other metals in sediments, however, it increased root uptake of the metals. Metal translocation into the shoots was small for all metals. Higher Ni concentrations in plants from amended cores were accompanied by seasonal reductions in plant biomass, photosynthetic capacity and transfer efficiency of open photosystem II reaction centers; these effects, however, were no longer significant at the end of the growing season. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) resembled that of natural salt marshes with up to 20% root length colonized. Although Ni-amendment increased AMF colonization, especially during vegetative growth, in general AMF were largely unaffected. - Spartina patens accumulates heavy metals in roots without significant translocation into shoots, and with only small seasonal effects on plant growth performance and mycorrhizal colonization

  15. Wetland plants as indicators of heavy metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We investigated the metal accumulating ability in three plant species. • (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were found in higher concentrations in the roots. • Results indicate that these species are suitable as indicators of heavy metal pollution in estuaries. - Abstract: In this study metal accumulating abilities of three emergent macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha capensis and Spartina maritima) were investigated in the urbanised Swartkops Estuary. Plants and sediment samples were collected at seven sites along the banks of the main channel and in adjacent canals. Sediments and plant organs were analysed, by means of atomic absorption spectrometry, for four elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Metal concentrations in the sediments of adjacent canals were found to be substantially higher than those at sites along the banks of the estuary. These differences were reflected in the plant organs for Pb and Zn, but not for Cu and Cd. All three species exhibited significantly higher concentrations of metals in their roots. These species are therefore suitable for use as indicators of the presence and level of heavy metal contaminants in estuaries

  16. Fate and effects of heavy metals in salt marsh sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suntornvongsagul, Kallaya [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Burke, David J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Smith Hall 135, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); The Holden Arboretum, 9500 Sperry Road, Kirtland, OH 44094 (United States); Hamerlynck, Erik P. [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 101 Warren Street, Smith Hall 135, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Hahn, Dittmar [Department of Chemical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States) and Department of Biology, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)]. E-mail: dh49@txstate.edu

    2007-09-15

    The fate and effects of selected heavy metals were examined in sediment from a restored salt marsh. Sediment cores densely covered with Spartina patens were collected and kept either un-amended or artificially amended with nickel (Ni) under standardized greenhouse conditions. Ni-amendment had no significant effect on the fate of other metals in sediments, however, it increased root uptake of the metals. Metal translocation into the shoots was small for all metals. Higher Ni concentrations in plants from amended cores were accompanied by seasonal reductions in plant biomass, photosynthetic capacity and transfer efficiency of open photosystem II reaction centers; these effects, however, were no longer significant at the end of the growing season. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) resembled that of natural salt marshes with up to 20% root length colonized. Although Ni-amendment increased AMF colonization, especially during vegetative growth, in general AMF were largely unaffected. - Spartina patens accumulates heavy metals in roots without significant translocation into shoots, and with only small seasonal effects on plant growth performance and mycorrhizal colonization.

  17. Behaviour of heavy metals in the partial oxidation of heavy fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, P.; Baitalow, F.; Seifert, P.; Meyer, B. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Department of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering, Reiche Zeche, Fuchsmuehlenweg 9, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schlichting, H. [Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    The behaviour of heavy metals in the partial oxidation of heavy fuel oils under a pressure of up to 100 bar (10 MPa) has been investigated. The tests were carried out in a 5 MW HP POX (High Pressure Partial Oxidation) test plant, that is operated by the IEC (Department of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering, TU Bergakademie Freiberg) in cooperation with Lurgi GmbH. In several test campaigns preheated oil with a viscosity of up to 300 cSt (= 300 mm{sup 2}/s) at the burner inlet has been gasified. The heavy metals nickel Ni, iron Fe and vanadium V occur in heavy residual oils in considerable concentration and may seriously impact the gasification itself and the synthesis gas conditioning and usage. While iron is largely recovered in the gasification residue, the recovery rates of nickel and vanadium depend on the process conditions. Volatile nickel compounds were detected in the raw synthesis gas. It was found that an incomplete carbon conversion enables the capture of nickel Ni and vanadium V in the solid residue phase and can thus mitigate the problem of volatile metal compounds in the raw synthesis gas. (author)

  18. Heavy Metals Analysis and Sediment Quality Values in Urban Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboud S. Jumbe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of heavy metal contamination in lakes and the extent to which the sediment quality of the lakes of Bangalore city has deteriorated. Approach: In this study, heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in lake bed sediments were analyzed using comparative sediment quality guidelines from various derived criteria. The selection of sampling points was based upon inflow and outflow regions of the lakes; geographical proximity of industrial units in relation to their effluent discharges; proximity of residential sites located on the banks of the wetland systems; drainage patterns and accessibility towards the lakes. Digestion and analysis of the samples were done by microwave-assisted digestion and atomic absorption spectrophotometry respectively. Results: The extent of sediment quality deterioration was more pronounced in Cu (203.50 ppm and Ni (97.64 ppm followed by Pb (206.0 ppm and Cd (8.38 ppm. Cr (96.70 ppm failed a single sediment quality guideline while Zn (220.0 ppm, Mn (176.0 ppm and Co (47.7 ppm remained within the safety levels of sediment quality guidelines prescribed for the study. The Sediment Geo-accumulation Index showed that Co, Cu and Pb showed moderate levels of pollution while the Pollution Load Index (PLI between heavy metals in the lakes produced the following outputs: Ni > Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Co > Zn > Mn. Conclusion: This study proves that the level of sustained metal contamination of the fragile urban wetlands has not receded even after the recent urban wetlands rejuvenation works were completed. This prolonged presence in excessive levels of the studied heavy metals in the bed sediments casts doubt on the choice and effectiveness of the any mitigation measures in the long run.

  19. Heavy metal deposition in the Italian 'triangle of death' determined with the moss Scorpiurum circinatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a biomonitoring project using the moss Scorpiurum circinatum was carried out to evaluate the deposition and biological effects of heavy metals in the area of Acerra (Naples, S Italy), one of the vertices of the sadly called 'Italian triangle of death' owing to the dramatic increase in tumours. The results clearly indicated that the study area is heavily polluted by heavy metals, a large proportion of which is likely present in the atmosphere in particulate form. The ultrastructural organization of exposed samples was essentially preserved, but cell membrane pits, cytoplasm vesicles and concentric multilamellar/multivesicular bodies, probably induced by pollution, were found, which may be involved in the tolerance mechanisms to metal pollution in this moss species. Although severe biological effects were not found at the ultrastructural level in the exposed moss, effects on humans, especially after long-term exposure, are to be expected. - The moss Scorpiurum circinatum indicates that the 'Italian triangle of death' is heavily polluted by heavy metals.

  20. Report on the environmental and health effects of heavy metals; Rapport sur les effets des metaux lourds sur l'environnement et la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of the bond between the environment and the health, a major interest of the today political debate, the author proposes a report on the environmental and health effects of the heavy metals to help political deciders in the technological and scientific choices. The first part is devoted to the dental amalgam and more specially the use, the environmental and the health aspects of the mercury. The second part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the environment. The sources, the atmospheric emissions, the releases in water and soils, the heavy metals wastes are detailed. In parallel the third part deals with the consequences of heavy metals on the health, including the toxicity, the risks evaluation, the food exposure, the heavy metals in the life places and the mercury in Guyana. (A.L.B.)

  1. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Seok Kim; Ji-Whan Ahn; Gi-Chun Han; Mihee Lim; Kwang-Suk You

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching c...

  2. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Seok Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT, leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L: 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L: 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT].

  3. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT]. PMID:20049231

  4. Heavy liquid metals: Research programs at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes work at PSI on thermohydraulics, thermal shock, and material tests for mechnical properties. In the presentation, the focus is on two main programs. (1) SINQ LBE target: The phase II study program for SINQ is planned. A new LBE loop is being constructed. The study has the following three objectives: (a) Pump study - design work on an electromagnetic pump to be integrated into the target. (b) Heat pipe performance test - the use of heat pipes as an additional component of the target cooling system is being considered, and it may be a way to futher decouple the liquid metal and water coolant loops. (c) Mixed convection experiment - in order to find an optimal configuration of the additional flow guide for window cooling, mixed convection around the window is to be studied. The experiment will be started using water and then with LBE. (2) ESS Mercury target: For ESS target study, the following experimental studies are planned, some of which are exampled by trial experiments. (a) Flow around the window: Flow mapping around the hemi-cylindrical window will be made for optimising the flow channels and structures, (b) Geometry optimisation for minimizing a recirculation zone behind the edge of the flow separator, (c) Flow induced vibration and buckling problem for a optimised structure of the flow separator and (d) Gas-liquid two-phase flow will be studied by starting to establish the new experimental method of measuring various kinds of two-phase flow characteristics

  5. Heavy liquid metals: Research programs at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes work at PSI on thermohydraulics, thermal shock, and material tests for mechnical properties. In the presentation, the focus is on two main programs. (1) SINQ LBE target: The phase II study program for SINQ is planned. A new LBE loop is being constructed. The study has the following three objectives: (a) Pump study - design work on an electromagnetic pump to be integrated into the target. (b) Heat pipe performance test - the use of heat pipes as an additional component of the target cooling system is being considered, and it may be a way to futher decouple the liquid metal and water coolant loops. (c) Mixed convection experiment - in order to find an optimal configuration of the additional flow guide for window cooling, mixed convection around the window is to be studied. The experiment will be started using water and then with LBE. (2) ESS Mercury target: For ESS target study, the following experimental studies are planned, some of which are exampled by trial experiments. (a) Flow around the window: Flow mapping around the hemi-cylindrical window will be made for optimising the flow channels and structures, (b) Geometry optimisation for minimizing a recirculation zone behind the edge of the flow separator, (c) Flow induced vibration and buckling problem for a optimised structure of the flow separator and (d) Gas-liquid two-phase flow will be studied by starting to establish the new experimental method of measuring various kinds of two-phase flow characteristics.

  6. Biochar Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sorption and Potential Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mining-affected lands are a global issue; in the USA alone there are an estimated 500,000 abandoned mines encompassing hundreds of thousands of hectares. Many of these sites generate acidic mine drainage that causes release of heavy metals, and subsequently degradation in environmental quality. Because of its potential liming characteristics, biochar may play a pivotal role as a soil amendment in future mine land reclamation. However, to date, most studies have focused on the use of biochar to sorb metals from solution. Previous studies suggest that metals are complexed by biochar surface function groups (leading to ion exchange, complexation), coordination with Pi electrons (C=C) of carbon, and precipitation of inorganic mineral phases. Several recent studies have focused on the use of biochar for amending mine land soils, showing that biochar can indeed reduce heavy metal lability, yet the mechanism(s) behind labile metal reduction have yet to be established. In a proof-of-concept study, we added lodgepole pine, tamarisk, and switchgrass biochar (0, 5, 10, 15% by weight; 500 oC) to four different western US mine land soils affected by various heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn). Extraction with 0.01M CaCl2 showed that increasing biochar application rate significantly decreased 'bioaccessible' metals in almost all instances. A concomitant increase in solution pH was observed, suggesting that metals may be rendered bio-inaccessible through precipitation as carbonate or (hydr)oxide phases, or sorbed onto mineral surfaces. However, this was only supposition and required further research. Thus, following the 0.01M CaCl2 extraction, biochar-soil mixtures were air-dried and metals were further extracted using the four-step BCR sequential removal procedure. Results from selective extraction suggest that, as compared to the controls, most metals in the biochar-amended mine land soils were associated with exchange sites, carbonate, and oxide phases. Biochar may play a

  7. Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. PMID:23024411

  8. Improved inventory for heavy metal emissions from stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    report also include methodology, references and an uncertainty estimate. In Denmark, stationary combustion plants are among the most important emission sources for heavy metals. Emissions of all heavy metals have decreased considerably (73 % - 92 %) since 1990. The main HM emission sources are coal...... combustion, waste incineration, residual oil combustion and in 2009 also combustion of biomass. The emission from waste incineration plants has decreased profoundly also in recent years due to installation and improved performance of flue gas cleaning devices. The emission from power plants have also...... stationary combustion plants and the corresponding improved emission inventories for the following HMs: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn). The report presents data for the year 2009 and time series for 1990-2009. The...

  9. Determination of some heavy metals levels in common carp fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Abdulrahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at fish laboratory of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Sulaimaniya using commercial dry yeast in three concentration (0%, 3%, and 5% for 12 weeks to study their effects on concentration of some heavy metals (namely Cr, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mg of common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio. The experiment was included three treatments each in three replicates (plastic tanks in which 10 fingerlings common carp of the same size and average weight (3.5 gram were stocked in each aquarium. The actual experimental feeding trials lasted three months. Results indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals differ among the treatments.

  10. Sublethal Heavy Metal Stress Stimulates Innate Immunity in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjan Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of sublethal heavy metal stress as plant biotic elicitor for triggering innate immunity in tomato plant was investigated. Copper in in vivo condition induced accumulation of defense enzymes like peroxidase (PO, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, and β-1,3 glucanase along with higher accumulation of total phenol, antioxidative enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, and total chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the treatment also induced nitric oxide (NO production which was confirmed by realtime visualization of NO burst using a fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA and spectrophotometric analysis. The result suggested that the sublethal dose of heavy metal can induce an array of plant defense responses that lead to the improvement of innate immunity in plants.

  11. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the...... electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even...... consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by...

  12. Environmental pollution with heavy metals in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview to the results from the application of various spectrometric (atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS; inductively coupled plasma-atomic mission spectrometry, ICP-AES; and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS) and radioanalytical (neutron activation analysis, NAA) techniques in environmental pollution studies in the Republic of Macedonia are presented. The results from the surveys of the pollution with heavy metals of soil, air and food are reported. The pollution with heavy metals in the particular regions was additionally investigated using moss, lichens, attic dust, soil, water and sediment samples. The results from the study of the pollution in the cities of Veles (lead and zinc smelter plant), Kavadartsi (ferronickel smelter plant), Radovish (copper mine and flotation), Probishtip, Makedonska Kamenitsa and Kriva Palanka (lead and zinc mines and flotation plants) and Bitola and Kichevo (thermoelectric power plants) are presented. (Author)

  13. Wetland plants as indicators of heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Human, L R D; Adams, J B

    2015-03-15

    In this study metal accumulating abilities of three emergent macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha capensis and Spartina maritima) were investigated in the urbanised Swartkops Estuary. Plants and sediment samples were collected at seven sites along the banks of the main channel and in adjacent canals. Sediments and plant organs were analysed, by means of atomic absorption spectrometry, for four elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Metal concentrations in the sediments of adjacent canals were found to be substantially higher than those at sites along the banks of the estuary. These differences were reflected in the plant organs for Pb and Zn, but not for Cu and Cd. All three species exhibited significantly higher concentrations of metals in their roots. These species are therefore suitable for use as indicators of the presence and level of heavy metal contaminants in estuaries. PMID:25599629

  14. Pollution of forest wood species by heavy metals; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map pollution of forest wood species by heavy metals on the territory of the Slovak Republic is shown. The Kz heavy metal loading coefficient expresses exceeding of limit values of heavy metals in assimilation organs of forest wood species. Increased level of Kz is linked to industrial areas (such as central Spis), wood growths in the vicinity of the Polish and Czech frontiers, where the second black triangle in Europe was established while there are not any significant sources of heavy metal emissions. There were available 2,341 points with chemical analysis on heavy metals. (authors)

  15. Studies of leaching, recovery and recycling of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Askari, Hallo Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 04/02/2008. The leachability of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and zinc metals and their oxides, sulfides and carbonates by water, 0.5 mol dm-3 CH3COOH, 0.1 mol dm -3 HCl/NaCI (1: 1 mixture) and 2 mol dm -3 HNO3 is reported. The concentrations of the leached heavy metals are compared with the trigger levels set by World Health Organisation (WHO). Three leaching solutions (nitric, sulfu...

  16. Removal and recovery of heavy metals of residual water industrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the next work the state of the art about the different methods and technologies for the present removal and recovery of heavy metals for the de-contamination and control of industrial wastewater is presented. Further more, it is introduce a removal alternative for chromium (III) and chromium (V I) using a solid waste material as an adsorbent, obtaining successful results which makes this proposal circumscribe into the clean technology program and residues bag

  17. Enrichment Characteristics of Heavy Metal Cadmium in Woody

    OpenAIRE

    J.-X. Yang; X.-L. Li; Y.-B. Hu; L.-M. Gao; D.-X. Yao

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, extensive research has been done on phytoremediation technology, but the study on repair mechanisms and the migration path of heavy metal contaminants in woody plants is particularly rare. The object of this study was Pan Yi mine reclamation area in Huainan as an example of cadmium (Cd) content within different parts of woody plants tissue. Based on the research findings about the migration path, the paper uses statistical methods to carry out the analysis by multiple models....

  18. With willows and poplars against the heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special kinds of trees take out cadmium, lead and zinc from the soil, helping its rehabilitation in contaminated regions. A new method for soil rehabilitation (phytoremediation) based on plants is described. Special willows and poplars have the capability to extract as a sponge heavy metals from the soils and store them in their leaves. For example, they can uptake 700 times the amount of cadmium than the normal plants do. (nevyjel)

  19. Heavy metal bioabsorption capacity of intestinal helminths in urban rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Teimoori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of helminths to absorb heavy metals in comparison with that of the host tissues.We compared the concentration of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr in urban rats and in their harboring helminthes -Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta and larval stage of Taenia taenaeiformis (Cysticercus fasciolaris. The heavy metal absorption was evaluated in 1g wet weight of parasites and tissues digested in nitric acid, using Inductivity Coupled Plasma (ICP_OES.A higher concentration of heavy metals was revealed in the helminths than in the host tissues. Bioconcentration factor (BF= C in parasite/C in tissue for both Cd and Cr absorption was more than 10-fold higher in M. moniliformis than in the three compared host tissues. The BF of Cd in M. moniliformis compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the host was 9.16, 14.14 and 17.09, respectively. BF in Cr in the same parasite and the same host tissues ranged from 10.67, 7.06 and 4.6. High level of absorption in H. diminuta was significantly likewise; the individual BF of Cd and Cr in H. diminuta compared to the liver, kidney and muscle of the hosts was 4.95, 5.94 and 4.67 vs. 2.67, 11.56 and 5.59. The mean concentration of Cd and Cr in C. fasciolaris was also significantly higher than that in the rat livers (P<0.007 and P<0.004, respectively.This study claims that parasites of terrestrial animals exposed to heavy metals can be more accurate indicators than the host tissues as new environmental monitoring agents.

  20. Accumulation of heavy metals in the earthworm eisenia foetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, R.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Collier, J.

    Earthworms are often utilized in the management and treatment of sludges. A study was conducted to determine earthworm bioaccumulation of heavy metals present in some sludges. Experimental methods and materials used are described. Conversion of activated sludge into egesta by the earthworm Eisenia foetida resulted in neither an increase nor a decrease of extractable cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, or lead. Bioaccumulations ranged from 8-250 ppm. (7 graphs, 18 references, 4 tables)

  1. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  2. Ability of Plants to Clean Soils Contaminated by Heavy Metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlustoš, P.; Punčochář, Miroslav; Szaková, J.; Balík, J.; Habart, J.; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael

    Praha : Process Engineering Publisher, 2010, s. 1874. ISBN 978-80-02-02250-3. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2010 and 7th European Congress of Chemical Engineering ECCE-7 /19./. Prague (CZ), 28.08.2010-01.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : heavy metals * phytostabilization Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering www.chisa.cz/2010, www.ecce7.com

  3. Heavy metal evaporation kinetics in thermal waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Ch.; Stucki, S.; Schuler, A.J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    To investigate the evaporation kinetics of heavy metals, experiments were performed by conventional thermogravimetry and a new method using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The new method allows online measurements in time intervals that are typically below one minute. The evaporation of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from synthetic mixtures and filter ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was of major interest. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  4. Methanogens, sulphate and heavy metals: a complex system

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Da, L.; Stams, A. J. M.; Machado de Sousa, D.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a well-established technology used for the treatment of wastes and wastewaters with high organic content. During AD organic matter is converted stepwise to methane-containing biogasa renewable energy carrier. Methane production occurs in the last AD step and relies on methanogens, which are rather sensitive to some contaminants commonly found in wastewaters (e.g. heavy metals), or easily outcompeted by other groups of microorganisms (e.g. sulphate reducing bacteria...

  5. Preparation of geneticaly modified flax for heavy metal remediation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Najmanová, Jitka; Kotrba, P.; Macková, M.; Macek, Tomáš

    Chania: Technical University of Crete, 2008 - (Kalogerakis, N.; Fava, F.; Banwart, S.). s. 247-247 ISBN 978-960-8475-12-0. [European Bioremediation Conference /4./. 03.09.2008-06.09.2008, Chania] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phytoremediation * heavy metals * transgenic flax Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  6. Collective Motion of Moshers at Heavy Metal Concerts

    CERN Document Server

    Silverberg, Jesse L; Sethna, James P; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Human collective behavior can vary from calm to panicked depending on social context. Using videos publicly available online, we study the highly energized collective motion of attendees at heavy metal concerts. We find these extreme social gatherings generate similarly extreme behaviors: a disordered gas-like state called a mosh pit and an ordered vortex-like state called a circle pit. Both phenomena are reproduced in flocking simulations demonstrating that human collective behavior is consistent with the predictions of simplified models.

  7. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response

    OpenAIRE

    Abolghassem Emamverdian; Yulong Ding; Farzad Mokhberdoran; Yinfeng Xie

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation ...

  8. Phytoremediation of heavy metals by sunflower and corn plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Tykva, Richard; Kališová, Ivana; Vaněk, Tomáš

    Crete : Technical University of Crete, 2003, s. 353-356. [European Bioremediation Conference /2./. Chania (GR), 30.06.2003-04.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055014; GA MŠk OC 837.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : phytoremediation * heavy metals Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  9. Bioavailability of heavy metals in soils amended with sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Luzán, María Teresa; Echeverría Morrás, Jesús; Garrido Segovia, Julián José

    2002-01-01

    The recycling of sewage sludge to agricultural land results in the slow accumulation of potentially toxic heavy metals in soils. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the bioavailability of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn applied to soils in urban anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge. The soils were Lithic Haplumbrept (Lh), Calcixerollic Xerochrept (Cx1 and Cx2) and Paralithic Xerorthent (Px). Sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L) were grown in. the soils following amendment with the slu...

  10. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  11. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by fimbrial designer adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Kjærgaard, Kristian; Klemm, Per

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring adhesins bind to specific molecular targets in a lock-and-key fashion due to the composition of the binding domain of the adhesin. By introduction of random peptide libraries in a suitable surface exposed carrier protein it is possible to create and select designer adhesins wi...... for the bioaccumulation of heavy metals from the environment. (C) 1999 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Computer Modeling of Leaching of Heavy Metal from Cementitious Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Hu; Wei Dai

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium model was used to simulate the results of leaching heavy metal from cementitious wastes. Modeling results of the leached major element concentrations for samples agreed well with the leaching test using the set of pure minerals and solid solutions present in the database. The model revealed Pb and Cd were predominantly incorporated within the calcium silicate hydrate matrix while a greater portion of Cd exist as discrete particles in the cement pores. Precipitation w...

  13. Heavy metal ion sensors based on organic microcavity lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Lozenko, Sergii

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental pollutants present at low concentrations requires creation of miniature, low-cost, and highly sensitive detectors that are capable to specifically identify target substances. In this thesis, a detection approach based on refractive index sensing with polymer micro-lasers is proposed and its application to the detection of heavy metal pollutants in water (mercury – Hg2+, cadmium – Cd2+ and lead – Pb2+) is studied. The resonance frequencies of the microcavity are hig...

  14. Sorption of heavy metals on lignite impregnated with chitosan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Mizera, Jiří; Machovič, V.; Borecká, Lenka; Přibyl, Oldřich; Krausová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 105-110. ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : lignite * chitosan * heavy metals * sorption Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/index_en.php?page=acta_detail_doi&id=19

  15. Size fractionation of heavy metals in highway runoff waters

    OpenAIRE

    BECHET, Béatrice; Durin, Bertrand; Legret, Michel; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Highway runoff waters may contain pollutants that have accumulated on the carriageway. Numerous field surveys have demonstrated that heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) are common pollutants in highway runoff waters that degrade the quality of natural water bodies [16]. These hazardous pollutants have been found to be attached to particles, especially finer particles than 100 μm, usually quantified by dissolved, suspended and settleable solids measurements [7]. Clay minerals, very fine...

  16. Distribution of Heavy Metals During Phytoextraction Crops Gasification and Combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Punčochář, Miroslav

    Salaya, Nakhon Pathon : TSHE, 2011, s. 54. ISBN 978-974-11-1446-7. [Environment Asia International Conference on "Environmental Supporting in Food and Energy Security : Crisis and Opportunity" /1./. Bangkok (TH), 22.03.2011-25.03.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : heavy metals * combustion * gasification Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  17. Secondary mobilisation of heavy metals in overbank sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    Overbank sediments are a widely used sampling medium for geochemical mapping and ore exploration. In industrial areas, the pollution history of a river catchment is generally reflected in the geochemical signature of pollutants in overbank sediments. The secondary (chemical) mobilisation of heavy metals in overbank sediments may however affect the geochemical record carried by the sediments that were deposited over time. This can negatively affect the reconstruction of the pollution histo...

  18. SPECIATION OF HEAVY METALS AT WATER-SEDIMENT INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Ferronato; Livia Vittori Antisari; Monica Marianna Modesto; Gilmo Vianello

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to understand the equilibrium relationship between the heavy metals concentrations in superficial water and pore water. At  water-sediment interface, the equilibrium rapidly changed and it is influenced by chemico-physical parameters of aquatic ecosystems. The hydraulic safety of Bologna plain (North Italy) depends on network of artificial canals and they are related with natural rivers of Reno basin (Reno river and its tributaries). The natural and artificial w...

  19. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS BY ICP-MS IN ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE OF ENVIRONMENT OF CROPS GROWING%ICP-MS测定甘肃某农场大气颗粒物中的铬、铜、砷、镉、铅含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小耕; 高永宏

    2011-01-01

    空气滤膜吸附采集甘肃某农场大气粉尘样品,采用盐酸—硝酸—氢氟酸—高氯酸溶解,电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)同时测定溶液中铬、铜、砷、镉、铅等重金属元素含量,分析农田环境大气颗粒中的重金属元素对农作物的影响,同时验证不同仪器工作参数对测定结果的影响。实验表明:在选定的实验条件下,分析元素的检出限低,准确性和精密度良好,国家标样中各元素多次测定结果的相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于5%。样品分析结果表明,农作物生长大气环境中的重金属污染物以铬、铜、砷、镉、铅为主,对农作物生长没有造成严重影响,说明该农场空气质量良好,适合农作物的生长。%Dissolving the sample of dust absorbed in the atmosphere collected from a farm through the air filters with hydrochloric acid,nitric acid,hydrofluoric acid,and perchloric acid,and then determines harmful heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),like Chromium,copper,arsenic,cadmium,lead and so on to test air quality of crops growth atmospheric environment.It is verified that the operating parameters of different instruments have influence on the determination results.Experiments show that: in the selected experimental conditions,the elements of being analyzed have low detection limits,accuracy and good precision.Sample analysis results show that the main heavy metal pollutants in the crops growth atmospheric environment are chromium,copper,arsenic,cadmium and lead;the relative standard deviation(RSD) of the results of several determination of national standard sample are less than 5%.It is concluded that the air quality of the farm is good and suitable for crops growth.

  20. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.