Sample records for atmospheric channel characteristics

  1. Comments on Ionization Cooling Channel Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics


    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this paper we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  2. Characteristics of southern California atmospheric rivers (United States)

    Harris, Sarah M.; Carvalho, Leila M. V.


    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are channels of high water vapor flux that transport moisture from low to higher latitudes on synoptic timescales. In areas of topographical variability, ARs may lead to high-intensity precipitation due to orographic forcing. ARs landfalling along North America's west coast are linked to extreme events including those leading to flooding and landslides. In southern California (SCA), proper AR forecasting is important for regional water resources as well as hazard mitigation and as the area's annual precipitation totals occur from relatively few storms per season, any changes to storm frequency and/or intensity may have dramatic consequences. Yet, as most regional AR studies focus on the Pacific Northwest, there is little information about SCA ARs. We develop an algorithm to identify ARs landfalling on North America's west coast between 1979 and 2013 within total precipitable water reanalysis fields. ARs are then categorized according to landfall region. To determine and differentiate the characteristics and spatial distributions of ARs affecting these areas, we examine lag composites of various atmospheric variables for each landfall region. SCA ARs differ from ARs landfalling farther north in the days prior to landfall with the position and amplitude of a trough offshore from the Asian continent and ridge over Alaska, as well as the displacement and eastward extension of the jet core that potentially guides AR moisture southwards. The relationships between AR landfalls and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the Pacific/North American Teleconnection Pattern (PNA) are also investigated.

  3. Channel Measurements and Characteristics for Cooperative Positioning Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Steinböck, Gerhard; Jost, Thomas


    We have conducted an indoor channel measurement campaign to characterize the propagation channel for the development of cooperative positioning algorithms. The campaign focused particularly on the characteristics of multi-link channels with applications to positioning. In this contribution we...

  4. Atmospheric Characteristics Inferred from Acoustic Radar Data (United States)

    Robinson, Gregory Stewart

    The work in this thesis examined data collected from a 3-axis Doppler acoustic radar system. The majority of these data were collected at sub-tropical Australian sites where vigorous convective activity was sometimes encountered during the day. In all, several weeks of data were recorded. A brief discussion of this remote-sensing technique is presented, together with a description of the equipment used and the sites at which data were collected. The fundamental data consisted of the recorded spectra of individual atmospheric echoes. Methods for extracting low-level information from these methods are discussed. The extracted data are further processed with several aims. Some interdependences between spectral parameters that may complicate routine processing are isolated and discussed. The behaviour of the three major descriptors of the echo spectra, echo power, spectral broadening and Doppler-shift are then discussed in detail. Profiles, distributions and diurnal variations of these variables are discussed for each site. Some relationships between the behaviour of these parameters and conventional atmospheric turbulence indicators are explored. Agreement with theoretical prediction was generally good. A method of using spectral broadening to estimate the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy is discussed in detail. Results are presented which suggest that this method may have promise. The data were collected during collaborative periods of intensive study. The main aim of the principle investigators during these studies was the evaluation of the local atmospheric behaviour and turbulence levels. Significant site-dependent characteristics were found in the data from the various sites or under differing weather conditions at the same site. It was found that these characteristics could be readily detected using longterm or site-averaged data, a form of presentation which may be more amenable to use in local pollution dispersion models.

  5. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several changes are taking place in the fruit juice distribution channels environment in Europe, a growing importance of food-service, the penetration of the global ... The framework for this part is build up of the marketing channel concepts and functions (Stern et al., 1996; Berman, 1996; Rosembloom, 1999), and data was ...

  6. Quantum channels and their entropic characteristics (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Giovannetti, V.


    One of the major achievements of the recently emerged quantum information theory is the introduction and thorough investigation of the notion of a quantum channel which is a basic building block of any data-transmitting or data-processing system. This development resulted in an elaborated structural theory and was accompanied by the discovery of a whole spectrum of entropic quantities, notably the channel capacities, characterizing information-processing performance of the channels. This paper gives a survey of the main properties of quantum channels and of their entropic characterization, with a variety of examples for finite-dimensional quantum systems. We also touch upon the 'continuous-variables' case, which provides an arena for quantum Gaussian systems. Most of the practical realizations of quantum information processing were implemented in such systems, in particular based on principles of quantum optics. Several important entropic quantities are introduced and used to describe the basic channel capacity formulae. The remarkable role of specific quantum correlations—entanglement—as a novel communication resource is stressed.

  7. LDPC coded OFDM over the atmospheric turbulence channel. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Vasic, Bane; Neifeld, Mark A


    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is shown to significantly outperform LDPC coded on-off keying (OOK) over the atmospheric turbulence channel in terms of both coding gain and spectral efficiency. In the regime of strong turbulence at a bit-error rate of 10(-5), the coding gain improvement of the LDPC coded single-side band unclipped-OFDM system with 64 sub-carriers is larger than the coding gain of the LDPC coded OOK system by 20.2 dB for quadrature-phase-shift keying (QPSK) and by 23.4 dB for binary-phase-shift keying (BPSK).

  8. Turbulence characteristics in sharp open-channel bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.; De Vriend, H.J.


    In spite of its importance, little is known about the turbulence characteristics in open-channel bends. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of turbulence in one cross section of an open-channel bend. Typical flow features are a bicellular pattern of cross-stream circulation

  9. Physical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seen in low altitude stations. These are attributed to the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer. ... 15 channels of composite aerosols, in the size range 0.3 to 20.0 µm. Automatic, portable, bat- ..... 6043–6058. Latha K M and Badarinath K V S 2003 Black carbon aerosols over tropical urban environment – A case study;.

  10. Channel Characteristics and Transmission Performance for Various Channel Configurations at 60 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing Yang


    Full Text Available Extensive measurements are conducted in room environments at 60 GHz to analyze the channel characteristics for various channel configurations. Channel parameters retrieved from measurements are presented and analyzed based on generic channel models. Particularly, a simple single-cluster model is applied for the parameter retrieval and performance evaluation. By this model, power delay profiles are simply described by a K-factor, a root-mean-squared delay spread, and a shape parameter. The considered channels are configured with the combination of omnidirectional, fan-beam, and pencil-beam antennas at transmitter and receiver sides. Both line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS channels are considered. Further, to evaluate the transmission performance, we analyze the link budget in the considered environments, then design and simulate an OFDM system with a data rate of 2 Gbps to compare the bit-error-rate (BER performance by using the measured and modeled channels. Both coded and uncoded OFDM systems are simulated. It is observed that the BER performance agrees well for the measured and modeled channels. In addition, directive configurations can provide sufficient link margins and BER performance for high data rate communications. To increase the coverage and performance in the NLOS area, it is preferable to apply directive antennas.

  11. Characteristics of civil aviation atmospheric hazards (United States)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Montoya, J.; Richards, Mark A.; Galliano, J.


    Clear air turbulence, wake vortices, dry hail, and volcanic ash are hazards to civil aviation that have not been brought to the forefront of public attention by a catastrophic accident. However, these four hazards are responsible for major and minor injuries, emotional trauma, significant aircraft damage, and in route and terminal area inefficiency. Most injuries occur during clear air turbulence. There is significant aircraft damage for any volcanic ash encounter. Rolls induced by wake vortices occur near the ground. Dry hail often appears as an area of weak echo on the weather radar. This paper will present the meteorological, electromagnetic, and spatiotemporal characteristics of each hazard. A description of a typical aircraft encounter with each hazard will be given. Analyzed microwave and millimeter wave sensor systems to detect each hazard will be presented.

  12. Shaping nanofiltration channels in a carbonaceous membrane via controlling the pyrolysis atmosphere. (United States)

    Xing, Zheng; Ng, Yeap Hung; Tay, Siok-Wei; Oon, Rachel Pek Har; Hong, Liang


    This work investigates the effect of atmosphere on pyrolysis of a polymer matrix (precursor) for directing its transformation towards more disordered graphene species and smaller graphitic nanograins. These two structural characteristics are crucial to the generation of nano-channels (NCs) pertinent to nanofiltration (NF). Two measures are explored hereby to conduct the study: varying the pyrolysis atmosphere and implementing highly dispersed nickel atomic clusters (Ni-clusters) in the coating matrix undergoing pyrolysis. A thermally reactive polymer precursor is developed to allow the above two measures to act more effectively. The various pyrolysis atmospheres employed include inert Ar, a reducing H2/N2 gas mixture, and weak oxidizing CO2. In the absence of the Ni-clusters, the H2/N2 atmosphere restrains the extent of graphitization through a chain transfer effect of H2 that ceases the free radical chain propagation, whereas CO2, owing to its high critical temperature (Tc) nature, shows the capability to reduce nanograin sizes. As for the catalytic roles of the embedded Ni-clusters, they vary with the pyrolysis atmosphere applied: offering coke nuclei for the growth of carbonaceous grains in Ar, enhancing gasification of carbon in CO2, and repressing the extent of aromatization via hydrogenation in H2/N2. The carbonaceous membranes (CnMs) obtained under the above pyrolysis conditions are distinguished by the distribution density and structure of NCs evolved, which locate primarily in the boundaries of nanograins. The NF of an aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB, 10 ppmw) is utilized to assess these CnMs to show impacts of the NCs on the separation performance.

  13. Wideband Channel Modeling in Real Atmospheric Environments with Experimental Evaluation (United States)


    received signal will experience ISI and the channel is considered wideband. If either the transmitter or receiver is mobile or the environment is not...are commonly used in spread spectrum communication systems such as Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA ) systems. Narrowband interference mitigation...Model (APM) for Mobile Radio Applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, no. 10 (October), pp. 2869–2877. [5] A. Barrios. 1995

  14. Physical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols during ICARB at Manora Peak, Nainital: A sparsely inhabited, high-altitude location in the Himalayas ... Total aerosol number concentration and BC mass concentration showed diurnal variation with a midnight and early morning minimum and a late afternoon ...

  15. Channel estimation for OFDM system in atmospheric optical communication based on compressive sensing (United States)

    Zhao, Qingsong; Hao, Shiqi; Geng, Hongjian; Sun, Han


    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique applied to the atmospheric optical communication can improve data transmission rate, restrain pulse interference, and reduce effect of multipath caused by atmospheric scattering. Channel estimation, as one of the important modules in OFDM, has been investigated thoroughly and widely with great progress. In atmospheric optical communication system, channel estimation methods based on pilot are common approaches, such as traditional least-squares (LS) algorithm and minimum mean square error (MMSE) algorithm. However, sensitivity of the noise effects and high complexity of computation are shortcomings of LS algorithm and MMSE algorithm, respectively. Here, a new method based on compressive sensing is proposed to estimate the channel state information of atmospheric optical communication OFDM system, especially when the condition is closely associated with turbulence. Firstly, time-varying channel model is established under the condition of turbulence. Then, in consideration of multipath effect, sparse channel model is available for compressive sensing. And, the pilot signal is reconstructed with orthogonal matching tracking (OMP) algorithm, which is used for reconstruction. By contrast, the work of channel estimation is completed by LS algorithm as well. After that, simulations are conducted respectively in two different indexes -signal error rate (SER) and mean square error (MSE). Finally, result shows that compared with LS algorithm, the application of compressive sensing can improve the performance of SER and MSE. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed method is reasonable and efficient.

  16. Single channel atmospheric pressure transporting plasma and plasma stream demultiplexing: physical characterization and application to E. coli bacteria inactivation (United States)

    Valinataj Omran, A.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Siadati, S. N.; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, A.; Akishev, Y.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.


    In this article, we developed transporting plasma sources that operate at atmospheric pressure. The effect of electrode configuration on plasma transporting was investigated. In order to increase the transporting plasma cross-section, we converted a plasma stream into four plasma channels by a cylindrical housing. Electron excitation and rotational temperatures were estimated using optical emission spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrical and temporal characteristics of the plasma, discharge power and charge deposition on the target were investigated. The propagation characteristics of single and multi-channel transporting plasma were compared with the same cross-sectional area. Two configurations for multi-channels were designed for this purpose. Escherichia coli bacteria were exposed to the single and multi-channel transporting discharge for different time durations. After exposure, the results indicated that the inactivation zones were significantly increased by a multi-channel transporting plasma. Finally, E. coli inactivation by those plasma apparatuses was compared with that of several standard antimicrobial test discs such as Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin and Cefixime.

  17. Distribution of squeezed states through an atmospheric channel. (United States)

    Peuntinger, Christian; Heim, Bettina; Müller, Christian R; Gabriel, Christian; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd


    Continuous variable quantum states of light are used in quantum information protocols and quantum metrology and known to degrade with loss and added noise. We were able to show the distribution of bright polarization squeezed quantum states of light through an urban free-space channel of 1.6 km length. To measure the squeezed states in this extreme environment, we utilize polarization encoding and a postselection protocol that is taking into account classical side information stemming from the distribution of transmission values. The successful distribution of continuous variable squeezed states is accentuated by a quantum state tomography, allowing for determining the purity of the state.

  18. Measurement and simulation of widespread mobile radio channel characteristics (United States)

    Lorenz, Rudolf Werner


    The general model of the transmission characteristics in mobile radio is derived. It is shown which abstractions are necessary to come up with the wide-sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) model. This model, well known from troposcatter propagation, is valid in mobile radio only for small vehicle travel distances. Nevertheless, the WSSUS model proved to be ideal for system test performance in mobile radio. The reasons are explained. A frequency-selective fading simulator recently developed in France and Germany is described, which is based on the WSSUS model and proved to be a very suitable tool for hardware test of mobile radio equipment. The key dates of mobile radio channel characteristics standardized by COST 207 are briefly presented.

  19. Development and characterization of the superconducting integrated receiver channel of the TELIS atmospheric sounder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, Gert; Birk, Manfred; Boersma, Dick; Dercksen, Johannes; Dmitriev, Pavel; Ermakov, Andrey B.; Filippenko, Lyudmila V.; Golstein, Hans; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; de Jong, Leo; Khudchenko, Andrey V.; Kinev, Nickolay V.; Kiselev, Oleg S.; van Kuik, Bart; de Lange, Arno; van Rantwijk, Joris; Selig, Avri M.; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Torgashin, Mikhail Yu; de Vries, Ed; Wagner, Georg; Yagoubov, Pavel A.; Koshelets, Valery P.

    The balloon-borne instrument TELIS (TErahertz and submillimetre LImb Sounder) is a three-channel superconducting heterodyne spectrometer for atmospheric research use. It detects spectral emission lines of stratospheric trace gases that have their rotational transitions at THz frequencies. One of the

  20. 500  Gb/s free-space optical transmission over strong atmospheric turbulence channels. (United States)

    Qu, Zhen; Djordjevic, Ivan B


    We experimentally demonstrate a high-spectral-efficiency, large-capacity, featured free-space-optical (FSO) transmission system by using low-density, parity-check (LDPC) coded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) combined with orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. The strong atmospheric turbulence channel is emulated by two spatial light modulators on which four randomly generated azimuthal phase patterns yielding the Andrews spectrum are recorded. The validity of such an approach is verified by reproducing the intensity distribution and irradiance correlation function (ICF) from the full-scale simulator. Excellent agreement of experimental, numerical, and analytical results is found. To reduce the phase distortion induced by the turbulence emulator, the inexpensive wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (AO) is used. To deal with remaining channel impairments, a large-girth LDPC code is used. To further improve the aggregate data rate, the OAM multiplexing is combined with WDM, and 500 Gb/s optical transmission over the strong atmospheric turbulence channels is demonstrated.

  1. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems With Multiuser Diversity Over Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang


    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD) FSO scheme in which the Nth best user is selected and the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. More specifically, we first present the statistics analysis for the considered system over both weak and strong atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these statistics, the outage probability, bit-error rate performance, average capacity, diversity order, and coverage are analyzed. Results show that the diversity order for the gamma-gamma fading is N min{α, β}/2, where N is the number of users, and α and β are the channel fading parameters related to the effective atmospheric conditions of the link.

  2. Sensitivity of atmospheric-surface parameters retrieval to the spectral stability of channels in thermal IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Anton [LPCA UMR CNRS 8101 IRENI, 189A av Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)], E-mail:; Khomenko, Gueorgui [LPCA UMR CNRS 8101 IRENI, 189A av Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)], E-mail:; Dubuisson, Philippe [ELICO FRE CNRS 2816, ULCO LOCL, 32 av Foch, 62930 Wimereux (France)], E-mail:


    Sensitivity of the solutions of forward and inverse problems of the atmospheric-surface parameters retrieval to spectral shifts of channels is considered. The solution of the forward problem is obtained by radiative transfer simulation. The retrieval (solution of the inverse problem) is obtained by linear (optimal interpolation) and non-linear (variational) techniques. It is shown that atmospheric temperature profiles exhibit high sensitivity to the spectral shift, while the humidity profiles are moderately sensitive while the sea surface temperatures retrievals are insensitive. Two approaches are proposed to reduce the effect of channel spectral shift, one is based on channel selection and the other approach is related to proper calibration of the cost function. We performed the numerical simulations using the parameters of AIRS spectrometer to illustrate the sensitivity of forward and inverse problems. The results of the simulation show that the inversion error can be significantly reduced by the proposed techniques.

  3. Internal atmospheric noise characteristics in twentieth century coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations (United States)

    Colfescu, Ioana; Schneider, Edwin K.


    The statistical characteristics of the atmospheric internal variability (hereafter internal atmospheric noise) for surface pressure (PS) in twentieth century simulations of a coupled general circulation model are documented. The atmospheric noise is determined from daily post-industrial (1871-1998) Community Climate System Model 3 simulations by removing the SST and externally forced responses from the total fields. The forced responses are found from atmosphere-only simulations forced by the SST and external forcing of the coupled runs. However, we do not address the influence of the SST variability on the synoptic scale high frequency weather noise.The spatial patterns of the main seasonal modes of atmospheric noise variability are found for boreal winter and summer from empirical orthogonal function analyses performed globally and for various regions, including the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the equatorial Pacific. The temporal characteristics of the modes are illustrated by power spectra and probability density functions (PDF) of the principal components (PC). Our findings show that, for two different realizations of noise, the variability is dominated by large scale spatial structures of the atmospheric noise that resemble observed patterns, and that their relative amplitudes in the CGCM and AGCM simulations are very similar. The regional expression of the dominant global mode, a seasonally dependent AO-like or AAO-like pattern is also found in the regional analyses, with similar time dependence. The PCs in the CGCM and the corresponding SST forced AGCM simulations are uncorrelated, but the spectra and PDFs of the CGCM and AGCM PCs are similar.The temporal structures of the noise PCs are white at timescales larger than few months, so that these modes can be thought of as stochastic forcings (in time) for the climate system. The PDFs of the noise PCs are not statistically distinguishable from Gaussian distributions with the same standard deviation

  4. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

  5. Low SNR Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma


    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of free space optical communication systems over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. In our framework, we mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range and show that the ergodic capacity scales proportionally to SNR log^4(1/SNR). We show also that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-o ff power control scheme.

  6. Low SNR Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma


    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of free space optical communication systems over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. In our framework, we mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range and show that the ergodic capacity scales proportionally to SNR log^4(1/SNR). We show also that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme.

  7. Explosion characteristics of flammable organic vapors in nitrous oxide atmosphere. (United States)

    Koshiba, Yusuke; Takigawa, Tomihisa; Matsuoka, Yusaku; Ohtani, Hideo


    Despite unexpected explosion accidents caused by nitrous oxide have occurred, few systematic studies have been reported on explosion characteristics of flammable gases in nitrous oxide atmosphere compared to those in air or oxygen. The objective of this paper is to characterize explosion properties of mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with nitrous oxide and nitrogen using three parameters: explosion limit, peak explosion pressure, and time to the peak explosion pressure. Then, similar mixtures of n-pentane, diethyl ether, diethylamine, or n-butyraldehyde with oxygen and nitrogen were prepared to compare their explosion characteristics with the mixtures containing nitrous oxide. The explosion experiments were performed in a cylindrical vessel at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The measurements showed that explosion ranges of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were narrow compared to those of the mixtures containing oxygen. On the other hand, the maximum explosion pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were higher than those of the mixtures containing oxygen. Moreover, our experiments revealed that these mixtures differed in equivalence ratios at which the maximum explosion pressures were observed: the pressures of the mixtures containing nitrous oxide were observed at stoichiometry; in contrast, those of the mixtures containing oxygen were found at fuel-rich area. Chemical equilibrium calculations confirmed these behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of Headwater Channels in Pacific Northwest Forests (United States)

    Liquori, M. K.


    Headwater channels integrate hillslope sources of water, sediment and organic material into stream ecosystems. While a significant portion of landscapes are comprised of headwater channels, the relationships between geomorphic, hydrologic, and biologic ecosystem functions in headwater channels are poorly understood. Geomorphic data were collected on 982 stream segments, representing over 240 km of headwaters streams from mature, 2nd-growth managed forests in the western cascades. Unlike alluvial channels, reach-average bankfull shear stress increases downstream, resulting in downstream bed coarsening. Generally, an inflection in the regression of shear stress as a function of basin area occurs near 100 ha (1 km2), and may vary with channel type. Substrate conditions also reflect trends in bankfull shear stress, although at a much higher values than observed in fully alluvial channels. Roughly 39% of pools and 42% of steps were formed by organic material. Pool depth in headwater channels is independent of wood diameter, and small pieces (effective. Step-height is positively correlated to wood diameter, and a threshold appears to exist near 40cm. For similar wood loading conditions, pool spacing is much greater than observed in alluvial channels. Wood may also be important in generating backwater pools by locally altering the roughness ratio as compared to other channel-forming materials, possibly at the expense of sediment storage. Despite popular perceptions, wood frequency is significantly lower than observed in higher-order channels, due to fewer active wood recruitment processes or to long-term legacy associated with timber harvest 5-8 decades prior to our surveys. Recognizing the geomorphic behaviors of headwater channels is critical to accurately predicting ecological consequences from land-use management actions. These results suggest that wood and sediment functions in headwater channels differ considerably from larger alluvial channels. Appropriate design

  9. A new Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer channel selection and assessment of its impact on Met Office NWP forecasts (United States)

    Noh, Young-Chan; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Kim, Yoonjae; Joo, Sangwon; Bell, William; Saunders, Roger


    A new set of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) channels was re-selected from 314 EUMETSAT channels. In selecting channels, we calculated the impact of the individually added channel on the improvement in the analysis outputs from a one-dimensional variational analysis (1D-Var) for the Unified Model (UM) data assimilation system at the Met Office, using the channel score index (CSI) as a figure of merit. Then, 200 channels were selected in order by counting each individual channel's CSI contribution. Compared with the operationally used 183 channels for the UM at the Met Office, the new set shares 149 channels, while the other 51 channels are new. Also examined is the selection from the entropy reduction method with the same 1D-Var approach. Results suggest that channel selection can be made in a more objective fashion using the proposed CSI method. This is because the most important channels can be selected across the whole IASI observation spectrum. In the experimental trial runs using the UM global assimilation system, the new channels had an overall neutral impact in terms of improvement in forecasts, as compared with results from the operational channels. However, upper-tropospheric moist biases shown in the control run with operational channels were significantly reduced in the experimental trial with the newly selected channels. The reduction of moist biases was mainly due to the additional water vapor channels, which are sensitive to the upper-tropospheric water vapor.

  10. Characteristics of two-phase flows in large diameter channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)


    Two-phase flows in large diameter channels have a great deal of importance in a wide variety of industrial applications. Nuclear systems, petroleum refineries, and chemical processes make extensive use of larger systems. Flows in such channels have very different properties from flows in smaller channels which are typically used in experimental research. In this paper, the various differences between flows in large and small channels are highlighted using the results of previous experimental and analytical research. This review is followed by a review of recent experiments in and model development for flows in large diameter channels performed by the authors. The topics of these research efforts range from void fraction and interfacial area concentration measurement to flow regime identification and modeling, drift-flux modeling for high void fraction conditions, and evaluation of interfacial area transport models for large diameter channels.

  11. Thermal–hydraulic characteristics for CANFLEX fuel channel using burnable poison in CANDU reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Bae


    Full Text Available The thermal–hydraulic characteristics for the CANadian Deuterium Uranium Flexible (CANFLEX-burnable poison (BP fuel channel, which is loaded with a BP at the center ring based on the CANFLEX-RU (recycled uranium fuel channel, are evaluated and compared with that of standard 37-element and CANFLEX-NU (natural uranium fuel channels. The distributions of fuel temperature and critical channel power for the CANFLEX-BP fuel channel are calculated using the NUclear Heat Transport CIRcuit Thermohydraulics Analysis Code (NUCIRC code for various creep rate and burnup. CANFLEX-BP fuel channel has been revealed to have a lower fuel temperature compared with that of a standard 37-element fuel channel, especially for high power channels. The critical channel power of CANFLEX-BP fuel channel has increased by about 10%, relative to that of a standard 37-element fuel channel for 380 channels in a core, and has higher value relative to that of the CANFLEX-NU fuel channel except the channels in the outer core. This study has shown that the use of a BP is feasible to enhance the thermal performance by the axial heat flux distribution, as well as the improvement of the reactor physical safety characteristics, and thus the reactor safety can be improved by the use of BP in a CANDU reactor.

  12. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix. (United States)

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang


    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  13. [Turbulent characteristics in forest canopy under atmospheric neutral condition]. (United States)

    Diao, Yi-Wei; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Pei, Tie-Fan


    Based on the micrometeorological data of broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain in 2003, a second-order closure model was employed to calculate and analyze the turbulent characteristics within and above the canopy of the forest. The calculated mean wind profile was coincident with the measured one. The Reynolds stress within the forest was significantly attenuated. The turbulent strength, velocity flux, and skew were the largest at forest-atmosphere interface, as well the wind shear. With the increase of velocity skew, the turbulent intermittence became more significant, and the downward turbulent eddy within the canopy was limited. Most of the turbulent deeply within the forest canopy was produced by the non-local contributions above the canopy.

  14. Research on diversity receive technology for wireless optical communication using PPM in weak turbulence atmosphere channel (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Guo-an


    In order to mitigate atmospheric turbulence, the free space optical (FSO) system model with spatial diversity is analyzed based on intensity detection pulse position modulation (PPM) in the weak turbulence atmosphere. The slot error rate (SER) calculating formula of the system without diversity is derived under pulse position modulation firstly. Then as a benchmark, independent of identical distribution, the average slot error rates of the three linear combining technologies, which are the maximal ratio combining (MRC), equal gain combining (EGC) and selection combining (SelC), are compared. Simulation results show that the performance of system is the best improved by MRC, followed by EGC, and is poor by SelC, but SelC is simpler and more convenient. Spatial diversity is efficient to improve the performance and has strong ability on resistance to atmospheric channel decline. The above scheme is more suitable for optical wireless communication systems.

  15. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Young Chun


    Full Text Available Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba, Pine (Pinus densiflora, Platanus (Platanus, and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides. These were used as passive air sampler (PAS of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry, whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry, Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry, and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry, followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry, Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry, and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry. There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682. Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6% of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data.

  16. FSO channel estimation for OOK modulation with APD receiver over atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors (United States)

    Dabiri, Mohammad Taghi; Sadough, Seyed Mohammad Sajad; Khalighi, Mohammad Ali


    In the free-space optical (FSO) links, atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors lead to scintillation in the received signal. Due to its ease of implementation, intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) based on ON-OFF-keying(OOK) is a popular signaling scheme in these systems. For long-haul FSO links, avalanche photo diodes (APDs) are commonly used, which provide an internal gain in photo-detection, allowing larger transmission ranges, as compared with PIN photo-detector (PD) counterparts. Since optimal OOK detection at the receiver requires the knowledge of the instantaneous channel fading coefficient, channel estimation is an important task that can considerably impact the link performance. In this paper, we investigate the channel estimation issue when using an APD at the receiver. Here, optimal signal detection is quite more delicate than in the case of using a PIN PD. In fact, given that APD-based receivers are usually shot-noise limited, the receiver noise will have a different distribution depending on whether the transmitted bit is '0' or '1', and moreover, its statistics are further affected by the scintillation. To deal with this, we first consider minimum mean-square-error (MMSE), maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) and maximum likelihood (ML) channel estimation over an observation window encompassing several consecutive received OOK symbols. Due to the high computational complexity of these methods, in a second step, we propose an ML channel estimator based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm which has a low implementation complexity, making it suitable for high data-rate FSO communications. Numerical results show that for a sufficiently large observation window, by using the proposed EM channel estimator, we can achieve bit error rate performance very close to that with perfect channel state information. We also derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of MSE of estimation errors and show that for a large enough observation

  17. Entanglement-distillation attack on continuous-variable quantum key distribution in a turbulent atmospheric channel (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Xie, Cailang; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Guihua; Huang, Duan


    The survival of Gaussian quantum states in a turbulent atmospheric channel is of crucial importance in free-space continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD), in which the transmission coefficient will fluctuate in time, thus resulting in non-Gaussian quantum states. Different from quantum hacking of the imperfections of practical devices, here we propose a different type of attack by exploiting the security loopholes that occur in a real lossy channel. Under a turbulent atmospheric environment, the Gaussian states are inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which would cause a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. Therefore, an eavesdropper can perform an intercept-resend attack by applying an entanglement-distillation operation on the transmitted non-Gaussian mixed states, which allows the eavesdropper to bias the estimation of the parameters and renders the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure. Our proposal highlights the practical CV QKD vulnerabilities with free-space quantum channels, including the satellite-to-earth links, ground-to-ground links, and a link from moving objects to ground stations.

  18. Spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of a gliding arc discharge in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas


    of the glow-type discharge is the same as that of the electronic power dissipated in the plasma column. The glow-type discharge can transfer into a spark discharge characterized by a sharp peak current of several amperes and a sudden increase of the brightness in the plasma column. Transitions can also......A gliding arc discharge was generated in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) electric power. The spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of the gliding arc discharge, including glow-type discharges, spark-type discharges, short-cutting events...... be found to take place from spark-type discharges to glow-type discharges. Short-cutting events were often observed as the intermediate states formed during the spark-glow transition. Three different types of short-cutting events have been observed to generate new current paths between two plasma channel...

  19. Martian channels and valleys - Their characteristics, distribution, and age (United States)

    Carr, M. H.; Clow, G. D.


    The distribution and ages of Martian channels and valleys, which are generally believed to have been cut by running water, are examined with particular emphasis on the small branching networks referred to as runoff channels or valley networks. Valleys at latitudes from 65 deg S to 65 deg N were surveyed on Viking images at resolutions between 125 and 300 m. Almost all of the valleys are found in the old cratered terrain, in areas characterized by high elevations, low albedos and low violet/red ratios. The networks are deduced to have formed early in the history of the planet, with a formation rate declining rapidly shortly after the decline of the cratering rate 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channels are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. Both types start at local sources, and have formed episodically throughout Martian history. Fretted channels, found mainly in two latitude belts characterized by relatively rapid erosion along escarpments, are explained by the lateral enlargement of other channels by mass wasting.

  20. Vertical profiles of atmospheric fluorescent aerosols observed by a mutil-channel lidar spectrometer system (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Huang, J.; Zhou, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Bi, J.


    Zhongwei Huang1*, Jianping Huang1, Tian Zhou1, Nobuo Sugimoto2, Jianrong Bi1 and Jinsen Shi11Key Laboratory for Semi-Arid Climate Change of the Ministry of Education, College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. 2Atmospheric Environment Division, National Institutes for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan Email: Abstract Atmospheric aerosols have a significant impact on regional and globe climate. The challenge in quantifying aerosol direct radiative forcing and aerosol-cloud interactions arises from large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of aerosol concentrations, compositions, sizes, shape and optical properties (IPCC, 2007). Lidar offers some remarkable advantages for determining the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols and their related optical properties. To investigate the characterization of atmospheric aerosols (especially bioaerosols) with high spatial and temporal resolution, we developed a Raman/fluorescence/polarization lidar system employed a multi-channel spectrometer, with capabilities of providing measurements of Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence excitation at 355 nm from atmospheric aerosols. Meanwhile, the lidar system operated polarization measurements both at 355nm and 532nm wavelengths, aiming to obtain more information of aerosols. It employs a high power pulsed laser and a received telescope with 350mm diameter. The receiver could simultaneously detect a wide fluorescent spectrum about 178 nm with spectral resolution 5.7 nm, mainly including an F/3.7 Crossed Czerny-Turner spectrograph, a grating (1200 gr/mm) and a PMT array with 32 photocathode elements. Vertical structure of fluorescent aerosols in the atmosphere was observed by the developed lidar system at four sites across northwest China, during 2014 spring field observation that conducted by Lanzhou University. It has been proved that the developed lidar could detect the fluorescent aerosols with high temporal and

  1. Population characteristics of channel catfish near the northern edge of their distribution: implications for management (United States)

    Carter-Lynn, K. P.; Quist, Michael C.


    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), populations in six lakes in northern Idaho, USA, were sampled to describe their population characteristics. During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 4864 channel catfish were sampled. Channel catfish populations had low to moderate catch rates, and length structure was dominated by fish Channel catfish were in good body condition. All populations were maintained by stocking age-1 or age-2 fish. Growth of fish reared in thermally enriched environments prior to stocking was fast compared to other North American channel catfish populations. After stocking, growth of channel catfish declined rapidly. Once stocked, cold water temperatures, prey resources and (or) genetic capabilities limited growth. Total annual mortality of age 2 and older channel catfish was generally channel catfish population dynamics and highlights important considerations associated with their ecology and management.

  2. Influence of alluvial cover and lithology on the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial bedrock channels (United States)

    Ferguson, Sean P.; Rennie, Colin D.


    A growing body of research has focused on evaluating the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial channels containing proximate bedrock, mixed, and alluvial sections. Active orogens have been the focus of most empirical field-based studies with comparatively less focus on semi-alluvial bedrock channels located in other regions. In this study, we present an inventory of channel geometry data collected from semi-alluvial bedrock channels in Ontario and Québec, Canada, which are not subject to tectonic uplift. Data were sourced from a variety of physiographic settings, permitting evaluation of the influence of alluvial cover, lithology, and gradient on cross-sectional channel form. Our results show no substantial difference in channel width or scaling behaviour amongst bedrock, mixed, and alluvial channels included in our study, except for sedimentary bedrock channels virtually bare of alluvial cover that represent a uniquely wide, distinct subgroup. Channel gradient does not appear to exhibit any observable control on channel width amongst our study rivers, suggesting that sedimentary bedrock channels form a distinct subgroup because of lithology. Comparatively, the widths of our bedrock channels formed in igneous/metamorphic bedrock are comparable to the widths of mixed channels and alluvial channels for a given discharge and drainage area. Our findings also suggest that cross-sectional adjustment of sedimentary bedrock channels is achieved through lateral erosion of the channel banks and downward erosion of the channel bed, whereas cross-sectional adjustment of igneous/metamorphic bedrock is primarily achieved through downward erosion of the bed with limited lateral erosion of the banks.

  3. Atmospheric correction for sea surface temperature retrieval from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) single window channel radiance data onboard Kalpana satellite .... Atmospheric correction (WV in equation 1) is ... Atmospheric correction for SST retrieval. 341. Table 2. Characteristics of VHRR sensor onboard Kalpana satellite. Channel wavelength. Resolution. Sensor.

  4. Impact of Vehicular Array Position on Urban MIMO Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Squires


    vehicle can differ significantly. Specifically, shadowing from the vehicle combined with the directionality of the side-mounted array elements affects the angular distribution and powers of the received multipath components, affecting the achievable diversity and channel capacity. This can have significant impact on system performance and should be considered when designing and analyzing vehicular-based signalling techniques.

  5. Bank-characteristics, lending channel and monetary policy in Malaysia: evidence from bank-level data


    Abdul Majid, Muhamed Zulkhibri


    Based on a bank-level panel dataset for Malaysian banks from 1997 to 2005, this paper analyzes the effects of bank-specific characteristics, bank specialization and portfolio concentrations on the transmission of monetary policy via bank lending channel in a fairly well-developed financial system. The dynamic panel regression results provide evidence in favour of the bank lending channel theory and consistent with other empirical evidences that the bank lending channel operating via small and...

  6. LDPC-coded MIMO optical communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel using Q-ary pulse-position modulation. (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B


    We describe a coded power-efficient transmission scheme based on repetition MIMO principle suitable for communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel, and determine its channel capacity. The proposed scheme employs the Q-ary pulse-position modulation. We further study how to approach the channel capacity limits using low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Component LDPC codes are designed using the concept of pairwise-balanced designs. Contrary to the several recent publications, bit-error rates and channel capacities are reported assuming non-ideal photodetection. The atmospheric turbulence channel is modeled using the Gamma-Gamma distribution function due to Al-Habash et al. Excellent bit-error rate performance improvement, over uncoded case, is found.

  7. Entanglement generation via non-Gaussian transfer over atmospheric fading channels (United States)

    Hosseinidehaj, Nedasadat; Malaney, Robert


    In this work we probe the usefulness of non-Gaussian entangled states as a resource for quantum communication through atmospheric channels. We outline the initial conditions in which non-Gaussian state transfer leads to enhanced entanglement transfer relative to that obtainable via Gaussian state transfer. However, we conclude that in (anticipated) operational scenarios—where most of the non-Gaussian states to be transferred over the air are created just in time via photonic subtraction, addition, or replacement from incoming Gaussian states—the entanglement-generation rate between stations via non-Gaussian state transfer will be substantially less than that created by direct Gaussian state transfer. The role of postselection, distillation, and quantum memory in altering this conclusion is discussed, and comparison with entanglement rates produced via single-photon technologies is provided. Our results suggest that in the near term entangled Gaussian states, squeezed beyond some modest level, offer the most attractive proposition for the distribution of entanglement through high-loss atmospheric channels. The implications of our results for entanglement-based quantum key distribution to low-Earth orbit are presented.

  8. Novel formulation of the ℳ model through the Generalized-K distribution for atmospheric optical channels. (United States)

    Garrido-Balsells, José María; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Paris, José Francisco; Castillo-Vazquez, Miguel; Puerta-Notario, Antonio


    In this paper, a novel and deeper physical interpretation on the recently published Málaga or ℳ statistical distribution is provided. This distribution, which is having a wide acceptance by the scientific community, models the optical irradiance scintillation induced by the atmospheric turbulence. Here, the analytical expressions previously published are modified in order to express them by a mixture of the known Generalized-K and discrete Binomial and Negative Binomial distributions. In particular, the probability density function (pdf) of the ℳ model is now obtained as a linear combination of these Generalized-K pdf, in which the coefficients depend directly on the parameters of the ℳ distribution. In this way, the Málaga model can be physically interpreted as a superposition of different optical sub-channels each of them described by the corresponding Generalized-K fading model and weighted by the ℳ dependent coefficients. The expressions here proposed are simpler than the equations of the original ℳ model and are validated by means of numerical simulations by generating ℳ -distributed random sequences and their associated histogram. This novel interpretation of the Málaga statistical distribution provides a valuable tool for analyzing the performance of atmospheric optical channels for every turbulence condition.

  9. A fast code for channel limb radiances with gas absorption and scattering in a spherical atmosphere (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Uymin, Gennady; Flittner, David; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Mlawer, Eli; Henderson, John; Moncet, Jean-Luc; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Wolff, Michael


    We present a radiative transfer code capable of accurately and rapidly computing channel limb radiances in the presence of gaseous absorption and scattering in a spherical atmosphere. The code has been prototyped for the Mars Climate Sounder measuring limb radiances in the thermal part of the spectrum (200-900 cm-1) where absorption by carbon dioxide and water vapor and absorption and scattering by dust and water ice particles are important. The code relies on three main components: 1) The Gauss Seidel Spherical Radiative Transfer Model (GSSRTM) for scattering, 2) The Planetary Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (P-LBLRTM) for gas opacity, and 3) The Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) for selecting a limited number of spectral points to simulate channel radiances and thus achieving a substantial increase in speed. The accuracy of the code has been evaluated against brute-force line-by-line calculations performed on the NASA Pleiades supercomputer, with satisfactory results. Additional improvements in both accuracy and speed are attainable through incremental changes to the basic approach presented in this paper, which would further support the use of this code for real-time retrievals and data assimilation. Both newly developed codes, GSSRTM/OSS for MCS and P-LBLRTM, are available for additional testing and user feedback.

  10. On the Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels Using OOK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Zambrana


    Full Text Available A new upper bound on the capacity of power- and bandwidth-constrained optical wireless links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels with intensity modulation and direct detection is derived when on-off keying (OOK formats are used. In this free-space optical (FSO scenario, unlike previous capacity bounds derived from the classic capacity of the well-known additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel with uniform input distribution, a new closed-form upper bound on the capacity is found by bounding the mutual information subject to an average optical power constraint and not only to an average electrical power constraint, showing the fact that the input distribution that maximizes the mutual information varies with the turbulence strength and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. Additionally, it is shown that an increase of the peak-to-average optical power ratio (PAOPR provides higher capacity values. Simulation results for the mutual information are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results under several turbulence conditions.

  11. Turbulence characteristics of open channel flow over non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of the non-equilibrium mobile dunes on the flow characteristics and turbulence is examined by computing turbulent intensities, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stresses using time averaged and time–space averaged velocity measurements. The magnitudes of transverse velocities are approximately ...

  12. On the marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over Bay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed measurements were carried out in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) which covered both Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal during March to May 2006. In this paper, we present the meteorological observations made ...

  13. Characteristics of low frequency oscillations of the atmosphere ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging)1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Presently, an accepted theory is the so-called mobile Kelvin wave-CISK mechanism. ... ship to anomalous convection (e.g., Knutson and. Weickmann 1987; Hendon and Salby 1994). Less emphasis has been ... ship reports of Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere. Data Set (COADS) for the year 1999 over global oceans was ...

  14. Atmospheric pollution in cities of Russia: statistics, causes and characteristics (United States)

    Petrov, A.; Petrova, D.


    The article considers the issues of air pollution assessment in Russian industrial regions (2014) and cities (2012). The statistical data is presented both in terms of absolute emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere of Russian cities and relative air pollution calculated for 1 average statistical inhabitant. Classifications of the ecological state of Russian cities on the basis of specific (per inhabitant) air pollution and the air pollution by predominant type source (stationary or non-stationary) are proposed.

  15. Some mean atmospheric characteristics for snowfall occurrences in southern Brazil (United States)

    Mintegui, Jéssica Melo; Puhales, Franciano Scremin; Boiaski, Nathalie Tissot; Nascimento, Ernani de Lima; Anabor, Vagner


    Snowfall is considered a natural disaster in southern Brazil, where a little infrastructure exists up to prevent against the damage it induces, making snowfall forecast a matter of great interest in this region. The present article aims to describe the mean behavior of low, mid, and high atmospheric levels during snowfall occurrences in southern Brazil. Sea-level pressure (SLP), 1000-500 hPa atmospheric thickness, geopotential height at 500 hPa, and wind speed at 200 hPa have been analyzed. One hundred and ninety-six snowfall records from the conventional surface meteorological stations have been selected for the period from 1979 to 2015. The surface synoptic pattern associated with snowfall occurrences has been obtained from ERA-Interim reanalysis data with horizontal spatial resolution of 0.75° × 0.75° and temporal resolution of 12 h. SLP fields show a high-pressure transient system displacement from the Pacific Ocean to northeastern Argentina. In addition, it is possible to relate snowfall with displacement of a low-pressure system on the coast of southern Brazil. Thickness fields indicate shallow cold air mass intrusions one day before snowfall. Such a cold air continues moving towards low latitudes during consecutive snowfall days and it may be responsible for frost events in climatologically warm regions. Finally, mid and high atmospheric levels show an eastward propagating wave amplified by the Andes.

  16. [Characteristics of atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area]. (United States)

    He, Cheng-Wu; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Mao, Yu-Xiang


    With the ion-exchange resin method, the atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area within the Fifth Ring Road was investigated from June to October, 2012. The relationship between atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition and rainfall precipitation was investigated, the differences of nitrogen wet deposition in different months, different ring roads (the Fifth Ring Road, the Fourth Ring Road, the Third Ring Road and the Second Ring Road) and different functional areas (institutes and colleges district, ring-road, residential areas, railway station and public garden) were also investigated. The results showed that the average value and standard deviation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen were significantly different during different months in 2012. The atmospheric nitrite nitrogen deposition first decreased and then increased, the maximum value appeared in September. The positive relationships between ammonia nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen) and mean monthly precipitation and negative relationships between nitrite nitrogen and mean monthly precipitation were both significant (P functional areas, but only the nitrite nitrogen deposition had obvious regional difference. The differences of the three nitrogen depositions among different ring roads were all not significant and it meant that the nitrogen wet deposition was equally distributed in Beijing urban area.

  17. Estimation of Flow Channel Parameters for Flowing Gas Mixed with Air in Atmospheric-pressure Plasma Jets (United States)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Saito, Hidetoshi


    When the working gas of an atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium (cold) plasma flows into free space, the diameter of the resulting flow channel changes continuously. The shape of the channel is observed through the light emitted by the working gas of the atmospheric-pressure plasma. When the plasma jet forms a conical shape, the diameter of the cylindrical shape, which approximates the conical shape, defines the diameter of the flow channel. When the working gas flows into the atmosphere from the inside of a quartz tube, the gas mixes with air. The molar ratio of the working gas and air is estimated from the corresponding volume ratio through the relationship between the diameter of the cylindrical plasma channel and the inner diameter of the quartz tube. The Reynolds number is calculated from the kinematic viscosity of the mixed gas and the molar ratio. The gas flow rates for the upper limit of laminar flow and the lower limit of turbulent flow are determined by the corresponding Reynolds numbers estimated from the molar ratio. It is confirmed that the plasma jet length and the internal plasma length associated with strong light emission increase with the increasing gas flow rate until the rate for the upper limit of laminar flow and the lower limit of turbulent flow, respectively. Thus, we are able to explain the increasing trend in the plasma lengths with the diameter of the flow channel and the molar ratio by using the cylindrical approximation.

  18. Characterization of sub-channel based Málaga atmospheric optical links with real β  parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-González, Francisco Javier; Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Garrido-Balsells, José María


    A generalization of the Málaga atmospheric optical communications links treated as a finite number of generalized-K distributed sub-channels is analyzed in terms of outage probability and outage rate when its β parameter belongs to the set of real numbers. To the best of the author's knowledge, ...

  19. Development of 2-channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR for mapping particulate matter in the atmosphere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V


    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors describe the developmentof 2-Channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR system for studying atmospheric particulate matter. The system is currently tested in house at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  20. An investigation of 'sparse channel networks'. Characteristic behaviours and their causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.H. (In Situ Solutions, East Bridgford (GB)); Barker, J.A.; Woodman, N.D. (Univ. of Southampton (GB))


    This report represents a third study in a series concerned with groundwater flow in poorly permeable fractured crystalline rocks. The study has brought together three linked, but distinct, elements; a mathematical analysis of the intersection of ellipses, a review of field measurements associated with nuclear waste repository investigations and probabilistic simulations using a lattice network numerical model. We conclude that the model of channels that traverse fracture intersections without necessarily branching is a very likely representation of reality. More generally, assembling all the lines of evidence, it is suggested that groundwater flow systems in fractured crystalline rocks in the environs of underground laboratories have the following characteristics: Groundwater flows within a sparse network of channels just above the percolation limit. The frequency of intersections is low in that individual channels extend considerable distances between significant junctions. Individual channels often extend over many fracture surfaces and the resulting flow system is only weakly related to the density or size of mappable fractures. The sparseness of systems compared to the size of drifts and tunnels means that only a very few flow channels are intersected by drifts and tunnels. Highly convergent flow is required to connect to the rest of the network and this is misinterpreted as a skin of low hydraulic conductivity. Systems are so sparse that they are controlled by a few 'chokes' that give rise to compartments of head, and probably, of groundwater chemistry. Channels occur on all fracture planes, including those within fracture zones, and although the characteristics of the fracture zone channel networks may differ from those in surrounding rocks, they are nonetheless still channel networks. The actively flowing sparse channel network, occurring within any particular rock, is a naturally selected, small sub-set of the available channels. Hence, there are

  1. Use of mutant-specific ion channel characteristics for risk stratification of long QT syndrome patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jons, Christian; O-Uchi, Jin; Moss, Arthur J


    a subunit KCNQ1. We investigated whether mutation-specific changes in I(Ks) function can predict cardiac risk in LQT1. By correlating the clinical phenotype of 387 LQT1 patients with the cellular electrophysiological characteristics caused by an array of mutations in KCNQ1, we found that channels...

  2. Characteristics of turbulent structures in the unstable atmospheric surface layer (United States)

    Schols, J. L. J.; Jansen, A. E.; Krom, J. G.


    An atmospheric surface-layer (ASL) experiment conducted at a meteorological site in the Oostelijk-Flevoland polder of the Netherlands is described. Turbulent fluctuations of wind velocity, air temperature and static pressure were measured, using three 10 m towers. Simultaneous turbulent signals at several heights on the towers were used to investigate the properties of the turbulent structures which contribute most significantly to the turbulent vertical transports in the unstable ASL. These turbulent structures produce between 30 and 50% of the mean turbulent vertical transport of horizontal alongwind momentum and they contribute to between 40 and 50% of the mean turbulent vertical heat transport; in both cases this occurs during 15 to 20% of the total observation time. The translation speed of the turbulent structures equals the wind speed averaged over the depth of the ASL, which scales on the surface friction velocity. The inclination angle of the temperature interface at the upstream edge of the turbulent structures to the surface is significantly smaller than that of the internal shear layer, which is associated with the temperature interface. The turbulent structures in the unstable ASL are determined by a large-scale temperature field: Convective motions, which encompass the whole depth of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), penetrate into the ASL. The curvature of the vertical profile of mean horizontal alongwind velocity forces the alignment of the convective cells in the flow direction (Kuettner, 1971), which have an average length of several hundreds of metres and an average width of a few tens of metres. This mechanism leads to the formation of turbulent structures, which extend throughout the depth of the ASL.

  3. Channel Characteristics and User Body Effects in an Outdoor Urban Scenario at 15 and 28 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Kun; Gustafson, Carl; Liao, Qingbi


    and generate a large fluctuation on the received signal strength of the UE at both 15 GHz and 28 GHz, which is crucial to channel modeling studies at frequencies above 6 GHz. In addition, the user’s body effect on a linear array system in UE is presented, and the main challenges for the future work are also......The effect of a user’s body on channel characteristics for single user downlink transmission in an urban scenario for the 5th generation (5G) systems is investigated with ray-tracing at 15 GHz and 28 GHz. Three different designs of user equipment (UE) antennas are fabricated and integrated...

  4. Characteristics of crosstalk in the reproduced output of a newly developed multi-channel MR head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, K. E-mail:; Hayashi, N.; Yoneda, Y.; Numazawa, J.; Kohro, M.; Tanabe, T


    We prepared the multi-channel magnetoresistive head with a simple structural design and it has the advantages of high-density recording and ultra-high transfer rate. Characteristics of crosstalk in the reproduced output of our head have been estimated by a micromagnetic calculation using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, while the specimen head was fabricated and evaluated. As a result, by applying a magnetic field of 40 Oe only between adjacent channels, the crosstalk was much decreased without reducing the reproduced output.

  5. Communication systems, transceivers, and methods for generating data based on channel characteristics (United States)

    Forman, Michael A; Young, Derek


    Examples of methods for generating data based on a communications channel are described. In one such example, a processing unit may generate a first vector representation based in part on at least two characteristics of a communications channel. A constellation having at least two dimensions may be addressed with the first vector representation to identify a first symbol associated with the first vector representation. The constellation represents a plurality of regions, each region associated with a respective symbol. The symbol may be used to generate data, which may stored in an electronic storage medium and used as a cryptographic key or a spreading code or hopping sequence in a modulation technique.

  6. Interactions Between Channel Topography and Hydrokinetic Turbines: Sediment Transport, Turbine Performance, and Wake Characteristics (United States)

    Hill, Craig Steven

    Accelerating marine hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy development towards commercial viability requires investigating interactions between the engineered environment and its surrounding physical and biological environments. Complex and energetic hydrodynamic and morphodynamic environments desired for such energy conversion installations present difficulties for designing efficient yet robust sustainable devices, while permitting agency uncertainties regarding MHK device environmental interactions result in lengthy and costly processes prior to installing and demonstrating emerging technologies. A research program at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), University of Minnesota, utilized multi-scale physical experiments to study the interactions between axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines, turbulent open channel flow, sediment transport, turbulent turbine wakes, and complex hydro-morphodynamic processes in channels. Model axial-flow current-driven three-bladed turbines (rotor diameters, dT = 0.15m and 0.5m) were installed in open channel flumes with both erodible and non-erodible substrates. Device-induced local scour was monitored over several hydraulic conditions and material sizes. Synchronous velocity, bed elevation and turbine performance measurements provide an indication into the effect channel topography has on device performance. Complimentary experiments were performed in a realistic meandering outdoor research channel with active sediment transport to investigate device interactions with bedform migration and secondary turbulent flow patterns in asymmetric channel environments. The suite of experiments undertaken during this research program at SAFL in multiple channels with stationary and mobile substrates under a variety of turbine configurations provides an in-depth investigation into how axial-flow hydrokinetic devices respond to turbulent channel flow and topographic complexity, and how they impact local and far-field sediment transport characteristics

  7. An adaptation method to improve secret key rates of time-frequency QKD in atmospheric turbulence channels (United States)

    Sun, Xiaole; Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Neifeld, Mark A.


    Free-space optical (FSO) channels can be characterized by random power fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, which is known as scintillation. Weak coherent source based FSO quantum key distribution (QKD) systems suffer from the scintillation effect because during the deep channel fading the expected detection rate drops, which then gives an eavesdropper opportunity to get additional information about protocol by performing photon number splitting (PNS) attack and blocking single-photon pulses without changing QBER. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we study a large-alphabet QKD protocol, which is achieved by using pulse-position modulation (PPM)-like approach that utilizes the time-frequency uncertainty relation of the weak coherent photon state, called here TF-PPM-QKD protocol. We first complete finite size analysis for TF-PPM-QKD protocol to give practical bounds against non-negligible statistical fluctuation due to finite resources in practical implementations. The impact of scintillation under strong atmospheric turbulence regime is studied then. To overcome the secure key rate performance degradation of TF-PPM-QKD caused by scintillation, we propose an adaptation method for compensating the scintillation impact. By changing source intensity according to the channel state information (CSI), obtained by classical channel, the adaptation method improves the performance of QKD system with respect to the secret key rate. The CSI of a time-varying channel can be predicted using stochastic models, such as autoregressive (AR) models. Based on the channel state predictions, we change the source intensity to the optimal value to achieve a higher secret key rate. We demonstrate that the improvement of the adaptation method is dependent on the prediction accuracy.

  8. Fading Characteristics of Wireless Channel on High-Speed Railway in Hilly Terrain Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Luan


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the fading characteristics of wireless channel on High-Speed Railway (HSR in hilly terrain scenario. Due to the rapid speed, the fading characteristics of HSR channel are highly correlated with time or Transmit-Receive distance and have their own special property. To investigate the fading characteristics, the measurement is conducted on the Guangzhou-Shenzhen passenger-dedicated line in China with the speed of 295 km/h in the data-collection area at 2.4 GHz. From the measured data, the amplitude of each path is estimated by using the Subspace-Alternating Generalized Expectation-Maximization (SAGE algorithm along with other parameters of channel impulse responses. Then the fading parameters, including path loss, shadow fading, and K-factor, are analysed. With the numerical results in the measurement and analysis, the fading characteristics have been revealed and modelled. It is supposed that this work has a promotion for HSR communication system design and improvement.

  9. Numerical simulation and analysis of characteristics of atmospheric diffusion in coastal area of a site (United States)

    Yang, Zongzhen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Bao, Xinjie; Chen, Shuyang


    A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and random walk model have been used to numerical simulate and analysis the characteristics of meso-micro scale wind field and atmospheric diffusion in coastal area of a sit. The results indicated that the atmospheric dispersion in this area is determined both by synoptic scale system and land-sea breeze circulation. Spatial variation of wind field is not obvious in synoptic scale system situation, which leads to the straight dispersion plume. Temporal variation of wind field, particularly the wind direction transition caused by transient of land-sea breezes is obvious. The method of random walk simulation better reflects the characteristics of the air pollutants transportation and diffusion. The atmospheric diffusion parameters obtained with numerical simulation experiment may reflect well the characteristics of the air diffusion in local area.

  10. Space-time trellis coding with transmit laser selection for FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels. (United States)

    García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz


    Atmospheric turbulence produces fluctuations in the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam, which is known as atmospheric scintillation, severely degrading the link performance. In this paper, a scheme combining transmit laser selection (TLS) and space-time trellis code (STTC) for multiple-input-single-output (MISO) free-space optical (FSO) communication systems with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over strong atmospheric turbulence channels is analyzed. Assuming channel state information at the transmitter and receiver, we propose the transmit diversity technique based on the selection of two out of the available L lasers corresponding to the optical paths with greater values of scintillation to transmit the baseline STTCs designed for two transmit antennas. Based on a pairwise error probability (PEP) analysis, results in terms of bit error rate are presented when the scintillation follows negative exponential and K distributions, which cover a wide range of strong atmospheric turbulence conditions. Obtained results show a diversity order of 2L-1 when L transmit lasers are available and a simple two-state STTC with rate 1 bit/(s .Hz) is used. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results.

  11. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi


    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm2/Vs, respectively, at room temperature.

  12. Quaternary over-elevated torrential channels. Characteristics and depositional significance: the Maresme model (Catalonia, NE Spain) (United States)

    Colombo, Ferran; Rivero, Lluis


    Channel-levee deposits that occur in some large sand-dominated fluvial systems are commonly elevated above the surrounding floodplain. However, the over-elevation processes of small and isolated fluvial channels are poorly documented. The Maresme zone located NE of Barcelona (Spain) offers many examples of small over-elevated channels. This area is characterised by weathered granodiorites forming a thick coarse-grained sand-dominated regolith, which was initially covered by dense forests. In the XVIII and XIX centuries human activity led to the destruction of the vegetal cover, resulting in subsequent erosion and in the intense remobilisation of sediments during storms. Thus, large amounts of sand were transported during historical times. The intermittent discharges were confined to short (few km) and straight channels with high and uncommon gradients from 3.2 to 3.4%. These discharges flowed at high velocities towards the Mediterranean Sea, the regional base-level. High infiltration rates contributed to the accretion of sandy sediments along the channels coevally with levee development. This sandy lithosome, which is usually elevated above the surrounding floodplain, displays a characteristic convex-up cross section.

  13. Communication channel modeling of human forearm with muscle fiber tissue characteristics. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Qin, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yi-He; Vai, Mang I


    Human-Body Communication (HBC) is a wireless communication method using the human body tissue as a transmission medium for signals. This paper on the basis of human muscle fiber tissues' characteristics, it is first proposed to establish the analytical model of galvanic coupling human-body communication channel. In this model, the parallel and the transverse electrical characteristics of muscular tissue are fully considered, and the model accurately presents the transmission mechanism of galvanic coupling human-body communication signals in the channel. At last, through compare with the experimental results and calculation results, the maximum error of the model is 22.4% and the average error is 14.2% within the frequency range.

  14. Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Supercritical CO{sub 2} Flowing in a Vertical Annular Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Tae Ho; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been operated at KAERI for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of supercritical CO{sub 2} at several test sections with a different geometry. The loop uses CO{sub 2} because it has much lower critical pressure and temperature than those of water. Experimental study of heat transfer to supercritical CO{sub 2} in a vertical annular channel with and hydraulic diameter of 4.5 mm has been performed. CO{sub 2} flows downward through the annular channel simulating the downward-flowing coolant in a multi-pass reactor or water rod moderator in a single pass reactor. The heat transfer characteristics in a downward flow were analyzed and compared with the upward flow test results performed previously with the same test section at KAERI

  15. Measurement and analysis of channel attenuation characteristics for an implantable galvanic coupling human-body communication. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Qin, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yi-He; Vai, Mang I


    In this study, an experiment was designed to verify the low power consumption of galvanic coupling human-body communication. A silver electrode (silver content: 99%) is placed in a pig leg and a sine wave signal with the power of 0 dBm is input. Compared with radio frequency communication and antenna transmission communication, attenuation is reduced by approximately 10 to 15 dB, so channel characteristics are highly improved.

  16. Estimation of hydraulic jump characteristics of channels with sudden diverging side walls via SVM. (United States)

    Roushangar, Kiyoumars; Valizadeh, Reyhaneh; Ghasempour, Roghayeh


    Sudden diverging channels are one of the energy dissipaters which can dissipate most of the kinetic energy of the flow through a hydraulic jump. An accurate prediction of hydraulic jump characteristics is an important step in designing hydraulic structures. This paper focuses on the capability of the support vector machine (SVM) as a meta-model approach for predicting hydraulic jump characteristics in different sudden diverging stilling basins (i.e. basins with and without appurtenances). In this regard, different models were developed and tested using 1,018 experimental data. The obtained results proved the capability of the SVM technique in predicting hydraulic jump characteristics and it was found that the developed models for a channel with a central block performed more successfully than models for channels without appurtenances or with a negative step. The superior performance for the length of hydraulic jump was obtained for the model with parameters F 1 (Froude number) and (h 2- h 1 )/h 1 (h 1 and h 2 are sequent depth of upstream and downstream respectively). Concerning the relative energy dissipation and sequent depth ratio, the model with parameters F 1 and h 1 /B (B is expansion ratio) led to the best results. According to the outcome of sensitivity analysis, Froude number had the most significant effect on the modeling. Also comparison between SVM and empirical equations indicated the great performance of the SVM.

  17. A Review of Wireless and PLC Propagation Channel Characteristics for Smart Grid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Güzelgöz


    Full Text Available Wireless, power line communication (PLC, fiber optic, Ethernet, and so forth are among the communication technologies on which smart grid communication infrastructure is envisioned to be built. Among these, wireless and PLC-based solutions are attractive considering the cost of initial deployment. Wireless communication deployment in smart grid covers a variety of environments such as indoor, outdoor, and electric-power-system facilities. Similar diversity is expected in PLC deployment as well covering low voltage (LV, medium voltage (MV, and high voltage (HV segments of the grid. In spite of being attractive, wireless and PLC channels are very harsh posing great challenges to performance of communication systems. In proposing solutions to smart grid communication needs, two approaches are likely to be followed. One is based on the use of existing wireless and PLC technologies with some modifications, and the other relies upon developing novel communication protocols particularly addressing the smart grid needs. Both of these approaches require an in-depth knowledge of communication channel characteristics. The aim of this study is to reveal the wireless and PLC channel characteristics of smart grid environments in terms of several parameters such as path loss and attenuation, time dispersion, time selectivity, amplitude statistics, and noise characteristics.

  18. Characteristic of microplastics in the atmospheric fallout from Dongguan city, China: preliminary research and first evidence. (United States)

    Cai, Liqi; Wang, Jundong; Peng, Jinping; Tan, Zhi; Zhan, Zhiwei; Tan, Xiangling; Chen, Qiuqiang


    Microplastic pollution has exhibited a global distribution, including seas, lakes, rivers, and terrestrial environment in recent years. However, little attention was paid on the atmospheric environment, though the fact that plastic debris can escape as wind-blown debris was previously reported. Thus, characteristics of microplastics in the atmospheric fallout from Dongguan city were preliminarily studied. Microplastics of three different polymers, i.e., PE, PP, and PS, were identified. Diverse shapes of microplastics including fiber, foam, fragment, and film were found, and fiber was the dominant shape of the microplastics. SEM images illustrated that adhering particles, grooves, pits, fractures, and flakes were the common patterns of degradation. The concentrations of non-fibrous microplastics and fibers ranged from 175 to 313 particles/m 2 /day in the atmospheric fallout. Thus, dust emission and deposition between atmosphere, land surface, and aquatic environment were associated with the transportation of microplastics.

  19. Flight characteristics of probes in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, and the outer planets (United States)

    Intrieri, P. F.; Derose, C. E.; Kirk, D. B.


    Density, pressure, and temperature profiles of an unknown planetary atmosphere can be obtained from the high-speed entry of a probe provided the aerodynamic characteristics of the probe in this atmosphere are accurately known. An investigation of the effect of gas composition on probe aerodynamics has been conducted in the Ames Hypersonic Free Flight Facility by gun launching small-scale models into atmospheres representative of Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn. Aerodynamic data at conditions matching the velocity and Reynolds number at a number of points on the Viking trajectory (Mars) were obtained in both air and carbon dioxide and significant differences were noted. Aerodynamic data are also presented from tests in hydrogen and hydrogen-helium mixtures, gases which characterize the atmospheres of the outer planets.

  20. Characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer over a scots pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, D.


    The atmospheric boundary layer is structured vertically into several conceptual sublayers because the main airflow characteristics, e.g. the velocity field, air temperature, and air moisture, show different height dependent features. To investigate mean airflow characteristics over a Scots pine forest up to several stand heights, remote sensing and in situ measurements (profile and eddy covariance method) were conducted at the forest meteorological experimental site Hartheim in the Upper Rhine Valley. This methodological combination enables the continuous measurement of the main airflow characteristics exceeding the measuring range of tower-based measurements. Up to now airflow characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer over forests exceeding the range of tower-based instrumentation are little experimentally studied because - remote sensing devices for operational use are available only for a short time, - of the extensive infrastructure and the problematic experimental setup. Therefore, airflow characteristics above and within forests were often studied based on selected time series and in a narrow range of atmospheric stability conditions when air-flow characteristics were most pronounced (Lu and Fitzjarrald, 1994; Brunet and Irvine, 2000). Furthermore, most of the knowledge of turbulent airflow characteristics and air mass exchange processes between tall plant canopies and the atmosphere has been gained of studies in relatively dense plant canopies (Green et al., 1995; Poggi et al., 2004). Few studies investigated turbulence characteristics in thinly stocked plant canopies such as the Hartheim Scots pine forest. Starting from these deficits the aim of this study is to examine airflow characteristics above and within the Hartheim Scots pine forest the under more general conditions as a function of - atmospheric stability conditions, - seasonal dynamics, up to a height of 200 m a.g.l. Target quantities are variables, which are suitable to describe the

  1. Performance analysis of relay-assisted all-optical FSO networks over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang


    In this study, we consider a relay-assisted free-space optical communication scheme over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with misalignment-induced pointing errors. The links from the source to the destination are assumed to be all-optical links. Assuming a variable gain relay with amplify-and-forward protocol, the electrical signal at the source is forwarded to the destination with the help of this relay through all-optical links. More specifically, we first present a cumulative density function (CDF) analysis for the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Based on this CDF, the outage probability, bit-error rate, and average capacity of our proposed system are derived. Results show that the system diversity order is related to the minimum value of the channel parameters.

  2. Comparison of atmospheric turbulence characteristics and turbulent fluxes from two urban sites in Essen, Germany (United States)

    Weber, Stephan; Kordowski, Klaus


    From September 2006 to September 2007, the intersite variability of turbulence characteristics and turbulent heat fluxes was analysed at two urban stations in Essen, Germany. One site was situated within an urban residential setting while the other was located at the border of an urban park and suburban/urban residential housing. Therefore, the surroundings at both sites contributing to surface-atmosphere exchange differed in terms of surface cover and surface morphology. During the 1-year measurement period, 19% of data were characterised by stable atmospheric stratification. Since observations of urban turbulence characteristics under stable stratification are scarce, so far, this work adds additional input to this discussion. Turbulence characteristics, i.e. normalised standard deviations of wind components, were in agreement to empirical fits from other urban observations under both instable and stable atmospheric stratification. However, differences in magnitude of turbulence characteristics between sites were observable. Comparison of turbulent heat fluxes indicated typical urban features in the site located in the urban setting with increased surface heating and higher surface heat fluxes by about 30%. Also the temporal evolution of heat fluxes on the diurnal course was affected. Differences in momentum flux were of minor magnitude with about 6% variation on average between sites. Findings indicate that multiple urban flux measurements within one city may be characterised by general similarities in terms of turbulent characteristics but are still significantly influenced by differences in the surface cover of the flux footprint.

  3. Characterization of Atmospheric Pressure Carbon Dioxide Dissociation in Arrays of Microplasma Channels by Emission Spectroscopy and Effluent Analysis (United States)

    Dai, Zhen; Shin, Chul; Park, Sung-Jin; Eden, James Gary


    Levied by rigorous regulations, the enormous cost of atmospheric carbon dioxide emission urged voracious demands on remediation technologies globally. Microplasma technology is being investigated as a new candidate to efficiently dissociate or remediate carbon dioxide contained in atmosphere. At a flow rate of 60 sccm of pure CO2 feedstock gas, dissociation degree of up to 14% has been achieved with stable glow discharges in an array of Al/Al2O3 microplasma channels. In-situ characterizations of the effluent gases were conducted with residual gas analysis, gas chromatography, and infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, time and spatially resolved emission spectroscopy recorded with an intensified charge-coupled device in the 300-800 nm region revealed the excitation of CO and C2 species. The implications on the possible plasma chemistry and its reaction mechanisms in the microdischarge will be discussed. Work supported by AFOSR.

  4. Characteristic emission enhancement in the atmosphere with Rn trace using metal assisted LIBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hashemi


    Full Text Available Several characteristic emission lines from the metal targets (Cu, Zn and Pb were investigated in trace presence of radon gas in the atmospheric air, using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a control chamber. The emission lines of metal species are noticeably enhanced in (Rn+air, relative to those in the synthetic air alone. Similar spectra were also taken in various sub-atmospheric environments in order to determine the optimum pressure for enhancement. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were also employed to count the tracks due to alpha particles for the activity assessment.

  5. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation (United States)

    TSUDA, Toshitaka


    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10–100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50–90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10–50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet. PMID:24492645

  6. Investigating the effect of some parameters of the channel on the characteristics of tunneling carbon nanotube field-effect transistor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valed Karimi, Najmeh; Pourasad, Yaghoub


    This paper studies p-i-n tunneling carbon nanotube field-effect transistor to investigate the effect of various parameters of the channel on the characteristics of tunneling carbon nanotube field-effect transistor...

  7. An improved fast radiative transfer model for special sensor microwave imager/sounder upper atmosphere sounding channels (United States)

    Han, Yong; van Delst, Paul; Weng, Fuzhong


    Special sensor microwave imager/sounder (SSMIS) on board the U. S. Defense Meteorology Satellite Program satellites includes six upper atmosphere sounding (UAS) channels for probing air temperature in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Three of the UAS channels 19-21 are sensitive to the Doppler frequency shift due to Earth's rotation. The sensitivity to the frequency shift in large degree depends on the O2 Zeeman splitting effect, which is a function of the Earth's magnetic field strength and the angle between the Earth's magnetic field and propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave. Since the brightness temperatures can change up to 2 K as a result of the Doppler shift, the fast radiative transfer model developed earlier for the SSMIS UAS channels has recently been improved to take the Doppler shift into account. In the fast model, an averaged transmittance within the channel frequency passbands is parameterized and trained with a line-by-line radiative transfer model that accurately computes the monochromatic transmittances at fine frequency steps within each passband. The model is evaluated by comparing it with the line-by-line model in an independent experiment. The root mean square differences between the two models are 0.21, 0.39, 0.34, and 0.19 K for channels 19-22, respectively. Using the model, the sensitivities of the radiances to the Doppler shift are analyzed through simulations. A theoretical explanation is given for the dependence of the sensitivities on the Zeeman splitting effect. Results from the analysis are then compared to the observations and a good agreement is achieved.

  8. Scaling Characteristics of Mesoscale Wind Fields in the Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer: Implications for Wind Energy (United States)

    Kiliyanpilakkil, Velayudhan Praju

    Atmospheric motions take place in spatial scales of sub-millimeters to few thousands of kilometers with temporal changes in the atmospheric variables occur in fractions of seconds to several years. Consequently, the variations in atmospheric kinetic energy associated with these atmospheric motions span over a broad spectrum of space and time. The mesoscale region acts as an energy transferring regime between the energy generating synoptic scale and the energy dissipating microscale. Therefore, the scaling characterizations of mesoscale wind fields are significant in the accurate estimation of the atmospheric energy budget. Moreover, the precise knowledge of the scaling characteristics of atmospheric mesoscale wind fields is important for the validation of the numerical models those focus on wind forecasting, dispersion, diffusion, horizontal transport, and optical turbulence. For these reasons, extensive studies have been conducted in the past to characterize the mesoscale wind fields. Nevertheless, the majority of these studies focused on near-surface and upper atmosphere mesoscale regimes. The present study attempt to identify the existence and to quantify the scaling of mesoscale wind fields in the lower atmospheric boundary layer (ABL; in the wind turbine layer) using wind observations from various research-grade instruments (e.g., sodars, anemometers). The scaling characteristics of the mesoscale wind speeds over diverse homogeneous flat terrains, conducted using structure function based analysis, revealed an altitudinal dependence of the scaling exponents. This altitudinal dependence of the wind speed scaling may be attributed to the buoyancy forcing. Subsequently, we use the framework of extended self-similarity (ESS) to characterize the observed scaling behavior. In the ESS framework, the relative scaling exponents of the mesoscale atmospheric boundary layer wind speed exhibit quasi-universal behavior; even far beyond the inertial range of turbulence (Delta

  9. Characteristics of energetic electron precipitation into the earth's polar atmosphere and geomagnetic conditions (United States)

    Makhmutov, V. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Krainev, M. B.

    A number of energetic electron precipitation events (EPEs) were observed in the Earth's polar atmosphere (Murmansk region, geographical coordinates 68.57 N, 33.03 E and Mirny, Antarctica, 66.34 S, 92.55 E) during the long-term cosmic ray balloon experiment from 1957 up to now. During geomagnetic storms significant X-ray fluxes caused by precipitating electrons at the top of the atmosphere sometimes penetrated to the atmospheric depth of 60 gcm-2. We show that (1) there is a quasi-11-year cycle in EPE occurrence shifted with respect to solar activity cycle, and (2) the yearly rate of EPE occurrence has an ascending trend during the period 1965-1999. The EPE characteristics evaluated from the balloon experiment are compared with the available data on geomagnetic activity and the possible relations between the features of EPE events and geomagnetic conditions are discussed.

  10. Doppler lidar investigation of wind turbine wake characteristics and atmospheric turbulence under different surface roughness. (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaochun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi


    Four field experiments based on Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar with different surface roughness have been carried out in 2013-2015 to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating wind turbine in the onshore and offshore wind parks. The turbulence characteristics in ambient atmosphere and wake area was analyzed using transverse structure function based on Plane Position Indicator scanning mode. An automatic wake processing procedure was developed to determine the wake velocity deficit by considering the effect of ambient velocity disturbance and wake meandering with the mean wind direction. It is found that the turbine wake obviously enhances the atmospheric turbulence mixing, and the difference in the correlation of turbulence parameters under different surface roughness is significant. The dependence of wake parameters including the wake velocity deficit and wake length on wind velocity and turbulence intensity are analyzed and compared with other studies, which validates the empirical model and simulation of a turbine wake for various atmosphere conditions.

  11. Effects of atmospheric turbulence on the single-photon receiving efficiency and the performance of quantum channel with the modified approximate elliptic-beam model assumption (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-yang; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Nan; Zhu, Chang-hua; Pei, Chang-xing


    In free space quantum channel, with the introduction and implementation of the satellite-ground link transmission, the researches of single-photon transmission have attracted great interest. We propose a single-photon receiving model and analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the single-photon transmission. We obtain the relationship between single-photon receiving efficiency and atmospheric turbulence, and analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the quantum channel performance by the single-photon counting. Finally, we present a reasonable simulation analysis. Simulation results show that as the strength of the atmospheric fluctuations increases, the counting distribution gradually broadens, and the utilization of quantum channel drops. Furthermore, the key generation rate and transmission distance decreases sharply in the case of strong turbulence.

  12. Assessments of F16 Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder Antenna Temperatures at Lower Atmospheric Sounding Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banghua Yan


    Full Text Available The main reflector of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F-16 satellite emits variable radiation, and the SSMIS warm calibration load is intruded by direct and indirect solar radiation. These contamination sources produce antenna brightness temperature anomalies of around 2 K at SSMIS sounding channels which are obviously inappropriate for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models and remote sensing retrievals of atmospheric and surface parameters. In this study, antenna brightness temperature anomalies at several lower atmospheric sounding (LAS channels are assessed, and the algorithm is developed for corrections of these antenna temperature anomalies. When compared against radiative transfer model simulations and simultaneous observations from AMSU-A aboard NOAA-16, the SSMIS antenna temperatures at 52.8, 53.6, 54.4, 55.5, 57.3, and 59.4 GHz after the anomaly correction exhibit small residual errors (<0.5 K. After such SSMIS antenna temperatures are applied to the National Center for Environmental Prediction Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model, more satellite data is used and the analysis field of the geopotential height is significantly improved throughout troposphere and lower stratosphere. Therefore, the SSMIS antenna temperatures after the anomaly correction have demonstrated their potentials in NWP models.

  13. Study on the influences of ionization region material arrangement on Hall thruster channel discharge characteristics (United States)

    Xiang, HU; Ping, DUAN; Jilei, SONG; Wenqing, LI; Long, CHEN; Xingyu, BIAN


    There exists strong interaction between the plasma and channel wall in the Hall thruster, which greatly affects the discharge performance of the thruster. In this paper, a two-dimensional physical model is established based on the actual size of an Aton P70 Hall thruster discharge channel. The particle-in-cell simulation method is applied to study the influences of segmented low emissive graphite electrode biased with anode voltage on the discharge characteristics of the Hall thruster channel. The influences of segmented electrode placed at the ionization region on electric potential, ion number density, electron temperature, ionization rate, discharge current and specific impulse are discussed. The results show that, when segmented electrode is placed at the ionization region, the axial length of the acceleration region is shortened, the equipotential lines tend to be vertical with wall at the acceleration region, thus radial velocity of ions is reduced along with the wall corrosion. The axial position of the maximal electron temperature moves towards the exit with the expansion of ionization region. Furthermore, the electron-wall collision frequency and ionization rate also increase, the discharge current decreases and the specific impulse of the Hall thruster is slightly enhanced.

  14. TARGET 5: A new multi-channel digitizer with triggering capabilities for gamma-ray atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (United States)

    Albert, A.; Funk, S.; Katagiri, H.; Kawashima, T.; Murphy, M.; Okumura, A.; Quagliani, R.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Shigenaka, A.; Tajima, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Varner, G.; Wu, T.


    TARGET 5 is a new application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) of the TARGET family, designed for the readout of signals from photosensors in the cameras of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. TARGET 5 combines sampling and digitization on 16 signal channels with the formation of trigger signals based on the analog sum of groups of four channels. We describe the ASIC architecture and performance. TARGET 5 improves over the performance of the first-generation TARGET ASIC, achieving: tunable sampling frequency from 1 GSa/s; a dynamic range on the data path of 1.2 V with effective dynamic range of 11 bits and DC noise of ∼0.6 mV; 3-dB bandwidth of 500 MHz; crosstalk between adjacent channels 100 p.e. (assuming 4 mV per p.e.); and minimum stable trigger threshold of 20 mV (5 p.e.) with trigger noise of 5 mV (1.2 p.e.), which is mostly limited by interference between trigger and sampling operations. TARGET 5 is the first ASIC of the TARGET family used in an IACT prototype, providing one development path for readout electronics in the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

  15. Performance characteristics of large aperture, ten-cell atmospheric pressure isobutane Cherenkov counters (United States)

    Hylen, J.; Ming Ma, Z.; Jawahery, A.; Maruyama, T.; Milburn, R. H.


    Two large-aperture, 10-cell atmospheric-pressure isobutane Cherenkov counters were designed and constructed for a SLAC streamer-chamber experiment. The rejection efficiencies for a 9 GeV/ cπ- were measured to be 99.84% ⋍ 0.006% and 99.717% ± 0.008% for the two counters. The design details and performance characteristics are discussed.

  16. Thermal–hydraulic characteristics for CANFLEX fuel channel using burnable poison in CANDU reactor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bae, Jun Ho; Jeong, Jong Yeob


    ... (natural uranium) fuel channels. The distributions of fuel temperature and critical channel power for the CANFLEX-BP fuel channel are calculated using the NUclear Heat Transport CIRcuit Thermohydraulics Analysis Code (NUCIRC...

  17. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-min Cho


    Full Text Available We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexylnaphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI. A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical VG above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge.

  18. Performance analysis of 1-km free-space optical communication system over real atmospheric turbulence channels (United States)

    Liu, Dachang; Wang, Zixiong; Liu, Jianguo; Tan, Jun; Yu, Lijuan; Mei, Haiping; Zhou, Yusong; Zhu, Ninghua


    The performance of a free-space optical communication system is highly affected by the atmospheric turbulence in terms of scintillation. An optical communication system based on intensity-modulation direct-detection was built with 1-km transmission distance to evaluate the bit error rate (BER) performance over real atmospheric turbulence. 2.5-, 5-, and 10-Gbps data rate transmissions were carried out, where error-free transmission could be achieved during over 37% of the 2.5-Gbps transmissions and over 43% of the 5-Gbps transmissions. In the rest of the transmissions, BER deteriorated as the refractive-index structure constant increased, while the two measured items have almost the same trend.

  19. Hillslopes to Hollows to Channels: Identifying Process Transitions and Domains using Characteristic Scaling Relations (United States)

    Williams, K.; Locke, W. W.


    Headwater catchments are partitioned into hillslopes, unchanneled valleys (hollows), and channels. Low order (less than or equal to two) channels comprise most of the stream length in the drainage network so defining where hillslopes end and hollows begin, and where hollows end and channels begin, is important for calibration and verification of hydrologic runoff and sediment production modeling. We test the use of landscape scaling relations to detect flow regimes characteristic of diffusive, concentrated, and incisive runoff, and use these flow regimes as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. We use LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) of two pairs of headwater catchments in southwest and north-central Montana to develop scaling relations of flowpath length, total stream power, and contributing area. The catchment pairs contrast low versus high drainage density and north versus south aspect. Inflections in scaling relations of contributing area and flowpath length in a single basin (modified Hack's law) and contributing area and total stream power were used to identify hillslope and fluvial process domain transitions. In the modified Hack's law, inflections in the slope of the log-log power law are hypothesized to correspond to changes in flow regime used as proxies for hillslope, hollow, and channeled landforms. Similarly, rate of change of total stream power with contributing area is hypothesized to become constant and then decrease at the hillslope to fluvial domain transition. Power law scaling of frequency-magnitude plots of curvature and an aspect-related parameter were also tested as an indicator of the transition from scale-dependent hillslope length to the scale invariant fluvial domain. Curvature and aspect were calculated at each cell in spectrally filtered DEMs. Spectral filtering by fast Fourier and wavelet transforms enhances detection of fine-scale fluvial features by removing long wavelength topography. Using the

  20. [Chemical Characteristics and Sources of Atmospheric Carbonyls During the 2014 Beijing APEC]. (United States)

    He, Xiao-lang; Tan, Ji-hua; Guo, Song-jun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin


    Pollution characteristic and variation trend of atmospheric carbonyls were investigated in November during the 2014 Beijing APEC. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were the dominant carbonyls, accounting for 82.66% of total carbonyls, and especially, formaldehyde accounted for 40.12% of total carbonyls. Atmospheric concentrations of total carbonyls decreased by around 64.10% after the clean air policy was carried out during the Beijing APEC, and the variation trend of carbonyls showed a similar pattern to those of other pollutants like PM₂.₅ during the APEC. Strong correlations (R² of 0.67-0.98) were observed among formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and total carbonyls during and after the APEC, indicating that they had similar sources; however, poor correlations (R² of -0.11-0.42 and 0.16-0.94, respectively) were observed before the APEC, implying different emission sources for ambient carbonyls. The calculated ratios of C1/C2, C2/C3 and OC/EC indicated that both vehicles and coal emissions were responsible for atmospheric carbonyls before the APEC, and emissions from coal burning were the major contributor to atmospheric carbonyls during and after the APEC, especially after the APEC.

  1. A Novel Through Capacity Model for One-way Channel Based on Characteristics of the Vessel Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Nie


    Full Text Available Vessel traffic flow is a key parameter for channel-through capacity and is of great significance to vessel traffic management, channel and port design and navigational risk evaluation. Based on the study of parameters of characteristics of vessel traffic flow related to channel-through capacity, this paper puts forward a brand-new mathematical model for one-way channel-through capacity in which parameters of channel length, vessel arrival rate and velocity difference in different vessels are involved and a theoretical calculating mechanism for the channel-through capacity is provided. In order to verify availability and reliability of the model, extensive simulation studies have been carried out and based on the historical AIS data, an analytical case study on the Xiazhimen Channel validating the proposed model is presented. Both simulation studies and the case study show that the proposed model is valid and all relative parameters can be readjusted and optimized to further improve the channel-through capacity. Thus, all studies demonstrate that the model is valuable for channel design and vessel management.

  2. Frequency Characteristics of Path Loss and Delay-Angular Profile of Propagation Channels in An Indoor Room Environment in SHF Bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HANPINITSAK, Panawit; SAITO, Kentaro; Fan, Wei


    Comparison of channel characteristics at many frequency bands is necessary to study the frequency-de-pendency which is important for consistent multi-frequency spatial-temporal channel model. Path loss (PL) and power spectrum characteristics of the channel measured in a typical classroom line...

  3. Habitat characteristics predicting distribution and abundance patterns of scallops in D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tasmania. (United States)

    Mendo, Tania; Lyle, Jeremy M; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Tracey, Sean R; Semmens, Jayson M


    Habitat characteristics greatly influence the patterns of distribution and abundance in scallops, providing structure for the settlement of spat and influencing predation risk and rates of survival. Establishing scallop-habitat relationships is relevant to understanding the ecological processes that regulate scallop populations and to managing critical habitats. This information is particularly relevant for the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, south-eastern Tasmania (147.335 W, 43.220 S), a region that has supported significant but highly variable scallop production over many years, including protracted periods of stock collapse. Three species of scallops are present in the region; the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus, the queen scallop Equichlamys bifrons, and the doughboy scallop Mimachlamys asperrima. We used dive surveys and Generalized Additive Modelling to examine the relationship between the distribution and abundance patterns of each species and associated habitat characteristics. The aggregated distribution of each species could be predicted as a function of sediment type and species-specific habitat structural components. While P. fumatus was strongly associated with finer sediments and E. bifrons with coarse grain sediments, M. asperrima had a less selective association, possibly related to its ability to attach on a wide range of substrates. Other habitat characteristics explaining P. fumatus abundance were depth, Asterias amurensis abundance, shell and macroalgae cover. Equichlamys bifrons was strongly associated with macroalgae and seagrass cover, whereas M. asperrima abundance was greatly explained by sponge cover. The models define a set of relationships from which plausible hypotheses can be developed. We propose that these relationships are mediated by predation pressure as well as the specific behavioural characteristics of each species. The findings also highlight the specific habitat characteristics that are relevant for spatial management and habitat

  4. Habitat characteristics predicting distribution and abundance patterns of scallops in D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tasmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mendo

    Full Text Available Habitat characteristics greatly influence the patterns of distribution and abundance in scallops, providing structure for the settlement of spat and influencing predation risk and rates of survival. Establishing scallop-habitat relationships is relevant to understanding the ecological processes that regulate scallop populations and to managing critical habitats. This information is particularly relevant for the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, south-eastern Tasmania (147.335 W, 43.220 S, a region that has supported significant but highly variable scallop production over many years, including protracted periods of stock collapse. Three species of scallops are present in the region; the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus, the queen scallop Equichlamys bifrons, and the doughboy scallop Mimachlamys asperrima. We used dive surveys and Generalized Additive Modelling to examine the relationship between the distribution and abundance patterns of each species and associated habitat characteristics. The aggregated distribution of each species could be predicted as a function of sediment type and species-specific habitat structural components. While P. fumatus was strongly associated with finer sediments and E. bifrons with coarse grain sediments, M. asperrima had a less selective association, possibly related to its ability to attach on a wide range of substrates. Other habitat characteristics explaining P. fumatus abundance were depth, Asterias amurensis abundance, shell and macroalgae cover. Equichlamys bifrons was strongly associated with macroalgae and seagrass cover, whereas M. asperrima abundance was greatly explained by sponge cover. The models define a set of relationships from which plausible hypotheses can be developed. We propose that these relationships are mediated by predation pressure as well as the specific behavioural characteristics of each species. The findings also highlight the specific habitat characteristics that are relevant for spatial

  5. Characteristic times in the English Channel from numerical modelling: supporting decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perianez, R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 1, Universidad de Sevilla, EUITA, Carretera Utrera km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Miro, C [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    A numerical model that simulates the dispersion of radionuclides in the English Channel has been applied to study the dispersion of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides released from the La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The model is based upon previous work and now is able to simulate dispersion over long timescales (decades), explicitly including transport by instantaneous tidal currents and variable wind conditions. Wind conditions are obtained from meteorological statistics using a stochastic method. Outputs from the model are treated using time-series analysis techniques. These techniques allow the determination of characteristic times of the system, transport velocities and dispersion factors. This information may be very useful to support the decision-making process after an emergency situation. Thus, we are proposing that time-series analysis can be integrated with numerical modelling for helping decision-making in response to an accident. The model is first validated through its application to actual releases of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}Sb, comparing measured and computed concentrations, and characteristic times for three radionuclides are given next: a perfectly conservative one, a very reactive one ({sup 239,240}Pu) and {sup 137}Cs, which has an intermediate behaviour. Characteristic transport velocities and dispersion factors have been calculated as well. Model results are supported by experimental evidence.

  6. Dynamic characteristics of hydrocarbon fuel within the channel at supercritical and pyrolysis condition (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Zhou, Weixing; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen


    Regenerative cooling with fuel as the coolant is used in the scramjet engine. In order to grasp the dynamic characteristics of engine fuel supply processes, this article studies the dynamic characteristics of hydrocarbon fuel within the channel. A one-dimensional dynamic model was proved, the thermal energy storage effect, fuel volume effect and chemical dynamic effect have been considered in the model, the ordinary differential equations were solved using a 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The precision of the model was validated by three groups of experimental data. The effects of input signal, working condition, tube size on the dynamic characteristics of pressure, flow rate, temperature have been simulated. It is found that cracking reaction increased the compressibility of the fuel pyrolysis mixture and lead to longer responding time of outlet flow. The responding time of outlet flow can reach 3s when tube is 5m long which will greatly influence the control performance of the engine thrust system. Meanwhile, when the inlet flow rate appears the step change, the inlet pressure leads to overshoot, the overshoot can reach as much as 100%, such highly transient impulse will result in detrimental effect on fuel pump.

  7. Distribution Channel and Microbial Characteristics of Pig By-products in Korea. (United States)

    Kang, Geunho; Seong, Pil-Nam; Moon, Sungsil; Cho, Soohyun; Ham, Hyoung-Joo; Park, Kyoungmi; Kang, Sun-Moon; Park, Beom-Young


    The distribution channel of meat by-products from the pig farm to the final consumer can include a meat processor, wholesale market, wholesaler, retailer, and butcher shop. Bacterial contamination at any of these steps remains to be a serious public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution channel and microbial characteristics of pig by-products in Korea. Upon evaluation of pig by-products in cold storage, we found that the small and large intestine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in pH value compared to the heart and liver. The total plate counts were not significantly different among offals until cold storage for 7 d. The coliform count after 1 d of cold storage was significantly (p<0.05) higher in small and large intestine than in the other organs. The coliform count of heart, liver, and stomach showed a higher coliform count than small and large intestine until 7 d of cold storage. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, contamination of major pig by-products with Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., and other bacterial species occurred. Therefore, our results suggest that a more careful washing process is needed to maintain quality and hygiene and to ensure the safety of pig by-products, especially for small and large intestine.

  8. Investigation on flow and heat transfer characteristics in rectangular channel with drop-shaped pin fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengming Wang


    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics inside a rectangular channel embedded with pin fins were numerically and experimentally investigated. Several differently shaped pin fins (i.e., circular, elliptical, and drop-shaped with the same cross-sectional areas were compared in a staggered arrangement. The Reynolds number based on the obstructed section hydraulic diameter (defined as the ratio of the total wetted surface area to the open duct volume available for flow was varied from 4800 to 8200. The more streamlined drop-shaped pin fins were better at delaying or suppressing separation of the flow passing through them, which decreased the aerodynamic penalty compared to circular pin fins. The heat transfer enhancement of the drop-shaped pin fins was less than that of the circular pin fins. In terms of specific performance parameters, drop-shaped pin fins are a promising alternative configuration to circular pin fins.

  9. Changes in the lead content of atmospheric aerosols above the Eastern Channel between 1982/83 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flament, Pascal; Bertho, Marie-Laure; Deboudt, Karine; Puskaric, Emile [Universitedu Littoral, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Appliquee al`Environnement, URA CNRS 1363, Wimereux (France)


    Lead concentrations in atmospheric particulate matter, along the southern coast of the Strait of Dover have been measured during two sampling campaigns, over a 10 year period. The results point out that lead concentrations have been decreased by a factor of two, from 1982/83 to 1994. This evolution is in good agreement with a general trend to the diminution of lead in atmospheric aerosols above the Eastern Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. It appears that, from 1972 to 1994, lead concentrations have decreased by an order of magnitude, despite the uncertainty of the oldest values. As established in a similar coastal environment, this decrease in the lead concentrations can be explained by the reduction in the emissions of automotive lead. The evolution of the mass-size distribution is consistent with this last factor; assuming that automotive lead is essentially present in particles smaller than 0.33 {mu}m, the observed decrease of this granulometric class between 1983 and 1994 (7 ng/m{sup 3}) is close to the measured decrease in the lead concentrations (9 ng/m{sup 3}). A slight decrease (14%) of the related dry deposition flux has been calculated for the same period. But, if part of the fall-out due to particles larger than 1 {mu}m is approximately constant over the same period (about 430 g/km{sup 2} per year), the submicronic flux exhibits a decrease of 70%

  10. Time-frequency mapping of the positional characteristics of single- and multimode wave beam at the lengthy atmospheric path output (United States)

    Arsenyan, Tatiana; Babanin, Eugeniy; Kapranov, Vitaliy; Stryungis, Rinat; Suhareva, Natalia; Tugaenko, Vjatcheslav


    The comparative experimental analysis of the single-mode and multimode positional characteristics of the wave beams at the lengthy atmospheric path output was carried out and the results are presented. As the main instrument the method of nonlinear time-frequency mapping was chosen usingWigner function apparatus. The characteristic time-frequency spectra under the conditions of strong, intermediate and weak turbulence of the atmospheric path were defined.

  11. Characteristics of atmospheric particles over urban city Osaka occasionally covered with photochemical smog (United States)

    Sano, Itaru

    The photochemical smog events, which are affected by transported air pollutants, become to be more frequent and heavier in Japan. Thereby the photochemical smog is observed not only at urban areas but also at remote islands. The long range transported pollutant influences on the local atmospheric condition mixed with the locally emitted gases and particulates. It is known that intensive solar radiation in summer seasons changes the nitrogen oxide gases into oxidant through photochemical processes. This work intends to investigate what are the aerosol characteristics in photochemical smog events at Osaka. Osaka is a part of Kansai industrial area, which is the second megalopolis in Japan and surrounded by the backside mountains. Therefore lots of anthropogenic emissions often remain in the atmosphere over the cities. The radiometric observations with Cimel CE-318 sun/sky and the measurements of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration at Kinki University in Osaka provide us with effective information of atmospheric particles. The other in-situ measurements such as SOx, NOx, Ox, HC and weather conditions taken by local governmental office are available for analysis of photochemical smog events. Further a backward trajectory based on NOAA HYSPLIT looks promising to help us with our comprehensive investigation of long range transported pollutants.

  12. Thermal diffusion characteristics of atmosphere-particle two phase flow in dust storm (United States)

    Wang, Xihua; Wang, Tijian; Tang, Jianping; Gu, Fan


    A model, coupling metrological dynamic model MM5 and dust transport model, is developed for the atmosphere-particle two phases flow of dust storm. The simulations of the dust storm events in north China with a geographic information database are performed using the model, and represent an overview of dust transport pathways and particles concentration distribution over the north China. The comparison between computations and practical observations shows that the simulations succeed in description of dust storm evolvement and particle transport behavior. Based on the computations and analysis, the characteristics of particle transport, especially well-concerning the factor of the particle thermal diffusion, are studied. A new definition of mass transfer Grd is put forward to discover the internal principle of particle thermal diffusion at various atmospheric layers. Several phenomena, such as thermal diffusion item QT Grd distribution, and relationships, Particle Grd probability function, are obtained. The investigation indicates particle thermal diffusion can be not ignored in mesoscale atmospheric-particle multiphase flow.

  13. Measurement and modeling of HF channel directional spread characteristics for northerly paths (United States)

    Warrington, E. M.; Stocker, A. J.; Siddle, D. R.


    The northerly ionosphere is a dynamic propagation medium that causes HF signals reflected from this region to exhibit delay spreads and Doppler shifts and spreads that significantly exceed those observed over midlatitude paths. Since the ionosphere is not perfectly horizontally stratified, the signals associated with each propagation mode may arrive at the receiver over a range of angles in both azimuth and elevation. Such large directional spreads may have a severe impact on radio systems employing multielement antenna arrays and associated signal-processing techniques since the signal environment does not comprise a small number of specular components as often assumed by the processing algorithms. In order to better understand the directional characteristics of HF signals reflected from the northerly ionosphere, prolonged measurements have recently been made over two paths: (1) from Svalbard to Kiruna, Sweden, and (2) from Kirkenes, Norway, to Kiruna. An analysis of these data is presented in this paper. The directional characteristics are summarized, and consideration is given to modeling the propagation effects in the form of a channel simulator suitable for the testing of new equipment and processing algorithms.

  14. Regional Curves for Bankfull Channel Characteristics in the Appalachian Plateaus, West Virginia (United States)

    Messinger, Terence


    Streams in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in West Virginia were classified as a single region on the basis of bankfull characteristics. Regression lines for annual peak flow and drainage area measured at streamgages in the study area at recurrence intervals between 1.2 and 1.7 years fell within the 99-percent confidence interval of the regression line for bankfull flow. Channel characteristics were intermediate among those from surrounding states and regions where comparable studies have been done. The stream reaches that were surveyed were selected for apparent stability, and to represent gradients of drainage area, elevation, and mean annual precipitation. Profiles of high-water marks left by bankfull and near-bankfull peaks were surveyed, either as part of slope-area flow measurements at ungaged reaches, or to transfer known flow information to cross sections for gaged reaches. The slope-area measurements made it possible to include ungaged sites in the study, but still relate bankfull dimensions to peak flow and frequency.

  15. Experimental analysis of turbulence characteristics and flow conveyance effects in a vegetated channel (United States)

    Termini, D.


    Natural rivers are characterized by a strong hydraulic and geomorphic complexity. Many studies conducted in this field (Malthus and Mumby, 2003; Muhar, 1996) show that the accurate estimation both of the river morphological changes and of local hydraulic characteristics of flow (i.e. the local flow velocities and water depths) is necessary for the restoration and protection of biodiversity. Vegetation is a key factor to analyze the interrelated system of flow, sediment transport, and morphodynamic in rivers (Tsujimoto, 1999; Maione et al., 2000). On one hand, some kind of species of vegetation affect the habitat conditions, being crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity (Larkum et al, 2004); on the other hand, effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and are of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion along the channel. In particular, it has been generally agreed that vegetation increases flow resistance and modifies sediment transport and deposition (Tsujimoto et al., 1996; Yen 2002). The analysis of the hydrodynamic conditions in vegetated channels is complex because vegetation is flexible in varying degrees and it oscillates in the flow changing position. Furthermore, because of temporal changing of roughness due to natural vegetative growth, the response of vegetation to the flow can change in time. In this paper the flow over real flexible vegetation is experimentally studied. A 2D-ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter) is used to measure the local flow velocities, for different vegetation concentrations and varying the discharge and the flume slope. The influence of both vegetation concentration and depth/vegetation height ratio on the measured velocity profiles is analyzed. The comparison between the velocity distribution and the turbulence intensity distribution is also presented. The spectral analysis is operated in order to verify the formation of turbulence structures inside the vegetated layer and the flow conveyance

  16. Experimental investigation on flow and scour characteristics around tandem piers in sandy channel with downward seepage (United States)

    Chavan, Rutuja; Kumar, Bimlesh


    Experimental investigations have been carried out to study morpho-hydraulic characteristics such as scour geometry and turbulent flow properties around tandem piers in alluvial channels. Experiments were carried out in a plane sand bed with two circular piers of same diameter arranged in tandem manner under no seepage, 10% seepage and 20% seepage conditions. Downward seepage minimizes the scour depth around piers and restrains the development of scour depth with time. Strong reversal flow is found near the bed at upstream of piers and near free surface at downstream of piers where velocity and Reynolds shear stress are found to be negative which reduce in magnitude with downward seepage. The flow is more critical within the gap between two piers where velocity is lesser near free surface and gradually increasing towards bed. Quadrant analysis shows that contribution of each event to the total Reynolds shear stress increases with downward seepage. Sedimentation effect prevails within the scour hole whereas outside the scour hole erosive forces become more dominant. Reduced reversal flow at upstream of pier because of downward seepage results in decreasing higher order moments and turbulent kinetic energy. At downstream of piers, secondary currents are dominant due to wake vortices. Strouhal number decreases in case of seepage runs than no seepage condition.

  17. Characteristics of slug flow in narrow rectangular channels under vertical condition (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Xing, Dianchuan; Yan, Chaoxing; Tian, Daogui


    Gas-liquid slug flow is widely encountered in many practical industrial applications. A detailed understanding of the hydrodynamics of gas slug has important significance for modeling of the slug flow. Non-intrusive flow visualization using a high speed video camera system is applied to study characteristics of slug flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel (3.25×40 mm2). Ideal Taylor bubbles are hardly observed, and most of the gas slugs are deformed, much more seriously at high liquid superficial velocity. The liquid film thicknesses of left and right narrow sides surrounding gas slug are divergent and wavy, but it has weak effect on liquid film velocity. The gas and liquid velocity as well as the length of gas slug have significant effect on the separating liquid film thickness. The separating liquid film velocity is decreased with the increase of gas superficial velocity at low liquid velocity, and increased with the increase of liquid superficial velocity. The film stops descending and the gas superficial velocity has no significant effect on liquid film separating velocity at high liquid velocity (jL≥1.204 m/s), and it is mainly determined by the liquid flow rate. The shape of slug nose has a significant effect on its velocity, while the effect of its length is very weak. The Ishii&Jones-Zuber drift flux correlation could predict slug velocity well, except at low liquid superficial velocity by reason of that the calculated drift velocity is less than experimental values.

  18. Hydraulic and sediment characteristics at the North Channel Bridge, Jamaica Bay, New York (United States)

    Staubitz, W.W.; Wolcott, S.W.


    Data were collected during the spring of 1984 in the vicinity of North Channel Bridge in Jamaica Bay, New York to define the hydraulic regime and the physical characteristics and chemical quality of bottom sediments. The data were used in a semiquantitative analysis to predict the effects of bridge replacement and the attendant resuspension of bottom sediments, on the hydraulics and quality of water and bottom sediments. The bay-bottom configuration at the bridge site was defined, and continuous tidal stage and tidal velocity data were collected for about a month. In addition, eight bottom-sediment samples were collected near the bridge and analyzed. Results of the hydraulic analysis show that the proposed bridge should not have any measurable effect on the net water transport at the bridge cross section. The sediment data indicate that bottom sediments are relatively unpolluted in the vicinity of the bridge. Seventy-five percent of the resuspended bottom sediments will probably settle within 186 m of the bridge during an average ebb tide. Metals and nutrients released from the sediments to the water column are expected to be diluted far below detection limits. The extra oxygen demand exerted by the resuspended bottom sediments is also expected to be far less than ambient biochemical oxygen demand of the water column. (USGS)

  19. Working atmosphere, job satisfaction and individual characteristics of community mental health professionals in integrated care. (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Kleine-Budde, Katja; Bramesfeld, Anke; Stegbauer, Constance


    Working requirements of community mental healthcare professionals in integrated care are complex. There is a lack of research concerning the relation of job satisfaction, working atmosphere and individual characteristics. For the current study, a survey evaluating job satisfaction and working atmosphere of mental healthcare professionals in integrated care was performed. About 321 community mental healthcare professionals were included in the survey; the response rate was 59.5%. The professional background of community mental healthcare professionals included nursing, social work and psychology. Community mental healthcare professionals reported the highest satisfaction with colleagues and the lowest satisfaction with income. Moreover, it could be shown that more responsibility, more recognition and more variety in job tasks lead to an increase of overall job satisfaction. Healthcare for mentally ill patients in the community setting is complex and requires well-structured care with appropriate responsibilities within the team. A co-operative relationship among colleagues as well as clearly defined responsibilities seem to be the key for the job satisfaction of community mental healthcare professionals in integrated care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) grown bi-layer graphene transistor characteristics at high temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.


    We report the characteristics of atmospheric chemical vapor deposition grown bilayer graphene transistors fabricated on ultra-scaled (10 nm) high-κ dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) at elevated temperatures. We observed that the drive current increased by >400% as temperature increased from room temperature to 250 °C. Low gate leakage was maintained for prolonged exposure at 100 °C but increased significantly at temperatures >200 °C. These results provide important insights for considering chemical vapor deposition graphene on aluminum oxide for high temperature applications where low power and high frequency operation are required. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characteristics in the atmosphere of long-range transport aircraft cabins. (United States)

    Vieillefond, H; Fourn, P; Auffret, R


    In the long run, the fatigue in aircrews performing frequent, long-range flights is linked to factors connected to the aircraft, such as noise, temperature, cabin pressure, atmosphere quality, and flight characteristics. These are the factors inherent to the aircraft which we have investigated during six long-range flights without time zone changes in DC-8 and DC-10 aircraft of the U.T.A. Cie. The results show that none of the pollutants researched reach doses considered hazardous by FAR 25 or by French legislation. This fact is due to the effective ventilation in the cabins. In flight, thermal comfort is limited by a too-low hygrometry RH = 12%. Even in a modern aircraft, the noise level remains high, but acoustical energy is spread over the less detrimental frequencies.

  2. Multi-DSP and FPGA based Multi-channel Direct IF/RF Digital receiver for atmospheric radar (United States)

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Kamaraj, Pandian; Durga rao, Meka; Thriveni, A.


    Modern phased array radars depend highly on digital signal processing (DSP) to extract the echo signal information and to accomplish reliability along with programmability and flexibility. The advent of ASIC technology has made various digital signal processing steps to be realized in one DSP chip, which can be programmed as per the application and can handle high data rates, to be used in the radar receiver to process the received signal. Further, recent days field programmable gate array (FPGA) chips, which can be re-programmed, also present an opportunity to utilize them to process the radar signal. A multi-channel direct IF/RF digital receiver (MCDRx) is developed at NARL, taking the advantage of high speed ADCs and high performance DSP chips/FPGAs, to be used for atmospheric radars working in HF/VHF bands. Multiple channels facilitate the radar t be operated in multi-receiver modes and also to obtain the wind vector with improved time resolution, without switching the antenna beam. MCDRx has six channels, implemented on a custom built digital board, which is realized using six numbers of ADCs for simultaneous processing of the six input signals, Xilinx vertex5 FPGA and Spartan6 FPGA, and two ADSPTS201 DSP chips, each of which performs one phase of processing. MCDRx unit interfaces with the data storage/display computer via two gigabit ethernet (GbE) links. One of the six channels is used for Doppler beam swinging (DBS) mode and the other five channels are used for multi-receiver mode operations, dedicatedly. Each channel has (i) ADC block, to digitize RF/IF signal, (ii) DDC block for digital down conversion of the digitized signal, (iii) decoding block to decode the phase coded signal, and (iv) coherent integration block for integrating the data preserving phase intact. ADC block consists of Analog devices make AD9467 16-bit ADCs, to digitize the input signal at 80 MSPS. The output of ADC is centered around (80 MHz - input frequency). The digitized data is fed

  3. Characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Young; Jo, Wan-Kuen; Chun, Ho-Hwan


    Although analysis of long-term data is necessary to obtain reliable information on characteristics of atmospheric visibility and its relationship with air pollution, it has rarely been performed. Therefore, a long-term evaluation of atmospheric visibility in characteristically different Korean cities, as well as a remote island, during 2001 to 2009, was performed in this study. In general, visibility decreased in the studied areas during the 9-yr study period. In addition, all areas displayed a distinct seasonal trend, with high visibility in the cold season relative to the warm season. Weekday visibility, however, did not significantly differ from weekend visibility. Similarly, the number of days per year for both low (19 km) fluctuated during the study period. Busan (a coastal city) exhibited the highest visibility, with an overall average of 17.6 km, followed by Daegu (a basin city), Ulsan (with concentrated petrochemical industries), Ullungdo (a remote island), and Seoul (the capital of Korea). Visibility was found to be significantly correlated with target air pollutants, except for ozone, for all metropolitan cities, whereas it was significantly correlated only with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and ozone on the remote island (Ullungdo). Among the metropolitan cities, Seoul exhibited the lowest visibility for both the PM10 standard exceedance and non-exceedance days, followed by Ulsan, Daegu, and Busan. The results of this study can be used to establish effective strategies for improving urban visibility and air quality. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution]. (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si


    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  5. On the Performance of Free-Space Optical Systems over Generalized Atmospheric Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique


    Generalized fading has been an imminent part and parcel of wireless communications. It not only characterizes the wireless channel appropriately but also allows its utilization for further performance analysis of various types of wireless communication systems. Under the umbrella of generalized fading channels, a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link over the Malaga (M) atmospheric turbulence channel that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. indirect modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection) is presented. Specifically, unified exact closed-form expressions for the probability density function (PDF), the cumulative distribution function (CDF), the moment generating function (MGF), and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system are presented, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Then capitalizing on these unified results, unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems are offered, such as, the outage probability (OP), the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where closed-form lower bound results are presented), all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, the asymptotic results are derived for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. Furthermore, new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes are derived in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.


    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  7. Remote sensing of the turbulence characteristics of a planetary atmosphere by radio occultation of a space probe. (United States)

    Woo, R.; Ishimaru, A.


    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of small-scale turbulence on radio waves propagating through a planetary atmosphere. The analysis provides a technique for inferring the turbulence characteristics of a planetary atmosphere from the radio signals received from a spacecraft as it is occulted by the planet. The planetary turbulence is assumed to be localized and smoothly varying, with the structure constant varying exponentially with altitude. Rytov's method is used to derive the variance of log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of a wave propagating through the atmosphere.

  8. Is atmospheric pollution exposure during pregnancy associated with individual and contextual characteristics? A nationwide study in France. (United States)

    Ouidir, Marion; Lepeule, Johanna; Siroux, Valérie; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frederik; Rivière, Emmanuel; Launay, Ludivine; Zaros, Cécile; Cheminat, Marie; Charles, Marie-Aline; Slama, Rémy


    Exposure to atmospheric pollutants is a danger for the health of pregnant mother and children. Our objective was to identify individual (socioeconomic and behavioural) and contextual factors associated with atmospheric pollution pregnancy exposure at the nationwide level. Among 14 921 women from the French nationwide ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children) mother-child cohort recruited in 2011, outdoor exposure levels of PM2.5, PM10 (particulate matter atmospheric pollutants with individual (maternal age, body mass index, parity, education level, relationship status, smoking status) and contextual (European Deprivation Index, urbanisation level) factors. Patterns of associations were globally similar across pollutants. For the CART approach, the highest tertile of exposure included mainly women not in a relationship living in urban and socially deprived areas, with lower education level. Linear regression models identified different determinants of atmospheric pollutants exposure according to the residential urbanisation level. In urban areas, atmospheric pollutants exposure increased with social deprivation, while in rural areas a U-shaped relationship was observed. We highlighted social inequalities in atmospheric pollutants exposure according to contextual characteristics such as urbanisation level and social deprivation and also according to individual characteristics such as education, being in a relationship and smoking status. In French urban areas, pregnant women from the most deprived neighbourhoods were those most exposed to health-threatening atmospheric pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Winter precipitation characteristics in western US related to atmospheric river landfalls: observations and model evaluations (United States)

    Kim, J.; Guan, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Ferraro, R. D.; Case, J. L.; Iguchi, T.; Kemp, E.; Putman, W.; Wang, W.; Wu, D.; Tian, B.


    Winter precipitation (PR) characteristics in western United States (WUS) related to atmospheric river (AR) landfalls are examined using the observation-based PRISM data. The observed AR-related precipitation characteristics are in turn used to evaluate model precipitation data from the NASA MERRA2 reanalysis and from seven dynamical downscaling simulations driven by the MERRA2. Multiple metrics including mean bias, Taylor diagram, and two skill scores are used to measure model performance for three climatological sub-regions in WUS, Pacific Northwest (PNW), Pacific Southwest (PSW) and Great Basin (GB). All model data well represent the winter-mean PR with spatial pattern correlations of 0.8 or higher with PRISM for the three sub-regions. Higher spatial resolutions and/or the use of spectral nudging generally yield higher skill scores in simulating the geographical distribution of PR for the entire winter. The PRISM data shows that the AR-related fraction of winter PR and associated daily PR PDFs in each region vary strongly for landfall locations; AR landfalls in the northern WUS coast (NC) affect mostly PNW while those in the southern WUS coast (SC) affect both PSW and GB. NC (SC) landfalls increase the frequency of heavy PR in PNW (PSW and GB) but reduce it in PSW (PNW). All model data reasonably represent these observed variations in the AR-related winter PR fractions and the daily PR PDFs according to AR landfall locations. However, unlike for the entire winter period, no systematic effects of resolution and/or spectral nudging are identified in these AR-related PR characteristics. Dynamical downscaling in this study generally yield positive added values to the MERRA2 PR in the AR-related PR fraction for most sub-regions and landfall locations, most noticeably for PSW by NU-WRF. The downscaling also generate positive added value in p95 for PNW, but negative values for PSW and GB due to overestimation of heavy precipitation events.

  10. Characteristics-Based Methods for Efficient Parallel Integration of the Atmospheric Dynamical Equations (United States)

    Norman, Matthew Ross

    The social need for realistic atmospheric simulation in weather prediction, climate change attribution, seasonal forecasting, and climate projection is great. To obtain realistic simulations, we need more physical processes included in the model with greater fidelity and finer spatial resolution. Spatial resolution primarily drives the need for computational resources because reducing the model grid spacing by a factor f requires f 4 times more computation (assuming 3-D refinement). This compute power comes from large parallel machines with 10,000s of separate nodes and accelerators such as graphics processing units (GPUs) making efficiency a complicated problem. Efficiency parallel integration algorithms need low internode communication, minimal synchronization, large time steps, and clustered computation. To this end, we propose new characteristics-based methods for the atmospheric dynamical equations with these properties in mind. These schemes are capable of simulating at a large CFL time step in only one stage of computations, needing only one copy of the state variables. They are implemented in a 2-D non-hydrostatic compressible equation set in an x-z (horizontal-vertical) Cartesian plane to simulate buoyancy-driven flows such as rising thermals and internal gravity waves. The schemes are implemented to run on CPU and multi-GPU architectures using Nvidia's CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) language to test relative efficiency. Even with- out memory tuning, the GPU code showed roughly 2.5x (5x) better performance per Watt. With optimization, this could increase by an order of magnitude. The methods can use any spatial interpolant, so two major formulations are proposed and tested. One uses WENO interpolants which are pre-computed, and the other uses standard polynomials and computes them on-the-fly. The advantage of on-the-fly calculations is a significant reduction in the volume of data communicated to and from the GPU's slow global memory. In some

  11. Change characteristic of atmospheric particulate mercury during dust weather of spring in Qingdao, China (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Ruhai; Wang, Yan; Cui, Xueqing; Qi, Jianhua


    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected during dust weather of spring from 2008 to 2011 in Qingdao, in which the concentrations of atmospheric particulate mercury (PHg) were measured to analyze its distribution characteristics and source. PHg concentration during the study ranged from 0.050 ng m-3 to 0.788 ng m-3 with the average 0.292 ng m-3 in dust day, while 0.085 ng m-3 to 0.444 ng m-3 with the average 0.188 ng m-3 in non-dust day. PHg concentration in dust day is far higher than that in some cities of South Korea and Japan and comparable to some cities in China. There was a statistically power function between PHg/TSP and TSP concentrations, which meant that intense dust (high TSP) brought particles with low mercury content. The estimated dry deposition flux of PHg is 0.9-14.2 ng m-2 h-1 with the mean 5.26 ng m-2 h-1 in dust day. The mercury deposition flux in a dust day accounts for almost 1% annual flux, which should be paid attention in the regional and global cycle of mercury. The trajectories are categorized into 4 sectors. Cluster 1 and cluster 4 were the main routes of dust to Qingdao, coming from Kazakhstan and north of Mongolia individually. There is higher TSP, and lower PHg/TSP in dust of cluster 4 compared with cluster 1, because of longer transport distance and faster movement speed. There is highest PHg/TSP in cluster 2 because of passing polluted East China. The slow transport speed, long stay at polluted developed region caused pollutants to accumulate in the aerosols. Differences of transport route, movement speed affects the mercury content significantly.

  12. Simulation of turbulent heat transfer characteristics in a corrugated tube with five-channel twisted tape inserts (United States)

    Promthaisong, Pitak; Jedsadaratanachai, Withada; Chuwattanakul, Varesa; Eiamsa-ard, Smith


    The article presents a numerical analysis of turbulent periodic flow and heat transfer characteristics in a five-start spiral corrugated tube combined with five-channel twisted tape. Influences of the five-channel twisted tape with tape width ratio, w/D=0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.44 at constant the twisted length ratio, y/D=2.0 were described. The results were reported in term of flow structure, temperature distribution, TKE field, local Nusselt number distribution on the wall, Nusselt number ratio, friction factor ratio and thermal enhancement factor. The five-start spiral corrugated tube combined with five-channel twisted tape showed a main swirl flow and secondary swirl flow along the tube due to the induction of the spiral groove while the smooth circular tube appeared the straight only and the five-start spiral corrugated tube with the five-channel twisted tape at w/D=0.44 appeared the main swirl flow only. The swirl flow help to increase fluid mixing and increase in heat transfer rate over the smooth circular tube. The increase in the w/D lead to the rise of Nusselt number and friction factor. The result showed that the optimum thermal enhancement factor of about 1.16was found at the five-start spiral corrugated tube without the five-channel twisted tape and at w/D=0.44.

  13. Sandhill crane roosts use, channel characteristics, and environmental variables along the Platte River, Nebraska, 2003-2007 (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary


    The central Platte River Valley represents a key mid-latitude stopover This dataset supports a contemporary analysis of nocturnal roost selection for sandhill cranes staging along the Platte River during 2003-2007. We explored variation in selection for previously established characteristics of roost sites, including river channel width, vegetation height along the river bank, and distance to nearest disturbance feature. This analysis also included novel environmental factors (yearly estimates of corn near roost sites, nightly temperature, wind speed, and river discharge) and how they may interact with the more established characteristics.

  14. Evaluating 20th Century precipitation characteristics between multi-scale atmospheric models with different land-atmosphere coupling (United States)

    Phillips, M.; Denning, A. S.; Randall, D. A.; Branson, M.


    Multi-scale models of the atmosphere provide an opportunity to investigate processes that are unresolved by traditional Global Climate Models while at the same time remaining viable in terms of computational resources for climate-length time scales. The MMF represents a shift away from large horizontal grid spacing in traditional GCMs that leads to overabundant light precipitation and lack of heavy events, toward a model where precipitation intensity is allowed to vary over a much wider range of values. Resolving atmospheric motions on the scale of 4 km makes it possible to recover features of precipitation, such as intense downpours, that were previously only obtained by computationally expensive regional simulations. These heavy precipitation events may have little impact on large-scale moisture and energy budgets, but are outstanding in terms of interaction with the land surface and potential impact on human life. Three versions of the Community Earth System Model were used in this study; the standard CESM, the multi-scale `Super-Parameterized' CESM where large-scale parameterizations have been replaced with a 2D cloud-permitting model, and a multi-instance land version of the SP-CESM where each column of the 2D CRM is allowed to interact with an individual land unit. These simulations were carried out using prescribed Sea Surface Temperatures for the period from 1979-2006 with daily precipitation saved for all 28 years. Comparisons of the statistical properties of precipitation between model architectures and against observations from rain gauges were made, with specific focus on detection and evaluation of extreme precipitation events.

  15. Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer characteristics on gust factor for the calculation of wind load (United States)

    Ghanadi, Farzin; Emes, Matthew; Yu, Jeremy; Arjomandi, Maziar; Kelso, Richard


    Dynamic amplification and gust effects from turbulence can increase wind loads significantly over and above the static wind loads that have been used for heliostat design. This paper presents the results of analyzing the relationship between gust factor and turbulence intensity within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) based on the high fidelity measurements of wind velocity at the SLTEST facility in the Utah desert. Results showed that there are distinct characteristics of a low roughness ABL that deviate from semi-empirical relationships derived for open country and urban terrains with larger surface roughness heights. The analysis also indicated that gust factor is increased by 2.4% when lowering the gust period from 3s to 1s in the low roughness field experiment ABL, compared to a 3.6% increase in a suburban terrain at a 10m height. Although 3s gust periods are recommended in AS/NZS 1170.2 [1], comparison of gust factor data with a 1s gust period is recommended particularly in high roughness ABLs such as in urban areas, to ensure that buildings are adequately designed to withstand higher frequency gusts. This research proved the strength of the correlation between gust factor and turbulence intensity is dependent on the surface roughness height of the terrain. It is recommended that the coefficient in the previous semi-empirical equation must be adjusted to be fitted to the low roughness desert terrain in the field experiment ABL.

  16. A theoretical study on the impact of particle scattering on the channel characteristics of underwater optical communication system (United States)

    Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Shanmugam, Palanisamy


    Scattering by water molecules and particulate matters determines the path and distance of photon propagation in underwater medium. Consequently, photon angle of scattering (given by scattering phase function) requires to be considered in addition to the extinction coefficient of the aquatic medium governed by the absorption and scattering coefficients in channel characterization for an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system. This study focuses on analyzing the received signal power and impulse response of UWOC channel based on Monte-Carlo simulations for different water types, link distances, link geometries and transceiver parameters. A newly developed scattering phase function (referred to as SS phase function), which represents the real water types more accurately like the Petzold phase function, is considered for quantification of the channel characteristics along with the effects of absorption and scattering coefficients. A comparison between the results simulated using various phase function models and the experimental measurements of Petzold revealed that the SS phase function model predicts values closely matching with the actual values of the Petzold's phase function, which further establishes the importance of using a correct scattering phase function model while estimating the channel capacity of UWOC system in terms of the received power and channel impulse response. Results further demonstrate a great advantage of considering the nonzero probability of receiving scattered photons in estimating channel capacity rather than considering the reception of only ballistic photons as in Beer's Law, which severely underestimates the received power and affects the range of communication especially in the scattering water column. The received power computed based on the Monte-Carlo method by considering the receiver aperture sizes and field of views in different water types are further analyzed and discussed. These results are essential for

  17. Numerical and experimental study on the motion characteristics of single bubble in a complex channel (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Li, Weizhong; Dong, Bo


    This paper is an extended study from previous work. In this study, the focus is paid to the dynamics of bubble rising and deformation in a complex channel, while the previous work is in straight channel. For this purpose, a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate the dynamics behaviour of a bubble rising in a complex channel consisting of three half-round throats. To validate the numerical method, a visual experiment was carried out by means of a high-speed digital camera and computer image processing technology. The behaviour of the rising bubble through glycerine solution in a complex channel was recorded. Some physical parameters such as rising velocities, trajectory and shapes of the bubble were calculated and processed based on the experimental data. In the same conditions, the trajectory, shapes and rising velocities of the bubble were simulated during its rising process by the proposed LBM. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results. It demonstrates that LBM used in this work is feasible for simulating two-phase flow in such a complex channel.

  18. Estimation of channel characteristics of narrow bipolar events based on the transmission-line model (United States)

    Zhu, Baoyou; Zhou, Helin; Ma, Ming; Lv, Fanchao; Tao, Shanchang


    Narrow bipolar event (NBE) is a distinct class of intracloud lightning discharge, which is associated with the strongest radio frequency emissions and produces typical narrow bipolar radiation field waveforms. On the basis of the transmission-line model, we introduce a direct technique to measure the time taken by the current front to propagate along the channel from distant radiation field pulses; the channel length of the NBE can then be estimated by multiplying this time by an assumed propagation speed. Our method involves integrating over the initial half cycle of narrow bipolar waveform of the NBE. The ratio of the integral result to the initial peak amplitude makes a good approximation to the time taken by the current front to travel along the channel, even though the current amplitude suffers heavy attenuation along the propagating channel. This method can be applied to all NBEs which produce narrow bipolar radiation field waveforms. Besides, if both the far radiation field and the near-electrostatic field measurements were available, one could combine the method here and that of Eack (2004) to obtain the channel length of the NBE.

  19. Analysis of the characteristics of single atmospheric particles in Chengdu using single particle mass spectrometry (United States)

    Zhang, Junke; Luo, Bin; Zhang, Jianqiang; Ouyang, Feng; Song, Hongyi; Liu, Peichuan; Cao, Pan; Schäfer, Klaus; Wang, Shigong; Huang, Xiaojuan; Lin, Yongfu


    Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province and the main city in Sichuan basin, is one of the heavily polluted cities in China. The characteristics of single particles in the atmosphere over Chengdu are critical for the in-depth understanding of their sources, formation mechanisms, and effects. In this study, a continuous ambient aerosol measurement was performed in summer in Chengdu with a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) and other monitoring instruments. The particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations were low during our study period: PM2.5 and PM10 (aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 or 10 μm) were 40.5 ± 23.6 μg m-3 and 67.0 ± 38.1 μg m-3, respectively. This was mainly caused by the favorable meteorological conditions during the summer season. Twelve particle types were identified and classified as dust particles (Dust), four types of carbonaceous particles, organic nitrogen and potassium containing particles (KCN), four types of secondary particles, Na-K-containing particles (NaK), and metal-containing particles (Metal). The highest contribution of particles was from potassium with elemental carbon (KEC; 23.0%), and the lowest from elemental carbon (EC; 0.2%). All types of particles showed different diurnal variations and size distributions, which were closely related to their sources and reactions in the atmosphere. The eastern and southern air masses corresponded with high PM2.5 mass concentrations. The contributions of KEC and K-sulfate (KSO4) particles to PM2.5 were clearly higher than those in air masses from the southeast. During polluted days, the contributions of KEC and KSO4 particles increased, while the contributions of organic carbon (OC), combined OC and EC particles (OCEC), and K-nitrate (KNO3) particles decreased. This shows the importance of biomass burning and industrial emissions for the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu. These results will be useful for the in-depth understanding of the PM2

  20. Precipitation characteristics for the Slovak republic and their link to the atmospheric circulation (United States)

    Pokorná, Lucie; Pecho, Jozef; Faško, Pavol


    Slovak Republic is situated in the centre of Europe. Its terrain is rugged and altitude increases from the southern lowlands to mountains in the northeastern and northern parts of the region where it reaches more than 2000 m a. s. l. Precipitation in this region is affected by atmospheric systems coming from the Atlantic ocean (western direction) on one hand and from the Mediterranean on the other hand (southern direction). However cyclones passing the Baltic Sea play a significant role determining precipitation occurrence and amounts as well. All these factors together with local effects lead to three different precipitation regimes in Slovakia: (i) Continental (with low precipitation in winter and the highest in summer), (ii) Atlantic (with equally distributed precipi¬tation all year round) and (iii) Mediterranean (with highest pre¬cipitation in June or May and secon¬dary maximum in October-December). The Mediterranean regime is more pronounced in the southern part of Central Slovakia while the Continental in the northeastern Slovakia. In the contribution we focus on distribution of precipitation amounts during the year and on trends in occurrence of extreme precipitation and droughts. Series from 50 meteorological stations in the Slovak Republic from the period 1951, resp. 1961-2010, are used. The sub-regions with typical annual courses of precipitation are identified using cluster analysis. The temporal behaviour of mean precipitation totals during the second half of the 20th century is characterized by a significant decrease until the mid-1990s followed by an increase up to the present. The increase of precipitation totals is registered mainly in winter, and partly also in spring and autumn. Nevertheless the increase is not regular; short periods with heavy precipi-tation as well as longer and more severe drought spells have occurred more frequently in two recent decades. In the second part of this work, the influence of atmospheric circulation on

  1. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory]. (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long


    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  2. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R


    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  3. Modeling of the Channel Thickness Influence on Electrical Characteristics and Series Resistance in Gate-Recessed Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karsenty


    Full Text Available Ultrathin body (UTB and nanoscale body (NSB SOI-MOSFET devices, sharing a similar W/L but with a channel thickness of 46 nm and lower than 5 nm, respectively, were fabricated using a selective “gate-recessed” process on the same silicon wafer. Their current-voltage characteristics measured at room temperature were found to be surprisingly different by several orders of magnitude. We analyzed this result by considering the severe mobility degradation and the influence of a huge series resistance and found that the last one seems more coherent. Then the electrical characteristics of the NSB can be analytically derived by integrating a gate voltage-dependent drain source series resistance. In this paper, the influence of the channel thickness on the series resistance is reported for the first time. This influence is integrated to the analytical model in order to describe the trends of the saturation current with the channel thickness. This modeling approach may be useful to interpret anomalous electrical behavior of other nanodevices in which series resistance and/or mobility degradation is of a great concern.

  4. Characteristics of low-temperature short heat pipes with a nozzle-shaped vapor channel (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.


    This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies of heat transfer and swirling pulsating flows in short low-temperature heat pipes whose vapor channels have the form of a conical nozzle. It has been found that as the evaporator of the heat pipe is heated, pressure pulsations occur in the vapor channel starting at a certain threshold value of the heat power, which is due to the start of boiling in the evaporator. The frequency of the pulsations has been measured, and their dependence on the superheat of the evaporator has been determined. It has been found that in heat pipes with a conical vapor channel, pulsations occur at lower evaporator superheats and the pulsation frequency is greater than in heat pipes of the same size with a standard cylindrical vapor channel. It has been shown that the curve of the heat-transfer coefficient versus thermal load on the evaporator has an inflection corresponding to the start of boiling in the capillary porous evaporator of the heat pipe.

  5. Distribution Characteristics, Concentrations, and Sources of Cd and Pb in Laoxiawan Channel Sediments from Zhuzhou, China. (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Abass, Olusegun-Kazeem; Wen, Xin-Yu; Huang, Huan-Fang; Qu, Cheng-Kai; Qi, Shi-Hua


    Twenty sediment cores encompassing surface (0-20 cm) and deeper (50-60 cm) sediment layers were retrieved from the 3000 m-long Laoxiawan Channel, which receives industrial effluents from Zhuzhou City (China). Analytical results showed that cadmium (Cd) concentrations ranged between 115.7-1126.7 and 108.8-2059.3 mg/kg while lead (Pb) values ranged between 234-3000 and 145-4292 mg/kg in the surface and bottom sediments, respectively. The results also indicated that high levels of Cd and Pb were present in the vicinity of the channel mouth and confluence area. Indices for potential ecological risk and geo-accumulation were used to evaluate the environmental effects and intensity of heavy metal pollution over time. High concentrations of Cd and Pb in the bottom sediments of Laoxiawan Channel were mainly associated with wastewater discharge (10(6) m(3)/year). Thus, the Laoxiawan Channel may be an important metal contaminant source for the Xiang River.

  6. Use of Mutant-Specific Ion Channel Characteristics for Risk Stratification of Long QT Syndrome Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jons, Christian; O-Uchi, Jin; Moss, Arthur J.; Reumann, Matthias; Rice, John J.; Goldenberg, Ilan; Zareba, Wojciech; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Shimizu, Wataru; Kanters, Jorgen K.; McNitt, Scott; Hofman, Nynke; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Lopes, Coeli M. B.


    Inherited long QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by mutations in ion channels that delay cardiac repolarization, increasing the risk of sudden death from ventricular arrhythmias. Currently, the risk of sudden death in individuals with LQTS is estimated from clinical parameters such as age, gender, and

  7. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China]. (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong


    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  8. Acoustic NLOS Identification Using Acoustic Channel Characteristics for Smartphone Indoor Localization. (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Danjie; Wang, Xinheng; Schindelhauer, Christian; Wang, Zhi


    As the demand for indoor localization is increasing to support our daily life in large and complex indoor environments, sound-based localization technologies have attracted researchers' attention because they have the advantages of being fully compatible with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) smartphones, they have high positioning accuracy and low-cost infrastructure. However, the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) phenomenon poses a great challenge and has become the technology bottleneck for practical applications of acoustic smartphone indoor localization. Through identifying and discarding the NLOS measurements, the positioning performance can be improved by incorporating only the LOS measurements. In this paper, we focus on identifying NLOS components by characterizing the acoustic channels. Firstly, by analyzing indoor acoustic propagations, the changes of acoustic channel from the line-of-sight (LOS) condition to the NLOS condition are characterized as the difference of channel gain and channel delay between the two propagation scenarios. Then, an efficient approach to estimate relative channel gain and delay based on the cross-correlation method is proposed, which considers the mitigation of the Doppler Effect and reduction of the computational complexity. Nine novel features have been extracted, and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier with a radial-based function (RBF) kernel is used to realize NLOS identification. The experimental result with an overall 98.9% classification accuracy based on a data set with more than 10 thousand measurements shows that the proposed identification approach and features are effective in acoustic NLOS identification for acoustic indoor localization via a smartphone. In order to further evaluate the performance of the proposed SVM classifier, the performance of an SVM classifier is compared with that of traditional classifiers based on logistic regression (LR) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results also show that a

  9. Comparison of short-circuit characteristics of trench gate and planar gate U-shaped channel SOI-LIGBTs (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Weifeng; Zhao, Minna; Huang, Xuequan; Chen, Jiajun; Shi, Longxing; Chen, Jian; Ding, Desheng


    Comparison of short-circuit (SC) characteristics of 500 V rated trench gate U-shaped channel (TGU) SOI-LIGBT and planar gate U-shaped channel (PGU) SOI-LIGBT is made for the first time in this paper. The on-state carrier profile of the TGU structure is reshaped by the dual trenches (a gate trench G1 and a hole barrier trench G2), which leads to a different conduction behavior from that of the PGU structure. The TGU structure exhibits a higher latchup immunity but a severer self-heating effect. At current density (JC) lattice temperature rise caused by the high current density at the emitter side in the TGU structure, the PGU exhibits a better JC-tSC trade-off at JC > 640 A/cm2. Comparison of layouts and fabrication processes are also made between the two types of devices.

  10. Compartmentalized beta subunit distribution determines characteristics and ethanol sensitivity of somatic, dendritic, and terminal large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the rat central nervous system. (United States)

    Wynne, P M; Puig, S I; Martin, G E; Treistman, S N


    Neurons are highly differentiated and polarized cells, whose various functions depend upon the compartmentalization of ion channels. The rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), in which cell bodies and dendrites reside in the hypothalamus, physically separated from their nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis, provides a particularly powerful preparation in which to study the distribution and regional properties of ion channel proteins. Using electrophysiological and immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in each of the three primary compartments (soma, dendrite, and terminal) of HNS neurons. We found that dendritic BK channels, in common with somatic channels but in contrast to nerve terminal channels, are insensitive to iberiotoxin. Furthermore, analysis of dendritic BK channel gating kinetics indicates that they, like somatic channels, have fast activation kinetics, in contrast to the slow gating of terminal channels. Dendritic and somatic channels are also more sensitive to calcium and have a greater conductance than terminal channels. Finally, although terminal BK channels are highly potentiated by ethanol, somatic and dendritic channels are insensitive to the drug. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of somatic and dendritic versus nerve terminal channels are consistent with the characteristics of exogenously expressed alphabeta1 versus alphabeta4 channels, respectively. Therefore, one possible explanation for our findings is a selective distribution of auxiliary beta1 subunits to the somatic and dendritic compartments and beta4 to the terminal compartment. This hypothesis is supported immunohistochemically by the appearance of distinct punctate beta1 or beta4 channel clusters in the membrane of somatic and dendritic or nerve terminal compartments, respectively.

  11. Effects of atmospheric conditions on the operating characteristics of supersonic cruise aircraft (United States)

    Schweikhard, W. G.; Gilyard, G. B.; Talbot, J. E.; Brown, T. W.


    Since for maximum range a supersonic transport must cruise near its maximum Mach number, accurate flight control is needed, especially when severe atmospheric transients are encountered. This paper describes atmospheric transients that have been encountered by the XB-70, YF-12, and Concorde aircraft during supersonic flights and the ensuing responses of the aircraft propulsion and flight control systems. It was found that atmospheric conditions affected these supersonic cruise vehicles in much the same way, with minor differences according to the type of propulsion and flight control system. Onboard sensors are sufficiently accurate to provide data on the atmosphere, including turbulence over the route, that are accurate enough for entry in the climatic record and for use as inputs to the control systems. Nominal atmospheric transients can be satisfactorily controlled, but some problems remain for extreme cases.

  12. Role of dermatomes in the determination of therapeutic characteristics of channel acupoints: a similarity-based analysis of data compiled from literature


    Ferreira, Arthur S.; Luiz, Alexandre B


    Background Analysis of the relationship between the nervous system anatomy and the therapeutic characteristics of all acupuncture points in the channel network may provide new insights on the physiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture stimulation for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation purposes. This study investigates the association between the similarity of acupoints’ dermatomes, traditional actions, and contemporary indications. Methods Channel acupoints had their characteristi...

  13. Characterization of potassium channel modulators with QPatch automated patch-clamp technology: system characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Friis, Søren; Asmild, Margit


    . Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), gigaseals of 4.1 +/- 0.4 GOmega (n = 146) and high-quality whole-cell current recordings were obtained from hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Success rates for gigaseal recordings varied from 40 to 95%, and 67% of the whole......-cell configurations lasted for >20 min. Cells were maintained in suspension up to 4 h in a cell storage facility that is integrated in the QPatch 16. No decline in patchability was observed during this time course. A series of screens was conducted with known inhibitors of the hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Dose......-response relationship characterizations of verapamil and rBeKm-1 blockage of hERG currents provided IC(50) values similar to values reported in the literature....

  14. Underwater acoustic channel characteristics and communication performance at 85 kHz. (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehai; Song, Aijun; Tong, Feng


    A high frequency acoustic experiment was conducted in the northern portion of the Gulf of Mexico in August 2016 to examine the operating range, data rates, and performance of acoustic communication systems at the carrier frequency of 85 kHz. The received signal-to-noise ratios, channel coherence, and impulse responses were reported between two 85 kHz transducers and a five-element hydrophone array over multiple ranges up to 1500 m. Channel estimation based decision feedback equalizers (DFEs) were applied to process the communication measurements. A data rate of 27.2 kb/s was achieved for four tested ranges with a uniform set of receiver parameters.

  15. Characteristics of size-resolved atmospheric inorganic and carbonaceous aerosols in urban Shanghai (United States)

    Ding, X. X.; Kong, L. D.; Du, C. T.; Zhanzakova, A.; Fu, H. B.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L.; Yang, X.; Chen, J. M.; Cheng, T. T.


    Size-segregated aerosol particles were collected with a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at an urban site in Shanghai, China for four non-consecutive months representing four seasons from 2015 to 2016. Chemical composition, including water-soluble ions as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) of size-resolved (0.056-18 μm) atmospheric aerosols in four seasons and in different polluted cases were studied. The size distributions of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) and carbonaceous aerosol (OC, EC and SOC) were discussed and the potential sources of PM1.8-associated secondary species (SO42-, NO3-, SNA and SOC) in different seasons were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF) model. Results showed that atmospheric ultrafine and fine particle pollution in Shanghai were very serious during the study period. Most of the water-soluble ions tended to be enriched in fine particles, especially being abundant in the droplet mode in polluted cases. Compared with sulfate, size distributions of nitrate and ammonium presented more significant seasonal variations and showed distinctive characteristics in polluted days. Abundant nitrate was concentrated in fine particles in cold seasons (spring and winter), whereas it was enriched in coarse mode during summer and autumn. The droplet mode sulfate with high concentration did not result in the aggravation of air pollution, while the nucleation mode sulfate may have made a great contribution to the air pollution in urban Shanghai. It was also found that the formation of air pollution in urban Shanghai had a significant link with nitrate and ammonium, especially with nitrate and ammonium in condensation mode and droplet mode, and the contribution of sulfate to the pollution formation in Shanghai would somehow be surpassed by the increasing nitrate and ammonium. OC and EC concentrations from spring to winter were found to be 11.10, 7.10, 12

  16. [Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area]. (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao


    In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features

  17. Full equations utilities (FEQUTL) model for the approximation of hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures during unsteady flow (United States)

    Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.


    The Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL) model is a computer program for computation of tables that list the hydraulic characteristics of open channels and control structures as a function of upstream and downstream depths; these tables facilitate the simulation of unsteady flow in a stream system with the Full Equations (FEQ) model. Simulation of unsteady flow requires many iterations for each time period computed. Thus, computation of hydraulic characteristics during the simulations is impractical, and preparation of function tables and application of table look-up procedures facilitates simulation of unsteady flow. Three general types of function tables are computed: one-dimensional tables that relate hydraulic characteristics to upstream flow depth, two-dimensional tables that relate flow through control structures to upstream and downstream flow depth, and three-dimensional tables that relate flow through gated structures to upstream and downstream flow depth and gate setting. For open-channel reaches, six types of one-dimensional function tables contain different combinations of the top width of flow, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, flux coefficients, and correction coefficients for channel curvilinearity. For hydraulic control structures, one type of one-dimensional function table contains relations between flow and upstream depth, and two types of two-dimensional function tables contain relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths. For hydraulic control structures with gates, a three-dimensional function table lists the system of two-dimensional tables that contain the relations among flow and upstream and downstream flow depths that correspond to different gate openings. Hydraulic control structures for which function tables containing flow relations are prepared in FEQUTL include expansions, contractions, bridges, culverts, embankments, weirs, closed conduits (circular, rectangular, and pipe

  18. Characteristics of ground-based adaptive telescope determined by atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Lukin, Vladimir P.


    Numerical simulation on a computer is one of the main methods used for studying the possibilities of adaptive correction of turbulent distortions of imaging forming in the atmosphere. The problem of compensation for atmospheric distortions of a wave front has been studied sufficiently long. The first papers on this subject were published in the mid-1960's. At that time, however, the engineering base gives no way for designing the efficient devices for compensating for atmospheric distortions. In recent years much progress has been reached in developing wave front distortion meters and correctors and then fitting the optical facilities operating under atmospheric distortions with these devices. In this connection an increased interest of researchers is observed to the theoretical works concerning with selection of an optical design and configuration of the wave front corrections.

  19. Performance analysis of an OAM multiplexing-based MIMO FSO system over atmospheric turbulence using space-time coding with channel estimation. (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Ping; Guo, Lixin; Wang, Wei; Tian, Hongxin


    The average bit error rate (ABER) performance of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing-based free-space optical (FSO) system with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) architecture has been investigated over atmospheric turbulence considering channel estimation and space-time coding. The impact of different types of space-time coding, modulation orders, turbulence strengths, receive antenna numbers on the transmission performance of this OAM-FSO system is also taken into account. On the basis of the proposed system model, the analytical expressions of the received signals carried by the k-th OAM mode of the n-th receive antenna for the vertical bell labs layered space-time (V-Blast) and space-time block codes (STBC) are derived, respectively. With the help of channel estimator carrying out with least square (LS) algorithm, the zero-forcing criterion with ordered successive interference cancellation criterion (ZF-OSIC) equalizer of V-Blast scheme and Alamouti decoder of STBC scheme are adopted to mitigate the performance degradation induced by the atmospheric turbulence. The results show that the ABERs obtained by channel estimation have excellent agreement with those of turbulence phase screen simulations. The ABERs of this OAM multiplexing-based MIMO system deteriorate with the increase of turbulence strengths. And both V-Blast and STBC schemes can significantly improve the system performance by mitigating the distortions of atmospheric turbulence as well as additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). In addition, the ABER performances of both space-time coding schemes can be further enhanced by increasing the number of receive antennas for the diversity gain and STBC outperforms V-Blast in this system for data recovery. This work is beneficial to the OAM FSO system design.

  20. Characteristics of aerosol at a lower atmospheric layer in DRAGON field campaign (United States)

    KUJI, M.; Azuma, Y.; Kitakoga, S.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.


    Air pollution arises severely over East Asia with the rapid economic development nowadays. Monitoring the atmospheric environment, as one of the purposes, an intensive field campaign, Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON), was carried out in the spring of year 2012, led by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). At that time, atmospheric phenomena such as Yellow sand and haze events were observed at Nara in the western part of Japan, as one of the DRAGON observation sites. The atmospheric events were characterized with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. As a result of the data analysis, it was found that more light-absorbing and smaller particles dominated at the lower than upper atmospheric layer for the Kosa event in particular. A backward trajectory analysis suggested that the Yellow sand event traveled over the East Asian industrial cities, which could lead to a mixture of sand and air pollutants with moderate particle size and light-absorptivity. In addition, visibility observation was evaluated quantitatively with AERONET data in the DRAGON campaign since eye observation was inherently semi-quantitative. The extinction coefficient estimated from visibility was compared to that from AERONET. As a result, it was found that the extinction coefficients were generally consistent to each other. But there were some discrepancies, which could be caused with the atmospheric phenomena or aerosol types. It is confirmed that visibility is strongly influenced with aerosols in the case of severe atmospheric phenomena in particular.

  1. Channel Characteristics and Performance of MIMO E-SDM Systems in an Indoor Time-Varying Fading Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu Phu Bui


    Full Text Available Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO systems employ advanced signal processing techniques. However, the performance is affected by propagation environments and antenna characteristics. The main contributions of the paper are to investigate Doppler spectrum based on measured data in a typical meeting room and to evaluate the performance of MIMO systems based on an eigenbeam-space division multiplexing (E-SDM technique in an indoor time-varying fading environment, which has various distributions of scatterers, line-of-sight wave existence, and mutual coupling effect among antennas. We confirm that due to the mutual coupling among antennas, patterns of antenna elements are changed and different from an omnidirectional one of a single antenna. Results based on the measured channel data in our measurement campaigns show that received power, channel autocorrelation, and Doppler spectrum are dependent not only on the direction of terminal motion but also on the antenna configuration. Even in the obstructed-line-of-sight environment, observed Doppler spectrum is quite different from the theoretical U-shaped Jakes one. In addition, it has been also shown that a channel change during the time interval between the transmit weight matrix determination and the actual data transmission can degrade the performance of MIMO E-SDM systems.

  2. Investigation of Diffusion Characteristics through Microfluidic Channels for Passive Drug Delivery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J. Goudie


    Full Text Available Microfluidics has many drug delivery applications due to the ability to easily create complex device designs with feature sizes reaching down to the 10s of microns. In this work, three different microchannel designs for an implantable device are investigated for treatment of ocular diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and diabetic retinopathy. Devices were fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and soft lithography techniques, where surface chemistry of the channels was altered using 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxypropyl]trimethoxysilane (PEG-silane. An estimated delivery rate for a number of common drugs was approximated for each device through the ratio of the diffusion coefficients for the dye and the respective drug. The delivery rate of the model drugs was maintained at a physiological condition and the effects of channel design and surface chemistry on the delivery rate of the model drugs were recorded over a two-week period. Results showed that the surface chemistry of the device had no significant effect on the delivery rate of the model drugs. All designs were successful in delivering a constant daily dose for each model drug.

  3. Identifying river channel characteristics of the Niger Inner Delta from altimeter data (United States)

    Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Trigg, Mark


    To date, much flood inundation research has focused on the simulation of hydrodynamics within a framework where detailed river and floodplain bathymetry is used to construct a physically-based numerical model. This framework is fundamentally limited in scale by the lack of observed river bathymetry for most of the world's rivers and wetlands. To simulate floodplain inundation across large spatial scales requires a different approach that will need to estimate bathymetry and friction as reach averaged components of the hydraulic model, using remotely observable variables such as water level and channel width. This research presents a model where the river channel depth, shape and friction can be described by three physically meaningful but continuous parameters. We attempt to estimate these parameters using satellite altimeter data from a test site along ~1000 km of the River Niger, Mali. For calibration the model was split into 1, 2 or 3 reaches and we used a DEM at 2 arcminutes or ~4 km. River and fl¬oodplain dynamics were simulated from 2002 to 2009, with each simulation taking ~2.5 minutes. Each reach had two parameters if assumed rectangular and three if the cross-section shape was allowed to change. Therefore there were between two and nine parameters to calibrate, depending on the number of reaches and parameters. Infl¬ow boundary conditions were based on gauge observations. Water surface elevation observations were available from ICEsat and Envisat altimeters, with parameters estimated from these using a Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg method, with an objective function where observations were weighted given an estimate of their uncertainty. A twinned calibration experiment indicated that the information content of the data was sufficient to identify the parameters in an error free model and that the gradient based optimise was capable of finding the minimum of the objective function. Simulated levels were most sensitive to model friction and became more so with

  4. Two-phase Flow Characteristics in a Gas-Flow Channel of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (United States)

    Cho, Sung Chan

    Fuel cells, converting chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity, have become an integral part of alternative energy and energy efficiency. They provide a power source of high energy-conversion efficiency and zero emission, meeting the critical demands of a rapidly growing society. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also called polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), are the major type of fuel cells for transportation, portable and small-scale stationary applications. They provide high-power capability, work quietly at low temperatures, produce only water byproduct and no emission, and can be compactly assembled, making them one of the leading candidates for the next generation of power sources. Water management is one of the key issues in PEM fuel cells: appropriate humidification is critical for the ionic conductivity of membrane while excessive water causes flooding and consequently reduces cell performance. For efficient liquid water removal from gas flow channels of PEM fuel cells, in-depth understanding on droplet dynamics and two-phase flow characteristics is required. In this dissertation, theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental testing with visualization are carried out to understand the two-phase flow characteristics in PEM fuel cell channels. Two aspects of two-phase phenomena will be targeted: one is the droplet dynamics at the GDL surface; the other is the two-phase flow phenomena in gas flow channels. In the former, forces over a droplet, droplet deformation, and detachment are studied. Analytical solutions of droplet deformation and droplet detachment velocity are obtained. Both experiments and numerical simulation are conducted to validate analytical results. The effects of contact angle, channel geometry, superficial air velocity, properties of gas phase fluids are examined and criteria for the detachment velocity are derived to relate the Reynolds number to the Weber number. In the latter, two-phase flow

  5. Pool Boiling Characteristics on the Microstructure surfaces with Both Rectangular Cavities and Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Eok; Myung, Byung-Soo [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su Cheong; Yu, Dong In [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho Seon [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Based on a surface design with rectangular cavities and channels, we investigated the effects of gravity and capillary pressure on pool-boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF). The microcavity structures could prevent liquid flow by the capillary pressure effect. In addition, the microchannel structures contributed to induce one-dimensional liquid flow on the boiling surface. The relationship between the CHF and capillary flow was clearly established. The driving potentials for the liquid supply into a boiling surface can be generated by the gravitational head and capillary pressure. Through an analysis of pool boiling and visualization data, we reveal that the liquid supplement to maintain the nucleate boiling condition on a boiling surface is closely related to the gravitational pressure head and capillary pressure effect.

  6. [Atmospheric Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Eight Cities of China: Pollution Characteristics and Human Exposure]. (United States)

    Lin, Hai-tao; Li, Qi-lu; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun


    The gas and particle samples of eight cities were collected by high flow active air sampler in the Eastern and Western China and eight congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of BDE-28 (tri-BDE) in the gas-phase (three bromide components) was the highest, which was different from previous studies where BDE-99 and-47 were the predominant homologues in the gas-phase while the concentration of BDE-209 [(25.4 ± 124) pg · m⁻³] in particle-phase was the highest. The atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs in Beijing and Guangzhou were relatively higher, especially the BDE-209 concentration in particle phases of Guangzhou was two orders higher than those of other cities. However, the atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs declined significantly when compared with the data from previous studies. Meanwhile, the results indicated that the gas-phase concentrations decreased slowly and the particle-phase concentrations decreased rapidly. Combined with the results of correlation analysis, this phenomenon might be ascribed to the ceased commercial production of penta- and octa-BDE, the light degradation of high bromide components and reduced concentrations of atmospheric particles in urban area. Inhalation exposure for infants was about 2-3 times higher than that of adults. This reflected that the potential health risk of atmospheric PBDEs in city for residents, especially infants and young children, should not be ignored.

  7. Estimating bacteria emissions from inversion of atmospheric transport: sensitivity to modelled particle characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Burrows


    Full Text Available Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissions from different ecosystem regions in the global atmospheric chemistry and climate model ECHAM5/MESSy-Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC. Source estimation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo is applied to a suite of sensitivity simulations, and the global mean emissions are estimated for the example problem of bacteria-containing aerosol particles. We present an analysis of the uncertainties in the global mean emissions, and a partitioning of the uncertainties that are attributable to particle size, activity as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, the ice nucleation scavenging ratios for mixed-phase and cold clouds, and measurement error. For this example, uncertainty due to CCN activity or to a 1 μm error in particle size is typically between 10% and 40% of the uncertainty due to observation uncertainty, as measured by the 5–95th percentile range of the Monte Carlo ensemble. Uncertainty attributable to the ice nucleation scavenging ratio in mixed-phase clouds is as high as 10–20% of that attributable to observation uncertainty. Taken together, the four model parameters examined contribute about half as much to the uncertainty in the estimated emissions as do the observations. This was a surprisingly large contribution from model uncertainty in light of the substantial observation uncertainty, which ranges from 81–870% of the mean for each of ten ecosystems for this case study. The effects of these and other model parameters in contributing to the uncertainties in the transport of atmospheric aerosol

  8. Heat transfer and flow region characteristics study in a non-annular channel between rotor and stator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nili-Ahmadabadi M.


    Full Text Available This paper will present the results of the experimental investigation of heat transfer in a non-annular channel between rotor and stator similar to a real generator. Numerous experiments and numerical studies have examined flow and heat transfer characteristics of a fluid in an annulus with a rotating inner cylinder. In the current study, turbulent flow region and heat transfer characteristics have been studied in the air gap between the rotor and stator of a generator. The test rig has been built in a way which shows a very good agreement with the geometry of a real generator. The boundary condition supplies a non-homogenous heat flux through the passing air channel. The experimental devices and data acquisition method are carefully described in the paper. Surface-mounted thermocouples are located on the both stator and rotor surfaces and one slip ring transfers the collected temperature from rotor to the instrument display. The rotational speed of rotor is fixed at three under: 300rpm, 900 rpm and 1500 rpm. Based on these speeds and hydraulic diameter of the air gap, the Reynolds number has been considered in the range: 4000characteristics.

  9. Assessing the influence of ocean-atmosphere forcing on precipitation and drought characteristics at global and regional scales (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian Michael

    Previous studies have demonstrated that ocean-atmosphere forcing by anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) significantly influences large-scale hydroclimatic variability. However, the influence of SST anomalies on the stochastic characteristics of regional precipitation and drought is not well understood. This dissertation investigates the influence of SST forcing on hydroclimatic variability at global and regional scales. An ensemble of 20th century atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations is used to evaluate the SST-forced signal and chaotic noise components of simulated seasonal precipitation. Temporal variability and trends in signal and potential predictability (signal-to-noise ratio) are shown to be significant over much of the globe, while variability in noise is not significant over most regions. Results suggest that ocean-atmosphere forcing of seasonal precipitation is not stationary; results are discussed in the contexts of seasonal climate prediction and global climate change. The influence of SST anomalies on stochastic characteristics of precipitation and drought is subsequently evaluated using two ensembles of AGCM simulations forced with observed (interannually varying) SST and their climatological annual cycle, respectively. SST anomalies are shown to significantly increase interannual variability of precipitation and persistence of precipitation anomalies throughout the tropics and some midlatitude regions. With respect to drought, SST anomalies are shown to increase the duration and magnitude of drought events over much of the tropics; outside of the tropics SST anomalies contribute a small increase in likelihood of persistent drought events. Coupled (atmosphere-ocean-land) general circulation models (CGCMs) pose a number of applications to drought research. The final portion of this dissertation evaluates precipitation characteristics and ocean-atmosphere coupling in nine state-of-the-art CGCMs. CGCMs are shown to generally

  10. Effect of Aspect Ratio, Channel Orientation, Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio, and Number of Ribbed Walls on Pressure Drop Characteristics in a Rotating Channel with Detached Ribs

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    K. Arun


    Full Text Available The present work involves experimental investigation of the effects of aspect ratio, channel orientation angle, rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e, and number of ribbed walls on friction factor in orthogonally rotating channel with detached ribs. The ribs are separated from the base wall to provide a small region of flow between the base wall and the ribs. Experiments have been conducted at Reynolds number ranging from 10000–17000 with rotation numbers varying from 0–0.38. Pitch-to-rib height ratios (P/e of 5 and 10 at constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D of 0.1 and a clearance ratio (C/e of 0.38 are considered. The rib angle of attack with respect to mainstream flow is 90∘. The channel orientation at which the ribbed wall becomes trailing surface (pressure side on which the Coriolis force acts is considered as the 0∘ orientation angle. For one-wall ribbed case, channel is oriented from 0∘ to 180∘ about its axis in steps of 30∘ to change the orientation angle. For two-wall ribbed case, the orientation angle is changed from 0∘ to 90∘ in steps of 30∘. Friction factors for the detached ribbed channels are compared with the corresponding attached ribbed channel. It is found that in one-wall detached ribbed channel, increase in the friction factor ratio with the orientation angle is lower for rectangular channel compared to that of square channel for both the pitch-to-rib height ratios of 5 and 10 at a given Reynolds number and rotation number. Friction factor ratios of two-wall detached ribbed rectangular channel are comparable with corresponding two-wall detached ribbed square channel both under stationary and rotating conditions.

  11. Assessments of F16 Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder Antenna Temperatures at Lower Atmospheric Sounding Channels


    Banghua Yan; Fuzhong Weng


    The main reflector of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-16 satellite emits variable radiation, and the SSMIS warm calibration load is intruded by direct and indirect solar radiation. These contamination sources produce antenna brightness temperature anomalies of around 2 K at SSMIS sounding channels which are obviously inappropriate for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models and remote sensing retrie...

  12. An Accurate Computational Tool for Performance Estimation of FSO Communication Links over Weak to Strong Atmospheric Turbulent Channels

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    Theodore D. Katsilieris


    Full Text Available The terrestrial optical wireless communication links have attracted significant research and commercial worldwide interest over the last few years due to the fact that they offer very high and secure data rate transmission with relatively low installation and operational costs, and without need of licensing. However, since the propagation path of the information signal, i.e., the laser beam, is the atmosphere, their effectivity affects the atmospheric conditions strongly in the specific area. Thus, system performance depends significantly on the rain, the fog, the hail, the atmospheric turbulence, etc. Due to the influence of these effects, it is necessary to study, theoretically and numerically, very carefully before the installation of such a communication system. In this work, we present exactly and accurately approximate mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average capacity and the outage probability performance metrics, as functions of the link’s parameters, the transmitted power, the attenuation due to the fog, the ambient noise and the atmospheric turbulence phenomenon. The latter causes the scintillation effect, which results in random and fast fluctuations of the irradiance at the receiver’s end. These fluctuations can be studied accurately with statistical methods. Thus, in this work, we use either the lognormal or the gamma–gamma distribution for weak or moderate to strong turbulence conditions, respectively. Moreover, using the derived mathematical expressions, we design, accomplish and present a computational tool for the estimation of these systems’ performances, while also taking into account the parameter of the link and the atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, in order to increase the accuracy of the presented tool, for the cases where the obtained analytical mathematical expressions are complex, the performance results are verified with the numerical estimation of the appropriate integrals. Finally, using

  13. Impacts of teachers’ competency on job performance in research universities with industry characteristics: Taking academic atmosphere as moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anguo Xu


    Full Text Available Purpose: Research universities with industry characteristics play an irreplaceable role in national economic development and social development. With the rapid development of research universities with industry characteristics in China, these universities face new challenges in managing teachers and promoting their quality. This paper aims to examine the impact of teachers’ competency on job performance in research university with industry characteristics Design/methodology/approach: Based on the behavioral event interview and questionnaire methods, a four-dimension (i.e. basic quality, teaching ability, industry awareness and research capacity competency model was proposed, the influence mechanism of competency on job performance was examined using empirical research. Findings: We found that there is a significant positive correlation between the teachers’ competency level, four dimensions and job performance in research universities with industry characteristics, especially between research capacity, teaching ability, industry awareness and job performance. And academic atmosphere plays a regulatory role in the interaction between the competency and job performance. Practical implications: Our findings can help to improve the management level of teachers in research universities with industry characteristics.Originality/value: The paper introduces the competency theory to the teacher management in research universities with industry characteristics, and gives some interesting findings.

  14. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of EUROFER'97 processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P., E-mail: [National Fusion Laboratory, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Eddahbi, M.; Auger, M.A.; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)


    EUROFER'97 was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 823 K for a total of 4 or 8 passes, using a die angle of 105{sup o}, and its microstructure and tensile behavior in temperature range 568-873 K investigated. A single ECAP pass developed a deformation texture {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} <0 1 1> that was practically stable during subsequent ECAP passes. The materials processed by 1 or 2 passes exhibited a fine microstructure of recovered subgrains and tensile behavior very similar to that for the tempered material in the as-received condition. The materials processed using 4 or 8 passes exhibited nearly equiaxial submicron grained structures with a high density of high-angle grain boundaries. These materials became softer than the as-received material at a testing temperature of {approx}823 K. EUROFER ECAP processed under the present conditions exhibited hardening ratio somewhat higher than that of the as-received material.

  15. Turbulence characteristics of flow in an open channel with temporally varying mobile bedforms

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    Hanmaiahgari Prashanth Reddy


    Full Text Available Turbulence of flow over mobile bedforms in natural open channels is not yet clearly understood. An attempt is made in this paper to determine the effect of naturally formed mobile bedforms on velocities, turbulent intensities and turbulent stresses. Instantaneous velocities are measured using a two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV to evaluate the turbulence structure of free surface flow over a fixed (immobile bed, a weakly mobile bed and a temporally varying mobile bed with different stages of bedform development. This paper documents the vertical distribution of velocity, turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress and higher-order moments including skewness and turbulent diffusion factors. Analysis of the velocity distributions shows a substantial decrease of velocity near the bed with increasing bedform mobility due to increased friction. A modified logarithmic law with a reduced von Kármán constant and increased velocity shift is proposed for the case of the mobile bedforms. A significant increase in the Reynolds shear stress is observed in the mobile bedforms experiments accompanied by changes over the entire flow depth compared to an immobile bed. The skewness factor distribution was found to be different in the case of the flow over the mobile bedforms. All higher-order turbulence descriptors are found to be significantly affected by the formation of temporally varying and non-equilibrium mobile bedforms. Quadrant analysis indicates that sweep and outward events are found to be dominant in strongly mobile bedforms and govern the bedform mobility.

  16. The Gain and Time Characteristics of Microchannel Plates in Various Channel Geometries (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Wang, Xingchao; Tian, Jinshou; Zhao, Tianchi; Liu, Chunliang; Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xing; Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang; Chen, Ping; Tian, Liping; Hui, Dandan; Guo, Lehui


    Microchannel plates (MCPs) are widely used as electron, ion, and X-ray detectors. The gain factor and time resolution of the MCP are strongly dependent on its operating and geometry parameters (applied voltage, length-to-diameter ratio, bias angle, and electrode penetration depth). Measurements about this dependence are sparse and do not cover the full range of the parameters. In this paper, 3-D single channel models are developed in computer simulation technology studio suit to systematically and comprehensively calculate the MCP gain and time resolution for various operating and geometry parameters. Furman secondaries electron emission model is employed in our simulation. Simulated result of the gain versus bias voltage is validated by the available experimental data. Finally, geometry parameters of L = 373.6 μm, D = 10 μm, hin = hout = 5 μm, and θ = 12° are proposed to optimize the MCP performances. Simulation results show that the gain, mean transit time, and transit time spread of the optimized MCP are expected to reach 128012, 128 ps and 19 ps at the applied voltage of 1000 V.

  17. First wide-angle view of channelized turbidity currents links migrating cyclic steps to flow characteristics (United States)

    Hughes Clarke, John E.


    Field observations of turbidity currents remain scarce, and thus there is continued debate about their internal structure and how they modify underlying bedforms. Here, I present the results of a new imaging method that examines multiple surge-like turbidity currents within a delta front channel, as they pass over crescent-shaped bedforms. Seven discrete flows over a 2-h period vary in speed from 0.5 to 3.0 ms−1. Only flows that exhibit a distinct acoustically attenuating layer at the base, appear to cause bedform migration. That layer thickens abruptly downstream of the bottom of the lee slope of the bedform, and the upper surface of the layer fluctuates rapidly at that point. The basal layer is inferred to reflect a strong near-bed gradient in density and the thickening is interpreted as a hydraulic jump. These results represent field-scale flow observations in support of a cyclic step origin of crescent-shaped bedforms. PMID:27283503

  18. Influence of hadronic interaction models on characteristics of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux (United States)

    Morozova, A. D.; Kochanov, A. A.; Sinegovskaya, T. S.; Sinegovsky, S. I.


    The high-energy conventional atmospheric neutrino fluxes are calculated with the hadronic interaction models: Kimel & Mokhov, QGSJET II-03(04), SIBYL 2.1(2.3), EPOS LHC. The influence of hadron-nuclear interactions on the neutrino flux ratios, v/\\bar{v},({v}μ +{\\bar{v}}μ )/({v}e+{\\bar{v}}e), is studied. A comparison of calculations obtained with use of two different approaches, {\\mathscr{Z}}(E,h) -functions method and the Matrix Cascade Equations (MCEQ), demonstrates close agreement in whole but some of partial contrubutions. The comparison of calculated muon neutrino spectra with the latest experimental data justifies reliability of performed computation which describes correctly the atmospheric neutrino production. The calculation made with the model EPOS LHC, combined with Hillas & Gaisser parametrization of the cosmic ray spectrum, is in close agreement with the best fit of IceCube for energy spetrum of atmospheric muon neutrinos in the energy range 1–500 TeV.

  19. A Computational Study on the Discharge Characteristics of Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharges at a Constant Power (United States)

    Song, Xinxin; Tan, Zhenyu; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yuantao


    The study on homogeneous DBDs at atmospheric pressure has attracted much attention for their advantages in applications. Tremendous work has been conducted both experimentally and numerically at a constant applied voltage or driving frequency. However the investigation of dielectric barrier discharges is still scarce for a constant power or power density. In this work, a new computational approach for DBDs is developed to explore atmospheric DBDs at a constant power based on a one-dimensional fluid model. The frequency and gap spacing effects on the atmospheric plasmas are systematically analyzed based on computational data. The computational results show that at a constant power both the current density and the amplitude of the applied voltage decrease, whereas the current pulse width increases, with increasing frequency. The simulation also indicates that as the gap spacing is raised with a fixed power and frequency, the current density and electron density increase initially, then reach their peak values, and then decrease, which means that there are maximum values for both of them. These results are significant for many industrial applications, as they can be used to optimize plasma devices of DBDs with the consideration of power consumption.

  20. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  1. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  2. Flow Visualization and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Oscillating Fluid through Pin-Fin Array in a Rectangular Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng


    Full Text Available This work experimentally investigated the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of the pin-fin heat sink with the oscillating air flow. The oscillating air flow would be unstable in the passages among the fins due to the periodical change of flow rate. It might enhance the overall heat-transfer performance. At the present study, the pin-fin heat sinks with various fin heights were installed in the rectangular channel, resulting in different bypass clearances between the pin fins and the shroud of the test channel. The smoke flow visualizations for the oscillating-flow system were completed. The heat-transfer tests under the asymmetrically heated condition were performed to obtain the average Nusselt numbers. The smoke lines with obvious waves in the transverse direction were found in the results of the flow visualizations. By comparing to the steady flow system, there was about 20∼34% increment in the overall heat-transfer performance at the operating state without bypass clearance. However, if the bypass clearance was too big, the heat-exchange capacity of the oscillating flow was less than that of the steady flow. It demonstrates that the oscillating flow promotes the cooling performance of pin-fin heat sink at the non-bypass and specified bypass conditions.

  3. Current characteristic signals of aqueous solution transferring through microfluidic channel under non-continuous DC electric field

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    HongWei Ma


    Full Text Available The surface effect is becoming apparently significant as the miniaturization of fluidic devices. In the micro/nanochannel fluidics, the electrode surface effects have the same important influence on the current signals as the channel surface effects. In this paper, when aqueous solution are driven with non-continuous DC electric field force, the characteristics of current signals of the fluid transferring through microfluidic channel are systematically studied. Six modes of current signal are summarized, and some new significant phenomena are found, e.g. there exists a critical voltage at which the steady current value equals to zero; the absolute value of the steady current decreases at first, however, it increases with the external voltage greater than the critical voltage as the electrode area ratio of cathode and anode is 10 and 20; the critical voltage increases with the enhancing of electrode area ratio of cathode and anode and solution pH, while it decreases with the raising of ion concentration. Finally, the microscopic mechanism of the electrode surface charge effects is discussed preliminarily. The rules will be helpful for detecting and manipulating single biomolecules in the micro/nanofluidic chips and biosensors.

  4. Channel-width dependent pressure-driven flow characteristics of shale gas in nanopores

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    Jie Chen


    Full Text Available Understanding the flow characteristics of shale gas especially in nanopores is extremely important for the exploitation. Here, we perform molecular dynamics (MD simulations to investigate the hydrodynamics of methane in nanometre-sized slit pores. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD, the static properties including density distribution and self-diffusion coefficient of the confined methane are firstly analyzed. For a 6 nm slit pore, it is found that methane molecules in the adsorbed layer diffuse more slowly than those in the bulk. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD, the pressure-driven flow behavior of methane in nanopores is investigated. The results show that velocity profiles manifest an obvious dependence on the pore width and they translate from parabolic flow to plug flow when the width is decreased. In relatively large pores (6 – 10 nm, the parabolic flow can be described by the Navier-Stokes (NS equation with appropriate boundary conditions because of its slip flow characteristic. Based on this equation, corresponding parameters such as viscosity and slip length are determined. Whereas, in small pores (∼ 2 nm, the velocity profile in the center exhibits a uniform tendency (plug flow and that near the wall displays a linear increase due to the enhanced mechanism of surface diffusion. Furthermore, the profile is analyzed and fitted by a piecewise function. Under this condition, surface diffusion is found to be the root of this anomalous flow characteristic, which can be negligible in large pores. The essential tendency of our simulation results may be significant for revealing flow mechanisms at nanoscale and estimating the production accurately.

  5. Seasonal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of the Haldia channel of Hooghly estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Sarma, V.V.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, B.P.

    - jee 1978, 1983; Sinha et al 1995, 1996 and 1999). Residual circulation and pollution transport are also studied by Sinha et al (1998). Recently, Sinha et al (2004) reported sediment transport in the estuary from a breadth-averaged model. Studies..., February 2005, pp. 37{49 ? Printed in India. 37 38 Y Sadhuram et al Figure 1. Study area and station locations. aspects of the Hooghly estuary but the information on physical characteristics of the estuary is very sparse. The main objective of this study...

  6. Development of the Microwave Radiative Transfer Program for Cloudy Atmospheres: Applications to DMSP SSM/T Channels. (United States)


    package. Other equipment of meteorological interest on board the space craft include visual and infrared imagery channels and a scanning infrared...UTST .bT .Z1lPj .TST=ZToP- F(l.lub.LE.Z7ST) 6U TO P CuiNS= (SZTOP-S7RUT /MLO6CSIPTtP/ SPROT ) SZZzAL0G CSPP/5PhOT)*(.ONS+SZt4C7 GO 1tu 9𔃾 2 kK=(PTOP

  7. Analytical modeling on the drain current characteristics of gate-all-around TFET with the incorporation of short-channel effects (United States)

    Xu, Wanjie; Wong, Hei; Iwai, Hiroshi; Liu, Jun; Qin, Pei


    An analytical model for describing the drain current characteristics of gate-all-around (GAA) tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) is developed. Starting from potential distribution derived from Poisson's equation in different regions along the channel, drain current model is developed based on Kane's approach. The new model shows a better accuracy than the previously reported models. It is valid for larger ranges of bias conditions and channel length also. In particular, we have taken the effect of drain bias on the source junction tunneling into account. This effect is quite significant for the subthreshold conduction of short-channel devices. The validity of this model has been confirmed with TCAD simulation.

  8. Effects of enhanced atmospheric ammonia on physiological characteristics of maize(Zea mays L.). (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Shiqing


    Elevated atmospheric NH₃ may affect photosynthesis rates and biomass production of crops and the effect may be responsible for the soil nitrogen (N) levels. Plants were exposed to 0 and 1000 nL L⁻¹ with and without N (+N and - N) in open-top chambers (OTCs) to investigate effects of atmospheric NH₃ on photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of maize plants. At two N levels, NH₃ exposure at 1000 nL L⁻¹ led to an increase in plant height, biomass production, net photosynthetic rates (P(n)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) compared to ambient NH₃. Exposure to 1000 nL L⁻¹ NH₃ resulted in a significantly higher photochemical quenching (q(p)) and non-photochemical quenching (q(np)), while minimal fluorescence (F(o)), maximum fluorescence (F(m)) and maximum photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) were not affected. For shoots, N concentrations for - N-1000 and + N-1000 treatments were 49-50% and 26-30% higher, respectively, than those of - N-0 and + N-0 treatments. No visible damage was observed and plants growing on low soil N took up more leaf-derived N than those fertilised at higher N level. Therefore, atmospheric NH₃ can be considered as a quick fertiliser for crops and should be estimated in a further study with soil N fertilisers in order to reduce the dosage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Forest condition and chemical characteristics of atmospheric depositions: research and monitoring network in Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminio DI GIROLAMO


    Full Text Available Since 1987, the Regional Forestry Board of Lombardy and the Water Research Institute of the National Research Council have been carrying out surveys of forest conditions and the response of the ecosystem to environmental factors. The study approach is based on a large number of permanent plots for extensive monitoring (Level 1. At this level, crown condition is assessed annually, and soil condition and the nutritional status of forests surveyed. Some of the permanent plots were selected for intensive monitoring (Level 2, focussing mainly on the impact of atmospheric pollution on forest ecosystems. Level 2 monitoring also includes increment analyses, ground vegetation assessment, atmospheric deposition, soil solution analyses and climatic observations. This paper summarises the main results of a pluriannual research, which provides a general picture of the state of forest health in the region and focuses on more detailed investigations, described as case studies. Modified wet and dry samplers which use a water surface to collect dry deposition were used in a pluriannual field campaign at five sites in alpine and prealpine areas, to measure the total atmospheric depositions and to evaluate the nitrogen and sulphate exceedances of critical loads. Throughfall and bulk precipitation chemistry were studied for five years (June 1994-May 1999 at two high elevation forest sites (Val Gerola and Val Masino which were known to differ in terms of tree health, as assessed by live crown condition. Results indicated a higher contribution from the dry deposition of N-NO3 -, N-NH4 + and H+ and considerable canopy leaching of Ca2+, K+ and weak organic acids at Val Gerola, where the symptoms of damage were more evident. In the area of Val Masino (SO, included since 1997 in the national CONECOFOR network, investigations focused on the effectiveness of the biological compartment in modifying fluxes of atmospheric elements, and on the role of nitrogen both as an

  10. [Determination and characteristics of OH radical in urban atmosphere in Beijing]. (United States)

    Ren, Xinrong; Wang, Huixiang; Shao, Kesheng; Miao, Guofang; Tang, Xiaoyan


    The measurement of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH) in Beijing was carried out using two methods based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The diurnal variation of OH concentration was obtained. The maximum concentration during sunny daytime was about 8 x 10(7) cm-3 in summer, while it decreased to about 2 x 10(7)-4 x 10(7) cm-3 in autumn. The relationships between OH and other pollutants were studied and discussed. Positive linear correlation between OH and UV-B intensity, O3, HNO2 was observed, while negative correlation between OH and NOx was found.

  11. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna


    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  12. Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide. (United States)

    Lee, Y L; Yu, N E; Kee, C-S; Ko, D-K; Lee, J; Yu, B-A; Shin, W; Eom, T J; Noh, Y-C


    We have analyzed the Solc filtering characteristics in a periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 (Ti:PPLN) multimode waveguide. The single- and dual-wavelength filtering were achieved under the optimized guiding condition for the TEM(00)-like mode and two mode (TEM(00)- and TEM(01)-like mode), respectively. The full width at half-maximum of the filter was about 0.21 nm at both guiding conditions. We found that the origin of two peaks of the dual-wavelength Solc filter in the two-mode guiding condition is the different effective refractive index between the TEM(00)- and TEM(01)-like modes. The wavelength difference of two peaks is about 0.8 nm at room temperature.

  13. Thermal Characteristics of a Primary Surface Heat Exchanger with Corrugated Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Won Seo


    Full Text Available This paper presents the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a primary surface heat exchanger (PSHE with corrugated surfaces. The PSHE was experimentally investigated for a Reynolds number range of 156–921 under various flow conditions on the hot and cold sides. The inlet temperature of the hot side was maintained at 40 °C, while that of the cold side was maintained at 20 °C. A counterflow was used as it has a higher temperature proximity in comparison with a parallel flow. The heat transfer rate and pressure drop were measured for various Reynolds numbers on both the hot and cold sides of the PSHE, with the heat transfer coefficients for both sides computed using a modified Wilson plot method. Based on the results of the experiment, both Nusselt number and friction factor correlations were suggested for a PSHE with corrugated surfaces.

  14. Electrical and optical characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet driven by neon trasformer (United States)

    Elfa, Rizan Rizon; Ahmad, Mohd Khairul; Soon, Chin Fhong; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Lias, Jais; Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Rusop, Mohamad; Nayan, Nafarizal


    The atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet driven by double sinusoidal waveform of neon transformer is reported in this paper. The commercial neon transformer produces about 5 kV of peak sinusoidal voltages and 35 kHz of frequency. Argon gas has been used as discharge gas for this system since the discharge was easily developed rather than using helium gas. In addition, argon gas is three times cheaper than helium gas. The electrical property of the argon discharge has been analyzed in details by measuring its voltage, current and power during the discharge process. Interestingly, it has been found that the total power on the inner needle electrode was slightly lower than that of outer electrode. This may be due to the polarization charges that occurred at inner needle electrode. Then, further investigation to understand the discharge properties was carried out using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis. During OES measurements, two positions of plasma discharge are measured by aligning the quartz optical lens and spectrometer fiber. The OH emission intensity was found higher than that of N2 at the plasma orifice. However, OH emission intensity was lower at 1.5 cm distance from orifice which may be due to penning ionization effect. These results and understanding are essential for surface modification and biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet.

  15. Influence of physicochemical water characteristics in the transport of methane to the atmosphere at Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Carlos Alvalá


    Full Text Available The accumulation and decomposition of organic matter in water bodies can increase the potential emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In this study, in a prospective and exploratory way, we evaluated the relationship between physicochemical characteristics of water on the transport of methane to the atmosphere at Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, RJ. In 2011, campaigns were carried out in which 200 samples were collected for analysis of superficial methane emission and 30 water samples were collected to verify the dissolution of this gas in the water column, measuring simultaneously both the physicochemical water parameters along this column. The methane flow measurements showed that this lagoon is a source methane emission to the atmosphere with an average flux of 33 ± 10 mgCH4m-2d-1. The evaluation of limnological parameters that could affect the emission flux revealed that the water depth and temperature were the most influential factors in this process. A profile analysis of methane in the water column suggests the existence of a higher concentration of this gas in the region of the sedimentary strata at the bottom of the lagoon. However, the potential emission may not reach the surface, possibly due to the decrease in the rate of vertical diffusion of methane, as a result of the increase of pressure with depth and the presence of methanotrophic bacterias that consume methane throughout the water column.

  16. Infrared characteristic radiation of water condensation and freezing in connection with atmospheric phenomena; Part 3: Experimental data (United States)

    Tatartchenko, V.; Liu, Yifan; Chen, Wenyuan; Smirnov, P.


    This paper is the third one from the series of papers with the same titles published in this journal. The papers consider the infrared characteristic radiation (IRCR) during the first order phase transitions of water: crystallization, water vapor condensation, and water vapor deposition. Experimental results are analyzed in terms of their correspondence to the theoretical model. This model is based on the assertion that the particle's (atom, molecule, or cluster) transition from the higher energetic level in a metastable phase (vapor or liquid) to a lower level in a stable phase (liquid or crystal) produces an emission of one or more photons. The energy of these photons depends on the latent energy of the phase transition and the character of bonds formed by the particle in the new phase. For all investigated substances, this energy falls in the infrared range. Recorded in the atmosphere, numerous sources of the infrared radiation seem to be a result of crystallization, condensation and deposition of water during fog and cloud formation. The effect under investigation must play a very important role in atmospheric phenomena: it is one of the sources of Earth's cooling; formation of hailstorm clouds is accompanied by intensive IRCR that could be detected for process characterization and meteorological warnings. IRCR seems to be used for atmospheric energy accumulation and together with the wind, falling water, solar and geothermal energies makes available the fifth source of ecologically pure energy.

  17. EPR investigations of Mn 2+, Fe 3+ ions and carbonaceous radicals in atmospheric particulate aerosols during their transport over the eastern coast of the English Channel (United States)

    Ledoux, Frédéric; Zhilinskaya, Elena; Bouhsina, Saâd; Courcot, Lucie; Bertho, Marie-Laure; Aboukaı̈s, Antoine; Puskaric, Emile

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of the chemical forms of manganese and study other paramagnetic species in the atmospheric particulate aerosols at Wimereux, a French station located on the eastern coast of the English Channel. In parallel, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) was used to measure the metal concentrations. Fe concentration values are common in North Sea sites, but those of Mn are quite higher due to the presence of an important local source of Mn. EPR spectra have evidenced isolated Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ ions and carbonaceous products with variable intensities according to the wind directions. Amounts of paramagnetic species and carbonaceous products are maximum for continental winds and minimum for marine winds. Three Mn types were identified depending on the sampling distance from the source of emission and the size of the particles.

  18. [Characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control]. (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Ai, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zi-Qi


    Jiapigou gold mine, located in the upper Songhua River, was once the largest mine in China due to gold output, where gold extraction with algamation was widely applied to extract gold resulting in severe mercury pollution to ambient environmental medium. In order to study the characteristics of mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere under the snow retention and snow melting control, sampling sites were selected in equal distances along the slope which is situated in the typical hill-valley terrain unit. Mercury exchange flux between soil (snow) and atmosphere was determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber and in all sampling sites the atmosphere concentration from 0 to 150 cm near to the earth in the vertical direction was measured. Furthermore, the impact factors including synchronous meteorology, the surface characteristics under the snow retention and snow melting control and the mercury concentration in vertical direction were also investigated. The results are as follows: During the period of snow retention and melting the air mercury tends to gather towards valley bottom along the slope and an obvious deposit tendency process was found from air to the earth's surface under the control of thermal inversion due to the underlying surface of cold source (snow surface). However, during the period of snow melting, mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere on the surface of the earth with the snow being melted demonstrates alternative deposit and release processes. As for the earth with snow covered, the deposit level of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere is lower than that during the period of snow retention. The relationship between mercury exchange flux and impact factors shows that in snow retention there is a remarkable negative linear correlation between mercury exchange flux and air mercury concentration as well as between the former and the air temperature. In addition, in snow melting mercury exchange

  19. Comparison of analytical protein separation characteristics for three amine-based capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) stationary phases. (United States)

    Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R Kenneth


    Capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fiber stationary phases are finding utility in the realms of protein analytics as well as downstream processing. We have recently described the modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) C-CP fibers to affect amine-rich phases for the weak anion-exchange (WAX) separation of proteins. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is covalently coupled to the PET surface, with subsequent cross-linking imparted by treatment with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BUDGE). These modifications yield vastly improved dynamic binding capacities over the unmodified fibers. We have also previously employed native (unmodified) nylon 6 C-CP fibers as weak anion/cation-exchange (mixed-mode) and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) phases for protein separations. Polyamide, nylon 6, consists of amide groups along the polymer backbone, with primary amines and carboxylic acid end groups. The analytical separation characteristics of these three amine-based C-CP fiber phases are compared here. Each of the C-CP fiber columns in this study was shown to be able to separate a bovine serum albumin/hemoglobin/lysozyme mixture at high mobile phase linear velocity (∼70 mm s(-1)) but with different elution characteristics. These differences reflect the types of protein-surface interactions that are occurring, based on the active group composition of the fiber surfaces. This study provides important fundamental understanding for the development of surface-modified C-CP fiber columns for protein separation.

  20. Characteristics of suspended and streambed sediment within constructed chutes and the main channel at Upper Hamburg and Glovers Point Bends, Missouri River, Nebraska, 2008 (United States)

    Woodward, Brenda K.; Rus, David L.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District, as part of the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Mitigation Project, has constructed 17 off-channel chutes along the channelized Missouri River, downstream from Sioux City, Iowa, to increase habitat diversity. To better understand characteristics of suspended and streambed sediment within these constructed chutes, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated specific aspects of chute design and function in relation to sediment characteristics including: (1) effects of inlet structures; (2) changes occurring between the inlet and the outlet of a chute; (3) effects of chutes on sediment characteristics in the main channel; and (4) differences in chute dynamics between sampled chutes. Two chutes differing in design, location, and dynamics were studied, Upper Hamburg Bend near Nebraska City, Nebr., and Glovers Point Bend near Winnebago, Nebr. Each site was characterized using five or more sampling transects (two in the chute and three to four in the main channel) designed to bracket sediment exchanges between chutes and the main channel. A sixth transect was included at the Upper Hamburg Bend study site to account for the effects of a nontarget chute having its inlet midway between the inlet and outlet of the primary chute. Representative samples of suspended and streambed sediment were collected at each transect, along with measurements of turbidity and streamflow, between June and November 2008. Four sets of samples were collected at the Glovers Point Bend study site and five sample sets were collected from the Upper Hamburg Bend study site. Results from paired t-tests and standard t-tests indicated that the inlet structure design, passing inflow only from the top of the main-channel water column, reduced the supply of coarse-grained suspended sediment entering the chutes. Statistical comparisons did not indicate differences between the inlet and outlet of either chute; however, anecdotal evidence of recent

  1. Relation of internal gravity wave anisotropy with neutral wind characteristics in the upper atmosphere (United States)

    Medvedev, Ð. ń. V.; Ratovsky, K. G.; Tolstikov, M. V.; Oinats, A. V.; Alsatkin, S. S.; Zherebtsov, G. A.


    This paper studies the interaction of internal gravity waves (IGW) with neutral wind using the statistics of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) from the Radio Physical Complex of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics. The complex includes the Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar (IISR), Irkutsk Ionosonde (DPS-4), and Ekaterinburg HF Radar (EKB). The aim of this study is to give a common explanation for the TID azimuth distributions obtained with the IISR-ionosonde and HF coherent radar and show that the measurements of 3-D TID characteristics put into the hands of researchers an important tool to study neutral wind in the thermosphere. The distinctive features of this study are the following: (1) using different TID statistics from independent tools and, correspondingly, independent methods for determining TID characteristics; (2) using the 3-D TID characteristics for testing the wind-filtering hypothesis, which allows us to separate the IGW-induced TIDs from TIDs of other nature and identify three TID types depending on their elevation angles; and (3) using the local time-azimuth distribution of the TID number for testing the wind-filtering hypothesis. This study allowed us to conclude that the observed IGW azimuth anisotropy can be mainly explained by the wind filtration mechanism with considering winds at 90-250 km heights. Using the 3-D IGW characteristics allows us to estimate neutral wind parameters. Proposed methods are applicable for any tool which can obtain TID 3-D characteristics. Using the proposed methods will enable us to organize a worldwide campaign to improve the existing neutral wind models.

  2. Microphysical Characteristics of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from NASA’s MODIS, MISR, and AERONET Observations (United States)

    Gad, N.; Shokr, M.; Ibrahim, Alaa


    We present a comparative study of atmospheric particulate matter (also known as aerosols) observed by satellite remote sensing and ground-based observations. We compare satellite measurements obtained by NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instruments against the ground-based aerosol sun-photometer data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station in Cairo, Egypt from 2003 to 2014 to build a long-term database for climatological studies and to improve upon the accuracy and coverage achievable from the satellite data. We deduce microphysical and geometrical properties about the dominant aerosols based on key optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and Ångström exponent (AE). This has allowed us to place important constraints on the type of aerosols (natural, anthropogenic, and biogenic).

  3. Asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure: electrical properties and induced airflow characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, Jerome; Moreau, Eric; Touchard, Gerard [LEA, University of Poitiers/CNRS/ENSMA, Bd. Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)


    The electrical properties of an asymmetric surface dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric air have been investigated experimentally. The discharge is used for airflow production close to the dielectric surface, and the time-averaged flow velocity spatial profiles have been measured. Velocities of up to 3.5 m s{sup -1} at heights of 1-2 mm are reached when filamentary discharges with current peaks up to 20 mA are produced along the surface. In terms of powers, mechanical powers (output) of a few milliwatts are obtained for electrical powers (input) up to 10 W. Variation laws or behaviour with several discharge parameters (applied voltage waveform, distance between electrodes, dielectric thickness and permittivity) have been experimentally determined.

  4. Altitudinal characteristics of atmospheric deposition of aerosols in mountainous regions: Lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. (United States)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Katata, Genki; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Nakanishi, Chika; Urabe, Yoshimi; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu


    To understand the formation process of radiologically contaminated areas in eastern Japan caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident, the deposition mechanisms over complex topography are the key factors to be investigated. To characterize the atmospheric deposition processes of radionuclides over complex mountainous topography, we investigated the altitudinal distributions of the radiocesium deposited during the accident. In five selected areas, altitudinal characteristics of the air dose rates observed using airborne surveys were analyzed. To examine the deposition mechanisms, we supplementarily used vertical profiles of radiocesium deposition in each area calculated in the latest atmospheric dispersion model. In southern Iwate, the vertical profile of the observed air dose rate was uniform regardless of altitude. In western Tochigi, the areas with the highest levels of contamination were characteristically distributed in the middle of the mountains, while in southern Fukushima, the areas with the highest contamination levels were enhanced near the summits of mountains. In central Fukushima, high air dose rates were limited to the bottoms of basin-like valley. In the region northwest of FDNPS, the air dose rate was the highest at the bottom of valley topography and decreased gradually with altitude. The simulation results showed that calculated wet deposition and observed vertical profiles of total deposition were similar in areas of southern Iwate and northwest of FDNPS qualitatively, suggesting that the dominant deposition mechanism was wet deposition. In contrast, the atmospheric dispersion model failed to reproduce either the timing of precipitation events or vertical profiles of radiocesium deposition in three other areas. Although it was difficult to elucidate the deposition mechanisms in these areas due to uncertainties of the present model results, potential mechanisms such as cloud water deposition were still proposed based on

  5. On Shor's Channel Extension and Constrained Channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Shirokov, M. E.

    Several equivalent formulations of the additivity conjecture for constrained channels, which formally is substantially stronger than the unconstrained additivity, are given. To this end a characteristic property of the optimal ensemble for such a channel is derived, generalizing the maximal distance property. It is shown that the additivity conjecture for constrained channels holds true for certain nontrivial classes of channels. After giving an algebraic formulation for Shor's channel extension, its main asymptotic property is proved. It is then used to show that additivity for two constrained channels can be reduced to the same problem for unconstrained channels, and hence, ``global'' additivity for channels with arbitrary constraints is equivalent to additivity without constraints.

  6. Characteristics of Atmospheric Circulation and Hydrologic Cycle over the North Pacific on Sub-seasonal Timescale (United States)

    Ren, X.


    The air-sea system over the North Pacific region has multi-scale processes. Among them, the sub-seasonal timescale process has attracted literature due to its close linkage with persistent cold event or heavy rainfall event over east Asia and North American. In this study, we focused on the atmospheric circulation and hydrologic cycle over the North Pacific on sub-seasonal timescale. The EOF results showed that, there are two dominant modes of latent heat fluxes (evaporation) anomaly over the North Pacific ocean region on sub-seasonal timescale. The first mode exhibits an above normal/below normal latent heat release along the East Asian coastal region between 10º-45ºN, and below normal/above one to the east side. The first modes propagates downstream like the wave-train. The second mode shows a see-saw pattern, with positive anomaly over the Kuroshio and its extending region and negative one over the Northeast Pacific. It is seen that the associated anomalies in integrated vapor transport (IVT) and precipitation exhibit opposite sign with the anomaly in evaporation: increased/decreased evaporation from the ocean to the air is linkage with decreased/increased IVT and precipitation locally. Additionally, for the second mode, the increased IVT extends to the northwest part of the North America. The precipitation along the North American northwest coast increase significantly. The influences of the first mode is mainly located over the northwest Pacific and fades to the east of the dateline. The driver of the first mode is the southeastward propagation of a wave train across Eurasian mid and high latitudes. The invasion of the wave train into the northwest Pacific contributes to the first mode of latent heat anomaly over the North Pacific ocean region. The driver of the second mode is the intensified/weakened Aleutian low. When the Aleutian low is intensified on sub-seasonal timescale, the increased wind speed and colder air temperature induce above

  7. Atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials according to the local weather and emission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hye Yeon; Kang, Yoon Hee; Kim, Yoo Keun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Keun [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)


    This study evaluated the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material according to local weather conditions and emission conditions. Local weather conditions were defined as 8 patterns that frequently occur around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant and emission conditions were defined as 6 patterns from a combination of emission rates and the total number of particles of the {sup 137}Cs, using the WRF/HYSPLIT modeling system. The highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0900 LST under the ME4{sub 1} (main wind direction: SSW, daily average wind speed: 2.8 ms{sup -1}), with a wide region of its high concentration due to the continuous wind changes between 0000 and 0900 LST; under the ME3 (NE, 4.1 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 1500 and 2100 LST with a narrow dispersion along a strong northeasterly wind. In the case of ME4{sub 4} (S, 2.7 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0300 LST because {sup 137}Cs stayed around the KNPP under low wind speed and low boundary layer height. As for the emission conditions, EM1{sub 3} and EM2{sub 3} that had the maximum total number of particles showed the widest dispersion of {sup 137}Cs, while its highest mean concentration was estimated under the EM1{sub 1} considering the relatively narrow dispersion and high emission rate. This study showed that even though an area may be located within the same radius around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant, the distribution and levels of {sup 137}Cs concentration vary according to the change in time and space of weather conditions (the altitude of the atmospheric boundary layer, the horizontal and vertical distribution of the local winds, and the precipitation levels), the topography of the regions where {sup 137}Cs is dispersed, the emission rate of {sup 137}Cs, and the number of emitted particles.

  8. Some characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed by radio-interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Mercier

    Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs are considered through their effect on the horizontal gradient G of the slant total electron content (slant TEC, which can be directly obtained from two-dimensional radio-interferometric observations of cosmic radio-sources with the Nançay radioheligraph (2.2°E, 47.3°N. Azimuths of propagation can be deduced (modulo 180°. The total database amounts to about 800 h of observations at various elevations, local time and seasons. The main results are:

    a AGWs are partially directive, confirming our previous results.

    b The propagation azimuths considered globally are widely scattered with a preference towards the south.

    c They show a bimodal time distribution with preferential directions towards the SE during daytime and towards the SW during night-time (rather than a clockwise rotation as reported by previous authors.

    d The periods are scattered but are larger during night-time than during daytime by about 60%.

    e The effects observed with the solar radio-sources are significantly stronger than with other radio-sources (particularly at higher elevations, showing the role of the geometry in line of sight-integrated observations.

  9. Some characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed by radio-interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mercier


    Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs are considered through their effect on the horizontal gradient G of the slant total electron content (slant TEC, which can be directly obtained from two-dimensional radio-interferometric observations of cosmic radio-sources with the Nançay radioheligraph (2.2°E, 47.3°N. Azimuths of propagation can be deduced (modulo 180°. The total database amounts to about 800 h of observations at various elevations, local time and seasons. The main results are: a AGWs are partially directive, confirming our previous results. b The propagation azimuths considered globally are widely scattered with a preference towards the south. c They show a bimodal time distribution with preferential directions towards the SE during daytime and towards the SW during night-time (rather than a clockwise rotation as reported by previous authors. d The periods are scattered but are larger during night-time than during daytime by about 60%. e The effects observed with the solar radio-sources are significantly stronger than with other radio-sources (particularly at higher elevations, showing the role of the geometry in line of sight-integrated observations.

  10. Penetration characteristics of electromagnetic emissions from an underground seismic source into the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere (United States)

    Molchanov, O. A.; Hayakawa, M.; Rafalsky, V. A.


    Theoretical calculations are made on electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 10(exp -2) to 10(exp 2) Hz on the ground surface and above the ionosphere induced by stochastic microcurrent activity inside the future seismic sources on the assumption of cylindrical symmetry of the effective current and three types of polarization. The inhomogeneity of the ground and atmosphere conductivity and anisotropy of the ionosphere are taken into consideration. The intensity of ULF magnetic and electric precursors observed on the ground, and their spatial distribution can be explained by using the results of the present computations. It is found that only the fields from a magnetic type source can penetrate into the magnetosphere and generate propagating Alfven waves. The expected values of magnetospheric electric and magnetic field are 1-10 microV/m/square root of Hz and 1-10 pT/square root of Hz respectively, and the horizontal scale of their distribution is about 100-200 km. Finally, these theoretical predictions are compared with the corresponding results of satellite observations.

  11. Dependence of spectral characteristics on parameters describing CO2 exchange between crop species and the atmosphere (United States)

    Uździcka, Bogna; Stróżecki, Marcin; Urbaniak, Marek; Juszczak, Radosław


    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that spectral vegetation indices are good indicators of parameters describing the intensity of CO2 exchange between crops and the atmosphere. Measurements were conducted over 2011-2013 on plots of an experimental arable station on winter wheat, winter rye, spring barley, and potatoes. CO2 fluxes were measured using the dynamic closed chamber system, while spectral vegetation indices were determined using SKYE multispectral sensors. Based on spectral data collected in 2011 and 2013, various models to estimate net ecosystem productivity and gross ecosystem productivity were developed. These models were then verified based on data collected in 2012. The R2 for the best model based on spectral data ranged from 0.71 to 0.83 and from 0.78 to 0.92, for net ecosystem productivity and gross ecosystem productivity, respectively. Such high R2 values indicate the utility of spectral vegetation indices in estimating CO2 fluxes of crops. The effects of the soil background turned out to be an important factor decreasing the accuracy of the tested models.

  12. The levels, variation characteristics, and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Ma, Zhuobiao; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Hongxing


    Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, and sources. We quantified 53 NMHCs, and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8-55.8, 21.5-24.7, 13.5-15.9, and 9.3-10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends in the NMHC concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which was mainly ascribed to the variation in meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations in NMHCs on clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared on the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane / propene ratios appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime on clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3, and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3. 47 × 105-1. 04 × 106 molecules cm-3 on clear days and 6. 42 × 105-2. 35 × 106 molecules cm-3 on haze days. The nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2. 82 × 109-4. 86 × 109 molecules cm-3 on clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbon pairs (benzene / toluene, o-xylene / m,p-xylene, isopentane / n-pentane, etc.) revealed that vehicular emissions and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime were further identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), including gasoline-related emissions

  13. Characteristics, sources, and cytotoxicity of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban roadside areas of Hangzhou, China. (United States)

    Bai, Hongzhen; Zhang, Hongjian


    The primary objective of this study is to understand the profiles, sources and cytotoxic effects of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are closely related to urban air contamination and public health, in urban roadside environments. On-road sampling campaigns were conducted from 2014 to 2015 at three urban road sites in Hangzhou, China. Sixteen gaseous and particulate matter (PM) 2.5-bound PAHs were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations at the three sites ranged from 750 to1142 ng/m(3) and 1050 to 1483 ng/m(3) in summer and winter, respectively. Low molecular weight PAHs were the most abundant compounds (77-86%) and primarily existed in gas phase. The concentrations and phase distributions of high molecular weight PAHs were varied at three sites due to the differences in traffic volume, vehicle composition, engine loading, and nearby artificial activity. Diagnostic ratios of the principal mass (m/z,178, 202, 228 and 276) parent PAHs were statistically described to determine the PAH sources to urban roadsides; principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to apportion the sources. The results indicated that high- and low-temperature fuel processes, as well as residential and industrial emissions, were major contributors to roadside PAHs. The cytotoxic potential of the roadside PAHs was evaluated using a human epithelial lung cell line (A549). Cell viability was measured after a direct exposure to PAH extract. The results reflected the profiles of roadside PAHs at the three sites. The cytotoxicity of reference PAHs was evaluated to provide further insights into the cytotoxic potential of PAHs. We found that low molecular weight PAHs, which are less cytotoxic compounds, synergistically promoted the lethal effect of cytotoxic compounds, posing a potential threat to public health.

  14. [Pollution characteristics of organic acids in atmospheric particles during haze periods in autumn in Guangzhou]. (United States)

    Tan, Ji-hua; Zhao, Jing-ping; Duan, Jing-chun; Ma, Yong-liang; He, Ke-bin; Yang, Fu-mo


    Total suspended particles (TSP), collected during a typical haze period in Guangzhou, were analyzed for the fatty acids (C12-C30) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the concentration of total fatty and carboxylic acids was pretty high during the haze episode. The ratios of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in haze to those in normal days were 1.9 and 2.5, respectively. During the episode of the increasing pollution, the fatty acids and carboxylic acids at night (653 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (487 ng x m(-3)) in days. After that, the level of fatty acids and carboxylic acids in days (412 ng x m(-3)) was higher than that (336 ng x m(-3)) at night. In general, the time-series of fatty acids and carboxylic acids was similar to that of the air particle and carbonaceous species, however, the trend of the ratio of fatty acids and carboxylic acids to organic carbon was opposite to that of air particle and carbonaceous species. This ratio decreased with the increase of the concentration of air particle and after the night of 27th, the ratio increased with the decrease in the concentration of air particle. The results showed that haze pollution had a significant inhibitory effect on the enrichment of fatty and carboxylic acids. Based on the ratio of malonate to succinate (C3/C4), it could be found that primary sources contribute more to the atmospheric fatty and carboxylic acids during the autumn haze pollution periods in Guangzhou.

  15. Characteristics of atmospheric circulation over East Asia associated with summer blocking (United States)

    Park, Yong-Jun; Ahn, Joong-Bae


    The boreal summer-blocking regions were defined using the reanalysis data over the three decades of 1981-2010, and the influence of the blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode.

  16. Some characteristic features of the construction of the amplifying channel for working with semiconductor detectors in the charged particle energy spectrometer. [noise minimization at preamplifier input (United States)

    Kuzyuta, E. I.


    A transistorized spectrometric amplifier with a shaper is reported that selects the shape of the frequency characteristic of the amplifying channel for which the primary frequency spectrum of the signal will pass, but where the noise spectrum is limited to the maximum. A procedure is presented for selecting the shaping circuits and their inclusion principles.

  17. Chemical characteristics and source of size-fractionated atmospheric particle in haze episode in Beijing (United States)

    Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Zhen, Naijia; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming


    The abundance, behavior, and source of chemical species in size-fractionated atmospheric particle were studied with a 13-stage low pressure impactor (ELPI) during high polluted winter episode in Beijing. Thirty three elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) and eight water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +) were determined by ICP/MS and IC, respectively. The size distribution of TC (OC + EC) was reconstructed. Averagely, 51.5 ± 5.3% and 74.1 ± 3.7% of the total aerosol mass was distributed in the sub-micron (PM1) and fine particle (PM2.5), respectively. A significant shift to larger fractions during heavy pollution episode was observed for aerosol mass, NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. The mass size distributions of NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, and K were dominated by accumulation mode. Size distributions of elements were classified into four main types: (I) elements were enriched within the accumulation mode (< 1 μm, Ge, Se, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Hg, Ti, and Pb); (II) those mass (K, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, and Cd) was resided mainly within the accumulation mode, ranged from 1 to 2 μm; (III) Na, V, Co, Ni, and Ga were distributed among fine, intermediate, and coarse modes; and (IV) those which were mainly found within particles larger than 2.7 μm (Al, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Tl, Fe, Sr, Zr, and Ba). [H+]cor showed an accumulation mode at 600-700 nm and the role of Ca2 + should be fully considered in the estimation of acidity. The acidity in accumulation mode particles suggested that generally gaseous NH3 was not enough to neutralize sulfate completely. PMF method was applied for source apportionment of elements combined with water soluble ions. Dust, vehicle, aged coal combustion, and sea salt were identified, and the size resolved source apportionments were discussed. Aged coal combustion was the important source of fine particles and

  18. [Characteristics of atmospheric CO2 concentration and variation of carbon source & sink at Lin'an regional background station]. (United States)

    Pu, Jing-Jiao; Xu, Hong-Hui; Kang, Li-Li; Ma, Qian-Li


    Characteristics of Atmospheric CO2 concentration obtained by Flask measurements were analyzed at Lin'an regional background station from August 2006 to July 2009. According to the simulation results of carbon tracking model, the impact of carbon sources and sinks on CO2 concentration was evaluated in Yangtze River Delta. The results revealed that atmospheric CO2 concentrations at Lin'an regional background station were between 368.3 x 10(-6) and 414.8 x 10(-6). The CO2 concentration varied as seasons change, with maximum in winter and minimum in summer; the annual difference was about 20.5 x 10(-6). The long-term trend of CO2 concentration showed rapid growth year by year; the average growth rate was about 3.2 x 10(-6)/a. CO2 flux of Yangtze River Delta was mainly contributed by fossil fuel burning, terrestrial biosphere exchange and ocean exchange, while the contribution of fire emission was small. CO2 flux from fossil fuel burning played an important role in carbon source; terrestrial biosphere and ocean were important carbon sinks in this area. Seasonal variations of CO2 concentration at Lin'an regional background station were consistent with CO2 fluxes from fossil fuel burning and terrestrial biosphere exchange.

  19. Computer Simulation Studies of Ion Channel Gating: Characteristics of the M2 Channel of Influenza-A Virus in a Phospholipid Bilayer (United States)

    Schweighofer, Karl J.; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)


    The 25 amino acids long, transmembrane fragment of the Influenza virus M2 protein forms a homotetrameric channel that transports protons across lipid bilayers. It has been postulated that high efficiency and selectivity of this process is due to gating by four histidine residues that occlude the channel lumen in the closed state. Two mechanisms of gating have been postulated. In one mechanism, the proton is "shuttled" through the gate by attaching to the delta nitrogen atom on the extracellular side of the imidazole ring, followed by the release of the proton attached to the epsilon nitrogen atom on the opposite side. In the second mechanism, the four histidines move away from each other due to electrostatic repulsion upon protonation, thus opening the gate sufficiently that a wire of water molecules can penetrate the gate. Then, protons are transported by "hopping" along the wire. In this paper, both mechanisms are evaluated in a series of molecular dynamics simulations by investigating stability of different protonation states of the channel that are involved in these mechanisms. For the shuttle mechanism, these are states with all epsilon protonated histidines, one biprotonated residue or one histidine protonated in the delta position. For the gate opening mechanism, this is the state in which all four histidines are biprotonated. In addition, a state with two biprotonated histidines is considered. For each system, composed of the protein channel embedded in phospholipid bilayer located between two water lamellae, a molecular dynamics trajectory of approximately 1.3 ns (after equilibration) was obtained. It is found that the states involved in the shuttle mechanism are stable during the simulations. Furthermore, the orientations and dynamics of water molecules near the gate are conducive to proton transfers involved in the shuttle. In contract, the fully biprotonated state, implicated in the gate opening mechanism, is not stable and the channel looses its

  20. Physical properties and pyrolysis characteristics of rice husks in different atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Wang


    Full Text Available This paper explores the physical properties and pyrolysis characteristics of rice husk combustion in air and in argon. The SEM results show that the outer epidermis of combusted RHIR (rice husk in air is well organized with features that include papillae shapes and full, straight, high ridges. The inner epidermis of the RHIR has long rectangular furrow tissues. The results also show that the outer epidermis of pyrolyzed RHR (rice husk in argon has ridges that are not as straight as for the RHIR and the top of the papillae have small holes. The inner surface of the RHR looks a some cracked. XPS analysis shows that the surfaces of RHIR and RHR contain carbon, oxygen, and silicon. The carbon was found to be in the elemental graphite form, the oxygen in the −2 oxidation state, and the silicon in the Si4+ form as SiO2. The DSC graphs have “camel peaks”, showing that an increase in rate of heating leads to an increase in the exothermic peaks. Calculations show that, initially, increased temperature leads to increased activation energy for pyrolysis, but as the temperature continues to increase, the activation energy decreases again. The frequency factor follows the same trend. In analysis of carbon content, rice husk volatile carbon content is the largest, it is about 33.94%, especially 700 °C, the carbon content of volatile minimum is about 0.33%.

  1. Atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over the Pearl River Delta, China during summer 2006: measurement and model results (United States)

    Fan, S. J.; Fan, Q.; Yu, W.; Luo, X. Y.; Wang, B. M.; Song, L. L.; Leong, K. L.


    Atmospheric conditions are often connected with the occurrence of high pollution episodes especially in urban areas. As part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) measurements were carried out at Qingyuan, Panyu and Xinken in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) from 1 July to 30 July of 2006. It was found that in summer, the surface winds in PRD are more controlled by the south, and there usually is vertical wind shear at the height of 800 m or so, therefore, PRD is often influenced by the tropical cyclone/typhoon. The subsidence and precipitation from a tropical cyclone will affect the air quality of PRD. Under the subsidence, the wind speed in ABL and the height of ABL will decrease and result in high level concentrations. When the background wind speed is small or calm, the wind profile at Panyu and Xinken change dramatically with height, which is perhaps caused by the local circulations, such as the sea land breeze. For more understanding about the ABL of PRD, the simulations by the WRF mesoscale model were used to analyse the ABL characteristics in PRD. From three kinds of weather condition simulations (subsidence days, rainy days and sunny days) by WRF model, it was found that the simulated temperature, wind fields in these three cases were moderately consistent with the measurements. The results show that the diurnal variation of ABL in subsidence days and sunny days are obvious, but the diurnal variation of ABL on rainy days is not obvious. The ABL is obviously affected by the local circulation and the features of ABL are different in various stations. A simulation focus on high pollution episode during the subsidence days from 12-15 July 2006, occurred under high pressure conditions, accompanied by a tropical cyclone "Bilis". Comparing the simulated vertical wind fields and temperature structure with the ABL measurements at Xinken, Panyu and Qingyuan station, it was found that, the modelled and measured atmospheric fields reveal

  2. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric PM2.5 loads during air pollution episodes in Giza, Egypt (United States)

    Hassan, Salwa K.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.


    Several types of pollution episodes, including dust storm (DSs), haze dust (HDs), straw rice combustions (SRCs) are common phenomena and represent severe environmental hazard in Egypt. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the chemical characteristics of aerosol during air pollution episodes at an urban area in Giza, Egypt. PM2.5 samples during various PM episodes during 2013-2014 were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that the highest PM2.5 mass concentrations were found during DSs (250 μg/m3), followed by HDs (130 μg/m3) and SRCs (103 μg/m3). Average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 1.91, 3.68 and 1.68 times higher than on normal days (NDs) during HDs, DSs and SRCs, respectively. The highest total water-soluble ions concentration was 61.1 μg/m3 during HDs, followed by SRCs (41.9 μg/m3) and DSs (35.2 μg/m3). SO42- is the most abundant chemical components on the three PM episodes. Secondary inorganic ions (NO3-, SO42-, and NH4+) were enriched during HDs. The total secondary inorganic ions concentrations were 3.17, 1.39 and 1.75 times higher than NDs during HDs days, DSs days and SRCs days, respectively. PM from SRCs showed high K+ and Cl-. SO42-/K+, NO3-/SO42- and Cl-/K+ ratios proved effective as indicators for different pollution episodes. A Ca2+/Al ratio indicates that soil dust was dominant during DSs. Ion balance calculations indicated that PM2.5 from HDs was acidic, while the DSs and SRCs particles were alkaline and the NDs particle's was nearly neutral. The total crustal and anthropogenic metals concentrations were higher in DSs than other PM episodes and normal days. The enrichment factors values in PM episodes and normal days indicate that Fe and Mn in NDs, HDs, DSs and SRCs as well as Cr and Ni in DSs come mainly from crustal sources, whereas Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in PM episodes and NDs are anthropogenic.

  3. Effect of nitrogen addition to ozone generation characteristics by diffuse and filamentary dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Osawa, Naoki; Tsuji, Takafumi; Ogiso, Ryota; Yoshioka, Yoshio


    Ozone is widely used for gas treatment, advanced oxidation processes, microorganisms inactivation, etc. In this research, we investigated the effect of nitrogen addition to ozone generation characteristics by atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge (APTD) type and filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) type ozone generators. The result showed that the ozone generated by the filamentary DBD increases rapidly with the increase of O2 content, and is higher than that by the APTD. On the other hand, it is interesting that the ozone generated by the APTD gradually decreases with the increase of O2 content. In order to clarify why the characteristics of ozone generation by the two kinds of discharge modes showed different dependency to the N2 content, we analyzed the exhaust gas composition using FTIR spectroscopy and calculated the rate coefficients using BOLSIG+ code. As a result, we found that although O2 content decreased with increasing N2 content, additional O atoms produced by excited N2 molecules contribute to ozone generation in case of APTD. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  4. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hur


    Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, CO2/N2 = 3:7 and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days. We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP.

  5. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage (United States)

    Hur, S. J.; Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.; Jung, S. W.; Lyu, H. J.


    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP. PMID:25049769

  6. Experimental studies on particle emissions from cruising ship, their characteristic properties, transformation and atmospheric lifetime in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petzold


    Full Text Available Particle emissions from ship engines and their atmospheric transformation in the marine boundary layer (MBL were investigated in engine test bed studies and in airborne measurements of expanding ship plumes. During the test rig studies, detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical properties were measured in the exhaust gas of a serial MAN B&W seven-cylinder four-stroke marine diesel engine under various load conditions. The emission studies were complemented by airborne aerosol transformation studies in the plume of a large container ship in the English Channel using the DLR aircraft Falcon 20 E-5. Observations from emission studies and plume studies combined with a Gaussian plume dispersion model yield a consistent picture of particle transformation processes from emission to atmospheric processing during plume expansion. Particulate matter emission indices obtained from plume measurements are 8.8±1.0×1015(kg fuel−1 by number for non-volatile particles and 174±43 mg (kg fuel−1 by mass for Black Carbon (BC. Values determined for test rig conditions between 85 and 110% engine load are of similar magnitude. For the total particle number including volatile compounds no emission index can be derived since the volatile aerosol fraction is subject to rapid transformation processes in the plume. Ship exhaust particles occur in the size range Dp<0.3 μm, showing a bi-modal structure. The combustion particle mode is centred at modal diameters of 0.05 μm for raw emissions to 0.10 μm at a plume age of 1 h. The smaller-sized volatile particle mode is centred at Dp≤0.02 μm. From the decay of ship exhaust particle number concentrations in an expanding plume, a maximum plume life time of approx. 24 h is estimated for a well-mixed marine boundary layer.

  7. MHD pressure drop characteristics in a three-surface-multi-layered channel under a strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, M., E-mail: [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Ito, S.; Hashizume, H. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Muroga, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)


    A three-surface-multi-layered channel is one of the possible methods for reducing the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in a Li/V blanket. In this study, experimental and numerical evaluations of the liquid metal MHD flow in a three-surface-multi-layered channel were conducted to confirm the extent of MHD pressure reduction in the channel. The MHD flow was tested using a Bi-Sn eutectic alloy (MHD liquid) and an open annular channel under up to 5 T magnetic field. Experimentally determined pressure drops differed from those predicted by numerical analysis. This may be as a result of an increase in the friction force caused by an oxide appearing on the liquid free surface and a decrease in the electromagnetic force owing to the formation of a contact resistance between the Bi-Sn alloy and the bottom wall of the stainless steel channel.

  8. Performance analysis of a PPM-FSO communication system with an avalanche photodiode receiver over atmospheric turbulence channels with aperture averaging. (United States)

    Fu, Huihua; Wang, Ping; Liu, Tao; Cao, Tian; Guo, Lixin; Qin, Jiao


    The average bit error rate (ABER) performance of an avalanche-photodiode (APD)-based pulse-position modulation (PPM) free-space optical (FSO) communication system is investigated considering the aperture averaging effect. The approximate ABER expression is theoretically derived in terms of M and exponentiated Weibull (EW) distributions under weak-to-strong turbulent atmosphere conditions with a binary PPM (BPPM) scheme. Union-bound and Hermite polynomials are then considered to estimate the performance of M-ary PPM FSO systems. The system performance is analyzed with the aperture sizes, turbulence strengths, receiver temperatures, and average photon counts taken into account. The results show that an optimal average APD gain, which is affected by receiver temperature, can be chosen to minimize the ABER value. And the impact of aperture averaging on the system performance over M distribution is not so apparent as that over EW distribution for different temperatures, turbulent strengths, and average photon counts. In addition, the present APD-based system can offer better ABER performance than that of a P-i-N-based PPM system over both EW and M fading channels at 300 and 500 K. This work is beneficial to the FSO system design.

  9. Differences of atmospheric boundary layer characteristics between pre-monsoon and monsoon period over the Erhai Lake (United States)

    Xu, Lujun; Liu, Huizhi; Du, Qun; Wang, Lei; Yang, Liu; Sun, Jihua


    The differences in planetary boundary layer characteristics, in particular atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH), humidity, and local circulations in pre-monsoon and monsoon period over the Erhai Lake, were simulated by the lake-atmosphere coupled model WRF v3.7.1. No lake simulations were also conducted to investigate lake effects over complex topography. During pre-monsoon period, local circulation was fully developed under weak synoptic system. The ABLH ran up to 2300 m or so. During monsoon period, temperature difference between land and lake became smaller, resulting in weaker local circulations. The height of circulation reduced by 500 m, and ABLH ran up to 1100 m during the day. Enhanced soil moisture and low surface temperature due to monsoon rainfalls in July could be the main reason for the slightly lower ABLH over the Erhai Lake area. Specific humidity of the boundary layer increased 8.8 g kg-1 or so during monsoon period. The Erhai Lake enlarged thermal contrast between valley and mountain slope in the Dali Basin. The lake reduced air temperature by 2 3 °C during daytime and increased air temperature by nearly 2 °C in the evening. Due to its small roughness length and large thermal capacity, the Erhai Lake enlarged lake-land temperature difference and local wind speed. A cyclonic circulation was maintained by the combination of mountain breeze and land breeze in the south of the lake. The lake decreased air temperature, increased specific humidity, and reduced ABLH during daytime, whereas the opposite effect is presented at night.

  10. Atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over the Pearl River Delta, China, during the summer of 2006: measurement and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Fan


    Full Text Available As part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL measurements were performed in Qingyuan, Panyu, and Xinken over the Pearl River Delta (PRD on 1–30 July 2006. During the summer, the surface winds over the PRD are generally controlled by the south, usually with vertical wind shear at a height of approximately 800 m. Subsidence and precipitation from a tropical cyclone affects the air quality of the PRD. Under subsidence, wind speed in the ABL and the height of the ABL decrease and result in high-level concentrations. When the background wind speed is small or calm, the wind profile in Panyu and Xinken changes dramatically with height, which is perhaps caused by local circulation, such as sea-land breezes. To better understand the ABL of the PRD, simulations that used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF mesoscale model were utilized to analyze the ABL characteristics over the PRD. Based on three types of weather condition simulations (i.e., subsidence days, rainy days, and sunny days, the WRF model revealed that the simulated temperature and wind fields in these three cases were moderately consistent with the measurements. The results showed that diurnal variations of the ABL height on subsidence days and sunny days were obvious, but diurnal variations of the ABL height on rainy days were not apparent. The ABL is obviously affected by local circulation, and the ABL features are different at various stations. A simulation focused on a high pollution episode during the subsidence days on 12–15 July 2006, occurred under high-pressure conditions, accompanied by the tropical cyclone "Bilis". A comparison of the simulated vertical wind fields and temperature structure with the ABL measurements at Xinken, Panyu, and Qingyuan stations found that the modeled and measured atmospheric fields revealed two different types of ABL characteristics over the PRD. When the surface winds over the PRD were light or nearly calm

  11. Study on heat transfer characteristics of the one side-heated vertical channel with inserted porous materials applied as a vessel cooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kuriyama


    Full Text Available In the very high temperature reactor (VHTR, which is a next generation nuclear reactor system, ceramics are used as a fuel coating material and graphite is used as a core structural material. Even if a depressurization accident occurs and the reactor power goes up instantly, the temperature of the core will change only slowly. This is because the thermal capacity of the core is so high. Therefore, the VHTR system can passively remove the decay heat of the core by natural convection and radiation from the surface of the reactor pressure vessel. The objectives of this study are to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of natural convection of a one-side heated vertical channel with inserted porous materials of high porosity and also to develop the passive cooling system for the VHTR. An experiment was carried out using a one-side heated vertical rectangular channel. To obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the vertical channel with inserted porous material, we have also carried out a numerical analysis using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code. This paper describes the thermal performances of the one-side heated vertical rectangular channel with an inserted copper wire of high porosity.

  12. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over China based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling since 1980 (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Wen; Liu, Xuejun; Li, Yi; Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Yuehan; Zhang, Wuting


    China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr). Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are the most important precursors for Nr compounds (including N2O5, HNO3, HONO and particulate NO3- and NH4+) in the atmosphere. Understanding the changes in NH3 and NO2 has important implications for the regulation of anthropogenic Nr emissions and is a requirement for assessing the consequence of environmental impacts. We conducted the temporal trend analysis of atmospheric NH3 and NO2 on a national scale since 1980 based on emission data (during 1980-2010), satellite observation (for NH3 since 2008 and for NO2 since 2005) and atmospheric chemistry transport modeling (during 2008-2015).Based on the emission data, during 1980-2010, significant continuous increasing trends in both NH3 and NOx were observed in REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia, for NH3 0.17 and for NOx 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-2) and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, for NH3 0.24 and for NOx 0.17 kg N ha-1 yr-2) over China. Based on the satellite data and atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM) MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4), the NO2 columns over China increased significantly from 2005 to 2011 and then decreased significantly from 2011 to 2015; the satellite-retrieved NH3 columns from 2008 to 2014 increased at a rate of 2.37 % yr-1. The decrease in NO2 columns since 2011 may result from more stringent strategies taken to control NOx emissions during the 12th Five Year Plan, while no control policy has focused on NH3 emissions. Our findings provided an overall insight into the temporal trends of both NO2 and NH3 since 1980 based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling. These findings can provide a scientific background for policy makers that are attempting to control atmospheric pollution in China. Moreover, the multiple datasets

  13. Temporal characteristics of atmospheric ammonia and nitrogen dioxide over China based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling since 1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Liu


    Full Text Available China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr. Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 are the most important precursors for Nr compounds (including N2O5, HNO3, HONO and particulate NO3− and NH4+ in the atmosphere. Understanding the changes in NH3 and NO2 has important implications for the regulation of anthropogenic Nr emissions and is a requirement for assessing the consequence of environmental impacts. We conducted the temporal trend analysis of atmospheric NH3 and NO2 on a national scale since 1980 based on emission data (during 1980–2010, satellite observation (for NH3 since 2008 and for NO2 since 2005 and atmospheric chemistry transport modeling (during 2008–2015.Based on the emission data, during 1980–2010, significant continuous increasing trends in both NH3 and NOx were observed in REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia, for NH3 0.17 and for NOx 0.16 kg N ha−1 yr−2 and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research, for NH3 0.24 and for NOx 0.17 kg N ha−1 yr−2 over China. Based on the satellite data and atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4, the NO2 columns over China increased significantly from 2005 to 2011 and then decreased significantly from 2011 to 2015; the satellite-retrieved NH3 columns from 2008 to 2014 increased at a rate of 2.37 % yr−1. The decrease in NO2 columns since 2011 may result from more stringent strategies taken to control NOx emissions during the 12th Five Year Plan, while no control policy has focused on NH3 emissions. Our findings provided an overall insight into the temporal trends of both NO2 and NH3 since 1980 based on emission data, satellite observations and atmospheric transport modeling. These findings can provide a scientific background for policy makers that are attempting to control atmospheric

  14. Single phase flow characteristics of FC-72 and ethanol in high aspect ratio rectangular mini- and micro-channels (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Zhen-guo


    Single phase flow friction factor of FC-72 and ethanol in mini-and micro-channels are experimentally investigated in the present study. High aspect ratio3 rectangular channels are selected, the hydraulic diameters of which are 571 µm, 762 µm and 1454 µm, and the aspect ratios are 20, 20 and 10 respectively. Degassed ethanol and FC-72 are used as working fluids. All the friction factors acquired in the 571 µm and 762 µm channels agree with the conventional friction theory within  ±20%-±25%. In the 1454 µm channel, however, deviations from the conventional theory occur and a modified empirical correlation of friction factor as a function of Reynolds number is proposed. Early transition from laminar to transitional flow is captured. Besides, effects of liquid physical properties are discussed. Lower viscosity and higher liquid density are responsible for the higher friction factor of FC-72. The influence of liquid properties weakens as the Reynolds number increases.

  15. Impact of p-body length on the electrical characteristics of high-voltage MOSFET with a lateral asymmetric channel (United States)

    Baek, Ki-Ju; Na, Kee-Yeol; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Yeong-Seuk


    This paper presents the geometric effects of a lateral asymmetric channel (LAC) structure for high-voltage (HV) MOSFETs. The LAC structure was adopted to enhance the device performance by modifying the potential distribution in the channel and reducing the parasitic transistor effect. The LAC structure was realized using a p-body doping region inside the channel for the HV device. The effects of the p-body length were examined. The experiments showed that the p-body length is a key parameter for device optimization considering circuit applications. The HV LAC device with a shorter p-body length showed transconductance (gm) improvement and on-resistance (RON) reduction. The maximized output resistance (rout) was obtained when the p-body length was approximately half of the channel length.

  16. Characteristics and sources of non-methane hydrocarbons and halocarbons in wintertime urban atmosphere of Shanghai, China. (United States)

    Song, Ping; Geng, Fu-Hai; Sang, Xue-Fang; Chan, Chuen-Yu; Chan, Lo-Yin; Yu, Qiong


    The characteristics and sources of major hydrocarbons and halocarbons in the wintertime ambient air of urban center of Shanghai, a mega city of China, were investigated. Propane, toluene, ethyl acetate, and benzene were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The majority of species showed significant variability in mixing ratios with occasional episodic increases. The more common use of liquefied petroleum gas fuel for taxis and light motorcycles was believed to lead to high levels of ambient propane over the urban center of Shanghai. Correlating with toluene, dichloromethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE), abundant chloromethane (up to a daily mean of 1.61 ± 0.99 ppbv and a maximum of 5.34 ppbv) was mainly associated with industrial emissions, although biomass burnings exist widely in east China. The Chinese New Year (CNY) holiday period with no industrial activity over China provides a platform for the study of industrial emissions over the urban atmosphere of Shanghai. The normal weekly cycles were characterized by higher and more variable mixing ratios during weekdays which dropped during weekends. Enhanced mixing ratios were observed in the fortnight before the CNY holidays due to increased industrial emissions as a result of overtime production to make up for the holiday losses. During the CNY holidays, lower level and less variable mixing ratios were observed. A benzene/toluene (B/T) ratio of 0.6 ± 0.4 (mean ± std.) for the morning rush hour samples was identified to be the characteristic ratio of vehicular emissions. However, a B/T ratio of 0.4 ± 0.2 from vehicles and other sources was derived for the ambient air.

  17. Temperature-dependent characteristics of AlGaN/GaN FinFETs with sidewall MOS channel (United States)

    Im, Ki-Sik; Kang, Hee-Sung; Kim, Do-Kywn; Vodapally, Sindhuri; Park, YoHan; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Tae; Cristoloveanu, Sorin; Lee, Jung-Hee


    AlGaN/GaN fin-shaped field-effect transistors (FinFETs) with variable fin width have been fabricated and characterized. Low-temperature measurements reveal distinct operation modes for wide FinFET, narrow FinFET and planar FET. The wide fin device exhibits broad transconductance (gm) that decreases sublinearly with increasing temperature due to the existence of the sidewall metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) channel. By comparison, the conventional planar AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure FET (MISHFET) features relatively narrow gm curve and near-exponentially decay of gm with temperature. The effect of the sidewall channel becomes more prominent for the narrow fin device and leads to two distinct gm peaks. The first peak at negative gate voltage corresponds to the two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) channel, while the second peak at positive gate voltage is related to the sidewall MOS channel. Measurements also show that the electrons in 2-DEG channel experience polar-optical-phonon scattering unlike the electrons in the sidewall MOS channel which are mainly subject to Coulomb scattering.

  18. Assessment of wind characteristics and atmospheric dispersion modeling of {sup 137}Cs on the Barakah NPP area in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Kuk; Lee, Kun Jai; Yun, Jong IL [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Chul; Belorid, Miloslav [Institute of Environmental Research, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Beeley, Philip A. [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Dubai (Antigua and Barbuda)


    This paper presents the results of an analysis of wind characteristics and atmosphere dispersion modeling that are based on computational simulation and part of a preliminary study evaluating environmental radiation monitoring system (ERMS) positions within the Barakah nuclear power plant (BNPP). The return period of extreme wind speed was estimated using the Weibull distribution over the life time of the BNPP. In the annual meteorological modeling, the winds from the north and west accounted for more than 90 % of the wind directions. Seasonal effects were not represented. However, a discrepancy in the tendency between daytime and nighttime was observed. Six variations of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) dispersion test were simulated under severe accident condition. The {sup 137}Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the {sup 137}Cs movement and accumulation. The results of the surface roughness effect demonstrated that the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was affected by surface condition. The results of these studies offer useful information for developing environmental radiation monitoring systems (ERMSs) for the BNPP and can be used to assess the environmental effects of new nuclear power plant.

  19. Hourly storm characteristics along the U.S. West Coast: Role of atmospheric rivers in extreme precipitation (United States)

    Lamjiri, Maryam A.; Dettinger, Michael; Ralph, F. Martin; Guan, B.


    Gridded hourly precipitation observations over the conterminous U.S., from 1948 to 2002, are analyzed to determine climatological characteristics of storm precipitation totals. Despite generally lower hourly intensities, precipitation totals along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) are comparable to those in southeast U.S. (SEUS). Storm durations, more so than hourly intensities, strongly modulate precipitation-total variability over the USWC, where the correlation coefficients between storm durations and storm totals range from 0.7 to 0.9. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) contribute 30–50% of annual precipitation on the USWC and make such large contributions to extreme storms that 60–100% of the most extreme storms, i.e., storms with precipitation-total return intervals longer than 2 years, are associated with ARs. These extreme storm totals are more strongly tied to storm durations than to storm hourly or average intensities, emphasizing the importance of AR persistence to extreme storms on the USWC.

  20. Atmospheric emission characteristics and control policies of five precedent-controlled toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China. (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Yan; Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Yongxin; Wu, Xuecheng; Zhu, Chuanyong; Gao, Jiajia


    A bottom-up inventory of atmospheric emissions of five precedent-controlled toxic heavy metals (HMs), including mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), from primary anthropogenic sources in China is established for the period 2000–2010. Total emissions of HMs demonstrate a gradually ascending trend along with the increase of coal consumption and industrial production, which are estimated at approximately 842.22 t for Hg, 4196.31 t for As, 29272.14 t for Pb, 795.29 t for Cd, and 13715.33 t for Cr for 2010. Coal combustion is found to be the primary source of HMs emissions. Owing to the dramatic differences of coal use by industrial and power sectors among provinces, spatial allocation performs remarkably uneven characteristics, and spatial distribution features are demonstrated by allocating the emissions into 0.5° × 0.5° grid cells with GDP and population as surrogate indexes. Further, HMs emissions from specified anthropogenic sources under three different control scenarios for the target year 2015 are projected, and collaborative and specialized control strategies are proposed to meet the demand of emission reduction goals of different regions. In the future, a whole processes control management system will be the most effective way for control of HMs.

  1. Numerical study on characteristics of radio-frequency discharge at atmospheric pressure in argon with small admixtures of oxygen (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Liu, Yue


    In this paper, a 1D fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of a discharge in argon with small admixtures of oxygen at atmospheric pressure. This model consists of a series of equations, including continuity equations for electrons, positive ions, negative ions and neutral particles, the energy equation, and the Poisson equation for electric potential. Special attention has been paid to the electron energy dissipation and the mechanisms of electron heating, while the admixture of oxygen is in the range of 0.1%-0.6%. It is found that when the oxygen-to-argon ratio grows, the discharge is obviously divided into three stages: electron growth, electron reduction and the electron remaining unchanged. Furthermore, the cycle-averaged electric field, electron temperature, electron Ohmic heating, electron collisionless heating, electron energy dissipation and the net electron production are also studied in detail, and when the oxygen-to-argon ratio is relatively larger (R = 0.6%), double value peaks of electron Ohmic heating appear in the sheath. According to the results of the numerical simulation, various oxygen-to-argon ratios result in different amounts of electron energy dissipation and electron heating.

  2. Current-voltage characteristics of quantum-point contacts in the closed-channel regime: Transforming the bias voltage into an energy scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloos, K.; Utko, P.; Aagesen, M.


    We investigate the I(V) characteristics (current versus bias voltage) of side-gated quantum-point contacts, defined in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures. These point contacts are operated in the closed-channel regime, that is, at fixed gate voltages below zero-bias pinch-off for conductance. Our...... analysis is based on a single scaling factor, extracted from the experimental I(V) characteristics. For both polarities, this scaling factor transforms the change of bias voltage into a change of electron energy. The latter is determined with respect to the top of the potential barrier of the contact...

  3. Does Moss Grow on a Rolling Stone? The Influence of Precipitation Phase on Streamflow Characteristics, Bed Particle Transport and Periphyton Development in 18 Mountain Channels, Central Idaho (United States)

    Tennant, C.; Crosby, B. T.; Baxter, C.


    It has been suggested that linked ecological and geomorphological systems exhibit complex and non-linear response to disturbance. However, quantifying the response of these systems is complicated by identifying the relevant linkages between system components and by variability in time scale adjustments. To help elucidate some of these complexities we characterized the influence of streamflow and bed-substrate mobility on periphyton assemblage development. Study catchments are subdivided into 3 categories based on the fraction of precipitation that fell as rain vs. snow. The categories are rain-dominated (RD), mixed rain-snow (MRS) and snow-dominated (SD). Three water years of streamflow data demonstrate that RD catchments experienced the largest inter-regime and inter-annual variability in streamflow conditions. RD sites were characterized by flashy responses to frequent precipitation events during wet winter and spring months and experienced channel drying during the summer. Runoff in MRS and SD catchments was characterized by much higher magnitude, longer duration flow events in early and mid-summer. Hydrologic results suggest that RD watersheds limit periphyton mass because of drought conditions and that MRS and SD channels control the temporal scale of periphyton development via long duration, high magnitude flood events that transport bed sediments and disrupt primary production. Results from our rock-tracing experiment indicate that assessments of biological disturbance based on hydrologic metrics alone miss important details of the characteristics of physical disturbance within channels. Channels within RD catchments appear to be in disequilibrium because of variability in the frequency and consistency of hydrologic events capable of mobilizing bed particles. Wet winters resulted in frequent and flashy streamflow events that likely caused bedload transport, whereas drier winters caused few streamflow events and subsequently little to no bedload transport

  4. Performance Characteristics of a PEM Fuel Cell with Parallel Flow Channels at Different Cathode Relative Humidity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soon Hwang


    Full Text Available In fuel cells flow configuration and operating conditions such as cell temperature, humidity at each electrode and stoichiometric number are very crucial for improving performance. Too many flow channels could enhance the performance but result in high parasite loss. Therefore a trade-off between pressure drop and efficiency of a fuel cell should be considered for optimum design. This work focused on numerical simulation of the effects of operating conditions, especially cathode humidity, with simple micro parallel flow channels. It is known that the humidity at the cathode flow channel becomes very important for enhancing the ion conductivity of polymer membrane because fully humidified condition was normally set at anode. To investigate the effect of humidity on the performance of a fuel cell, in this study humidification was set to 100% at the anode flow channel and was changed by 0–100% at the cathode flow channel. Results showed that the maximum power density could be obtained under 60% humidified condition at the cathode where oxygen concentration was moderately high while maintaining high ion conductivity at a membrane.

  5. Performance Characteristics of a PEM Fuel Cell with Parallel Flow Channels at Different Cathode Relative Humidity Levels. (United States)

    Lee, Pil Hyong; Hwang, Sang Soon


    In fuel cells flow configuration and operating conditions such as cell temperature, humidity at each electrode and stoichiometric number are very crucial for improving performance. Too many flow channels could enhance the performance but result in high parasite loss. Therefore a trade-off between pressure drop and efficiency of a fuel cell should be considered for optimum design. This work focused on numerical simulation of the effects of operating conditions, especially cathode humidity, with simple micro parallel flow channels. It is known that the humidity at the cathode flow channel becomes very important for enhancing the ion conductivity of polymer membrane because fully humidified condition was normally set at anode. To investigate the effect of humidity on the performance of a fuel cell, in this study humidification was set to 100% at the anode flow channel and was changed by 0-100% at the cathode flow channel. Results showed that the maximum power density could be obtained under 60% humidified condition at the cathode where oxygen concentration was moderately high while maintaining high ion conductivity at a membrane.

  6. Characteristics of four-channel Cherenkov-type detector for measurements of runaway electrons in the ISTTOK tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Duarte, P.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C. [Instituto de Plasmas e FuSao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Association Euratom/IST, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Jakubowski, L.; Zebrowski, J.; Malinowski, K.; Rabinski, M.; Sadowski, M. J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)


    A diagnostics capable of characterizing the runaway and superthermal electrons has been developing on the ISTTOK tokamak. In previous paper, a use of single-channel Cherenkov-type detector with titanium filter for runaway electron studies in ISTTOK was reported. To measure fast electron populations with different energies, a prototype of a four-channel detector with molybdenum filters was designed. Test-stand studies of filters with different thicknesses (1, 3, 7, 10, 20, 50, and 100 {mu}m) have shown that they should allow the detection of electrons with energies higher than 69, 75, 87, 95, 120, 181, and 260 keV, respectively. First results of measurements with the four-channel detector revealed the possibility to measure reliably different fast electrons populations simultaneously.

  7. Performance characteristics of a curved-channel microchannel plate with a curved input face and a plane output face (United States)

    Slater, David C.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Timothy, J. Gethyn


    The presently performance-evaluated format, in which a high-gain curved-channel microchannel plate (M2MCP) has a spherical concave input face and a plane output face, allows the input face of the MCP (1) to match such curved focal surfaces as that of a Rowland-circle spectrometer mounting, while (2) having a high-resolution plane readout array in proximity focus with the output face. This MCP has been evaluated in a discrete-anode multicathode microchannel array detector system. The saturated modal gain was found to be inversely proportional to the length/diameter ratio of the channels and directly proportional to the applied MCP voltage.

  8. Forward research on transmission characteristics of near-surface particulate-matter-polluted atmosphere in mining area combined with CFD method. (United States)

    Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Yanming; Shi, Guoqing


    The optical radiation and radiation transfer characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in mining area of northwest China were simulated and analyzed in this paper. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was adopted to simulate the distribution of PM considering the local desertification and mining activities. The 1-D radiative transfer equation was solved using discrete ordinates method combined with Mie scattering model based on the CFD simulation results. The spectral aerosol optical depth and transmission characteristics of PM polluted atmosphere in the wavelength of 1-25μm under different intensity of dust releases, wind speeds and dust compositions were obtained and analyzed. The simulation results show that: the transmission characteristics are obviously enhanced with the increase of wind speed and sand particles' proportion but greatly decreased with the increase of the intensity of dust release.

  9. Response characteristics of HPR1000 primary circuit under different working conditions of the atmospheric relief system after SBLOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Danting, E-mail: [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Lu, Daogang [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Shang, Changzhong; Wei, Yuanyuan [China Nuclear Power Design Co., ltd (ShenZhen), Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Xianjie [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China)


    Highlights: • Response of HPR1000 under different VDA conditions after SBLOCA was investigated. • Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point exists. • VDA capability design should compromise the critical point with reactivity feedback. - Abstract: To cope with SBLOCA in absence of High-Head Safety Injection (HHSI) from design of HPR1000, atmospheric relief system (originally named as VDA in French) is uniquely designed to help to trigger Middle Head Safety Injection (MHSI) or Low Head Safety Injection (LHSI) earlier through cooling primary system quickly after SBLOCA. To make the best use of VDA decay heat removal capability, primary and secondary system of HPR1000 was modeled with RELAP5/SCDAP computer code. After steady-state initialization, a cold leg 30 mm break SBLOCA was simulated with six simulation conditions and five additional cases including availability of ACCU, different VDA discharge locations and area. Response characteristics of primary loop under different VDA working conditions are investigated. Pressurizer pressure decreases rapidly to lower level to trigger the reactor scram, VDA activation and accumulator safety injection sequently. Peak cladding temperature is 899.45 K occurring at 222 s, which is far below the safety limit. Activation of VDA can trigger ACCU SI earlier with a critical point, while positive reactivity will be introduced due to negative moderator temperature effect and Doppler effect. Larger VDA discharge capability will introduce larger reactivity feedback, as well as induce lower core level and SG level. It's suggested that VDA discharge condition should be chosen before the critical point, with the compromise with reactivity feedback introduced due to the negative moderator temperature effect.

  10. Gas flow rate dependence of the discharge characteristics of a helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet interacting with a substrate (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Economou, Demetre J.


    A 2D (axisymmetric) computational study of the discharge characteristics of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet as a function of gas flow rate was performed. The helium jet emerged from a dielectric tube, with an average gas flow velocity in the range 2.5-20 m s-1 (1 atm, 300 K) in a nitrogen ambient, and impinged on a substrate a short distance dowstream. The effect of the substrate conductivity (conductror versus insulator) was also studied. Whenever possible, simulation predictions were compared with published experimental observations. Discharge ignition and propagation in the dielectric tube were hardly affected by the He gas flow velocity. Most properties of the plasma jet, however, depended sensitively on the He gas flow velocity, which determined the concentration distributions of helium and nitrogen in the mixing layer forming in the gap between the tube exit and the substrate. At low gas flow velocity, the plasma jet evolved from a hollow (donut-shaped) feature to one where the maximum of electron density was on axis. When the gas flow velocity was high, the plasma jet maintained its hollow structure until it struck the substrate. For a conductive substrate, the radial ion fluxes to the surface were relatively uniform over a radius of ~0.4-0.8 mm, and the dominant ion flux was that of He+. For a dielectric substrate, the radial ion fluxes to the surface peaked on the symmetry axis at low He gas flow velocity, but a hollow ion flux distribution was observed at high gas flow velocity. At the same time, the main ion flux switched from N2+ to He2+ as the He gas flow velocity increased from a low to a high value. The diameter of the plasma ‘footprint’ on the substrate first increased with increasing He gas flow velocity, and eventually saturated with further increases in velocity.

  11. Pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a new urban district of Nanjing, China. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Zhonghuan; Wu, Minmin; Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Shiqi; Yin, Jing; Zhou, Yanchi; Yang, Hao


    This paper focused on the pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a new urban district of Nanjing, China. Gaseous and aerosol PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5μm) samples were collected in spring of 2015. Sixteen PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. Firstly, arithmetic mean concentrations of PAHs and BaPeq (benzo[a]pyrene equivalent) were calculated. The mean concentrations of PAHs were 29.26±14.13, 18.14±5.37 and 48.47±16.03ng/m3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. The mean concentrations of BaPeq were 0.87±0.51, 2.71±2.17 and 4.06±2.31ng/m3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. Secondly, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis were adopted to identify the sources of PAHs and the outcomes were the same: traffic exhaust was the predominant source followed by fuel combustion and industrial process. Finally, incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure to PAHs for population groups of different age and gender were estimated based on a Monte Carlo simulation. ILCR values caused by particle phase PAHs were greater than those caused by gas phase PAHs. ILCR values for adults were greater than those for other age groups. ILCR values caused by total (gas+particle) PAHs for diverse groups were all greater than the significant level (l0-6), indicating high potential lung cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis results showed that cancer slope factor for BaP inhalation exposure and BaPeq concentration had greater impact than body weight and inhalation rate on the ILCR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Channel Allocation Based on Content Characteristics for Video Transmission in Time-Domain-Based Multichannel Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jalil Piran


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for channel allocation based on video content requirements and the quality of the available channels in cognitive radio networks (CRNs. Our objective is to save network bandwidth and achieve high-quality video delivery. In this method, the content is divided into clusters based on scene complexity and PSNR. To allocate channel to the clusters over multichannel CRNs, we first need to identify the licensee’s activity and then maximize the opportunistic usage accordingly. Therefore, we classify short and long time transmission opportunities based on the licensee’s activities using a Bayesian nonparametric inference model. Furthermore, to prevent transmission interruption, we consider the underlay mode for transmission of the clusters with a lower bitrate. Next, we map the available spectrum opportunities to the content clusters according to both the quality of the channels and the requirements of the clusters. Then, a distortion optimization model is constructed according to the network transmission mechanism. Finally, to maximize the average quality of the delivered video, an optimization problem is defined to determine the best bitrate for each cluster by maximizing the sum of the logarithms of the frame rates. Our extensive simulation results prove the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of spectrum efficiency and the quality of delivered video.

  13. Accuracy of Forest Road and Stream Channel Characteristics Derived from LiDAR Terrain Data in Forested Mountain Conditions (United States)

    White, R. A.; Dietterick, B. C.


    Airborne LiDAR data is now commonly used to create digital elevation models with a vertical accuracy and grid resolution that surpasses traditional sources of topographic data. The improved topographic detail of LiDAR-derived DEMs allows for identification and measurement of important topographic features including forest roads, historic landslides and potentially unstable areas. When used conjunction with GIS-based flow accumulation algorithms, high-resolution DEMs can also provide improvements to the positional accuracy, longitudinal profile, stream lengths of topographically-derived stream channels. LiDAR data collected over forested and steep terrain however, requires careful evaluation. The reduced density and variable spacing of LiDAR ground returns, which is often encountered in these settings, reduces the effective resolution of LiDAR DEMs and may limit fine-scale topographic mapping. This study tested the completeness and accuracy forest road and stream channel features mapped using a 1.5 m LiDAR-derived DEM for a 526-hectare watershed in the Santa Cruz mountains in California. Positional accuracy, longitudinal slope and length of LiDAR-derived features were compared to field-survey measurements obtained using total station. LiDAR-derived measurements were also compared to measurements from traditional data sources such as a USGS 10 m DEM and a 1 m orthophoto. The LiDAR- derived road was manually digitized from the LiDAR hillshade and slope layers, with a positional accuracy of 2.2 m normal to the field-surveyed centerline. LiDAR-derived road slope was accurate to within 0.59% of field-surveyed slope at a 95% confidence interval. The entire 4 km road length could be mapped using the LiDAR data. Due to the dense overstory canopy only 18% of that road length could be identified from the orthophoto. Stream channel features derived using Arc Hydro were compared to field-surveyed data at six 100 m study reaches. The average positional accuracy of the derived


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov


    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  15. Novel characteristics of a trafficking-defective G572R-hERG channel linked to hereditary long QT syndrome (United States)

    Lian, Jiangfang; Huang, Na; Zhou, JunBo; Ge, ShiJun; Huang, XiaoYan; Huo, JianHua; Liu, Liying; Xu, WeiFeng; Zhang, Shun; Yang, Xi; Zhou, JianQing; Huang, Chen


    BACKGROUND: The congenital long QT syndrome is a heterogeneous genetic disease associated with delayed cardiac repolarization, prolonged QT intervals, the development of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Type 2 congenital long QT syndrome (LQT2) results from KCNH2 or hERG gene mutations. hERG encodes the Kv11.1 alpha subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current in the heart. Studies of mutant hERG channels indicate that most LQT2 missense mutations generate trafficking-deficient Kv11.1 channels. OBJECTIVE: To identify the mechanism underlying G572R-hERG by using molecular and electrophysiological analyses. METHODS AND RESULTS: To elucidate the electrophysiological properties of the G572R-hERG mutant channels, mutant hERG subunits were heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells alone or in combination with wild-type (WT)-hERG subunits. Patch-clamp techniques were used to record currents, and double immunofluorescence protein tagging and Western blotting were performed to examine the cellular trafficking of mutant subunits. When expressed alone, G572R-hERG subunits were not present in the cell membrane and did not produce detectable currents. When coexpressed with WT-hERG subunits, G572R-hERG decreased current density and altered gating properties of the WT-hERG channel. CONCLUSION: The hERG-associated missense mutation G572R, like most LQT2 missense mutations, generates a trafficking-deficient phenotype. Furthermore, G572R-hERG causes a loss of function in hERG by a strong dominant negative effect on the WT-hERG channel. PMID:20931094

  16. Modeling of subthreshold characteristics of short channel junctionless cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire metal-oxide-silicon field effect transistors (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoshi; Liu, Xi; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Ho


    A subthreshold model of short-channel junctionless field effect transistors with cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire structure has been proposed. It was based on an approximated solution of two-dimensional Poisson's equation. The derivation of this model was introduced and the accuracy of the proposed models have been verified by comparison with both previous models and the SILVACO Atlas TCAD simulation results, which show good agreement.

  17. Characteristics of capillary discharge channel and its effect on concrete splitting-off by electro-blasting method (United States)

    Kuznetsova, N. S.; Yudin, A. S.; Voitenko, N. V.


    The numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole are presented. The influence of the pulse shape on the shock-wave dynamics is considered. A comparison of mechanical stresses in direct and reflected pressure waves induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of various durations and amplitudes shows that the shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency. The wire application for the discharge initiation enables the operating voltage of the generator to decrease, the discharge gap to increase, and hence, the channel energy to lead to the demolition build-up at electro burst. The significant dependence of the stress-wave profile on the pressure pulse wave shape at the borehole wall, which is determined by the rate of electrical energy release in the plasma channel, has been shown. An analysis of the stress-wave dynamics has shown that the rapid power deposition into a plasma channel tends to shift an amplitude of the tangential stresses in a reflected wave to the higher values and to extend the region of tensile tangential stresses initiating the main crack propagation from the borehole walls to a free material surface.

  18. Experimental study of thermo-hydraulic characteristics of natural circulation loop at water and FC-72 boiling under atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Kaban’kov, O. N.; Sukomel, L. A.; Zubov, N. O.; Yagov, V. V.


    The results of experimental study of thermo and hydraulic characteristics of flow boiling of water and FC-72 in natural circulation loop under atmospheric pressure are presented. The experimental data have been obtained in the range of wall heat flux densities (6 – 70) kW/m2 for water and (4.6 – 30) kW/m2 for FC-72. These two liquids differ substantially in thermophysical properties so it makes it possible to extend the range of reduced pressures almost for an order of magnitude without changing the technical parameters of experimental setup. An additional information for the analysis of flow pattern influence on onset of instability and unstable circulation mechanism have been obtained as the result. The flow up tube of the loop had inner diameter 9.1 mm and consisted of two section – heated one 98 diameters length (that is 65 % of total tube length) and upper adiabatic section with length 48 diameters. Different circulation regimes were realized in experiments: mixed regimes with single phase and boiling zones in the heated part of the tube and boiling regimes along the full length of the heated section. The experimental data on circulation velocity (flow rate) and wall temperature distributions (including pulsating components of temperature and velocity) are presented in dependence on wall heat flux density and liquid subcooling at the inlet to the heated zone. At water experiments autooscillating regimes of boiling flows were observed within the whole range of inlet liquid subcoolings up to saturation temperature and at all wall heat flux densities from lowest one (10 kW/m2) to somewhat upper limiting value of 64 kW/m2. At higher heat fluxes the two-phase boiling flow was stable not only in saturation inlet liquid temperature but also at low subcoolings. In FC-72 experiments the flow was stable at all realized heat flux densities within the range of inlet liquid subcoolings (2 – 20) °C.

  19. Urban atmospheres. (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew


    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  20. Optical characteristics of the earth's surface and atmosphere from the point of view of the remote sensing of natural resources: Review of the contemporary status of the problem (United States)

    Tarnopolskiy, V. I.


    Widely used remote probing methods, and especially the multispectral method, for studying the earth from aerospace platforms necessitate the systematization and accumulation of data on the relationships between remote observations and measured parameters and characteristic properties and conditions of phenomena on the earth's surface. Data were presented on the optical characteristics of natural objects which arise during observations of these objects over a wide spectral interval which encompasses solar radiation reflected by the object as well as the object's inherent thermal radiation. The influence of the earth's atmosphere on remote measurements and several problems in simulation and calculation are discussed.

  1. LASER PHYSICS: Characteristics of a high-pressure CO2 laser with ultraviolet preionization by surface channel discharges (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Yu A.; Kotov, A. A.


    A surface channel discharge was used as the source of ultraviolet radiation for pulse-periodic photoionization of CO2 laser mixtures. This source was sufficiently powerful to ensure a volume discharge at pressures of ~5 atm necessary for continuous tuning of the emission frequency. Experiments on the use of this source in a laser showed that it could be used at pressures up to 3 atm and in this range the input energy density was 500 J/liter, the output energy density was ~30 J/liter, and the actual output energy in the form of laser radiation was 2.3 J.

  2. Experimental investigation of the Cu/R141b nanofluids on the evaporation/boiling heat transfer characteristics for surface with capillary micro-channels (United States)

    Diao, Yanhua; Liu, Yan; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Yaohua; Guo, Lei


    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the heat transfer characteristic of a vertical copper plate with rectangular micro-channels. In this research, Cu/R141b nanofluids were used as the working fluid. Three different volume concentrations—0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %—of Cu nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20 nm dispersed in R141b were prepared. Experiments were performed to measure thermal resistance of the microchannel surface under a steady operating pressure range of 0.86 × 105 Pa to 2 × 105 Pa. Thermal resistance weakened with addition of nanoparticles into the base fluid. The maximum reduction effect of the thermal resistance was 50 %, which corresponds to 0.01 % volume concentration of nanofluid at low operating pressure. The operating pressure significantly affects thermal performance of the microchannel surface. This paper also studied heat transfer characteristics for a Cu nanoparticle-coated surface with rectangular microchannels, which were produced by heating in different volume concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1 %. Nanoparticle layer on the micro-channel surface is responsible for enhanced heat transfer of nanofluids with 0.001 and 0.01 % volume concentrations.

  3. Study of Channel Characteristics for Galvanic-Type Intra-Body Communication Based on a Transfer Function from a Quasi-Static Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Du


    Full Text Available Intra-Body Communication (IBC, which modulates ionic currents over the human body as the communication medium, offers a low power and reliable signal transmission method for information exchange across the body. This paper first briefly reviews the quasi-static electromagnetic (EM field modeling for a galvanic-type IBC human limb operating below 1 MHz and obtains the corresponding transfer function with correction factor using minimum mean square error (MMSE technique. Then, the IBC channel characteristics are studied through the comparison between theoretical calculations via this transfer function and experimental measurements in both frequency domain and time domain. High pass characteristics are obtained in the channel gain analysis versus different transmission distances. In addition, harmonic distortions are analyzed in both baseband and passband transmissions for square input waves. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation results from the transfer function with correction factor. Furthermore, we also explore both theoretical and simulation results for the bit-error-rate (BER performance of several common modulation schemes in the IBC system with a carrier frequency of 500 kHz. It is found that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  4. Loading characteristics and chemical stability of headgroup-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid ligand tethers on polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer fibers. (United States)

    Schadock-Hewitt, Abby J; Marcus, R Kenneth


    Polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer fibers have been modified by adsorption of headgroup-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-lipids to generate a species-specific stationary phase. In order to study ligand binding characteristics, a fluorescein-labeled poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid was used as a model system. Breakthrough curves and frontal analysis were employed to characterize the surface loading characteristics across a range of lipid concentrations and mobile phase flow rates. Efficient mass transfer and fluid transport yield a linear adsorption isotherm up to the maximum loading concentration of 3 mg/mL, at a linear velocity of 57.1 mm/s. Under these conditions, the dynamic binding capacity was found to be 1.52 mg/g of fiber support. Variation of the linear velocity from 8.6 to 57.1 mm/s showed only small changes in breakthrough volume. The maximum capacity of 1.8 mg/g is found under conditions of a load velocity of 34.2 mm/s and a concentration of 3 mg/mL lipid. Exposure of the lipid modified fibers to several challenge solvents reveals a chemically robust system, with only 50% acetonitrile and hexanes able to disrupt the lipid adsorption. The straightforward capillary-channeled polymer fiber surface modification with headgroup-functionalized lipids provides both a diverse yet practically robust ligand tethering system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Numerical study of the MHD flow characteristics in a three-surface-multi-layered channel with different inlet conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro, E-mail:; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi


    A 3D MHD flow simulation was conducted to clarify the effects of the inlet flow conditions on the results of the validation experiment carried out previously and on the design window of the first wall using a three-surface-multi-layered channel. MHD pressure drop was largely influenced by the inlet condition. The numerical model with turbulent velocity profile showed qualitatively good agreement with the experimental result. The first wall temperature and pressure distributions obtained by the 3D simulation corresponded well to those obtained by the 2D simulation assuming fully developed flow. This suggested that complicated three-dimensional inlet flow condition generated in the L-shape elbow would not affects the existing design window.

  6. Six-channel multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar for aerosol and water vapor profiling. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofei; Mao, Jiandong; Li, Juan; Zhao, Hu; Zhou, Chunyan; Sheng, Hongjiang


    Aerosols and water vapor are important atmospheric components, and have significant effects on both atmospheric energy conversion and climate formation. They play the important roles in balancing the radiation budget between the atmosphere and Earth, while water vapor also directly affects rainfall and other weather processes. To further research atmospheric aerosol optical properties and water vapor content, an all-time six-channel multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar has been developed at Beifang University of Nationalities. In addition to 1064, 532, and 355 nm Mie scattering channels, the lidar has a polarization channel for 532 nm return signals, a 660 nm water vapor channel, and a 607 nm nitrogen detection channel. Experiments verified the lidar's feasibility and return signals from six channels were detected. Using inversion algorithms, extinction coefficient profiles at 1064, 532 and 355 nm, Ångström exponent profiles, depolarization ratio profiles, and water vapor mixing ratio profiles were all obtained. The polarization characteristics and water vapor content of cirrus clouds, the polarization characteristics of dusty weather, and the water vapor profiles over different days were also analyzed. Results show that the lidar has the full-time detection capability for atmospheric aerosol optical properties and water vapor profiles, and real-time measurements of aerosols and water vapor over the Yinchuan area were realized, providing important information for studying the environmental quality and climate change in this area.

  7. Heat transfer characteristics of Fe3O4 ferrofluid flowing in a mini channel under constant and alternating magnetic fields (United States)

    Ghasemian, M.; Najafian Ashrafi, Z.; Goharkhah, M.; Ashjaee, M.


    Laminar forced convection heat transfer of water based Fe3O4 ferrofluid in a mini channel in the presence of constant and alternating magnetic fields is studied numerically. The hot ferrofluid flows into the 20 mm (l)×2 mm (h) mini channel with isothermal top and bottom cold surfaces and is subjected to a transverse non-uniform magnetic field produced by current carrying wires. Two-phase mixture model is implemented and the governing equations are solved using the finite volume approach. Primarily, the effects of the constant magnetic field location and intensity on the convective heat transfer are investigated. Simulation results show that the heat transfer is enhanced due to the disruption of the thermal boundary layer. However, this effect is more pronounced when the magnetic field source is placed in the fully developed region. In the next section, an alternating magnetic field with frequencies ranging from 0 to 10 Hz is imposed to the ferrofluid at different Reynolds numbers of Re=10, 25 and 50. A 16.48% heat transfer enhancement is obtained with a constant magnetic field at Re=25 and magnetic field intensity, Mn=1.07×108. This value is increased up to 27.72% by applying an alternating magnetic field with the same intensity at f=4 Hz. Results also indicate that the heat transfer enhancement due to the magnetic field is more significant at lower Reynolds numbers. The optimum frequency for heat transfer enhancement has been obtained for all the cases which shows that it has an increasing trend with the Reynolds number.

  8. H11079_GEO_B: 3-m Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11079 of Great Round Shoal Channel, Offshore Massachusetts (Geographic) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  9. Interpretations of the Surficial Geology from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11079 of Great Round Shoal Channel, MA (H11079_SURFGEOL.SHP, Geographic) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  10. Role of dermatomes in the determination of therapeutic characteristics of channel acupoints: a similarity-based analysis of data compiled from literature. (United States)

    Ferreira, Arthur S; Luiz, Alexandre B


    Analysis of the relationship between the nervous system anatomy and the therapeutic characteristics of all acupuncture points in the channel network may provide new insights on the physiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture stimulation for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation purposes. This study investigates the association between the similarity of acupoints' dermatomes, traditional actions, and contemporary indications. CHANNEL ACUPOINTS HAD THEIR CHARACTERISTICS ANNOTATED FROM A LITERATURE REVIEW OF FOUR TOPOGRAPHIC ATLASES OF CHINESE MEDICINE AND ONE ATLAS OF HUMAN ANATOMY: initials of the channel's name (n = 14), sequential number in the channel (n = 67), acupoint's name (n = 361), dermatomes related to perpendicular needle insertion (n = 31), traditional actions (n = 848), and contemporary indications (n = 1143). Jaccard's similarity coefficient quantified the similarities between dual acupoints. All dual acupoints were evaluated to generate similarity matrices for each nominal variable. Cross-tables were generated by simultaneous classification of variables into levels of similarity with respect to: dermatomes versus traditional actions, dermatomes versus contemporary indications, and traditional actions versus contemporary indications. Goodman-Kruskal γ and Rousson γ*(2) were calculated based on cross-tables, bootstrap and permutated samples to evaluate the association and determination coefficient between variables, respectively. Significant associations were observed between levels of similarities of dermatomes and traditional actions (γ = 0.542; P dermatomes and contemporary indications (γ = 0.657; P dermatomes explained 16% of the variance of traditional actions and 25% of contemporary indications. Traditional actions explained 30% of the variance of contemporary indications. The association between traditional actions and contemporary indications was the highest one (γ = 0.716, 95% confidence

  11. A theoretical study of the atmospherically important radical-radical reaction BrO + HO2; the product channel O2(a1Δg) + HOBr is formed with the highest rate. (United States)

    Chow, Ronald; Mok, Daniel K W; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M


    A theoretical study has been made of the BrO + HO 2 reaction, a radical-radical reaction which contributes to ozone depletion in the atmosphere via production of HOBr. Reaction enthalpies, activation energies and mechanisms have been determined for five reaction channels. Also rate coefficients have been calculated, in the atmospherically important temperature range 200-400 K, for the two channels with the lowest activation energies, both of which produce HOBr: (R1a) HOBr(X 1 A') + O 2 (X 3 Σ) and (R1b) HOBr(X 1 A') + O 2 (a 1 Δ g ). The other channels considered are: (R2) BrO + HO 2 → HBr + O 3 , (R3) BrO + HO 2 → OBrO + OH and (R4) BrO + HO 2 → BrOO + OH. For all channels, geometry optimization and frequency calculations were carried out at the M06-2X/AVDZ level, while relative energies of the stationary points on the reaction surface were improved at a higher level (BD(TQ)/CBS or CCSD(T)/CBS). The computed standard reaction enthalpies (ΔH) for channels (R1a), (R1b), (R2), (R3) and (R4) are -47.5, -25.0, -4.3, 14.9 and 5.9 kcal mol -1 , and the corresponding computed activation energies (ΔE) are 2.53, -3.07, 11.83, 35.0 and 37.81 kcal mol -1 . These values differ significantly from those obtained in earlier work by Kaltsoyannis and Rowley (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2002, 4, 419-427), particularly for channel (R1b), and reasons for this are discussed. In particular, the importance of obtaining an open-shell singlet wavefunction, rather than a closed-shell singlet wavefunction, for the transition state of this channel is emphasized. Rate coefficient calculations from computed potential energy surfaces were made for BrO + HO 2 for the first time. Although channel (R1a) is the most exothermic, channel (R1b) has the lowest barrier height, which is negative (at -3.07 kcal mol -1 ). Most rate coefficient calculations were therefore made for (R1b). A two transition state model has been used, involving an outer and an inner transition state. The inner transition

  12. Development of atmospheric characteristics of chlorine-free alternative fluorocarbons. Report on R-134a and E-143a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orkin, V.L.; Khamaganov, V.G.; Guschin, A.G.; Kasimovskaya, E.E.; Larin, I.K. [Institut Energeticheskiskh Problem Khimicheskoi Fiziki, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Rate constants have been measured for the gas phase reaction of OH radicals with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane R-134a (CH{sub 2}F-CF{sub 3}) and methyl trifluoromethyl ether E-143a (CH{sub 3}-O-CF{sub 3}) over the temperature range 298--460 K. Arrhenius expressions were derived for atmospheric modeling. The infrared absorption cross-sections for R-134a and E-143a have been measured in the region from 400 to 1600 cm{sup {minus}1} and the integrated band strengths have been calculated. The atmospheric lifetimes R-134a and E-143a have been estimated to be 11.6 years and 4.1 years respectively. Global warming potentials have been estimated over time horizons of 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years.

  13. Characteristics of a micro-gap argon barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Zhang, Qi; Jia, Pengying; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Dong, Lifang


    Using two water electrodes, a micro-gap dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage is investigated in atmospheric pressure argon. Through electrical and optical measurements, it is found that, at a lower driving frequency, a stepped discharge mode is obtained per half voltage cycle. Moreover, the duration and amplitude of the current plateau increase with the increase in the applied peak voltage. With the increase in the driving frequency, the stepped discharge mode transits into a pulsed one after a multi-peak mode. During this process, a diffuse discharge at a lower frequency transits into a filamentary one at a higher frequency. Temporal evolutions of the discharges are investigated axially based on fast photography. It is found that the stepped mode is in atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge (APTD) regime. However, there is a transition from APTD to atmospheric pressure glow discharge for the pulsed mode. Spectral intensity ratio of 391.4 nm to 337.1 nm is used to determine the averaged electron energy, which decreases with increasing peak voltage or driving frequency.

  14. Left–Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Zern Tsai


    Full Text Available Though lung sounds auscultation is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases, the spectral characteristics of lung sounds have not been fully understood. This study compared the spectral characteristics of lung sounds between the right and left lungs and between healthy male and female subjects using a dual-channel auscultation system. Forty-two subjects aged 18–22 years without smoking habits and any known pulmonary diseases participated in this study. The lung sounds were recorded from seven pairs of auscultation sites on the chest wall simultaneously. We found that in four out of seven auscultation pairs, the lung sounds from the left lung had a higher total power (PT than those from the right lung. The PT of male subjects was higher than that of female ones in most auscultation pairs. The ratio of inspiration power to expiration power (RI/E of lung sounds from the right lung was greater than that from the left lung at auscultation pairs on the anterior chest wall, while this phenomenon was reversed at auscultation pairs on the posterior chest wall in combined subjects, and similarly in both male and female subjects. Though the frequency corresponding to maximum power density of lung sounds (FMPD from the left and right lungs was not significantly different, the frequency that equally divided the power spectrum of lung sounds (F50 from the left lung was significantly smaller than that from the right lung at auscultation site on the anterior and lateral chest walls, while it was significantly larger than that of from the right lung at auscultation site on the posterior chest walls. In conclusion, significant differences in the PT, FMPD, F50, and RI/E between the left and right lungs at some auscultation pairs were observed by using a dual-channel auscultation system in this study. Structural differences between the left and the right lungs, between the female and male subjects, and between anterior and posterior lungs might

  15. Build-up and wash-off dynamics of atmospherically derived Cu, Pb, Zn and TSS in stormwater runoff as a function of meteorological characteristics. (United States)

    Murphy, Louise U; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling


    Atmospheric pollutants deposited on impermeable surfaces can be an important source of pollutants to stormwater runoff; however, modelling atmospheric pollutant loads in runoff has rarely been done, because of the challenges and uncertainties in monitoring their contribution. To overcome this, impermeable concrete boards (≈ 1m(2)) were deployed for 11 months in different locations within an urban area (industrial, residential and airside) throughout Christchurch, New Zealand, to capture spatially distributed atmospheric deposition loads in runoff over varying meteorological conditions. Runoff was analysed for total and dissolved Cu, Zn, Pb, and total suspended solids (TSS). Mixed-effect regression models were developed to simulate atmospheric pollutant loads in stormwater runoff. In addition, the models were used to explain the influence of different meteorological characteristics (e.g. antecedent dry days and rain depth) on pollutant build-up and wash-off dynamics. The models predicted approximately 53% to 69% of the variation in pollutant loads and were successful in predicting pollutant-load trends over time which can be useful for general stormwater planning processes. Results from the models illustrated the importance of antecedent dry days on pollutant build-up. Furthermore, results indicated that peak rainfall intensity and rain duration had a significant relationship with TSS and total Pb, whereas, rain depth had a significant relationship with total Cu and total Zn. This suggested that the pollutant speciation phase plays an important role in surface wash-off. Rain intensity and duration had a greater influence when the pollutants were predominantly in their particulate phase. Conversely, rain depth exerted a greater influence when a high fraction of the pollutants were predominantly in their dissolved phase. For all pollutants, the models were represented by a log-arctan relationship for pollutant build-up and a log-log relationship for pollutant wash

  16. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D.


    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16 km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus–PCP–PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus–PCP–PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest

  17. Study of novel fully-depleted Ge-on-Insulator n-channel MOSFET with field plate structure for improvement in GIDL and on/off characteristics (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Hu, Huiyong; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Heming; Wang, Bin; Shu, Bin; Han, Genquan


    In this paper, a novel structure of the fully-depleted Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) n-channel MOSFET with field plate is proposed and studied by two-dimensional numerical simulation. The results indicate that the gated-induced drain leakage (GIDL) of the fully-depleted GOI NMOSFET with field plate (FD-FP NMOSFET) is suppressed effectively. Besides, off-state current Ioff decreases by 2 orders of magnitude compared with the device without field plate. The impacts of the distance of field plate from the drain Lcb and the difference of work function between field plate metal and channel material Φfps on the electrical characteristics of FD-FP NMOSFET are investigated. FD-FP NMOSFET with a Φfps of 0 eV and a Lcb of 5 nm, demonstrates a reduction in Ioff by more than 3 orders of magnitude as compared with the control device. An on/off ratio Ion/Ioff = 2.57 × 107, and a sub-threshold swing of 76.8mV/decade are achieved.

  18. Improvement in the performance of SOI-MESFETs by T-shaped oxide part at channel region: DC and RF characteristics (United States)

    Naderi, Ali; Heirani, Fatemeh


    In this paper, a new structure for silicon on insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) is proposed. This new structure improves DC and RF characteristics of the device by embedding a region of hafnium oxide which is shaped like a reversed T letter in the channel region. This structure is named SOI-MESFET with T-Shaped oxide part (T-SOP). Hafnium oxide region increases the breakdown voltage of the device due to its higher critical electric field in comparison with silicon used in the conventional structure (C-SOI MESFET). The breakdown voltage of the conventional structure is 14 V while it raises to 19.5 V in proposed structure. Furthermore, placing this region in the channel, increases the operating frequencies of the device due to the modification in capacitances. Studying the maximum output power density shows that the proposed structure causes 31.5% improvement compared with the C-SOI MESFET. To improve the device performance, dimensions of the oxide region have been optimized and the more optimum performance achieved by varying the dimensions and finding the most suitable values. Due to the mentioned superiorities of the proposed structure over its conventional counterpart, it can be said that the proposed structure has the capability to be used as a reliable alternative for C-SOI MESFET in high voltage and high frequency applications. Also, from fabrication point of view, a fabrication process flow for T-SOP structure is proposed which shows convenient steps to develop this device.

  19. Noise Characteristics of 64-channel 2nd-order DROS Gradiometer System inside a Poorly Magnetically-shielded Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Yu, K. K.; Kim, K.; Kwon, H.; Park, Y. K. [Biosignal Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sasada, Ichiro [Dept. of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Ktushu University, Fukuoka (Korea, Republic of)


    We have developed a second-order double relaxation oscillation SQUID(DROS) gradiometer with a baseline of 35 mm, and constructed a poorly magnetically-shielded room(MSR) with an aluminum layer and permalloy layers for magnetocardiography(MCG). The 2nd-order DROS gradiometer has a noise level of 20 fT/Hz at 1 Hz and 8 fT/Hz at 200 Hz inside the heavily-shielded MSR with a shielding factor of10{sup 3}at 1 Hz and 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 5} at 100 Hz. The poorly-shielded MSR, built of a 12-mm-thick aluminum layer and 4-6 permalloy layers of 0.35 mm thickness, is 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 2.4 m in size, and has a shielding factor of 40 at 1 Hz, 10{sup 4} at 100 Hz. Our 64-channel second-order gradiometer MCG system consists of 64 2nd-order DROS gradiometers, flux-locked loop electronics, and analog signal processors. With the 2nd-order DROS gradiometers and flux-locked loop electronics installed inside the poorly-shielded MSR, and with the analog signal processor installed outside it, the noise level was measured to be 20 fT/Hz at 1 Hz and 8 fT/Hz at 200 Hz on the average even though the MSR door is open. This result leads to a low noise level, low enough to obtain a human MCG at the same level as that measured in the heavily-shielded MSR. However, filters or active shielding is needed fur clear MCG when there is large low-frequency noise from heavy air conditioning or large ac power consumption near the poorly-shielded MSR.

  20. The Effects of Sequential Environmental and Harvest Stressors on the Sensory Characteristics of Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Fillets. (United States)

    Ciaramella, Michael A; Kim, Taejo; Avery, Jimmy L; Allen, Peter J; Schilling, M Wes


    Stress during fish culture alters physiological homeostasis and affects fillet quality. Maintenance of high-quality seafood is important to ensure the production of a marketable product. This study assessed how sequential stressors affect the sensory and quality characteristics of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Three stress trials were conducted where temperature (25 or 33 °C) and dissolved oxygen (DO, approximately 2.5 or >5 mg/L) were manipulated followed by socking and transport stress. After each stage of harvest (environmental stress, socking, and transport), fillet yield, consumer acceptability, descriptive evaluation, cook loss, tenderness, and pH were evaluated. Fillet yield decreased with increasing severity of environmental stress. Fillets from the severe stress treatment (33 °C, approximately 2.5 mg/L) received the highest acceptability scores (P Control fillets (25 °C, >5 mg/L) were the least acceptable (P 6 on a 9 point scale). Socking and transport were identified to positively affect textural characteristics of catfish fillets. Although the effects observed were not likely to negatively impact consumer acceptance, a strict management plan should be followed to maintain consistency in the product and avoid changes in stressors that might alter quality more drastically. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Stream-channel and watershed delineations and basin-characteristic measurements using lidar elevation data for small drainage basins within the Des Moines Lobe landform region in Iowa (United States)

    Eash, David A.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; O'Shea, Padraic S.; Gelder, Brian K.


    Basin-characteristic measurements related to stream length, stream slope, stream density, and stream order have been identified as significant variables for estimation of flood, flow-duration, and low-flow discharges in Iowa. The placement of channel initiation points, however, has always been a matter of individual interpretation, leading to differences in stream definitions between analysts.This study investigated five different methods to define stream initiation using 3-meter light detection and ranging (lidar) digital elevation models (DEMs) data for 17 streamgages with drainage areas less than 50 square miles within the Des Moines Lobe landform region in north-central Iowa. Each DEM was hydrologically enforced and the five stream initiation methods were used to define channel initiation points and the downstream flow paths. The five different methods to define stream initiation were tested side-by-side for three watershed delineations: (1) the total drainage-area delineation, (2) an effective drainage-area delineation of basins based on a 2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) 12-hour rainfall, and (3) an effective drainage-area delineation based on a 20-percent AEP 12-hour rainfall.Generalized least squares regression analysis was used to develop a set of equations for sites in the Des Moines Lobe landform region for estimating discharges for ungaged stream sites with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent AEPs. A total of 17 streamgages were included in the development of the regression equations. In addition, geographic information system software was used to measure 58 selected basin-characteristics for each streamgage.Results of the regression analyses of the 15 lidar datasets indicate that the datasets that produce regional regression equations (RREs) with the best overall predictive accuracy are the National Hydrographic Dataset, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and profile curvature of 0.5 stream initiation methods combined with

  2. Atmospheric concentration characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PCBs in a rural area of eastern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandalakis, Manolis [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)]. E-mail:; Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)


    Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 14 successive daytime and nighttime air samples collected from Melpitz, a rural site in eastern Germany. The average total concentration of PCBs was 110+/-80pgm{sup -3} and they were predominately present in the gas phase ({approx}95%). Composition of individual congeners closely resembled those of Clophen A30 and Aroclor 1232. Partial vapor pressures of PCBs were well correlated with temperature and the steep slopes obtained from Clausius-Clapeyron plots (-4500 to -8000) indicated that evaporation from adjacent land surfaces still controls the atmospheric levels of these pollutants. Particle-gas partitioning coefficients (K{sub P}) of PCBs were well correlated with the respective sub-cooled vapor pressures (P{sub L}{sup o}), but the slopes obtained from logK{sub P} versus logP{sub L}{sup o} plots (-0.16 to -0.59) deviated significantly from the expected value of -1. Overall, gas-particle partitioning of PCBs was better simulated by Junge-Pankow than octanol/air partition coefficient-based model.

  3. Physicochemical characteristics and sources of atmospheric dust deposition in snow packs on the glaciers of western Qilian Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Dong


    Full Text Available Wind-blown dust derived from the arid and semi-arid regions is an important atmospheric component affecting the Earth's radiation budget. Dust storms are prevailing in central Asia. Deposition of atmospheric dust in snow was measured on Glacier No.12 (5040 m a.s.l. in the Laohugou Basin and Shiyi Glacier (4510 m a.s.l. in the Yeniugou Basin, of western Qilian Mountains, China, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, chemistry, SEM–EDX analysis and Nd–Sr isotopic composition. An analysis of spatial distribution of dust concentration and size distribution in the snow cover at two sites suggests that deposition of dust in western Qilian Mountains is different between sites as the environment changes from west to east. Mean mass concentration of dust with 0.57 < d<40 μm in the snow is 3461 μg kg−1 on Glacier No.12 and 2876 μg kg−1 on Shiyi Glacier, respectively. Annual flux of dust deposition to western Qilian Mountains has a range of 143.8–207.6 μg cm−2 yr−1 for particles with 0.57 < d<40 μm. Dust layers in the snowpit contain Ca- and Na-rich materials typically found in Asian dust particles. Number–size distribution indicated that most of the dust diameter is <2.0 μm, implying the significant influences of finer particles to alpine glacier regions of central Asia. Volume size distributions of dust particles showed single-modal structures having volume median diameters from 3 to 22 μm, which is comparable to the results of dust deposition on glaciers of the adjacent Tianshan Mountains in western China. SEM–EDX analysis suggested that dust particles were mainly composed of mineral particles, besides some fly ash particles and soot. EDX shows that mineral particles contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, etc. The Nd–Sr isotopic composition of insoluble particles in two glaciers showed that Badain Jaran Desert and Qaidam Basin were the most possible source

  4. Surface modification of epoxy resin using He/CF{sub 4} atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flashover withstanding characteristics improvement in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sile; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yibo; Guo, Baohong; Li, Guoqiang; Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guan-Jun, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressures plasma jet (APPJ). • Flashover withstanding characteristics of epoxy resin samples are improved a lot after APPJ treatment. • Appropriate treatment conditions are important to modify EP samples by APPJ. • Both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. - Abstract: For enhancing the surface electric withstanding strength of insulating materials, epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with different time interval from 0 to 300s. Helium (He) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) mixtures are used as working gases with the concentration of CF{sub 4} ranging 0%-5%, and when CF{sub 4} is ∼3%, the APPJ exhibits an optimal steady state. The flashover withstanding characteristics of modified EP in vacuum are greatly improved under appropriate APPJ treatment conditions. The surface properties of EP samples are evaluated by surface roughness, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. It is considered that both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. The physical effect is reflected in the increase of surface roughness, while the chemical effect is reflected in the graft of fluorine groups.

  5. Some Characteristics of Dust Particles in Atmosphere of Kemerovo City According to Pollution Data of Snow Cover (United States)

    Golokhvast, K. S.; Manakov, Yu A.; Bykov, A. A.; Chayka, V. V.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Rogulin, R. S.; Romanova, T. Yu; Karabtsov, A. A.; Semenikhin, V. A.


    The given paper presents the study results of solid particles contained in snow samples, taken on 10 sites in Kemerovo city in spring 2013. The sites were chosen in such a way as to prevent particles flow into the snow cover in other ways, except with atmospheric precipitation. Kuzbass Botanical Garden was chosen as the check point. In 7 out of 10 sampling sites on the territory of Kemerovo city the presence of particles that are particularly dangerous for human health was found. In one of the areas the particles of 200-400 nm size and with a specific surface area of 14,813.34 cm2/cm3 were detected in ecologically significant quantity (8%).

  6. Exploring atmospheric boundary layer characteristics in a severe SO2 episode in the north-eastern Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. B. Klaić


    Full Text Available Stable atmospheric conditions are often connected with the occurrence of high pollution episodes especially in urban or industrial areas. In this work we investigate a severe SO2 episode observed on 3–5 February 2002 in a coastal industrial town of Rijeka, Croatia, where very high daily mean concentrations (up to 353.5 μg m−3 were measured. The episode occurred under high air pressure conditions, which were accompanied with a fog and low wind speeds. Three air quality models (50-km EMEP model, 10-km EMEP4HR model and 1-km CAMx model were used to simulate SO2 concentrations fields and to evaluate the relative contribution of distant and local pollution sources to observed concentrations. Results suggest that the episode was caused predominately by local sources. Furthermore, using three-dimensional, higher-order turbulence closure mesoscale meteorological model (WRF, the wind regimes and thermo-dynamical structure of the lower troposphere above the greater Rijeka area (GRA were examined in detail. Modelled atmospheric fields suggest several factors whose simultaneous acting was responsible for elevated SO2 concentrations. Established small scale wind directions supported the transport of air from nearby industrial areas with major pollution sources towards Rijeka. This transport was associated with strong, ground-based temperature inversion and correspondingly, very low mixing layer (at most up to about 140 m. Additionally, the surface winds in Rijeka were light or almost calm thus, preventing ventilation of polluted air. Finally, a vertical circulation cell formed between the mainland and a nearby island, supported the air subsidence and the increase of static stability.

  7. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  8. The middle Pleistocene transition: characteristics, mechanisms, and implications for long-term changes in atmospheric pCO 2 (United States)

    Clark, Peter U.; Archer, David; Pollard, David; Blum, Joel D.; Rial, Jose A.; Brovkin, Victor; Mix, Alan C.; Pisias, Nicklas G.; Roy, Martin


    The emergence of low-frequency, high-amplitude, quasi-periodic (˜100-kyr) glacial variability during the middle Pleistocene in the absence of any significant change in orbital forcing indicates a fundamental change internal to the climate system. This middle Pleistocene transition (MPT) began 1250 ka and was complete by 700 ka. Its onset was accompanied by decreases in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the North Atlantic and tropical-ocean upwelling regions and by an increase in African and Asian aridity and monsoonal intensity. During the MPT, long-term average ice volume gradually increased by ˜50 m sea-level equivalent, whereas low-frequency ice-volume variability experienced a 100-kyr lull centered on 1000 ka followed by its reappearance ˜900 ka, although as a broad band of power rather than a narrow, persistent 100-kyr cycle. Additional changes at 900 ka indicate this to be an important time during the MPT, beginning with an 80-kyr event of extreme SST cooling followed by the partial recovery and subsequent stabilization of long-term North Atlantic and tropical ocean SSTs, increasing Southern Ocean SST variability primarily associated with warmer interglacials, the loss of permanent subpolar sea-ice cover, and the emergence of low-frequency variability in Pacific SSTs and global deep-ocean circulation. Since 900 ka, ice sheets have been the only component of the climate system to exhibit consistent low-frequency variability. With the exception of a near-universal organization of low-frequency power associated with marine isotope stages 11 and 12, all other components show an inconsistent distribution of power in frequency-time space, suggesting a highly nonlinear system response to orbital and ice-sheet forcing. Most hypotheses for the origin of the MPT invoke a response to a long-term cooling, possibly induced by decreasing atmospheric pCO 2. None of these hypotheses, however, accounts for the geological constraint that the earliest Northern Hemisphere

  9. Characteristics of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels and their regulation of action potentials and excitability in parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons in the nucleus ambiguus (United States)

    Lin, Min; Hatcher, Jeff T.; Wurster, Robert D.; Chen, Qin-Hui


    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK) regulate action potential (AP) properties and excitability in many central neurons. However, the properties and functional roles of BK channels in parasympathetic cardiac motoneurons (PCMNs) in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) have not yet been well characterized. In this study, the tracer X-rhodamine-5 (and 6)-isothiocyanate (XRITC) was injected into the pericardial sac to retrogradely label PCMNs in FVB mice at postnatal 7–9 days. Two days later, XRITC-labeled PCMNs in brain stem slices were identified. Using excised patch single-channel recordings, we identified voltage-gated and Ca2+-dependent BK channels in PCMNs. The majority of BK channels exhibited persistent channel opening during voltage holding. These BK channels had a conductance of 237 pS and a 50% opening probability at +27.9 mV, the channel open time constant was 3.37 ms at +20 mV, and dwell time increased exponentially as the membrane potential depolarized. At the +20-mV holding potential, the [Ca2+]50 was 15.2 μM with a P0.5 of 0.4. Occasionally, some BK channels showed a transient channel opening and fast inactivation. Using whole cell voltage clamp, we found that BK channel mediated outward currents and afterhyperpolarization currents (IAHP). Using whole cell current clamp, we found that application of BK channel blocker iberiotoxin (IBTX) increased spike half-width and suppressed fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP) amplitude following single APs. In addition, IBTX application increased spike half-width and reduced the spike frequency-dependent AP broadening in trains and spike frequency adaption (SFA). Furthermore, BK channel blockade decreased spike frequency. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PCMNs have BK channels that significantly regulate AP repolarization, fAHP, SFA, and spike frequency. We conclude that activation of BK channels underlies one of the mechanisms for facilitation of PCMN excitability. PMID:24196530

  10. EPR investigations of Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+} ions and carbonaceous radicals in atmospheric particulate aerosols during their transport over the eastern coast of the English Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, F.; Bouhsina, S.; Courcot, L.; Bertho, M.L.; Puskaric, E. [Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, Wimereaux (France). Lab. Interdisciplinaire en Sciences de l' Environnement; Zhilinskaya, E.; Aboukais, A. [Universite du Littoral Cote d' Opale, Wimereaux (France). Lab. de Catalyse et Environnement


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of the chemical forms of manganese and study other paramagnetic species in the atmospheric particulate aerosols at Wimereux, a French station located on the eastern coast of the English Channel. In parallel, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) was used to measure the metal concentrations. Fe concentration values are common in North Sea sites, but those of Mn are quite higher due to the presence of an important local source of Mn. EPR spectra have evidenced isolated Fe{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions and carbonaceous products with variable intensities according to the wind directions. Amounts of paramagnetic species and carbonaceous products are maximum for continental winds and minimum for marine winds. Three Mn types were identified depending on the sampling distance from the source of emission and the size of the particles. (Author)

  11. Toward shrimp consumption without chemicals: Combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) during storage. (United States)

    Bono, Gioacchino; Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Alberio, Giuseppina R A; Messina, Concetta M; Santulli, Andrea; Giacalone, Gabriele; Spagna, Giovanni


    The combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (100% N2 and 50% N2+50% CO2) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (GRS) (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) was studied during 12-month storage. In particular, the quality characteristics determined proximal and gas compositions, melanosis scores, pH, total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as well as free amino acid (FAA). In addition, the emergent data were compared to those subject to vacuum packaging as well as conventional preservative method of sulphite treatment (SUL). Most determined qualities exhibited quantitative differences with storage. By comparisons, while pH and TVB-N statistically varied between treatments (P<0.05) and TBA that ranged between ∼0.15 and 0.30 mg MDA/kg appeared least at end of storage for 100% N2 treated-group, the latter having decreased melanosis scores showed such treatments with high promise to keep the colour of GRS sample hence, potential replacement for SUL group. By comparisons also, while some individual FAA values showed increases especially at the 100% N2-treated group, the total FAAs statistically differed with storage (P<0.05). The combination of freezing and MAP treatments as preservative treatment method shows high promise to influence some quality characteristics of GRS samples of this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of WRF in simulating terrain induced flows and atmospheric boundary layer characteristics over the tropical station Gadanki (United States)

    Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Rao, T. Narayana; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.


    In this study the evolution of the topographic flows and boundary layer features over a tropical hilly station Gadanki in southern India were simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model for fair weather days during southwest monsoon (20-22 July 2011) and winter (18-20 Jan. 2011). Turbulence measurements from an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Wind Profiler, Ultra Sonic Anemometer, GPS Sonde and meteorological tower were used for comparison. Simulations revealed development of small-scale slope winds in the lower boundary layer (below 800 m) at Gadanki which are more prevalent during nighttime. Stronger slope winds during winter and weaker flows in the monsoon season are simulated indicating the sensitivity of slope winds to the background synoptic flows and radiative heating/cooling. Higher upward surface fluxes (sensible, latent heat) and development of very deep convective boundary layer ( 2500 m) is simulated during summer monsoon relative to the winter season in good agreement with observations. Four PBL parameterizations (YSU, MYJ, MYNN and ACM) were evaluated to simulate the above characteristics. Large differences were noticed in the simulated boundary layer features using different PBL schemes in both the seasons. It is found that the TKE-closures (MYJ, MYNN) produced extremities in daytime PBL depth, surface fluxes, temperature, humidity and winds. The differences in the simulations are attributed to the eddy diffusivities, buoyancy and entrainment fluxes which were simulated differently in the respective schemes. The K-based YSU followed by MYNN best produced the slope winds as well as daytime boundary layer characteristics realistically in both the summer and winter synoptic conditions at Gadanki hilly site though with slight overestimation of nocturnal PBL height.

  13. Effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Rosa


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts. Cuts of pork loin were packaged in trays, covered with poly(vinyl chloride film. The trays were placed in a masterpack (MP, containing three gas compositions:  A 75% O2 : 25% CO2, B 50% O2 : 50% CO2 or C 100% CO2, and stored at 2 °C. Samples were taken after 1, 8, 15, and 22 days of storage, and evaluated for numerous shelf life traits. The development of Psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. was found from the 15th day of storage. There was a significant treatment effect for some of the considered parameters, such as pH (P < 0.05 and color [L* (P < 0.07, a* (P < 0.07 and b* (P < 0.01]. There was a significant interaction (P < 0.01 for the TBARS values. It can be concluded, from the microbiological point of view, that the use of modified atmospheres containing 25% to 100% CO2 promotes the conservation of meat for up to 15 days of storage under refrigeration. From the point of view of color, atmospheres containing 75% O2 : 25% CO2 and 50% O2 : 50% CO2 ensure the color of packaged pork meat when stored at 2 °C for up to 15 days. From the point of view of lipid oxidation, packages with 100% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of more than 15 days, whereas those with 75% O2 : 25% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of up to 8 days.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere of Guangzhou, China: Size distribution characteristics and size-resolved gas-particle partitioning (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Yu, Jian Zhen


    Size distributions of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) in the range of 0.01-18 μm were measured using a nano Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) in an urban location in Guangzhou, China in July 2006. PAH size distributions were fit with five modes and the respective mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) are: Aitken mode (MMAD: ˜0.05 μm), three accumulation modes AMI, AMII, AMIII (MMAD: 0.13-0.17 μm, 0.4-0.45 μm, and 0.9-1.2 μm, respectively), and coarse mode (MMAD: 4-6 μm). Seven-ring PAH was mainly in AMII and AMIII. Five- and six-ring PAHs were found to be abundant in all the three AM. Three- and four-ring PAHs had a significant presence in the coarse mode in addition to the three AM. Size-resolved gas-particle partition coefficients of PAHs (Kp) were estimated using measured EC and OC data. The Kp values of a given PAH could differ by a factor of up to ˜7 on particles in different size modes, with the highest Kp associated with the AMI particles and the lowest Kp associated with the coarse mode particles. Comparison of calculated overall Kp with measured Kp values in Guangzhou by Yang et al. (2010) shows that adsorption on EC appeared to be the dominant mechanism driving the gas-particle partitioning of three- and four-ring PAHs while absorption in OM played a dominant role for five- and six-ring PAHs. The calculated equilibrium timescales of repartitioning indicate that five- to seven-ring PAHs could not achieve equilibrium partitioning within their typical residence time in urban atmospheres, while three- and four-ring PAHs could readily reach new equilibrium states in particles of all sizes. A partitioning flux is therefore proposed to replace the equilibrium assumption in modeling PAH transport and fate.

  15. Co-combustion of sewage sludge and coffee grounds under increased O2/CO2 atmospheres: Thermodynamic characteristics, kinetics and artificial neural network modeling. (United States)

    Chen, Jiacong; Xie, Candie; Liu, Jingyong; He, Yao; Xie, Wuming; Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, Kenlin; Kuo, Jiahong; Sun, Jian; Zheng, Li; Sun, Shuiyu; Buyukada, Musa; Evrendilek, Fatih


    (Co-)combustion characteristics of sewage sludge (SS), coffee grounds (CG) and their blends were quantified under increased O2/CO2 atmosphere (21, 30, 40 and 60%) using a thermogravimetric analysis. Observed percentages of CG mass loss and its maximum were higher than those of SS. Under the same atmospheric O2 concentration, both higher ignition and lower burnout temperatures occurred with the increased CG content. Results showed that ignition temperature and comprehensive combustion index for the blend of 60%SS-40%CG increased, whereas burnout temperature and co-combustion time decreased with the increased O2 concentration. Artificial neural network was applied to predict mass loss percent as a function of gas mixing ratio, heating rate, and temperature, with a good agreement between the experimental and ANN-predicted values. Activation energy in response to the increased O2 concentration was found to increase from 218.91 to 347.32 kJ·mol-1 and from 218.34 to 340.08 kJ·mol-1 according to the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface modification of epoxy resin using He/CF4 atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flashover withstanding characteristics improvement in vacuum (United States)

    Chen, Sile; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yibo; Guo, Baohong; Li, Guoqiang; Chang, Zhengshi; Zhang, Guan-Jun


    For enhancing the surface electric withstanding strength of insulating materials, epoxy resin (EP) samples are treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with different time interval from 0 to 300s. Helium (He) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) mixtures are used as working gases with the concentration of CF4 ranging 0%-5%, and when CF4 is ∼3%, the APPJ exhibits an optimal steady state. The flashover withstanding characteristics of modified EP in vacuum are greatly improved under appropriate APPJ treatment conditions. The surface properties of EP samples are evaluated by surface roughness, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle. It is considered that both physical and chemical effects lead to the enhancement of flashover strength. The physical effect is reflected in the increase of surface roughness, while the chemical effect is reflected in the graft of fluorine groups.

  17. Characteristic Surface Processes Between Atmosphere, Cryosphere and Oceanic Environment Inferred from Infrasound Array Observations in Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica (United States)

    Ishihara, Y.; Kanao, M.; Yamamoto, M. Y.; Kakinami, Y.; Murayama, T.; Okada, K.; Toda, S.; Matsushima, T.


    Infrasound is sub-audible sound whose frequency range is about 3 mHz to 20 Hz. Because this frequency is common between atmospheric, oceanic and solid earth vibrations, those waves are interacting with each other and interaction itself generates infrasound. At polar region, cryosphere also play an important role for generation and propagation of infrasound. The Japanese Antarctic infrasound observation started at April 2008. A sensor was installed at Syowa Station (SYO) in Lützow-Holm Bay (LHB) of East Antarctica, as a part of the International Polar Year. Characteristic infrasound waves observed at SYO demonstrate physical interaction involving environmental changes in the Antarctic region. Continuous recordings of infrasound clearly indicate existence of the hums generated by ocean-atmosphere interaction (microbaroms) with peaks of 0.1 to 0.25 Hz. Because larger amount of sea-ice extending around the LHB near SYO suppress ocean wave, the microbaroms become weak during austral winter. Following success of pilot observation, in austral summer in 2013, we extended one-sensor observation at SYO to 3-sensor arrayed observations, and installed a few field stations along the coast of the LHB. Newly established SYO array clearly detected the propagating directions and frequency contents of the microbaroms from Southern Ocean. In addition, we found harmonic signals around lowermost human audible band, however, currently unclear how and what generating hamonic signals. Those signals are recorded under windy condition. Since our system has no mechanical resonance at those frequency ranges, we speculate that the characteristic harmonic signals are probably related to local surficial phenomena such as ice sheet vibration generated by katabatic winds. Infrasound measurement at Antarctica could be a new proxy for monitoring a regional environmental change in high southern latitude. In such point of view, we will continue and improve the observations at and around SYO

  18. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  19. A comparison of 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma irradiation induced degradation in the electrical characteristics of N-channel MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Arshiya; Vinayakprasanna, N.H.; Pradeep, T.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India); Pushpa, N. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore 570025 (India); Krishna, J.B.M. [IUC-DAE CSR, Kolkota 700098 (India); Gnana Prakash, A.P., E-mail: [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570006 (India)


    N-channel depletion MOSFETs were irradiated with 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad(Si) to 100 Mrad(Si). The electrical characteristics of MOSFET such as threshold voltage (V{sub th}), density of interface trapped charges (ΔN{sub it}), density of oxide trapped charges (ΔN{sub ot}), transconductance (g{sub m}), mobility (μ), leakage current (I{sub L}) and drain saturation current (I{sub D} {sub Sat}) were studied as a function of dose. A considerable increase in ΔN{sub it} and ΔN{sub ot} and decrease in V{sub th,}g{sub m}, μ, and I{sub D} {sub Sat} was observed after irradiation. The results of 4 MeV Proton irradiation were compared with that of Co-60 gamma radiation and it is found that the degradation is more for the devices irradiated with 4 MeV Protons when compared with the Co-60 gamma radiation. This indicates that Protons induce more trapped charges in the field oxide region when compared to the gamma radiation.

  20. Improving anti-felting characteristics of Merino wool fiber by 2.5 MHz atmosphere pressure air plasma (United States)

    Chandwani, Nisha; Dave, Purvi; Jain, Vishal; Nema, Sudhir; Mukherjee, Subroto


    The present work investigates the effect of high frequency (2.5 MHz) Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) in air on surface characteristics of Merino wool as a function of plasma exposure time (5s to 15s). The FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy), EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrum) and Derivative ATR-FTIR (Attenuated Total Reflection- Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectroscopy are used to study physio-chemical changes induced by plasma. These physio-chemical properties of fibers can be co-related with the felting behaviour of the wool fiber, which leads to shrinkage and pilling of garments while laundering. Felting occurs mainly because of presence of outermost hydrophobic cuticle layer having sharp scales. The FE-SEM analysis of wool fiber surface reveals that cuticle scales on wool fiber become blunt after plasma processing. The ATR-FTIR analysis along with second order derivative spectroscopy demonstrates the cleavage of di-sulphide bonds of cuticle and formation of sulphur-oxygen groups such as Cystine Sulphonate (-S-SO3-), cysteic acid (-SO3-), cystine monoxide(-SO-S-), cysteine di-oxide (-SO2-S-). A possible explanation about how the combined effect of morphological and chemical changes induced by plasma results in minimizing the felting of wool fibers is discussed.

  1. Effects of Deposition Temperature on the Device Characteristics of Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Using In-Ga-Zn-O Active Channels Prepared by Atomic-Layer Deposition. (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Min; Seong, Nak-Jin; Choi, Kyujeong; Seo, Gi-Ho; Shin, Woong-Chul


    We demonstrated the physical and electrical properties of the In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) thin films prepared by atomic-layer deposition (ALD) method and investigated the effects of the ALD temperature. The film composition (atomic ratio of In:Ga:Zn) and film density were examined to be 1:1:3 and 5.9 g/cm3, respectively, for all the temperature conditions. The optical band gaps decreased from 3.81 to 3.21 eV when the ALD temperature increased from 130 to 170 °C. The amounts of oxygen-related defects such as oxygen vacancies increased with increasing the ALD temperature. It was found from the in situ temperature-dependent electrical conductivity measurements that the electronic natures including the defect structures and conduction mechanism of the IGZO thin films prepared at different temperatures showed marked variations. The carrier mobilities in the saturation regions (μsat's) for the fabricated thin film transistors (TFTs) using the IGZO channel layers were estimated to be 6.1 to 14.8 cm2 V-1 s-1 with increasing the ALD temperature from 130 to 170 °C. Among the devices, when the ALD temperature was controlled to be 150 °C, the IGZO TFTs showed the best performance, which resulted from the fact that the amounts of oxygen vacancies and interstitial defects could be appropriately modulated at this condition. Consequently, the μsat, subthreshold swing, and on/off ratio for the TFT using the IGZO channel prepared at 150 °C showed 10.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, 90 mV/dec, and 2 × 109, respectively. The threshold voltage shifts of this device could also be effectively reduced to be 0.6 and -3.2 V under the positive-bias and negative-bias-illumination stress conditions. These obtained characteristics can be comparable to those for the sputter-deposited IGZO TFTs.

  2. Impact of nitrogen fertilization on soil-Atmosphere greenhouse gas exchanges in eucalypt plantations with different soil characteristics in southern China. (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Li, Ruida; Yang, Miao; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Lan, Jun; Xiang, Xuewu


    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is necessary to sustain productivity in eucalypt plantations, but it can increase the risk of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the response of soil greenhouse gas emissions to N fertilization might be influenced by soil characteristics, which is of great significance for accurately assessing greenhouse gas budgets and scientific fertilization in plantations. We conducted a two-year N fertilization experiment (control [CK], low N [LN], middle N [MN] and high N [HN] fertilization) in two eucalypt plantations with different soil characteristics (higher and lower soil organic carbon sites [HSOC and LSOC]) in Guangxi, China, and assessed soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchanges. The annual mean fluxes of soil CO2, CH4, and N2O were separately 153-266 mg m-2 h-1, -55 --40 μg m-2 h-1, and 11-95 μg m-2 h-1, with CO2 and N2O emissions showing significant seasonal variations. N fertilization significantly increased soil CO2 and N2O emissions and decreased CH4 uptake at both sites. There were significant interactions of N fertilization and SOC level on soil CO2 and N2O emissions. At the LSOC site, the annual mean flux of soil CO2 emission was only significantly higher than the CK treatment in the HN treatment, but, at the HSOC site, the annual mean flux of soil CO2 emission was significantly higher for both the LN (or MN) and HN treatments in comparison to the CK treatment. Under the CK and LN treatments, the annual mean flux of N2O emission was not significantly different between HSOC and LSOC sites, but under the HN treatment, it was significantly higher in the HSOC site than in the LSOC site. Correlation analysis showed that changes in soil CO2 and N2O emissions were significantly related to soil dissolved organic carbon, ammonia, nitrate and pH. Our results suggested significant interactions of N fertilization and soil characteristics existed in soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchanges, which should be considered in assessing greenhouse gas

  3. The SPIRIT airborne instrument: a three-channel infrared absorption spectrometer with quantum cascade lasers for in situ atmospheric trace-gas measurements (United States)

    Catoire, Valéry; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Jacquet, Patrick; Guimbaud, Christophe; Krysztofiak, Gisèle


    An infrared absorption spectrometer called SPIRIT (SPectromètre Infra-Rouge In situ Toute altitude) has been developed for airborne measurements of trace gases in the troposphere. At least three different trace gases can be measured simultaneously every 1.6 s using the coupling of a single Robert multipass optical cell with three Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), easily interchangeable to select species depending on the scientific objectives. Absorptions of the mid-infrared radiations by the species in the cell at reduced pressure (path lengths adjustable up to 167.78 m, are quantified using an HgCdTe photodetector cooled by Stirling cycle. The performances of the instrument are assessed: a linearity with a coefficient of determination R 2 > 0.979 for the instrument response is found for CO, CH4, and NO2 volume mixing ratios under typical tropospheric conditions. In-flight comparisons with calibrated gas mixtures allow to show no instrumental drift correlated with atmospheric pressure and temperature changes (when vertical profiling) and to estimate the overall uncertainties in the measurements of CO, CH4, and NO2 to be 0.9, 22, and 0.5 ppbv, respectively. In-flight precision (1 σ) for these species at 1.6 s sampling is 0.3, 5, and 0.3 ppbv, respectively.

  4. Effects of flow rate of atmosphere gases on the characteristics of Zn-doped ITO (ZITO) thin films for organic light emitting diodes (United States)

    Jeong, Hwa-Kyun; Lee, Kyu-Mann


    We have investigated the effect of ambient gases on the structural, electrical, and optical characteristics of Zn-doped indium tin oxide (ZITO) thin films intended for use as anode contacts in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) devices. These ZITO thin films are deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under different ambient gases (Ar, Ar + O2 and Ar + H2) at 300°C. In order to investigate the influences of the oxygen and hydrogen, the flow rate of oxygen and hydrogen in argon mixing gas has been changed from 0.1 sccm to 0.5 sccm and from 0.1 sccm to 1 sccm, respectively. The intensity of the (400) peak in the ZITO thin films increases with increasing H2 flow rate whilst the (400) peak was nearly invisible in an atmosphere of Ar + O2. The electrical resistivity of the ZITO thin films increases with increasing O2 flow rate, whereas the electrical resistivity decreases with increasing H2 flow rate. The change of electrical resistivity with changes in the ambient gas composition is mainly interpreted in terms of the charge carrier mobility and the charge carrier concentration. All the films show an average transmittance of over 80% in the visible range. The optical bandgap of the ZITO films increases with increasing H2 flow rates, whereas the optical bandgap of the ZITO films deposited in an O2 atmosphere decreases with increasing O2 flow rates. The current density and the luminance of the OLED devices with ZITO thin films deposited in 1 sccm of H2 ambient gas are the highest among all the films. The optical bandgap energy of ZITO thin films plays a major role in OLED device performance, especially the current density and luminance.

  5. The landfall and inland penetration of a flood-producing atmospheric river in Arizona. Part I: observed synoptic-scale, orographic, and hydrometeorological characteristics (United States)

    Neiman, Paul J.; Ralph, F. Martin; Moore, Benjamin J.; Hughes, Mimi; Mahoney, Kelly M.; Cordeira, Jason M.; Dettinger, Michael D.


    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are a dominant mechanism for generating intense wintertime precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. While studies over the past 10 years have explored the impact of ARs in, and west of, California’s Sierra Nevada and the Pacific Northwest’s Cascade Mountains, their influence on the weather across the intermountain west remains an open question. This study utilizes gridded atmospheric datasets, satellite imagery, rawinsonde soundings, a 449-MHz wind profiler and global positioning system (GPS) receiver, and operational hydrometeorological observing networks to explore the dynamics and inland impacts of a landfalling, flood-producing AR across Arizona in January 2010. Plan-view, cross-section, and back-trajectory analyses quantify the synoptic and mesoscale forcing that led to widespread precipitation across the state. The analyses show that a strong AR formed in the lower midlatitudes over the northeastern Pacific Ocean via frontogenetic processes and sea surface latent-heat fluxes but without tapping into the adjacent tropical water vapor reservoir to the south. The wind profiler, GPS, and rawinsonde observations document strong orographic forcing in a moist neutral environment within the AR that led to extreme, orographically enhanced precipitation. The AR was oriented nearly orthogonal to the Mogollon Rim, a major escarpment crossing much of central Arizona, and was positioned between the high mountain ranges of northern Mexico. High melting levels during the heaviest precipitation contributed to region-wide flooding, while the high-altitude snowpack increased substantially. The characteristics of the AR that impacted Arizona in January 2010, and the resulting heavy orographic precipitation, are comparable to those of landfalling ARs and their impacts along the west coasts of midlatitude continents.

  6. Peripheral nerve stimulation characteristics of an asymmetric head-only gradient coil compatible with a high-channel-count receiver array. (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kyun; Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste; Graziani, Dominic; Piel, Joseph; Budesheim, Eric; Fiveland, Eric; Hardy, Christopher J; Tan, Ek Tsoon; Amm, Bruce; Foo, Thomas K-F; Bernstein, Matt A; Huston, John; Shu, Yunhong; Schenck, John F


    To characterize peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) of an asymmetric head-only gradient coil that is compatible with a commercial high-channel-count receive-only array. Two prototypes of an asymmetric head-only gradient coil set with a 42-cm inner diameter were constructed for brain imaging at 3T with maximum performance specifications of up to 85 mT/m and 708 T/m/s. Tests were performed in 24 volunteers to measure PNS thresholds with the transverse (x = left-right; y = anterior-posterior [A/P]) gradient coils of both prototypes. Fourteen of these 24 volunteers were also tested for the z-gradient PNS in the second prototype and were scanned with high-slew-rate echo planar imaging (EPI) immediately after the PNS tests. For both prototypes, the y-gradient PNS threshold was markedly higher than the x-gradient threshold. The z-gradient threshold was intermediate between those for the x- and y-coils. Of the 24 volunteers, only two experienced y-gradient PNS at 80 mT/m and 500 T/m/s. All volunteers underwent the EPI scan without PNS when the readout direction was set to A/P. Measured PNS characteristics of asymmetric head-only gradient coil prototypes indicate that such coils, especially in the A/P direction, can be used for fast EPI readout in high-performance neuroimaging scans with substantially reduced PNS concerns compared with conventional whole body gradient coils. Magn Reson Med 76:1939-1950, 2016. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Initial evaluation of protein throughput and yield characteristics on nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fiber stationary phases by frontal analysis. (United States)

    Randunu, K Manoj; Marcus, R Kenneth


    Nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers are investigated as an alternative support/stationary phase for downstream processing of macromolecules. Ionizable amine and carboxylic acid end groups on the native fiber surface allow for ion exchange chromatography (IEC). The low cost and ability to operate at high linear velocities and low back pressures are practical advantages of C-CP fibers for preparative-scale macromolecule separations. The lack of fiber porosity ensures facile adsorption/desorption that is conducive to high throughput and recoveries/yields. Described here is a preliminary investigation of the processing characteristics of lysozyme on nylon 6 fibers with an eye toward downstream processing applications. Fibers were packed into microbore (0.8 mm i.d.) and analytical-size (2.1 mm i.d.) columns for the evaluation of the role of linear velocity on pressure drop, frontal throughput, and yield. Protein isolation by frontal development involved three steps: loading of the column to breakthrough, an aqueous wash, and a salt wash to recover the protein. Frontal throughput was evaluated with different salt concentrations (0-1000 mM NaCl) and different linear velocities (6-24 mm s(-1)). The observed throughput values are in the range of 0.12-0.20 mg min(-1) when 0.25 mg mL(-1) lysozyme (in 20 mM Tris-HCl) is loaded onto 78 mg of C-CP fiber in 0.52 mL volume analytical columns. Increased throughput and yield were found when protein was loaded and eluted at high linear velocity. Results of this study lend credence to the further development of C-CP fibers for biomacromolecule processing on larger scales. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Evaluation of loading characteristics and IgG binding performance of Staphylococcal protein A on polypropylene capillary-channeled polymer fibers. (United States)

    Trang, Hung K; Schadock-Hewitt, Abby J; Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R Kenneth


    The loading characteristics of recombinant Staphyloccocus aureus protein A (rSPA) on polypropylene (PP) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers were investigated through breakthrough curves and frontal analysis. The dynamic adsorption data was fit to various isotherm models to assess the possible mode of rSPA-PP fiber adsorption. Among them, the Langmuir-linear model fit the experimental data best, suggesting a two-stage mechanism of adsorption. The first stage involves the formation of a monolayer coverage, which follows the Langmuir isotherm. When the adsorbate concentration increases, solute starts to adsorb onto the already adsorbed layer, following a linear adsorption response. The relationship between the rSPA loading and flow rate and column length was also investigated. These two parameters are related through the residence time of rSPA in the column. It was determined that loading at the flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1) (∼28 mm s(-1)) with a 1×10(-5) M (0.5 mg mL(-1)) rSPA feed concentration on a 30-cm (0.762 mm i.d.) column could conveniently produce a reasonable binding capacity of rSPA on PP surface within only 6 min. Under those conditions, the rSPA binding at 50% breakthrough was found to be ∼2.1 mg g(-1) fiber. Operation of the rSPA-modified columns across ten complete processing cycles using clean-in-place conditions (including urea, guanidine HCl, and NaOH) commonly used in the bioprocessing industry allows assessment of the robustness of the rSPA capture layers. In all cases, the robustness was quite good, with the relative responses providing insights to the rSPA/PP surface structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component AM3 of the GFDL global coupled model CM3 (United States)

    Donner, L.J.; Wyman, B.L.; Hemler, R.S.; Horowitz, L.W.; Ming, Y.; Zhao, M.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P.; Lin, S.-J.; Schwarzkopf, M.D.; Austin, J.; Alaka, G.; Cooke, W.F.; Delworth, T.L.; Freidenreich, S.M.; Gordon, C.T.; Griffies, S.M.; Held, I.M.; Hurlin, W.J.; Klein, S.A.; Knutson, T.R.; Langenhorst, A.R.; Lee, H.-C.; Lin, Y.; Magi, B.I.; Malyshev, S.L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Naik, V.; Nath, M.J.; Pincus, R.; Ploshay, J.J.; Ramaswamy, V.; Seman, C.J.; Shevliakova, E.; Sirutis, J.J.; Stern, W.F.; Stouffer, R.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Winton, M.; Wittenberg, A.T.; Zeng, F.


    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a coupled general circulation model (CM3) for the atmosphere, oceans, land, and sea ice. The goal of CM3 is to address emerging issues in climate change, including aerosol-cloud interactions, chemistry-climate interactions, and coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere. The model is also designed to serve as the physical system component of earth system models and models for decadal prediction in the near-term future-for example, through improved simulations in tropical land precipitation relative to earlier-generation GFDL models. This paper describes the dynamical core, physical parameterizations, and basic simulation characteristics of the atmospheric component (AM3) of this model. Relative to GFDL AM2, AM3 includes new treatments of deep and shallow cumulus convection, cloud droplet activation by aerosols, subgrid variability of stratiform vertical velocities for droplet activation, and atmospheric chemistry driven by emissions with advective, convective, and turbulent transport. AM3 employs a cubed-sphere implementation of a finite-volume dynamical core and is coupled to LM3, a new land model with ecosystem dynamics and hydrology. Its horizontal resolution is approximately 200 km, and its vertical resolution ranges approximately from 70 m near the earth's surface to 1 to 1.5 km near the tropopause and 3 to 4 km in much of the stratosphere. Most basic circulation features in AM3 are simulated as realistically, or more so, as in AM2. In particular, dry biases have been reduced over South America. In coupled mode, the simulation of Arctic sea ice concentration has improved. AM3 aerosol optical depths, scattering properties, and surface clear-sky downward shortwave radiation are more realistic than in AM2. The simulation of marine stratocumulus decks remains problematic, as in AM2. The most intense 0.2% of precipitation rates occur less frequently in AM3 than observed. The last two decades of

  10. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr


    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  11. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11 000 cm2/V·s

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Casey


    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11 000 cm 2/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low t ox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over the communicat......A method includes determining a sequence of first coefficient estimates of a communication channel based on a sequence of pilots arranged according to a known pilot pattern and based on a receive signal, wherein the receive signal is based on the sequence of pilots transmitted over...... the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...... filter characteristics of at least one known transceiver filter arranged in the communication channel....

  13. Structural characteristics of atmospheric temperature and humidity inside clouds of convective and stratiform precipitation in the rainy season over East Asia (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Fu, Yunfei


    In this study, a merged dataset constructed from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar rain products and Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive data is used to investigate the thermal structural characteristics of convective and stratiform precipitation in the rainy season (May-August) of 1998-2012 over East Asia. The results show that the storm tops for convective precipitation are higher than those for stratiform precipitation, because of the more unstable atmospheric motions for convective precipitation. Moreover, the storm tops are higher at 1200 UTC than at 0000 UTC over land regions for both convective and stratiform precipitation, and vice versa for ocean region. Additionally, temperature anomaly patterns inside convective and stratiform precipitating clouds show a negative anomaly of about 0-2 K, which results in cooling effects in the lower troposphere. This cooling is more obvious at 1200 UTC for stratiform precipitation. The positive anomaly that appears in the middle troposphere is more than 2 K, with the strongest warming at 300 hPa. Relative humidity anomaly patterns show a positive anomaly in the middle troposphere (700-500 hPa) prior to the occurrence of the two types of precipitation, and the increase in moisture is evident for stratiform precipitation.

  14. Production of extended plasma channels in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated UV radiation of GARPUN-MTW Ti : sapphire—KrF laser. Part 2. Accumulation of plasma electrons and electric discharge control (United States)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Mesyats, Gennadii A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Smetanin, Igor V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Shutov, A. V.


    The problem of the production of extended (~1 m) plasma channels is studied in atmospheric air by amplitude-modulated laser pulses of UV radiation, which are a superposition of a subpicosecond USP train amplified in a regenerative KrF amplifier with an unstable confocal resonator and a quasi-stationary lasing pulse. The USPs possess a high (0.2-0.3 TW) peak power and efficiently ionise oxygen molecules due to multiphoton ionisation, and the quasi-stationary lasing pulse, which has a relatively long duration (~100 ns), maintains the electron density at a level ne = (3-5) × 1014 cm—3 by suppressing electron attachment to oxygen. Experiments in laser triggering of high-voltage electric discharges suggest that the use of combined pulses results in a significant lowering of the breakdown threshold and enables controlling the discharge trajectory with a higher efficiency in comparison with smooth pulses. It was shown that controlled breakdowns may develop with a delay of tens of microseconds relative to the laser pulse, which is many orders of magnitude greater than the lifetime of free electrons in the laser-induced plasma. We propose a mechanism for this breakdown, which involves speeding-up of the avalanche ionisation of the air by negative molecular oxygen ions with a low electron binding energy (~0.5 eV) and a long lifetime (~1 ms), which are produced upon cessation of the laser pulse.

  15. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis. (United States)

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh


    Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k-50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz-2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the human body with a good signal-to-noise quality of 10 dB if

  16. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis (United States)

    Tseng, Yuhwai; Su, Chauchin; Ho, Yingchieh


    Background Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest. Materials and Methods The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal. Results A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k−50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz−2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB. Conclusion The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the

  17. Evaluation and Verification of Channel Transmission Characteristics of Human Body for Optimizing Data Transmission Rate in Electrostatic-Coupling Intra Body Communication System: A Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhwai Tseng

    Full Text Available Intra-body communication is a new wireless scheme for transmitting signals through the human body. Understanding the transmission characteristics of the human body is therefore becoming increasingly important. Electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system in a ground-free situation that integrate electronic products that are discretely located on individuals, such as mobile phones, PDAs, wearable computers, and biomedical sensors, are of particular interest.The human body is modeled as a simplified Resistor-Capacitor network. A virtual ground between the transmitter and receiver in the system is represented by a resister-capacitor network. Value of its resistance and capacitance are determined from a system perspective. The system is characterized by using a mathematical unit step function in digital baseband transmission scheme with and without Manchester code. As a result, the signal-to-noise and to-intersymbol-interference ratios are improved by manipulating the load resistor. The data transmission rate of the system is optimized. A battery-powered transmitter and receiver are developed to validate the proposal.A ground-free system fade signal energy especially for a low-frequency signal limited system transmission rate. The system transmission rate is maximized by simply manipulating the load resistor. Experimental results demonstrate that for a load resistance of 10k-50k Ω, the high-pass 3 dB frequency of the band-pass channel is 400kHz-2MHz in the worst-case scenario. The system allows a Manchester-coded baseband signal to be transmitted at speeds of up to 20M bit per second with signal-to-noise and signal-to-intersymbol-interference ratio of more than 10 dB.The human body can function as a high speed transmission medium with a data transmission rate of 20Mbps in an electrostatic-coupling intra-body communication system. Therefore, a wideband signal can be transmitted directly through the human body with a good signal

  18. Distribution of atmospheric reactive nitrogen at two sites of different socio- economic characteristics in IndoGangetic Plain(IGP) region, India. (United States)

    Singh, S.; Sharma, A.; Kulshrestha, U. C.


    In India, most of the human population lives in rural areas. People depends on agriculture products to meet the demand of food supply. In order to get higher yield of agriculture and food product, increased practice of fertilizer application has added extra burden of nutrients especially, the reactive nitrogen (Nr) species viz NH3 and NOx. Growing energy demands has resulted in increased emissions of NOx from coal combustion in thermal power plant and the petroleum combustion in transport sector. In addition, biomass burning in traditional cooking and heating has become significant source of NH3 and NOx in Indian region. Significance of the study lies in the fact that increasing Nr emissions have adverse impact on human health, plant, soil and water bodies directly and to see the effect, knowledge of emission and deposition for Nr at different sites. Hence, the selection of the sites for present study was done very carefully. Delhi city and Mai village were selected to represent typical characteristics of high and low socioeconomic region respectively. Delhi is the capital of India, known for higher income group urban cluster where rural site having agricultural dominance has its importance in Indian scenario because still in India our primary source of income is agriculture. Atmospheric abundance of two major gaseous inorganic (Nr) species i.e NH3 and NO2 has been measured for one year, on monthly basis. Average concentrations of NH3 at urban and rural site have been recorded as 40.4 ±16.8 and 51.57 ±22.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average concentrations of NO2 have been recorded as 24.4 ±13.5 and 18.8 ± 12.6 μg/m3 at urban & rural site respectively. Study, also presents seasonal and diurnal variations of gaseous reactive nitrogen species at urban & rural sites to observe the contribution of different the sources of atmospheric Nr. Dynamics of Nr at both sites will be discussed in details at the conference.

  19. The effect of increased atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration during crop growth on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of wheat straw. (United States)

    He, Xiangyu; Wu, Yanping; Cai, Min; Mu, Chunlong; Luo, Weihong; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun


    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of increased atmospheric temperature and CO2 concentration during crop growth on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of wheat straw. The field experiment was carried out from November 2012 to June 2013 at Changshu (31°32'93″N, 120°41'88″E) agro-ecological experimental station. A total of three treatments were set. The concentration of CO2 was increased to 500 μmol/mol in the first treatment (CO2 group). The temperature was increased by 2 °C in the second treatment (TEM group) and the concentration of CO2 and temperature were both increased in the third treatment (CO2 + TEM group). The mean temperature and concentration of CO2 in control group were 10.5 °C and 413 μmol/mol. At harvesting, the wheat straws were collected and analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Results showed that dry matter was significantly increased in all three treatments. Ether extracts and neutral detergent fiber were significantly increased in TEM and CO2 + TEM groups. Crude protein was significantly decreased in CO2 + TEM group. In vitro digestibility analysis of wheat straw revealed that gas production was significantly decreased in CO2 and CO2 + TEM groups. Methane production was significantly decreased in TEM and CO2 + TEM groups. Ammonia nitrogen and microbial crude protein were significantly decreased in all three treatments. Total volatile fatty acids were significantly decreased in CO2 and CO2 + TEM groups. In conclusion, the chemical composition of the wheat straw was affected by temperature and CO2 and the in vitro digestibility of wheat straw was reduced, especially in the combined treatment of temperature and CO2.

  20. Differential expression of hERG1 channel isoforms reproduces properties of native I(Kr) and modulates cardiac action potential characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr), is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr). Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr) has been described. We hypothesized...

  1. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric fallout in the south of Xi'an during the dust episodes of 2001-2012 (NW China) (United States)

    Li, Xiaoping; Feng, Linna; Huang, Chunchang; Yan, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xu


    Atmospheric fallouts (AFs) were collected in the south of Xi'an, NW China, during the dust episodes of 2001-2012. The chemical characteristics of total 68 AF samples including their chemical compositions, size distribution and magnetic susceptibility were studied. The contamination degree and the source of heavy metals in AF were also explored with enrichment factor method and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the particle mass size distribution of AFs dominated by coarse particles (PM10-50) in dust days. The concentrations of 26 elements associated with AFs determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF) in studied sites varied from 92.90 to 188.10 mg kg-1 for Cr, 31.40 and 63.00 mg kg-1 for Cu, 16.60 to 167.30 for Pb and 106.60 to 196.80 for Zn. Their average concentrations found in this study were 139.22 ± 29.41 mg kg-1, 46.93 ± 10.56 mg kg-1, 78.42 ± 46.52 mg kg-1 and 150.61 ± 32.84 mg kg-1, respectively, which exceeded their corresponding recommended background values more than two times. While, other elements, such as Br varied from 1.10 to 5.90 with 3.34 ± 1.60 mg kg-1 mean, Cs from 2.90 to 10.90 with mean of 7.23 ± 2.47 mg kg-1, Ga between 6.90 and 20.80 with 15.23 ± 3.59 mg kg-1, Rb in the range of 62.10-124.20 with the average of 80.69 ± 16.89 mg kg-1, Y from 9.90 to 35.00 with 20.43 ± 6.27 mg kg-1 average, La from 29.60 to 54.20 with mean of 37.28 ± 8.28 mg kg-1 and V with average of 81.97 ± 8.93 mg kg-1 in the 57.7-92.10 mg kg-1. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis and clustering analysis) was suggested that the principal element elements, Al, Fe, Si, K, Ca, Na, Mg, coupled with the trace elements Co, V, Ce, Mn, Ni, Ga, Y, Rb, La, Br, Cs were predominated by crustal material sources, whereas, Cr, Cu, Ba, Sr, As, Pb and Zn were highly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Simultaneously, the water-soluble ions (WS-ions) of NH4+, SO42-, SO32-, NO3-, SiO44-, HSO4

  2. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  3. Culture characteristics of the atmospheric and room temperature plasma-mutated Spirulina platensis mutants in CO2 aeration culture system for biomass production. (United States)

    Tan, Yinyee; Fang, Mingyue; Jin, Lihua; Zhang, Chong; Li, He-Ping; Xing, Xin-Hui


    For biomass production of Spirulina platensis as feedstock of fermentation, the culture characteristics of three typical mutants of 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 generated by atmospheric and room temperature plasmas (ARTP) mutagenesis were systematically studied by using CO2 aeration culture system and compared with the wild strain. The specific growth rate of wild strain in the pure air aeration culture system exhibited a 76.2% increase compared with static culture, while the specific growth rates of the 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 in pure air aeration culture system were increased by 114.4%, 95.9% and 88.2% compared with their static cultures. Compared with static culture, the carbohydrate contents of wild strain, 3-A10, 3-B2 and 4-B3 in pure air aeration culture system dropped plainly by 51.0%, 79.3%, 85.5% and 26.1%. Increase of CO2 concentration enhanced carbohydrate content and productivity. Based on the carbohydrate productivity, the optimal inlet of CO2 concentration in aeration culture was determined to be 12% (v/v). Under this condition, 3-B2 exhibited the highest carbohydrate content (30.7%), CO2 fixation rate (0.120gCO2·g(-1)·d(-1)) and higher growth rate (0.093 g L(-1)·d(-1)), while 3-A10 showed the highest growth rate (0.118 g L(-1)·d(-1)) and higher CO2 fixation rate (0.117gCO2·g(-1)·d(-1)) but low carbohydrate content (24.5%), and 4-B3 showed the highest chlorophyll (Chl) content (3.82 mg·g(-1)). The most outstanding mutant by static culture in terms of growth rate and carbohydrate productivity (3-B2), was also demonstrated by CO2 aeration culture system. This study revealed that the ARTP mutagenesis could generate the S. platensis mutants suitable for CO2 aeration culture aiming at biomass production. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance analysis of LDPC codes on OOK terahertz wireless channels (United States)

    Chun, Liu; Chang, Wang; Jun-Cheng, Cao


    Atmospheric absorption, scattering, and scintillation are the major causes to deteriorate the transmission quality of terahertz (THz) wireless communications. An error control coding scheme based on low density parity check (LDPC) codes with soft decision decoding algorithm is proposed to improve the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of an on-off keying (OOK) modulated THz signal through atmospheric channel. The THz wave propagation characteristics and channel model in atmosphere is set up. Numerical simulations validate the great performance of LDPC codes against the atmospheric fading and demonstrate the huge potential in future ultra-high speed beyond Gbps THz communications. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339803), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA010205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61131006, 61321492, and 61204135), the Major National Development Project of Scientific Instrument and Equipment (Grant No. 2011YQ150021), the National Science and Technology Major Project (Grant No. 2011ZX02707), the International Collaboration and Innovation Program on High Mobility Materials Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Shanghai Municipal Commission of Science and Technology (Grant No. 14530711300).

  5. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  6. Influence of short-term pre-aging in vacuum on physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptability of modified atmosphere packed beef steaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łopacka Joanna


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physiochemical changes and consumer acceptability of meat packed in high oxygen modified atmosphere during 12 days of storage with and without pre-aging in vacuum for 7 days. Steak samples from forequarter muscles Infraspinatus and Supraspinatus were stored at 2°C and tested for colour, Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF, storage/cooking loss, and consumer acceptability. Overall consumer acceptability at the beginning of modified atmosphere display was higher for aged Infraspinatus samples, however at the end of display samples from both treatments were equally rated by consumers. No impact of aging was observed in terms of storage loss, while cooking loss was slightly affected by aging, resulting in higher losses in aged samples at the end of modified atmosphere storage. Inclusion of an aging process prior to modified atmosphere display improved the tenderness of Infraspinatus muscle at the 8th day of display and led to a considerable increase in redness of both muscles.

  7. Characteristic effects onto C13H12N2O3 molecule dissolved in solvents of argon plasma at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Tanışlı, Murat; Taşal, Erol


    We could easily argue that the decomposition of the chemical chain molecules is a compelling application when it comes to the atmospheric pressure plasma. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of the atmospheric pressure argon plasma on 4-((2-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl)benzene-1,3,-diol molecule (abbreviated as 4MBD) at room temperature. 4MBD molecule is one of the industrial dye molecules used widely. When considering the ecological life, this molecule is very harmful and dangerous. As such, we suggest a new decomposing method for such molecules. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet is principally treated for the breakdown of the molecule in question. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry tools are used to characterization of the molecules subsequent to the plasma applications to 4MBD molecule in ethanol and methanol solvents. The atmospheric-pressure plasma jet of argon (Ar) as non-equilibrium has been formed by ac-power generator with frequency—24 kHz and voltage—12 kV. Characterizations for solutions prepared with ethanol and methanol solvents of 4MBD molecule have been examined after applying ( duration 3 min) the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The molecule is broken at 6C-7N-8N=9C stretching peak in consequence of the plasma treatment. The new plasma photo-products for ethanol and methanol solutions are produced as 6C-7N-8N=9C (strong, varying) and 12C=17O (strong, wide) stretching peaks. Also, the bathochromic drifts are discerned.

  8. Crystallization and electrical characteristics of 0.95 (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.05 BaTiO3 thin films under different annealing temperature and atmosphere. (United States)

    Diao, Chien-Chen; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Lin, Jing-Jenn


    0.95 (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.05 BaTiO3 +1 wt% Bi2O3 (NBT-BT3) ceramic is used as target to deposit the NBT-BT3 thin films. The excess 1wt% Bi2O3 is used to compensate the vaporization of Bi2O3 during the sintering and annealing processes. NBT-BT3 thin films are successfully deposited using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputter method and crystallized subsequently using a conventional furnace annealing (CFA) process. The annealed process is conducted in air and in oxygen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 600-800 degrees C for 60 min. As compared with the as-deposited NBT-BT3 thin films, the CFA-treated process has improved the grain growth and crystallization. We will show that the annealing atmosphere is the more important parameter to influence the grain growth and crystallization of NBT-BT3 thin films than the annealing temperature. The influences of CFA-treated temperature and atmosphere on the electrical characteristics of NBT-BT3 thin films, including the polarization characteristics (Pr, Ps, and Ec values), the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves, and the leakage current density-electric field (J-E) curves, are also investigated in this study.

  9. Comparative thermogravimetric analyses of co-combustion of textile dyeing sludge and sugarcane bagasse in carbon dioxide/oxygen and nitrogen/oxygen atmospheres: Thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics. (United States)

    Xie, Wenhao; Wen, Shaoting; Liu, Jingyong; Xie, Wuming; Kuo, Jiahong; Lu, Xingwen; Sun, Shuiyu; Chang, Kenlin; Buyukada, Musa; Evrendilek, Fatih


    Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of co-combustion of textile dyeing sludge (TDS) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) were studied using thermogravimetric analysis in CO 2 /O 2 and N 2 /O 2 atmospheres. Our results showed that the comprehensive combustion characteristic index (CCI) of the blends was improved by 1.71-4.32 times. With the increased O 2 concentration, co-combustion peak temperature decreased from 329.7 to 318.2 °C, with an increase in its maximum weight loss rate from 10.04 to 14.99%/min and its CCI by 1.31 times (β = 20 °C·min -1 ). To evaluate the co-combustion characteristics, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (entropy, Gibbs free energy and enthalpy changes, and apparent activation energy) were obtained in the five atmospheres. The lowest apparent activation energy of the TB64 blend was obtained in oxy-fuel atmosphere (CO 2 /O 2  = 7/3). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    Through the coupling of dispositif with atmosphere this paper engages in a discussion of the atmospherics as both a form of knowledge and a material practice. In doing so the objective is to provide an inventory of tools and methodologies deployed in the construction of atmosphere understood......, the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  11. Differential expression of hERG1 channel isoforms reproduces properties of native I(Kr and modulates cardiac action potential characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Peter Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr, is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr. Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr has been described. We hypothesized that the heterogeneity of native I(Kr can be reproduced by differential expression of ERG1a and ERG1b isoforms. Furthermore, the functional consequences of differential expression of ERG1 isoforms were explored as a potential mechanism underlying native heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD and restitution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results show that the heterogeneity of native I(Kr can be reproduced in heterologous expression systems by differential expression of ERG1a and ERG1b isoforms. Characterization of the macroscopic kinetics of ERG1 currents demonstrated that these were dependent on the relative abundance of ERG1a and ERG1b. Furthermore, we used a computational model of the ventricular cardiomyocyte to show that both APD and the slope of the restitution curve may be modulated by varying the relative abundance of ERG1a and ERG1b. As the relative abundance of ERG1b was increased, APD was gradually shortened and the slope of the restitution curve was decreased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that differential expression of ERG1 isoforms may explain regional heterogeneity of I(Kr kinetics. The data demonstrate that subunit dependent changes in channel kinetics are important for the functional properties of ERG1 currents and hence I(Kr. Importantly, our results suggest that regional differences in the relative abundance of ERG1 isoforms may represent a potential mechanism underlying the heterogeneity of both APD and APD restitution observed in mammalian hearts.

  12. Characteristics of Tropospheric Gravity Waves using the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar at Koto Tabang (0.20°S, 100.32°E), Indonesia during CPEA -2 campaign (United States)

    Kaur, M.; Dhaka, S. K.; Malik, V.; Datta, Savita M.; Baluja, K. L.; Jain, A.; Sharma, Y. S.; Singh, A. P.; Malik, S.; Shibagaki, Y.; Hashiguchi, H.; Shimomai, T.


    Temporal and spatial evolution of Atmospheric Gravity Waves(AGW) in the troposphere have been analyzed in vertical wind at Koto Tabang (0.20°S, 100.32°E) on 7 - 8 Dec 2005 during Coupling Processes in Equatorial Atmosphere (CPEA)-II campaign. AGWs with vertical wavelength of 2 - 3.5 km, horizontal wavelength of ~ 20-25 km and wave period of ~ 55 - 65 min were observed in the troposphere (3-10 km heights) during convection events. Observed variation in vertical wavelength with time during convection and after its termination suggests the characteristic features of convective sources and gravity waves, respectively in a convective environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  14. Characteristics and Sources of Nitrous Acid in the Urban Atmosphere of Ji'nan, North China: Results from 1-yr Continuous Observations (United States)

    Xue, L.; Li, D.; Wen, L.; Mellouki, A.; Wang, W.


    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key reservoir of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and hence plays a central role in atmospheric chemistry. To understand the sources and impact of HONO in the polluted atmosphere of northern China, continuous measurements of HONO and related parameters have been made since September 2015 at an urban site in Ji'nan, the capital city of Shandong province. The year-round data were analyzed preliminarily to examine the temporal variations, vehicle emission factors, heterogeneous conversion, unknown daytime source(s), and impact on OH production. HONO shows well-defined seasonal and diurnal patterns with clear wintertime and nighttime concentration peaks. Elevated HONO levels (e.g., over 5 ppbv) were frequently observed with a maximum value of 8.4 ppbv. The derived HONO/NO2 ratio from direct vehicle emissions varies in the range of 0.8%-3.4%, which is higher than the commonly-adopted value of 0.8% from a tunnel study. Aerosol surface was found to play an important role in facilitating the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO. A non-PSS HONO budget analysis suggests the existence of significant unknown HONO source(s) at daytime in Ji'nan. The contributions of HONO photolysis and other radical sources to the atmospheric oxidative capacity are also estimated. The present study presents the first continuous year-round record of HONO measurements in China, and more detailed analyses are under way to explore the potential unknown daytime sources.

  15. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana


    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  16. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie


    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily exper......” implications and qualities of the approach are identified through concrete examples of a design case, which also investigates the qualities and implications of addressing atmospheres both as design concern and user experience.......This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  17. DMSP F16 SSMIS PLO Anomaly Mitigation and LAS Sounding Channel Recovery (United States)

    Maurer, T.; Swadley, S. D.; Poe, G.; Uliana, A.; Shen, P.


    Since April, 2013, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) instrument has suffered from a failed 56.4 GHz Phased Locked Oscillator (PLO). The out-of-lock frequency sweeping of the PLO resulting from this anomaly has significantly affected the spectral characteristics of the F16 SSMIS Lower and Upper Atmosphere Sounding (LAS/UAS) channels. The spectral passband characteristics are inputs to the Fast Radiative Transfer Models (Fast RTMs) used within Data Assimilation (DA) systems, and without compensating for the "effective" spectral characteristics of each channel post-PLO failure, the RTM simulated versus observed brightness temperatures exhibit large biases and standard deviations. This has resulted in the loss of F16 LAS and UAS temperature sensitive channels within Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Calibration/Validation (CalVal) team has recently developed a Line-by-line (LBL) RTM for the SSMIS along with updated LAS channel passband shapes in order to account for the negative effects of a sweeping PLO. These were submitted to the developers of the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) who have since provided updated F16 SSMIS spectral coefficients for use with CRTM versions 2.0.5 and 2.2.1. Trials were performed in the Navy's Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) using the updated spectral coefficients and this has proven an effective method for reducing LAS channel biases and standard deviations, especially for channels 5, 6 and 7. Biases for all channels are now less than |± 0.6K| with departure standard deviations comparable to the measurement uncertainty for channels 2-7.

  18. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan


    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  19. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita


    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  20. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)


    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  1. 3-m Hill-Shaded Bathymetric Grid of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11079 of Great Round Shoal Channel (H11079_UTM_HS, UTM Zone 19) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  2. H11079_1MGEO_SSS.TIF: 1-meter Composite Grayscale Image of the Sidescan Sonar Data From National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H11079 of the Sea Floor in Great Round Shoal Channel, Offshore Massachusetts (Geographic) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone...

  3. Interpretation of Sedimentary Environments from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12007 in the Vicinity of Cross Rip Channel in Nantucket Sound, Offshore Southeastern Massachusetts (H12007_SEDENV.SHP, Geographic, WGS84) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  4. 1-m Bathymetric Grid Generated from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Survey H12007 in the Vicinity of Cross Rip Channel, Nantucket Sound (H12007_UTM, UTM Zone 19, NAD83) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), is producing detailed geologic maps of the coastal...

  5. Characteristics and sources of tephra layers in the EPICA-Dome C ice record (East Antarctica): Implications for past atmospheric circulation and ice core stratigraphic correlations [rapid communication (United States)

    Narcisi, B.; Petit, J. R.; Delmonte, B.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Maggi, V.


    Thirteen discrete air-fall tephra layers were identified in the last 200,000-yr section of the EPICA-Dome C ice record drilled in the East Antarctic plateau (75°06'S, 123°21'E). Quantitative grain size, glass particle morphology, and the grain-discrete major element composition of the glass fraction of these layers were investigated. Through comparison with literature data on the rock composition of Quaternary volcanic centres located within and around Antarctica, five tephra layers were attributed to South Sandwich volcanoes in the South Atlantic Ocean, two to South Shetland volcanoes (northern Antarctic Peninsula), two to Andean volcanoes, and four to Antarctic (Marie Byrd Land and Melbourne) provinces. The abundance of layers originating in the southern part of the Atlantic confirms that westerly atmospheric circulation spiralling towards East Antarctica prevailed over the last 200 ka. Moreover, the record of events from Antarctic centres suggests that atmospheric trajectories from West to East Antarctica can also be significant. A few ash layers are geochemically distinct and appear equivalent to levels from Vostok and Dome Fuji deep ice records, located ca. 600 km and ca. 2000 km, respectively, from Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. These layers provide unambiguous markers for future correlation with other Antarctic ice cores and circumpolar marine climatic records. They also provide reliable constraints to get a common timescale by glaciological modelling, and represent a first step towards absolute ice core dating.

  6. Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (United States)

    Korolev, Yu. D.; Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas'yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.


    Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.

  7. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN LASER PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY: Influence of atmospheric fluctuations of the induced temperature on the characteristics of laser radiation (United States)

    Banakh, Viktor A.; Smalikho, I. N.


    The expression for the function representing the second-order mutual coherence of a laser beam propagating in a turbulent atmosphere under thermal self-interaction conditions is derived in the aberration-free approximation. An analysis is made of the width of a beam, its wind refraction, and the radius of coherence as a function of the initial coherence of the radiation, of conditions of diffraction on the transmitting aperture, and of fluctuations of the wind velocity. It is shown that on increase in the power the coherence radius of cw laser radiation first increases because of thermal defocusing and then decreases due to the appearance (because of fluctuations of the wind velocity) of induced temperature inhomogeneities in air in the beam localization region. The conditions under which fluctuations of the induced temperature have a significant influence on the coherence of the radiation are determined.

  8. Channel perceptions and usage: beyond media richness factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan; Teerling, Marije; Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Hans J.; Ferro, Enrico


    In this paper, we asses how service channel perceptions affect channel choice and channel usage. Building on communication theories, such as the Media Richness Theory, we explore how different channel characteristics are perceived by citizens in a Dutch governmental service chain. The results of our

  9. Hydrodynamic instability of meandering channels (United States)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish


    In this paper, we explore the hydrodynamic instability of meandering channels driven by the turbulent flow. The governing equations of channel dynamics with suitable boundary conditions are closed with the fluid and granular constitutive relationships. A regular expansion of the fundamental variables is employed to linearize the parent equations by superimposing the perturbations on the basic unperturbed flow. The channel dynamics reveal a resonance phenomenon which occurs when the key variables fall in the vicinity of the distinct critical values. The resonance phenomenon preserves its distinctive signature in different flow regimes which are guided by the characteristic values of the shear Reynolds number. The hydrodynamic analysis indicates that the fluid friction and the volumetric sediment flux play a decisive role to characterize the channel instability in different flow regimes. The growths of azimuthal velocity perturbation in phase with curvature, bed topography perturbation, bend amplification rate, and meander propagation speed in different flow regimes are investigated by varying the meander wavenumber, Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number. The analysis is capable to capture the effects of grain size on azimuthal velocity perturbation, bed topography perturbation, bend amplification rate, and meandering propagation speed over a wide range of shear Reynolds numbers. The variations of resonant wavenumbers in different flow regimes with the Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number are addressed. For a specific flow regime, the upstream and downstream migrations of meandering channels are typically governed by the Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number.

  10. Atmospheric Infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roald, Tone; Pedersen, Ida Egmose; Levin, Kasper


    In this article we establish intersubjective meaning-making in infancy as atmospheric. Through qualitative descriptions of five mother–infant dyads in a video-recorded, experimental setting when the infant is 4, 7, 10, and 13 months, we discovered atmospheric appearances with a developmental...... pattern of atmospheric variations. These appearances, we argue, are contextual and intersubjective monologues. The monologues are similar to what Daniel Stern describes with his concept of “vitality affects,” but they arise as a unified force that envelops the mother and child. As such, we present a new...

  11. atmospheric transparency under harmattan conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 20, 2006 ... air, the transparency of the atmosphere is also strongly dependent on the elevation angle of the sun. Hence, to contrast the atmospheric transmission characteristics in the two harmattan conditions, measurements made at the same solar elevation (42. °) and optical air mass (m, = 1.5) have been used.

  12. Static characteristics and short channel effect in enhancement-mode AlN/GaN/AlN N-polar MISFET with self-aligned source/drain regions (United States)

    Bin, Li; Lan, Wei; Cai, Wen


    This paper aims to simulate the I-V static characteristic of the enhancement-mode (E-mode) N-polar GaN metal—insulator—semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET) with self-aligned source/drain regions. Firstly, with SILVACO TCAD device simulation, the drain—source current as a function of the gate—source voltage is calculated and the dependence of the drain—source current on the drain—source voltage in the case of different gate—source voltages for the device with a 0.62 μm gate length is investigated. Secondly, a comparison is made with the experimental report. Lastly, the transfer characteristic with different gate lengths and different buffer layers has been performed. The results show that the simulation is in accord with the experiment at the gate length of 0.62 μm and the short channel effect becomes pronounced as gate length decreases. The E-mode will not be held below a 100 nm gate length unless both transversal scaling and vertical scaling are being carried out simultaneously.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Aerosol Retrieval Algorithms Using Two-Channel Satellite Radiance Data (United States)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.


    We discuss the methodology of interpreting channel 1 and 2 AVHRR radiance data to retrieve tropospheric aerosol properties over the ocean and describe a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of monthly average retrievals to the assumed aerosol models. We use real AVHRR data and accurate numerical techniques for computing single and multiple scattering and spectral absorption of light in the vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere-ocean system. Our analysis shows that two-channel algorithms can provide significantly more accurate retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness than one-channel algorithms and that imperfect cloud screening is the largest source of errors in the retrieved optical thickness. Both underestimating and overestimating aerosol absorption as well as strong variability of the aerosol refractive index may lead to regional and/or seasonal biases in optical thickness retrievals. The Angstrom exponent appears to be the most invariant aerosol size characteristic and should be retrieved along with optical thickness as the second aerosol parameter.

  14. Characteristics of dimethylaminium and trimethylaminium in atmospheric particles ranging from supermicron to nanometer sizes over eutrophic marginal seas of China and oligotrophic open oceans. (United States)

    Yu, Peiran; Hu, Qingjing; Li, Kai; Zhu, Yujiao; Liu, Xiaohuan; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong


    In this study, we characterized dimethylaminium (DMA+) and trimethylaminium (TMA+) in size-segregated atmospheric particles during three cruise campaigns in the marginal seas of China and one cruise campaign mainly in the northwest Pacific Ocean (NWPO). An 14-stage nano-MOUDI sampler was utilized for sampling atmospheric particles ranging from 18μm to 0.010μm. Among the four cruise campaigns, the highest concentrations of DMA+ and TMA+ in PM10 were observed over the South Yellow Sea (SYS) in August 2015, i.e., 0.76±0.12nmolm-3 for DMA+ (average value±standard deviation) and 0.93±0.13nmolm-3 for TMA+. The lowest values were observed over the NWPO in April 2015, i.e., 0.28±0.16nmolm-3 for DMA+ and 0.22±0.12nmolm-3 for TMA+. In general, size distributions of the two ions exhibited a bi-modal pattern, i.e., one mode at 0.01-0.1μm and the other at 0.1-1.8μm. The two ions' mode at 0.01-0.1μm was firstly observed. The mode was largely enhanced in samples collected over the SYS in August 2015, leading to high mole ratios of (DMA++TMA+)/NH4+ in PM0.1 (0.4±0.8, median value±standard deviation) and the ions' concentrations in PM0.1 accounting for ~10% and ~40% of their corresponding concentrations in PM10. This implied that (DMA++TMA+) likely played an important role in neutralizing acidic species in the smaller particles. Using SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ as references, we confirm that the elevated concentrations of DMA+ and TMA+ in the 0.01-0.1μm size range were probably real signals rather than sampling artifacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvements in Aerosol Retrieval for Atmospheric Correction (United States)


    spherical albedo of the atmosphere from the ground, L*a is the radiance backscattered by the atmosphere, and a and b are coefficients that solely...extinction, the scattering albedo for each scattering event and the value of the scattering phase function. For a stratified atmosphere, the phase function...The MODIS 2.1-μm Channel-Correlation with Visible Reflectance for Use in Remote Sensing of Aerosol,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 35, 1286

  16. Characteristics of the calibration curves of copper for the rapid sorting of steel scrap by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under ambient air atmospheres. (United States)

    Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki


    For the rapid and precise sorting of steel scrap with relatively high contents of copper, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising method. It has several advantages such that it can work under ambient air atmospheres, and specimens can be tested without any pretreatment, such as acid digestion, polishing of the surface of the specimens, etc. For the application of LIBS for actual steel scrap, we obtained emission spectra by an LIBS system, which was mainly comprised of an Nd:YAG laser, an Echelle-type spectrometer, and an ICCD detector. The standard reference materials (SRMs) of JISF FXS 350-352, which are Fe-Cu binary alloy and have certified concentrations of copper, were employed for making calibration lines. Considering spectral interferences from the emission lines of the iron matrix in the alloys, Cu I lines having wavelengths of 324.754 and 327.396 nm could be chosen. In five replicate measurements of each SRM, shorter delay times after laser irradiation and longer gate widths for detecting the transient emission signal are suggested to be the optimal experiment parameters. In the determination process, utilizing the calibration line from Cu I 327.396 nm was better because of less spectral interference. By using 200 pulsed laser shots for the measurement sequence, a limit of detection of 0.004 Cu at% could be obtained.

  17. Spoilage characteristics of ground beef with added lactic acid bacteria and rosemary oleoresin packaged in a modified-atmosphere package and displayed at abusive temperatures. (United States)

    Parks, A R Hoyle; Brashears, M M; Woerner, W D; Martin, J N; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in ground beef during storage. Furthermore, the addition of rosemary oleoresin (RO), a natural antioxidant, to ground beef has been shown to increase shelf life and is commonly used in modified-atmosphere packaged (MAP) ground beef. This study evaluated the effects of LAB and RO treatment on the shelf life and stability of MAP ground beef displayed at abusive (10°C) temperatures for 36 h. Subjective and objective sensory analyses were conducted to determine spoilage endpoints. Trained and consumer panel responses and Hunter lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) values were not affected (P = 0.62, 0.66, 0.45) by LAB addition, although RO inclusion improved (P < 0.05) lean color. Ground beef with LAB and RO had significantly less (P < 0.0001) thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values than control ground beef, indicating decreased lipid oxidation. Additionally, RO inclusion reduced (P < 0.0001) off odors, as determined by trained and consumer odor panelists. Overall, the addition of LAB did not negatively affect beef color, odor, or oxidative rancidity, suggesting that LAB can be added to ground beef in MAP packaging as a processing intervention without detrimentally affecting shelf life or stability.

  18. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait (United States)

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan


    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013–2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+, while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26973085

  19. Sorbent-Based Atmosphere Revitalization System (United States)

    Knox, James C (Inventor); Miller, Lee A. (Inventor)


    The present invention is a sorbent-based atmosphere revitalization (SBAR) system using treatment beds each having a bed housing, primary and secondary moisture adsorbent layers, and a primary carbon dioxide adsorbent layer. Each bed includes a redirecting plenum between moisture adsorbent layers, inlet and outlet ports connected to inlet and outlet valves, respectively, and bypass ports connected to the redirecting plenums. The SBAR system also includes at least one bypass valve connected to the bypass ports. An inlet channel connects inlet valves to an atmosphere source. An outlet channel connects the bypass valve and outlet valves to the atmosphere source. A vacuum channel connects inlet valves, the bypass valve and outlet valves to a vacuum source. In use, one bed treats air from the atmosphere source while another bed undergoes regeneration. During regeneration, the inlet, bypass, and outlet valves sequentially open to the vacuum source, removing accumulated moisture and carbon dioxide.

  20. Channel modelling for free-space optical inter-HAP links using adaptive ARQ transmission (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Giggenbach, D.; Kirstädter, A.


    Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have seen significant developments in recent years due to growing need for very high data rates and tap-proof communication. The operation of an FSO link is suited to diverse variety of applications such as satellites, High Altitude Platforms (HAPs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), aircrafts, ground stations and other areas involving both civil and military situations. FSO communication systems face challenges due to different effects of the atmospheric channel. FSO channel primarily suffers from scintillation effects due to Index of Refraction Turbulence (IRT). In addition, acquisition and pointing becomes more difficult because of the high directivity of the transmitted beam: Miss-pointing of the transmitted beam and tracking errors at the receiver generate additional fading of the optical signal. High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) are quasi-stationary vehicles operating in the stratosphere. The slowly varying but precisely determined time-of-flight of the Inter-HAP channel adds to its characteristics. To propose a suitable ARQ scheme, proper theoretical understanding of the optical atmospheric propagation and modeling of a specific scenario FSO channel is required. In this paper, a bi-directional symmetrical Inter-HAP link has been selected and modeled. The Inter-HAP channel model is then investigated via simulations in terms of optical scintillation induced by IRT and in presence of pointing error. The performance characteristic of the model is then quantified in terms of fading statistics from which the Packet Error Probability (PEP) is calculated. Based on the PEP characteristics, we propose suitable ARQ schemes.

  1. Effects of O3 and SO2 on leaf characteristics in soybeans grown under ambient- and enriched-carbon dioxide atmosphere (United States)

    Rudorff, Bernardo F.; Mulchi, Charles L.; Lee, Edward H.; Rowland, Randy A.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.


    The effects of two air pollutant gases (SO2 and O3) on leaf photosynthesis (PS), leaf chlorophyll (Chl), chlorophyll fluorescence transients (CFTs), leaf reflectance (LR) and canopy reflectance (CR) in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) were studied under both ambient- and elevated-atmospheric (CO2) using open-top chambers. In the CO2 vs. O3 experiment, soybeans 'Clark' were exposed to charcoal filtered air (low-O3) or ambient air + 40 nL L-1(O3) (high O3) during 7 h day-1, 5 days week-1 having (CO2) of 350 (mu) L L-1 CO2 (ambient-CO2) or 500 (mu) L L-1 (enriched-CO2) for 12 h day-1. In the CO2 vs. SO2 experiment, soybeans 'Essex' were exposed to charcoal filtered air (low-SO2) or + 120 nL L-1 SO2 (high-SO2) during 5 hr day-1, 5 days week-1 having the same (CO2) as for the CO2 vs. O3 experiment. Plants were exposed to treatment gases from early growth until maturity. In the CO2 vs. O3 experiment, leaf PS, leaf Chl, and CR showed trends of reduced values under high-O3, while LR was largely unchanged. Leaf PS and CR had increased values under enriched CO2. Leaf Chl and LR were not affected by CO2 enrichment. In the CO2 vs. SO2 experiment, CFTs values indicated that the gases has no impact on the light reactions of photosynthesis. Reduction in leaf PS, leaf Chl, and CR were observed under high-SO2 while LR was unchanged. The enriched CO2 environment increased leaf PS rates but had no effect on LR and leaf Chl.

  2. Isotope ratio characteristics and sensitivity for uranium determinations using a liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge ion source coupled to an Orbitrap mass analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegg, Edward D.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Hager, George J.; Hart, Garret L.; Koppenaal, David W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth


    Abstract The continued development of the liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) microplasma as an ion source for diverse, elemental/isotopic analysis applications continues. To this end, characterization of the capabilities in performing precise and accurate isotope ratio (IR) determinations is essential. Based on past experience with the Thermo Exactive Orbitrap mass analyzer, the LS-APGD was interfaced with this instrument for these tests. While the Orbitrap platform has demonstrated excellent mass resolution and accuracy in “organic” mass spectrometry (MS) applications, work using an Orbitrap for IR analysis is very sparse. These efforts build off previous work in this coupling, where the importance of a few of the LS-APGD discharge parameters and Orbitrap data acquisition methods on IR precision and accuracy were probed. Presented here are the results of a study that evaluated the analytical precision for natural uranium sample (assumed 235U/238U = 0.0072) determinations. The instrumental parameters evaluated include the number of microscans and scans making up a data acquisition set, uranium concentration/signal level, sample make-up, and Fourier transform digitization window. Ultimately, a precision of 0.41% relative standard deviation (RSD) can be achieved for a single determination, with a reproducibility of 1.63 %RSD over 10 separate analytical measurements. A preliminary study of matrix effects on IR measurements of U is presented, highlighting the importance of pre-mass selection before injection into the Orbitrap. The analytical system sensitivity is suggested with the ability to produce a calibration function having an R2 value of >0.99 over a range of 4 orders of magnitude of concentration (~1 – 1000 ng mL-1). These efforts demonstrate the very promising pairing of the LS-APGD ionization source and the Orbitrap, pointing as well to definitive paths forward to better utilize both components in high quality isotope ratio

  3. Atmospheric neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Takaaki [Research Center for Cosmic Neutrinos, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)


    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons and electrons. Depending on the energy of the neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos are observed as fully contained events, partially contained events and upward-going muon events. The energy range covered by these events is from a few hundred MeV to >1 TeV. Data from various experiments showed zenith angle- and energy-dependent deficit of {nu}{sub {mu}} events, while {nu}{sub e} events did not show any such effect. It was also shown that the {nu}{sub {mu}} survival probability obeys the sinusoidal function as predicted by neutrino oscillations. Two-flavour {nu}{sub {mu}} {r_reversible} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations, with sin{sup 2} 2{theta} > 0.90 and {delta}m{sup 2} in the region of 1.9 x 10{sup -3} to 3.0 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, explain all these data. Various detailed studies using high statistics atmospheric neutrino data excluded the alternative hypotheses that were proposed to explain the {nu}{sub {mu}} deficit.

  4. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V


    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  5. Gravity wave characteristics in the middle atmosphere during the CESAR campaign at Palma de Mallorca in 2011/2012: Impact of extratropical cyclones and cold fronts (United States)

    Kramer, R.; Wüst, S.; Schmidt, C.; Bittner, M.


    Based on a measuring campaign which was carried out at Mallorca (39.6°N, 2.7°E) as cooperation between Agència Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET) and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, engl. 'German Aerospace Center' (DLR) in 2011/2012 (September-January), 143 radiosondes (day and night) providing vertical temperature and wind profiles were released. Additionally, nocturnal mesopause temperature measurements with a temporal resolution of about 1 min were conducted by the infrared (IR) - Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer (GRIPS) during the campaign period. Strongly enhanced gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere is observed which can be attributed to a hurricane-like storm (so-called Medicane) and to passing by cold fronts. Statistical features of gravity wave parameters including energy densitiy and momentum fluxes are calculated. Gravity wave momentum fluxes turned out being up to five times larger during severe weather. Moreover, gravity wave horizontal propagation characteristics are derived applying hodograph and Stokes parameter analysis. Preferred directions are of southeast and northwest due to prevailing wind directions at Mallorca.

  6. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions


    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami


    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  7. Channel selection for automatic seizure detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels Wesenberg; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg


    Objective: To investigate the performance of epileptic seizure detection using only a few of the recorded EEG channels and the ability of software to select these channels compared with a neurophysiologist. Methods: Fifty-nine seizures and 1419 h of interictal EEG are used for training and testing...... of an automatic channel selection method. The characteristics of the seizures are extracted by the use of a wavelet analysis and classified by a support vector machine. The best channel selection method is based upon maximum variance during the seizure. Results: Using only three channels, a seizure detection...... sensitivity of 96% and a false detection rate of 0.14/h were obtained. This corresponds to the performance obtained when channels are selected through visual inspection by a clinical neurophysiologist, and constitutes a 4% improvement in sensitivity compared to seizure detection using channels recorded...

  8. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie


    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  9. Atmospheric humidity (United States)

    Water vapor plays a critical role in earth's atmosphere. It helps to maintain a habitable surface temperature through absorption of outgoing longwave radiation, and it transfers trmendous amounts of energy from the tropics toward the poles by absorbing latent heat during evaporation and subsequently...

  10. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (United States)

    Title, Alan M.; AIA Team


    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on SDO will provide revolutionary coverage of the entire visible solar hemisphere, observed from photospheric to coronal temperatures, at 1-arcsecond resolution, with a characteristic cadence of 10 seconds for each channel. The AIA comprises four dual normal-incidence telescopes that enable it to cycle through a set of EUV channels centered on strong emission lines of iron (ranging from Fe IX through XXIII) and helium (304A), plus two UV channels near 1600A and a broad band visible channel. Combined with the (vector-)magnetic imagery from SDO/HMI, the AIA observations will significantly further our understanding of the dynamics of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere and heliosphere, both in quiescent and eruptive stages. The comprehensive thermal coverage of the corona will open new avenues of study for coronal energetics and seismology, which will benefit from the excellent calibration against the SDO/EVE spectral irradiance measurements. The AIA data will be easily accessible on the web, with a time delay that is expected to be of the order of 15 minutes to 1 hour. Users will be able to browse the data through summary web pages that are complemented by a comprehensive metadata catalog. Data analysis will be supported through the freely available SolarSoft libraries and through modules in a flexible, evolving pipeline data analysis system to be operated at the AIA-HMI Joint Science Operations Center. We plan to incorporate feature recognition software, automated movie making, coronal field modeling, and other supporting analysis software. We invite the broad ILWS community to contact us with ideas to collaborate on any aspect of the AIA Investigation. Details on the AIA instrument, the Science Investigation, and related news can be found at

  11. The Orange Juice Distribution Channels: Some Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bringing opportunities to companies. This paper has ... the major supplier of the FCOJ to the world, which is ... Superstores. Discounters. Street sales. Deliveries. Small: neighbourhood. Others .... innovation, is launching several new products ...

  12. Algorithm for Recovery of Integrated Water Vapor Content in the Atmosphere over Land Surfaces Based on Satellite Spectroradiometer Data (United States)

    Lisenko, S. A.


    An algorithm is proposed for making charts of the distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere based on multispectral images of the earth by the Ocean and Land Color Instrument (OLCI) on board of the European research satellite Sentinel-3. The algorithm is based on multiple regression fits of the spectral brightness coefficients at the upper boundary of the atmosphere, the geometric parameters of the satellite location (solar and viewing angles), and the total water vapor content in the atmosphere. A regression equation is derived from experimental data on the variation in the optical characteristics of the atmosphere and underlying surface, together with Monte-Carlo calculations of the radiative transfer characteristics. The equation includes the brightness coefficients in the near IR channels of the OLCI for the absorption bands of water vapor and oxygen, as well as for the transparency windows of the atmosphere. Together these make it possible to eliminate the effect of the reflection spectrum of the underlying surface and air pressure on the accuracy of the measurements. The algorithm is tested using data from a prototype OLCI, the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS). A sample chart of the distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere over Eastern Europe is constructed without using subsatellite data and digital models of the surface relief. The water vapor contents in the atmosphere determined using MERIS images and data provided by earthbound measurements with the aerosol robotic network (AERONET) are compared with a mean square deviation of 1.24 kg/m2.

  13. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  14. 77 FR 16212 - Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council (United States)


    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Channel Islands National... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC... member and alternate, Tourism member and alternate, Education member and alternate, Chumash member and...

  15. Measurements of profiles of aerosol/cloud in the lower atmosphere using a lidar system (United States)

    Gasmi, Khaled


    Preliminary measurements of profiles of aerosol/cloud in the lower atmosphere using a homemade stationary groundbased lidar system will be presented. In addition, information on basic characteristics and performance of the lidar system will be provided. Aerosol/Cloud lidar system in monostatic coaxial configuration uses the fundamental (1064 nm) and the second harmonic (532 nm) of a pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser to provide information on the relative concentration and spatial distribution of aerosol particles and cloud water droplets. Beam expander is used to reduce the laser beam divergence before to be transmitted into the atmosphere. In this study, high-resolution vertical profiles from the near ground up to 15 km altitude are obtained. A Newtonian telescope of diameter 400 mm with an adjustable field of view (FOV) is used to collect the elastic backscattered signal. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used for the 532 nm wavelength detection channel, while an avalanche photodiode (APD) is used for the 1064 nm wavelength detection channel. The optoelectronic detection channels use two similar very high frequency preamplification circuit. Data are acquired with a nominal spatial resolution of 7.5 m using a 12-bit 20 MHz analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for each channel. Many functions, such as, range determination, background subtraction, digitization, and averaging are performed by the receiver subsystem. In addition, spatial resolution and linear dynamic range were optimized during signal processing.

  16. Analysis of ELF Radio Atmospherics Radiated by Rocket-Triggered Lightning (United States)

    Dupree, N. A.; Moore, R. C.; Pilkey, J. T.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Caicedo, J. A.; Hare, B.; Ngin, T. K.


    Experimental observations of ELF radio atmospherics produced by rocket-triggered lightning flashes are used to analyze Earth-ionosphere waveguide excitation and propagation characteristics. Rocket-triggered lightning experiments are performed at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) located at Camp Blanding, Florida. Long-distance ELF observations are performed in California, Greenland, and Antarctica. The lightning current waveforms directly measured at the base of the lightning channel (at the ICLRT) along with pertinent Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data are used together with the Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) code to predict the radio atmospheric (sferic) waveform observed at the receiver locations under various ionospheric conditions. We identify fitted exponential electron density profiles that accurately describe the observed propagation delays, phase delays, and signal amplitudes. The ability to infer ionospheric characteristics using distant ELF observations greatly enhances ionospheric remote sensing capabilities, especially in regard to interpreting observations of transient luminous events (TLEs) and other ionospheric effects associated with lightning.

  17. Characteristics of lead geochemistry and the mobility of Pb isotopes in the system of pedogenic rock-pedosphere-irrigated riverwater-cereal-atmosphere from the Yangtze River delta region, China. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Zhongfang; Mao, Changping; Ji, Junfeng


    Knowledge of the characteristics of Pb and its isotopic transfer in different compartments is scant, especially for the mobility of Pb isotopes in the geochemical cycle. The present study characterizes differential Pb transport mechanism and the mobility of Pb isotopes in the pedogenic parent rock-pedosphere-irrigated riverwater-cereal-atmosphere system in the Yangtze River delta region, by determining Pb concentration and Pb isotopic ratios of pedogenic parent rocks, fluvial suspended particle matter, tillage soils, soil profiles, irrigated riverwater, fertilizer, Pb ore, cereal roots and grains. The results show that Pb isotopes in the geochemical cycle generally follow the equation of (208)Pb/(206)Pb=-1.157×(206)Pb/(207)Pb+3.46 (r(2)=0.941). However, Pb isotopes have different mobility in different environmental matrixes. Whereas in the pedosphere, the heavier Pb ((208)Pb) usually shows stronger mobility relative to the lighter Pb, and is more likely to transfer into soil exchangeable Pb fraction and carbonates phase. The lighter Pb shows stronger transfer ability from soil to cereal grain via root compared to the heavier Pb. However, the cereal grains have lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb and higher (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios than root and tillage soil, similar to the airborne Pb and anthropogenic Pb, implying that a considerable amount of Pb in cereal grains comes from the atmosphere. The estimate model shows that 16.7-52.6% (average: 33.5%) of Pb in rice grain is the airborne Pb. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Size and Frequency, Natural Habitat (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has measurements of the size of selected animal species at selected locations in the Channel Islands National Park. Sampling is conducted annually...

  19. Compact, Dual Channel, Mid-IR Laser Spectrometer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a dual channel, compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer for planetary atmosphere...

  20. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Random Point Contact (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has estimates of substrate composition and percent cover of selected algal and...

  1. Compact, Dual Channel, Mid-IR Laser Spectrometer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a dual channel, compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer for planetary atmosphere...

  2. Atmospheric aerosol characteristics retrieved using ground based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the regional and global radiation budget perturb- ing climatic balance (Russell et al 1994; Tegen et al ... They influ- ence the Earth's radiation budget and hence lead to climate forcing (Charlson et al 1992; Satheesh et .... in terms of construction of large numbers of hotels, business establishments, hydropower colonies and.

  3. A Survey of Atmospheric Turbulence Characteristics (United States)


    appreciation to Dr. Oskar M. Essenwanger for encouragement and helpful suggestions during this project; to Mr. Richard E. Dickson and Dr. George Fichtl...Army Picatinny Arsenal ATTN: SMUPS-TV-3 1 Dover, New Jersey 07801 Florida State University ATTN: Prof. Dr. Gleeson 1 Tallahassee, Florida 32306 "ADTC

  4. Atmospheric aerosol characteristics retrieved using ground based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fractional asymmetry factor is more negative in summer due to enhanced tourists' arrival and also in autumn months due to the monthlong International Kullu Dussehra fair. The AOD values given by MWR and satellite-based moderate resolution imaging spectro-radiometer have good correlation of 0.76, 0.92 and 0.97 ...

  5. Well-Defined Microapertures for Ion Channel Biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halza, Erik; Bro, Tobias Hedegaard; Bilenberg, Brian; Kocer, Armagan


    Gated ion channels are excitable nanopores in biological membranes. They sense and respond to different triggers in nature. The sensory characteristics of these channels can be modified by protein engineering tools and the channels can be functionally reconstituted into synthetic lipid bilayer

  6. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan


    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  7. Anthropogenic influences on the morphodynamics of the upper Odra channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czajka Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The aim of the studies presented in this article was a multifaceted approach to the problem of the processes of river adjustments to new conditions created by channel regulation. The Upper Odra channel has been significantly shortened by meander cut offs and locally by channelization. The influence of those changes on channel morphodynamics and the pattern of bedload transport were calculated. Pre-regulation channel geometry was reconstructed and the channel stability and bedload transport were characterized and compared with the present state. Also the flow duration curves (FDC for the characteristic water stages and for the average discharges were plotted and analyzed to assess vertical channel bed movement. By comparing the behavior of natural channel sectors (both, present and fossil to channelized and sectors shortened by cut offs it was possible to understand the intensity of changes depending on a way of channel regulation. The range of post regulation changes in bedload transport and channel stability was also calculated for the functioning, unregulated sector of the Odra channel. Flow duration curves reflect steady channel incision while the protected river banks prevent the channel from lateral movement. In order to achieve lateral stability, which is unnatural for meandering rivers, the Odra channel is totally remodelled and the new geometry and flow conditions created. The morphological response to the training works was channel incision and accelerated bedload transport.

  8. Channel nut tool (United States)

    Olson, Marvin


    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  9. A Survey of Channel Modeling for UAV Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Khuwaja, Aziz Altaf


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained great interest for rapid deployment in both civil and military applications. UAV communication has its own distinctive channel characteristics compared with widely used cellular and satellite systems. Thus, accurate channel characterization is crucial for the performance optimization and design of efficient UAV communication systems. However, several challenges exist in UAV channel modeling. For example, propagation characteristics of UAV channels are still less explored for spatial and temporal variations in non-stationary channels. Also, airframe shadowing has not yet been investigated for small size rotary UAVs. This paper provides an extensive survey on the measurement campaigns launched for UAV channel modeling using low altitude platforms and discusses various channel characterization efforts. We also review the contemporary perspective of UAV channel modeling approaches and outline some future research challenges in this domain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bondar


    Full Text Available It is shown that at present an acceptable way of reducing the concentration of harmful substances in the surface layer of the atmosphere at rheostat tests of locomotives is their dispersion in a large volume of air. Channels, installed above an exhaust pipe of diesel locomotive with a break at the gas flow, work as ejectors. We have solved jointly the equation of aerodynamic characteristics of the ejector device and the equation of diffusion of gases; as a result the calculated dependence for determining the necessary height of ejector device has been obtained.



    Milan Andrejić; Milorad Kilibarda


    Strategic decision making is very important in logistics. One of the most important strategic decisions in logistics is the selection of distribution channels. This paper proposes the efficiency of distribution channels as one of the main selection criteria. The efficiency of distribution channels simultaneously affects logistics costs and customer satisfaction. Based on the main characteristics of the distribution channels, such as delivery time, service level, volume of business, the level ...

  12. Enhancement effects of martentoxin on glioma BK channel and BK channel (α+β1 subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BK channels are usually activated by membrane depolarization and cytoplasmic Ca(2+. Especially,the activity of BK channel (α+β4 can be modulated by martentoxin, a 37 residues peptide, with Ca(2+-dependent manner. gBK channel (glioma BK channel and BK channel (α+β1 possessed higher Ca(2+ sensitivity than other known BK channel subtypes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study investigated the modulatory characteristics of martentoxin on these two BK channel subtypes by electrophysiological recordings, cell proliferation and Ca(2+ imaging. In the presence of cytoplasmic Ca(2+, martentoxin could enhance the activities of both gBK and BK channel (α+β1 subtypes in dose-dependent manner with EC(50 of 46.7 nM and 495 nM respectively, while not shift the steady-state activation of these channels. The enhancement ratio of martentoxin on gBK and BK channel (α+β1 was unrelated to the quantitative change of cytoplasmic Ca(2+ concentrations though the interaction between martentoxin and BK channel (α+β1 was accelerated under higher cytoplasmic Ca(2+. The selective BK pore blocker iberiotoxin could fully abolish the enhancement of these two BK subtypes induced by martentoxin, suggesting that the auxiliary β subunit might contribute to the docking for martentoxin. However, in the absence of cytoplasmic Ca(2+, the activity of gBK channel would be surprisingly inhibited by martentoxin while BK channel (α+β1 couldn't be affected by the toxin. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, the results shown here provide the novel evidence that martentoxin could increase the two Ca(2+-hypersensitive BK channel subtypes activities in a new manner and indicate that β subunit of these BK channels plays a vital role in this enhancement by martentoxin.

  13. Convergence of estuarine channels (United States)

    Dronkers, Job


    Tide-dominated coastal plain estuaries have typically up-estuary convergent tidal channels. Analysis of estuarine characteristics indicates a dependence of the convergence length on relative tidal amplitude, relative intertidal area and river flow velocity. In order to explain these relationships we investigate a condition for continuity of net sediment transport throughout the estuary, corresponding to morphodynamic equilibrium. We show, by using an analytical solution of the tidal equations, that this condition is equivalent to a condition on the convergence length. This condition is evaluated for 21 estuaries in different regions of the world. It appears that the convergence length determined in this way can explain observed convergence lengths for the considered set of estuaries. The dependence of the convergence length on different estuarine characteristics is analysed by solving the fully coupled hydro-morphodynamic equations. We show that this dependence limits the range of variation of the tidal velocity amplitude. The analysis provides insight in the morphological response of estuaries to human interventions. The condition can easily be evaluated to yield an estimate of this response.

  14. [Memory and potassium channels]. (United States)

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, Iu V; Skrebitskiĭ, V G


    The K(+)-channels of the surface membrane play a crucial role in the generation of electrical activity of a neuron. There is a large diversity of the K(+)-channels that depends on a great number (over 200) of genes encoding channels proteins. An evolutionary conservation of channel's proteins is determined. The K(+)-channels were found to have a great importance in the memory processes. It was shown on different model systems that K(+)-current of the surface membrane decreases during the learning. The antagonists of K(+)-channels were found to improve the learning and memory. It was revealed in electrophysiological experiments that K(+)-channels antagonists can either themselves induce a long-term synaptic potentiation or intensify the synaptic potentiation induced by a tetanization. The disfunction of K(+)-channels is believed to be an important link in the mechanisms of memory disturbances. In animal mutants with K(+)-channels disfunction, learning and memory are deficient. In behavioral experiments, the use of K(+)-channels openers make the learning worse. Amnesia caused by cerebral ischemia is explained by strong activity of K(+)-channels which not only inhibits neuronal excitement but also causes neurodegeneration. The question on the K(+)-channels involvement into pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is discussed. Neurotoxic peptide beta-amyloid, which is supposed to be involved into mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease, modulates K(+)-channels function. The effect of beta-amyloid depends on the subtype of K(+)-channels: A-channels are inhibited, and KDR-channels, on the contrary, become stronger. The effect of the cognitive enhancers (vinpocetine, piracetam, tacrine, linopirdine) on K(+)-current also depends on the subtype of K(+)-channels. Slow-inactivating K(+)-currents (IDR, IK(Ca), IM) are inhibited in the presence of these drugs, while fast-in-activating K(+)-current (A-current) remains unchanged or even increases.

  15. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.


    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  16. Exploring the Atmosphere Using Smartphones (United States)

    Monteiro, Martin; Vogt, Patrik; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.


    The characteristics of the inner layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, are determinant for Earth's life. In this experience we explore the first hundreds of meters using a smartphone mounted on a quadcopter. Both the altitude and the pressure are obtained using the smartphone's sensors. We complement these measures with data collected from the…

  17. USACE Navigation Channels 2012 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  18. Calcium channel blocker overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  19. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval (United States)

    Gat, Ilana


    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  20. The triumf stopped π- μ channel (United States)

    Al-Qazzaz, N. M. M.; Beer, G. A.; Mason, G. R.; Olin, A.; Pearce, R. M.; Bryman, D. A.; MacDonald, J. A.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Reeve, P. A.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Suzuki, T.


    The TRIUMF stopped π- μ channel (M9) is described and the measured optical parameters are compared with design values. Measured beam characteristics of pions and muons for several different momenta are reported for protons incident on Be and Cu production targets. A beam of cloud muons at the channel momentum, from π decays near the production target, has been obtained having a high stopping density and small spot size.

  1. Channel morphology [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary


    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  2. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A


    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  3. Atmospheric temperature profiles derived through the inversion of a system of first order differential equations. [radiance data from satellite sounder (United States)

    Gatlin, J. A.; Englar, T. S.


    Generation of vertical temperatures profiles from remotely sensed atmospheric radiance data is described as an analogous communications system. The radiative transport characteristics of the atmosphere encodes the continuous temperature profile into an 'n' element vector where 'n' is the number of channels in the satellite instrument. The temperature profile is a message transmitted from station A to station B and the link is the satellite instrument. At station B the decoder reproduces a continuous function which is the best estimate of the message encoded at station A. It is shown that the decoder must operate in a tuned mode where the parameters used in the encoder precisely determine the decoder parameters, and that the characteristics of the total message block must be given by a set of decoder constraints

  4. Direct multiangle solution for poorly stratified atmospheres (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao


    The direct multiangle solution is considered, which allows improving the scanning lidar-data-inversion accuracy when the requirement of the horizontally stratified atmosphere is poorly met. The signal measured at zenith or close to zenith is used as a core source for extracting optical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol loading. The multiangle signals are used...

  5. Atmospheric Climate Experiment Plus (United States)

    Lundahl, K.

    ACE+ is an atmospheric sounding mission using radio occultation techniques and is a combination of the two Earth Explorer missions ACE and WATS earlier proposed to ESA. ACE was highly rated by ESA in the Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 1999 and was prioritised as number three and selected as a "hot-stand-by". A phase A study was carried out during 2000 and 2001. ACE will observe atmospheric parameters using radio occultations from an array of 6 micro-satellites which track the L- band signal of GPS satellites to map the detailed refractivity and thermal structure of the global atmosphere from surface to space. Water vapour and wind in Atmospheric Troposphere and Stratosphere WATS was the response to ESA's Call for Ideas for the next Earth Explorer Core Missions in 2001. WATS combines ACE GPS atmospheric occultations and LEO-LEO cross-link occultations. Cross-links strongly enhance the capability of measuring humidity relative to the ACE mission. The Earth Science Advisory Committée at ESA noted that the LEO-GNSS occultation technique is already well established through several missions in recent years and could not recommend WATS for a Phase A study as an Earth Explorer Core Mission. The ESAC was, however, deeply impressed by the LEO-LEO component of the WATS proposal and would regard it as regrettable if this science would be lost and encourages the ACE/WATS team to explore other means to achieve its scientific goal. ACE+ is therefore the response to ESA's 2nd Call for Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions in 2001 and will contribute in a significant manner to ESA's Living Planet Programme. ACE+ will considerably advance our knowledge about atmosphere physics and climate change processes. The mission will demonstrate a highly innovative approach using radio occultations for globally measuring profiles of humidity and temperature throughout the atmosphere and stratosphere. A constellation of 4 small satellites, tracking L-band GPS/GALILEO signals and

  6. Atmosphere in a Test Tube (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Pace, E.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Piccioni, G.; Billi, D.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Coccola, L.; Erculiani, M. S.; Fedel, M.; Galletta, G.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Schierano, D.; Stefani, S.

    The ancestor philosophers' dream of thousand of new world is finally realised: more than 1800 extrasolar planets have been discovered in the neighborhood of our Sun. Most of them are very different from those we used to know in our Solar System. Others orbit the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Space missions, as JWST and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground based instruments, like SPHERE@VLT, GPI@GEMINI and EPICS@ELT, have been proposed and built to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra over a wide wavelength range of these new worlds. In order to interpret the spectra coming out by this new instrumentation, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how those characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and bio-chemical reaction. Insights in this direction can be achieved from laboratory studies of simulated planetary atmosphere of different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. ''Atmosphere in a Test Tube'' is a collaboration among several Italian astronomical, biological and engineering institutes in order to share their experiencece in performing laboratory experiments on several items concerning extrasolar planet atmospheres.

  7. Ion channel pharmacology. (United States)

    Camerino, Diana Conte; Tricarico, Domenico; Desaphy, Jean-François


    Because ion channels are involved in many cellular processes, drugs acting on ion channels have long been used for the treatment of many diseases, especially those affecting electrically excitable tissues. The present review discusses the pharmacology of voltage-gated and neurotransmitter-gated ion channels involved in neurologic diseases, with emphasis on neurologic channelopathies. With the discovery of ion channelopathies, the therapeutic value of many basic drugs targeting ion channels has been confirmed. The understanding of the genotype-phenotype relationship has highlighted possible action mechanisms of other empirically used drugs. Moreover, other ion channels have been pinpointed as potential new drug targets. With regards to therapy of channelopathies, experimental investigations of the intimate drug-channel interactions have demonstrated that channel mutations can either increase or decrease affinity for the drug, modifying its potential therapeutic effect. Together with the discovery of channel gene polymorphisms that may affect drug pharmacodynamics, these findings highlight the need for pharmacogenetic research to allow identification of drugs with more specific effects on channel isoforms or mutants, to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. With a greater understanding of channel genetics, structure, and function, together with the identification of novel primary and secondary channelopathies, the number of ion channel drugs for neurologic channelopathies will increase substantially.

  8. Propagation channel characterization, parameter estimation, and modeling for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xuefeng


    Thoroughly covering channel characteristics and parameters, this book provides the knowledge needed to design various wireless systems, such as cellular communication systems, RFID and ad hoc wireless communication systems. It gives a detailed introduction to aspects of channels before presenting the novel estimation and modelling techniques which can be used to achieve accurate models. To systematically guide readers through the topic, the book is organised in three distinct parts. The first part covers the fundamentals of the characterization of propagation channels, including the conventional single-input single-output (SISO) propagation channel characterization as well as its extension to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cases. Part two focuses on channel measurements and channel data post-processing. Wideband channel measurements are introduced, including the equipment, technology and advantages and disadvantages of different data acquisition schemes. The channel parameter estimation methods are ...

  9. On the hydrography of Puyuhuapi Channel, Chilean Patagonia (United States)

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Pérez-Santos, Iván; Ross, Lauren; Bravo, Luis; Seguel, Romanet; Hernández, Freddy


    This work describes the hydrographic conditions found in Puyuhuapi Channel (northern Chilean Patagonia) during recent years on a seasonal scale. Puyuhuapi Channel was once a glacial valley, but the retreating ice allowed the inflow of marine waters. Five surveys were conducted between 2008 and 2012; historical data from 1995 to 2007 were included. A meteorological/oceanographic buoy was also installed in the northern section of Puyuhuapi Channel and was operational beginning on April 12th, 2011. Puyuhuapi Channel's surface characteristics highlight a fresher northern part and a more haline southern part except during winter when the pattern can reverse due to the intrusion of oceanic water via Jacaf Channel. The channel exhibits a highly variable meridional and seasonal vertical stratification, especially in its northern part where during spring and summer the water column is highly stratified but partially mixed during winter. Puyuhuapi Channel is the only fjord/channel with severe hypoxic conditions in all of Chilean Patagonia.

  10. Atmospheric ducts can transport sound in two directions (United States)

    Schultz, Colin


    When conditions are right, temperature gradients and fast jets of wind can help to establish atmospheric ducts—pathways in the atmosphere that promote the propagation of low-frequency acoustic waves (infrasound)—across long distances. Atmospheric ducts are part of the basis behind over-the-horizon radar, the source of some particularly clear mirages, and a channel through which sounds can travel relatively unperturbed across vast distances.

  11. Climatological features of precipitation characteristics and large-scale atmospheric fields on the heavy rainfall days in the eastern part of Japan during the mature stage of the Baiu season (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kengo; Kato, Kuranoshin; Otani, Kazuo


    In East Asia a remarkable rainy season called the "Baiu (in Japan)/Meiyu (in China)" appears in early summer affected by the quasi-stationary subtropical frontal zone, the Baiu frontal zone. Especially around the western Japan to the Changjiang River Basin, the frequent heavy rainfall events on the front by the organized deep convective clouds result in the huge total rainfall there. Furthermore, the rainfall features in the eastern Japan are rather different from those in the western part, i.e., the contribution of the "heavy rainfall days" (events with more than 50 mm/day) to the total climatological rainfall amount in the eastern Japan is rather smaller than in the western part. However, the total rainfall even in the eastern Japan in early summer is considerably large than that in Europe such as Germany and Austria. Thus in order to understand the regional climate change in summer in East Asia associated with the large-scale factors such as global warming, it would be also necessary to accumulate the fundamental knowledge on the difference of rainfall characteristics on the "heavy rainfall days" in the Baiu season between the western and the eastern parts of the Japan Islands for the "present climate." Since many studies for the western Japan have been made so far, the present study will examine rainfall characteristics and large-scale atmospheric fields on the "heavy rainfall days" in the mature stage of the Baiu season (16 June ~ 15 July) at Tokyo in the eastern part of the Japan Island, based on the daily and the hourly precipitation data from 1971 to 2010. Appearance frequency of the "heavy rainfall days" at Tokyo attained only about 1/3 of that at Nagasaki in the western Japan. Furthermore, it is noted that about half of the "heavy rainfall days" at Tokyo were related to the typhoon. In detail, about half of the typhoon cases were associated with the direct approach of a typhoon (referred to as Pattern A, hereafter), the other half corresponded to the

  12. Compound Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Gerhard


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper considers the compound wiretap channel, which generalizes Wyner's wiretap model to allow the channels to the (legitimate receiver and to the eavesdropper to take a number of possible states. No matter which states occur, the transmitter guarantees that the receiver decodes its message and that the eavesdropper is kept in full ignorance about the message. The compound wiretap channel can also be viewed as a multicast channel with multiple eavesdroppers, in which the transmitter sends information to all receivers and keeps the information secret from all eavesdroppers. For the discrete memoryless channel, lower and upper bounds on the secrecy capacity are derived. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded channel and the semideterministic channel with one receiver. The parallel Gaussian channel is further studied. The secrecy capacity and the secrecy degree of freedom ( are derived for the degraded case with one receiver. Schemes to achieve the for the case with two receivers and two eavesdroppers are constructed to demonstrate the necessity of a prefix channel in encoder design. Finally, the multi-antenna (i.e., MIMO compound wiretap channel is studied. The secrecy capacity is established for the degraded case and an achievable is given for the general case.

  13. Global distribution of fluvial channels on Titan (United States)

    Langhans, M.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R.; Baines, K. H.; Nicholson, P. D.; Lorenz, R. D.


    The presence of fluvial erosion on Titan's surface is an obvious analogy to Earth. This study investigates the global distribution of fluvial valley systems on Titan. Based on Cassini-RADAR-data we mapped the allocation of channels, their appropriate flow direction and morphological properties. A great variety of morphological valley types ranges from dendritic valleys that certainly developed from precipitation to a more canyon-like valley type whose development is possibly supported by groundwater release. Another type of fluvial valleys resembles terrestrial wadis that evolved as a result of precipitation separated by long-term intervals of dry periods. Furthermore, based on a global Cassini-VIMS-mosaic the allocation of fluvial channels was determined with respect to spectral units. Based on the spectral signature in the infrared methane windows - expressed as VIMS wavelength ratios composed to a color image (RGB) - three major units can be distinguished: whitish material which is mainly distributed in the topographically high areas indicating equal reflectivity in all atmospheric windows; bluish material that exhibits a higher reflectivity at shorter atmospheric wavelength windows implying a clear spectral separation from the whitish material, and brownish material characterized by a higher reflectivity in the longer wavelength atmospheric windows that correlates with dunes. The majority of channels are exposed on the bright surface unit while just a few percent of channels are located on the blue and brown surface unit, respectively. Fluvial incision has shaped Titan's surface globally. Nevertheless, from a morphological point of view as well as concerning the associated VIMS-unit fluvial shaping is not uniform. The global distribution of channels provides unique information about environmental conditions and processes forming Titan's surface. However, to date just 20% of Titans surface are covered with high resolution data, thus, the current results can only

  14. Salt marsh vegetation promotes efficient tidal channel networks (United States)

    Kearney, W. S.; Fagherazzi, S.


    Tidal channel networks mediate the exchange of water, nutrients and sediment between an estuary and marshes and mudflats. Biology feeds back into channel morphodynamics through vegetation's influence on the cohesive strength of channel banks. Understanding the morphology of a tidal channel network is thus essential to understanding both the biological functioning of intertidal ecosystems and the topographic signature of life. A critical measure of the morphology of a channel network is the unchanneled path length, which is characteristic of the efficiency with which a network dissects the marsh platform. However, the processes which control the formation and maintenance of an efficient tidal channel network remain unclear. Here we show that an unvegetated marsh platform (Estero La Ramada, Baja California, Mexico) is dissected by a less efficient channel network than a vegetated one (Barnstable, Massachusetts, United States). The difference in geometric efficiency reflects a difference in the branching and meandering characteristics of the network, characteristics controlled by the density of vegetation on the channel banks. Our results suggest a feedback between network geometry and vegetation, mediated by fluxes of nutrients and salinity through the channel network, maintains the observed network geometries. An efficient network can support a denser vegetation community which stabilizes channel banks, leading to an efficient meandering geometry.

  15. Hidden systematics of fission channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Karl-Heinz


    Full Text Available It is a common procedure to describe the fission-fragment mass distributions of fissioning systems in the actinide region by a sum of at least 5 Gaussian curves, one for the symmetric component and a few additional ones, together with their complementary parts, for the asymmetric components. These components have been attributed to the influence of fragment shells, e.g. in the statistical scission-point model of Wilkins, Steinberg and Chasman. They have also been associated with valleys in the potential-energy landscape between the outer saddle and the scission configuration in the multi-channel fission model of Brosa. When the relative yields, the widths and the mean mass-asymmetry values of these components are fitted to experimental data, the mass distributions can be very well reproduced. Moreover, these fission channels are characterised by specific values of charge polarisation, total kinetic energy and prompt-neutron yields. The present contribution investigates the systematic variation of the characteristic fission-channel properties as a function of the composition and the excitation energy of the fissioning system. The mean position of the asymmetric fission channels in the heavy fragment is almost constant in atomic number. The deformation of the nascent fragments at scission, which is the main source of excitation energy of the separated fission fragments ending up in prompt-neutron emission, is found to be a unique function of Z for the light and the heavy fragment of the asymmetric fission channels. A variation of the initial excitation energy of the fissioning system above the fission saddle is only seen in the neutron yield of the heavy fragment. The charge polarisation in the two most important asymmetric fission channels is found to be constant and to appreciably exceed the macroscopic value. The variation of the relative yields and of the positions of the fission channels as a function of the composition and excitation energy

  16. Experimental Characterisation and Modelling of Atmospheric Fog and Turbulence in FSO


    Ijaz, Muhammad


    Free space optical (FSO) communication uses visible or infrared (IR) wavelengths to broadcast high-speed data wirelessly through the atmospheric channel. The performance of FSO communications is mainly dependent on the unpredictable atmospheric channel such as fog, smoke and temperature dependent turbulence. However, as the real outdoor atmosphere (ROA) is time varying and heterogeneous in nature as well as depending on the magnitude and intensity of different weather conditions, carrying out...

  17. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008 (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi


    -- Probing channeling radiation influenced by ultrasound / W. Wagner ... [et al.] -- Radiation characteristics under electrons planar channeling and quasichanneling in complex crystals / L. Gevorgian -- Formation of relativistic positron atoms by axially channeled positrons and their decay on [symbol]-rays / A. Gevorkyan, A. R. Mkrtchyan and K. Oganesyan -- New features of diffracted channeling radiation from electrons in Si and LiF Crystals / K. B. Korotchenko, Yu. L. Pivovarov and T. A. Tukhfatullin -- Modulated particle beam in a crystal channel / A. Kostyuk ... [et al.] -- Computer simulations of resonant coherent excitation of heavy hydrogenlike ions under planar channeling / A. A. Babaev and Yu. L. Pivovarov -- Parametric x-ray and diffracted transition radiation of 4.5 GeV electrons in diamond / R. O. Avakian ... [et al.] -- Possible use of small accelerators in student laboratory for engineering education / I. Endo, M. Tanaka and T. Yoshimura.The Status of the SPARC Project / A. Cianchi -- Laser-plasma acceleration: first experimental results from the Plasmon-X Project / L. A. Gizzi ... [et al.] -- The powerful nanosecond duration electron beam effect on the crystalline tungsten target / Y. N. Adischev ... [et al.] -- "Shadowing" of the electromagnetic field of a relativistic electron / G. Naumenko ... [et al.] -- The acceleration of the charged particles in a low temperature acoustoplasma / A. S. Abrahamyan, A. R. Mkrtchyan and R. B. Kostanyan -- The experimental study of the surface current excitation by a relativistic electron electromagnetic field / G. A. Naumenko ... [et al.] -- Synchrotron radiation from a charge moving along helical orbit around a dielectric cylinder / A. A. Saharian and A. S. Kotanjyan -- Particle acceleration in a helical wave guide / X. Artru and C. Ray -- Effect of heavy ion charge fluctuations on Cherenkov radiation / V. S. Malyshevsky -- Hard photons powerful radiation of electron bunch interacting with plasma beat waves / A. Shamamian

  18. The Neural Noisy Channel


    Yu, Lei; Blunsom, Phil; Dyer, Chris; Grefenstette, Edward; Kocisky, Tomas


    We formulate sequence to sequence transduction as a noisy channel decoding problem and use recurrent neural networks to parameterise the source and channel models. Unlike direct models which can suffer from explaining-away effects during training, noisy channel models must produce outputs that explain their inputs, and their component models can be trained with not only paired training samples but also unpaired samples from the marginal output distribution. Using a latent variable to control ...

  19. A simple quantum channel having superadditivity of channel capacity


    Sasaki, Masahide; Kato, Kentaro; Izutsu, Masayuki; Hirota, Osamu


    When classical information is sent through a quantum channel of nonorthogonal states, there is a possibility that transmittable classical information exceeds a channel capacity in a single use of the initial channel by extending it into multi-product channel. In this paper, it is shown that this remarkable feature of a quantum channel, so-called superadditivity, appears even in as low as the third extended coding of the simplest binary input channel. A physical implementation of this channel ...

  20. TRP channels in schistosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais


    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  1. Long Channel Carbon Nanotube as an Alternative to Nanoscale Silicon Channels in Scaled MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Loong Peng Tan


    Full Text Available Long channel carbon nanotube transistor (CNT can be used to overcome the high electric field effects in nanoscale length silicon channel. When maximum electric field is reduced, the gate of a field-effect transistor (FET is able to gain control of the channel at varying drain bias. The device performance of a zigzag CNTFET with the same unit area as a nanoscale silicon metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET channel is assessed qualitatively. The drain characteristic of CNTFET and MOSFET device models as well as fabricated CNTFET device are explored over a wide range of drain and gate biases. The results obtained show that long channel nanotubes can significantly reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL effects in silicon MOSFET while sustaining the same unit area at higher current density.

  2. Atmosphere: Power, Critique, Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels


    This paper hans three interrelated parts. First, atmosphere is approached through the concept of power. Atmospheres 'grip' us directly or mediate power indirectly by manipulating moods and evoking emotions. How does atmosphere relate to different conceptions of power? Second, atmospheric powers may...

  3. Average capacity for optical wireless communication systems over exponentiated Weibull distribution non-Kolmogorov turbulent channels. (United States)

    Cheng, Mingjian; Zhang, Yixin; Gao, Jie; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Fengsheng


    We model the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems for cases of weak to strong turbulence channels, using the exponentiation Weibull distribution model. The joint effects of the beam wander and spread, pointing errors, atmospheric attenuation, and the spectral index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on system performance are included. Our results show that the average capacity decreases steeply as the propagation length L changes from 0 to 200 m and decreases slowly down or tends to a stable value as the propagation length L is greater than 200 m. In the weak turbulence region, by increasing the detection aperture, we can improve the average channel capacity and the atmospheric visibility as an important issue affecting the average channel capacity. In the strong turbulence region, the increase of the radius of the detection aperture cannot reduce the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on the average channel capacity, and the effect of atmospheric visibility on the channel information capacity can be ignored. The effect of the spectral power exponent on the average channel capacity in the strong turbulence region is higher than weak turbulence region. Irrespective of the details determining the turbulent channel, we can say that pointing errors have a significant effect on the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems in turbulence channels.

  4. Time dependences of atmospheric Carbon dioxide fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    DeSalvo, Riccardo


    Understanding the lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere is critical for predictions regarding future climate changes. A simple mass conservation analysis presented here generates tight estimations for the atmosphere's retention time constant. The analysis uses a leaky integrator model that combines the observed deficit (only less than 40% of CO2 produced from combustion of fossil fuels is actually retained in the atmosphere, while more than 60% is continuously shed) with the exponential growth of fossil fuel burning. It reveals a maximum characteristic time of less than 23 year for the transfer of atmospheric CO2 to a segregation sink. This time constant is further constrained by the rapid disappearance of 14C after the ban of atmospheric atomic bomb tests, which provides a lower limit of 18 years for this transfer. The study also generates evaluations of other CO2 fluxes, exchange time constants and volumes exchanged. Analysis of large harmonic oscillations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, often neglected in th...

  5. Characteristics of Phytoplankton Biomass, Primary Production and Community Structure in the Modaomen Channel, Pearl River Estuary, with Special Reference to the Influence of Saltwater Intrusion during Neap and Spring Tides. (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Gao, Jie; Liao, Jianzu; Shi, Ronggui; Li, Tao; Guo, Yajuan; Long, Aimin


    In recent decades, increasing frequency and intensity of saltwater intrusion in the Modaomen Channel has threatened the freshwater supply in the surrounding cities of the Pearl River Estuary, and ulteriorly changed the environmental conditions of the estuarine waters. Phytoplankton biomass, primary production (PP) and species composition, as well as hydrological and chemical parameters were examined along a downstream transect in the Modaomen Channel during neap tide (NT) and spring tide (ST), when a strong saltwater intrusion event occurred in late September, 2011. A total of 46 species phytoplankton were identified, including Bacillariophyta (25 species), Dinoflagellate (14 species), Chlorophyta (4 species), Cyanophyta (2 species) and Euglenozoa (1 species). The dominant species were shifted from freshwater diatoms (e.g., Melosira granulata and Melosira granulata var. angustissima) in the upper reaches to saline water diatoms (e.g., Skeletonema costatum and Coscinodiscus sp.) in the river mouth. Generally, phytoplankton density, biomass (chl-a) and PP decreased from the upper to lower reaches along the channel, and were significantly higher in NT than those of ST. There was a shift from large-sized phytoplankton (>20 μm) in the upper reaches to relative small-sized cells (5-20 μm) in the lower reaches. Compared to NT, low discharge and flow velocity, coupled with strong easterly winds during ST specially aggravated saltwater intrusion further to the upstream (~50 km from the estuary). The intruded saltwater diluted nutrients, N/P ratios, chl-a, and phytoplankton abundances, and thereby led to a decline in PP during ST.

  6. Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information


    Fabing Duan; François Chapeau-Blondeau; Derek Abbott


    We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the wea...

  7. Study on Boiling Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Micro-channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Namgyun [Inha Technical College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, efficient heat dissipation has become necessary because of the miniaturization of devices, and research on boiling on micro-channels has attracted attention. However, in the case of micro-channels, the friction coefficient and heat transfer characteristics are different from those in macro-channels. This leads to large errors in the micro scale results, when compared to correlations derived from the macro scale. In addition, due to the complexity of the mechanism, the boiling phenomenon in micro-channels cannot be approached only by experimental and theoretical methods. Therefore, numerical methods should be utilized as well, to supplement these methods. However, most numerical studies have been conducted on macro-channels. In this study, we applied the lattice Boltzmann method, proposed as an alternative numerical tool to simulate the boiling phenomenon in the micro-channel, and predicted the bubble growth process in the channel.

  8. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission (United States)

    Apollonov, Victor V.


    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  9. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of GPS RO-Calibrated AMSU Channel 7 (Temperatures of Troposphere / Stratosphere, TTS), Version 1.0 (Version Superseded) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Data Records (CDR) for Channel 7 contains Radio Occulation (RO) calibrated brightness temperatures from AMSU-A channel 7 measurements at 54.9 GHz from...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Alibekov


    Full Text Available The dependence of the apparent location of the hydraulic parameters of parabolic channels in earthen channel and volume of dredging required in their design and construction, on the basis of conditions to ensure the stability of the slope at the maximum water flow rate. 

  11. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida


    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...

  12. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  13. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.


    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  14. Extreme bosonic linear channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    The set of all channels with a fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of the necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be an extreme point of this set in terms of the complementary channel, a notion of great importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra in the spirit of Arveson. We then use this formulation to prove our main result: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, environmental purity is necessary and sufficient for the extremality of a bosonic linear (quasifree) channel. It hence follows that a Gaussian channel between finite-mode bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimum noise.

  15. Sodium channels as targets for volatile anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl F. Herold


    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of modern inhaled anesthetics although widely used in clinical settings are still poorly understood. Considerable evidence supports effects on membrane proteins such as ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels of excitable cells. Na+ channels are crucial to action potential initiation and propagation, and represent potential targets for volatile anesthetics. Inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels leads to reduced neurotransmitter release at the synapse and could therefore contribute to the mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics produce their characteristic effects: amnesia, unconsciousness, and immobility. Early studies on crayfish and squid giant axon showed inhibition of Na+ currents by volatile anesthetics. Subsequent studies using native neuronal preparations and heterologous expression systems with various mammalian Na+ channel isoforms implicated inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels in anesthetic actions. Volatile anesthetics reduce peak Na+ current and shift the voltage of half-maximal steady-state inactivation towards more negative potentials, thus stabilizing the fast-inactivated state. Furthermore recovery from fast-inactivation is slowed together with an enhanced use-dependent block during pulse train protocols. These effects can reduce neurotransmitter release by depressing presynaptic excitability, depolarization and Ca entry, and ultimately transmitter release. This reduction in transmitter release is more portent for glutamatergic vs. GABAergic terminals. Involvement of Na+ channel inhibition in mediating the immobility caused by volatile anesthetics has been demonstrated in animal studies, in which intrathecal infusion of the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin increases volatile anesthetic potency, whereas infusion of the Na+ channels agonist veratridine reduces anesthetic potency. These studies indicate that inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels by volatile anesthetics is involved in mediating some of

  16. Cu Hybrid 4 Channel Cosmic Ray Detector (United States)

    Rosas Torres, F. J.; Hernández Morquecho, M. A.; Arceo, L.; Félix, J.


    There are, in the universe, several sources that produce very energetic cosmic rays that interact with the Earth´s atmosphere and create new low energy particles. To detect them there are different methods, according to the interaction with a medium such as the ionization of a material and Cerenkov radiation, among others. In this work a hybrid cosmic ray detector of 4 channels was designed, built and tested at the Laboratorio de Partículas Elementales of the Universidad de Guanajuato. A Copper bar was used as detection material, both smaller area faces have an ionization and a Cerenkov radiation detection channel. To detect the Cerenkov radiation, Hamamatsu silicon photodiodes were used, and for the ionization channels an RC circuit was developed to measure the signal. The ionization channels were tested simultaneously, observing the analogic signal on an oscilloscope. The RC circuit and discriminator were designed to be on the same board; with the discriminator we can digitize the analogic signal. Details of the design, construction and testing of the ionization channel are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Osipov


    Full Text Available Algorithm of frames distribution over redundant heterogeneous channels, taking into account the physical characteristics of channels is proposed. Simulation model of the algorithm based on MATLAB / Simulink confirms the advantages of the algorithm as compared to RoundRobin and RateBalace algorithms.



    Osipov, A. V.


    Algorithm of frames distribution over redundant heterogeneous channels, taking into account the physical characteristics of channels is proposed. Simulation model of the algorithm based on MATLAB / Simulink confirms the advantages of the algorithm as compared to RoundRobin and RateBalace algorithms.

  19. The adaptive channel estimation for STBC-OFDM systems


    Özbek, Berna; Yılmaz, Reyat


    In this paper, we propose adaptive channel estimation methods based on LMS and RLS for orthogonal STBC-OFDM systems with three transmit antennas. The performance of the proposed algorithms is obtained in the frequency selective channels using Hiperlan/2 characteristics.

  20. News for a Teen Market: The Lessons of Channel One. (United States)

    Hoynes, William


    Describes the types of stories that Channel One covers and the characteristics and configuration of its news sources. Focusing mostly on anchor personalities and politicians, Channel One news serves as a promotional vehicle for itself and youth culture, providing a friendly environment for controversial product advertisements. Such dramatic and…

  1. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling via Atmospheric Waves (United States)

    Koucka Knizova, Petra; Lastovicka, Jan


    The Earth atmosphere and ionosphere is complicated and highly variable system which displays oscillations on wide range scales. The most important factor influencing the ionosphere is certainly the solar and geomagnetic activity. However, the processes even in distant regions in the neutral atmosphere cannot be simply neglected. This contribution reviews aspects of ionospheric variability originating in the lower laying atmosphere. It focuses especially on the generation and propagation of the atmospheric waves from their source region up to the heights of the ionosphere. We will show the role of infrasound, gravity waves, tides and planetary waves in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Particularly gravity waves are of high importance for the ionosphere. Recent theoretical and experimental results will briefly be reviewed.

  2. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.


    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  3. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.


    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  4. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels. (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian


    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Channel matrix characterization in MIMO scenario through impedance modulation


    Monsalve Carcelen, Beatriz; Romeu Robert, Jordi; Blanch Boris, Sebastián


    In this paper a new measurement setup to obtain the characteristic channel matrix of a MIMO radio system is presented using a small and non intrusive device able to characterize two antennas and therefore obtaining the characteristic channel matrix of a MIMO radio system of Nx2 antennas without using a receiver for each port. The extension to a system of more than two output elements can be easily achieved increasing the complexity of the switching device. To validate the new methodo...

  6. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille


    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  7. Atmospheric structure from Phoenix atmospheric entry data (United States)

    Catling, D. C.


    The atmospheric structure at the time of landing of NASA's Phoenix probe has been derived from measurements of the aerodynamic drag of the spacecraft during atmospheric entry and descent. The result provides the first atmospheric structure in Mars' polar environment obtained from in situ measurements. Phoenix was equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that used accelerometers for linear acceleration measurement in three Cartesian axes and ring-laser gyroscopes to measure the three- dimensional orientation of the probe (Taylor et al., 2008). The temperature structure of the atmosphere along the flight path was calculated via a four-step process: (i) integrating forward the IMU data to obtain the time history of the spacecraft velocity vector relative to the atmosphere as a function of altitude; (ii) calculating atmospheric density from drag, with iteration for aerodynamic coefficient dependence on density; (iii) integrating the hydrostatic equation to derive the vertical pressure; and (iv) calculating atmospheric temperature from the equation of state. Initial profile reconstruction shows reasonable agreement with predictions in the middle atmosphere for the given season and time of day (landing occurred at 16h 33min 37sec in local solar time expressed as a 24-hour clock). However, the derived lower atmospheric structure below ~0.1 mbar is generally warmer than predicted. A possible explanation could be a shallower vertical distribution of dust that usually assumed. References: P. A. Taylor, D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. O. Gunnlaugsson, A-M. Harri, C. F. Lange, Temperature, pressure and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113, EA0A10, doi:10.1029/2007JE003015, 2008.

  8. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M


    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  9. Mirador - Atmospheric Composition (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Atmospheric Composition is focused on the composition of Earth's atmosphere in relation to climate prediction, solar effects,...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Yakovleva


    Full Text Available The results of numerical investigation of influence of atmospheric turbulence, wind speed and direction as well as radon and thoron flux density from the soil on characteristics of atmospheric α-, β- and γ-radiation fields, which created by atmospheric radon, thoron and their short-lived decay products, are represented and analyzed in the work. It was showed that variation of radon and thoron flux densities from the earth surface changes yields and flux densities of α-, β- and γ-radiation in the ground atmosphere proportionally but does not change a form of their vertical profile.

  11. Anion, cation, and zwitterion selectivity of phospholemman channel molecules. (United States)

    Kowdley, G C; Ackerman, S J; Chen, Z; Szabo, G; Jones, L R; Moorman, J R


    Phospholemman (PLM), a 72-amino acid membrane protein with a single transmembrane domain, forms taurine-selective ion channels in lipid bilayers. Because taurine forms zwitterions, a taurine-selective channel might have binding sites for both anions and cations. Here we show that PLM channels indeed allow fluxes of both cations and anions, making instantaneous and voltage-dependent transitions among conformations with drastically different ion selectivity characteristics. This surprising and novel ion channel behavior offers a molecular explanation for selective taurine flux across cell membranes and may explain why molecules in the phospholemman family can induce cation- or anion-selective conductances when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:8994599

  12. Convex approximations of quantum channels (United States)

    Sacchi, Massimiliano F.; Sacchi, Tito


    We address the problem of optimally approximating the action of a desired and unavailable quantum channel Φ having at our disposal a single use of a given set of other channels {Ψi} . The problem is recast to look for the least distinguishable channel from Φ among the convex set ∑ipiΨi , and the corresponding optimal weights {pi} provide the optimal convex mixing of the available channels {Ψi} . For single-qubit channels we study specifically cases where the available convex set corresponds to covariant channels or to Pauli channels, and the desired target map is an arbitrary unitary transformation or a generalized damping channel.

  13. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  14. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris


    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  15. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane


    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  16. Imperfect Channel State Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Qin


    in a multiuser OFDM CR system. A simple back-off scheme is proposed, and simulation results are provided which show that the proposed scheme is very effective in mitigating the negative impact of channel estimation errors.

  17. Channelized Streams in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  18. 28-Channel rotary transformer (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.


    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  19. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, 5m Quadrat, 1996-2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance of selected rare, clumped, sedentary indicator...

  20. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, Fish Transect, 1985-2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance of fish species. The original measurements...

  1. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Survey, 1m Quadrat, 1982-2007 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has measurements of the abundance (density) of relatively abundant selected...

  2. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora Corals in the Au'au Channel Region (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  3. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel Region (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  4. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Porites Corals in the Au'au Channel Region (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Porites in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  5. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Montipora in the Au'au Channel Region (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Montipora in the Auau Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  6. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris Corals in the Au'au Channel Region (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  7. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for all mesophotic corals in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to...

  8. Predicted Habitat Suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel Region (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This raster denotes predicted habitat suitability for Leptoseris in the Au'au Channel region. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling software was used to create this...

  9. Predicted Habitat Suitability for All Mesophotic Corals in the Au'au Channel Region (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is located between the islands of Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Kahoolawe, and includes the Au'au Channel as well as parts of the Kealaikahiki, Alalakeiki...

  10. 2010 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Topographic Lidar: Channel Islands, California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for 197 square miles covering five islands off the coast of Los Angeles, California. These islands are part of the Channel Islands...

  11. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S


    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  12. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten


    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  13. Ion Channels in Leukocytes (United States)


    state (170).-Single K, channel currents were blocked by gesting that the synthesis of new channel protein was external-Ba (2.5 mM) and, like whole...Hg, La, cells, NK cells, human 2M2, 267 nifedipine, and murine B-cells diltiazem, chlorpromazine , forskolin, trifluorperazine, noxiustoxin -K, (I...Cells that ultimately leads to an increase in DNA synthesis and cell division. T lymphocytes develop in the thymus and have both effector and

  14. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server


    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  15. A Compact, Low-power Spectrometer For Atmospheric Particle Measurements (United States)

    Smith, M. H.; Hill, M. K.; Brooks, B. J.

    A compact, lightweight and relatively robust aerosol spectrometer is under develop- ment for use in a variety of atmospheric particle investigations. This instrument will cover particle sizes in the range from 0.3 to 10µm with a weight of around 0.5kg (depending upon configuration). The low weight and compact size will make this de- vice suitable for balloon-borne atmospheric measurements, and its relatively low cost will encourage deployment in riskier situations, such as close to the ocean surface. The reasonably high volume sampling rate of approximately 50ml/s commends it to applications where high temporal resolution is required such as in particle flux studies. This instrument is based around a small scatter cell unit, measuring approximately 7 x 3 x 3cm, manufactured by Met One (a division of Pacific Scientific). This unit incor- porates a circuit board with solid state laser supply, detector and signal preamplifiers and is built into a number of Met One particle counters which, in their smaller in- struments, generally have only two size channels. Additional circuit boards have been designed and developed in Leeds which, in addition to appropriate control, data stor- age and transmission electronics, contain a multi-channel pulse height analyser. Laser scattering instruments generally exhibit a multi-valued response for particles around the wavelength of the laser illumination, the precise location of which depends upon the refractive index (and hence the composition) of the particulate material. By using a 12-bit A/D converter and full microprocessor control, the operating performance of the instrument may be optimised for particles with differing characteristics, with an output resolution of up to 256 size channels. The prototype is being evaluated and the degree to which its sensitivity and volume sampling rate may be adjusted to extend its operating size range examined. The low- cost and compact dimensions of these instruments allow risks to be taken

  16. Optimization of AMI-MDM-RoFSO under atmospheric turbulence (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sushank; Amphawan, Angela


    Radio over Free Space (Ro-FSO) is promising candidate for providing ubiquitous digital services especially in rural areas. This work investigates the performance of MDM of two 5Gbps-10GHz data channels over FSO link using LP 01 and LP 02 modes under the effect of atmospheric turbulences. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), total received power, modal decomposition at receiver at the receiver is also reported. The reported result shows the successful transmission of two channels with acceptable SNR over FSO link under atmospheric turbulences.

  17. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S., E-mail: [Centre for Exoplanet Science, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)


    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μ m spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 10{sup 9} cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  18. Interacting divided channel method for compound channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huthoff, Freek; Roos, Pieter C.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.


    A new method to calculate flow in compound channels is proposed: the interacting divided channel method (IDCM), based on a new parametrization of the interface stress between adjacent flow compartments, typically between the main channel and floodplain of a two-stage channel. This expression is

  19. Length of marketing channels in sales of gas boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub


    Full Text Available Depending on the number of institutions participating in this marketing channel and depending on the number of channel members, the literature usually classifies marketing channels into direct and indirect. There is also the third modality, which occasionally occurs in commercial practice, representing a mix of marketing flows characteristic of the two basic models, called the quasi-direct marketing channel. This channel model usually occurs during the placement of production goods, or as it is also often said in the 'industrial marketing'. When the placement of gas boilers in Serbian market is concerned quasi-direct marketing channels are applied very often, especially when it comes to large quantities because of their suitability, faster and more efficient distribution, and significantly lower transport and storage costs.

  20. Activation, Permeability, and Inhibition of Astrocytic and Neuronal Large Pore (Hemi)channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Ye, Zu-Cheng; Calloe, Kirstine


    overlapping sensitivity to the inhibitors Brilliant Blue, gadolinium, and carbenoxolone. These results demonstrated isoform-specific characteristics among the large pore membrane channels; an open (hemi)channel is not a nonselective channel. With these isoform-specific properties in mind, we characterized...

  1. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling (United States)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.


    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  2. Channels with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Appiah


    Full Text Available The uteri, spontaneously active or Ca2+ (6 mM induced, were allowed to equilibrate, and to inhibit voltage-gated potassium ( channels 1 mM 4-amino pyridine (4-AP was applied for 15 min before adding H2O2 .  H2O2 was added cumulatively: 2 μM, 20 μM, 200 μM, 400 μM, and 3 mM. Average time for H2O2 concentrations (2, 20, 200, and 400 μM to reach its full effect was 15 min. H2O2 3 mM had a prolonged effect and therefore was left to act for 30 min. Two-way ANOVA showed significant differences in time dependency between spontaneous and Ca2+-induced rat uteri after applying 3 mM H2O2 (type of contraction, , but not 400 μM H2O2 (. Our results indicate that H2O2 oxidises channel intracellular thiol groups and activates the channel, inducing relaxation. Cell antioxidative defence system quickly activates glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx defence mechanism but not catalase (CAT defence mechanism. Intracellular redox mechanisms repair the oxidised sites and again establish deactivation of channels, recuperating contractility. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that channels can be altered in a time-dependent manner by reversible redox-dependent intracellular alterations.

  3. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.


    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  4. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar


    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  5. A satellite-based multichannel infrared radiometer to sound the atmosphere (United States)

    Esplin, Roy W.; Batty, J. Clair; Jensen, Mark; McLain, Dave; Jensen, Scott; Stauder, John; Stump, Charles W.; Roettker, William A.; Vanek, Michael D.


    This paper describes a 12-channel infrared radiometer with the acronym SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission radiometry) that has been selected by NASA to fly on the TIMED (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) mission.

  6. Performance study of terrestrial multi-hop OFDM FSO communication systems with pointing errors over turbulence channels (United States)

    Nistazakis, H. E.; Ninos, M. P.; Tsigopoulos, A. D.; Zervos, D. A.; Tombras, G. S.


    The free-space optical communication systems attract significant research and commercial interest the last few years, due to their high performance and reliability characteristics along with their, relatively, low installation and operational cost. Moreover, due to the fact that these systems are using the atmosphere as propagation path, their performance is varying according to its characteristics. Here, we present the performance analysis of a serially relayed radio-on-free-space-optical (RoFSO) communication system which employs the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing technique, with a quadrature amplitude modulation scheme, over atmospheric turbulence channels modelled by either the Gamma-Gamma or the Gamma distribution model. For this RoFSO communication link, we derive closed-form mathematical expressions for the estimation of its average bit error rate and outage probability, taking into account the relays' number, the atmospheric turbulence and the pointing errors effect. Furthermore, for realistic parameter values, numerical results are presented using the derived mathematical expressions, which are verified through the corresponding numerical simulations.

  7. On the use of wavelength and time diversity in optical wireless communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels (United States)

    Nistazakis, Hector E.; Tombras, George S.


    Optical wireless communication or free space optical systems have gained significant research and commercial attention in recent years due to their cost-effective and license-free high bandwidth access characteristics. However, by using the atmosphere as transmission media, the performance of such a system depends on the atmospheric conditions that exist between transmitter and receiver. Indeed, for an outdoor optical channel link, the existence of atmospheric turbulence may significantly degrade the performance of the associated communication system over distances longer than 1 or even 0.5 km. In order to anticipate this, particular attention has been given to diversity methods. In this work, we consider the use of wavelength and time diversity in wireless optical communication systems that operate under weak to strong atmospheric turbulence conditions modeled by the gamma-gamma distribution, and we derive closed form mathematical expressions for estimating the system's achievable outage probability and average bit error rate. Finally, numerical results referred to common practical cases are also obtained in order to show that wavelength and time diversity schemes enhances considerably these systems' availability and performance.

  8. MAVEN Imaging UV Spectrograph Results on the Mars Atmosphere and Atmospheric Escape (United States)

    Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Clarke, John; Holsclaw, Greg; Montmessin, Franck; Lefevre, Franck; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Stiepen, Arnaud; Crismani, Matteo; Mayyasi, Majd; Evans, Scott; Stevens, Mike; Yelle, Roger; Jakosky, Bruce


    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) is one of nine science instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft, whose payload is dedicated to exploring the upper atmosphere of Mars and understanding the magnitude and drivers of Mars' atmospheric escape rate. IUVS uses ultraviolet light to investigate the lower and upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. The instrument is among the most powerful spectrographs sent to another planet, with several key capabilities: (1) separate Far-UV & Mid-UV channels for stray light control, (2) a high resolution echelle mode to resolve deuterium and hydrogen emission, (3) internal instrument pointing and scanning capabilities to allow complete mapping and nearly continuous operation, and (4) optimization for airglow studies. IUVS, along with other MAVEN instruments, obtains a comprehensive picture of the current state of the Mars upper atmosphere and ionosphere and the processes that control atmospheric escape. We present an overview of selected IUVS results, including (1) the discovery of diffuse aurora at Mars, and its contrast with previously detected discrete aurora localized near crustal magnetic fields; (2) widespread detection of mesospheric clouds; (3) Significant seasonal and short-timescale variability in thermospheric composition; (4) Global ozone maps spanning six months of seasonal evolution; and (5) mapping of the Mars H and O coronas, deriving the escape rates of H and O and their variability. This last is of particular importance for understanding the long term evolution of Mars and its atmosphere, with the observed preset escape of H potentially capable of removing a large fraction of Mars' initial water inventory, and the differential escape of O relative to H potentially providing a net source of oxidizing power to the atmosphere and planet at present, in contrast with a photochemical theory that predicts stoichiometrically balanced escape. The atmospheric and escape

  9. Chaos in quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Roberts, Daniel A. [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yoshida, Beni [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States)


    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  10. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor. (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M


    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  11. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle....... Understanding the structure/function relationship of TRPV4 is essential for future development of specific TRPV4 agonist for treatment of diseases causes by dysfunctional TRPV4. E.g. two inherited bone dysplasias have recently been demonstrated in humans to originate from TRPV4 mutations....

  12. Headward growth and branching in subterranean channels (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad; Ionkin, Nikolay; Panaitescu, Andreea


    We investigate the erosive growth of channels in a thin subsurface sedimentary layer driven by hydrodynamic drag toward understanding subterranean networks and their relation to river networks charged by ground water. Building on a model based on experimental observations of fluid-driven evolution of bed porosity, we focus on the characteristics of the channel growth and their bifurcations in a horizontal rectangular domain subject to various fluid source and sink distributions. We find that the erosion front between low- and high-porosity regions becomes unstable, giving rise to branched channel networks, depending on the spatial fluctuations of the fluid flow near the front and the degree to which the flow is above the erodibility threshold of the medium. Focusing on the growth of a network starting from a single channel, and by identifying the channel heads and their branch points, we find that the number of branches increases sublinearly and is affected by the source distribution. The mean angles between branches are found to be systematically lower than river networks in humid climates and depend on the domain geometry.

  13. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.


    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  14. Measurement of the Atmospheric $\

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Boser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Velez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegard, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glusenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Gora, D; Grant, D; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klas, J; Klein, S R; Kohne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Kopke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meszaros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Perez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Radel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schoneberg, S; Schonherr, L; Schonwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoss, A; Strahler, E A; Strom, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M


    We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos of all flavors. Using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension, a sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data. The number of observed cascades is $N_{\\rm cascade} = 496 \\pm 66 (stat.) \\pm 88(syst.)$ and the rest of the sample consists of residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is determined in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV and is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos.

  15. Spacecraft entry into an atmosphere (United States)

    Iaroshevskii, Vasilii A.

    Problems related to the safe entry of spacecraft into the earth or other planetary atmospheres are discussed in a general manner. Attention is given to restrictions imposed on dynamical and thermal overloads, and an analysis is made of the aerodynamic characteristics of space vehicles of different types. Analytical and semianalytical methods for calculating entry trajectories are compared, and the applicability regions of approximate solutions are determined. The discussion also covers reentry trajectory optimization problems and the principal types of perturbations and navigation and control techniques.

  16. Aquaporins as gas channels. (United States)

    Herrera, Marcela; Garvin, Jeffrey L


    Gas molecules play important roles in human physiology. Volatile substances produced by one cell often regulate neighboring cells in a paracrine fashion. While gaseous molecules have traditionally been thought to travel from cell to cell by free diffusion through the bilayer portion of the membrane, this does not explain their rapid physiological actions. The recent observations that: (1) water channels can transport other molecules besides water, and (2) aquaporins are often expressed in tissues where gas (but not water) transport is essential suggest that these channels conduct physiologically important gases in addition to water. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of aquaporins as gas transporters as well as their physiological significance.

  17. Sodium channels and pain. (United States)

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J


    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain.

  18. High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. I - Theory and instrumentation (United States)

    Shipley, S. T.; Tracy, D. H.; Eloranta, E. W.; Roesler, F. L.; Weinman, J. A.; Trauger, J. T.; Sroga, J. T.


    A high spectral resolution lidar technique to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols is described. Light backscattered by the atmosphere from a narrowband optically pumped oscillator-amplifier dye laser is separated into its Doppler broadened molecular and elastically scattered aerosol components by a two-channel Fabry-Perot polyetalon interferometer. Aerosol optical properties, such as the backscatter ratio, optical depth, extinction cross section, scattering cross section, and the backscatter phase function, are derived from the two-channel measurements.

  19. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets


    Showman, Adam P.; Cho, James Y-K.; Menou, Kristen


    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-wate...

  20. Designing Dynamic Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Højlund, Marie


    This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful,....... The potentials and implica-­‐ tions are presented through a design case, Kidkit, highlighting temporality as design parametre within interaction design.......This paper addresses the notion of atmospheres from a designerly perspective, and discusses temporal challenges facing interaction designers when acknowledging the dynamic character of it. As atmospheres are created in the relation between body, space, and time, a pragmatic approach seems useful...