WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheres pressure mixed

  1. Estimation of Flow Channel Parameters for Flowing Gas Mixed with Air in Atmospheric-pressure Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Saito, Hidetoshi

    2017-12-01

    When the working gas of an atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium (cold) plasma flows into free space, the diameter of the resulting flow channel changes continuously. The shape of the channel is observed through the light emitted by the working gas of the atmospheric-pressure plasma. When the plasma jet forms a conical shape, the diameter of the cylindrical shape, which approximates the conical shape, defines the diameter of the flow channel. When the working gas flows into the atmosphere from the inside of a quartz tube, the gas mixes with air. The molar ratio of the working gas and air is estimated from the corresponding volume ratio through the relationship between the diameter of the cylindrical plasma channel and the inner diameter of the quartz tube. The Reynolds number is calculated from the kinematic viscosity of the mixed gas and the molar ratio. The gas flow rates for the upper limit of laminar flow and the lower limit of turbulent flow are determined by the corresponding Reynolds numbers estimated from the molar ratio. It is confirmed that the plasma jet length and the internal plasma length associated with strong light emission increase with the increasing gas flow rate until the rate for the upper limit of laminar flow and the lower limit of turbulent flow, respectively. Thus, we are able to explain the increasing trend in the plasma lengths with the diameter of the flow channel and the molar ratio by using the cylindrical approximation.

  2. Electric field measurements in near-atmospheric pressure nitrogen and air based on a four-wave mixing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sarah; Luggenhoelscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Electric fields are measured for the first time in molecular nitrogen at atmospheric pressures. Measurements are performed in either pure nitrogen or air. The laser spectroscopic technique applied here is based on a CARS-like four-wave mixing scheme originally developed for measurements in molecular hydrogen by Ochkin and Tskhai in 1995. The technique is ideal for investigation of microdischarges at atmospheric pressures. The frequencies of two focussed laser beams in the visible are tuned to match the energy difference between the two lowest vibrational levels in nitrogen. The presence of a static electric field then leads to the emission of coherent IR radiation at this difference frequency. The signal intensity scales with the square of the static electric field strength. Parallel to this process also anti-Stokes radiation by the standard CARS process is generated. Normalization of the IR signal by the CARS signal provides a population independent measurement quantity. Experimental results at various pressures and electric field strengths are presented.

  3. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident.

  5. Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.

  6. Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-09

    Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.

  7. Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in a cross flow at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang

    2015-07-22

    The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow and pressure were investigated by a series of experiments conducted in an especially built wind tunnel in Lhasa, a city on the Tibetan plateau where the altitude is 3650 m and the atmospheric pressure condition is naturally low (64 kPa). These results were compared with results obtained from a wind tunnel at standard atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) in Hefei city (altitude 50 m). The size of the fuel nozzles used in the experiments ranged from 3 to 8 mm in diameter and propane was used as the fuel. It was found that the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow first increased (“cross flow dominant” regime) and then decreased (“fuel jet dominant” regime) as the fuel jet velocity increased in both pressures; however, the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow was much lower at sub-atmospheric pressure than that at standard atmospheric pressure whereas the domain of the blow-out limit curve (in a plot of the air speed of the cross flow versus the fuel jet velocity) shrank as the pressure decreased. A theoretical model was developed to characterize the blow-out limit of nonpremixed jet flames in a cross flow based on a Damköhler number, defined as the ratio between the mixing time and the characteristic reaction time. A satisfactory correlation was obtained at relative strong cross flow conditions (“cross flow dominant” regime) that included the effects of the air speed of the cross flow, fuel jet velocity, nozzle diameter and pressure.

  8. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere-wave-coupled...... regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress...

  9. Microwave Atmospheric-Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes tests of microwave pressure sounder (MPS) for use in satellite measurements of atmospheric pressure. MPS is multifrequency radar operating between 25 and 80 GHz. Determines signal absorption over vertical path through atmosphere by measuring strength of echoes from ocean surface. MPS operates with cloud cover, and suitable for use on current meteorological satellites.

  10. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael D.; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios on a global scale are currently needed to gain a better understanding of climate change and its possible impact on our planet. In order to remotely measure greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere with regard to dry air, the air number density in the atmosphere is also needed in deriving the greenhouse gas concentrations. Since oxygen is stable and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere at 20.95%, the measurement of an oxygen absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density and used to calculate the dry air mixing ratio of a greenhouse gas, such as carbon dioxide or methane. OUT technique of measuring Oxygen uses integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) with an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDF A) laser system and single photon counting module (SPCM). It measures the absorbance of several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to an O2 absorption line in the A-band at 764.7 nm. The choice of wavelengths allows us to maximize the pressure sensitivity using the trough between two absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm uses ancillary meteorological and aircraft altitude information to fit the experimentally obtained lidar O2 line shapes to a model atmosphere and derives the pressure from the profiles of the two lines. We have demonstrated O2 measurements from the ground and from an airborne platform. In this paper we will report on our airborne measurements during our 2011 campaign for the ASCENDS program.

  11. Atmospheric pressure does not influence acute diverticular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Velayos Jiménez, Benito; Pons Renedo, Fernando; Feranández Salazar, Luis; Muñoz, María Fe; Olmo, Lourdes del; Almaraz Gómez, Ana; Beltrán de Heredia, Juan; Hernández González, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica The article offers information on a study which examines the influence of atmospheric pressure on the development of acute diverticular disease. The value of atmospheric pressure and its daily trends in 2012 was collected to prove whether atmospheric pressure influence this disease by raising intra-diverticular pressure in days with higher atmospheric pressure. The study involved patients with acute diverticulitis who underwent computed tomography.

  12. Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

  13. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  14. Atmospheric pressure variations and abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) presents with increased frequency in the winter and spring months. Seasonal changes in atmospheric pressure mirrors this pattern. AIM: To establish if there was a seasonal variation in the occurrence of RAAA and to determine if there was any association with atmospheric pressure changes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort-based study was performed. Daily atmospheric pressure readings for the region were obtained. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant monthly variation in RAAA presentation with 107 cases (52.5%) occurring from November to March. The monthly number of RAAA and the mean atmospheric pressure in the previous month were inversely related (r = -0.752, r (2) = 0.566, P = 0.03), and there was significantly greater daily atmospheric pressure variability on days when patients with RAAA were admitted. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a relationship between atmospheric pressure and RAAA.

  15. Atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U

    2004-01-01

    Major industrial plasma processes operating close to atmospheric pressure are discussed. Applications of thermal plasmas include electric arc furnaces and plasma torches for generation of powders, for spraying refractory materials, for cutting and welding and for destruction of hazardous waste. Other applications include miniature circuit breakers and electrical discharge machining. Non-equilibrium cold plasmas at atmospheric pressure are obtained in corona discharges used in electrostatic precipitators and in dielectric-barrier discharges used for generation of ozone, for pollution control and for surface treatment. More recent applications include UV excimer lamps, mercury-free fluorescent lamps and flat plasma displays

  16. Atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry--a method to differentiate isomers by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-12-01

    In this report, a method for in-source hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange at atmospheric pressure is reported. The method was named atmospheric pressure photo ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (APPI HDX MS). H/D exchange was performed by mixing samples dissolved in toluene with CH3OD solvent and analyzing the mixture using atmospheric pressure photo ionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS). The APPI HDX spectra obtained with contact times between the analyte solution and methanol-OD (CH3OD) of atmospheric pressure. H/D exchange can be performed in any laboratory with a mass spectrometer and a commercial APPI source. Using this method, multiple H/D exchanges of aromatic hydrogen and/or H/D exchange of active hydrogen were observed. These results demonstrated that H/D exchange can be used to distinguish between isomers containing primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, as well as pyridine and pyrrole functional groups.

  17. Examination of fluctuations in atmospheric pressure related to migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Hirohisa; Okuma, Yumiko; Kitagawa, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Japan has four seasons and many chances of low atmospheric pressure or approaches of typhoon, therefore it has been empirically known that the fluctuation of weather induces migraine in people. Generally, its mechanism has been interpreted as follows: physical loading, attributed by atmospheric pressure to human bodies, compresses or dilates human blood vessels, which leads to abnormality in blood flow and induces migraine. We report our examination of the stage in which migraine tends to be induced focusing on the variation of atmospheric pressure. Subjects were 34 patients with migraine, who were treated in our hospital. The patients included 31 females and three males, whose mean age was 32 ± 6.7. 22 patients had migraine with aura and 12 patients had migraine without aura. All of patients with migraine maintained a headache diary to record atmospheric pressures when they developed a migraine. The standard atmospheric pressure was defined as 1013 hPa, and with this value as the criterion, we investigated slight fluctuations in the atmospheric pressure when they developed a migraine. It was found that the atmospheric pressure when the patients developed a migraine was within 1003-1007 hPa in the approach of low atmospheric pressure and that the patients developed a migraine when the atmospheric pressure decreased by 6-10 hPa, slightly less than the standard atmospheric pressure. Small decreases of 6-10 hPa relative to the standard atmospheric pressure of 1013 hPa induced migraine attacks most frequently in patients with migraine.

  18. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  19. Using dimers to measure biosignatures and atmospheric pressure for terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Claire, Mark; Crisp, Dave

    2014-02-01

    We present a new method to probe atmospheric pressure on Earth-like planets using (O2-O2) dimers in the near-infrared. We also show that dimer features could be the most readily detectable biosignatures for Earth-like atmospheres and may even be detectable in transit transmission with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The absorption by dimers changes more rapidly with pressure and density than that of monomers and can therefore provide additional information about atmospheric pressures. By comparing the absorption strengths of rotational and vibrational features to the absorption strengths of dimer features, we show that in some cases it may be possible to estimate the pressure at the reflecting surface of a planet. This method is demonstrated by using the O2 A band and the 1.06 μm dimer feature, either in transmission or reflected spectra. It works best for planets around M dwarfs with atmospheric pressures between 0.1 and 10 bar and for O2 volume mixing ratios above 50% of Earth's present-day level. Furthermore, unlike observations of Rayleigh scattering, this method can be used at wavelengths longer than 0.6 μm and is therefore potentially applicable, although challenging, to near-term planet characterization missions such as JWST. We also performed detectability studies for JWST transit transmission spectroscopy and found that the 1.06 and 1.27 μm dimer features could be detectable (SNR>3) for an Earth analogue orbiting an M5V star at a distance of 5 pc. The detection of these features could provide a constraint on the atmospheric pressure of an exoplanet and serve as biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. We calculated the required signal-to-noise ratios to detect and characterize O2 monomer and dimer features in direct imaging-reflected spectra and found that signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 at a spectral resolving power of R=100 would be required.

  20. An Atmospheric Pressure Ping-Pong "Ballometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkov, Alexander; Kryuchkov, Dmitriy; Willis, Courtney; Moore, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom experiments on atmospheric pressure focus largely on demonstrating its existence, often in a most impressive way. A series of amusing physics demonstrations is widely known and practiced by educators teaching the topic. However, measuring the value of atmospheric pressure(P[subscript atm]) is generally done in a rather mundane way,…

  1. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Mike; Stephen, Mark; Hasselbrack, William; Allan, Graham; Mao, Jiamping,; Kawa, Stephan R.; Weaver, Clark J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using new fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are required for a number of NASA Earth science missions and specifically for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve predictions on any future climate change. The ultimate goal of a CO2 remote sensing mission, such as ASCENDS, is to derive the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere in terms of mole fraction in unit of parts-per-million (ppmv) with regard to dry air. Therefore, both CO2 and the dry air number of molecules in the atmosphere are needed in deriving this quantity. O2 is a stable molecule and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere. Measuring the O2 absorption in the atmosphere can thus be used to infer the dry air number of molecules and then used to calculate CO2 concentration. With the knowledge of atmospheric water vapor, we can then estimate the total surface pressure needed for CO2 retrievals. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate 765 nm laser radiation coincident with the Oxygen A-band. Our pulsed, time gated technique uses several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to the O2 absorption line. The choice of wavelengths allows us to measure the pressure by using two adjacent O2 absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm fits the O2 lineshapes and derives the pressure. Our measurements compare favorably with a local weather monitor mounted outside our laboratory and a local weather station.

  2. Study of a dual frequency atmospheric pressure corona plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Moon, S. Y.; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency mixing of 2 and 13.56 MHz was investigated by performing experimental measurements on the atmospheric pressure corona plasma. As a result of the dual frequency, length, current density, and electron excitation temperature of the plasma were increased, while the gas temperature was maintained at roughly the same level when compared to the respective single frequency plasmas. Moreover, observation of time-resolved images revealed that the dual frequency plasma has a discharge mode of 2 MHz positive streamer, 2 MHz negative glow, and 13.56 MHz continuous glow.

  3. Determination of equivalent mixing height and atmospheric stability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Bulko, M.; Holy, K.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric stability is an indicator that reflects the intensity of boundary layer mixing processes. This feature of the atmosphere is especially important since it defines dispersive atmospheric conditions and provides information on how effectively the anthropogenic pollution will be transferred to the higher levels of the atmosphere. The assessment of atmospheric dispersiveness plays a crucial role in the protection of air quality and public health in big cities. The presented paper deals with determination of atmospheric stability via so called Equivalent Mixing Height (EMH) quantity using a radioactive noble gas 222 Rn. A method of deriving a link between 222 Rn activity concentration, eddy diffusion coefficient and EMH using fluid mechanics is also outlined in this work. (authors)

  4. Atmospheric pressure microwave plasma system with ring waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liang; Zhang Guixin; Zhu Zhijie; Luo Chengmu

    2007-01-01

    Some scientists used waveguide as the cavity to produce a plasma jet, while large volume microwave plasma was relatively hard to get in atmospheric pressure. However, a few research institutes have already developed devices to generate large volume of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, such as CYRANNUS and SLAN series, which can be widely applied. In this paper, present a microwave plasma system with ring waveguide to excite large volume of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, plot curves on theoretical disruption electric field of some working gases, emulate the cavity through software, measure the power density to validate and show the appearance of microwave plasma. At present, large volume of argon and helium plasma have already been generated steadily by atmospheric pressure microwave plasma system. This research can build a theoretical basis of microwave plasma excitation under atmospheric pressure and will be useful in study of the device. (authors)

  5. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  6. Graphene Membranes for Atmospheric Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherup, Robert S; Eren, Baran; Hao, Yibo; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel B

    2016-05-05

    Atmospheric pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is demonstrated using single-layer graphene membranes as photoelectron-transparent barriers that sustain pressure differences in excess of 6 orders of magnitude. The graphene serves as a support for catalyst nanoparticles under atmospheric pressure reaction conditions (up to 1.5 bar), where XPS allows the oxidation state of Cu nanoparticles and gas phase species to be simultaneously probed. We thereby observe that the Cu(2+) oxidation state is stable in O2 (1 bar) but is spontaneously reduced under vacuum. We further demonstrate the detection of various gas-phase species (Ar, CO, CO2, N2, O2) in the pressure range 10-1500 mbar including species with low photoionization cross sections (He, H2). Pressure-dependent changes in the apparent binding energies of gas-phase species are observed, attributable to changes in work function of the metal-coated grids supporting the graphene. We expect atmospheric pressure XPS based on this graphene membrane approach to be a valuable tool for studying nanoparticle catalysis.

  7. Influence of atmospheric pressure on infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Nicolas; Frank, Michael; Avenin, Laure; Hemery, Francois; Becquemin, Jean Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Meteorologic conditions have a significant impact on the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Previous studies have shown that abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture (AAAR) may be associated with atmospheric pressure, with conflicting results. Therefore, we aimed to further investigate the nature of the correlation between atmospheric pressure variations and AAAR. Hospital admissions related to AAAR between 2005-2009 were assessed in 19 districts of metropolitan France and correlated with geographically and date-matched mean atmospheric pressures. In parallel and from 2005-2009, all fatal AAARs as reported by death certificates were assessed nationwide and correlated to local atmospheric pressures at the time of aortic rupture. Four hundred ninety-four hospital admissions related to AAAR and 6,358 deaths nationwide by AAAR were identified between 2005-2009. Both in-hospital ruptures and aneurysm-related mortality had seasonal variations, with peak/trough incidences in January and June, respectively. Atmospheric pressure peaks occurred during winter. Univariate analysis revealed a significant association (P atmospheric pressure values and AAAR. After multivariate analysis, mean maximum 1-month prerupture atmospheric pressure had a persistent correlation with both in-hospital relative risk (1.05 [95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.06]; P atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Decomposition of poly(amide-imide) film using atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma generated in a stream of H2O/Ar mixed gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, M.; Aoki, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Kuwasima, S.; Sugiyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium Ar-H 2 O plasma was irradiated to exfoliate a thin film of a heat-resistant polymer, poly(amide-imide) coating on enamel copper wire. The plasma was produced by applying microwave power inducted with Ar-H 2 , Ar-O 2 , Ar-H 2 O or Ar-H 2 -O 2 mixed gases. The poly(amide-imide) thin film was exfoliate by those plasma irradiations. The magnitude of exfoliation depended on the distance of the copper wire from the plasma generating material and reached a maximum at a distance around 4 cm for each plasma irradiation. Surface conditions of the copper wire varied depending on the inducted gases. Ar-O 2 plasma irradiation oxidized the copper surface while other plasmas kept the copper surface unchanged. The time it took to exfoliate the poly(amide-imide) depended on the irradiation source, either Ar-O 2 (within 60 s), Ar-H 2 O (within 70 s), Ar-H 2 -O 2 (within 70 s) or Ar-H 2 (within 125 s). The Ar-H 2 O plasma irradiation under non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure was found to be the best method for exfoliating the poly(amide-imide) thin film coating on enamel copper wires rather than the Ar-H 2 -O 2 plasma because of its simplicity and safety.

  9. Numerical solution of the model problem of CCRF-discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheltukhin Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a 1D mathematical model of capacitive coupled RF discharge between symmetrical electrodes in argon at atmospheric pressure in a local approximation. Electrons, atomic and molecular ions, metastable atoms and argon dimmers as well as ground-state atoms are considered. A simplified diagram of argon excited states when two metastable and two resonance states are replaced with the uniform level. Such diagram is frequently used to simulate argon plasma due to efficient mixing of these layers at electron impacts. Velocity factors of electron impact processes were calculated using Boltzmann equation with a glance to electron-electron collisions. This work describes numerical algorithm of mathematical model implementation, which is based on finite-dimensional approximation of the problem using difference schemes together with iteration process. The software was developed to implement iterative processes using MatLab. Characteristics of atmospheric pressure capacitive coupled RF discharge at interelectrod distance 20 mm are calculated.

  10. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  11. The High Accuracy Measurement of CO2 Mixing Ratio Profiles Using Ground Based 1.6 μm CO2-DIAL with Temperature Measurement Techniques in the Lower-Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a ground based direct detection three-wavelength 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar (DIAL) to achieve measurements of vertical CO2 concentration and temperature profiles in the atmosphere. As the spectra of absorption lines of any molecules are influenced basically by the temperature and pressure in the atmosphere, it is important to measure them simultaneously so that the better accuracy of the DIAL measurement is realized. Conventionally, we have obtained the vertical profile of absorption cross sections using the atmospheric temperature profile by the objective analysis and the atmospheric pressure profile calculated by the pressure height equation. Comparison of atmospheric pressure profiles calculated from this equation and those obtained from radiosonde observations at Tateno, Japan is consistent within 0.2 % below 3 km altitude. But the temperature dependency of the CO2 density is 0.25 %/°C near the surface. Moreover, the CO2 concentration is often evaluated by the mixing ratio. Because the air density is related by the ideal gas law, the mixing ratio is also related by the atmospheric temperature. Therefore, the temperature affects not only accuracy of CO2 concentration but the CO2 mixing ratio. In this paper, some experimental results of the simultaneous measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles and CO2 mixing ratio profiles are reported from 0.4 to 2.5 km altitude using the three-wavelength 1.6 μm DIAL system. Temperature profiles of CO2 DIAL measurement were sometimes different from those of objective analysis below 1.5 km altitude. These differences are considered to be due to regionality at the lidar site. The temperature difference of 5.0 °C corresponds to a CO2 mixing ratio difference of 8.0 ppm at 500 m altitude. This cannot be ignored in estimates of regional sources and sinks of CO2. This three-wavelength CO2 DIAL technique can estimate accurately temporal behavior of CO2 mixing ratio profiles in the lower atmosphere

  12. Unusual neurological syndrome induced by atmospheric pressure change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Judy A; Yazinski, Nancy A; Block, Clay A; Buckey, Jay C

    2013-05-01

    We describe a case of a 46-yr-old female who developed hypertension, tachycardia, dysarthria, and leg weakness provoked by pressure changes associated with flying. Typically during the landing phase of flight, she would feel dizzy and note that she had difficulty with speech and leg weakness. After the flight the leg weakness persisted for several days. The symptoms were mitigated when she took a combined alpha-beta blocker (labetalol) prior to the flight. To determine if these symptoms were related to atmospheric pressure change, she was referred for testing in a hyperbaric chamber. She was exposed to elevated atmospheric pressure (maximum 1.2 ATA) while her heart rate and blood pressure were monitored. Within 1 min she developed tachycardia and hypertension. She also quickly developed slurred speech, left arm and leg weakness, and sensory changes in her left leg. She was returned to sea level pressure and her symptoms gradually improved. A full neurological workup has revealed no explanation for these findings. She has no air collections, cysts, or other anatomic findings that could be sensitive to atmospheric pressure change. The pattern is most consistent with a vascular event stimulated by altitude exposure. This case suggests that atmospheric pressure change can produce neurological symptoms, although the mechanism is unknown.

  13. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, A.; Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Jamme, F.; Rouam, V.; Wien, F.; Laprévote, O.; Réfrégiers, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with a vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) beamline. ► The set up allows photoionization up to 20 eV. ► Compared to classical atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), our set up offers spectral purity and tunability. ► Allows photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile and hard to vaporize molecules. - Abstract: We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4–20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  14. Reduced Lung Cancer Mortality With Lower Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Frutos, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that higher altitude is associated with lower risk of lung cancer and improved survival among patients. The current study assessed the influence of county-level atmospheric pressure (a measure reflecting both altitude and temperature) on age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates in the contiguous United States, with 2 forms of spatial regression. Ordinary least squares regression and geographically weighted regression models were used to evaluate the impact of climate and other selected variables on lung cancer mortality, based on 2974 counties. Atmospheric pressure was significantly positively associated with lung cancer mortality, after controlling for sunlight, precipitation, PM2.5 (µg/m 3 ), current smoker, and other selected variables. Positive county-level β coefficient estimates ( P atmospheric pressure were observed throughout the United States, higher in the eastern half of the country. The spatial regression models showed that atmospheric pressure is positively associated with age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates, after controlling for other selected variables.

  15. Diagnostics of atmospheric pressure air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, C.O.; Kruger, C.H.; Zare, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) owing to fast interspecies collisional exchanges at high pressure. As will be seen here, this assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Large velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from chemical and thermal equilibrium. Diagnostic techniques based on optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) have been developed and applied at Stanford University to the investigation of atmospheric pressure plasmas under conditions ranging from thermal and chemical equilibrium to thermochemical nonequilibrium. This article presents a review of selected temperature and species concentration measurement techniques useful for the study of air and nitrogen plasmas

  16. Optical diagnostics of atmospheric pressure air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, C O; Spence, T G; Kruger, C H; Zare, R N

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure air plasmas are often thought to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium owing to fast interspecies collisional exchange at high pressure. This assumption cannot be relied upon, particularly with respect to optical diagnostics. Velocity gradients in flowing plasmas and/or elevated electron temperatures created by electrical discharges can result in large departures from chemical and thermal equilibrium. This paper reviews diagnostic techniques based on optical emission spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy that we have found useful for making temperature and concentration measurements in atmospheric pressure plasmas under conditions ranging from thermal and chemical equilibrium to thermochemical nonequilibrium

  17. CNTB program for the analysis of partially mixed containment atmospheres during depressurization events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoni, J.A.

    1979-07-01

    This program describes the analytical models for the CNTB computer program, which is permanently filed in the archive library of the General Atomic (GA) San Diego Data Center under reference number THSD-2699. Developed during the last four years, this computer program has been successfully applied in its presented form to the type of containment atmosphere transients illustrated in this report. For example, the CNTB computer program is applicable (1) to the design basis depressurization accident (DBDA) to determine the effect of the partial mixing on the containment atmospheric peak pressure (known as nonmixing penalty) and (2) for Class 9 accidents, such as the loss of forced circulation (LOFC), for the AIPA Phase I studies. The capability of the CNTB computer program has been substantially improved over its precursor, the CONTEMPT-G computer program, to predict the thermodynamic behavior of the containment atmosphere during helium releases, assuming partial mixing of the original air with the effluent and to predict the amount of the environmental leaks under closed and open containment conditions. In addition, the CNTB computer program running times are considerably below the ones required for the CONTEMPT-G computer program. Computational solution of the variable parameters in the containment atmosphere is effected by an iterative technique, while the temperatures for its boundaries are obtained by finite differences. The CNTB computer program, written in FORTRAN V, has been implemented at GA on the UNIVAC 1110 computer

  18. Foundations of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter J.; Iza, Felipe; Brandenburg, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas have been intensively studied over the past century in the context of material processing, environmental remediation, ozone generation, excimer lamps and plasma display panels. Research on atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas intensified over the last two decades leading to a large variety of plasma sources that have been developed for an extended application range including chemical conversion, medicine, chemical analysis and disinfection. The fundamental understanding of these discharges is emerging but there remain a lot of unexplained phenomena in these intrinsically complex plasmas. The properties of non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure span over a huge range of electron densities as well as heavy particle and electron temperatures. This paper provides an overview of the key underlying processes that are important for the generation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas. The unique physical and chemical properties of theses discharges are also summarized.

  19. Seed disinfection effect of atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Tanimoto, Hideo; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing for Polymer Adhesion: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing has attracted significant interests over decades due to its usefulness and a variety of applications. Adhesion improvement of polymer surfaces is among the most important applications of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Reflecting recent significant de...

  1. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  2. On OH production in water containing atmospheric pressure plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, P.J.; Schram, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper radical production in atmospheric pressure water containing plasmas is discussed. As OH is often an important radical in these discharges the paper focuses on OH production. Besides nanosecond pulsed coronas and diffusive glow discharges, several other atmospheric pressure plasmas

  3. Atmospheric pressure plasma vapour coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Starostine, S.; Premkumar, P.A.; Creatore, M.; Vries, de H.W.; Kondruweit, S.; Szyszka, B.; Pütz, J.

    2010-01-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is recognized as a promising tool of thin films deposition on various substrates at atmospheric pressure. Emerging applications including encapsulation of flexible solar cells and flexible displays require large scale low costs production cif transparent

  4. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... arc at atmospheric pressure to study adhesion improvement. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation with the frequency diapason between 20 and 40 kHz at the SPL of ∼150 dB was investigated. After the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, the wettability was significantly improved...

  5. Temperature-independent fiber-Bragg-grating-based atmospheric pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Shen, Chunyan; Li, Luming

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure is an important way to achieve a high degree of measurement for modern aircrafts, moreover, it is also an indispensable parameter in the meteorological telemetry system. With the development of society, people are increasingly concerned about the weather. Accurate and convenient atmospheric pressure parameters can provide strong support for meteorological analysis. However, electronic atmospheric pressure sensors currently in application suffer from several shortcomings. After an analysis and discussion, we propose an innovative structural design, in which a vacuum membrane box and a temperature-independent strain sensor based on an equal strength cantilever beam structure and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used. We provide experimental verification of that the atmospheric pressure sensor device has the characteristics of a simple structure, lack of an external power supply, automatic temperature compensation, and high sensitivity. The sensor system has good sensitivity, which can be up to 100 nm/MPa, and repeatability. In addition, the device exhibits desired hysteresis.

  6. Evaluation of the impact of atmospheric pressure in different seasons on blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Marek; Cieślik-Guerra, Urszula I; Kotas, Rafał; Mazur, Piotr; Marańda, Witold; Piotrowicz, Maciej; Sakowicz, Bartosz; Napieralski, Andrzej; Trzos, Ewa; Uznańska-Loch, Barbara; Rechciński, Tomasz; Kurpesa, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure is the most objective weather factor because regardless of if outdoors or indoors it affects all objects in the same way. The majority of previous studies have used the average daily values of atmospheric pressure in a bioclimatic analysis and have found no correlation with blood pressure changes. The main objective of our research was to assess the relationship between atmospheric pressure recorded with a frequency of 1 measurement per minute and the results of 24-h blood pressure monitoring in patients with treated hypertension in different seasons in the moderate climate of the City of Łódź (Poland). The study group consisted of 1662 patients, divided into 2 equal groups (due to a lower and higher average value of atmospheric pressure). Comparisons between blood pressure values in the 2 groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. We observed a significant difference in blood pressure recorded during the lower and higher range of atmospheric pressure: on the days of the spring months systolic (p = 0.043) and diastolic (p = 0.005) blood pressure, and at nights of the winter months systolic blood pressure (p = 0.013). A significant inverse relationship between atmospheric pressure and blood pressure during the spring days and, only for systolic blood pressure, during winter nights was observed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):783-792. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure made Using an IPDA Lidar Operating in the Oxygen A-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Abshire, James B.; Stephen, Mark; Rodriquez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Mao, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    We report airborne measurements of atmospheric pressure made using an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar that operates in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are needed for NASA s Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission to measure atmospheric CO2. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve our predictions of climate change. The goal of ASCENDS is to determine the CO2 dry mixing ratio with lidar measurements from space at a level of 1 ppm. Analysis to date shows that with current weather models, measurements of both the CO2 column density and the column density of dry air are needed. Since O2 is a stable molecule that uniformly mixed in the atmosphere, measuring O2 absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density. We have developed an airborne (IPDA) lidar for Oxygen, with support from the NASA ESTO IIP program. Our lidar uses DFB-based seed laser diodes, a pulsed modulator, a fiber laser amplifier, and a non-linear crystal to generate wavelength tunable 765 nm laser pulses with a few uJ/pulse energy. The laser pulse rate is 10 KHz, and average transmitted laser power is 20 mW. Our lidar steps laser pulses across a selected line O2 doublet near 764.7 nm in the Oxygen A-band. The direct detection lidar receiver uses a 20 cm diameter telescope, a Si APD detector in Geiger mode, and a multi-channel scalar to detect and record the time resolved laser backscatter in 40 separate wavelength channels. Subsequent analysis is used to estimate the transmission line shape of the doublet for the laser pulses reflected from the ground. Ground based data analysis allows averaging from 1 to 60 seconds to increase SNR in the transmission line shape of the doublet. Our retrieval algorithm fits the expected O2 lineshapes against the measurements and

  8. Simulation of Oxygen Disintegration and Mixing With Hydrogen or Helium at Supercritical Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi

    2012-01-01

    The simulation of high-pressure turbulent flows, where the pressure, p, is larger than the critical value, p(sub c), for the species under consideration, is relevant to a wide array of propulsion systems, e.g. gas turbine, diesel, and liquid rocket engines. Most turbulence models, however, have been developed for atmospheric-p turbulent flows. The difference between atmospheric-p and supercritical-p turbulence is that, in the former situation, the coupling between dynamics and thermodynamics is moderate to negligible, but for the latter it is very significant, and can dominate the flow characteristics. The reason for this stems from the mathematical form of the equation of state (EOS), which is the perfect-gas EOS in the former case, and the real-gas EOS in the latter case. For flows at supercritical pressure, p, the large eddy simulation (LES) equations consist of the differential conservation equations coupled with a real-gas EOS. The equations use transport properties that depend on the thermodynamic variables. Compared to previous LES models, the differential equations contain not only the subgrid scale (SGS) fluxes, but also new SGS terms, each denoted as a correction. These additional terms, typically assumed null for atmospheric pressure flows, stem from filtering the differential governing equations, and represent differences between a filtered term and the same term computed as a function of the filtered flow field. In particular, the energy equation contains a heat-flux correction (q-correction) that is the difference between the filtered divergence of the heat flux and the divergence of the heat flux computed as a function of the filtered flow field. In a previous study, there was only partial success in modeling the q-correction term, but in this innovation, success has been achieved by using a different modeling approach. This analysis, based on a temporal mixing layer Direct Numerical Simulation database, shows that the focus in modeling the q

  9. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clément, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  10. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  11. Sulphation of oil shale ash under atmospheric and pressurized combustion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelaots, I.; Yrjas, P.; Hupa, M.; Ots, A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main problems in conventional combustion boilers firing pulverized oil shale is the corrosion and fouling of heating surfaces, which is caused by sulphur compounds. Another major problem, from the environmental point of view, are the high SO 2 emissions. Consequently, the amount of sulphur in flue gases must be reduced. One alternative to lower the SO 2 , concentration is the use of new technologies, such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). In FBC processes, the sulphur components are usually removed by the addition of limestone (CaCO 3 ) or dolomite (CaCO 3 x MgCO 3 ) into the bed. The calcium in these absorbents react with SO 2 , producing solid CaSO 4 . However, when burning oil shale, there would be no need to add limestone or dolomite into the bed, due to the initially high limestone content in the fuel (molar ratio Ca/S =10). The capture of sulphur by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus (PTGA). The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Four different materials were tested - one cyclone ash from an Estonian oil shale boiler, two size fractions of Estonian oil shale and, one fraction of Israeli oil shale. The cyclone ash was found to be the poorest sulphur absorbent. In general, the results from the sulphur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed conditions showed that the oil shale can capture not only its own sulphur but also significant amounts of additional sulphur from another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. (author)

  12. Modeling of particle mixing in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shupeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a newly developed size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM), which is able to simulate the dynamics of externally-mixed particles in the atmosphere, and evaluates its performance in three-dimensional air-quality simulations. The main work is split into four parts. First, the research context of external mixing and aerosol modelling is introduced. Secondly, the development of the SCRAM box model is presented along with validation tests. Each particle composition is defined by the combination of mass-fraction sections of its chemical components or aggregates of components. The three main processes involved in aerosol dynamic (nucleation, coagulation, condensation/ evaporation) are included in SCRAM. The model is first validated by comparisons with published reference solutions for coagulation and condensation/evaporation of internally-mixed particles. The particle mixing state is investigated in a 0-D simulation using data representative of air pollution at a traffic site in Paris. The relative influence on the mixing state of the different aerosol processes and of the algorithm used to model condensation/evaporation (dynamic evolution or bulk equilibrium between particles and gas) is studied. Then, SCRAM is integrated into the Polyphemus air quality platform and used to conduct simulations over Greater Paris during the summer period of 2009. This evaluation showed that SCRAM gives satisfactory results for both PM2.5/PM10 concentrations and aerosol optical depths, as assessed from comparisons to observations. Besides, the model allows us to analyze the particle mixing state, as well as the impact of the mixing state assumption made in the modelling on particle formation, aerosols optical properties, and cloud condensation nuclei activation. Finally, two simulations are conducted during the winter campaign of MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for

  13. Subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate of supercritical pressure fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianhui; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate law of supercritical pressure fluid (SPF) is carried out. • Turbulent mixing rate is enhanced, compared with that calculated by the law of pressurized water reactor (PWR). • Increase in maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) is smaller comparing with PWR model. • The sensitivities of MCST on non-uniformity of subchannel area and power peaking are reduced by using SPF model. - Abstract: The subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate law of supercritical pressure fluid (SPF) is carried out for supercritical-pressurized light water cooled and moderated reactor (Super LWR). It is different from the turbulent mixing rate law of pressurized water reactor (PWR), which is widely adopted in Super LWR subchannel analysis study, the density difference between adjacent subchannels is taken into account for turbulent mixing rate law of SPF. MCSTs are evaluated on three kinds of fuel assemblies with different pin power distribution patterns, gap spacings and mass flow rates. Compared with that calculated by employing turbulent mixing rate law of PWR, the increase in MCST is smaller even when peaking factor is large and gap spacing is uneven. The sensitivities of MCST on non-uniformity of the subchannel area and power peaking are reduced

  14. Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in a cross flow at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Lu, Shouxiang; Delichatsios, Michael; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow

  15. Quantifying atmospheric transport, chemistry, and mixing using a new trajectory-box model and a global atmospheric-chemistry GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Riede

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for the quantification of transport, chemistry, and mixing along atmospheric trajectories based on a consistent model hierarchy. The hierarchy consists of the new atmospheric-chemistry trajectory-box model CAABA/MJT and the three-dimensional (3-D global ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric-chemistry (EMAC general circulation model. CAABA/MJT employs the atmospheric box model CAABA in a configuration using the atmospheric-chemistry submodel MECCA (M, the photochemistry submodel JVAL (J, and the new trajectory submodel TRAJECT (T, to simulate chemistry along atmospheric trajectories, which are provided offline. With the same chemistry submodels coupled to the 3-D EMAC model and consistent initial conditions and physical parameters, a unique consistency between the two models is achieved. Since only mixing processes within the 3-D model are excluded from the model consistency, comparisons of results from the two models allow to separate and quantify contributions of transport, chemistry, and mixing along the trajectory pathways. Consistency of transport between the trajectory-box model CAABA/MJT and the 3-D EMAC model is achieved via calculation of kinematic trajectories based on 3-D wind fields from EMAC using the trajectory model LAGRANTO. The combination of the trajectory-box model CAABA/MJT and the trajectory model LAGRANTO can be considered as a Lagrangian chemistry-transport model (CTM moving isolated air parcels. The procedure for obtaining the necessary statistical basis for the quantification method is described as well as the comprehensive diagnostics with respect to chemistry.

    The quantification method presented here allows to investigate the characteristics of transport, chemistry, and mixing in a grid-based 3-D model. The analysis of chemical processes within the trajectory-box model CAABA/MJT is easily extendable to include, for example, the impact of different transport pathways or of mixing processes onto

  16. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  17. [Characteristics of Winter Atmospheric Mixing Layer Height in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and Their Relationship with the Atmospheric Pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tang, Gui-qian; Huang, Jun; Liu, Zi-rui; An, Jun-lin; Wang, Yue-si

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH) is one of the main factors affecting the atmospheric diffusion and plays an important role in air quality assessment and distribution of the pollutants. Based on the ceilometers data, this paper has made synchronous observation on MLH in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao) in heavy polluted February 2014 and analyzed the respective overall change and its regional features. Results show that in February 2014,the average of mixing layer height in Qinhuangdao is the highest, up to 865 +/- 268 m, and in Shijiazhuang is the lowest (568 +/- 207 m), Beijing's and Tianjin's are in between, 818 +/- 319 m and 834 +/- 334 m respectively; Combined with the meteorological data, we find that radiation and wind speed are main factors of the mixing layer height; The relationship between the particle concentration and mixing layer height in four sites suggests that mixing layer is less than 800 m, concentration of fine particulate matter in four sites will exceed the national standard (GB 3095-2012, 75 microg x m(-3)). During the period of observation, the proportion of days that mixing layer is less than 800 m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and Qinhuangdao are 50%, 43%, 80% and 50% respectively. Shijiazhuang though nearly formation contaminant concentration is high, within the atmospheric mixed layer pollutant load is not high. Unfavorable atmospheric diffusion conditions are the main causes of heavy pollution in Shijiazhuang for a long time. The results of the study are of great significance for cognitive Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area pollution distribution, and can provide a scientific reference for reasonable distribution of regional pollution sources.

  18. Numerical modelling of the atmospheric mixing-layer diurnal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnary, L. de.

    1990-03-01

    This paper introduce a numeric procedure to determine the temporal evolution of the height, potential temperature and mixing ratio in the atmospheric mixing layer. The time and spatial derivatives were evaluated via forward in time scheme to predict the local evolution of the mixing-layer parameters, and a forward in time, upstream in space scheme to predict the evolution of the mixing-layer over a flat region with a one-dimensional advection component. The surface turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat were expressed using a simple sine wave that is function of the hour day and kind of the surface (water or country). (author) [pt

  19. Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by altering gas flow rate in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Hur, Min; Lee, Jae-Ok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Controlling hydrophilicity of polymer film by varying gas flow rate is proposed in atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasma treatment. • Without employing additional reactive gas, requiring more plasma power and longer treatment time, hydrophilicity of polyimide films was improved after the low-gas-flow plasma treatment. • The gas flow rate affects the hydrophilic properties of polymer surface by changing the discharge atmosphere in the particular geometry of the reactor developed. • Low-gas-flow induced wettability control suggests effective and economical plasma treatment. - Abstract: This paper reports on controlling the hydrophilicity of polyimide films using atmospheric-pressure homogeneous plasmas by changing only the gas flow rate. The gas flow changed the discharge atmosphere by mixing the feed gas with ambient air because of the particular geometry of the reactor developed for the study, and a low gas flow rate was found to be favorable because it generated abundant nitrogen or oxygen species that served as sources of hydrophilic functional groups over the polymer surface. After low-gas-flow plasma treatment, the polymer surface exhibited hydrophilic characteristics with increased surface roughness and enhanced chemical properties owing to the surface addition of functional groups. Without adding any reactive gases or requiring high plasma power and longer treatment time, the developed reactor with low-gas-flow operation offered effective and economical wettability control of polyimide films

  20. Infrared laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Shrestha, Bindesh; Kauppila, Tiina J; Vertes, Akos; Kostiainen, Risto

    2012-02-07

    In this paper we introduce laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI), a novel atmospheric pressure ion source for mass spectrometry. In LAAPPI the analytes are ablated from water-rich solid samples or from aqueous solutions with an infrared (IR) laser running at 2.94 μm wavelength. Approximately 12 mm above the sample surface, the ablation plume is intercepted with an orthogonal hot solvent (e.g., toluene or anisole) jet, which is generated by a heated nebulizer microchip and directed toward the mass spectrometer inlet. The ablated analytes are desolvated and ionized in the gas-phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization using a 10 eV vacuum ultraviolet krypton discharge lamp. The effect of operational parameters and spray solvent on the performance of LAAPPI is studied. LAAPPI offers ~300 μm lateral resolution comparable to, e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. In addition to polar compounds, LAAPPI efficiently ionizes neutral and nonpolar compounds. The bioanalytical application of the method is demonstrated by the direct LAAPPI analysis of rat brain tissue sections and sour orange (Citrus aurantium) leaves. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. Origin of fluctuations in atmospheric pressure arc plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S.; Das, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Fluctuations in arc plasma devices are extremely important for any technological application in thermal plasma. The origin of such fluctuations remains unexplained. This paper presents a theory for observed fluctuations in atmospheric pressure arc plasma devices. A qualitative explanation for observed behavior on atmospheric pressure arc plasma fluctuations, reported in the literature, can be obtained from the theory. The potential of the theory is demonstrated through comparison of theoretical predictions with reported experimental observations

  2. The impact of relative humidity and atmospheric pressure on mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chun Quan; Yang, Jun; Ou, Qiao Qun; Liu, Hua Zhang; Lin, Guo Zhen; Chen, Ping Yan; Qian, Jun; Guo, Yu Ming

    2014-12-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of ambient temperatures on mortality, little evidence is on health impacts of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. This study aimed to assess the impacts of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity on mortality in Guangzhou, China. This study included 213,737 registered deaths during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. A quasi-Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the effects of atmospheric pressure/relative humidity. We found significant effect of low atmospheric pressure/relative humidity on mortality. There was a 1.79% (95% confidence interval: 0.38%-3.22%) increase in non-accidental mortality and a 2.27% (0.07%-4.51%) increase in cardiovascular mortality comparing the 5th and 25th percentile of atmospheric pressure. A 3.97% (0.67%-7.39%) increase in cardiovascular mortality was also observed comparing the 5th and 25th percentile of relative humidity. Women were more vulnerable to decrease in atmospheric pressure and relative humidity than men. Age and education attainment were also potential effect modifiers. Furthermore, low atmospheric pressure and relative humidity increased temperature-related mortality. Both low atmospheric pressure and relative humidity are important risk factors of mortality. Our findings would be helpful to develop health risk assessment and climate policy interventions that would better protect vulnerable subgroups of the population. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. On the permanent hip-stabilizing effect of atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prietzel, Torsten; Hammer, Niels; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Kaßebaum, Eric; Farag, Mohamed; von Salis-Soglio, Georg

    2014-08-22

    Hip joint dislocations related to total hip arthroplasty (THA) are a common complication especially in the early postoperative course. The surgical approach, the alignment of the prosthetic components, the range of motion and the muscle tone are known factors influencing the risk of dislocation. A further factor that is discussed until today is atmospheric pressure which is not taken into account in the present THA concepts. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of atmospheric pressure on hip joint stability. Five joint models (Ø 28-44 mm), consisting of THA components were hermetically sealed with a rubber capsule, filled with a defined amount of fluid and exposed to varying ambient pressure. Displacement and pressure sensors were used to record the extent of dislocation related to intraarticular and ambient pressure. In 200 experiments spontaneous dislocations of the different sized joint models were reliably observed once the ambient pressure was lower than 6.0 kPa. Increasing the ambient pressure above 6.0 kPa immediately and persistently reduced the joint models until the ambient pressure was lowered again. Displacement always exceeded half the diameter of the joint model and was independent of gravity effects. This experimental study gives strong evidence that the hip joint is permanently stabilized by atmospheric pressure, confirming the theories of Weber and Weber (1836). On basis of these findings the use of larger prosthetic heads, capsular repair and the deployment of an intracapsular Redon drain are proposed to substantially decrease the risk of dislocation after THA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Atmospheric Pressure and Onset of Episodes of Menière's Disease - A Repeated Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkov, Robert; Strobl, Ralf; Heinlin, Nina; Krause, Eike; Olzowy, Bernhard; Koppe, Christina; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    External changes of air pressure are transmitted to the middle and inner ear and may be used therapeutically in Menière's disease, one of the most common vertigo disorders. We analyzed the possible relationship of atmospheric pressure and other meteorological parameters with the onset of MD vertigo episodes in order to determine whether atmospheric pressure changes play a role in the occurrence of MD episodes. Patients of a tertiary outpatient dizziness clinic diagnosed with MD were asked to keep a daily vertigo diary to document MD episodes (2004-2009). Local air pressure, absolute temperature and dew point temperature were acquired on an hourly basis. Change in meteorological parameters was conceptualized as the maximum difference in a 24 hour time frame preceding each day. Effects were estimated using additive mixed models with a random participant effect. We included lagged air parameters, age, sex, weekday and season in the model. A total of 56 persons (59% female) with mean age 54 years were included. Mean follow-up time was 267 days. Persons experienced on average 10.3 episodes during the observation period (median 8). Age and change in air pressure were significantly associated with vertigo onset risk (Odds Ratio = 0.979 and 1.010). We could not show an effect of sex, weekday, season, air temperature, and dew point temperature. Change in air pressure was significantly associated with onset of MD episodes, suggesting a potential triggering mechanism in the inner ear. MD patients may possibly use air pressure changes as an early warning system for vertigo attacks in the future.

  5. Is atmospheric pressure change an Independent risk factor for hemoptysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz, Omer; Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Akgun, Metin; Aydin, Yener; Meral, Mehmet; Saglam, Leyla; Kaynar, Hasan; Gorguner, Ali Metin

    2014-05-01

    Hemoptysis is one of the most important and challenging symptoms in pulmonary medicine. Because of the increased number of patients with hemoptysis in certain periods of the year, we aimed to investigate whether atmospheric changes have an effect on the development of hemoptysis with or without a secondary cause. The data of patients presenting with hemoptysis between January 2006 and December 2011 were analyzed. Data on the daily atmospheric pressure (hectopascal, hPa), relative humidity (%), and temperature ((o) C) during that time were obtained. A total of 232 patients with hemoptysis, 145 male (62.5%) and 87 female (37.5%) with an average age of 48.1(±17.6), were admitted to our hospital between 2006 and 2011. The highest admission rates were in the spring season, the highest in May (n=37, 15.9%), and the lowest admission rates were in December (n=10, 4.3%). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the number of hemoptysis cases and mean atmospheric pressure but no relative humidity or outdoor temperature. Hemoptysis is very much influenced by weather factors; in particular, low atmospheric pressures significantly affect the development of hemoptysis. Fluctuations in atmospheric pressure may also play a role in hemoptysis.

  6. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-03

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. ATMOSPHERIC RETRIEVAL FOR SUPER-EARTHS: UNIQUELY CONSTRAINING THE ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION WITH TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benneke, Bjoern; Seager, Sara

    2012-01-01

    We present a retrieval method based on Bayesian analysis to infer the atmospheric compositions and surface or cloud-top pressures from transmission spectra of exoplanets with general compositions. In this study, we identify what can unambiguously be determined about the atmospheres of exoplanets from their transmission spectra by applying the retrieval method to synthetic observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b. Our approach to inferring constraints on atmospheric parameters is to compute their joint and marginal posterior probability distributions using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique in a parallel tempering scheme. A new atmospheric parameterization is introduced that is applicable to general atmospheres in which the main constituent is not known a priori and clouds may be present. Our main finding is that a unique constraint of the mixing ratios of the absorbers and two spectrally inactive gases (such as N 2 and primordial H 2 + He) is possible if the observations are sufficient to quantify both (1) the broadband transit depths in at least one absorption feature for each absorber and (2) the slope and strength of the molecular Rayleigh scattering signature. A second finding is that the surface pressure or cloud-top pressure can be quantified if a surface or cloud deck is present at low optical depth. A third finding is that the mean molecular mass can be constrained by measuring either the Rayleigh scattering slope or the shapes of the absorption features, thus enabling one to distinguish between cloudy hydrogen-rich atmospheres and high mean molecular mass atmospheres. We conclude, however, that without the signature of molecular Rayleigh scattering—even with robustly detected infrared absorption features (>10σ)—there is no reliable way to tell from the transmission spectrum whether the absorber is a main constituent of the atmosphere or just a minor species with a mixing ratio of X abs < 0.1%. The retrieval method leads us to a conceptual picture

  8. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    and the material surface, and thus many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before inactivated, and be efficiently utilized for surface modification. In the present work polyester plates are treated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a gliding arc at atmospheric pressure......Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma treatment...

  9. Atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of the phenicol drug family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, M Teresa

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the mass spectrometry behaviour of the veterinary drug family of phenicols, including chloramphenicol (CAP) and its related compounds thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and FF amine (FFA), was studied. Several atmospheric pressure ionization sources, electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization were compared. In all atmospheric pressure ionization sources, CAP, TAP and FF were ionized in both positive and negative modes; while for the metabolite FFA, only positive ionization was possible. In general, in positive mode, [M + H](+) dominated the mass spectrum for FFA, while the other compounds, CAP, TAP and FF, with lower proton affinity showed intense adducts with species present in the mobile phase. In negative mode, ESI and atmospheric pressure photoionization showed the deprotonated molecule [M-H](-), while atmospheric pressure chemical ionization provided the radical molecular ion by electron capture. All these ions were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry using the combined information obtained by multistage mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry in a quadrupole-Orbitrap instrument. In general, the fragmentation occurred via cyclization and losses or fragmentation of the N-(alkyl)acetamide group, and common fragmentation pathways were established for this family of compounds. A new chemical structure for the product ion at m/z 257 for CAP, on the basis of the MS(3) and MS(4) spectra is proposed. Thermally assisted ESI and selected reaction monitoring are proposed for the determination of these compounds by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, achieving instrumental detection limits down to 0.1 pg. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a “soft” ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the “hard” ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS. - Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure ion sources (APCI, ESI, APPI, APLC etc) enable the coupling of LC-based high-end MS to GC. • APIs show advantages in selectivity and sensitivity compared with EI in GC-MS. • Accurate mass database in GC-APCI/MS is emerging as an alternative to GC-EI/MS database.

  11. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela [University of Duisburg-Essen, Applied Analytical Chemistry, Universitaetsstr. 5-7, 45141 Essen (Germany); Schmitz, Oliver J., E-mail: oliver.schmitz@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Applied Analytical Chemistry, Universitaetsstr. 5-7, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2015-09-03

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a “soft” ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the “hard” ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS. - Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure ion sources (APCI, ESI, APPI, APLC etc) enable the coupling of LC-based high-end MS to GC. • APIs show advantages in selectivity and sensitivity compared with EI in GC-MS. • Accurate mass database in GC-APCI/MS is emerging as an alternative to GC-EI/MS database.

  12. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Selwyn, Gary S.

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  13. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  14. Hydrophilic surface modification of coronary stent using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae Won; Bae, In-Ho; Park, Dae Sung; Lee, So-Youn; Jang, Eun-Jae; Lim, Kyung-Seob; Park, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Ju Han; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-03-01

    The first two authors contributed equally to this study. Bioactivity and cell adhesion properties are major factors for fabricating medical devices such as coronary stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet in enhancing the biocompatibility and endothelial cell-favorites. The experimental objects were divided into before and after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment with the ratio of nitrogen:argon = 3:1, which is similar to air. The treated surfaces were basically characterized by means of a contact angle analyzer for the activation property on their surfaces. The effect of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on cellular response was examined by endothelial cell adhesion and XTT analysis. It was difficult to detect any changeable morphology after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment on the surface. The roughness was increased after atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment compared to nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treatment (86.781 and 7.964 nm, respectively). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the surface concentration of the C-O groups increased slightly from 6% to 8% after plasma activation. The contact angle dramatically decreased in the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (22.6 ± 15.26°) compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (72.4 ± 15.26°) ( n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet on endothelial cell migration and proliferation was 85.2% ± 12.01% and 34.2% ± 2.68%, respectively, at 7 days, compared to the nonatmospheric-pressure plasma jet treated group (58.2% ± 11.44% in migration, n = 10, p atmospheric-pressure plasma jet method. Moreover, the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet might affect re-endothelialization after stenting.

  15. Mechanism of Runaway Electron Generation at Gas Pressures from a Few Atmospheres to Several Tens of Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Ivanov, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    The mechanism of runaway electron generation at gas pressures from a few atmospheres to several tens of atmospheres is proposed. According to this mechanism, the electrons pass into the runaway mode in the enhanced field zone that arises between a cathode micropoint—a source of field-emission electrons—and the region of the positive ion space charge accumulated near the cathode in the tails of the developing electron avalanches. As a result, volume gas ionization by runaway electrons begins with a time delay required for the formation of the enhanced field zone. This process determines the delay time of breakdown. The influence of the gas pressure on the formation dynamics of the space charge region is analyzed. At gas pressures of a few atmospheres, the space charge arises due to the avalanche multiplication of the very first field-emission electron, whereas at pressures of several tens of atmospheres, the space charge forms as a result of superposition of many electron avalanches with a relatively small number of charge carriers in each.

  16. Numerical simulation for production of O and N radicals in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    A streamer discharge model is developed to analyse the characteristics of a pulsed positive streamer discharge in point-to-plane electrodes filled with oxygen-nitrogen mixed gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this paper we study the mechanisms of O and N radical production in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge. To confirm the validity of the simulation model, the discharge emission of light and the discharge current are compared with experimental data at several voltages in gas mixtures with 2-20% oxygen concentrations. The calculated streak picture and the axial distribution of streamer luminous intensity are in good agreement with our previous experimental results. After demonstrating the reliability of the model, we performed a numerical study on radical production by the streamer discharge. The experimentally obtained axial distributions of oxygen radical production in O 2 (20%)/N 2 and nitrogen radical production in O 2 (2%)/N 2 are successfully reproduced in our simulation. For the production of nitrogen radicals, two-step dissociation through the vibrationally excited states is predominant. (paper)

  17. Device for determining pressures in aggressive atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, Robert; Voituriez, Bernard.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a compact device for measuring rapidly changing pressures at high temperature and in corrosive or radioactive atmospheres. The device includes a case in which there is a support having two plane surfaces, an elliptical flexible membrane fixed to the first plane surface and supporting a strain gauge, a second gauge fixed to the second plane surface, the support being fitted with a passage enabling the membrane to distort under the action of the fluid it is desired to measure for pressure. Applies to the determination of pressures in nuclear reactors [fr

  18. Results of Propellant Mixing Variable Study Using Precise Pressure-Based Burn Rate Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanski, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    A designed experiment was conducted in which three mix processing variables (pre-curative addition mix temperature, pre-curative addition mixing time, and mixer speed) were varied to estimate their effects on within-mix propellant burn rate variability. The chosen discriminator for the experiment was the 2-inch diameter by 4-inch long (2x4) Center-Perforated (CP) ballistic evaluation motor. Motor nozzle throat diameters were sized to produce a common targeted chamber pressure. Initial data analysis did not show a statistically significant effect. Because propellant burn rate must be directly related to chamber pressure, a method was developed that showed statistically significant effects on chamber pressure (either maximum or average) by adjustments to the process settings. Burn rates were calculated from chamber pressures and these were then normalized to a common pressure for comparative purposes. The pressure-based method of burn rate determination showed significant reduction in error when compared to results obtained from the Brooks' modification of the propellant web-bisector burn rate determination method. Analysis of effects using burn rates calculated by the pressure-based method showed a significant correlation of within-mix burn rate dispersion to mixing duration and the quadratic of mixing duration. The findings were confirmed in a series of mixes that examined the effects of mixing time on burn rate variation, which yielded the same results.

  19. Ions in carbon dioxide at an atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Yasumasa; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo; Nakajima, Hayato; Sato, Shoichi; Matsuoka, Shingo; Nakamura, Hirone; Tamura, Takaaki

    1985-01-01

    The formation and the subsequent reactions of positive and negative ions were observed by a time resolved atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (TRAPI) in an atmospheric pressure carbon dioxide added with small amounts of carbon monoxide and oxygen. A relatively stable ion of (44 x n) + (n >= 2) having a different reactivity from that of (CO 2 ) + sub(n) was found to be one of major ionic species in this gas system. This species was tentatively assigned as [O 2 (CO) 2 ] + (CO 2 )sub(n-2). A new reaction sequence of positive ions is proposed which can be operative in the radiolysis of carbon dioxide at 1 atm. (author)

  20. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao

    2017-01-01

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration

  1. Rapid Chemical Vapor Infiltration of Silicon Carbide Minicomposites at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Kenneth; Poges, Shannon; Monteleone, Chris; Grady, Joseph; Bhatt, Ram; Suib, Steven L

    2018-02-07

    The chemical vapor infiltration technique is one of the most popular for the fabrication of the matrix portion of a ceramic matrix composite. This work focuses on tailoring an atmospheric pressure deposition of silicon carbide onto carbon fiber tows using the methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 ) and H 2 deposition system at atmospheric pressure to create minicomposites faster than low pressure systems. Adjustment of the flow rate of H 2 bubbled through CH 3 SiCl 3 will improve the uniformity of the deposition as well as infiltrate the substrate more completely as the flow rate is decreased. Low pressure depositions conducted at 50 Torr deposit SiC at a rate of approximately 200 nm*h -1 , while the atmospheric pressure system presented has a deposition rate ranging from 750 nm*h -1 to 3.88 μm*h -1 . The minicomposites fabricated in this study had approximate total porosities of 3 and 6% for 10 and 25 SCCM infiltrations, respectively.

  2. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Interaction with Soft Materials as Fundamental Processes in Plasma Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Molecular-structure variation of organic materials irradiated with atmospheric pressure He plasma jet have been investigated. Optical emission spectrum in the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been measured. The spectrum shows considerable emissions of He lines, and the emission of O and N radicals attributed to air. Variation in molecular structure of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been observed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). These results via XPS and FT-IR indicate that the PET surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet was oxidized by chemical and/or physical effect due to irradiation of active species.

  3. Spectroscopic characterisation of an atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, S.; Steen, P.G.; Morrow, T.; Graham, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in atmospheric discharges operating in a glow discharge mode i.e. with a spatial and sheath structure similar to that of low pressure glow discharges. Here spectroscopy has been used to characterise an atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD), operating with either dry air, argon or helium gas flowing through the inter-electrode space and with the inter-electrode gap either free or with woven polypropylene or polyester samples present. Emission spectroscopy is used to determine the rotational and vibrational temperature of the nitrogen gas, while electron temperatures are determined from the relative intensities of Ar emission lines. Ozone production is monitored by a simple absorption technique to evaluate its potential in process control

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Induced Sterilization and Chemical Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Eusebio; Evans, Kirk; Gornostaeva, Olga; Alexeff, Igor; Lock Kang, Weng; Wood, Thomas K.

    1998-11-01

    We are studying chemical neutralization and surface decontamination using atmospheric pressure plasma discharges. The plasma is produced by corona discharge from an array of pins and a ground plane. The array is constructed so that various gases, like argon or helium, can be flowed past the pins where the discharge is initiated. The pin array can be biased using either DC, AC or pulsed discharges. Results indicate that the atmospheric plasma is effective in sterilizing surfaces with biological contaminants like E-coli and bacillus subtilus cells. Exposure times of less than four minutes in an air plasma result in a decrease in live colony counts by six orders of magnitude. Greater exposure times result in a decrease of live colony counts of up to ten orders of magnitude. The atmospheric pressure discharge is also effective in decomposing organic phosphate compounds that are simulants for chemical warfare agents. Details of the decomposition chemistry, by-product formation, and electrical energy consumption of the system will be discussed.

  5. A microwave pressure sounder. [for remote measurement of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the remote measurement of atmospheric surface pressure will be described. Such measurements could be made from a satellite in polar orbit and would cover many areas for which conventional meteorological data are not available. An active microwave instrument is used to measure the strength of return echoes from the ocean surface at a number of frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. Factors which affect the accuracy with which surface pressure can be deduced from these measurements will be discussed and an instrument designed to test the method by making measurements from an aircraft will be described.

  6. Pressure supression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model developed in this work produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing is verified by comparing the model-predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  7. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  8. Evaluation of Packed Distillation Columns I - Atmospheric Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Thaine

    1951-01-01

    .... Four column-packing combinations of the glass columns and four column-packing combinations of the steel columns were investigated at atmospheric pressure using a test mixture of methylcyclohexane...

  9. Surface modification of polylactic acid films by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, V. L.; Zhuravlev, M. V.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach for the modification of polylactic acid (PLA) materials using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is described. PLA films plasma exposure time was 20, 60, 120 s. The surface morphology and wettability of the obtained PLA films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the sitting drop method. The atmospheric pressure plasma increased the roughness and surface energy of PLA film. The wettability of PLA has been improved with the application of an atmospheric plasma surface treatment. It was shown that it is possible to obtain PLA films with various surface relief and tunable wettability. Additionally, we demonstrated that the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for surface activation allows for the immobilization of bioactive compounds like hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of obtained films. It was shown that composite PLA-HA films have an increased long-term hydrophilicity of the films surface.

  10. Influence of the homogenization pressure on the ice cream mix quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Murgić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the suitability of different homogenization pressures on appearance and quality of ice cream mix was determined. The ice cream mix were taken from ageing tank, and depending on the source of fat in ice cream mix (butter, vegetable fat or cream they were homogenized under different pressures. Afterwards, by microscope with scalar, fat globule size was determined. The homogenization pressures reduce the fat globule size to 1-2 μm without clumping and these pressures have been characterized as adequate pressures for specific type of fat and specific portion of fat in the ice cream mixture. The higher the fat in the mixture, the lower the pressure should be. The optimal pressure for ice cream mixture containing 2% vegetable fat was 200 bars, for 6% 190-200 bars, and for 8% 170 bars. The optimal pressure for ice cream mixture that contained 8% butter was 190-200 bars, for 10% 150, and for 12% 135 bars. For ice cream mixture containing 8% of cream, optimal pressure was 200 bars, 10% cream was 190, 12% cream was 125 bars and 14% cream was 90 bars.

  11. Research on atmospheric pressure plasma processing sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gui-cai; Na, Yan-xiang; Dong, Xiao-long; Sun, Xiao-liang

    2013-08-01

    The water pollution has become more and more serious with the industrial progress and social development, so it become a worldwide leading environmental management problem to human survival and personal health, therefore, countries are looking for the best solution. Generally speaking, in this paper the work has the following main achievements and innovation: (1) Developed a new plasma device--Plasma Water Bed. (2) At atmospheric pressure condition, use oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium as work gas respectively, use fiber spectrometer to atmospheric pressure plasma discharge the emission spectrum of measurement, due to the different work gas producing active particle is different, so can understand discharge, different particle activity, in the treatment of wastewater, has the different degradation effects. (3) Methyl violet solution treatment by plasma water bed. Using plasma drafting make active particles and waste leachate role, observe the decolorization, measurement of ammonia nitrogen removal.

  12. Interaction of EM Waves with Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus of the main activities is the generation of large volume, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasmas, their diagnostics, and their interactions with EM waves and with the cells of microorganism...

  13. Atmospheric Pressure and Onset of Episodes of Menière’s Disease - A Repeated Measures Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Ralf; Heinlin, Nina; Krause, Eike; Olzowy, Bernhard; Koppe, Christina; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background External changes of air pressure are transmitted to the middle and inner ear and may be used therapeutically in Menière’s disease, one of the most common vertigo disorders. We analyzed the possible relationship of atmospheric pressure and other meteorological parameters with the onset of MD vertigo episodes in order to determine whether atmospheric pressure changes play a role in the occurrence of MD episodes. Methods Patients of a tertiary outpatient dizziness clinic diagnosed with MD were asked to keep a daily vertigo diary to document MD episodes (2004–2009). Local air pressure, absolute temperature and dew point temperature were acquired on an hourly basis. Change in meteorological parameters was conceptualized as the maximum difference in a 24 hour time frame preceding each day. Effects were estimated using additive mixed models with a random participant effect. We included lagged air parameters, age, sex, weekday and season in the model. Results A total of 56 persons (59% female) with mean age 54 years were included. Mean follow-up time was 267 days. Persons experienced on average 10.3 episodes during the observation period (median 8). Age and change in air pressure were significantly associated with vertigo onset risk (Odds Ratio = 0.979 and 1.010). We could not show an effect of sex, weekday, season, air temperature, and dew point temperature. Conclusions Change in air pressure was significantly associated with onset of MD episodes, suggesting a potential triggering mechanism in the inner ear. MD patients may possibly use air pressure changes as an early warning system for vertigo attacks in the future. PMID:27096752

  14. Effects of initiating anaerobic digestion of layer-hen poultry dung at sub-atmospheric pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of initiating anaerobic digestion (AD of dry layer-hen poultry dung at the sub-atmospheric pressure of -30 cmHg on biodegradation, biogasification, and biomethanation. The setup was performed as a batch process at an average ambient temperature of 29±2 0C and a retention time of 15 days. Comparisons were made with two other experiments which were both begun at ambient atmospheric pressure; one was inoculated with digestate from a previous layer-hen dung AD, while the other was not inoculated. The bioreactors initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure, ambient atmospheric pressure without inoculum, and ambient atmospheric pressure with inoculum showed the following for biogas and biomethane yields respectively: 16.8 cm3 g-1 VS and 15.46 cm3 g 1 VS, 25.10 cm3 g-1 VS and 12.85 cm3 g-1 VS, 21.44 cm3 g-1 VS and 14.88 cm3 g 1 VS. In the same order, after AD, the following values were recorded for volatile solids and total viable counts (prokaryotes and fungi in the digestates: 40.33% and 23.22 x 106 cfu mL-1, 43.42% and 22.17 x 106 cfu mL-1, 41.11% and 13.3 x 106 cfu mL-1. The feedstock showed values of 83.93% and 3.98 x 106 cfu mL-1 for volatile solids and total viable count respectively. There was a slight difference in the volatile solids of the digestates of the three bioreactors after AD. The pH recorded for the feedstock slurry before AD was 7.9 at 30oC, while after AD, the digestates from all the three bioreactors showed the same pH of 5.9 at 29 0C. Statistical analysis using ANOVA showed no significant difference in biogas yields of the feedstock for the three bioreactors (A, B, C. ANOVA showed no significant difference for biomethane yields in the bioreactors initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure and for those initiated at ambient atmospheric pressure with inoculums. However, it showed significant difference in the bioreactor initiated at sub-atmospheric pressure and that initiated at ambient atmospheric

  15. Transmission geometry laserspray ionization vacuum using an atmospheric pressure inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Corinne A; El-Baba, Tarick J; Inutan, Ellen D; Manly, Cory D; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    This represents the first report of laserspray ionization vacuum (LSIV) with operation directly from atmospheric pressure for use in mass spectrometry. Two different types of electrospray ionization source inlets were converted to LSIV sources by equipping the entrance of the atmospheric pressure inlet aperture with a customized cone that is sealed with a removable glass plate holding the matrix/analyte sample. A laser aligned in transmission geometry (at 180° relative to the inlet) ablates the matrix/analyte sample deposited on the vacuum side of the glass slide. Laser ablation from vacuum requires lower inlet temperature relative to laser ablation at atmospheric pressure. However, higher inlet temperature is required for high-mass analytes, for example, α-chymotrypsinogen (25.6 kDa). Labile compounds such as gangliosides and cardiolipins are detected in the negative ion mode directly from mouse brain tissue as intact doubly deprotonated ions. Multiple charging enhances the ion mobility spectrometry separation of ions derived from complex tissue samples.

  16. Atmospheric stability effects on potential radiological releases at a nuclear research facility in Romania: Characterising the atmospheric mixing state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Scott D.; Galeriu, Dan; Williams, Alastair G.; Melintescu, Anca; Griffiths, Alan D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Dyer, Leisa; Duma, Marin; Zorila, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    A radon-based nocturnal stability classification scheme is developed for a flat inland site near Bucharest, Romania, characterised by significant local surface roughness heterogeneity, and compared with traditional meteorologically-based techniques. Eight months of hourly meteorological and atmospheric radon observations from a 60 m tower at the IFIN-HH nuclear research facility are analysed. Heterogeneous surface roughness conditions in the 1 km radius exclusion zone around the site hinder accurate characterisation of nocturnal atmospheric mixing conditions using conventional meteorological techniques, so a radon-based scheme is trialled. When the nocturnal boundary layer is very stable, the Pasquill–Gifford “radiation” scheme overestimates the atmosphere's capacity to dilute pollutants with near-surface sources (such as tritiated water vapour) by 20% compared to the radon-based scheme. Under these conditions, near-surface wind speeds drop well below 1 m s"−"1 and nocturnal mixing depths vary from ∼25 m to less than 10 m above ground level (a.g.l.). Combining nocturnal radon with daytime ceilometer data, we were able to reconstruct the full diurnal cycle of mixing depths. Average daytime mixing depths at this flat inland site range from 1200 to 1800 m a.g.l. in summer, and 500–900 m a.g.l. in winter. Using tower observations to constrain the nocturnal radon-derived effective mixing depth, we were able to estimate the seasonal range in the Bucharest regional radon flux as: 12 mBq m"−"2 s"−"1 in winter to 14 mBq m"−"2 s"−"1 in summer. - Highlights: • Site climatology accurately characterised by season and atmospheric stability class. • Comparison of "2"2"2Rn-based, Pasquill–Gifford and Richardson number stability indices. • Seasonal mixing depth estimates over the whole diurnal cycle by ceilometer and radon. • Seasonal variability in the regional radon source function well constrained.

  17. Calculation of vapour pressures over mixed carbide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Mathews, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    Vapour pressure over the uranium-plutonium mixed carbide (Usub(l-p) Pusub(p C) was calculated in the temperature range of 1300-9000 for various compositions (p=0.1 to 0.7). Effects of variation of the sesquicarbide content were also studied. The principle of corresponding states was applied to UC and mixed carbides to obtain the equation of state. (author)

  18. Density and vapour pressure of mixed-solvent desiccant systems (propylene glycol or dipropylene glycol or tripropylene glycol + magnesium chloride + water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Yi; Soriano, Allan N.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapour pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {40 wt% glycol (propylene or dipropylene or tripropylene) + (4 or 9 or 16 wt%) magnesium chloride salt + water} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The density and vapour pressure data obtained are presented as a function of temperature and composition. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the density values. A model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the vapour pressure as a function of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapour pressure calculations

  19. Studying the influence of temperature and pressure on microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds using airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreea, Boscornea; Sabina, Stefan; Sorin-Nicolae, Vajaiac; Mihai, Cimpuieru

    2015-04-01

    One cloud type for which the formation and evolution process is not well-understood is the mixed-phase type. In general mixed-phase clouds consist of liquid droplets and ice crystals. The temperature interval within both liquid droplets and ice crystals can potentially coexist is limited to 0 °C and - 40 °C. Mixed-phase clouds account for 20% to 30% of the global cloud coverage. The need to understand the microphysical characteristics of mixed-phase clouds to improve numerical forecast modeling and radiative transfer calculation is of major interest in the atmospheric community. In the past, studies of cloud phase composition have been significantly limited by a lack of aircraft instruments capable of discriminating between the ice and liquid phase for a wide range of particle sizes. Presently, in situ airborne measurements provide the most accurate information about cloud microphysical characteristics. This information can be used for verification of both numerical models and cloud remote-sensing techniques. The knowledge of the temperature and pressure variation during the airborne measurements is crucial in order to understand their influence on the cloud dynamics and also their role in the cloud formation processes like accretion and coalescence. Therefore, in this paper is presented a comprehensive study of cloud microphysical properties in mixed-phase clouds in focus of the influence of temperature and pressure variation on both, cloud dynamics and the cloud formation processes, using measurements performed with the ATMOSLAB - Airborne Laboratory for Environmental Atmospheric Research in property of the National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS). The airborne laboratory equipped for special research missions is based on a Hawker Beechcraft - King Air C90 GTx aircraft and is equipped with a sensors system CAPS - Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (30 bins, 0.51-50 µm) and a HAWKEYE cloud probe. The analyzed data in this

  20. Decomposition of poly(amide-imide) film enameled on solid copper wire using atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kazuo; Suzuki, Katsunori; Kuwasima, Shusuke; Aoki, Yosuke; Yajima, Tatsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of a poly(amide-imide) thin film coated on a solid copper wire was attempted using atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma. The plasma was produced by applying microwave power to an electrically conductive material in a gas mixture of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The poly(amide-imide) thin film was easily decomposed by argon-oxygen mixed gas plasma and an oxidized copper surface was obtained. The reduction of the oxidized surface with argon-hydrogen mixed gas plasma rapidly yielded a metallic copper surface. A continuous plasma heat-treatment process using a combination of both the argon-oxygen plasma and argon-hydrogen plasma was found to be suitable for the decomposition of the poly(amide-imide) thin film coated on the solid copper wire.

  1. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.

    2017-09-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  2. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T; Mendoza, B

    2017-09-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  3. Correlation between atmospheric pressure changes and abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture: results of a single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molacek, Jiri; Treska, Vladislav; Kasik, Miroslav; Houdek, Karel; Baxa, Jan

    2013-09-01

    There is much interest in all factors that influence the etiopathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture. Apart from the well-established factors such as arterial hypertension, smoking, age, and genetic predisposition, less common factors that may play a role in the mechanism of the rupture are the subject of much discussion. These include atmospheric conditions, temperature, and atmospheric pressure. We conducted this study to investigate the effects of the absolute value of atmospheric pressure and its changes on the frequency of AAA rupture. We retrospectively examined 54 patients who underwent treatment for a ruptured AAA at the Clinic of Surgery in the University Hospital in Pilsen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2009. We collected data on the atmospheric pressure in this period from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute in Pilsen. We did not find a significant difference in atmospheric pressure values between the days when the rupture occurred versus the other days (p atmospheric pressure during the 48 h preceding the rupture (Student's test p atmospheric pressure in that month. These findings suggest that atmospheric pressure and its changes do not affect the pathogenesis of AAA rupture.

  4. Combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bingchai; Lu Jiaben; Wang Zongwu; Chen Tiehe

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of γ-ray radiation and high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberration, micronucleus and transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied. The results indicated that there were no significant influence for effects of high atmospheric pressure on chromosome aberrations, transformation frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced γ-ray radiation, and that high atmospheric pressure increased effect of micronucleus in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro induced γ-ray radiation

  5. Discovery of Three Pulsating, Mixed-atmosphere, Extremely Low-mass White Dwarf Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianninas, A.; Curd, Brandon; Fontaine, G.; Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in three mixed-atmosphere, extremely low-mass white dwarf (ELM WD, M ≤slant 0.3 M ⊙) precursors. Following the recent discoveries of pulsations in both ELM and pre-ELM WDs, we targeted pre-ELM WDs with mixed H/He atmospheres with high-speed photometry. We find significant optical variability in all three observed targets with periods in the range 320-590 s, consistent in timescale with theoretical predictions of p-mode pulsations in mixed-atmosphere ≈0.18 M ⊙ He-core pre-ELM WDs. This represents the first empirical evidence that pulsations in pre-ELM WDs can only occur if a significant amount of He is present in the atmosphere. Future, more extensive, timeseries photometry of the brightest of the three new pulsators offers an excellent opportunity to constrain the thickness of the surface H layer, which regulates the cooling timescales for ELM WDs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  6. Atmospheric pressure H20 plasma treatment of polyester cord threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simor, M.; Krump, H.; Hudec, I.; Rahel, J.; Brablec, A.; Cernak, M.

    2004-01-01

    Polyester cord threads, which are used as a reinforcing materials of rubber blend, have been treated in atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma in order to enhance their adhesion to rubber. The atmospheric-pressure H 2 0 plasma was generated in an underwater diaphragm discharge. The plasma treatment resulted in approximately 100% improvement in the adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates that not only introduced surface polar groups but also increased surface area of the fibres due to a fibre surface roughening are responsible for the improved adhesive strength (Authors)

  7. Near 7-day response of ocean bottom pressure to atmospheric surface pressure and winds in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Zhao, Ruixiang

    2018-02-01

    Ocean bottom pressures, observed by five pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs) from October 2012 to July 2014, exhibit strong near 7-day variability in the northern South China Sea (SCS) where long-term in situ bottom pressure observations are quite sparse. This variability was strongest in October 2013 during the near two years observation period. By joint analysis with European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data, it is shown that the near 7-day ocean bottom pressure variability is closely related to the local atmospheric surface pressure and winds. Within a period band near 7 days, there are high coherences, exceeding 95% significance level, of observed ocean bottom pressure with local atmospheric surface pressure and with both zonal and meridional components of the wind. Ekman pumping/suction caused by the meridional component of the wind in particular, is suggested as one driving mechanism. A Kelvin wave response to the near 7-day oscillation would propagate down along the continental slope, observed at the Qui Nhon in the Vietnam. By multiple and partial coherence analyses, we find that local atmospheric surface pressure and Ekman pumping/suction show nearly equal influence on ocean bottom pressure variability at near 7-day periods. A schematic diagram representing an idealized model gives us a possible mechanism to explain the relationship between ocean bottom pressure and local atmospheric forcing at near 7-day periods in the northern SCS.

  8. Runaway electron beam in atmospheric pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, E V; Barengolts, S A; Chaikovsky, S A; Oreshkin, V I

    2015-01-01

    A numerical simulation was performed to study the formation of a runaway electron (RAE) beam from an individual emission zone in atmospheric pressure air discharges with a highly overvolted interelectrode gap. It is shown that the formation of a RAE beam in discharges at high overvoltages is much contributed by avalanche processes. (paper)

  9. A Study on Decontamination Process Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Jin, Dong Sik; Park, Dong Min

    2010-05-01

    Radioactive decontamination process using atmospheric pressure plasma which can be operated parallel with low vacuum cold plasma processing is studied. Two types of cold plasma torches were designed and manufactured. One of them is the cylindrical type applicable to the treatment of three-dimensional surfaces. The other is the rectangular type for the treatment of flat and large surface areas. Ar palsam was unstable but using He as a carrier gas, discharge condition was improved. Besides filtering module using pre, medium, charcoal, and HEPA filter was designed and manufactured. More intensive study for developing filtering system will be followed. Atmospheric pressure plasma decontamination process can be used to the equipment and facility wall decontamination

  10. Direct measurement of electron density in microdischarge at atmospheric pressure by Stark broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; Ran Junxia; Mao Zhiguo

    2005-01-01

    We present a method and results for measurement of electron density in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge. The electron density of microdischarge in atmospheric pressure argon is measured by using the spectral line profile method. The asymmetrical deconvolution is used to obtain Stark broadening. The results show that the electron density in single filamentary microdischarge at atmospheric pressure argon is 3.05x10 15 cm -3 if the electron temperature is 10,000 K. The result is in good agreement with the simulation. The electron density in dielectric barrier discharge increases with the increase of applied voltage

  11. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma possible application in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2014-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture: Results From a Time Series Analysis and Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning de Vries, Bas B L; Kolkert, Joé L P; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2017-10-01

    Associations between atmospheric pressure and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk have been reported, but empirical evidence is inconclusive and largely derived from studies that did not account for possible nonlinearity, seasonality, and confounding by temperature. Associations between atmospheric pressure and AAA rupture risk were investigated using local meteorological data and a case series of 358 patients admitted to hospital for ruptured AAA during the study period, January 2002 to December 2012. Two analyses were performed-a time series analysis and a case-crossover study. Results from the 2 analyses were similar; neither the time series analysis nor the case-crossover study showed a significant association between atmospheric pressure ( P = .627 and P = .625, respectively, for mean daily atmospheric pressure) or atmospheric pressure variation ( P = .464 and P = .816, respectively, for 24-hour change in mean daily atmospheric pressure) and AAA rupture risk. This study failed to support claims that atmospheric pressure causally affects AAA rupture risk. In interpreting our results, one should be aware that the range of atmospheric pressure observed in this study is not representative of the atmospheric pressure to which patients with AAA may be exposed, for example, during air travel or travel to high altitudes in the mountains. Making firm claims regarding these conditions in relation to AAA rupture risk is difficult at best. Furthermore, despite the fact that we used one of the largest case series to date to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure on AAA rupture risk, it is possible that this study is simply too small to demonstrate a causal link.

  13. Selection of suitable diagnostic techniques for an RF atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, M.G.; Deng, X.T.

    2001-01-01

    As an early report of our study, this paper summaries the RF atmospheric pressure plasma system we intend to characterize and a number of diagnostic techniques presently under assessment for our plasma rig. By discussing the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic techniques at this meeting, we hope to gain feedback and comments to improve our choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques as well as our subsequent application of these techniques to nonthermal RF atmospheric pressure plasmas

  14. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established

  15. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaaki [Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Toyokuni, Shinya [Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Maruyama, Shoichi [Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroko [Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuo [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 501-1196 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Masashi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hori, Masaru [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  16. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Robert F.; Herrmann, Hans W.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate a practical, atmospheric pressure plasma tool for the surface decontamination of radioactive waste. Decontamination of radioactive materials that have accumulated on the surfaces of equipment and structures is a challenging and costly undertaking for the US Department of Energy. Our technology shows great potential for accelerating this clean up effort

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of carbon fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Michelsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibres are continuously treated with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure in various gas conditions for adhesion improvement in mind. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that oxygen is effectively introduced onto the carbon fibre surfaces by He, He...

  18. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  19. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-08-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M(+.) decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Synthesis and atmospheric pressure field emission operation of W18O49 nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten oxide W18O49 nanorods with diameters of 15−20 nm were grown on tungsten thin films exposed to ethene and nitrogen at 700 °C at atmospheric pressure. It was found that tungsten carbide formation enhances nucleation and growth of nanorods. Atmospheric pressure field emission measurements in

  1. The Effect of Varying Atmospheric Pressure upon Habitability and Biosignatures of Earth-like Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Engin; Grenfell, John Lee; Godolt, Mareike; Stracke, Barbara; Rauer, Heike

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the possible climatic conditions on rocky extrasolar planets, and thereby their potential habitability, is one of the major subjects of exoplanet research. Determining how the climate, as well as potential atmospheric biosignatures, changes under different conditions is a key aspect when studying Earth-like exoplanets. One important property is the atmospheric mass, hence pressure and its influence on the climatic conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to understand the influence of atmospheric mass on climate, hence habitability, and the spectral appearance of planets with Earth-like, that is, N 2 -O 2 dominated, atmospheres orbiting the Sun at 1 AU. This work utilizes a 1D coupled, cloud-free, climate-photochemical atmospheric column model; varies atmospheric surface pressure from 0.5 to 30 bar; and investigates temperature and key species profiles, as well as emission and brightness temperature spectra in a range between 2 and 20 μm. Increasing the surface pressure up to 4 bar leads to an increase in the surface temperature due to increased greenhouse warming. Above this point, Rayleigh scattering dominates, and the surface temperature decreases, reaching surface temperatures below 273 K (approximately at ∼34 bar surface pressure). For ozone, nitrous oxide, water, methane, and carbon dioxide, the spectral response either increases with surface temperature or pressure depending on the species. Masking effects occur, for example, for the bands of the biosignatures ozone and nitrous oxide by carbon dioxide, which could be visible in low carbon dioxide atmospheres. Key Words: Planetary habitability and biosignatures-Atmospheres-Radiative transfer. Astrobiology 18, 116-132.

  2. Relating landfill gas emissions to atmospheric pressure using numerical modeling and state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    were applied: (I) State-space analysis was used to identify relations between gas flux and short-term (hourly) variations in atmospheric pressure. (II) A numerical gas transport model was fitted to the data and used to quantify short-term impacts of variations in atmospheric pressure, volumetric soil......-water content, soil gas permeability, soil gas diffusion coefficients, and biological CH4 degradation rate upon landfill gas concentration and fluxes in the soil. Fluxes and concentrations were found to be most sensitive to variations in volumetric soil water content, atmospheric pressure variations and gas...... permeability whereas variations in CH4 oxidation rate and molecular coefficients had less influence. Fluxes appeared to be most sensitive to atmospheric pressure at intermediate distances from the landfill edge. Also overall CH4 fluxes out of the soil over longer periods (years) were largest during periods...

  3. Sterilization and decontamination of surfaces using atmospheric pressure plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garate, E.; Gornostaeva, O.; Alexeff, I.; Kang, W.L.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of the program is to demonstrate that an atmospheric pressure plasma discharge can rapidly and effectively sterilize or decontaminate surfaces that are contaminated with model biological and chemical warfare agents. The plasma is produced by corona discharge from an array of pins and a ground plane. The array is constructed so that various gases, like argon or helium, can be flowed past the pins where the discharge is initiated. The pin array can be biased using either DC. AC or pulsed discharges. the work done to date has focused on the sterilization of aluminum, polished steel and tantalum foil metal coupons, about 2 cm on a side and 2 mm thick, which have been inoculated with up to 10{sup 6} spores per coupon of Bacillus subtilis var niger or Bascillus stearothermorphilus. Results indicate that 5 minute exposures to the atmospheric pressure plasma discharge can reduce the viable spore count by 4 orders of magnitude. The atmospheric pressure discharge is also effective in decomposing organic phosphate compounds that are stimulants for chemical warfare agents. Details of the decomposition chemistry, by-product formation, and electrical energy consumption of the system will be discussed.

  4. Research of Infrared Imaging at Atmospheric Pressure Using a Substrate-Free Focal Plane Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian-Xiong; Cheng Teng; Zhang Qing-Chuan; Zhang Yong; Mao Liang; Gao Jie; Wu Xiao-Ping; Chen Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model to the substrate-free focal plane array (FPA) is established. Using this fast and effective model, the performance of infrared (IR) imaging at atmospheric pressure is investigated and it is found that the substrate-free FPA has the ability of IR imaging at atmospheric pressure, whereas it has a slightly degraded noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) as compared with IR imaging under a high vacuum. This feature is also identified experimentally by a substrate-free FPA with pixel size of 50 × 50 μm 2 . The NETDs are measured to be 160 mK at 10 −2 Pa pressure and 1.08 K at atmospheric pressure

  5. Source of temperature and pressure pulsations during sessile droplet evaporation into multicomponent atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Aaron H; Sefiane, Khellil; Ward, Charles A

    2013-10-29

    During sessile droplet evaporation, studies with IR thermography and shadowgraphs have indicated temperature pulsations. We confirm those observations with microthermocouples, but microthermocouples also indicate temperature pulsations in the atmosphere of the droplet. The pressure in this atmosphere pulsated as well and was correlated with the temperature pulsations in the droplet. Also, we find that if a droplet evaporates into its own vapor, there are no temperature or pressure pulsations. The pulsations occur only if the droplet evaporates into an atmosphere with a component having a heat of solution with the droplet when it adsorbs-absorbs. None of the currently proposed mechanisms for the temperature pulsations provide an explanation for the coupling between the temperature pulsations in the droplet and the vapor-phase pressure pulsations, and for the absence of the pulsations when the system is single-component. As a mechanism for the pulsations, we propose that when a droplet is exposed to an atmosphere containing a component that has a heat of solution with the droplet, energy will be released from adsorption-absorption. This energy will cause pulsations in the evaporation flux, and these pulsations could cause the observed temperature and pressure pulsations. We examine this mechanism by showing that, if the measured temperature pulsations in a water droplet exposed to a methanol atmosphere are used as the input to a theory of evaporation kinetics (statistical rate theory), the pressure pulsations of the water vapor in the methanol atmosphere are predicted and agree with those measured with a quadrupole mass analyzer. When the inputs and outputs are reversed in the theory, we find that the temperature pulsations in the droplet are correctly predicted from the measured water vapor pulsations in the atmosphere.

  6. Moderator mixing after a pressure tube failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, J.C.; Fortman, R.A.; Hadaller, G.I.

    1997-01-01

    During a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS) in a CANDU reactor, there must be sufficient negative reactivity to ensure subcriticality in the event of a process failure. In one of the acceptable states, the reactor is kept subcritical by a high concentration of a neutron-absorbing chemical (the poison gadolinium nitrate) dissolved in the moderator (i.e., the moderator is guaranteed overpoisoned). A postulated accident scenario which is considered as a part of reactor safety analysis is the rupture of a fuel channel (i.e., a pressure tube/calandria tube break) when the reactor is in a GSS. If one of the channels in the core breaks (requiring a simultaneous failure of both the pressure tube and the surrounding calandria tube), coolant from the primary heat transport system will be discharged into the moderator, causing an associated displacement of fluid through relief ducts at the top of the calandria vessel. The incoming (unpoisoned) coolant may mix quickly with the moderator, or may mix slowly while displacing poisoned moderator through the relief ducts. The effectiveness of mixing generally depends on the break location, the coolant discharge rate and the moderator circulation. If an in-core loss of coolant accident occurred while the reactor is in this overpoisoned state, it must be guaranteed that even with the dilution of the poison by the incoming coolant the reactor will remain subcritical on both a local and global basis. This paper presents an overview of an experimental program in progress at the Moderator Test Facility at Stern Laboratories to investigate coolant/poison mixing for a simulated in-core fishmouth pressure tube/calandria tube rupture. The nominal system conditions investigated are of a reactor in a GSS, with coolant in the primary heat transport system at the same temperature as the heavily poisoned moderator, i.e., a depressurised 'cold' state. The results presented are those obtained during the commissioning of the modified Test Facility. The

  7. Effect of mixing rule boundary conditions on high pressure (liquid + liquid) equilibrium prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Kang; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Prediction of LLE from the combined use of EOS and liquid model are examined. ► The mixing rule used affects the predicted pressure dependence of LLE. ► MHV1 mixing rule predicts decent LLE at low pressures. ► WS mixing rule predicts more accurate excess volume and LLE at high pressures. ► The hybrid of MHV1 and WS mixing rule gives overall the best predictions. - Abstract: We examine the prediction of high pressure (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) from the Peng–Robinson equation with three excess Gibbs free energy (G ex )-based mixing rules (MR): the first order modified Huron–Vidal (MHV1), the Wong–Sandler (WS), and a hybrid of these two (referred to as G ex B 2 ). These mixing rules differ by the boundary conditions used for determination of the temperature and composition dependence of parameters a and b in the PR EOS. The condition of matching the excess Gibbs free energy from the EOS at zero pressure to that from the G ex model, used in MHV1 and G ex B 2 MR, leads to a similar miscibility gap from PR EOS and the G ex model used. On the other hand, the condition of matching excess Helmholtz energy from the EOS at infinite pressure to that from the G ex model, used in the WS MR, shows remarkable deviations. The condition of quadratic composition dependence in the second virial coefficient (B 2 ), used in WS and G ex B 2 MR, allows for both positive and negative values in the molar excess volume. Depending on the mixture, either the increase or decrease of the miscibility gap with pressure can be observed when the WS or the G ex B 2 MR is used. The condition of linear combination of molecular sizes of each component used in the MHV1 MR, however, often leads to small, positive molar excess volumes. As a consequence, the predicted LLE from using the MHV1 MR are insensitive to pressure. Therefore, we find that the G ex B 2 mixing rule provides the best predictive power for the LLE over a wide range of temperature and pressure.

  8. Basic principles and applications of atmospheric-pressure discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    The principles that govern the generation and maintenance of atmospheric - pressure discharge plasmas are summarized. The properties and operating parameters of various types such as dielectric barrier discharge plasmas (DBDs), corona discharge plasmas (CDs), microhollow cathode discharge plasmas (MHCDs) , and dielectric capillary electrode discharge plasmas (CDEDs) are introduced. All of them are self sustained, non equilibrium gas discharges that can be operated at atmospheric pressure. CDs and DBDDs represent very similar types of discharges, while DBDs are characterized by insulating layers on one or both electrodes, CDs depend on inhomogeneous electric fields at least in some parts of the electrode configuration to restrict the primary ionization processes to a small fraction of the inter - electrode region. Their application to novel light sources in the ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region is described. (nevyjel)

  9. Generation of high-power-density atmospheric pressure plasma with liquid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; Mao Zhiguo; Yin Zengqian; Ran Junxia

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for generating atmospheric pressure plasma using a dielectric barrier discharge reactor with two liquid electrodes. Four distinct kinds of discharge, including stochastic filaments, regular square pattern, glow-like discharge, and Turing stripe pattern, are observed in argon with a flow rate of 9 slm. The electrical and optical characteristics of the device are investigated. Results show that high-power-density atmospheric pressure plasma with high duty ratio in space and time can be obtained. The influence of wall charges on discharge power and duty ratio has been discussed

  10. Seasonal emanation of radon at Ghuttu, northwest Himalaya: Differentiation of atmospheric temperature and pressure influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamra, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of radon along with meteorological parameters has been carried out in a seismically active area of Garhwal region, northwest Himalaya, within the frame work of earthquake precursory research. Radon measurements are carried out by using a gamma ray detector installed in the air column at a depth of 10 m in a 68 m deep borehole. The analysis of long time series for 2006–2012 shows strong seasonal variability masked by diurnal and multi-day variations. Isolation of a seasonal cycle by minimising short-time by 31 day running average shows a strong seasonal variation with unambiguous dependence on atmospheric temperature and pressure. The seasonal characteristics of radon concentrations are positively correlated to atmospheric temperature (R=0.95) and negatively correlated to atmospheric pressure (R=−0.82). The temperature and pressure variation in their annual progressions are negatively correlated. The calculations of partial correlation coefficient permit us to conclude that atmospheric temperature plays a dominant role in controlling the variability of radon in borehole, 71% of the variability in radon arises from the variation in atmospheric temperature and about 6% of the variability is contributed by atmospheric pressure. The influence of pressure variations in an annual cycle appears to be a pseudo-effect, resulting from the negative correlation between temperature and pressure variations. Incorporation of these results explains the varying and even contradictory claims regarding the influence of the pressure variability on radon changes in the published literature. Temperature dependence, facilitated by the temperature gradient in the borehole, controls the transportation of radon from the deep interior to the surface. - Highlights: • Seasonal variability of radon in borehole. • Influence of atmospheric temperature and pressure on radon variability. • Partial correlation coefficient.

  11. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  12. Analysis of baseline, average, and longitudinally measured blood pressure data using linear mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ahmed; Beyene, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article compares baseline, average, and longitudinal data analysis methods for identifying genetic variants in genome-wide association study using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data. We apply methods that include (a) linear mixed models with baseline measures, (b) random intercept linear mixed models with mean measures outcome, and (c) random intercept linear mixed models with longitudinal measurements. In the linear mixed models, covariates are included as fixed effects, whereas relatedness among individuals is incorporated as the variance-covariance structure of the random effect for the individuals. The overall strategy of applying linear mixed models decorrelate the data is based on Aulchenko et al.'s GRAMMAR. By analyzing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which are used separately as outcomes, we compare the 3 methods in identifying a known genetic variant that is associated with blood pressure from chromosome 3 and simulated phenotype data. We also analyze the real phenotype data to illustrate the methods. We conclude that the linear mixed model with longitudinal measurements of diastolic blood pressure is the most accurate at identifying the known single-nucleotide polymorphism among the methods, but linear mixed models with baseline measures perform best with systolic blood pressure as the outcome.

  13. A new humane method of stunning broilers using low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project evaluated an alternative method of controlled atmosphere stunning of commercial broilers to induce anoxia utilizing a vacuum pump to reduce the oxygen tension, low atmospheric pressure stun (LAPS). A custom built 2 cage-module system (holding a total of 600 broilers each) with...

  14. Keratinocytes at the uppermost layer of epidermis might act as sensors of atmospheric pressure change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    It has long been suggested that climate, especially atmospheric pressure change, can cause health problems ranging from migraine to myocardial infarction. Here, I hypothesize that the sensory system of epidermal keratinocytes mediates the influence of atmospheric pressure change on the human physiological condition. We previously demonstrated that even subtle changes of atmospheric pressure (5-20 hPa) induce elevation of intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes (excitation of keratinocytes). It is also established that communication occurs between epidermal keratinocytes and peripheral nerve systems. Moreover, various neurotransmitters and hormones that influence multiple systems (nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems) are generated and released from epidermal keratinocytes in response to various external stimuli. Thus, I suggest that pathophysiological phenomena induced by atmospheric pressure changes might be triggered by epidermal keratinocytes.

  15. The role of Southern Ocean mixing and upwelling in glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Andrew J.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased ventilation of the Southern Ocean in glacial time is implicated in most explanations of lower glacial atmospheric CO 2 . Today, the deep (>2000 m) ocean south of the Polar Front is rapidly ventilated from below, with the interaction of deep currents with topography driving high mixing rates well up into the water column. We show from a buoyancy budget that mixing rates are high in all the deep waters of the Southern Ocean. Between the surface and 2000 m depth, water is upwelled by a residual meridional overturning that is directly linked to buoyancy fluxes through the ocean surface. Combined with the rapid deep mixing, this upwelling serves to return deep water to the surface on a short time scale. We propose two new mechanisms by which, in glacial time, the deep Southern Ocean may have been more isolated from the surface. Firstly, the deep ocean appears to have been more stratified because of denser bottom water resulting from intense sea ice formation near Antarctica. The greater stratification would have slowed the deep mixing. Secondly, subzero atmospheric temperatures may have meant that the present-day buoyancy flux from the atmosphere to the ocean surface was reduced or reversed. This in turn would have reduced or eliminated the upwelling (contrary to a common assumption, upwelling is not solely a function of the wind stress but is coupled to the air/sea buoyancy flux too). The observed very close link between Antarctic temperatures and atmospheric CO 2 could then be explained as a natural consequence of the connection between the air/sea buoyancy flux and upwelling in the Southern Ocean, if slower ventilation of the Southern Ocean led to lower atmospheric CO 2 . Here we use a box model, similar to those of previous authors, to show that weaker mixing and reduced upwelling in the Southern Ocean can explain the low glacial atmospheric CO 2 in such a formulation

  16. Electrochromic Ni–Fe oxide thin films synthesized by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet for flexible electrochromic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yun-Sen, E-mail: yslin@fcu.edu.tw; Chuang, Pei-Ying; Shie, Ping-Shiun

    2014-11-03

    Flexible-electrochromic organo-nickel-iron oxide (NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z}) films deposited onto flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under various flow rates of oxygen gases are investigated. Precursors [nickelocence, Ni(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] and [ferrocence, Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}] vapors are carried by argon gas, mixed by oxygen gas and injected into air plasma torch for a rapid synthesis of NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z} films by a short duration of the substrate, 32 s, in the plasmas. Uniform light modulation on PET/ITO/NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z} is produced while the moving PET/ITO substrate is exposed to plasma torch at room temperature (∼ 23 °C) and atmospheric pressure. Light modulation with up to a 43.2% transmittance variation at a wavelength of 708 nm even after 200 cycles of Li{sup +} intercalation and de-intercalation in a 1 M LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate electrolyte is accomplished. - Highlights: • Rapid deposition of electrochromic organo-nickel–iron oxide (NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z}) films • Enhanced electrochromic performance of NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z} films by oxygen gas addition • Uniform light modulation on NiFe{sub x}O{sub y}C{sub z} films produced by air plasma jet • Porous surfaces allow reversible Li{sup +} intercalation and deintercalation.

  17. Achieving uniform layer deposition by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Ok [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Woo Seok, E-mail: kang@kimm.re.kr [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Min; Lee, Jin Young [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young-Hoon [Department of Plasma Engineering, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Environment & Energy Mechanical Engineering, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-31

    This work investigates the use of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure for achieving uniform layer formation. Electrical and optical measurements demonstrated that the counterbalance between oxygen and precursors maintained the homogeneous discharge mode, while creating intermediate species for layer deposition. Several steps of the deposition process of the layers, which were processed on a stationary stage, were affected by flow stream and precursor depletion. This study showed that by changing the flow streamlines using substrate stage motion uniform layer deposition under atmospheric pressure can be achieved. - Highlights: • Zirconium oxide was deposited by atmospheric-pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. • Homogeneous plasma was maintained by counterbalancing between discharge gas and precursors. • Several deposition steps were observed affected by the gas flow stream and precursor depletion. • Thin film layer was uniformly grown when the substrate underwent a sweeping motion.

  18. Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastuta, Andrei Vasile; Topala, Ionut; Pohoata, Valentin; Popa, Gheorghe; Grigoras, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

  19. Atmospheric Pressure Variation is a Delayed Trigger for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donkelaar, Carlina E; Potgieser, Adriaan R E; Groen, Henk; Foumani, Mahrouz; Abdulrahman, Herrer; Sluijter, Rob; van Dijk, J Marc C; Groen, Rob J M

    2018-04-01

    There is an ongoing search for conditions that induce spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The seasonal pattern of SAH is shown in a large meta-analysis of the literature, but its explanation remains undecided. There is a clear need for sound meteorologic data to further elucidate the seasonal influence on SAH. Because of the stable and densely monitored atmospheric situation in the north of the Netherlands, we reviewed our unique cohort on the seasonal incidence of SAH and the association between SAH and local atmospheric changes. Our observational cohort study included 1535 patients with spontaneous SAH admitted to our neurovascular center in the north of the Netherlands between 2000 and 2015. Meteorologic data could be linked to the day of the ictus. To compare SAH incidences over the year and to test the association with meteorologic conditions, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used, calculated by Poisson regression analyses. Atmospheric pressure variations were significantly associated with aneurysmal SAH. In particular, the pressure change on the second and third day before the ictus was independently correlated to a higher incidence of aneurysmal SAH (IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.23). The IRR for aneurysmal SAH in July was calculated 0.67 (95% CI, 0.49-0.92) after adjustment for temperature and atmospheric pressure changes. Atmospheric pressure variations are a delayed trigger for aneurysmal SAH. Also, a significantly decreased incidence of aneurysmal SAH was noted in July. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The ionization mechanisms in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2014-11-01

    A novel, gas-tight API interface for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to study the ionization mechanism in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI). Eight analytes (ethylbenzene, bromobenzene, naphthalene, anthracene, benzaldehyde, pyridine, quinolone, and acridine) with varying ionization energies (IEs) and proton affinities (PAs), and four common APPI dopants (toluene, acetone, anisole, and chlorobenzene) were chosen. All the studied compounds were ionized by direct APPI, forming mainly molecular ions. Addition of dopants suppressed the signal of the analytes with IEs above the IE of the dopant. For compounds with suitable IEs or Pas, the dopants increased the ionization efficiency as the analytes could be ionized through dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions, such as charge exchange, proton transfer, and other rather unexpected reactions, such as formation of [M + 77](+) in the presence of chlorobenzene. Experiments with deuterated toluene as the dopant verified that in case of proton transfer, the proton originated from the dopant instead of proton-bound solvent clusters, as in conventional open or non-tight APPI sources. In direct APLI using a 266 nm laser, a narrower range of compounds was ionized than in direct APPI, because of exceedingly high IEs or unfavorable two-photon absorption cross-sections. Introduction of dopants in the APLI system changed the ionization mechanism to similar dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions with the dopant as in APPI, which produced mainly ions of the same form as in APPI, and ionized a wider range of analytes than direct APLI.

  1. The updated bottom up solution applied to atmospheric pressure photoionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Updated Bottom Up Solution (UBUS) was recently applied to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) of triacylglycerols (TAGs). This report demonstrates that the UBUS applies equally well to atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS and to electrospray ionizatio...

  2. The effect of atmospheric temperature and pressure on the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in Kaunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radišauskas, Ričardas; Vaičiulis, Vidmantas; Ustinavičienė, Rūta; Bernotienė, Gailutė

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of meteorological variables (atmospheric temperature and pressure) on the daily occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study used the daily values of atmospheric temperature and pressure in 2000-2007. The meteorological data were obtained from the Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service for Kaunas. The relative risks of event occurrence were computed for 5°C atmospheric temperature and for 10-hPa atmospheric pressure variations by means of the Poisson regression model. RESULTS. The occurrence of AMI and atmospheric temperature showed an inverse linear relationship, while the occurrence of AMI and atmospheric pressure, a positive linear relationship. Among the youngest subjects (25-44 years old), no relationships were detected. Contrary, among the subjects aged 45-64 years and those aged 65 years and older, the occurrence of AMI significantly decreased with higher temperature (P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). A decrease in atmospheric temperature by 10ºC reduced the risk of AMI by 8.7% in the age groups of 45-64 and 65 years and older and by 19% in the age group of 25 years and older. Among the first AMI cases, the risk increased by 7.5% in the age group of 45-64-year olds and by 6.4% in the age group of 25-64-year olds. The relationship between atmospheric temperature and pressure, and AMI occurrence was found to be linear but inverse. An increase in atmospheric pressure by 10 hPa resulted in an increase in risk by 4% among the subjects aged 65 years and more and by 3% among the subjects aged 25 years and more. CONCLUSIONS. Atmospheric temperature and pressure variations had the greatest effect on middle-aged and aging subjects (starting from 45 years). At younger age, the effect of such factors on the AMI risk was considerably lower.

  3. Seasonal emanation of radon at Ghuttu, northwest Himalaya: Differentiation of atmospheric temperature and pressure influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamra, Leena

    2015-11-01

    Continuous monitoring of radon along with meteorological parameters has been carried out in a seismically active area of Garhwal region, northwest Himalaya, within the frame work of earthquake precursory research. Radon measurements are carried out by using a gamma ray detector installed in the air column at a depth of 10m in a 68m deep borehole. The analysis of long time series for 2006-2012 shows strong seasonal variability masked by diurnal and multi-day variations. Isolation of a seasonal cycle by minimising short-time by 31 day running average shows a strong seasonal variation with unambiguous dependence on atmospheric temperature and pressure. The seasonal characteristics of radon concentrations are positively correlated to atmospheric temperature (R=0.95) and negatively correlated to atmospheric pressure (R=-0.82). The temperature and pressure variation in their annual progressions are negatively correlated. The calculations of partial correlation coefficient permit us to conclude that atmospheric temperature plays a dominant role in controlling the variability of radon in borehole, 71% of the variability in radon arises from the variation in atmospheric temperature and about 6% of the variability is contributed by atmospheric pressure. The influence of pressure variations in an annual cycle appears to be a pseudo-effect, resulting from the negative correlation between temperature and pressure variations. Incorporation of these results explains the varying and even contradictory claims regarding the influence of the pressure variability on radon changes in the published literature. Temperature dependence, facilitated by the temperature gradient in the borehole, controls the transportation of radon from the deep interior to the surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Columnar discharge mode between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Using a fast-gated intensified charge-coupled device, end- and side-view photographs were taken of columnar discharge between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium. Based on three-dimensional images generated from end-view photographs, the number of discharge columns increased, whereas the diameter of each column decreased as the applied voltage was increased. Side-view photographs indicate that columnar discharges exhibited a mode transition ranging from Townsend to glow discharges generated by the same discharge physics as atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  5. Physiological responses to low atmospheric pressure stunning and the implications for welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckeegan, D.E.F.; Sandercock, D.A.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS), poultry are rendered unconscious before slaughter by gradually reducing oxygen tension in the atmosphere to achieve a progressive anoxia. The effects of LAPS are not instantaneous, so there are legitimate welfare concerns around the experience of birds

  6. Analysis of atmospheric pressure and temperature effects on cosmic ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    de MendonçA, R. R. S.; Raulin, J.-P.; Echer, E.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Fernandez, G.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze atmospheric pressure and temperature effects on the records of the cosmic ray detector CARPET. This detector has monitored secondary cosmic ray intensity since 2006 at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (San Juan, Argentina, 31°S, 69°W, 2550 m over sea level) where the geomagnetic rigidity cutoff, Rc, is ~9.8 GV. From the correlation between atmospheric pressure deviations and relative cosmic ray variations, we obtain a barometric coefficient of -0.44 ± 0.01 %/hPa. Once the data are corrected for atmospheric pressure, they are used to analyze temperature effects using four methods. Three methods are based on the surface temperature and the temperature at the altitude of maximum production of secondary cosmic rays. The fourth method, the integral method, takes into account the temperature height profile between 14 and 111 km above Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. The results obtained from these four methods are compared on different time scales from seasonal time variations to scales related to the solar activity cycle. Our conclusion is that the integral method leads to better results to remove the temperature effect of the cosmic ray intensity observed at ground level.

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O 2 ), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10 1 -10 6 CFU/cm 2 ). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10 4 CFU/cm 2 inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO 2 mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta, E-mail: vstepanova@mail.muni.cz [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Černák, Mirko [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Rabbit fibres plasma treatment is an effective method for fibres modification. • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is able to affect fibres properties. • Surface changes on fibres after plasma treatment were analysed via SEM, ATR-FTIR, XPS. • Significant increase of fibres wettability after plasma treatment was observed. • Plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical treatment of fibres. - Abstract: We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  9. Super-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry and its application to ultrafast online protein digestion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2016-06-01

    Ion source pressure plays a significant role in the process of ionization and the subsequent ion transmission inside a mass spectrometer. Pressurizing the ion source to a gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a relatively new approach that aims to further improve the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization sources. For example, under a super-atmospheric pressure environment, a stable electrospray can be sustained for liquid with high surface tension such as pure water, because of the suppression of electric discharge. Even for nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI), which is known to work with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity can also be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source is pressurized. A brief review on the development of super-atmospheric pressure ion sources, including high-pressure electrospray, field desorption and superheated ESI, and the strategies to interface these ion sources to a mass spectrometer will be given. Using a recent ESI prototype with an operating temperature at 220 °C under 27 atm, we also demonstrate that it is possible to achieve an online Asp-specific protein digestion analysis in which the whole processes of digestion, ionization and MS acquisition could be completed on the order of a few seconds. This method is fast, and the reaction can even be monitored on a near-real-time basis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. ATMOSPHERE PRESSURE EFFECT ON THE FIBER OPTIC GYROSCOPE OUTPUT SYGNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Sharkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes research results of the atmospheric pressure effect on the output signal of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG. In the course of experiments, FOG was placed into a hermetic chamber. The atmosphere pressure was varying in the range from 0.8 to 1.5 atm. All the data, including the FOG output signal, temperature, and data from the pressure sensor installed inside the FOG, were synchronously registered with the computer software. The separation of scale factor change from zero offset in the experiment was carried out by setting the sensitive FOG axis at 0°, 90° and 270° relative to the East (the FOG was set perpendicular to the horizon. After the data processing it was concluded that the FOG signal error associated with the pressure affects mainly on the additive component. The pressure effect on the multiplicative component appeared to be negligible at rotational velocities used in the experiment (0 - 130 /h. At the same time, the FOG signal has a high linear correlation coefficient with the derivative of pressure over time (in some cases, more than 0.9. The experiment was repeated several times and the high degree of the drift repeatability was shown. That makes it possible to implement the compensation algorithm. Application of the simplest algorithmic compensation based on the polynomial of the first degree (ax + b enabled to reduce the root-mean-square (RMS and drift of the signal by 2-9 times.

  11. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  12. Correlation between the season, temperature and atmospheric pressure with incidence and pathogenesis of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolić, Aleksandar; Karanikolić, Vesna; Djordjević, Lidija; Pešić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    There is very little literature data on the correlation between the seasons, temperature and atmospheric pressure, and pathogenesis of acute appendicitis (AA). The aim of this research is to investigate the association between the seasons, changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure, and patients’ age and severity of the clinical form of AA in the city of Niš This study included 395 patients diagnosed with AA, who, during the two-year period, from July 1st 2011 to June 30th 2013, were hospitalized and operated on at the Department of General Surgery, Clinical Center in Niš, Serbia. The increased average daily values of barometric pressure by 1 millibar on the day when the event took place was associated (p atmospheric temperature and pressure.

  13. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Merete; Zardini, Alessandro Alessio; Hong, Juan

    alcohols. These polyols are common in the water soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols. In our experimental system sub-micron particles are generated by nebulization from aqueous solution, and a mono disperse fraction of the aerosol is selected using a differential mobility analyzer. The particles......The atmospheric partitioning between gas and condensed phase of organic molecules is poorly understood, and discrepancies exist between predicted and observed concentrations of secondary organic aerosols. A key problem is the lack of information about thermodynamic properties of semi- and low...... volatile organic molecules. Saturation vapor pressure and the associated temperature dependence (dH) are key parameters for improving predictive atmospheric models. In this work we combine experiments and thermodynamic modeling to investigate these parameters for a series of polyols, so-called sugar...

  14. Characterization of DC argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jianhua; Ma Zengyi; Pan Xinchao; Cen Kefa; Bruno, C

    2006-01-01

    An original DC double anode plasma torch operating with argon at atmospheric pressure which provides a long time and highly stable plasma jet is analyzed through its electrical and optical signals. Effects of gas flow rate and current intensity on the arc dynamics behaviour are studied using standard diagnostic tools such as FFT and correlation function. An increasing current-voltage characteristic is reported for different argon flow rates. It is noted that the takeover mode is characteristic for argon plasma jet and arc fluctuations in our case are mainly induced by the undulation of torch power supply. Furthermore, the excitation temperatures and electron densities of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The criteria for the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in plasma is then discussed. The results show that argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure under our experimental conditions is close to LTE. (authors)

  15. Error characterization of CO2 vertical mixing in the atmospheric transport model WRF-VPRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Karstens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the dominant uncertainties in inverse estimates of regional CO2 surface-atmosphere fluxes is related to model errors in vertical transport within the planetary boundary layer (PBL. In this study we present the results from a synthetic experiment using the atmospheric model WRF-VPRM to realistically simulate transport of CO2 for large parts of the European continent at 10 km spatial resolution. To elucidate the impact of vertical mixing error on modeled CO2 mixing ratios we simulated a month during the growing season (August 2006 with different commonly used parameterizations of the PBL (Mellor-Yamada-Janjić (MYJ and Yonsei-University (YSU scheme. To isolate the effect of transport errors we prescribed the same CO2 surface fluxes for both simulations. Differences in simulated CO2 mixing ratios (model bias were on the order of 3 ppm during daytime with larger values at night. We present a simple method to reduce this bias by 70–80% when the true height of the mixed layer is known.

  16. Atmospheric pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy apparatus: Bridging the pressure gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Vélez, J. J., E-mail: velasco@fhi-berlin.mpg.de, E-mail: mh@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schlögl, R. [Department of Heterogeneous Reactions, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Mülheim an der Ruhr 45470 (Germany); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Pfeifer, V.; Algara-Siller, G.; Stotz, E.; Teschner, D.; Kube, P.; Knop-Gericke, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Hävecker, M., E-mail: velasco@fhi-berlin.mpg.de, E-mail: mh@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Skorupska, K. [Department of Heterogeneous Reactions, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Mülheim an der Ruhr 45470 (Germany); Wang, R.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Hofmann, S. [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Centeno, A.; Zurutuza, A. [Graphenea, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    One of the main goals in catalysis is the characterization of solid/gas interfaces in a reaction environment. The electronic structure and chemical composition of surfaces become heavily influenced by the surrounding environment. However, the lack of surface sensitive techniques that are able to monitor these modifications under high pressure conditions hinders the understanding of such processes. This limitation is known throughout the community as the “pressure gap.” We have developed a novel experimental setup that provides chemical information on a molecular level under atmospheric pressure and in presence of reactive gases and at elevated temperatures. This approach is based on separating the vacuum environment from the high-pressure environment by a silicon nitride grid—that contains an array of micrometer-sized holes—coated with a bilayer of graphene. Using this configuration, we have investigated the local electronic structure of catalysts by means of photoelectron spectroscopy and in presence of gases at 1 atm. The reaction products were monitored online by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. The successful operation of this setup was demonstrated with three different examples: the oxidation/reduction reaction of iridium (noble metal) and copper (transition metal) nanoparticles and with the hydrogenation of propyne on Pd black catalyst (powder).

  17. Spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations in jet mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. G.; Adrian, R. J.; Nithianandan, C. K.; Planchon, H. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral similarity laws are derived for the power spectra of turbulent static pressure fluctuations by application of dimensional analysis in the limit of large turbulent Reynolds number. The theory predicts that pressure spectra are generated by three distinct types of interaction in the velocity fields: a fourth order interaction between fluctuating velocities, an interaction between the first order mean shear and the third order velocity fluctuations, and an interaction between the second order mean shear rate and the second order fluctuating velocity. Measurements of one-dimensional power spectra of the turbulent static pressure fluctuations in the driven mixing layer of a subsonic, circular jet are presented, and the spectra are examined for evidence of spectral similarity. Spectral similarity is found for the low wavenumber range when the large scale flow on the centerline of the mixing layer is self-preserving. The data are also consistent with the existence of universal inertial subranges for the spectra of each interaction mode.

  18. Turbulent jet diffusion flame length evolution with cross flows in a sub-pressure atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Lu, Shouxiang; Ding, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantifying turbulent jet diffusion flame length with cross flows. • Unique data revealed for a sub-atmospheric pressure. • Non-dimensional global correlation proposed for flame trajectory-line length. - Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution characteristics of turbulent jet diffusion flame (flame trajectory-line length, flame height in vertical jet direction) with increasing cross flows in a sub-pressure (64 kPa) atmosphere. The combined effect of cross flow and a special sub-pressure atmosphere condition is revealed, where no data is available in the literatures. Experiments are carried out with a wind tunnel built specially in Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m; pressure: 64 kPa) and in Hefei city (altitude: 50 m; pressure: 100 kPa), using nozzles with diameter of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm and propane as fuel. It is found that, as cross flow air speed increases from zero, the flame trajectory-line length firstly decreases and then becomes almost stable (for relative small nozzle, 3 mm in this study) or increases (for relative large nozzle, 4 mm and 5 mm in this study) beyond a transitional critical cross flow air speed in normal pressure, however decreases monotonically until being blown-out in the sub-pressure atmosphere. The flame height in jet direction decreases monotonically with cross air flow speed and then reaches a steady value in both pressures. For the transitional state of flame trajectory-line length with increasing cross air flow speed, the corresponding critical cross flow air speed is found to be proportional to the fuel jet velocity, meanwhile independent of nozzle diameter. Correlation models are proposed for the flame height in jet direction and the flame trajectory-line length for both ambient pressures, which are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. On the "well-mixed" assumption and numerical 2-D tracing of atmospheric moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water vapour tracers (WVTs are an elegant tool to determine source–sink relations of moisture "online" in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs. However, it is sometimes desirable to establish such relations "offline" based on already existing atmospheric data (e.g. reanalysis data. One simple and frequently applied offline method is 2-D moisture tracing. It makes use of the "well-mixed" assumption, which allows for treating the vertical dimension integratively. Here we scrutinise the "well-mixed" assumption and 2-D moisture tracing by means of analytical considerations in combination with AGCM-WVT simulations. We find that vertically well-mixed conditions are seldom met. Due to the presence of vertical inhomogeneities, 2-D moisture tracing (i neglects a significant degree of fast-recycling, and (ii results in erroneous advection where the direction of the horizontal winds varies vertically. The latter is not so much the case in the extratropics, but in the tropics this can lead to large errors. For example, computed by 2-D moisture tracing, the fraction of precipitation in the western Sahel that originates from beyond the Sahara is ~40%, whereas the fraction that originates from the tropical and Southern Atlantic is only ~4%. According to full (i.e. 3-D moisture tracing, however, both regions contribute roughly equally, showing that the errors introduced by the 2-D approximation can be substantial.

  20. Atmospheric-pressure-plasma-enhanced fabrication of nonfouling nanocoatings for 316 stainless steel biomaterial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Lin, Jin-He; Li, Chi-Heng; Yu, I.-Chun; Chen, Ting-Lun

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma, which was generated with electrical RF power, was fed to a tetramethyldisiloxane/argon gas mixture to prepare bioinert organosilicon coatings for 316 stainless steel. The surface characteristics of atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings were evaluated as a function of RF plasma power, precursor gas flow, and plasma working distance. After surface deposition, the chemical features, elemental compositions, and surface morphologies of the organosilicon nanocoatings were examined. It was found that RF plasma power and plasma working distance are the essential factors that affect the formation of plasma-deposited nanocoatings. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra indicate that the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings formed showed inorganic features. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed the surface roughness variation of the plasma-deposited nanocoating at different RF plasma powers and plasma working distances during surface treatment. From these surface analyses, it was found that the plasma-deposited organosilicon nanocoatings under specific operational conditions have relatively hydrophobic and inorganic characteristics, which are essential for producing an anti-biofouling interface on 316 stainless steel. The experimental results also show that atmospheric-pressure-plasma-deposited nanocoatings have potential use as a cell-resistant layer on 316 stainless steel.

  1. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E.; DeJong, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O 3 ) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O 3 partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O 3 partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 μPa Pa -1 O 3 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O 3 treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO 2 assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O 3 partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O 3 and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O 3 treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O 3 exposure

  2. Ionization of EPA contaminants in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-seven EPA priority environmental pollutants were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with an optimized atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and an atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) interface with and without dopants. The analyzed compounds included e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro compounds, halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds with phenolic, acidic, alcohol, and amino groups, phthalate and adipatic esters, and aliphatic ethers. Toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene, and acetone were tested as dopants. The widest range of analytes was ionized using direct APPI (66/77 compounds). The introduction of dopants decreased the amount of compounds ionized in APPI (e.g., 54/77 with toluene), but in many cases the ionization efficiency increased. While in direct APPI the formation of molecular ions via photoionization was the main ionization reaction, dopant-assisted (DA) APPI promoted ionization reactions, such as charge exchange and proton transfer. Direct APLI ionized a much smaller amount of compounds than APPI (41/77 compounds), showing selectivity towards compounds with low ionization energies (IEs) and long-lived resonantly excited intermediate states. DA-APLI, however, was able to ionize a higher amount of compounds (e.g. 51/77 with toluene), as the ionization took place entirely through dopant-assisted ion/molecule reactions similar to those in DA-APPI. Best ionization efficiency in APPI and APLI (both direct and DA) was obtained for PAHs and aromatics with O- and N-functionalities, whereas nitro compounds and aliphatic ethers were the most difficult to ionize. Halogenated aromatics and esters were (mainly) ionized in APPI, but not in APLI.

  3. Hazardous gas treatment using atmospheric pressure microwave discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasinski, Mariusz; Zakrzewski, Zenon

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing non-thermal plasmas for control of gaseous pollutants are described in this paper. The main part of the paper is concerned with microwave torch discharges (MTDs). Results of laboratory experiments on plasma abatement of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their mixtures with either synthetic air or nitrogen in low (∼100 W) and moderate (200-400 W) microwave torch plasmas at atmospheric pressure are presented. Three types of MTD generators, i.e. low-power coaxial-line-based MTDs, moderate-power waveguide-based coaxial-line MTDs and moderate-power waveguide-based MTDs were used. The gas flow rate and microwave (2.45 GHz) power delivered to the discharge were in the range of 1-3 litre min -1 and 100-400 W, respectively. The concentrations of the processed gaseous pollutants were from several to several tens of per cent. The results showed that the MTD plasmas fully decomposed the VOCs at a relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of decomposition of several gaseous pollutants reached 1000 g (kW-h) -1 . This suggests that MTD plasmas can be useful tools for decomposition of highly concentrated VOCs

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet's characterization and surface wettability driven by neon transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, R. R.; Nafarizal, N.; Ahmad, M. K.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma driven by Neon transformer power supply argon is presented in this paper. Atmospheric pressure plasma system has attracted researcher interest over low pressure plasma as it provides a flexibility process, cost-efficient, portable device and vacuum-free device. Besides, another golden key of this system is the wide promising application in the field of work cover from industrial and engineering to medical. However, there are still numbers of fundamental investigation that are necessary such as device configuration, gas configuration and its effect. Dielectric barrier discharge which is also known as atmospheric pressure plasma discharge is created when there is gas ionization process occur which enhance the movement of atom and electron and provide energetic particles. These energetic particles can provide modification and cleaning property to the sample surface due to the bombardment of the high reactive ion and radicals to the sample surface. In order to develop atmospheric pressure plasma discharge, a high voltage and high frequency power supply is needed. In this work, we used a neon transformer power supply as the power supply. The flow of the Ar is feed into 10 mm cylinder quartz tube with different treatment time in order to investigate the effect of the plasma discharge. The analysis of each treatment time is presented by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. The increase of gas treatment time shows increases intensity of reactive Ar and reduces the angle of water droplets in water contact angle. Treatment time of 20 s microslide glass surface shows that the plasma needle discharges have modified the sample surface from hydrophilic surface to superhydrophilic surface. Thus, this leads to another interesting application in reducing sample surface adhesion to optimize productivity in the industry of paintings, semiconductor and more.

  5. Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry: a complementary approach for the chemical analysis of atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Vaikkinen, Anu; Lipponen, Katriina; Vrkoslav, Vladimir; Cvačka, Josef; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Kauppila, Tiina J

    2015-07-15

    On-line chemical characterization methods of atmospheric aerosols are essential to increase our understanding of physicochemical processes in the atmosphere, and to study biosphere-atmosphere interactions. Several techniques, including aerosol mass spectrometry, are nowadays available, but they all suffer from some disadvantages. In this research, desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry (DAPPI-HRMS) is introduced as a complementary technique for the fast analysis of aerosol chemical composition without the need for sample preparation. Atmospheric aerosols from city air were collected on a filter, desorbed in a DAPPI source with a hot stream of toluene and nitrogen, and ionized using a vacuum ultraviolet lamp at atmospheric pressure. To study the applicability of the technique for ambient aerosol analysis, several samples were collected onto filters and analyzed, with the focus being on selected organic acids. To compare the DAPPI-HRMS data with results obtained by an established method, each filter sample was divided into two equal parts, and the second half of the filter was extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The DAPPI results agreed with the measured aerosol particle number. In addition to the targeted acids, the LC/MS and DAPPI-HRMS methods were found to detect different compounds, thus providing complementary information about the aerosol samples. DAPPI-HRMS showed several important oxidation products of terpenes, and numerous compounds were tentatively identified. Thanks to the soft ionization, high mass resolution, fast analysis, simplicity and on-line applicability, the proposed methodology has high potential in the field of atmospheric research. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishaq, M., E-mail: ishaqmusarat@gmail.com [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bazaka, K. [Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ostrikov, K. [Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  7. Use of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet for Polymer Surface Modification: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are playing an increasingly important role in materials processing procedures. Plasma treatment is a useful tool to modify surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Plasma reacts with polymer surfaces in numerous ways thus the type of process gas and plasma conditions must be explored for chosen substrates and materials to maximize desired properties. This report discusses plasma treatments and looks further into atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and the effects of gases and plasma conditions. Following the short literature review, a general overview of the future work and research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is discussed.

  8. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma and Subsequent Enzymatic Treatment on Flax Fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shaofeng; Yang Bin; Ou Qiongrong

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (APDBD) plasma and subsequent cellulase enzyme treatment on the properties of flax fabrics. The changes of surface morphology and structure, physico-mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, bending properties, whiteness, and dyeing properties of the treated substrate were investigated. The results indicated that atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma pre-treatment and subsequent cellulase enzyme treatment could diminish the hairiness of flax fabrics, endowing the flax fabrics with good bending properties, water uptake and fiber accessibility while keeping their good mechanical properties compared with those treated with cellulase enzyme alone. (paper)

  9. Effect of the atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas on the conformational changes of plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xu; He Guangyuan; Shi Mengjun; Gao Xuan; Li Yin; Ma Fengyun; Yu Men; Wang Changdong; Wang Yuesheng; Yang Guangxiao; Zou Fei; Lu Xinpei; Xiong Qing; Xiong Zilan

    2009-01-01

    The cold atmospheric pressure plasma, which has been widely used for biomedical applications, may potentially affect the conformation of DNA. In this letter, an atmospheric pressure plasma plume is used to investigate its effects on the conformational changes of DNA of plasmid pAHC25. It is found that the plasma plume could cause plasmid DNA topology alteration, resulting in the percentage of the supercoiled plasmid DNA form decreased while that of the open circular and linearized form of plasmid DNA increased as detected by agrose gel electrophoresis. On the other hand, further investigation by using polymerase chain reaction method shows that the atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatments under proper conditions does not affect the genes of the plasmid DNA, which may have potential application in increasing the transformation frequency by genetic engineering.

  10. Atmospheric pressure MALDI for the noninvasive characterization of carbonaceous ink from Renaissance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Marzia; Rapisarda, Alessandro; D'Agata, Roberta; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    The analytical methods that are usually applied to determine the compositions of inks from ancient manuscripts usually focus on inorganic components, as in the case of iron gall ink. In this work, we describe the use of atmospheric pressure/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (AP/MALDI-MS) as a spatially resolved analytical technique for the study of the organic carbonaceous components of inks used in handwritten parts of ancient books for the first time. Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (L-PAH) were identified in situ in the ink of XVII century handwritten documents. We prove that it is possible to apply MALDI-MS as a suitable microdestructive diagnostic tool for analyzing samples in air at atmospheric pressure, thus simplifying investigations of the organic components of artistic and archaeological objects. The interpretation of the experimental MS results was supported by independent Raman spectroscopic investigations. Graphical abstract Atmospheric pressure/MALDI mass spectrometry detects in situ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the carbonaceous ink of XVII century manuscripts.

  11. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  12. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  13. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of ready-to-eat meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röd, Sara Katrine Solhøj; Hansen, Flemming; Leipold, Frank

    Sliced ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products are susceptible to growth of the foodborne pathogenic bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) may be applicable for surface decontamination in sealed bags thus avoiding recontamination. Plasmas (Fig. 1), created in neutral...

  14. Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, T; Grunwald, G

    1998-10-01

    The behavior of PWRs during cold water or boron dilution transients is strongly influenced by the distribution of coolant temperature and boron concentration at the core inlet. This distribution is the needed input to 3-dimensional neutron kinetics to calculate the power distribution in the core. It mainly depends on how the plugs of cold or unborated water formed in a single loop are mixed in the downcomer and in the lower plenum. To simulate such mixture phenomena requires the application of 3-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes. The results of the simulation have to be validated against mixture experiments at scaled facilities. Therefore, in the framework of a research project funded by BMBF, the institute creates a 1:5 mixture facility representing first the geometry of a German pressurized water reactor and later the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) geometry. The calculations are based on the CFD Code CFX-4. (orig.)

  15. Meteorology in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: an institutional study and a meta-analysis of published studies reporting atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, H; Watanabe, T; Mizuno, Y; Kawai, N; Umemoto, T

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether weather factors including atmospheric pressure are associated with the occurrence of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). We investigated our institutional experiences of RAAA in more than 150 patients during 8 years. Further, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies reporting the influence of atmospheric pressure on RAAA. We retrospectively evaluated 152 patients who underwent surgery for RAAA (including ruptured iliac arterial aneurysm) at our institute between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2013. Daily regional meteorological data (in the nearest weather station located 3.5 km from the hospital) were obtained online from Japan Meteorological Agency. To identify comparative studies of mean atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA versus that on the day without RAAA, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through January 2014 using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). Mean sea level atmospheric pressure, delta mean atmospheric pressure (difference between mean sea level atmospheric pressure on the day and that on the previous day), and sunshine duration on the day with RAAA were significantly lower than those on the day without RAAA: 1012.43±7.44 versus 1013.71±6.49 hPa, P=0.039, -1.18±5.15 versus 0.05±5.62 hPa, P=0.005; and 4.76±3.76 versus 5.47±3.88 h, P=0.026; respectively. A pooled analysis of 8 studies (including our institutional study) demonstrated that mean atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA was significantly lower than that on the day without RAAA: standardized mean difference, -0.09; 95% confidence interval, -0.14 to -0.04; P=0.0009. Atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA appears lower than that on the day without RAAA. Atmospheric pressure may be associated with the occurrence of RAAA.

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets: an overview of devices and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J; Brandenburg, R; Weltmann, K-D

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets have a long history of more than 50 years. During this time their design and plasma generation mechanism has been developed and adapted to various fields of applications. This review aims at giving an overview of jet devices by starting with a brief history of their development. This is followed by an overview of commonly used terms and definitions as well as a survey of different classification schemes (e.g. geometry, excition frequency or specific energy input) described in literature. A selective update of new designs and novel research achievments on atmospheric pressure plasma jets published in 2012 or later shows the impressive variety and rapid development of the field. Finally, a brief outlook on the future trends and directions is given. (paper)

  17. Gas Diffusion Barriers Prepared by Spatial Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced ALD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lukas; Theirich, Detlef; Pack, Sven; Kocak, Firat; Schlamm, Daniel; Hasselmann, Tim; Fahl, Henry; Räupke, André; Gargouri, Hassan; Riedl, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we report on aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) gas permeation barriers prepared by spatial ALD (SALD) at atmospheric pressure. We compare the growth characteristics and layer properties using trimethylaluminum (TMA) in combination with an Ar/O 2 remote atmospheric pressure plasma for different substrate velocities and different temperatures. The resulting Al 2 O 3 films show ultralow water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) on the order of 10 -6 gm -2 d -1 . In notable contrast, plasma based layers already show good barrier properties at low deposition temperatures (75 °C), while water based processes require a growth temperature above 100 °C to achieve equally low WVTRs. The activation energy for the water permeation mechanism was determined to be 62 kJ/mol.

  18. An Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Setup to Investigate the Reactive Species Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbanev, Yury; Soriano, Robert; O'Connell, Deborah; Chechik, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure ('cold') plasmas have received increased attention in recent years due to their significant biomedical potential. The reactions of cold plasma with the surrounding atmosphere yield a variety of reactive species, which can define its effectiveness. While efficient development of cold plasma therapy requires kinetic models, model benchmarking needs empirical data. Experimental studies of the source of reactive species detected in aqueous solutions exposed to pla...

  19. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States)); DeJong, T.M. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O[sub 3]) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O[sub 3] partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O[sub 3] partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 [mu]Pa Pa[sup [minus]1] O[sub 3] in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O[sub 3] treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO[sub 2] assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O[sub 3] partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O[sub 3] and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O[sub 3] treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O[sub 3] exposure.

  20. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet During Tooth Bleaching Gel Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, Vedran; Zaplotnik, Rok; Tarle, Zrinka; Milošević, Slobodan

    2015-11-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy was performed during atmospheric pressure plasma needle helium jet treatment of various tooth-bleaching gels. When the gel sample was inserted under the plasma plume, the intensity of all the spectral features increased approximately two times near the plasma needle tip and up to two orders of magnitude near the sample surface. The color change of the hydroxylapatite pastille treated with bleaching gels in conjunction with the atmospheric pressure plasma jet was found to be in correlation with the intensity of OH emission band (309 nm). Using argon as an additive to helium flow (2 L/min), a linear increase (up to four times) of OH intensity and, consequently, whitening (up to 10%) of the pastilles was achieved. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet activates bleaching gel, accelerates OH production, and accelerates tooth bleaching (up to six times faster).

  1. Mixing and phase separation at supercritical and transcritical pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickel, S.; Matheis, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a thermodynamically consistent and tuning-parameter-free two-phase model for Eulerian large-eddy simulations (LES) of liquid-fuel injection and mixing at high pressure. The model is based on cubic equations of state and vaporliquid equilibrium calculations. It can represent the

  2. Measuring the deviation of the 2-3 lepton mixing from maximal with atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M C; Smirnov, A Yu

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the deviation of the 2-3 leptonic mixing from maximal, D_23 = 1/2 - sin^2(theta_23), is one of the key issues for understanding the origin of the neutrino masses and mixing. In the three-neutrino context we study the dependence of various observables in the atmospheric neutrinos on D_23. We perform a global three-neutrino analysis of the atmospheric and reactor neutrino data taking into account the effects of both the oscillations driven by the "solar" parameters (Delta_m_21^2 and theta_12) and the 1-3 mixing. The departure from the one-dominant mass scale approximation results into the shift of the 2-3 mixing from maximal by Delta_sin^2(theta_23) ~ 0.04, so that D_23 ~ 0.04 +- 0.07 (1 sigma). Though value of the shift is not statistically significant, the tendency is robust. The shift is induced by the excess of the e-like events in the sub-GeV sample. We show that future large scale water Cherenkov detectors can determine D_23 with accuracy of a few percent, comparable with the sensitivit...

  3. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gary; D'Silva, Arthur P.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  4. The influence of atmospheric pressure on aortic aneurysm rupture--is the diameter of the aneurysm important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Tomasz; Juśko, Maciej; Niewiem, Alfred; Kuczmik, Wacław; Ziaja, Damian; Ziaja, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The rate of aortic aneurysm rupture correlates with the aneurysm's diameter, and a higher rate of rupture is observed in patients with larger aneurysms. According to the literature, contradictory results concerning the relationship between atmospheric pressure and aneurysm size have been reported. In this paper, we assessed the influence of changes in atmospheric pressure on abdominal aneurysm ruptures in relationship to the aneurysm's size. The records of 223 patients with ruptured abdominal aneurysms were evaluated. All of the patients had been admitted to the department in the period 1997-2007 from the Silesia region. The atmospheric pressures on the day of the rupture and on the days both before the rupture and between the rupture events were compared. The size of the aneurysm was also considered in the analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in pressure between the days of rupture and the remainder of the days within an analysed period. The highest frequency of the admission of patients with a ruptured aortic aneurysm was observed during periods of winter and spring, when the highest mean values of atmospheric pressure were observed; however, this observation was not statistically confirmed. A statistically non-significant trend towards the higher rupture of large aneurysms (> 7 cm) was observed in the cases where the pressure increased between the day before the rupture and the day of the rupture. This trend was particularly pronounced in patients suffering from hypertension (p = 0.1). The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that there is a direct link between atmospheric pressure values and abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures.

  5. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  6. Plasma chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, A.; Leipold, F.; Kusano, Y.

    2005-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in Ar/NH3 (0.1 - 10%) mixtures with a parallel plate electrode geometry was studied. The plasma was investigated by emission and absorption spectroscopy in the UV spectral range. Discharge current and voltage were measured as well. UV...... of an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 DBD are H-2, N-2 and N2H4. The hydrazine (N2H4) concentration in the plasma and in the exhaust gases at various ammonia concentrations and different discharge powers was measured. Thermal N2H4 decomposition into NH2 radicals may be used for NOx reduction processes....

  7. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  8. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  9. Temperature diagnostics of a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jan

    2013-09-01

    The study reflects the concept of the temperature as a physical quantity resulting from the second thermodynamic law. The reliability of different approaches of the temperature diagnostics of open non-equilibrium systems is discussed using examples of low temperature atmospheric pressure discharges. The focus of this work is a miniaturized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for local surface treatment at ambient atmosphere. The micro-discharge is driven with a capacitively coupled radio frequency electric field at 27.12 MHz and fed with argon at rates of about 1 slm through the capillary with an inner diameter of 4 mm. The discharge consists of several contracted filaments with diameter around 300 μm which are rotating azimuthally in the capillary in a self-organized manner. While the measured temperatures of the filament core exceed 700 K, the heat impact on a target below the plasma jet remains limited leading to target temperatures below 400 K. Different kinds of temperatures and energy transport processes are proposed and experimentally investigated. Nevertheless, a reliable and detailed temperature diagnostics is a challenge. We report on a novel diagnostics approach for the spatially and temporally resolved measurement of the gas temperature based on the optical properties of the plasma. Laser Schlieren Deflectometry is adapted to explore temperature profiles of filaments and their behaviour. In parallel, the method demonstrates a fundamental Fermat's principle of minimal energy. Information acquired with this method plays an important role for the optimization of local thin film deposition and surface functionalization by means of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The work was supported in part by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB-TR 24.

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics of high performance polymer modified by low and atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Nitu; Sangeeta, Jha; Bhowmik, Shantanu; Gupta, Govind; Moon, J.B.; Kim, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric p ressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The experimental results show that the PEEK surface treated by atmospheric pressure plasma lead to an increase in the polar component of the surface energy, resulting in improving the adhesion characteristics of the PEEK/Epoxy adhesive system. Also, the roughness of the treated surfaces is largely increased as confirmed by AFM observation. These results can be explained by the fact that the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of PEEK surface yields several oxygen functionalities on hydrophobic surface, which play an important role in increasing the surface polarity, wettability, and the adhesion characteristics of the PEEK/Epoxy adhesive system. (authors)

  11. Estimation of oceanic subsurface mixing under a severe cyclonic storm using a coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Kumar Ravi; Nigam, Tanuja; Pant, Vimlesh

    2018-04-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model was used to examine mixing in the upper-oceanic layers under the influence of a very severe cyclonic storm Phailin over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during 10-14 October 2013. The coupled model was found to improve the sea surface temperature over the uncoupled model. Model simulations highlight the prominent role of cyclone-induced near-inertial oscillations in subsurface mixing up to the thermocline depth. The inertial mixing introduced by the cyclone played a central role in the deepening of the thermocline and mixed layer depth by 40 and 15 m, respectively. For the first time over the BoB, a detailed analysis of inertial oscillation kinetic energy generation, propagation, and dissipation was carried out using an atmosphere-ocean-wave coupled model during a cyclone. A quantitative estimate of kinetic energy in the oceanic water column, its propagation, and its dissipation mechanisms were explained using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave model. The large shear generated by the inertial oscillations was found to overcome the stratification and initiate mixing at the base of the mixed layer. Greater mixing was found at the depths where the eddy kinetic diffusivity was large. The baroclinic current, holding a larger fraction of kinetic energy than the barotropic current, weakened rapidly after the passage of the cyclone. The shear induced by inertial oscillations was found to decrease rapidly with increasing depth below the thermocline. The dampening of the mixing process below the thermocline was explained through the enhanced dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy upon approaching the thermocline layer. The wave-current interaction and nonlinear wave-wave interaction were found to affect the process of downward mixing and cause the dissipation of inertial oscillations.

  12. Experimental research on pressure fluctuation and vibration in a mixed flow pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Houlin; Wang, Wenbo [National Research Center of Pumps and Pumping System Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Zhou, Xiaohua [Gree Electric Appliance Inc. of Zhuhai, Zhuhai (China)

    2016-01-15

    To study the pressure fluctuation and vibration in mixed flow pumps, we chose a mixed flow pump with specific speed of 436.1 to measure. The time domains and frequency domain at each monitoring point on diffuser and outlet elbow were analyzed, as well as the vibration frequency domain characteristics at the impeller outlet and near the motor. The results show that the peak value of pressure fluctuation peak decreased gradually with the increase of flow rate. The pressure fluctuation of each monitoring point had periodicity, and the frequency domain dominated by blade passing frequency and multiple shaft frequency. The vibration frequency of each monitoring point occurred at shaft frequency and its multiple shaft frequency. The dominant frequency and the second frequency were distributed in shaft frequency and double shaft frequency.

  13. Propagation of atmospheric-pressure ionization waves along the tapered tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Wang, Wenchun; Liu, Dongping; Yan, Wen; Bi, Zhenhua; Ji, Longfei; Niu, Jinhai; Zhao, Yao

    2018-02-01

    Gas discharge in a small radius dielectric tube may result in atmospheric pressure plasma jets with high energy and density of electrons. In this study, the atmospheric pressure ionization waves (IWs) were generated inside a tapered tube. The propagation behaviors of IWs inside the tube were studied by using a spatially and temporally resolved optical detection system. Our measurements show that both the intensity and velocity of the IWs decrease dramatically when they propagate to the tapered region. After the taper, the velocity, intensity, and electron density of the IWs are improved with the tube inner diameter decreasing from 4.0 to 0.5 mm. Our analysis indicates that the local gas conductivity and surface charges may play a role in the propagation of the IWs under such a geometrical constraint, and the difference in the dynamics of the IWs after the taper can be related to the restriction in the size of IWs.

  14. Numerical analysis of coolant mixing in the pressure vessel of WWER-440 type nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boros, I.; Aszodi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The precise description of the coolant mixing processes taking place in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of pressurized water nuclear reactors has an essential importance during power operation, as well as in case of incidental or accidental conditions. In this paper the detailed CFD model of the pressure vessel of a WWER-440 type reactor and calculations performed with this RPV model are presented. The CFD model of the pressure vessel contains all the important internal structural elements of the RPV. Sensitivity study on the effect of these elements was also carried out. Both steady-state and transient calculation were performed using the CFD code CFX-5.5.1. The results of the steady-state calculations give the so called mixing factors, i.e. the effect of each single primary loop at the core inlet. The mixing factors can be given for nominal circumstances (i.e. all main coolant pumps are working) or in case of less than six working MCPs. In order to validate the model the calculated mixing factors are compared with the values measured in the Paks NPP (Authors)

  15. Effects of initiating anaerobic digestion of layer-hen poultry dung at sub-atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Ngumah, Chima C.; Ogbulie, Jude N.; Orji, Justina C.; Amadi, Ekperechi S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initiating anaerobic digestion (AD) of dry layer-hen poultry dung at the sub-atmospheric pressure of -30 cmHg on biodegradation, biogasification, and biomethanation. The setup was performed as a batch process at an average ambient temperature of 29±2 ºC and a retention time of 15 days. Comparisons were made with two other experiments which were both begun at ambient atmospheric pressure; one was inoculated with digestate from a previous layer-hen dung AD...

  16. Electron density measurement of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma using dispersion interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Medical applications of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasmas have recently been attracting a great deal of attention, where many types of plasma sources have been developed to meet the purposes. For example, plasma-activated medium (PAM), which is now being studied for cancer treatment, has been produced by irradiating non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma with ultrahigh electron density to a culture medium. Meanwhile, in order to measure electron density in magnetic confinement plasmas, a CO2 laser dispersion interferometer has been developed and installed on the Large Helical Device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. The dispersion interferometer has advantages that the measurement is insensitive to mechanical vibrations and changes in neutral gas density. Taking advantage of these properties, we applied the dispersion interferometer to electron density diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasmas produced by the NU-Global HUMAP-WSAP-50 device, which is used for producing PAM. This study was supported by the Grant of Joint Research by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS).

  17. Comparison of the sensitivity of mass spectrometry atmospheric pressure ionization techniques in the analysis of porphyrinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Paweł; Lewtak, Jan P; Gryko, Daniel T; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2013-10-01

    The porphyrinoids chemistry is greatly dependent on the data obtained in mass spectrometry. For this reason, it is essential to determine the range of applicability of mass spectrometry ionization methods. In this study, the sensitivity of three different atmospheric pressure ionization techniques, electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization, was tested for several porphyrinods and their metallocomplexes. Electrospray ionization method was shown to be the best ionization technique because of its high sensitivity for derivatives of cyanocobalamin, free-base corroles and porphyrins. In the case of metallocorroles and metalloporphyrins, atmospheric pressure photoionization with dopant proved to be the most sensitive ionization method. It was also shown that for relatively acidic compounds, particularly for corroles, the negative ion mode provides better sensitivity than the positive ion mode. The results supply a lot of relevant information on the methodology of porphyrinoids analysis carried out by mass spectrometry. The information can be useful in designing future MS or liquid chromatography-MS experiments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Study on effect of mixing mechanism by the transverse gaseous injection flow in scramjet engine with variable parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddhita; Pandey, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    In scramjet engine the mixing mechanism of fuel and atmospheric air is very complicated, because the fuel have time in milliseconds for mixing with atmospheric air in combustion chamber having supersonic speed. Mixing efficiency of fuel and atmospheric air depends on mainly these parameters: Aspect ratio of injector, vibration amplitude, shock type, number of injector, jet to transverse flow momentum flux ratio, injector geometry, injection angle, molecular weight, incoming air stream angle, jet to transverse flow pressure ratio, spacing variation, mass flow rate of fuel etc. here is a very brief study of these parameters from previously done research on these parameters for the improvement of mixing efficiency. The mixing process have the significant role for the working of engine, and mixing between the atmospheric air and the jet fuel is significant factor for improving the overall thrust of the engine. The results obtained by study of papers are obtained by the 3D-Reynolds Average-Nervier-Stokes(RANS) equations along with the 2-equation k-ω shear-stress-transport (SST) turbulence model. Engine having multi air jets have 60% more mixing efficiency than single air jet, thus if the jets are increased, the mixing efficiency of engine can also be increased up to 150% by changing jet from 1 to 16. When using delta shape of injector the mixing efficiency is inversely proportional to the pressure ratio. When the fuel is injected inside the combustor from the top and bottom walls of the engine efficiency of mixing in reacting zone is higher than the single wall injection and in comparison to parallel flow, the transverse type flow is better as the atmospheric air jet can penetrate smoothly in the fuel jets and mixes well in less time. Hence this study of parameters and their effects on mixing can enhance the efficiency of mixing in engine.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Mixed Halogen Dioxins and Furans in Fire Debris Utilizing Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Kari L; Myers, Anne L; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Ross, Brian; Ladak, Adam; Mullin, Lauren; Stevens, Douglas; Dorman, Frank L

    2015-10-20

    Residential and commercial fires generate a complex mixture of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile compounds. This study focused on the semi/nonvolatile components of fire debris to better understand firefighter exposure risks. Using the enhanced sensitivity of gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS), complex fire debris samples collected from simulation fires were analyzed for the presence of potentially toxic polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs). Extensive method development was performed to create multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods for a wide range of PXDD/Fs from dihalogenated through hexa-halogenated homologue groups. Higher halogenated compounds were not observed due to difficulty eluting them off the long column used for analysis. This methodology was able to identify both polyhalogenated (mixed bromo-/chloro- and polybromo-) dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the simulated burn study samples collected, with the dibenzofuran species being the dominant compounds in the samples. Levels of these compounds were quantified as total homologue groups due to the limitations of commercial congener availability. Concentration ranges in household simulation debris were observed at 0.01-5.32 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.18-82.11 ppb (PBDFs). Concentration ranges in electronics simulation debris were observed at 0.10-175.26 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.33-9254.41 ppb (PBDFs). Samples taken from the particulate matter coating the firefighters' helmets contained some of the highest levels of dibenzofurans, ranging from 4.10 ppb to 2.35 ppm. The data suggest that firefighters and first responders at fire scenes are exposed to a complex mixture of potentially hundreds to thousands of different polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans that could negatively impact their health.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Effect of Retained Gas in High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated high level waste tanks in H-Area have unexplained changes in waste-level which have been attributed to environmental effects including pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Previous studies at SRS have considered waste-level changes from causes not including the presence of gas in the salt cake. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of atmospheric pressure on gas in the salt cake and resultant changes in the supernate level of Tank 41H, and to model that effect if possible. A simple theory has been developed to account for changes in the supernate level in a high level waste tank containing damp salt cake as the response of trapped gases to changes in the ambient pressure. The gas is modeled as an ideal gas retained as bubbles within the interstitial spaces in the salt cake and distributed uniformly throughout the tank. The model does not account for consistent long term increases or decreases in the tank level. Any such trend in the tank level is attributed to changes in the liquid content in the tank (from condensation, evaporation, etc.) and is removed from the data prior to the void estimation. Short term fluctuations in the tank level are explained as the response of the entrained gas volume to changes in the ambient pressure. The model uses the response of the tank level to pressure changes to estimate an average void fraction for the time period of interest. This estimate of the void is then used to predict the expected level response. The theory was applied to three separate time periods of the level data for tank 41H as follows: (1) May 3, 1993 through August 3, 1993, (2) January 23, 1994 through April 21, 1994, and (3) June 4, 1994 through August 24, 1994. A strong correlation was found between fluctuations in the tank level and variations in the ambient pressure. This correlation is a clear marker of the presence of entrained gases in the tank. From model calculations, an average void fraction of 11 percent was estimated to

  1. Forced wave induced by an atmospheric pressure disturbance moving towards shore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixiang; Niu, Xiaojing

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric pressure disturbances moving over a vast expanse of water can induce different wave patterns, which can be determined by the Froude number Fr. Generally, Fr = 1 is a critical value for the transformation of the wave pattern and the well-known Proudman resonance happens when Fr = 1. In this study, the forced wave induced by an atmospheric pressure disturbance moving over a constant slope from deep sea to shore is numerically investigated. The wave pattern evolves from a concentric-circle type into a triangular type with the increase of the Froude number, as the local water depth decreases, which is in accord with the analysis in the unbounded flat-bottom cases. However, a hysteresis effect has been observed, which implies the obvious amplification of the forced wave induced by a pressure disturbance can not be simply predicted by Fr = 1. The effects of the characteristic parameters of pressure disturbances and slope gradient have been discussed. The results show that it is not always possible to observe significant peak of the maximum water elevation before the landing of pressure disturbances, and a significant peak can be generated by a pressure disturbance with small spatial scale and fast moving velocity over a milder slope. Besides, an extremely high run-up occurs when the forced wave hits the shore, which is an essential threat to coastal security. The results also show that the maximum run-up is not monotonously varying with the increase of disturbance moving speed and spatial scale. There exists a most dangerous speed and scale which may cause disastrous nearshore surge.

  2. Adhesion improvement of fibres by continuous plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon fibres and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres were continuously treated by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure for adhesion improvement with epoxy resins. The plasma treatment improved wettability, increased the oxygen containing polar...

  3. Atmospheric mixing ratios of methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone in tropical, boreal, temperate and marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yáñez-Serrano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK enters the atmosphere following direct emission from vegetation and anthropogenic activities, as well as being produced by the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as n-butane. This study presents the first overview of ambient MEK measurements at six different locations, characteristic of forested, urban and marine environments. In order to understand better the occurrence and behaviour of MEK in the atmosphere, we analyse diel cycles of MEK mixing ratios, vertical profiles, ecosystem flux data, and HYSPLIT back trajectories, and compare with co-measured VOCs. MEK measurements were primarily conducted with proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS instruments. Results from the sites under biogenic influence demonstrate that vegetation is an important source of MEK. The diel cycle of MEK follows that of ambient temperature and the forest structure plays an important role in air mixing. At such sites, a high correlation of MEK with acetone was observed (e.g. r2 = 0.96 for the SMEAR Estonia site in a remote hemiboreal forest in Tartumaa, Estonia, and r2 = 0.89 at the ATTO pristine tropical rainforest site in central Amazonia. Under polluted conditions, we observed strongly enhanced MEK mixing ratios. Overall, the MEK mixing ratios and flux data presented here indicate that both biogenic and anthropogenic sources contribute to its occurrence in the global atmosphere.

  4. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus "Classic" Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L; Križaj, Igor

    2017-04-28

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods.

  5. A dc non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, WeiDong; Lopez, Jose L.

    2012-06-01

    A direct current (dc), non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet is generated with helium/oxygen gas mixture as working gas. The electrical property is characterized as a function of the oxygen concentration and show distinctive regions of operation. Side-on images of the jet were taken to analyze the mode of operation as well as the jet length. A self-pulsed mode is observed before the transition of the discharge to normal glow mode. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed from both end-on and side-on along the jet to analyze the reactive species generated in the plasma. Line emissions from atomic oxygen (at 777.4 nm) and helium (at 706.5 nm) were studied with respect to the oxygen volume percentage in the working gas, flow rate and discharge current. Optical emission intensities of Cu and OH are found to depend heavily on the oxygen concentration in the working gas. Ozone concentration measured in a semi-confined zone in front of the plasma jet is found to be from tens to ˜120 ppm. The results presented here demonstrate potential pathways for the adjustment and tuning of various plasma parameters such as reactive species selectivity and quantities or even ultraviolet emission intensities manipulation in an atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma source. The possibilities of fine tuning these plasma species allows for enhanced applications in health and medical related areas.

  6. A dc non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    A direct current (dc), non-thermal, atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet is generated with helium/oxygen gas mixture as working gas. The electrical property is characterized as a function of the oxygen concentration and show distinctive regions of operation. Side-on images of the jet were taken to analyze the mode of operation as well as the jet length. A self-pulsed mode is observed before the transition of the discharge to normal glow mode. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed from both end-on and side-on along the jet to analyze the reactive species generated in the plasma. Line emissions from atomic oxygen (at 777.4 nm) and helium (at 706.5 nm) were studied with respect to the oxygen volume percentage in the working gas, flow rate and discharge current. Optical emission intensities of Cu and OH are found to depend heavily on the oxygen concentration in the working gas. Ozone concentration measured in a semi-confined zone in front of the plasma jet is found to be from tens to ∼120 ppm. The results presented here demonstrate potential pathways for the adjustment and tuning of various plasma parameters such as reactive species selectivity and quantities or even ultraviolet emission intensities manipulation in an atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma source. The possibilities of fine tuning these plasma species allows for enhanced applications in health and medical related areas. (paper)

  7. Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J L; Liu, D X; Iza, F; Kong, M G; Rong, M Z

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O 2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O 2 , electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O 2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry. (fast track communication)

  8. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma as a curing process for canned ground ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juri; Jo, Kyung; Lim, Yubong; Jeon, Hee Joon; Choe, Jun Ho; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the potential use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment as a curing process for canned ground ham. APP treatment for 60min while mixing increased the nitrite content in the meat batters from 0.64 to 60.50mgkg -1 while the pH and the total content of aerobic bacteria in the meat batters were unchanged. The canned ground hams cured by the APP treatment for 30min displayed no difference in their physicochemical qualities, such as nitrosyl hemochrome, color, residual nitrite, texture, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation, compared with those of canned ground hams cured with sodium nitrite or celery powder at 42mgkg -1 of nitrite. The canned ground hams cured by the APP treatment received a higher score in taste and overall acceptability than those cured with sodium nitrite. Canned ground ham can be cured by the APP treatment without nitrite additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fundamental Studies of Transient, Atmospheric-Pressure, Small-Scale Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    C. Jiang, R. Heller, J. Lane, and K. H. Schoenbach, " Ozone -free nitric oxide production using an atmospheric pressure surface discharge – a way to...Electrostatic modeling and energy-dependent studies showed that the direct and indirect electron-induced processes in the pulsed plasma jet are responsible for...Coupled sliding discharges : a scalable nonthermal plasma system utilizing positive and negative streamers on DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to 0 . Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  11. Low-pressure degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy with flam atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, T.G.; Koutny, L.B.; Blazewicz, P.R.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A combination of degenerate four-wave mixing spectroscopy and a low-pressure sampling technique has been studied for isotopic analysis in an air-acetylene flame. Hyperfine spectra of D lines of sodium and several mixtures of lithium isotopes obtained in this way are presented

  12. Effects of ambient temperature and water vapor on chamber pressure and oxygen level during low atmospheric pressure stunning of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Paul H; Pritchard, David G

    2017-08-01

    The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure. Ambient temperature affects air density and water vapor pressure and thereby oxygen levels and the time at the minimum total pressure of ∼160 Torr (∼21 kPa) is varied from ∼120 to ∼220 sec to ensure an effective stun within the 280 seconds of each cycle. The reduction in total pressure results in a gradual reduction of oxygen partial pressure that was measured by a solid-state electrochemical oxygen sensor. The reduced oxygen pressure leads to hypoxia, which is recognized as a humane method of stunning poultry. The system maintains an oxygen concentration of air always reduces the oxygen concentrations to a value lower than in dry air. The partial pressure of water and oxygen were found to depend on the pump down parameters due to the formation of fog in the chamber and desorption of water from the birds and the walls of the vacuum chamber. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  13. Where do winds come from? A new theory on how water vapor condensation influences atmospheric pressure and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarieva, A. M.; Gorshkov, V. G.; Sheil, D.; Nobre, A. D.; Li, B.-L.

    2013-01-01

    Phase transitions of atmospheric water play a ubiquitous role in the Earth's climate system, but their direct impact on atmospheric dynamics has escaped wide attention. Here we examine and advance a theory as to how condensation influences atmospheric pressure through the mass removal of water from the gas phase with a simultaneous account of the latent heat release. Building from fundamental physical principles we show that condensation is associated with a decline in air pressure in the lower atmosphere. This decline occurs up to a certain height, which ranges from 3 to 4 km for surface temperatures from 10 to 30 °C. We then estimate the horizontal pressure differences associated with water vapor condensation and find that these are comparable in magnitude with the pressure differences driving observed circulation patterns. The water vapor delivered to the atmosphere via evaporation represents a store of potential energy available to accelerate air and thus drive winds. Our estimates suggest that the global mean power at which this potential energy is released by condensation is around one per cent of the global solar power - this is similar to the known stationary dissipative power of general atmospheric circulation. We conclude that condensation and evaporation merit attention as major, if previously overlooked, factors in driving atmospheric dynamics.

  14. Rates of chemical reaction and atmospheric heating during core debris expulsion from a pressurized vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.A.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockman, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1986-01-01

    Core debris may be expelled from a pressurized reactor vessel during a severe nuclear reactor accident. Experimental studies of core debris expulsion from pressurized vessels have established that the expelled material can be lofted into the atmosphere of the reactor containment as particulate 0.4 to 2 mm in diameter. These particles will vigorously react with steam and oxygen in the containment atmosphere. Data on such reactions during tests with 80 kg of expelled melt will be reported. A model of the reaction rates based on gas phase mass transport will be described and shown to account for atmospheric heating and aerosol generation observed in the tests

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasmas for surface modification of flexible and printed electronic devices: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Nam; Lee, Seung Min; Mishra, Anurag [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Geun Young, E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Recently, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma, especially those operated at low gas temperatures, have become a topic of great interest for the processing of flexible and printed electronic devices due to several benefits such as the reduction of process and reactor costs, the employment of easy-to-handle apparatuses and the easier integration into continuous production lines. In this review, several types of typical atmospheric pressure plasma sources have been addressed, and the processes including surface treatment, texturing and sintering for application to flexible and printed electronic devices have been discussed.

  16. Time and space variability of spectral estimates of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavero, Flavio G.; Einaudi, Franco

    1987-01-01

    The temporal and spatial behaviors of atmospheric pressure spectra over the northern Italy and the Alpine massif were analyzed using data on surface pressure measurements carried out at two microbarograph stations in the Po Valley, one 50 km south of the Alps, the other in the foothills of the Dolomites. The first 15 days of the study overlapped with the Alpex Intensive Observation Period. The pressure records were found to be intrinsically nonstationary and were found to display substantial time variability, implying that the statistical moments depend on time. The shape and the energy content of spectra depended on different time segments. In addition, important differences existed between spectra obtained at the two stations, indicating a substantial effect of topography, particularly for periods less than 40 min.

  17. Fructooligosaccharides integrity after atmospheric cold plasma and high-pressure processing of a functional orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Francisca Diva Lima; Gomes, Wesley Faria; Cavalcante, Rosane Souza; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Cullen, Patrick J; Frias, Jesus Maria; Bourke, Paula; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effect of atmospheric pressure cold plasma and high-pressure processing on the prebiotic orange juice was evaluated. Orange juice containing 7g/100g of commercial fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was directly and indirectly exposed to a plasma discharge at 70kV with processing times of 15, 30, 45 and 60s. For high-pressure processing, the juice containing the same concentration of FOS was treated at 450MPa for 5min at 11.5°C in an industrial equipment (Hyperbaric, model: 300). After the treatments, the fructooligosaccharides were qualified and quantified by thin layer chromatography. The organic acids and color analysis were also evaluated. The maximal overall fructooligosaccharides degradation was found after high-pressure processing. The total color difference was pressure and plasma processing. citric and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) showed increased content after plasma and high-pressure treatment. Thus, atmospheric pressure cold plasma and high-pressure processing can be used as non-thermal alternatives to process prebiotic orange juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Healing Effect of Low-Temperature Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma in Pressure Ulcer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuangsuwanich, Apirag; Assadamongkol, Tananchai; Boonyawan, Dheerawan

    2016-12-01

    Pressure ulcers are difficult to treat. Recent reports of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma (LTAPP) indicated its safe and effectiveness in chronic wound care management. It has been shown both in vitro and vivo studies that LTAPP not only helps facilitate wound healing but also has antimicrobial efficacy due to its composition of ion and electron, free radicals, and ultraviolet ray. We studied the beneficial effect of LTAPP specifically on pressure ulcers. In a prospective randomized study, 50 patients with pressure ulcers were divided into 2 groups: Control group received standard wound care and the study group was treated with LTAPP once every week for 8 consecutive weeks in addition to standard wound care. We found that the group treated with LTAPP had significantly better PUSH (Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing) scores and exudate amount after 1 week of treatment. There was also a reduction in bacterial load after 1 treatment regardless of the species of bacteria identified.

  19. Investigation and control of the {{\\rm{O}}}_{3}- to {NO}-transition in a novel sub-atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansemer, Robert; Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; van Rienen, Ursula; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter

    2017-06-01

    A novel flow-driven dielectric barrier discharge concept is presented, which uses a Venturi pump to transfer plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from a sub-atmospheric pressure (200{--}600 {mbar}) discharge region to ambient pressure and can be operated with air. By adjusting the working pressure of the device, the plasma chemistry can be tuned continuously from an ozone ({{{O}}}3)-dominated mode to a nitrogen oxides ({{NO}}x)-only mode. The plasma source is characterized focusing on the mechanisms effecting this mode change. The composition of the device’s output gas was determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results are correlated to measurements of discharge chamber pressure and temperature as well as of input power. It is found that the mode-change temperature can be controlled by the discharge chamber pressure. The source concept is capable of generating an {{NO}}x-dominated plasma chemistry at gas temperatures distinctly below 400 {{K}}. Through mixing of the processed gas stream with a second flow of pressurized air required for the operation of the Venturi pump, the resulting product gas stream remains close to room temperature. A reduced zero-dimensional reaction kinetics model with only seven reactions is capable of describing the observed pressure- and temperature-dependence of the {{{O}}}3 to {{NO}}x mode-change.

  20. The influence of droplet evaporation on fuel-air mixing rate in a burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, K.; Flagan, R. C.; Heywood, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments involving combustion of a variety of hydrocarbon fuels in a simple atmospheric pressure burner were used to evaluate the role of droplet evaporation in the fuel/air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames. Both air-assist atomization and pressure atomization processes were studied; fuel/air mixing rates were determined on the basis of cross-section average oxygen concentrations for stoichiometric overall operation. In general, it is concluded that droplets act as point sources of fuel vapor until evaporation, when the fuel jet length scale may become important in determining nonuniformities of the fuel vapor concentration. In addition, air-assist atomizers are found to have short droplet evaporation times with respect to the duration of the fuel/air mixing process, while for the pressure jet atomizer the characteristic evaporation and mixing times are similar.

  1. Atmospheric Tides in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D,; Newman, C. E; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Wilson, R. J.; Lemmon, M.; Smith, M. D.; Kahanpaa, H.; Harri, A.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric tides are the primary source of daily air pressure variation at the surface of Mars. These tides are forced by solar heating of the atmosphere and modulated by the presence of atmospheric dust, topography, and surface albedo and thermal inertia. This results in a complex mix of sun-synchronous and nonsun- synchronous tides propagating both eastward and westward around the planet in periods that are integer fractions of a solar day. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station on board the Mars Science Laboratory has observed air pressure at a regular cadence for over 1 Mars year and here we analyze and diagnose atmospheric tides in this pressure record. The diurnal tide amplitude varies from 26 to 63 Pa with an average phase of 0424 local true solar time, while the semidiurnal tide amplitude varies from 5 to 20 Pa with an average phase of 0929. We find that both the diurnal and semidiurnal tides in Gale Crater are highly correlated to atmospheric opacity variations at a value of 0.9 and to each other at a value of 0.77, with some key exceptions occurring during regional and local dust storms. We supplement our analysis with MarsWRF general circulation modeling to examine how a local dust storm impacts the diurnal tide in its vicinity. We find that both the diurnal tide amplitude enhancement and regional coverage of notable amplitude enhancement linearly scales with the size of the local dust storm. Our results provide the first long-term record of surface pressure tides near the martian equator.

  2. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  3. Effects of periodic atmospheric pressure variation on radon entry into buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Y. W.; Narasimhan, T. N.

    1992-06-01

    Using a mathematical model, we have investigated the temporal variations of radon entry into a house basement in the presence of time-dependent periodic variations of barometric pressure as well as a persistent small steady depressurization within the basement. The tool for our investigation is an integral finite difference numerical code which can solve for both diffusive and advective flux of radon in the soil gas which is treated as a slightly compressible fluid. Two different boundary conditions at the house basement are considered: (1) a dirt floor basement so that diffusion is equally or more important than advective transport, and (2) an "impermeable" cement basement except for a 1-cm-wide crack near the perimeter of the basement floor; in which case, advective transport of radon flux dominates. Two frequencies of barometric pressure fluctuation with representative values of amplitudes, based on a Fourier decomposition of barometric pressure data, were chosen in this study: one with a short period of 0.5 hour with pressure amplitude of 50 Pa, the other a diurnal variation with a period of 24 hours with the typical pressure amplitude of 250 Pa. For a homogeneous soil medium with soil permeability to air between 10-13 and 10-10 m2, we predict that the barometric fluctuations increase the radon entry into the basement by up to 120% of the steady radon inflow into the basement owing to a steady depressurization of 5 Pa. If soil permeability heterogeneity is present, such as the presence of a thin layer of higher permeability aggregate immediately below the basement floor, radon flux due to atmospheric pumping is further increased. Effects of pressure pumping on radon entry are also compared to diffusion-only transport when the steady depressurization is absent. It is found that contribution to radon entry is significant for the basement crack configuration. In particular, for pressure pumping at 0.5-hour period and for a homogeneous medium of permeability of 10

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide and aluminum zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kyle W.; Guruvenket, Srinivasan; Sailer, Robert A.; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited via atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A second-generation precursor, bis(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoro-2,4-pentanedionato)(N,N′-diethylethylenediamine) zinc, exhibited significant vapor pressure and good stability at one atmosphere where a vaporization temperature of 110 °C gave flux ∼ 7 μmol/min. Auger electron spectroscopy confirmed that addition of H 2 O to the carrier gas stream mitigated F contamination giving nearly 1:1 metal:oxide stoichiometries for both ZnO and AZO with little precursor-derived C contamination. ZnO and AZO thin film resistivities ranged from 14 to 28 Ω·cm for the former and 1.1 to 2.7 Ω·cm for the latter. - Highlights: • A second generation precursor was utilized for atmospheric pressure film growth. • Addition of water vapor to the carrier gas stream led to a marked reduction of ZnF 2 . • Carbonaceous contamination from the precursor was minimal

  5. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that “…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more” (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459–478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451–4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that “super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations.”(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182–193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper. PMID:26819912

  6. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of

  7. Atmospheric pressure photoionisation : An ionization method for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robb, DB; Covey, TR; Bruins, AP

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) has been successfully demonstrated to provide high sensitivity to LC-MS analysis. A vacuum-ultraviolet lamp designed for photoionization detection in gas chromatography is used as a source of 10-eV photons. The mixture of samples and solvent eluting from

  8. Electrolytic synthesis of ammonia in molten salts under atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-15

    Ammonia was successfully synthesized by using a new electrochemical reaction with high current efficiency at atmospheric pressure and at lower temperatures than the Haber-Bosch process. In this method, nitride ion (N3-), which is produced by the reduction from nitrogen gas at the cathode, is anodically oxidized and reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia at the anode.

  9. Development of a model for case-mix adjustment of pressure ulcer prevalence rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, G.J.J.W.; Halfens, J.; Berger, M.P.; Abu-Saad, H.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute care hospitals participating in the Dutch national pressure ulcer prevalence survey use the results of this survey to compare their outcomes and assess their quality of care regarding pressure ulcer prevention. The development of a model for case-mix adjustment is essential for the

  10. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K, E-mail: ashwini@smita-iitd.co, E-mail: manjeet.jassal@smita-iitd.co [Smart and Innovative Textile Materials Group (SMITA), Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 {mu}l took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to < 1 s in the untreated samples. The plasma modified samples showed water contact angle of around 134{sup 0}. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  11. Two dimensional radial gas flows in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwihyun; Park, Seran; Shin, Hyunsu; Song, Seungho; Oh, Hoon-Jung; Ko, Dae Hong; Choi, Jung-Il; Baik, Seung Jae

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) operation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is one of promising concepts for high quality and low cost processing. Atmospheric plasma discharge requires narrow gap configuration, which causes an inherent feature of AP PECVD. Two dimensional radial gas flows in AP PECVD induces radial variation of mass-transport and that of substrate temperature. The opposite trend of these variations would be the key consideration in the development of uniform deposition process. Another inherent feature of AP PECVD is confined plasma discharge, from which volume power density concept is derived as a key parameter for the control of deposition rate. We investigated deposition rate as a function of volume power density, gas flux, source gas partial pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, plasma source frequency, and substrate temperature; and derived a design guideline of deposition tool and process development in terms of deposition rate and uniformity.

  12. The critical assessment of vapour pressure estimation methods for use in modelling the formation of atmospheric organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Barley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of models for estimating vapour pressures have been tested against experimental data for a set of compounds selected for their particular relevance to the formation of atmospheric aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning. The experimental vapour pressure data (all <100 Pa of 45 multifunctional compounds provide a stringent test of the estimation techniques, with a recent complex group contribution method providing the best overall results. The effect of errors in vapour pressures upon the formation of organic aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning in an atmospherically relevant example is also investigated. The mass of organic aerosol formed under typical atmospheric conditions was found to be very sensitive to the variation in vapour pressure values typically present when comparing estimation methods.

  13. Asymmetric fluid criticality. I. Scaling with pressure mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young C; Fisher, Michael E; Orkoulas, G

    2003-06-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of a fluid near a vapor-liquid and, hence, asymmetric critical point is discussed within a general "complete" scaling theory incorporating pressure mixing in the nonlinear scaling fields as well as corrections to scaling. This theory allows for a Yang-Yang anomaly in which mu(")(sigma)(T), the second temperature derivative of the chemical potential along the phase boundary, diverges like the specific heat when T-->T(c); it also generates a leading singular term, /t/(2beta), in the coexistence curve diameter, where t[triple bond](T-T(c))/T(c). The behavior of various special loci, such as the critical isochore, the critical isotherm, the k-inflection loci, on which chi((k))[triple bond]chi(rho,T)/rho(k) (with chi=rho(2)k(B)TK(T)) and C((k))(V)[triple bond]C(V)(rho,T)/rho(k) are maximal at fixed T, is carefully elucidated. These results are useful for analyzing simulations and experiments, since particular, nonuniversal values of k specify loci that approach the critical density most rapidly and reflect the pressure-mixing coefficient. Concrete illustrations are presented for the hard-core square-well fluid and for the restricted primitive model electrolyte. For comparison, a discussion of the classical (or Landau) theory is presented briefly and various interesting loci are determined explicitly and illustrated quantitatively for a van der Waals fluid.

  14. Microplasma discharge vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Joshua M; Gann, Reuben N; Fernández, Facundo M; Orlando, Thomas M

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of an atmospheric pressure microplasma-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization source in atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry applications. The device is a robust, easy-to-operate microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) that enables generation of VUV photons from Ne and Ne/H(2) gas mixtures. Photons were detected by excitation of a microchannel plate detector and by analysis of diagnostic sample ions using a mass spectrometer. Reactive ions, charged particles, and metastables produced in the discharge were blocked from entering the ionization region by means of a lithium fluoride window, and photoionization was performed in a nitrogen-purged environment. By reducing the output pressure of the MHCD, we observed heightened production of higher-energy photons, making the photoionization source more effective. The initial performance of the MHCD VUV source has been evaluated by ionizing model analytes such as acetone, azulene, benzene, dimethylaniline, and glycine, which were introduced in solid or liquid phase. These molecules represent species with both high and low proton affinities, and ionization energies ranging from 7.12 to 9.7 eV.

  15. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n plu , which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v gas is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n plu ∝ log(v gas ). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity

  16. Estimation of seasonal atmospheric stability and mixing height by using different schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.; Embaby, M.; Mubarak, F.; Kamel, I.

    2007-01-01

    Different atmospheric stability schemes were used to characterize the plume growth (dispersion coefficients σ) in the lateral and vertical directions to determine the concentration distribution of pollutants through the PBL. The PBL is the region in which surface friction has a large effect on the mixing of pollutants. It is also suffer large fluctuation in temperature and wind and its depth (mixing depth) changes over a diurnal cycle. In this study, four months of surface meteorological parameters were used (to represent different seasons) to determine seasonal stability, classification. Five different stability schemes were estimated based on temperature gradient, standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction fluctuation, gradient and Bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov length. Friction velocity, (u * ) for each stability scheme was estimated for characterizing the hourly, mixing height for each stability class. Also, plume rise was estimated for each stability class depending on the availability of meteorological parameters

  17. Discharge physics and chemistry of a novel atmospheric pressure plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Henins, I.; Hermann, J.W.; Selwyn, G.S.; Jeong, J.Y.; Hickis, R.

    1999-07-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a unique plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. The APPJ operates with RF power and produces a stable non-thermal discharge in capacitively-coupled configuration. The discharge is spatially and temporally homogeneous and provides a unique gas phase chemistry that is well suited for various applications including etching, film deposition, surface treatment and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents. A theoretical model shows electron densities of 0.2--2 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3} for a helium discharge at a power level of 3--30 W cm{sup {minus}3}. The APPJ also produces a large flux, equivalent of up to 10,000 monolayer s{sup {minus}1}, of chemically-active, atomic and metastable molecular species which can impinge surfaces several cm downstream of the confined source. In addition, the efforts are in progress to measure the electron density using microwave diagnostics and to benchmark the gas phase chemical model by using LIF and titration.

  18. Preliminary feasibility analysis of a pressure modulator radiometer for remote sensing of tropospheric constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, H. D., III; Rarig, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    A pressure modulator radiometer operated in a nadir viewing mode from the top of a midlatitude summer model of the atmosphere was theoretically studied for monitoring the mean volumetric mixing ratio of carbon monoxide in the troposphere. The mechanical characteristics of the instrument on the Nimbus 7 stratospheric and mesospheric sounder experiment are assumed and CO is assumed to be the only infrared active constituent. A line by line radiative transfer computer program is used to simulate the upwelling radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere. The performance of the instrument is examined as a function of the mean pressure in and the length of the instrument gas correlation cell. Instrument sensitivity is described in terms of signal to noise ratio for a 10 percent change in CO mixing ratio. Sensitivity to mixing ratio changes is also studied. It is concluded that tropospheric monitoring requires a pressure modulator drive having a larger swept volume and producing higher compression ratios at higher mean cell pressures than the Nimbus 7 design.

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  20. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W., E-mail: zbigniew.w.kowalski@pwr.wroc.pl; Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor [Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Silberring, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  1. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glass fibre composite for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, H.; Stenum, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Glass-fibre-reinforced polyester composite plates were treated with an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge. Synthetic air was used as the treatment gas. The water contact angle dropped markedly from 84 to 22° after a 2-s treatment, and decreased to 0° when the composite plates were...

  2. Decontamination of burn wounds using a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Koen; Hofmann, S.; Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Decontamination of burn wounds using a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet C.A.J. van Gils, S. Hofmann, B. Boekema and P. Bruggeman Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, group EPG, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven In the treatment of burn wounds bacterial infections are

  3. Structural bifurcation of microwave helium jet discharge at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Shuichi; Kitoh, Masakazu; Soga, Tadasuke

    2008-01-01

    Structural bifurcation of microwave-sustained jet discharge at atmospheric gas pressure was found to produce a stable helium plasma jet, which may open the possibility of a new type of high-flux test plasma beam for plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. The fundamental discharge properties are presented including hysteresis characteristics, imaging of discharge emissive structure, and stable ignition parameter area. (author)

  4. Eustachian tube function and middle ear barotrauma associated with extremes in atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, T; Ueda, H; Yanagita, N

    1996-11-01

    Eustachian tube (ET) function was studied by means of sonotubometry and tubotympano-aerodynamography (TTAG) prior to and following exposure to hypobaric or hyperbaric conditions. Forty normal adults were subjected to hypobaric pressure. Fifty adults who underwent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy also were studied. Following hypobaric exposure, 14 of 80 ears (17.5%) exhibited middle ear barotrauma. Following hyperbaric exposure, 34 of 100 ears (34%) exhibited middle ear barotrauma. Dysfunction of the ET, characterized by altered active and passive opening capacity, was more prevalent following exposure to extremes in atmospheric pressure compared to baseline. The ET function, which was impaired after the first HBO treatment, improved gradually over the next 2 hours. Overall, however, ET function was worse after the seventh treatment. The patients who developed barotrauma exhibited worse ET function prior to hypobaric or hyperbaric exposure. Thus, abnormal ET function can be used to predict middle ear barotrauma prior to exposure to hypobaric or hyperbaric atmospheric pressure.

  5. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-01-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ∼5 × 10 10 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  6. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  7. The effect of meteorological data on atmospheric pressure loading corrections in VLBI data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balidakis, Kyriakos; Glaser, Susanne; Karbon, Maria; Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Lu, Cuixian; Anderson, James; Liu, Li; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald

    2015-04-01

    Earth's crustal deformation is a manifestation of numerous geophysical processes, which entail the atmosphere and ocean general circulation and tidal attraction, climate change, and the hydrological circle. The present study deals with the elastic deformations induced by atmospheric pressure variations. At geodetic sites, APL (Atmospheric Pressure Loading) results in displacements covering a wide range of temporal scales which is undesirable when rigorous geodetic/geophysical analysis is intended. Hence, it is of paramount importance that the APL signal are removed at the observation level in the space geodetic data analysis. In this study, elastic non-tidal components of loading displacements were calculated in the local topocentric frame for all VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) stations with respect to the center-of-figure of the solid Earth surface and the center-of-mass of the total Earth system. The response of the Earth to the load variation at the surface was computed by convolving Farrell Green's function with the homogenized in situ surface pressure observations (in the time span 1979-2014) after the subtraction of the reference pressure and the S1, S2 and S3 thermal tidal signals. The reference pressure was calculated through a hypsometric adjustment of the absolute pressure level determined from World Meteorological Organization stations in the vicinity of each VLBI observatory. The tidal contribution was calculated following the 2010 International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service conventions. Afterwards, this approach was implemented into the VLBI software VieVS@GFZ and the entirety of available VLBI sessions was analyzed. We rationalize our new approach on the basis that the potential error budget is substantially reduced, since several common errors are not applicable in our approach, e.g. those due to the finite resolution of NWM (Numerical Weather Models), the accuracy of the orography model necessary for adjusting the former as

  8. Use of Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma for Meat Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juri; Lee, Cheol Woo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2017-01-01

    Novel, effective methods to control and prevent spoilage and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products are in constant demand. Non-thermal pasteurization is an ideal method for the preservation of meat and meat products because it does not use heat during the pasteurization process. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) is a new technology for the non-thermal pasteurization of meat and meat products. Several recent studies have shown that APCP treatment reduces th...

  9. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  10. Effect of feed-gas humidity on nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D; McLean, Robert J C; DeLeon, Gian; Melnikov, Vadim

    2016-11-14

    We investigate the effect of feed-gas humidity on the oxidative properties of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet using nitrogen gas. Plasma jets operating at atmospheric pressure are finding uses in medical and biological settings for sterilization and other applications involving oxidative stress applied to organisms. Most jets use noble gases, but some researchers use less expensive nitrogen gas. The feed-gas water content (humidity) has been found to influence the performance of noble-gas plasma jets, but has not yet been systematically investigated for jets using nitrogen gas. Low-humidity and high-humidity feed gases were used in a nitrogen plasma jet, and the oxidation effect of the jet was measured quantitatively using a chemical dosimeter known as FBX (ferrous sulfate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange). The plasma jet using high humidity was found to have about ten times the oxidation effect of the low-humidity jet, as measured by comparison with the addition of measured amounts of hydrogen peroxide to the FBX dosimeter. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using nitrogen as a feed gas have a greater oxidizing effect with a high level of humidity added to the feed gas.

  11. Destruction of Bacillus subtilis cells using an atmospheric-pressure dielectric capillary electrode discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panikov, N.S.; Paduraru, S.; Crowe, R.; Ricatto, P.J.; Christodoulatos, C.; Becker, K.

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments aimed at the investigation of the destruction of spore-forming bacteria, which are believed to be among the most resistant microorganisms, using a novel atmospheric-pressure dielectric capillary electrode discharge plasma are reported. Various well-characterized cultures of Bacillus subtilis were prepared, subjected to atmospheric-pressure plasma jets emanating from a plasma shower reactor operated either in He or in air (N 2 /O 2 mixture) at various power levels and exposure times, and analyzed after plasma treatment. Reductions in colony-forming units ranged from 10 4 (He plasma) to 10 8 (air plasma) for plasma exposure times of less than 10 minutes. (author)

  12. New pool boiling data for water with copper-foam metal at sub-atmospheric pressures: Experiments and correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choon, Ng Kim; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Aye, Sai Maung; Xiaolin, Wang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decades, pool boiling heat transfer of water has been investigated extensively by many scientists and researchers at system pressures varying from atmospheric to near critical pressure. However, at sub-atmospheric pressures conditions there is a dearth of data, particularly when the vapour pressures are less than 10kPa. The authors have conducted a detailed study of pool boiling of water in an evaporator where its system pressure was about 1.8kPa. The heat flux for pool boiling was derived from an uniform radiant heaters up to 5W/cm{sup 2} (or a total heating rate of 125W within an area of 25cm{sup 2}), a region that is of interest for the cooling of CPUs. (author)

  13. Impact of low atmosphere pressure stunning of broilers on breast skin Salmonella and Campylobacter post-defeathering and breast fillet meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low atmosphere pressure stun (LAPS) is a method of controlled atmosphere poultry slaughter that utilizes a decrease of atmospheric pressure (0.2 ATM) to induce unconsciousness and death. Following feed withdrawal periods of 4, 6, 8, or 10 hours, broilers were slaughtered using LAPS or electrical stu...

  14. Real-time analysis of ambient organic aerosols using aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (AeroFAPA-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Karu, Einar; Stelzer, Torsten; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Organic aerosol accounts for a major fraction of atmospheric aerosols and has implications on the earth's climate and human health. However, due to the chemical complexity its measurement remains a major challenge for analytical instrumentation.1 Here, we present the development, characterization and application of a new soft ionization technique that allows mass spectrometric real-time detection of organic compounds in ambient aerosols. The aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (AeroFAPA) ion source utilizes a helium glow discharge plasma to produce excited helium species and primary reagent ions. Ionization of the analytes occurs in the afterglow region after thermal desorption and results mainly in intact molecular ions, facilitating the interpretation of the acquired mass spectra. In the past, similar approaches were used to detect pesticides, explosives or illicit drugs on a variety of surfaces.2,3 In contrast, the AeroFAPA source operates 'online' and allows the detection of organic compounds in aerosols without a prior precipitation or sampling step. To our knowledge, this is the first application of an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge ionization technique to ambient aerosol samples. We illustrate that changes in aerosol composition and concentration are detected on the time scale of seconds and in the ng-m-3 range. Additionally, the successful application of AeroFAPA-MS during a field study in a mixed forest region in Central Europe is presented. Several oxidation products of monoterpenes were clearly identified using the possibility to perform tandem MS experiments. The acquired data are in agreement with previous studies and demonstrate that AeroFAPA-MS is a suitable tool for organic aerosol analysis. Furthermore, these results reveal the potential of this technique to enable new insights into aerosol formation, growth and transformation in the atmosphere. References: 1) IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The

  15. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Grey Cotton Knitted Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-wai Kan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of large amounts of water and chemicals, in order to remove impurities and yellowness. Due to increased environmental awareness, pursuing a reduction of water and chemicals is a current trend in textile processing. In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock before processing. Experimental results reveal that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively remove impurities from 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics and significantly improve its water absorption property. On the other hand, if 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics are pretreated with plasma and then undergo a normal scouring process, the treatment time is reduced. In addition, the surface morphological and chemical changes in plasma-treated fabrics were studied and compared with the conventionally treated fabrics using scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The decrease in carbon content, as shown in XPS, reveal the removal of surface impurities. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios of the plasma treated knitted fabrics reveal enhanced hydrophilicity.

  16. Patterned deposition by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced spatial atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poodt, P.; Kniknie, B.J.; Branca, A.; Winands, G.J.J.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor has been developed, to deposit Al2O3 films from trimethyl aluminum and an He/O2 plasma. This technique can be used for 2D patterned deposition in a single in-line process by making use of switched localized plasma sources. It

  17. Extractive Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (EAPPI) Mass Spectrometry: Rapid Analysis of Chemicals in Complex Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yonghua; Zhao, Wan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Extractive atmospheric pressure photoionization (EAPPI) mass spectrometry was designed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals in complex matrices. In this method, an ultrasonic nebulization system was applied to sample extraction, nebulization, and vaporization. Mixed with a gaseous dopant, vaporized analytes were ionized through ambient photon-induced ion-molecule reactions, and were mass-analyzed by a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). After careful optimization and testing with pure sample solution, EAPPI was successfully applied to the fast screening of capsules, soil, natural products, and viscous compounds. Analysis was completed within a few seconds without the need for preseparation. Moreover, the quantification capability of EAPPI for matrices was evaluated by analyzing six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. The correlation coefficients (R (2) ) for standard curves of all six PAHs were above 0.99, and the detection limits were in the range of 0.16-0.34 ng/mg. In addition, EAPPI could also be used to monitor organic chemical reactions in real time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Diffuse plasma treatment of polyamide 66 fabric in atmospheric pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lee; Peng, Ming-yang; Teng, Yun; Gao, Guozhen

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A cylindrical-electrode nanosecond-pulse diffuse-discharge reactor is presented. • Large-scale non-thermal plasmas were generated steadily in atmospheric air. • Treated PA66 fabric is etched with oxygen-containing group increases. • The hydrophily of treated PA66 fabric improves effectively. • Extending the treatment time is a method to reduce the treatment frequency. - Abstract: The polyamide 66 (PA66) fabrics are hard to be colored or glued in industrial production due to the poor hydrophily. Diffuse plasma is a kind of non-thermal plasma generated at atmospheric pressure in air. This paper proposes that large-scale diffuse plasma generated between wire electrodes can be employed for improving the hydrophily of PA66 fabrics. A repetitive nanosecond-pulse diffuse-discharge reactor using a cylindrical wire electrode configuration is presented, which can generate large-scale non-thermal plasmas steadily at atmospheric pressure without any barrier dielectric. Then the reactor is used to treat PA66 fabrics in different discharge conditions. The hydrophilicity property of modified PA66 is measured by wicking test method. The modified PA66 is also analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to prove the surface changes in physical microstructure and chemical functional groups, respectively. What's more, the effects of treatment time and treatment frequency on surface modification are investigated and discussed.

  19. Pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunlin; Yang Xiaoyong; Li Changjun; Jia Fei; Zhao Binjuan

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump, this study used the technique of ANSYS-Workbench and CFX fluid solid heat coupling to do numerical simulation analysis for model pump. According to the situation of pressure fluctuation of time domain and frequency domain, the main cause of pressure fluctuation was discussed. For different flow, the pressure fluctuations were compared. This study shows it is feasible that large eddy simulation method is used for the research of pressure fluctuation. The pressure fluctuation amplitudes of four sections are increasing from wheel hub to wheel rim. The pressure fluctuation of inlet and outlet of impeller depends on the rotational frequency of impeller. Along with the fluid flowing away from the impeller, the effect of the impeller on the fluid pressure fluctuation weakens gradually. Comparing the different results of three flow conditions, the pressure fluctuation in design condition flow is superior to the others. (authors)

  20. Electrical characterization of atmospheric pressure DBD in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, P.; Joshi, U.M.; Subedi, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air was generated between two rectangular copper electrodes covering the lower electrode with a dielectric (glass or polycarbonate -PC) using low frequency (line frequency-50Hz) high voltage power supply. The discharge was studied for inter-electrode gap spacing in the range of 2 mm – 5 mm and their influence on breakdown voltage. Voltage-current characteristics and the analysis of the distribution of current pulses per half cycle of the current waveform indicated that the discharge is more uniform in 3 mm inter-electrode gap spacing with PC as a dielectric rather than glass. (author)

  1. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan; Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu; Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L.; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing

    2011-01-01

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O 2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  2. The conceptual design of high temporal resolution HCN interferometry for atmospheric pressure air plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. B.; Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Wei, X. C.; Hu, L. Q.

    2018-01-01

    A heterodyne interferometer operating at the frequency f = 890 GHz has been designed for measuring the electron density of atmospheric pressure air plasmas, it's density range is from 1015 to 3×1019 m-3 and the pressure range is from 1 Pa to 20 kPa. The system is configured as a Mach\

  3. Marine Emissions and Atmospheric Processing Influence Aerosol Mixing States in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpes, R.; Rodriguez, B.; Kim, S.; Park, K.; China, S.; Laskin, A.; Pratt, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing due to sea ice loss and increasing oil/gas development and shipping activity. These changes influence aerosol sources and composition, resulting in complex aerosol-cloud-climate feedbacks. Atmospheric particles were collected aboard the R/V Araon in July-August 2016 in the Alaskan Arctic along the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea. Offline analysis of individual particles by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provided information on particle size, morphology, and chemical composition. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) and organic aerosol (OA) particles were the most commonly observed particle types, and sulfate was internally mixed with both SSA and OA. Evidence of multiphase sea spray aerosol reactions was observed, with varying degrees of chlorine depletion observed along the cruise. Notably, atmospherically processed SSA, completely depleted in chlorine, and internally mixed organic and sulfate particles, were observed in samples influenced by the central Arctic Ocean. Changes in particle composition due to fog processing were also investigated. Due to the changing aerosol sources and atmospheric processes in the Arctic region, it is crucial to understand aerosol composition in order to predict climate impacts.

  4. Charge dependence of the plasma travel length in atmospheric-pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Konda, Kohmei; Masuda, Seiya [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Plasma plume is generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and foil electrode by applying AC high voltage under the atmosphere. The plasma plume is released into the atmosphere from inside of the quartz tube and is seen as the continuous movement of the plasma bullet. The travel length of plasma bullet is defined from plasma energy and force due to electric field. The drift velocity of plasma bullet has the upper limit under atmospheric-pressure because the drift velocity is determined from the balance between electric field and resistive force due to collisions between plasma and air. The plasma plume charge depends on the drift velocity. Consequently, in the laminar flow of helium gas flow state, the travel length of the plasma plume logarithmically depends on the plasma plume charge which changes with both the electric field and the resistive force.

  5. Charge dependence of the plasma travel length in atmospheric-pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Konda, Kohmei; Masuda, Seiya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma plume is generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and foil electrode by applying AC high voltage under the atmosphere. The plasma plume is released into the atmosphere from inside of the quartz tube and is seen as the continuous movement of the plasma bullet. The travel length of plasma bullet is defined from plasma energy and force due to electric field. The drift velocity of plasma bullet has the upper limit under atmospheric-pressure because the drift velocity is determined from the balance between electric field and resistive force due to collisions between plasma and air. The plasma plume charge depends on the drift velocity. Consequently, in the laminar flow of helium gas flow state, the travel length of the plasma plume logarithmically depends on the plasma plume charge which changes with both the electric field and the resistive force.

  6. Atmospheric Transport and Mixing linked to Rossby Wave Breaking in GFDL Dynamical Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Barnes, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric transport and mixing plays an important role in the global energy balance and the distribution of health-related chemical constituents. Previous studies suggest a close linkage between large-scale transport and Rossby wave breaking (RWB). In this work, we use the GFDL spectral dynamical core to investigate this relationship and study the response of RWB-related transport in different climate scenarios. In a standard control run, we quantify the contribution of RWB to the total transport and mixing of an idealized tracer. In addition, we divide the contribution further into the two types of RWB - anticyclonic wave breaking (AWB) and cyclonic wave breaking (CWB) -- and contrast their efficiency at transport and mixing. Our results are compared to a previous study in which the transport ability of the two types of RWB is studied for individual baroclinic wave life-cycles. In a series of sensitivity runs, we study the response of RWB-related transport and mixing to various states of the jet streams. The responses of the mean strength, frequency, and the efficiency of RWB-related transport are documented and the implications for the transport and mixing in a warmer climate are discussed.

  7. Measurement of viscosity of gaseous mixtures at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Coefficients of viscosity of various types of gas mixtures, including simulated natural-gas samples, have been measured at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using a modified capillary tube method. Pressure drops across the straight capillary tube section of a thermal mass flowmeter were measured for small, well-defined, volume flow rates for the test gases and for standard air. In this configuration, the flowmeter provides the volumetric flow rates as well as a well-characterized capillary section for differential pressure measurements across it. The coefficients of viscosity of the test gases were calculated using the reported value of 185.6 micro P for the viscosity of air. The coefficients of viscosity for the test mixtures were also calculated using Wilke's approximation of the Chapman-Enskog (C-E) theory. The experimental and calculated values for binary mixtures are in agreement within the reported accuracy of Wilke's approximation of the C-E theory. However, the agreement for multicomponent mixtures is less satisfactory, possible because of the limitations of Wilkes's approximation of the classical dilute-gas state model.

  8. Atmospheric pressure imaging mass spectrometry of drugs with various ablating lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshkunov, K A; Alimpiev, S S; Pento, A V; Grechnikov, A A; Nikifirov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure mass spectrometric detection efficiency of organic species (tofisopam and verapamil) was measured by means of the laser ablation of dried solution drops containing known amount of the analyte. Ablated molecules were ionized by an atmospheric pressure laser plasma cell and then introduced in the TOF mass-spectrometer. The spot was formed by dripping 2 μl of solution on the stainless steel substrate and consequent drying. Then it was scanned by an intense ablating beam of various lasers (CO 2 , Nd:YAG and femtosecond fiber laser) until the spot was completely eroded during the non-stop MS-analysis of ablated material. The sensitivity was defined as the ratio of the total ion current integral of the relevant mass peaks to the amount of molecules in the spot. All the tested lasers are suitable for the ablation and subsequent MS-detection of organic species in dried solution spots given enough power deposition is provided. The measured sensitivity values reach 0.1 ions/fg of tested analytes

  9. Separated Type Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Microjets Array for Maskless Microscale Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Dai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maskless etching approaches such as microdischarges and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs have been studied recently. Nonetheless, a simple, long lifetime, and efficient maskless etching method is still a challenge. In this work, a separated type maskless etching system based on atmospheric pressure He/O2 plasma jet and microfabricated Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS nozzle have been developed with advantages of simple-structure, flexibility, and parallel processing capacity. The plasma was generated in the glass tube, forming the micron level plasma jet between the nozzle and the surface of polymer. The plasma microjet was capable of removing photoresist without masks since it contains oxygen reactive species verified by spectra measurement. The experimental results illustrated that different features of microholes etched by plasma microjet could be achieved by controlling the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, additive oxygen ratio, and etch time, the result of which is consistent with the analysis result of plasma spectra. In addition, a parallel etching process was also realized by plasma microjets array.

  10. Pressure suppression pool mixing in passive advanced BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Robert E.; Nguyen, Thuy T.; Shiralkar, Bharat S.; Peterson, Per F.; Greif, Ralph; Tabata, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the SBWR passive boiling water reactor, the long-term post-accident containment pressure is determined by the combination of noncondensible gas pressure and steam pressure in the wetwell gas space. The suppression pool (SP) surface temperature, which determines the vapor partial pressure, is very important to overall containment performance. Therefore, the thermal stratification of the SP due to blowdown is of primary importance. This work looks at the various phases and phenomena present during the blowdown event and identifies those that are important to thermal stratification, and the scaling necessary to model them in reduced size tests. This is important in determining which of the large body of blowdown to SP data is adequate for application to the stratification problem. The mixing by jets from the main vents is identified as the key phenomena influencing the thermal response of the suppression pool and analytical models are developed to predict the jet influence on thermal stratification. The analytical models are implemented into a system simulation code, TRACG, and used to model thermal stratification behavior in a scaled test facility. The results show good general agreement with the test data

  11. Gas Breakdown of Radio Frequency Glow Discharges in Helium at near Atmospheric Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinkun; Xu Jinzhou; Cui Tongfei; Guo Ying; Zhang Jing; Shi Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was developed for radio frequency glow discharge in helium at near atmospheric pressure, and was employed to study the gas breakdown characteristics in terms of breakdown voltage. The effective secondary electron emission coefficient and the effective electric field for ions were demonstrated to be important for determining the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge at near atmospheric pressure. The constant of A was estimated to be 64±4 cm −1 Torr −1 , which was proportional to the first Townsend coefficient and could be employed to evaluate the gas breakdown voltage. The reduction in the breakdown voltage of radio frequency glow discharge with excitation frequency was studied and attributed to the electron trapping effect in the discharge gap

  12. State of the art in medical applications using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Metelmann, Hans-Robert; Hori, Masaru

    2017-12-01

    Plasma medical science is a novel interdisciplinary field that combines studies on plasma science and medical science, with the anticipation that understanding the scientific principles governing plasma medical science will lead to innovations in the field. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma has been used for medical treatments, such as for cancer, blood coagulation, and wound healing. The interactions that occur between plasma and cells/tissues have been analyzed extensively. Direct and indirect treatment of cells with plasma has broadened the applications of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma in medicine. Examples of indirect treatment include plasma-assisted immune-therapy and plasma-activated medium. Controlling intracellular redox balance may be key in plasma cancer treatment. Animal studies are required to test the effectiveness and safety of these treatments for future clinical applications.

  13. Electromagnetic Wave Attenuation in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shu; Hu Xiwei; Liu Minghai; Luo Fang; Feng Zelong

    2007-01-01

    When an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagates in an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) layer, its attenuation depends on the APP parameters such as the layer width, the electron density and its profile and collision frequency between electrons and neutrals. This paper proposes that a combined parameter-the product of the line average electron density n-bar and width d of the APP layer (i.e., the total number of electrons in a unit volume along the wave propagation path) can play a more explicit and decisive role in the wave attenuation than any of the above individual parameters does. The attenuation of the EM wave via the product of n-bar and d with various collision frequencies between electrons and neutrals is presented

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses observable phenomena related to air pressure. Describes a simple, unobtrusive, semiquantitative device to monitor the changes in air pressure that are associated with altitude, using a soft-drink bottle and a balloon. (JRH)

  15. Evaporative crystallization of salts from Electrodialysis concentrated brine at atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Du, Wei; Cheng, Penggao; Tang, Na; Wang, Xuekui

    2018-02-01

    A large amount of concentrated brine was produced as by-product during the process of the electrodialysis seawater desalination. In this study, the crystallization sequences of different salts from the brine through evaporative crystallization at both atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures were investigated in detail. The profile of the boiling temperature with density and the relationship between the boiling temperature and the pressure were recorded. The combination of Powder X-Ray Diffraction and the polarizing microscope was employed to identify the salts in the solid form. It can be inferred that NaCl crystallized out firstly and then MgSO4·6H2O and CaSO4 precipitate in order at both atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures, and it should be noticed that CaSO4 crystallized as anhydrate at 70°C and 90°C while as dihydrate at 50°C. At the end of all the experiments the precipitation rates of CaSO4 and NaCl have reached to more than 95% while MgSO4 only reached to about 60%.

  16. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  17. Multi-target retrieval (MTR): the simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and volume mixing ratio profiles from limb-scanning atmospheric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinelli, B.M.; Alpaslan, D.; Carlotti, M.; Magnani, L.; Ridolfi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a retrieval approach for the simultaneous determination of the altitude distributions of p, T and VMR of atmospheric constituents from limb-scanning measurements of the atmosphere. This analysis method, named multi-target retrieval (MTR), has been designed and implemented in a computer code aimed at the analysis of MIPAS-ENVISAT observations; however, the concepts implemented in MTR have a general validity and can be extended to the analysis of all type of limb-scanning observations. In order to assess performance and advantages of the proposed approach, MTR has been compared with the sequential analysis system implemented by ESA as the level-2 processor for MIPAS measurements. The comparison has been performed on a common set of target species and spectral intervals. The performed tests have shown that MTR produces results of better quality than a sequential retrieval. However, the simultaneous retrieval of p, T and water VMR has not lead to satisfactory results below the tropopause, because of the high correlation occurring between p and water VMR in the troposphere. We have shown that this problem can be fixed extending the MTR analysis to at least one further target whose spectral features decouple the retrieval of pressure and water VMR. Ozone was found to be a suitable target for this purpose. The advantages of the MTR analysis system in terms of systematic errors have also been discussed

  18. Continued increase of CFC-113a (CCl3CF3) mixing ratios in the global atmosphere: emissions, occurrence and potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Karina E.; Reeves, Claire E.; Gooch, Lauren J.; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C.; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Chou, Charles; Fraser, Paul J.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Hanif, Norfazrin Mohd; O'Doherty, Simon; Oram, David E.; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Moi Phang, Siew; Abu Samah, Azizan; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William T.; Laube, Johannes C.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric measurements of the ozone-depleting substance CFC-113a (CCl3CF3) are reported from ground-based stations in Australia, Taiwan, Malaysia and the United Kingdom, together with aircraft-based data for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Building on previous work, we find that, since the gas first appeared in the atmosphere in the 1960s, global CFC-113a mixing ratios have been increasing monotonically to the present day. Mixing ratios of CFC-113a have increased by 40 % from 0.50 to 0.70 ppt in the Southern Hemisphere between the end of the previously published record in December 2012 and February 2017. We derive updated global emissions of 1.7 Gg yr-1 on average between 2012 and 2016 using a two-dimensional model. We compare the long-term trends and emissions of CFC-113a to those of its structural isomer, CFC-113 (CClF2CCl2F), which still has much higher mixing ratios than CFC-113a, despite its mixing ratios and emissions decreasing since the 1990s. The continued presence of northern hemispheric emissions of CFC-113a is confirmed by our measurements of a persistent interhemispheric gradient in its mixing ratios, with higher mixing ratios in the Northern Hemisphere. The sources of CFC-113a are still unclear, but we present evidence that indicates large emissions in East Asia, most likely due to its use as a chemical involved in the production of hydrofluorocarbons. Our aircraft data confirm the interhemispheric gradient as well as showing mixing ratios consistent with ground-based observations and the relatively long atmospheric lifetime of CFC-113a. CFC-113a is the only known CFC for which abundances are still increasing substantially in the atmosphere.

  19. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr,; Jeffrey, W [Livermore, CA

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  20. Surface modification of nanofibrillated cellulose films by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, the water contact angle of NFC films increased and the values were comparable with those of PLA films. On the other hand, surface chemical characterization revealed inhomogeneity of the plasma treatment and limited improvement in adhesion between NFC and PLA films...

  1. Anode pattern formation in atmospheric pressure air glow discharges with water anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreycken, T.; Bruggeman, P.J.; Leys, C.

    2009-01-01

    Pattern formation in the anode layer at a water electrode in atmospheric pressure glow discharges in air is studied. With increasing current a sequence of different anode spot structures occurs from a constricted homogeneous spot in the case of small currents to a pattern consisting of small

  2. Thin-Layer Chromatography/Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry of Lipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Vaikkinen, A.; Haapala, M.; Kauppila, T. J.; Kostiainen, R.; Cvačka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 24 (2016), s. 12279-12286 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0750 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization * thin-layer chromatography * lipids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  3. Polythiophene films obtained by polymerization under atmospheric pressure plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teslaru, T.; Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro; Dobromir, M.; Pohoata, V.; Curecheriu, L.; Dumitrascu, N.

    2016-02-01

    The present work describes the experimental arrangement used to initiate polymerization reactions of thiophene monomer based on a dielectric barrier discharge with plane – parallel geometry, working at atmospheric pressure in argon, in turn to obtain conductive polymeric films for different applications. The resulting plasma polymerized polythiophene (pPTh) film was characterized by FT-IR, UV–Vis, XPS spectroscopy, AFM and contact angle measurements. Characterization of pPTh films showed a higher hydrophobic character and roughness, as compared with films obtained by chemical methods, and the thickness is depending on polymerization duration. Also it can conclude that our samples represent oxidised state of pPTh. As a possible application, it analysed in situ the iodine absorption phenomenon in the pPTh matrix and its time evolution by UV–Vis spectroscopy. The presence of iodine 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} peaks in the pPTh sample after absorption was identified by XPS spectroscopy. The hydrophobic pPTh film is transformed in a super hydrophilic film after absorption of iodine vapors. - Highlights: • We obtained polythiophene films (pPTh) by atmospheric pressure plasma technique. • The pPTh films showed a hydrophobic character and conducting properties. • The pPTh films were used as sensor for iodine vapors in biological environment.

  4. Blast from pressurized carbon dioxide released into a vented atmospheric chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P. M.; Gaathaug, A. V.; Bjerketvedt, D.; Vaagsaether, K.

    2018-03-01

    This study describes the blast from pressurized carbon dioxide (CO2) released from a high-pressure reservoir into an openly vented atmospheric chamber. Small-scale experiments with pure vapor and liquid/vapor mixtures were conducted and compared with simulations. A motivation was to investigate the effects of vent size and liquid content on the peak overpressure and impulse response in the atmospheric chamber. The comparison of vapor-phase CO2 test results with simulations showed good agreement. This numerical code described single-phase gas dynamics inside a closed chamber, but did not model any phase transitions. Hence, the simulations described a vapor-only test into an unvented chamber. Nevertheless, the simulations reproduced the incident shock wave, the shock reflections, and the jet release inside the atmospheric chamber. The rapid phase transition did not contribute to the initial shock strength in the current test geometry. The evaporation rate was too low to contribute to the measured peak overpressure that was in the range of 15-20 kPa. The simulation results produced a calculated peak overpressure of 12 kPa. The liquid tests showed a significantly higher impulse compared to tests with pure vapor. Reducing the vent opening from 0.1 to 0.01 m2 resulted in a slightly higher impulse calculated at 100 ms. The influence of the vent area on the calculated impulse was significant in the vapor-phase tests, but not so clear in the liquid/vapor mixture tests.

  5. Marangoni flows induced by atmospheric-pressure plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berendsen, C W J; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Kroesen, G M W; Darhuber, A A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets of Ar or air with liquid films of an aliphatic hydrocarbon on moving solid substrates. The hydrodynamic jet-liquid interaction induces a track of lower film thickness. The chemical plasma-surface interaction oxidizes the liquid, leading to a local increase of the surface tension and a self-organized redistribution of the liquid film. We developed a numerical model that qualitatively reproduces the formation, instability and coarsening of the flow patterns observed in the experiments. Monitoring the liquid flow has potential as an in-situ, spatially and temporally resolved, diagnostic tool for the plasma-liquid surface interaction. (paper)

  6. Electrode erosion in arc discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in an effort to measure and increase lifetime of electrodes in an arcjet thruster. The electrode erosion of various anode and cathode materials was measured after tests in an atmospheric pressure nitrogen arc discharge at powers less than 1 kW. A free-burning arc configuration and a constricted arc configuration were used to test the materials. Lanthanum hexboride and thoriated tungsten had low cathode erosion rates while thoriated tungsten and pure tungsten had the lowest anode erosion rates of the materials tested. Anode cooling, reverse gas flow, an external magnetic fields were all found to reduce electrode mass loss.

  7. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  8. On atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets and plasma bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X; Laroussi, M; Puech, V

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets (APNP-Js), which generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined discharge gap, have recently been a topic of great interest. In this paper, the development of APNP-Js will be reviewed. Firstly, the APNP-Js are grouped based on the type of gas used to ignite them and their characteristics are discussed in detail. Secondly, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the ‘plasma bullet’, is discussed and its behavior described. Thirdly, the very recent developments on the behavior of plasma jets when launched in a controlled environment and pressure are also introduced. This is followed by a discussion on the interaction between plasma jets. Finally, perspectives on APNP-J research are presented. (paper)

  9. Hydrogen discharges operating at atmospheric pressure in a semiconductor gas discharge system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, K; Acar, S; Salamov, B G [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Analyses of physical processes which initiate electrical breakdown and spatial stabilization of current and control it with a photosensitive cathode in a semiconductor gas discharge system (SGDS) are carried out in a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure p, interelectrode distance d and diameter D of the electrode areas of the semiconductor cathode. The study compares the breakdown and stability curves of the gas discharge in the planar SGDS where the discharge gap is filled with hydrogen and air in two cases. The impact of the ionizing component of the discharge plasma on the control of the stable operation of the planar SGDS is also investigated at atmospheric pressure. The loss of stability is primarily due to modification of the semiconductor-cathode properties on the interaction with low-energy hydrogen ions and the formation of a space charge of positive ions in the discharge gap which changes the discharge from Townsend to glow type. The experimental results show that the discharge current in H{sub 2} is more stable than in air. The breakdown voltages are measured for H{sub 2} and air with parallel-plane electrodes, for pressures between 28 and 760 Torr. The effective secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient is then determined from the breakdown voltage results and compared with the experimental results. The influence of the SEE coefficient is stated in terms of the differences between the experimental breakdown law.

  10. [Investigation on the gas temperature of a plasma jet at atmospheric pressure by emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-chen; Yuan, Ning; Jia, Peng-ying; Niu, Dong-ying

    2010-11-01

    A plasma jet of a dielectric barrier discharge in coaxial electrode was used to produce plasma plume in atmospheric pressure argon. Spatially and temporally resolved measurement was carried out by photomultiplier tubes. The light emission signals both from the dielectric barrier discharge and from the plasma plume were analyzed. Furthermore, emission spectrum from the plasma plume was collected by high-resolution optical spectrometer. The emission spectra of OH (A 2sigma + --> X2 II, 307.7-308.9 nm) and the first negative band of N2+ (B2 sigma u+ --> X2 IIg+, 390-391.6 nm) were used to estimate the rotational temperature of the plasma plume by fitting the experimental spectra to the simulated spectra. The rotational temperature obtained is about 443 K by fitting the emission spectrum from the OH, and that from the first negative band of N2+ is about 450 K. The rotational temperatures obtained by the two method are consistent within 5% error band. The gas temperature of the plasma plume at atmospheric pressure was obtained because rotational temperature equals to gas temperature approximately in gas discharge at atmospheric pressure. Results show that gas temperature increases with increasing the applied voltage.

  11. Solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation with a realistic diffusion coefficient and time dependent mixing height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhoub, A.B.; Etman, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    One dimensional model for the dispersion of a passive atmospheric contaminant (neglecting chemical reactions) in the atmospheric boundary layer is introduced. The differential equation representing the dispersion of pollutants is solved on the basis of gradient-transfer theory (K- theory). The present approach deals with a more appropriate and realistic profile for the diffusion coefficient K, which is expressed in terms of the friction velocity U, the vertical coordinate z and the depth of the mixing layer h, which is taken time dependent. After some mathematical simplification, the equation analytic obtained solution can be easily applied to case study concerning atmospheric dispersion of pollutants

  12. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max Karasik

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes

  13. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max Karasik

    1999-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.

  14. Doppler Lidar Vector Retrievals and Atmospheric Data Visualization in Mixed/Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nihanth Wagmi

    Environmental remote sensing has seen rapid growth in the recent years and Doppler wind lidars have gained popularity primarily due to their non-intrusive, high spatial and temporal measurement capabilities. While lidar applications early on, relied on the radial velocity measurements alone, most of the practical applications in wind farm control and short term wind prediction require knowledge of the vector wind field. Over the past couple of years, multiple works on lidars have explored three primary methods of retrieving wind vectors viz., using homogeneous windfield assumption, computationally extensive variational methods and the use of multiple Doppler lidars. Building on prior research, the current three-part study, first demonstrates the capabilities of single and dual Doppler lidar retrievals in capturing downslope windstorm-type flows occurring at Arizona's Barringer Meteor Crater as a part of the METCRAX II field experiment. Next, to address the need for a reliable and computationally efficient vector retrieval for adaptive wind farm control applications, a novel 2D vector retrieval based on a variational formulation was developed and applied on lidar scans from an offshore wind farm and validated with data from a cup and vane anemometer installed on a nearby research platform. Finally, a novel data visualization technique using Mixed Reality (MR)/ Augmented Reality (AR) technology is presented to visualize data from atmospheric sensors. MR is an environment in which the user's visual perception of the real world is enhanced with live, interactive, computer generated sensory input (in this case, data from atmospheric sensors like Doppler lidars). A methodology using modern game development platforms is presented and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields. In the current study, the possibility of using this technology to visualize data from atmospheric sensors in mixed reality is explored and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields as well as

  15. Facilitating breakdown in noble gases at near-atmospheric pressure using antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, A; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Postbus 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gendre, M F; Manders, F, E-mail: a.sobota@tue.nl [Philips Lighting, Mathildelaan 1, 5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-04-20

    Electrical breakdown in near-atmospheric pressure noble gases requires voltages that are quite high, which is undesirable for a large number of possible applications. Metallic structures (antennas) were used on the outer side of the lamp burner to enhance the electric field locally while keeping the same potential difference across the electrodes. Optical and electrical measurements were performed in an argon or xenon atmosphere at 0.3 or 0.7 bar, with 4 or 7 mm between the electrode tips. We used rod-shaped tungsten electrodes of 0.6 mm in diameter. We found that both active and passive antennas facilitate breakdown, and we demonstrated the differences between the two types and their effects on the breakdown process.

  16. Facilitating breakdown in noble gases at near-atmospheric pressure using antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, A; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M; Gendre, M F; Manders, F

    2011-01-01

    Electrical breakdown in near-atmospheric pressure noble gases requires voltages that are quite high, which is undesirable for a large number of possible applications. Metallic structures (antennas) were used on the outer side of the lamp burner to enhance the electric field locally while keeping the same potential difference across the electrodes. Optical and electrical measurements were performed in an argon or xenon atmosphere at 0.3 or 0.7 bar, with 4 or 7 mm between the electrode tips. We used rod-shaped tungsten electrodes of 0.6 mm in diameter. We found that both active and passive antennas facilitate breakdown, and we demonstrated the differences between the two types and their effects on the breakdown process.

  17. Dissecting Low Atmospheric Pressure Stress: Transcriptome Responses to the Components of Hypobaria in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingqi; Callaham, Jordan B; Reyes, Matthew; Stasiak, Michael; Riva, Alberto; Zupanska, Agata K; Dixon, Mike A; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Controlled hypobaria presents biology with an environment that is never encountered in terrestrial ecology, yet the apparent components of hypobaria are stresses typical of terrestrial ecosystems. High altitude, for example, presents terrestrial hypobaria always with hypoxia as a component stress, since the relative partial pressure of O 2 is constant in the atmosphere. Laboratory-controlled hypobaria, however, allows the dissection of pressure effects away from the effects typically associated with altitude, in particular hypoxia, as the partial pressure of O 2 can be varied. In this study, whole transcriptomes of plants grown in ambient (97 kPa/pO 2 = 21 kPa) atmospheric conditions were compared to those of plants transferred to five different atmospheres of varying pressure and oxygen composition for 24 h: 50 kPa/pO 2 = 10 kPa, 25 kPa/pO 2 = 5 kPa, 50 kPa/pO 2 = 21 kPa, 25 kPa/pO 2 = 21 kPa, or 97 kPa/pO 2 = 5 kPa. The plants exposed to these environments were 10 day old Arabidopsis seedlings grown vertically on hydrated nutrient plates. In addition, 5 day old plants were also exposed for 24 h to the 50 kPa and ambient environments to evaluate age-dependent responses. The gene expression profiles from roots and shoots showed that the hypobaric response contained more complex gene regulation than simple hypoxia, and that adding back oxygen to normoxic conditions did not completely alleviate gene expression changes in hypobaric responses.

  18. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble

  19. An Evaluation of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma for the Cost-Effective Deposition of Antireflection Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob Sailer; Guruvenket Srinivasan; Kyle W. Johnson; Douglas L. Schulz

    2010-04-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma deposition (APPD) has previously been used to deposit various functional materials including polymeric surface modification layers, transparent conducting oxides, and photo catalytic materials. For many plasma polymerized coatings, reaction occurs via free radical mechanism where the high energy electrons from the plasma activate the olefinic carbon-carbon double bonds - a typical functional group in such precursors. The precursors for such systems are typically inexpensive and readily available and have been used in vacuum PECVD previously. The objectives are to investigate: (1) the effect of plasma power, gas composition and substrate temperature on the Si-based film properties using triethylsilane(TES) as the precursor; and (2) the chemical, mechanical, and optical properties of several experimental matrices based on Design of Experiment (DOE) principals. A simple APPD route has been utilized to deposit Si based films from an inexpensive precursor - Triethylsilane (TES). Preliminary results indicates formation of Si-C & Si-O and Si-O, Si-C & Si-N bonds with oxygen and nitrogen plasmas respectively. N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma showed mixed trend; however oxygen remains a significant portion of all films, despite attempts to minimize exposure to atmosphere. SiN, SiC, and SiO ratios can be modified by the reaction conditions resulting in differing film properties. SE studies revealed that films with SiN bond possess refractive index higher than coatings with Si-O/Si-C bonds. Variable angle reflectance studies showed that SiOCN coatings offer AR properties; however thickness and refractive index optimization of these coatings remains necessary for application as potential AR coatings.

  20. Effects of Precipitation on Ocean Mixed-Layer Temperature and Salinity as Simulated in a 2-D Coupled Ocean-Cloud Resolving Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofan; Sui, C.-H.; Lau, K-M.; Adamec, D.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional coupled ocean-cloud resolving atmosphere model is used to investigate possible roles of convective scale ocean disturbances induced by atmospheric precipitation on ocean mixed-layer heat and salt budgets. The model couples a cloud resolving model with an embedded mixed layer-ocean circulation model. Five experiment are performed under imposed large-scale atmospheric forcing in terms of vertical velocity derived from the TOGA COARE observations during a selected seven-day period. The dominant variability of mixed-layer temperature and salinity are simulated by the coupled model with imposed large-scale forcing. The mixed-layer temperatures in the coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models show similar variations when salinity effects are not included. When salinity effects are included, however, differences in the domain-mean mixed-layer salinity and temperature between coupled experiments with 1-D and 2-D ocean models could be as large as 0.3 PSU and 0.4 C respectively. Without fresh water effects, the nocturnal heat loss over ocean surface causes deep mixed layers and weak cooling rates so that the nocturnal mixed-layer temperatures tend to be horizontally-uniform. The fresh water flux, however, causes shallow mixed layers over convective areas while the nocturnal heat loss causes deep mixed layer over convection-free areas so that the mixed-layer temperatures have large horizontal fluctuations. Furthermore, fresh water flux exhibits larger spatial fluctuations than surface heat flux because heavy rainfall occurs over convective areas embedded in broad non-convective or clear areas, whereas diurnal signals over whole model areas yield high spatial correlation of surface heat flux. As a result, mixed-layer salinities contribute more to the density differences than do mixed-layer temperatures.

  1. Collaborative Research: Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma Chemistry-Photon Synergies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Combining the effects of low temperature, atmospheric pressure microplasmas and microplasma photon sources shows greatly expanded range of applications of each of them. The plasma sources create active chemical species and these can be activated further by addition of photons and associated photochemistry. There are many ways to combine the effects of plasma chemistry and photochemistry, especially if there are multiple phases present. The project combines construction of appropriate test experimental systems, various spectroscopic diagnostics and mathematical modeling.

  2. Efficacy of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma as an Antibacterial Agent Against Enterococcus Faecalis in Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yingguang; Yang Ping; Lu Xinpei; Xiong Zilan; Ye Tao; Xiong Qing; Sun Ziyong

    2011-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a microorganism that can survive extreme challenges in obturated root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma plume against E. faecalis in vitro. A non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet device which could generate a cold plasma plume carrying a peak current of 300 mA was used. The antibacterial efficacy of this device against E. faecalis and its biofilm under different conditions was detected. The antibacterial efficacy of the plasma against E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was also evaluated. After plasma treatment, the average diameter of inhibition zone on S. aureus and E. faecalis was 2.62±0.26 cm and 1.06±0.30 cm, respectively (P < 0.05). The diameter was increased with prolongation of the treatment duration. The diameters of inhibition zone of the sealed Petri dishes were larger than those of the uncovered Petri dishes. There was significant difference in colony-forming units between plasma group and control group on E. faecalis biofilm (P < 0.01). The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructural changes cytoderm of E. faecalis were observed after treatment for 2 min. It is concluded that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma could serve as an effective adjunct to standard endodontic microbial treatment.

  3. Influence of atmospheric pressure low-temperature plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuki; Okawa, Takahisa; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Akiko; Tatsuta, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Takamasa; Tanaka, Junko; Tanaka, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia exhibits excellent strength and high biocompatibility in technological applications and it is has therefore been investigated for clinical applications and research. Before setting prostheses, a crown prosthesis inner surface is sandblasted with alumina to remove contaminants and form small cavities. This alumina sandblasting causes stress-induced phase transition of zirconia. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma has been applied in the dental industry, particularly for adhesives, as a surface treatment to activate the surface energy and remove contaminants. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia and adhesive resin cement. The surface treatment method was classified into three groups: untreated (Cont group), alumina sandblast treatment (Sb group), and atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment (Ps group). Adhesive resin cement was applied to stainless steel and bonded to zirconia. Shear adhesion tests were performed after complete hardening of the cement. Multiple comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni method. X-ray diffractometry was used to examine the change in zirconia crystal structure. Statistically significant differences were noted between the control and Sb groups and between the control and Ps groups. In contrast, no statistically significant differences were noted for the Ps and Sb bond strength. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment did not affect the zirconia crystal structure. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment improves the bonding strength of adhesive resin cement as effectively as alumina sandblasting, and does not alter the zirconia crystal structure. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative study of APLI and APCI in IMS at atmospheric pressure to reveal and explain peak broadening effects by the use of APLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlenborg, Marvin; Raupers, Björn; Gunzer, Frank; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2015-11-21

    The details of the ionization mechanism in atmospheric pressure are still not completely known. In order to obtain further insight into the occurring processes in atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) a comparative study of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APLI is presented in this paper. This study is carried out using similar experimental condition at atmospheric pressure employing a commercial ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Two different peak broadening mechanisms can then be assigned, one related to a range of different species generated and detected, and furthermore for the first time a power broadening effect on the signals can be identified.

  5. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  6. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  7. Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

  8. Formation of well-mixed warm water column in central Bohai Sea during summer: Role of high-frequency atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Wan, Xiuquan; Wang, Zhankun; Liu, Yulong; Wan, Kai

    2017-12-01

    The influence of high-frequency atmospheric forcing on the formation of a well-mixed summer warm water column in the central Bohai Sea is investigated comparing model simulations driven by daily surface forcing and those using monthly forcing data. In the absence of high-frequency atmospheric forcing, numerical simulations have repeatedly failed to reproduce this vertically uniform column of warm water measured over the past 35 years. However, high-frequency surface forcing is found to strongly influence the structure and distribution of the well-mixed warm water column, and simulations are in good agreement with observations. Results show that high frequency forcing enhances vertical mixing over the central bank, intensifies downward heat transport, and homogenizes the water column to form the Bohai central warm column. Evidence presented shows that high frequency forcing plays a dominant role in the formation of the well-mixed warm water column in summer, even without the effects of tidal and surface wave mixing. The present study thus provides a practical and rational way of further improving the performance of oceanic simulations in the Bohai Sea and can be used to adjust parameterization schemes of ocean models.

  9. Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Deposited in Microwave Torch at Atmospheric Pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajíčková, L.; Eliáš, M.; Jašek, O.; Kučerová, Z.; Synek, P.; Matějková, Jiřina; Kadlečíková, M.; Klementová, Mariana; Buršík, Jiří; Vojačková, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, Suppl. 1 (2007), S245-S249 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * microwave torch * atmospheric pressure * scanning electron microscopy * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.132, year: 2007

  10. The effects of extra-low-frequency atmospheric pressure oscillations on human mental activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyukov, A. A.; Didyk, L.

    Slight atmospheric pressure oscillations (APO) in the extra-low-frequency range below 0.1 Hz, which frequently occur naturally, can influence human mental activity. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments with a group of 12 healthy volunteers exposed to experimentally created APO with amplitudes 30-50 Pa in the frequency band 0.011-0.17 Hz. Exposure of the subjects to APO for 15-30 min caused significant changes in attention and short-term memory functions, performance rate, and mental processing flexibility. The character of the response depended on the APO frequency and coherence. Periodic APO promoted purposeful mental activity, accompanied by an increase in breath-holding duration and a slower heart rate. On the other hand, quasi-chaotic APO, similar to the natural perturbations of atmospheric pressure, disrupted mental activity. These observations suggest that APO could be partly responsible for meteorosensitivity in humans.

  11. Spatial Variability of Sources and Mixing State of Atmospheric Particles in a Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Gu, Peishi; Li, Hugh Z; Robinson, Ellis S; Lipsky, Eric; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Lee, Alex K Y; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Sullivan, Ryan C; Presto, Albert A; Donahue, Neil M

    2018-05-30

    Characterizing intracity variations of atmospheric particulate matter has mostly relied on fixed-site monitoring and quantifying variability in terms of different bulk aerosol species. In this study, we performed ground-based mobile measurements using a single-particle mass spectrometer to study spatial patterns of source-specific particles and the evolution of particle mixing state in 21 areas in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA. We selected sampling areas based on traffic density and restaurant density with each area ranging from 0.2 to 2 km 2 . Organics dominate particle composition in all of the areas we sampled while the sources of organics differ. The contribution of particles from traffic and restaurant cooking varies greatly on the neighborhood scale. We also investigate how primary and aged components in particles mix across the urban scale. Lastly we quantify and map the particle mixing state for all areas we sampled and discuss the overall pattern of mixing state evolution and its implications. We find that in the upwind and downwind of the urban areas, particles are more internally mixed while in the city center, particle mixing state shows large spatial heterogeneity that is mostly driven by emissions. This study is to our knowledge, the first study to perform fine spatial scale mapping of particle mixing state using ground-based mobile measurement and single-particle mass spectrometry.

  12. An improved film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzada, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Myat, Aung; Gee, Chun Won

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of heat transfer correlation in a falling-film evaporator working with saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures. The experiments are conducted at different salinity levels ranging from 15000 to 90000 ppm, and the pressures were maintained between 0.92 to 2.81 kPa (corresponds to saturation temperatures of 5.9 – 23 0C). The effect of salinity, saturation pressures and chilled water temperatures on the heat transfer coefficient are accounted in the modified film evaporation correlations. The results are fitted to the Han & Fletcher's and Chun & Seban's falling-film correlations which are used in desalination industry. We modify the said correlations by adding salinity and saturation temperature corrections with respective indices to give a better agreement to our measured data.

  13. Self-sustained carbon monoxide oxidation oscillations on size-selected platinum nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert; Andersen, Thomas; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2013-01-01

    High-quality mass spectrometry data of the oscillatory behavior of CO oxidation on SiO2 supported Pt-nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure have been acquired as a function of pressure, coverage, gas composition and nanoparticle size. The oscillations are self-sustained for several days at constant......, temperature, pressure and CO/O2 ratio. The frequency of the oscillations is very well defined and increases over time. The oscillation frequency is furthermore strongly temperature dependent with increasing temperature resulting in increasing frequency. A plausible mechanism for the oscillations is proposed...

  14. A model study of mixing and entrainment in the horizontally evolving atmospheric convective boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorovich, E.; Kaiser, R. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    We present results from a parallel wind-tunnel/large-eddy simulation (LES) model study of mixing and entrainment in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) longitudinally developing over a heated surface. The advection-type entrainment of warmer air from upper turbulence-free layers into the growing CBL has been investigated. Most of numerical and laboratory model studies of the CBL carried out so far dealt with another type of entrainment, namely the non-steady one, regarding the CBL growth as a non-stationary process. In the atmosphere, both types of the CBL development can take place, often being superimposed. (au)

  15. Characterization of a steam plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Guohua; Zhao Peng; Cheng Cheng; Song Ye; Meng Yuedong; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric steam plasma jet generated by an original dc water plasma torch is investigated using electrical and spectroscopic techniques. Because it directly uses the water used for cooling electrodes as the plasma-forming gas, the water plasma torch has high thermal efficiency and a compact structure. The operational features of the water plasma torch and the generation of the steam plasma jet are analyzed based on the temporal evolution of voltage, current and steam pressure in the arc chamber. The influence of the output characteristics of the power source, the fluctuation of the arc and current intensity on the unsteadiness of the steam plasma jet is studied. The restrike mode is identified as the fluctuation characteristic of the steam arc, which contributes significantly to the instabilities of the steam plasma jet. In addition, the emission spectroscopic technique is employed to diagnose the steam plasma. The axial distributions of plasma parameters in the steam plasma jet, such as gas temperature, excitation temperature and electron number density, are determined by the diatomic molecule OH fitting method, Boltzmann slope method and H β Stark broadening, respectively. The steam plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is found to be close to the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state by comparing the measured electron density with the threshold value of electron density for the LTE state. Moreover, based on the assumption of LTE, the axial distributions of reactive species in the steam plasma jet are estimated, which indicates that the steam plasma has high chemical activity.

  16. The Atmospheres of Directly Imaged Planets: Where Has All the Methane Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Methane and ammonia both first appear at lower effective temperatures in brown dwarf atmospheres than equilibrium chemistry models would suggest. This has traditionally been understood as a consequence of vertical mixing timescales being shorter than chemical equilibration timescales in brown dwarf photospheres. Indeed the eddy diffusivity, a variable accounting for the vigor of vertical mixing, has become a standard part of the description of brown dwarf atmosphere models, along with Teff and log g. While some models have suggested that methane is less favored at lower gravity, the almost complete absence of methane in the atmospheres of directly imaged planets, such as those orbiting HR 8799, even at effective temperatures where methane is readily apparent in brown dwarf spectra, has been puzzling. To better understand the paucity of methane in low gravity atmospheres we have revisited the problem of methane chemistry and mixing. We employed a 1-D atmospheric chemistry code augmented with an updated and complete network of the chemical reactions that link CO to CH4. We find the methane abundance at altitudes at or above the effective photosphere is a strong function of surface gravity because higher g shifts the p-T structure to higher pressures (i.e., a given optical depth is proportional to p/g, a relation mitigated somewhat by pressure broadening). Thus quenching in more massive brown dwarfs occurs at a lower temperature and higher pressure, both favoring CH4. We predict that in the lowest mass young giant planets, methane will appear very late, at effective temperatures as low as 600 K rather than the 1200 K seen among field brown dwarfs. This methane deficiency has important implications for the interpretation of spectra as well as methane-based planetary companion searches, such as the NICI survey. The GPI and SPHERE surveys will test these ideas and probe atmospheric chemistry and composition in an entire new range of parameter space. A caveat is that

  17. High-power laser-metal interactions in pressurized gaseous atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitelli, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Lugomer, S.; Furic, K.; Ivanda, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Stipancic, M. [Electrotechnical faculty, Osijek (Croatia); Stubicar, M. [Faculty of natural sciences and mathematics, Zagreb (Croatia); Gamulin, O. [School of medicine, Univ. of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-09-01

    Metal surfaces were irradiated in pressurized gaseous atmospheres by a CO{sub 2} laser beam. The gaseous pressures ranged from 2 atm to 6 atm, the energy density of the light beam was about 20-50 J/cm{sup 2} with a power density {approx} 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2} and a pulse duration p 150 ns. In the above conditions some new effects were observed. The laser-material interaction occurred in a highly absorptive plasma regime, meaning that the metal surface was effectively screened from the beam. The interaction ended either with plasma adiabatic expansion, in the case of Mo (in O{sub 2}), Te (in N{sub 2}) and T{sub i} (in N{sub 2}), or with plasma explosion, in the case of T{sub i} (in O{sub 2}). The metal surface properties were studied by means of optical analysis, microhardness tests, X-ray diffraction and Raman backscattering.

  18. Surface modification of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane by atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, C.W., E-mail: tccwk@polyu.edu.hk [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Kwong, C.H. [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ng, S.P. [Hong Kong Community College, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment improved surface performance of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane. • XPS and FTIR confirmed the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. • Contact angle increases to 138° after plasma treatment. - Abstract: Much works have been done on synthetic materials but scarcely on synthetic leather owing to its surface structures in terms of porosity and roughness. This paper examines the use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment for improving the surface performance of polyester synthetic leather by use of a precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS). Plasma deposition is regarded as an effective, simple and single-step method with low pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. The results showed that under a particular combination of treatment parameters, a hydrophobic surface was achieved on the APP treated sample with sessile drop static contact angle of 138°. The hydrophobic surface is stable without hydrophilic recovery 30 days after plasma treatment.

  19. Surface modification of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C.W.; Kwong, C.H.; Ng, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment improved surface performance of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane. • XPS and FTIR confirmed the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. • Contact angle increases to 138° after plasma treatment. - Abstract: Much works have been done on synthetic materials but scarcely on synthetic leather owing to its surface structures in terms of porosity and roughness. This paper examines the use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment for improving the surface performance of polyester synthetic leather by use of a precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS). Plasma deposition is regarded as an effective, simple and single-step method with low pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. The results showed that under a particular combination of treatment parameters, a hydrophobic surface was achieved on the APP treated sample with sessile drop static contact angle of 138°. The hydrophobic surface is stable without hydrophilic recovery 30 days after plasma treatment

  20. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Robert F.; Selwyn, Gary S.

    2001-01-01

    Project was to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. With the invention of the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet the goal was achieved. This device selectively etches heavy metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. Studies on tantalum, a surrogate material for plutonium, have shown that etch rate of 6.0 microns per minute can be achieved under mild conditions. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the plasma jet. It may now be operated for hundreds of hours and not undergo any degradation in performance. Furthermore, small compact units have been developed, which are easily deployed in the field

  1. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Hicks; Gary S. Selwyn

    2001-01-09

    Project was to develop a low-cost, environmentally benign technology for the decontamination and decommissioning of transuranic waste. With the invention of the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet the goal was achieved. This device selectively etches heavy metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. Studies on tantalum, a surrogate material for plutonium, have shown that etch rate of 6.0 microns per minute can be achieved under mild conditions. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the plasma jet. It may now be operated for hundreds of hours and not undergo any degradation in performance. Furthermore, small compact units have been developed, which are easily deployed in the field.

  2. Nanoporous TiO_2 electrode grown by laser ablation of titanium in air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Białous, Anna; Gazda, Maria; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Atanasov, Petar; Dikovska, Anna; Nedyalkov, Nikolay; Reszczyńska, Joanna; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Recently, fabrication of the nanoporous TiO_2 photoelectrode on metal foils by means of sputtering of the Ti film on preheated metal substrate followed by the TiO_2 deposition (doctor blade technique) and sintering represents the frequently applied technique. This is despite the relatively complicated procedure and number of parameters to be controlled in order to fabricate films of required properties. In this work an approach is applied and discussed in which the nanoporous TiO_2 electrode is fabricated under conditions similar to pulsed laser deposition but with the deposit formed directly on the ablated target at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The titanium dioxide thin film is grown by ablation of the Ti foil with the nanosecond UV laser (266 nm) at fluence up to 1.5 J/cm"2. The rutile–anatase phase transformation takes place during this one-step process and no thermal pre-and post-treatment of the deposit is needed. In samples produced in air, the presence of mixed phases of the non-stoichiometric anatase (> 70%), rutile and negligible amount of TiN is consistently confirmed by the X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray and Raman spectra. For applications of the reported films as electrode material in the third generation photovoltaic cells, the use of industrial lasers could significantly improve the process efficiency. - Highlights: • TiO_2 films via laser ablation of Ti in air under standard temperature and pressure conditions • Nanoporous crystalline structure from one-step process • Anatase content > 70% in the mixed phase film

  3. Numerical simulation of small-scale mixing processes in the upper ocean and atmospheric boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinin, O; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S

    2016-01-01

    The processes of turbulent mixing and momentum and heat exchange occur in the upper ocean at depths up to several dozens of meters and in the atmospheric boundary layer within interval of millimeters to dozens of meters and can not be resolved by known large- scale climate models. Thus small-scale processes need to be parameterized with respect to large scale fields. This parameterization involves the so-called bulk coefficients which relate turbulent fluxes with large-scale fields gradients. The bulk coefficients are dependent on the properties of the small-scale mixing processes which are affected by the upper-ocean stratification and characteristics of surface and internal waves. These dependencies are not well understood at present and need to be clarified. We employ Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as a research tool which resolves all relevant flow scales and does not require closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (LES and RANS). Thus DNS provides a solid ground for correct parameterization of small-scale mixing processes and also can be used for improving LES and RANS closure models. In particular, we discuss the problems of the interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves propagating in the pycnocline in the upper ocean as well as the impact of surface waves on the properties of atmospheric boundary layer over wavy water surface. (paper)

  4. Characterization of a dielectric barrier plasma gun discharging at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangqiu; Ge Yuanjing; Zhang Yuefei; Chen Guangliang

    2004-01-01

    The authors develop a plasma gun based on dielectric barrier discharge and working at atmospheric pressure. A theoretical model to predict the gun discharge voltage is built, which is in agreement with the experimental results. After investigating the characterization of discharging gun and utilizing it for polymerization, authors find that the gun can be used as a source to generate a stable uniform plasma for different plasma-processing technologies. (author)

  5. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D.H.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Ahmad, H.A.; Nunney, T.S.; Janssens, S.D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ?50 ml/min (STP) at

  6. Formation and evolution of the glow-like dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starostin, S.A.; ElSabbagh, M.A.M.; Premkumar, P.A.; Vries, de H.W.; Paffen, R.M.J.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Time resolved process of formation and evolution of the atmospheric pressure glow discharge was studied in the roll-to- roll plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition dielectric barrier discharge reactor operating in helium-free gas mixtures by means of fast ICCD imaging. It was observed that the

  7. Quasi-periodic fluctuations of atmospheric pressure and cosmic rays observed in the stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Masahiro; Abe, Toshiaki; Sakai, Takasuke; Kato, Masato; Kogami, Shinichi.

    1976-01-01

    Quasi-periodicities of barometric pressure and cosmic ray intensity, with 5.5-minute period and one hour persistency, have been observed by means of a high-precision barometer and a large plastic scintillation counter in a balloon at an altitude of --18 km over the Pacific Ocean. From characteristics of such short period fluctuations, it is suggested that the observed pressure fluctuation may possibly be caused by the internal atmospheric gravity wave whose amplitude and wave length are --30 m and --30 km respectively. (auth.)

  8. Comprehensive wind correction for a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from atmospheric temperature and pressure influences and Mie contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan Ming-Jia; Xia Hai-Yun; Dou Xian-Kang; Wang Chong; Qiu Jia-Wei; Zhang Yun-Peng; Shu Zhi-Feng; Xue Xiang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    A correction considering the effects of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and Mie contamination must be performed for wind retrieval from a Rayleigh Doppler lidar (RDL), since the so-called Rayleigh response is directly related to the convolution of the optical transmission of the frequency discriminator and the Rayleigh–Brillouin spectrum of the molecular backscattering. Thus, real-time and on-site profiles of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and aerosols should be provided as inputs to the wind retrieval. Firstly, temperature profiles under 35 km and above the altitude are retrieved, respectively, from a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and a Rayleigh integration lidar (RIL) incorporating to the RDL. Secondly, the pressure profile is taken from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) analysis, while radiosonde data are not available. Thirdly, the Klett–Fernald algorithms are adopted to estimate the Mie and Rayleigh components in the atmospheric backscattering. After that, the backscattering ratio is finally determined in a nonlinear fitting of the transmission of the atmospheric backscattering through the Fabry–Perot interferometer (FPI) to a proposed model. In the validation experiments, wind profiles from the lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde in the overlapping altitude. Finally, a continuous wind observation shows the stability of the correction scheme. (paper)

  9. An improved film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzada, Muhammad Wakil

    2011-10-03

    This paper presents an investigation of heat transfer correlation in a falling-film evaporator working with saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures. The experiments are conducted at different salinity levels ranging from 15000 to 90000 ppm, and the pressures were maintained between 0.92 to 2.81 kPa (corresponds to saturation temperatures of 5.9 – 23 0C). The effect of salinity, saturation pressures and chilled water temperatures on the heat transfer coefficient are accounted in the modified film evaporation correlations. The results are fitted to the Han & Fletcher\\'s and Chun & Seban\\'s falling-film correlations which are used in desalination industry. We modify the said correlations by adding salinity and saturation temperature corrections with respective indices to give a better agreement to our measured data.

  10. Influence of intermittent pressure, fluid flow, and mixing on the regenerative properties of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, S E; Heath, C A

    1999-11-05

    Equine articular chondrocytes, embedded within a polyglycolic acid nonwoven mesh, were cultured with various combinations of intermittent pressure, fluid flow, and mixing to examine the effects of different physical stimuli on neochondrogenesis from young cells. The cell/polymer constructs were cultured first in 125 ml spinner flasks for 1, 2, or 4 weeks and then in a perfusion system with intermittent pressure for a total of up to 6 weeks. Additional constructs were either cultured for all 6 weeks in the spinner flasks or for 1 week in spinners followed by 5 weeks in the perfusion system without intermittent pressure. Tissue constructs cultivated for 2 or 4 weeks in spinner flasks followed by perfusion with intermittent pressure had significantly higher concentrations of both sulfated glycosaminoglycan and collagen than constructs cultured entirely in spinners or almost entirely in the pressure/perfusion system. Initial cultivation in the spinner flasks, with turbulent mixing, enhanced both cell attachment and early development of the extracellular matrix. Subsequent culture with perfusion and intermittent pressure appeared to accelerate matrix formation. While the correlation was much stronger in the pressurized constructs, the compressive modulus was directly proportional to the concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in all physically stressed constructs. Constructs that were not stressed beyond the 1-week seeding period lost mechanical integrity upon harvest, suggesting that physical stimulation, particularly with intermittent pressure, of immature tissue constructs during their development may contribute to their ultimate biomechanical functionality. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Etching of polymers, proteins and bacterial spores by atmospheric pressure DBD plasma in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminova, A.; Kretková, T.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Khalakhan, I.; Prukner, V.; Doležalová, E.; Šimek, M.; Biederman, H.

    2017-04-01

    Many studies proved that non-equilibrium discharges generated at atmospheric pressure are highly effective for the bio-decontamination of surfaces of various materials. One of the key processes that leads to a desired result is plasma etching and thus the evaluation of etching rates of organic materials is of high importance. However, the comparison of reported results is rather difficult if impossible as different authors use diverse sources of atmospheric plasma that are operated at significantly different operational parameters. Therefore, we report here on the systematic study of the etching of nine different common polymers that mimic the different structures of more complicated biological systems, bovine serum albumin (BSA) selected as the model protein and spores of Bacillus subtilis taken as a representative of highly resistant micro-organisms. The treatment of these materials was performed by means of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in open air at constant conditions. All tested polymers, BSA and spores, were readily etched by DBD plasma. However, the measured etching rates were found to be dependent on the chemical structure of treated materials, namely on the presence of oxygen in the structure of polymers.

  12. Influence of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on surface properties of PBO fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruiyun; Pan Xianlin; Jiang Muwen; Peng Shujing; Qiu Yiping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PBO fibers were treated with atmospheric pressure plasmas. ► When 1% of oxygen was added to the plasma, IFSS increased 130%. ► Increased moisture regain could enhance plasma treatment effect on improving IFSS with long treatment time. - Abstract: In order to improve the interfacial adhesion property between PBO fiber and epoxy, the surface modification effects of PBO fiber treated by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in different time, atmosphere and moisture regain (MR) were investigated. The fiber surface morphology, functional groups, surface wettability for control and plasma treated samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Meanwhile, the fiber interfacial shear strength (IFSS), representing adhesion property in epoxy, was tested using micro-bond pull-out test, and single fiber tensile strength was also tested to evaluate the mechanical performance loss of fibers caused by plasma treatment. The results indicated that the fiber surface was etched during the plasma treatments, the fiber surface wettability and the IFSS between fiber and epoxy had much improvement due to the increasing of surface energy after plasma treatment, the contact angle decreased with the treatment time increasing, and the IFSS was improved by about 130%. The processing atmosphere could influence IFSS significantly, and moisture regains (MR) of fibers also played a positive role on improving IFSS but not so markedly. XPS analysis showed that the oxygen content on fiber surface increased after treatment, and C=O, O-C=O groups were introduced on fiber surface. On the other hand, the observed loss of fiber tensile strength caused by plasma treatment was not so remarkable to affect the overall performance of composite materials.

  13. Following the Ions through a Mass Spectrometer with Atmospheric Pressure Interface: Simulation of Complete Ion Trajectories from Ion Source to Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2016-07-19

    Ion trajectory simulation is an important and useful tool in instrumentation development for mass spectrometry. Accurate simulation of the ion motion through the mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure ionization source has been extremely challenging, due to the complexity in gas hydrodynamic flow field across a wide pressure range as well as the computational burden. In this study, we developed a method of generating the gas flow field for an entire mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure interface. In combination with the electric force, for the first time simulation of ion trajectories from an atmospheric pressure ion source to a mass analyzer in vacuum has been enabled. A stage-by-stage ion repopulation method has also been implemented for the simulation, which helped to avoid an intolerable computational burden for simulations at high pressure regions while it allowed statistically meaningful results obtained for the mass analyzer. It has been demonstrated to be suitable to identify a joint point for combining the high and low pressure fields solved individually. Experimental characterization has also been done to validate the new method for simulation. Good agreement was obtained between simulated and experimental results for ion transfer though an atmospheric pressure interface with a curtain gas.

  14. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1998-01-01

    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. the applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous's empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing

  15. High quality graphene synthesized by atmospheric pressure CVD on copper foil

    OpenAIRE

    Trinsoutrot, Pierre; Rabot, Caroline; Vergnes, Hugues; Delamoreanu, Alexandru; Zenasni, Aziz; Caussat, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Graphene was synthesized at 1000 °C by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition on copper foil from methane diluted in argon and hydrogen. The influence of the main synthesis parameters was studied on 2 × 2 cm2 foils in order to obtain continuous monolayer graphenewithout crystalline defect. The uniformity, crystal quality and number of layers of graphenewere analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electronic Microscopy. First, an increase of the annealing pr...

  16. Sterilization of Surfaces with a Handheld Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Robert; Habib, Sara; Chan, Wai; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Tijerina, A.; Sloan, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for decontaminating the surfaces of materials and equipment. In this study, an atmospheric pressure, oxygen and argon plasma was investigated for the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and spores. The plasma was operated at an argon flow rate of 30 L/min, an oxygen flow rate of 20 mL/min, a power density of 101.0 W/cm^3 (beam area = 5.1 cm^2), and at a distance from the surface of 7.1 mm. An average 6log10 reduction of viable spores was obtained after only 45 seconds of exposure to the reactive gas. By contrast, it takes more than 35 minutes at 121^oC to sterilize anthrax in an autoclave. The plasma properties were investigated by numerical modeling and chemical titration with nitric oxide. The numerical model included a detailed reaction mechanism for the discharge as well as for the afterglow. It was predicted that at a delivered power density of 29.3 W/cm^3, 30 L/min argon, and 0.01 volume% O2, the plasma generated 1.9 x 10^14 cm-3 O atoms, 1.6 x 10^12 cm-3 ozone, 9.3 x 10^13 cm-3 O2(^1δg), and 2.9 x 10^12 cm-3 O2(^1σ^+g) at 1 cm downstream of the source. The O atom density measured by chemical titration with NO was 6.0 x 10^14 cm-3 at the same conditions. It is believe that the oxygen atoms and the O2(^1δg) metastables were responsible for killing the anthrax and other microorganisms.

  17. REFERENCE ON THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES: DENSITY AND VISCOSITY OF WATER FOR ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Yusibani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A reference on thermophysical properties, density and viscosity, for water at atmospheric pressure has been developed in MS Excel (as a macros. Patterson’s density equations and Kestin’s viscosity equations have been chosen as a basic equation in the VBA programming as a user-defined function. These results have been compared with REFPROF as a wellknow standart reference

  18. Development of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet for sterilization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, Rizan Rizon; Ahmad, Mohd Khairul; Soon, Chin Fhong; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Lias, Jais; Wibowo, Kusnanto Mukti; Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu; Arshad, Mohd Khairuddin Md; Hashim, Uda; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2017-09-01

    Inactivation of bacteria or sterilization has been a major issue in the medical field, especially regarding of human safety, whereby, in a huge scenario fatality can be caused by hazardous bacteria. Often, E-coli as gram-negative bacteria are selected as a key indicator of proper sterilization process as E-coli is tough and dormant bacteria. The technology in sterilization has moved on from chemical, wet and irradiation sterilization to a high promising device such as atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet (APPNJ). It has been reported that atmospheric pressure plasma has provided bundle of advantages over earlier sterilization process. The APPNJ is developed in our lab using high frequency and high voltage neon transformer power supply connected to copper needle and copper sheet electrodes. The gas discharge is Ar gas flowing at 40 L/min through a quartz glass tube. The E-coli bacteria are self-cultured from waste water and then treated with APPNJ. The treatment processes are run into two difference gaps between the plasma orifice and sample with various treatment times. Only 40s is required by direct treatment to achieve 100% killing of E-coli. On the other hand, indirect treatment has inactivated 50% of the E-coli in 40s. In this study, direct and indirect effect of APPNJ to the E-coli can be observed which can be utilized into sterilization of bio-compatible material applications.

  19. Renormalisation group corrections to the littlest seesaw model and maximal atmospheric mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.; Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-01-01

    The Littlest Seesaw (LS) model involves two right-handed neutrinos and a very constrained Dirac neutrino mass matrix, involving one texture zero and two independent Dirac masses, leading to a highly predictive scheme in which all neutrino masses and the entire PMNS matrix is successfully predicted in terms of just two real parameters. We calculate the renormalisation group (RG) corrections to the LS predictions, with and without supersymmetry, including also the threshold effects induced by the decoupling of heavy Majorana neutrinos both analytically and numerically. We find that the predictions for neutrino mixing angles and mass ratios are rather stable under RG corrections. For example we find that the LS model with RG corrections predicts close to maximal atmospheric mixing, θ_2_3=45"∘±1"∘, in most considered cases, in tension with the latest NOvA results. The techniques used here apply to other seesaw models with a strong normal mass hierarchy.

  20. Renormalisation group corrections to the littlest seesaw model and maximal atmospheric mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jue [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Zhou, Shun [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-12-06

    The Littlest Seesaw (LS) model involves two right-handed neutrinos and a very constrained Dirac neutrino mass matrix, involving one texture zero and two independent Dirac masses, leading to a highly predictive scheme in which all neutrino masses and the entire PMNS matrix is successfully predicted in terms of just two real parameters. We calculate the renormalisation group (RG) corrections to the LS predictions, with and without supersymmetry, including also the threshold effects induced by the decoupling of heavy Majorana neutrinos both analytically and numerically. We find that the predictions for neutrino mixing angles and mass ratios are rather stable under RG corrections. For example we find that the LS model with RG corrections predicts close to maximal atmospheric mixing, θ{sub 23}=45{sup ∘}±1{sup ∘}, in most considered cases, in tension with the latest NOvA results. The techniques used here apply to other seesaw models with a strong normal mass hierarchy.

  1. Seasonal Variations of the Earth's Gravitational Field: An Analysis of Atmospheric Pressure, Ocean Tidal, and Surface Water Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, D,; Gross, R.S.; Dickey, J.

    1996-01-01

    Monthly mean gravitational field parameters (denoted here as C(sub even)) that represent linear combinations of the primarily even degree zonal spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field have been recovered using LAGEOS I data and are compared with those derived from gridded global surface pressure data of the National meteorological center (NMC) spanning 1983-1992. The effect of equilibrium ocean tides and surface water variations are also considered. Atmospheric pressure and surface water fluctuations are shown to be the dominant cause of observed annual C(sub even) variations. Closure with observations is seen at the 1sigma level when atmospheric pressure, ocean tide and surface water effects are include. Equilibrium ocean tides are shown to be the main source of excitation at the semiannual period with closure at the 1sigma level seen when both atmospheric pressure and ocean tide effects are included. The inverted barometer (IB) case is shown to give the best agreement with the observation series. The potential of the observed C(sub even) variations for monitoring mass variations in the polar regions of the Earth and the effect of the land-ocean mask in the IB calculation are discussed.

  2. Simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides in fruits and vegetables using atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhipeng; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Chen, Zenglong; Pan, Xinglu; Gan, Jay; Zheng, Yongquan

    2017-09-15

    This paper describes the application of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides in apple, pear, tomato, cucumber and cabbage. Soft ionization with atmospheric pressure ionization source was compared with traditional electron impact ionization (EI). The sensitivity of GC coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization (APGC) for all the analytes was enhanced by 1.0-8.2 times. The ionization modes with atmospheric pressure ionization source was studied by comparing the charge-transfer and proton-transfer conditions. The optimized QuEChERs method was used to pretreat the samples. The calibration curves were found linear from 10 to 1000μg/L, obtaining correlation coefficients higher than 0.9845. Satisfactory mean recovery values, in the range of 70.0-115.9%, and satisfactory precision, with all RSD r <19.7% and all RSD R values <19.5% at the three fortified concentration levels for all the fifteen OPPs. The results demonstrate the potential of APGC-QTOF-MS for routine quantitative analysis of organophosphorus pesticide in fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Alternative to Annealing TiO2 Nanotubes for Morphology Preservation: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-03-01

    Titanium oxide nanotube layer formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is known to be excellent in biomaterial applications. However, the annealing process which is commonly performed on the TiO2 nanotubes cause defects in the nanotubular structure. The purpose of this work was to apply a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on diameter-controlled TiO2 nanotubes to mimic the effects of annealing while maintaining the tubular structure for use as biomaterial. Diameter-controlled nanotube samples fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation were dried and prepared under three different conditions: untreated, annealed at 450 °C for 1 h in air with a heating rate of 10 °C/min, and treated with an air-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for 5 minutes. The contact angle measurement was investigated to confirm the enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 nanotubes. The chemical composition of the surface was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. For the viability of the cell, the attachment of the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. We found that there are no morphological changes in the TiO2 nanotubular structure after the plasma treatment. Also, we investigated a change in the chemical composition and enhanced hydrophilicity which result in improved cell behavior. The results of this study indicated that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet results in osteoblast functionality that is comparable to annealed samples while maintaining the tubular structure of the TiO2 nanotubes. Therefore, this study concluded that the use of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on nanotube surfaces may replace the annealing process following plasma electrolytic oxidation.

  4. Translational, rotational and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc generated at atmospheric pressure air are investigated. Translational temperatures (about 1100 K) were measured by laser-induced Rayleigh scattering, and two-dimensional temperature imaging was performed. Rotational and vibrational temperatures (about 3600 K and 6700...

  5. Characterization of typical chemical background interferences in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and origins of typical chemical background noise ions in positive atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (API LC/MS) are investigated and summarized in this study. This was done by classifying chemical background ions using precursor and product ion

  6. Atmospheric pressure photoionization for enhanced compatibility in on-line micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Roelof; De Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is presented as a novel means for the combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The on-line coupling is achieved using an adapted sheath flow interface installed on an orthogonal APPI source. Acetone or

  7. Numerical simulation of torus breakdown to chaos in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, D. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the routes to chaos occurring in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge systems by changing controlling parameters is very important to predict and control the dynamical behaviors. In this paper, a route of a quasiperiodic torus to chaos via the strange nonchaotic attractor is observed in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge driven by triangle-wave voltage. By increasing the driving frequency, the discharge system first bifurcates to a quasiperiodic torus from a stable single periodic state, and then torus and phase-locking periodic state appear and disappear alternately. In the meantime, the torus becomes increasingly wrinkling and stretching, and gradually approaches a fractal structure with the nonpositive largest Lyapunov exponent, i.e., a strange nonchaotic attractor. After that, the discharge system enters into chaotic state. If the driving frequency is further increased, another well known route of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos is also observed

  8. Numerical simulation of torus breakdown to chaos in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, D. Z. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Understanding the routes to chaos occurring in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge systems by changing controlling parameters is very important to predict and control the dynamical behaviors. In this paper, a route of a quasiperiodic torus to chaos via the strange nonchaotic attractor is observed in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge driven by triangle-wave voltage. By increasing the driving frequency, the discharge system first bifurcates to a quasiperiodic torus from a stable single periodic state, and then torus and phase-locking periodic state appear and disappear alternately. In the meantime, the torus becomes increasingly wrinkling and stretching, and gradually approaches a fractal structure with the nonpositive largest Lyapunov exponent, i.e., a strange nonchaotic attractor. After that, the discharge system enters into chaotic state. If the driving frequency is further increased, another well known route of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos is also observed.

  9. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON TOURISTS AND TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN THE PRAHOVA CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAVRIŞ LOREDANA-ELENA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the climate literature it is known that the atmospheric temperature directly and permanently acts on the all organisms and all geographical environment components, influencing the wellness of the weather sensitive persons and implicitly the wellness of tourists in this region. In the same time, its evolution is a good indicator in shaping the short and medium term meteorological forecast, considering that the region chosen for research is a very tripper one, especially during the winter season when the atmospheric pressure variation trend is much more pronounced. Within this framework, the present paper tries to develop a climatic diagnosis on the reference climate parameters (annual and monthly average pressure values, seasonal values, minimum and maximum absolute values and their emergence probability but also the non-periodic variability based on data recorded during 1961-2007 at Câmpina, Sinaia 1500, Predeal, Omu Peak and Braşov weather stations.

  10. Investigation of coolant mixture in pressurized water reactors at the Rossendorf mixing test facility ROCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, G.; Hoehne, T.; Prasser, H.M.; Richter, K.; Weiss, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    During the so-called boron dilution or cold water transients at pressurized water reactors too weakly borated water or too cold water, respectively, might enter the reactor core. This results in the insertion of positive reactivity and possibly leads to a power excursion. If the source of unborated or subcooled water is not located in all coolant loops but in selected ones only, the amount of reactivity insertion depends on the coolant mixing in the downcomer and lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Such asymmetric disturbances of the coolant temperature or boron concentration might e.g. be the result of a failure of the chemical and volume control system (CVCS) or of a main steam line break (MSLB) that does only affect selected steam generators (SG). For the analysis of boron dilution or MSLB accidents coupled neutron kinetics/thermo-hydraulic system codes have been used. To take into account coolant mixing phenomena in these codes in a realistic manner, analytical mixing models might be included. These models must be simple and fast running on the one hand, but must well describe the real mixing conditions on the other hand. (orig.)

  11. Nanoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode grown by laser ablation of titanium in air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Białous, Anna [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Szewalski Institute, Photophysics Dept., 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Gazda, Maria [Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, 11/12 Narutowicza St, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Grochowska, Katarzyna [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Szewalski Institute, Photophysics Dept., 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Atanasov, Petar; Dikovska, Anna; Nedyalkov, Nikolay [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko Shouse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Reszczyńska, Joanna; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana [University of Gdańsk, Faculty of Chemistry, 63 W. Stwosza St, 80-308 Gdańsk (Poland); Śliwiński, Gerard, E-mail: gerards@imp.gda.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Szewalski Institute, Photophysics Dept., 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-02-29

    Recently, fabrication of the nanoporous TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode on metal foils by means of sputtering of the Ti film on preheated metal substrate followed by the TiO{sub 2} deposition (doctor blade technique) and sintering represents the frequently applied technique. This is despite the relatively complicated procedure and number of parameters to be controlled in order to fabricate films of required properties. In this work an approach is applied and discussed in which the nanoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode is fabricated under conditions similar to pulsed laser deposition but with the deposit formed directly on the ablated target at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The titanium dioxide thin film is grown by ablation of the Ti foil with the nanosecond UV laser (266 nm) at fluence up to 1.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The rutile–anatase phase transformation takes place during this one-step process and no thermal pre-and post-treatment of the deposit is needed. In samples produced in air, the presence of mixed phases of the non-stoichiometric anatase (> 70%), rutile and negligible amount of TiN is consistently confirmed by the X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray and Raman spectra. For applications of the reported films as electrode material in the third generation photovoltaic cells, the use of industrial lasers could significantly improve the process efficiency. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} films via laser ablation of Ti in air under standard temperature and pressure conditions • Nanoporous crystalline structure from one-step process • Anatase content > 70% in the mixed phase film.

  12. Synergistic effects of atmospheric pressure plasma-emitted components on DNA oligomers: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edengeiser, Eugen; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Bründermann, Erik; Schneider, Simon; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E; Havenith, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas have become of increasing importance in sterilization processes especially with the growing prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria. Albeit the potential for technological application is obvious, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial inactivation. X-jet technology separates plasma-generated reactive particles and photons, thus allowing the investigation of their individual and joint effects on DNA. Raman spectroscopy shows that particles and photons cause different modifications in DNA single and double strands. The treatment with the combination of particles and photons does not only result in cumulative, but in synergistic effects. Profilometry confirms that etching is a minor contributor to the observed DNA damage in vitro. Schematics of DNA oligomer treatment with cold atmospheric-pressure plasma. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Recuperated atmospheric SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-05-04

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  14. Recuperated atmosphere SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne

    2010-08-24

    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  15. Laser induced fluorescence in atmospheric pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilecce, G; De Benedictis, S; Martini, L M; Tosi, P; Scotoni, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an outline of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics and practical recommendations for its use in atmospheric pressure discharges. LIF principles, technical requirements and rationalization of experimental outcomes by modelling are addressed. Important issues that are particularly relevant to small scale, spatially inhomogeneous discharges, like plasma-jets, are emphasized. For the first time, all collision processes and the spatial non-homogeneity of the laser beam are together accounted for in the LIF model. Saturation characteristics are discussed and used for the assessment of model parameters. A calibration procedure is discussed and implemented. Gas temperature measurements by LIF are also addressed. The whole description of the technique is given, without loss of generality, through the example of its application to the OH radical. Notes on other diatomic radicals, CH, NO and CN, are given along the paper. Some results in a RF plasma-jet are presented as an example of application in a discharge system where all the concepts developed in the paper are applied. (paper)

  16. On ternary species mixing and combustion in isotropic turbulence at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hong; Miller, Richard S.

    2004-05-01

    Effects of Soret and Dufour cross-diffusion, whereby both concentration and thermal diffusion occur in the presence of mass fraction, temperature, and pressure gradients, are investigated in the context of both binary and ternary species mixing and combustion in isotropic turbulence at large pressure. The compressible flow formulation is based on a cubic real-gas state equation, and includes generalized forms for heat and mass diffusion derived from nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation theory. A previously derived formulation of the generalized binary species heat and mass fluxes is first extended to the case of ternary species, and appropriate treatment of the thermal and mass diffusion factors is described. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are then conducted for both binary and ternary species mixing and combustion in stationary isotropic turbulence. Mean flow temperatures and pressures of =700 K and =45 atm are considered to ensure that all species mixtures remain in the supercritical state such that phase changes do not occur. DNS of ternary species systems undergoing both pure mixing and a simple chemical reaction of the form O2+N2→2NO are then conducted. It is shown that stationary scalar states previously observed for binary mixing persist for the ternary species problem as well; however, the production and magnitude of the scalar variance is found to be altered for the intermediate molecular weight species as compared to the binary species case. The intermediate molecular weight species produces a substantially smaller scalar variance than the remaining species for all flows considered. For combustion of nonstoichiometric mixtures, a binary species mixture, characterized by stationary scalar states, results at long times after the lean reactant is depleted. The form of this final scalar distribution is observed to be similar to that found in the binary flow situation. A series of lower resolution simulations for a variety of species is then

  17. An initial study on atmospheric pressure ion transport by laser ionization and electrostatic fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta Conde, Álvaro; Romero, Carolina; Boyero, Juan; Apiñaniz Aginako, Jon Imanol; Raposo Funcia, Cesar; Roso Franco, Luis; Padilla Moreno, Carlos Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Laser ionization of mixtures of gases at atmospheric pressure and the subsequent transport through electrostatic field is studied. A prototype is designed to perform the transport and detection of the ions. Relevance of the composition of the mixture of gases and ionization parameters is shown

  18. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Naidis, G.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Laroussi, M. [Plasma Engineering & Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Reuter, S. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Graves, D.B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ostrikov, K. [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); School of Physics, Chemistry, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O.Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-05-04

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors’ vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  19. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. The applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous`s empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  20. Surface treatment of polyethylene terephthalate film using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Qiu Yuchang; Wang Hui

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in polymer surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface for improving hydrophilicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air is conducted. The discharge characteristics of APGD are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena, and the surface properties of PET before and after the APGD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the APGD is homogeneous and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A short time (several seconds) APGD treatment can modify the surface characteristics of PET film markedly and uniformly. After 10 s APGD treatment, the surface oxygen content of PET surface increases to 39%, and the water contact angle decreases to 19 degree, respectively. (authors)

  1. Atmospheric Pressure Effects on Cryogenic Storage Tank Boil-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; Frontier, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) routinely utilizes cryostat test hardware to evaluate comparative and absolute thermal conductivities of a wide array of insulation systems. The test method is based on measurement of the flow rate of gas evolved due to evaporative boil-off of a cryogenic liquid. The gas flow rate typically stabilizes after a period of a couple of hours to a couple of days, depending upon the test setup. The stable flow rate value is then used to calculate the thermal conductivity for the insulation system being tested. The latest set of identical cryostats, 1,000-L spherical tanks, exhibited different behavior. On a macro level, the flow rate did stabilize after a couple of days; however the stable flow rate was oscillatory with peak to peak amplitude of up to 25 percent of the nominal value. The period of the oscillation was consistently 12 hours. The source of the oscillation has been traced to variations in atmospheric pressure due to atmospheric tides similar to oceanic tides. This paper will present analysis of this phenomenon, including a calculation that explains why other cryostats are not affected by it.

  2. Solubility of oxygen in a seawater medium in equilibrium with a high-pressure oxy-helium atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C D

    1979-06-01

    The molar oxygen concentration in a seawater medium in equilibrium with a high-pressure oxygen-helium atmosphere was measured directly in pressurized subsamples, using a modified version of the Winkler oxygen analysis. At a partial pressure of oxygen of 1 atm or less, its concentration in the aqueous phase was adequately described by Henry's Law at total pressures up to 600 atm. This phenomenon, which permits a straightforward determination of dissolved oxygen within hyperbaric systems, resulted from pressure-induced compensatory alterations in the Henry's Law variables rather than from a true obedience to the Ideal Gas Law. If the partial pressure of a gas contributes significantly to the hydrostatic pressure, Henry's Law is no longer adequate for determining its solubility within the compressed medium.

  3. An Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Setup to Investigate the Reactive Species Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbanev, Yury; Soriano, Robert; O'Connell, Deborah; Chechik, Victor

    2016-11-03

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure ('cold') plasmas have received increased attention in recent years due to their significant biomedical potential. The reactions of cold plasma with the surrounding atmosphere yield a variety of reactive species, which can define its effectiveness. While efficient development of cold plasma therapy requires kinetic models, model benchmarking needs empirical data. Experimental studies of the source of reactive species detected in aqueous solutions exposed to plasma are still scarce. Biomedical plasma is often operated with He or Ar feed gas, and a specific interest lies in investigation of the reactive species generated by plasma with various gas admixtures (O2, N2, air, H2O vapor, etc.) Such investigations are very complex due to difficulties in controlling the ambient atmosphere in contact with the plasma effluent. In this work, we addressed common issues of 'high' voltage kHz frequency driven plasma jet experimental studies. A reactor was developed allowing the exclusion of ambient atmosphere from the plasma-liquid system. The system thus comprised the feed gas with admixtures and the components of the liquid sample. This controlled atmosphere allowed the investigation of the source of the reactive oxygen species induced in aqueous solutions by He-water vapor plasma. The use of isotopically labelled water allowed distinguishing between the species originating in the gas phase and those formed in the liquid. The plasma equipment was contained inside a Faraday cage to eliminate possible influence of any external field. The setup is versatile and can aid in further understanding the cold plasma-liquid interactions chemistry.

  4. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C 6 H 5 CH 3 ) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C 6 H 5 CH 3 removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N 2 : O 2 : H 2 O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C 6 H 5 CH 3 decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C 6 H 5 CH 3 is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  5. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-02-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C6H5CH3) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C6H5CH3 removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N2: O2: H2O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C6H5CH3 decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C6H5CH3 is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  6. Decontamination of objects in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    . The ambient atmosphere was air at atmospheric pressure. A plasma is generated inside the bag forming ozone from the oxygen. The maximum ozone concentration in the bag was found to be 140 ppm. A log 6 reduction of L. innocua is obtained after 15 min of exposure time. The temperature of the slides after...... for the experiments. Glass slides were inoculated with L. innocua. The slides were placed inside a low density polyethylene (LDPE) bag. The bag was filled with a gas mixture of 97.5 Vol% Ar and 2.5 Vol% O2 and subsequently sealed. The bag was placed between the electrodes of a dielectric barrier discharge...

  7. Noise Reduction, Atmospheric Pressure Admittance Estimation and Long-Period Component Extraction in Time-Varying Gravity Signals Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-varying gravity signals, with their nonlinear, non-stationary and multi-scale characteristics, record the physical responses of various geodynamic processes and consist of a blend of signals with various periods and amplitudes, corresponding to numerous phenomena. Superconducting gravimeter (SG records are processed in this study using a multi-scale analytical method and corrected for known effects to reduce noise, to study geodynamic phenomena using their gravimetric signatures. Continuous SG (GWR-C032 gravity and barometric data are decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD method, which is proposed to alleviate some unresolved issues (the mode mixing problem and the end effect of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD. Further analysis of the variously scaled signals is based on a dyadic filter bank of the IMFs. The results indicate that removing the high-frequency IMFs can reduce the natural and man-made noise in the data, which are caused by electronic device noise, Earth background noise and the residual effects of pre-processing. The atmospheric admittances based on frequency changes are estimated from the gravity and the atmospheric pressure IMFs in various frequency bands. These time- and frequency-dependent admittance values can be used effectively to improve the atmospheric correction. Using the EEMD method as a filter, the long-period IMFs are extracted from the SG time-varying gravity signals spanning 7 years. The resulting gravity residuals are well correlated with the gravity effect caused by the _ polar motion after correcting for atmospheric effects.

  8. Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2018-03-19

    Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.

  9. Ultrasound enhanced 50 Hz plasma treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50Hz dielectric barrier discharge at a peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency...

  10. Laser scattering on an atmospheric pressure plasma jet : disentangling Rayleigh, Raman and Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gessel, van A.F.H.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Bruggeman, P.J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser scattering provides a very direct method for measuring the local densities and temperatures inside a plasma. We present new experimental results of laser scattering on an argon atmospheric pressure microwave plasma jet operating in an air environment. The plasma is very small so a high spatial

  11. Characteristics of atmospheric pressure air discharges with a liquid cathode and a metal anode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruggeman, P.; Ribežl, E.; Degroote, J.; Malesevic, A.; Rego, R.; Vierendeels, J.; Leys, C.; Mašláni, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2008), s. 1-11 ISSN 0963-0252 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : atmospheric pressure air discharge * liquid cathode * voltage drop * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.685, year: 2008

  12. Analysis of insect triacylglycerols using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofroňová, Edita; Cvačka, Josef; Jiroš, Pavel; Sýkora, D.; Valterová, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 5 (2009), s. 519-525 ISSN 1438-7697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055403; GA MŠk 2B06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : atmospheric pressure chemical ionization * bumblebees * fat body * NARP-HPLC Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.831, year: 2009

  13. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Spatial-Temporal Behaviors About Period Doubling Bifurcation in an Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen; Zhuang Juan

    2014-01-01

    As a spatially extended dissipated system, atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) could in principle possess complex nonlinear behaviors. In order to improve the stability and uniformity of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges, studies on temporal behaviors and radial structure of discharges with strong nonlinear behaviors under different controlling parameters are much desirable. In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model is developed to simulate the radial discharge structure of period-doubling bifurcation, chaos, and inverse period-doubling bifurcation in an atmospheric-pressure DBD. The results show that the period-2n (n = 1, 2…) and chaotic discharges exhibit nonuniform discharge structure. In period-2n or chaos, not only the shape of current pulses doesn't remains exactly the same from one cycle to another, but also the radial structures, such as discharge spatial evolution process and the strongest breakdown region, are different in each neighboring discharge event. Current-voltage characteristics of the discharge system are studied for further understanding of the radial structure. (low temperature plasma)

  14. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  15. New Mixed Conductivity Mechanisms in the Cold Plasma Device Based on Silver-Modified Zeolite Microporous Electronic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Sevgul Ozturk; Galioglu, Sezin; Ozturk, Seckin; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Koç, Emrah; Salamov, Bahtiyar G.

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed the interaction between microdischarge and microporous zeolite electronic materials modified by silver (Ag0) nanoparticles (resistivity 1011 to 106 Ω cm) on the atmospheric pressure cold plasma generation in air. The generation and maintenance of stable cold plasma is studied according to the effect of the Ag0 nanoparticles. The role of charge carriers in mixed conductivity processes and electrical features of zeolite from low pressure to atmospheric pressure is analyzed in air microplasmas for both before and after breakdown regimes. The results obtained from the experiments indicate that Ag0 nanoparticles play a significant role in considerably reducing the breakdown voltage in plasma electronic devices with microporous zeolite electronic materials.

  16. Plasma treatment of carbon fibres and glass-fibre-reinforced polyesters at atmospheric pressure for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is useful for adhesion improvement, because cleaning, roughening and addition of polar functional groups can be expected at the surfaces. Its possible applications in the wind energy industry include plasma treatment of fibres and fibre-reinforced polymer...... composites before assembling them to build wind turbine blades. In the present work, unsized carbon fibres are continuously treated using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma in helium at atmospheric pressure, and carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite plates are manufactured for the mechanical test....... The plasma treatment improved fracture toughness, indicating that adhesion between the fibres and the epoxy was enhanced by the treatment. In addition, glass-fibre-reinforced polyester plates are treated using a gliding arc and an ultrasound enhanced dielectric barrier discharge, improving the wettability...

  17. Characterization of Nitrated Sugar Alcohols by Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Chemical, Microsystem, and Nanoscale Technology Group MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420 jude.kelley@ll.mit.edu RATIONALE: The...formed by the loss of NO2, HNO2, NO3, and CH2NO2 groups , and in the presence of dichloromethane chlorinated adduct ions were observed. It was determined...explosives trace detection, such as electrospray ionization ( ESI ) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) along

  18. Glow plasma jet - experimental study of a transferred atmospheric pressure glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Mutis, Marlon H; U, Carlos V Pelaez; H, Rafael Cabanzo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental study of a glow plasma jet (GPJ) obtained from a transferred atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) operating at 60 Hz. The characterization of the emission spectra for both electrical discharges is presented and the electrical circuit features for APGD generation are discussed. The potentiality of GPJ as a source of active species for depletion of contaminants in liquid hydrocarbon fractions is also established

  19. Synthesis and surface engineering of nanomaterials by atmospheric-pressure microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.; Patel, J.; Mitra, S.; Soin, N.; Švrček, V.; Maguire, P.; Mariotti, D.

    2011-11-01

    Two different atmospheric pressure microplasma systems are discussed and used for the synthesis and surface engineering of a range of nanomaterials. Specifically a gas-phase approach from vaporized tetramethylsilane has been used to synthesize silicon carbide nanoparticles with diameters below 10 nm. A different microplasma system that interfaces with a liquid solution has then been used for the synthesis of surfactant-free electrically stabilized gold nanoparticles with varying size. A similar microplasma-liquid system has been finally successfully used to tailor surface properties of silicon nanoparticles and to reduce graphene oxide into graphene. The synthesis and surface engineering mechanisms are also discussed.

  20. Development of a low frost-point generator operating at sub-atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, R.; Rosso, L.; Smorgon, D.; Beltramino, G.; Tabandeh, S.; Fernicola, V.

    2018-05-01

    A low frost-point generator (INRIM 03) operating at sub-atmospheric pressure has been designed and constructed at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) as part of a calibration facility for upper-air sounding instruments. This new humidity generator covers the frost-point temperature range between  ‑99 °C and  ‑20 °C and works at any controlled pressure between 200 hPa and 1100 hPa, achieving a complete saturation of the carrier gas (nitrogen) in a single passage through a stainless steel isothermal saturator. The generated humid gas contains a water vapour amount fraction between 14  ×  10‑9 mol mol‑1 and 5  ×  10‑3 mol mol‑1. In this work the design of the generator is reported together with characterisation and performance evaluation tests. A preliminary validation of the INRIM 03 against one of the INRIM humidity standards in the common region is also included. Based on experimental test results, an initial uncertainty evaluation of the generated frost-point temperature, T fp, and water vapour amount fraction, x w, in the limited range down to  ‑75 °C at atmospheric pressure is reported. For the frost-point temperature, the uncertainty budget yields a total expanded uncertainty (k  =  2) of less than 0.028 °C, while for the mole fraction the budget yields a total expanded uncertainty of less than 10‑6 mol mol‑1.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A; Bombach, R; Hubschmid, W; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    We report on measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air at atmospheric pressure in an industrial premixed gas turbine burner. The concentration of the vaporized fuel oil was measured with laser induced fluorescence. We reason that the fuel oil concentration can be considered with good accuracy as proportional to the fluorescence intensity. (author) 6 fig., 3 refs.

  2. Simulation of N-atom production in dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Dmitry; Pancheshnyi, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    A plasma-chemical model of atomic nitrogen production in a Townsend dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is presented. On the basis of the comparison with measured densities, a significant discrepancy between the calculated and the measured production rate of nitrogen atoms is observed and discussed. (paper)

  3. Inter-annual and seasonal variations in transport to a measuring site in western Siberia, and their impact on the observed atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eneroth, Kristina

    2002-01-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport to a CO 2 measuring site in western Siberia were studied using three-dimensional trajectories. We identified large differences in transport between summer and winter, but also some differences between the years. Cluster analysis was applied to the trajectory data to determine to what degree different atmospheric flow patterns influence the variability of the atmospheric CO 2 mixing ratio. The observed CO 2 mixing ratio was also compared to observed CO 2 surface fluxes to study the impact of local sources and sinks. It was found that during July the correlation between atmospheric transport from distant source regions and CO 2 mixing ratios was poor. Furthermore the correlation was also weak between the CO 2 mixing ratio and the local eddy flux measurements. We conclude that the short-term variability in atmospheric CO 2 during summer probably is dominated by larger scale (tens up to one hundred kilometers) CO 2 surface fluxes and local meteorology. The weaker biogenic CO 2 fluxes during winter, resulted in CO 2 mixing ratios more clearly influenced by long-range transport Of CO 2 . However, the highest atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were not observed in connection with westerly winds representing transport of polluted air from Europe, but during periods with stagnant flow conditions. It was conjected that these high CO 2 mixing ratios were due to respired CO 2 trapped and accumulated in the lower parts of the planetary boundary layer. The mean duration for the identified flow patterns was in the order of two days, with a maximum duration of a week. This means that to have a chance to detect variations in CO 2 mixing ratio due to air mass changes the sampling frequency (e.g. flask samples and flight measurements) must be at least every other day. Our results show that the atmospheric transport varies with season, year and altitude. This, together with the heterogeneity of the source and sink regions are

  4. Evaluation of the optimization space for atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in comparison with APCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenhagen, Andreas; Kühnöl, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    The usefulness of atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is difficult to evaluate for unknowns due to the fragmented literature. Specifically, the variation of dopants with a wide set of compounds or the use of APPI in the negative mode have rarely been explored. Thirty compounds were selected that were not suitable for ESI with a wide variety of functional groups and investigated with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APPI in the positive and negative ion modes. The influence of the mobile phase (eluents containing acetonitrile or methanol) and--for APPI--four different dopants (acetone, chlorobenzene, toluene, and toluene/anisole) were explored. Stepwise variation of the organic mobile phase allowed to elucidate the ionization mechanism. Atmospheric pressure photoionization was especially useful for compounds, where the M(●+) and not the [M + H](+) was formed. The dopants chlorobenzene and anisole promoted the formation of molecular ions M(●+) for about half of the compounds, and its formation was also positively influenced by the use of mobile phases containing methanol. In the negative ion mode, APPI offered no advantage toward APCI. Best results were generally achieved with the dopant chlorobenzene, establishing that this dopant is suitable for a wide set of compounds. For one quarter of the compounds, significantly better results were achieved with mobile phases containing methanol for both APPI and APCI than those with acetonitrile, but only in the positive mode. With either of the methods--APPI or APCI--about 10% of the compounds were not detected. Strategies to get results quickly with difficult unknowns will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopic Study on Reaction between Self-Assembled Monolayers and Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma is becoming increasingly adopted in bioapplications such as plasma medicine and agriculture. This study investigates the interaction between plasma and molecules in living tissues, focusing on plasma-protein interactions. To this end, the reaction of air-pressure air plasma with NH2-terminated self-assembled monolayer is investigated by infrared spectroscopy in multiple internal reflection geometry. The atmospheric-pressure plasma decomposed the NH2 components, the characteristic units of proteins. The decomposition is attributed to water clusters generated in the plasma, indicating that protein decomposition by plasma requires humid air.

  6. Pressure-dependent pure- and mixed-gas permeation properties of Nafion®

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin Ahmed

    2016-04-20

    The permeation properties of Nafion® at 35 °C are presented for pure gases H2, N2, O2, CH4, CO2, C2H6 and C3H8, as a function of pressure between 2 and 20 atm. The effect of pressure on permeability and selectivity is analyzed to understand two observed phenomena: compression and plasticization. In pure-gas experiments, at increasing feed pressure, compression of the polymer matrix reduced the permeability of low-sorbing penetrants H2, N2, O2, and CH4. In contrast, permeabilities of more soluble penetrants CO2 and C2H6 increased by 18% and 46% respectively, as plasticization effects overcame compression effects. Permeability of C3H8 decreased slightly with increasing pressure up to 4.6 atm as a result of compression, then increased by 3-fold at 9 atm as a result of plasticization associated with high C3H8 solubility. Binary CO2/CH4 (50:50) mixed-gas experiments at total feed pressures up to 36 atm quantified the effect of CO2 plasticization on separation performance. At 10 atm CO2 partial pressure, CH4 permeability increased by 23% relative to its pure-gas value of 0.078 Barrer, while CO2 permeability decreased by 28%. Consequently, CO2/CH4 selectivity decreased to 19, i.e., 42% below its pure-gas value of 32.

  7. System for keeping atmospheric pressure in nuclear facility and its peripheral equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hatsuo

    1993-02-01

    The design to keep radioactive materials in the facility and not to make them spread inside the facility and into the environments is an essential issue in the construction of nuclear facilities. One reason of the contamination is due to the diffusion with air flow, therefore, negative pressure for the ambients has been utilized to keep gaseous radioactivities inside the facility of interest. The pressure difference is not so large, though, the atmospheric pressure level of the contaminated and possibly contaminated areas are always kept to be lower than those of the ambient one to prevent the dissemination of radioactivity from the defined area. The technique using negative pressure, at present, is employed widely in nuclear facilities, and the basic system is the same as that of JRR-1 built as the first nuclear facility in Japan. In the present work, the conventional system with negative pressure was reexamined on the sate-of-art of the regulations for the nuclear facilities, and consequently some shortages of the system has been found. Thus, an advanced system with an excellent performance keeping the negative pressure has been developed to cover the shortage. In this report, the new system is introduced with a couple of comments, acquired from the author's experience, to the design and the maintenance of the composite equipments of the system. (author)

  8. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  9. Parameters of an avalanche of runaway electrons in air under atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    The features of runaway-electron avalanches developing in air under atmospheric pressures are investigated in the framework of a three-dimensional numerical simulation. The simulation results indicate that an avalanche of this type can be characterized, besides the time and length of its exponential growth, by the propagation velocity and by the average kinetic energy of the runaway electrons. It is shown that these parameters obey the similarity laws applied to gas discharges.

  10. Cleaning of niobium surface by plasma of diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ripenko, V. S.

    2017-07-01

    Elements composition of niobium surface before and after plasma treatment by runaway electron preionized diffuse discharge was investigated in atmospheric pressure nitrogen flow by means of an Auger electron spectroscopy. Surface characterizations obtained from Auger spectra show that plasma treatment by diffuse discharge after exposure of 120000 pulses provides ultrafine surface cleaning from carbon contamination. Moreover, the surface free energy of the treated specimens increased up to 3 times, that improve its adhesion property.

  11. Low-noise mid-IR upconversion detector for improved IR-degenerate four-wave mixing gas sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Sahlberg, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    -to-noise ratio. The two detectors are compared for the detection of a coherent degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) signal in the mid-infrared, and applied to measure trace-level acetylene in a gas flow at atmospheric pressure, probing its fundamental rovibrational transitions. In addition to lower noise...

  12. Fluoropolymer coated alanine films treated by atmospheric pressure plasmas − In comparison with gamma irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Bardenshtein, Alexander; Morgen, Per

    2018-01-01

    Fluoropolymer coated alanine films are treated by a dielectric barrier discharge and a gliding arc at atmospheric pressure as well as with gamma irradiation. The film surfaces and the underlying bulk materials are characterized before and after each treatment. The fluorine content decreases...

  13. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure on human arterial pressure during the solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.; Levi, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    We performed a study of the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure (AtmP) and the horizontal geomagnetic field component (H). We worked with a sample of 304 healthy normotense volunteers, 152 men and 152 women, with ages between 18 and 84 years in Mexico City during the period 2008-2014, corresponding to the minimum, ascending and maximum phases of the solar cycle 24. The data was divided by gender, age and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: Correlations, bivariate and superposed epochs (within a window of three days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the SBP and DBP and the natural variables (AtmP and H). The correlation analysis indicated correlation between the SBP and DBP and AtmP and H, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analysis showed that the largest correlations are between the SBP and DBP and the AtmP. The superposed epoch analysis found that the largest number of significant SBP and DBP changes occurred for women. Finally, the blood pressure changes are larger during the solar minimum and ascending solar cycle phases than during the solar maximum; the storms of the minimum were more intense than those of the maximum and this could be the reason of behavior of the blood pressure changes along the solar cycle.

  14. Atmospheric pressure surface sampling/ionization techniques for direct coupling of planar separations with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasilis, Sofie P; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-06-18

    Planar separations, which include thin layer chromatography and gel electrophoresis, are in widespread use as important and powerful tools for conducting separations of complex mixtures. To increase the utility of planar separations, new methods are needed that allow in situ characterization of the individual components of the separated mixtures. A large number of atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques for use with mass spectrometry have emerged in the past several years, and several have been investigated as a means for mass spectrometric read-out of planar separations. In this article, we review the atmospheric pressure surface sampling and ionization techniques that have been used for the read-out of planar separation media. For each technique, we briefly explain the operational basics and discuss the analyte type for which it is appropriate and some specific applications from the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu, Dongping [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Yue [School of Physics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  16. Comparisons of Fabric Strength and Development in Polycrystalline Ice at Atmospheric and Basal Hydrostatic Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Daniel; Baker, Ian; Cole, David

    2013-04-01

    Understanding and predicting the flow of polycrystalline ice is crucial to ice sheet modeling and paleoclimate reconstruction from ice cores. Ice flow rates depend strongly on the fabric (i.e. the distribution of grain sizes and crystallographic orientations) which evolves over time and enhances the flow rate in the direction of applied stress. The mechanisms for fabric evolution in ice have been extensively studied at atmospheric pressures, but little work has been done to observe these processes at the high pressures experienced deep within ice sheets where long-term changes in ice rheology are expected to have significance. We conducted compressive creep tests to ~10% strain on 917 kg m-3, initially randomly-oriented polycrystalline ice specimens at 0.1 (atmospheric) and 20 MPa (simulating ~2,000 m depth) hydrostatic pressures, performing microstructural analyses on the resulting deformed specimens to characterize the evolution and strength of crystal fabric. Our microstructural analysis technique simultaneously collects grain shape and size data from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs and obtains crystallographic orientation data via Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). Combining these measurements allows rapid analysis of the ice fabric over large numbers of grains, yielding statistically useful numbers of grain size and orientation data. We present creep and microstructural data to demonstrate pressure-dependent effects on the mechanical and microstructural evolution of polycrystalline ice and discuss possible mechanisms for the observed differences.

  17. Pressure and Humidity Measurements at the MSL Landing Site Supported by Modeling of the Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Paton, M.; Kauhanen, J.; Atlaskin, E.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpaa, H.; Kemppinen, O.; Haukka, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity Rover landed safely on the Martian surface at the Gale crater on 6th August 2012. Among the MSL scientific objectives are investigations of the Martian environment that will be addressed by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument. It will investigate habitability conditions at the Martian surface by performing a versatile set of environmental measurements including accurate observations of pressure and humidity of the Martian atmosphere. This paper describes the instrumental implementation of the MSL pressure and humidity measurement devices and briefly analyzes the atmospheric conditions at the Gale crater by modeling efforts using an atmospheric modeling tools. MSL humidity and pressure devices are based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. Humidity observations make use of Vaisala Humicap® relative humidity sensor heads and Vaisala Barocap® sensor heads are used for pressure observations. Vaisala Thermocap® temperature sensors heads are mounted in a close proximity of Humicap® and Barocap® sensor heads to enable accurate temperature measurements needed for interpretation of Humicap® and Barocap® readings. The sensor heads are capacitive. The pressure and humidity devices are lightweight and are based on a low-power transducer controlled by a dedicated ASIC. The transducer is designed to measure small capacitances in order of a few pF with resolution in order of 0.1fF (femtoFarad). The transducer design has a good spaceflight heritage, as it has been used in several previous missions, for example Mars mission Phoenix as well as the Cassini Huygens mission. The humidity device has overall dimensions of 40 x 25 x 55 mm. It weighs18 g, and consumes 15 mW of power. It includes 3 Humicap® sensor heads and 1 Thermocap®. The transducer electronics and the sensor heads are placed on a single multi-layer PCB protected by a metallic Faraday cage. The Humidity device has measurement range

  18. Controlling the nitric and nitrous oxide production of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douat, Claire; Hubner, Simon; Engeln, Richard; Benedikt, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets are non-thermal plasmas and have the ability to create reactive species. These features make it a very attractive tool for biomedical applications. In this work, we studied NO and N2O production, which are two species having biomedical properties. NO plays a role in the vascularization and in ulcer treatment, while N2O is used as anesthetic and analgesic gas. In this study, the plasma source is similar to the COST Reference Microplasma Jet (µ-APPJ). Helium is used as feed gas with small admixtures of molecular nitrogen and oxygen of below 1%. The absolute densities of NO and N2O were measured in the effluent of an atmospheric pressure RF plasma jet by means of ex-situ quantum-cascade laser absorption spectroscopy via a multi-pass cell in Herriot configuration. We will show that the species' production is dependent on several parameters such as power, flow and oxygen and nitrogen admixture. The NO and N2O densities are strongly dependent on the N2-O2 ratio. Changing this ratio allows for choosing between a NO-rich or a N2O-rich regime.

  19. Characterization of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams (PAPS) generated by a plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, E.; Sarron, V.; Riès, D.; Dozias, S.; Vandamme, M.; Pouvesle, J.-M.

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study of atmospheric-pressure rare gas plasma propagation in a high-aspect-ratio capillary is reported. The plasma is generated with a plasma gun device based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor powered by either nanosecond or microsecond rise-time high-voltage pulses at single-shot to multi-kHz frequencies. The influence of the voltage waveform, pulse polarity, pulse repetition rate and capillary material have been studied using nanosecond intensified charge-coupled device imaging and plasma-front velocity measurements. The evolution of the plasma appearance during its propagation and the study of the role of the different experimental parameters lead us to suggest a new denomination of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams to describe all the plasma features, including the previously so-called plasma bullet. The unique properties of such non-thermal plasma launching in capillaries, far from the primary DBD plasma, are associated with a fast ionization wave travelling with velocity in the 107-108 cm s-1 range. Voltage pulse tailoring is shown to allow for a significant improvement of such plasma delivery. Thus, the plasma gun device affords unique opportunities in biomedical endoscopic applications.

  20. Characterization of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams (PAPS) generated by a plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, E; Sarron, V; Riès, D; Dozias, S; Vandamme, M; Pouvesle, J-M

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of atmospheric-pressure rare gas plasma propagation in a high-aspect-ratio capillary is reported. The plasma is generated with a plasma gun device based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor powered by either nanosecond or microsecond rise-time high-voltage pulses at single-shot to multi-kHz frequencies. The influence of the voltage waveform, pulse polarity, pulse repetition rate and capillary material have been studied using nanosecond intensified charge-coupled device imaging and plasma-front velocity measurements. The evolution of the plasma appearance during its propagation and the study of the role of the different experimental parameters lead us to suggest a new denomination of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams to describe all the plasma features, including the previously so-called plasma bullet. The unique properties of such non-thermal plasma launching in capillaries, far from the primary DBD plasma, are associated with a fast ionization wave travelling with velocity in the 10 7 –10 8 cm s −1 range. Voltage pulse tailoring is shown to allow for a significant improvement of such plasma delivery. Thus, the plasma gun device affords unique opportunities in biomedical endoscopic applications. (paper)

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of coolant mixing in a model of reactor pressure vessel down-comer and in cold leg inlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutli Ezddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal fatigue and pressurized thermal shock phenomena are the main problems for the reactor pressure vessel and the T-junctions both of them depend on the mixing of the coolant. The mixing process, flow and temperature distribution has been investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry, laser induced fluorescence, and simulated by CFD tools. The obtained results showed that the ratio of flow rate between the main pipe and the branch pipe has a big influence on the mixing process. The particle image velocimetry/planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements technologies proved to be suitable for the investigation of turbulent mixing in the complicated flow system: both velocity and temperature distribution are important parameters in the determination of thermal fatigue and pressurized thermal shock. Results of the applied these techniques showed that both of them can be used as a good provider for data base and to validate CFD results.

  2. Simple microwave plasma source at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Hong, Yong C.; Kim, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a thermal plasma source operating without electrodes. One electrodeless torch is the microwave plasma-torch, which can produce plasmas in large quantities. We can generate plasma at an atmospheric pressure by marking use of the same magnetrons used as commercial microwave ovens. Most of the magnetrons are operated at the frequency of 2.45 GHz; the magnetron power microwave is about 1kW. Electromagnetic waves from the magnetrons propagate through a shorted waveguide. Plasma was generated under a resonant condition, by an auxiliary ignition system. The plasma is stabilized by vortex stabilization. Also, a high-power and high-efficiency microwave plasma-torch has been operated in air by combining two microwave plasma sources with 1kW, 2.45 GHz. They are arranged in series to generate a high-power plasma flame. The second torch adds all its power to the plasma flame of the first torch. Basically, electromagnetic waves in the waveguide were studied by a High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) code and preliminary experiments were conducted

  3. Analysis of air-, moisture- and solvent-sensitive chemical compounds by mass spectrometry using an inert atmospheric pressure solids analysis probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosely, Jackie A; Stokes, Peter; Parker, David; Dyer, Philip W; Messinis, Antonis M

    2018-02-01

    A novel method has been developed that enables chemical compounds to be transferred from an inert atmosphere glove box and into the atmospheric pressure ion source of a mass spectrometer whilst retaining a controlled chemical environment. This innovative method is simple and cheap to implement on some commercially available mass spectrometers. We have termed this approach inert atmospheric pressure solids analysis probe ( iASAP) and demonstrate the benefit of this methodology for two air-/moisture-sensitive chemical compounds whose characterisation by mass spectrometry is now possible and easily achieved. The simplicity of the design means that moving between iASAP and standard ASAP is straightforward and quick, providing a highly flexible platform with rapid sample turnaround.

  4. Liquid chromatography-dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry: Application to the analysis of aldehydes in atmospheric aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jiménez, José; Hautala, Sanna; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Laitinen, Totti; Hartonen, Kari; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2013-01-01

    A complete methodology based on LC-anisole-toluene dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization-IT-MS was developed for the determination of aldehydes in atmospheric aerosol particles. For the derivatization, ultrasound was used to accelerate the reaction between the target analytes and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The developed methodology was validated for three different samples, gas phase, ultrafine (Dp = 30 ± 4 nm; where Dp stands for particle diameter) and all-sized particles, collected on Teflon filters. The method quantitation limits ranged from 5 to 227 pg. The accuracy and the potential matrix effects were evaluated using standard addition methodology. Recoveries ranged between 91.7 and 109.9%, and the repeatability and the reproducibility of the method developed between 0.5 and 8.0% and between 2.9 and 11.1%, respectively. The results obtained by the developed methodology compared to those provided by the previously validated method revealed no statistical differences. The method developed was applied to the determination of aldehydes in 16 atmospheric aerosol samples (30 nm and all-sized samples) collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II during spring 2011. The mean concentrations of aldehydes, and oxidation products of terpenes were between 0.05 and 82.70 ng/m(3). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Sustained diffusive alternating current gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Li, Zhongshan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid transition from glow discharge to thermal arc has been a common problem in generating stable high-power non-thermal plasmas especially at ambient conditions. A sustained diffusive gliding arc discharge was generated in a large volume in atmospheric pressure air, driven by an alternating...... current (AC) power source. The plasma column extended beyond the water-cooled stainless steel electrodes and was stabilized by matching the flow speed of the turbulent air jet with the rated output power. Comprehensive investigations were performed using high-speed movies measured over the plasma column...

  6. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma on polyethylene for increased prosthesis adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vrekhem, S., E-mail: stijn.vanvrekhem@ugent.be [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, P. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Declercq, H. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 6B3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Tongel, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185 13K12, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vercruysse, C.; Cornelissen, M. [Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 6B3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Geyter, N.; Morent, R. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-12-01

    Biopolymers are often subjected to surface modification in order to improve their surface characteristics. The goal of this study is to show the use of plasma technology to enhance the adhesion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) shoulder prostheses. Two different plasma techniques (low pressure plasma activation and atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization) are performed on UHMWPE to increase the adhesion between (1) the polymer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and (2) the polymer and osteoblast cells. Both techniques are performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A previous paper showed that low pressure plasma activation of UHMWPE results in the incorporation of oxygen-containing functional groups, which leads to an increased surface wettability. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) on UHMWPE results in a PMMA-like coating, which could be deposited with a high degree of control of chemical composition and layer thickness. The thin film also proved to be relatively stable upon incubation in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). This paper discusses the next stage of the study, which includes testing the adhesion of the plasma-activated and plasma-polymerized samples to bone cement through pull-out tests and testing the cell adhesion and proliferation on the samples. In order to perform the pull-out tests, all samples were cut to standard dimensions and fixed in bone cement in a reproducible way with a sample holder specially designed for this purpose. The cell adhesion and proliferation were tested by means of an MTS assay and live/dead staining after culturing MC3T3 osteoblast cells on UHMWPE samples. The results show that both plasma activation and plasma polymerization significantly improve the adhesion to bone cement and enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. In conclusion, it can be stated that the use of plasma technology can lead to an implant with improved quality and a subsequent

  7. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thong, K. L. [Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  8. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  9. A Planar Source of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, O. S.; Kuznetsov, V. S.; Panarin, V. A.; Skakun, V. S.; Sosnin, E. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2018-01-01

    In a single-barrier discharge with voltage sharpening and low gas consumption (up to 1 L/min), plane atmospheric pressure plasma jets with a width of up to 3 cm and length of up to 4 cm in air are formed in the slit geometry of the discharge zone. The energy, temperature, and spectral characteristics of the obtained jets have been measured. The radiation spectrum contains intense maxima corresponding to vibrational transitions of the second positive system of molecular nitrogen N2 ( C 3Π u → B 3Π g ) and comparatively weak transition lines of the first positive system of the N 2 + ion ( B 2Σ u + → X 2Σ g ). By an example of inactivation of the Staphylococcus aureus culture (strain ATCC 209), it is shown that plasma is a source of chemically active particles providing the inactivation of microorganisms.

  10. Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using atmospheric pressure cold plasma technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakellis, Panagiotis; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2018-04-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces are often used to reduce wetting of surfaces by water. In particular, superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desired for several applications due to their exceptional properties such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-friction and others. Such surfaces can be prepared via numerous methods including plasma technology, a dry technique with low environmental impact. Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has recently attracted significant attention as lower-cost alternative to low-pressure plasmas, and as a candidate for continuous rather than batch processing. Although there are many reviews on water-repellent surfaces, and a few reviews on APP technology, there are hardly any review works on APP processing for hydrophobic and superhydrohobic surface fabrication, a topic of high importance in nanotechnology and interface science. Herein, we critically review the advances on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surface fabrication using APP technology, trying also to give some perspectives in the field. After a short introduction to superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces and to APPs we focus this review on three different aspects: (1) The atmospheric plasma reactor technology used for fabrication of (super)hydrophobic surfaces. (2) The APP process for hydrophobic surface preparation. The hydrophobic surface preparation processes are categorized methodologically as: a) activation, b) grafting, c) polymerization, d) roughening and hydrophobization. Each category includes subcategories related to different precursors used. (3) One of the most important sections of this review concerns superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using APP. These are methodologically characterized as follows: a) single step processes where micro-nano textured topography and low surface energy coating are created at the same time, or b) multiple step processes, where these steps occur sequentially in or out of the plasma. We end the review with some perspectives in the field. We

  11. Modelling of containment atmosphere mixing and stratification experiment using CFD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivo Kljenak; Miroslav Babic; Borut Mavko; Ivan Bajsic

    2005-01-01

    An experiment on containment atmosphere mixing and stratification, which was originally performed in the TOSQAN facility in Saclay (France), was simulated with the Computational Fluid Dynamics code CFX. The TOSQAN facility consists of a large cylindrical vessel in which gases are injected. In the considered experiment, steam, air and helium were injected during different phases of the experiment, with steam condensing on vessel walls. Three intermediate steady states, which were obtained with different boundary conditions, were simulated independently. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model of the TOSQAN vessel for the CFX4.4 code was developed. The flow in the simulation domain was modelled as single-phase. Steam condensation on vessel walls was modelled as a sink of mass and energy. Calculated profiles of temperature, steam concentration, and velocity components are compared to experimental results. (authors)

  12. Potential use of the non-random distribution of N2 and N2O mole masses in the atmosphere as a tool for tracing atmospheric mixing and isotope fractionation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well, R.; Langel, R.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    The variation in the natural abundance of 15 N in atmospheric gas species is often used to determine the mixing of trace gases from different sources. With conventional budget calculations one unknown quantity can be determined if the remaining quantities are known. From 15 N tracer studies in soils with highly enriched 15 N-nitrate a procedure is known to calculate the mixing of atmospheric and soil derived N 2 based on the measurement of the 30/28 and 29/28 ratios in gas samples collected from soil covers. Because of the non-random distribution of the mole masses 30 N 2 , 29 N 2 and 28 N 2 in the mixing gas it is possible to calculate two quantities simultaneously, i.e. the mixing ratio of atmospheric and soil derived N 2 , and the isotopic signature of the soil derived N 2 . Routine standard measurements of laboratory air had suggested a non-random distribution of N 2 -mole masses. The objective of this study was to investigate and explain the existence of non-random distributions of 15 N 15 N, 14 N 15 N and 14 N 14 N in N 2 and N 2 O in environmental samples. The calculation of theoretical isotope data resulting from hypothetical mixing of two sources differing in 15 N natural abundance demonstrated, that the deviation from an ideal random distribution of mole masses is not detectable with the current precision of mass spectrometry. 15 N-analysis of N 2 or N 2 O was conducted with randomised and non-randomised replicate samples of different origin. 15 N abundance as calculated from 29/28 ratios were generally higher in randomised samples. The differences between the treatments ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 δper mille 15 N. It was concluded that the observed randomisation effect is probably caused by 15 N 15 N fractionation during environmental processes. (author)

  13. Cold plasma brush generated at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yixiang; Huang, C.; Yu, Q. S.

    2007-01-01

    A cold plasma brush is generated at atmospheric pressure with low power consumption in the level of several watts (as low as 4 W) up to tens of watts (up to 45 W). The plasma can be ignited and sustained in both continuous and pulsed modes with different plasma gases such as argon or helium, but argon was selected as a primary gas for use in this work. The brush-shaped plasma is formed and extended outside of the discharge chamber with typical dimension of 10-15 mm in width and less than 1.0 mm in thickness, which are adjustable by changing the discharge chamber design and operating conditions. The brush-shaped plasma provides some unique features and distinct nonequilibrium plasma characteristics. Temperature measurements using a thermocouple thermometer showed that the gas phase temperatures of the plasma brush are close to room temperature (as low as 42 deg. C) when running with a relatively high gas flow rate of about 3500 ml/min. For an argon plasma brush, the operating voltage from less than 500 V to about 2500 V was tested, with an argon gas flow rate varied from less than 1000 to 3500 ml/min. The cold plasma brush can most efficiently use the discharge power as well as the plasma gas for material and surface treatment. The very low power consumption of such an atmospheric argon plasma brush provides many unique advantages in practical applications including battery-powered operation and use in large-scale applications. Several polymer film samples were tested for surface treatment with the newly developed device, and successful changes of the wettability property from hydrophobic to hydrophilic were achieved within a few seconds

  14. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  15. Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwu Zhou

    Full Text Available Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS. Results show that the oxidation effect of plasma-induced species on the side chains of the amino acids can be categorized into four types, namely hydroxylation, nitration, dehydrogenation and dimerization. In addition, relative activities of amino acids resulting from plasma treatment come in descending order as follows: sulfur-containing carbon-chain amino acids > aromatic amino acids > five-membered ring amino acids > basic carbon-chain amino acids. Since amino acids are building blocks of proteins vital to the growth and reproduction of bacteria, these results provide an insight into the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by plasma.

  16. The Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature Seem to Have No Effect on the Incidence of Rupture of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Mid-European Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Payman; Ahmad, Wael; Luebke, Thomas; Brunkwall, Jan Sigge

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between weather changes (atmospheric pressure and temperature) and incidence of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). All patients with ruptured infrarenal AAA and who were referred to our institution between August 1998 and August 2015 were prospectively entered into a database of which a retrospective review of a ruptured AAA was performed. The needed information about the daily atmospheric pressure and air temperature could be extracted from the meteorological unit in Cologne. During the study period (6,225 days), a total number of 154 patients with confirmed ruptured AAA were identified. Basic patients' characteristics are tabulated. The mean daily atmospheric pressure during the study was 1,004.04 ± 8.79 mBar ranging from 965.40-1031.80 mBar. The mean atmospheric pressure on the days of rupture was 1,004.03 vs. 1,004.68 on those days when no rupture occurred (P = 0.34). The mean atmospheric pressure on the day of rupture and that on the preceding day was not significantly different (1,004.78 vs. 1,005.44 with P = 0.13). The air temperature (10.62 ± 6.25 vs. 10.77 ± 6.83°C, P = 0.787) was equally distributed between days of rupture events and control days. The present study could not show a significant association between the monthly and seasonal difference in atmospheric pressure and the prevalence of AAA rupture as it has been supposed by previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pressure Balance at Mars and Solar Wind Interaction with the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymskii, A. M.; Ness, N. F.; Crider, D. H.; Breus, T. K.; Acuna, M. H.; Hinson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The strongest crustal fields are located in certain regions in the Southern hemisphere. In the Northern hemisphere, the crustal fields are rather weak and usually do not prevent direct interaction between the SW and the Martian ionosphere/atmosphere. Exceptions occur in the isolated mini-magnetospheres formed by the crustal anomalies. Electron density profiles of the ionosphere of Mars derived from radio occultation data obtained by the Radio Science Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) experiment have been compared with the crustal magnetic fields measured by the MGS Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) experiment. A study of 523 electron density profiles obtained at latitudes from +67 deg. to +77 deg. has been conducted. The effective scale-height of the electron density for two altitude ranges, 145-165 km and 165-185 km, and the effective scale-height of the neutral atmosphere density in the vicinity of the ionization peak have been derived for each of the profiles studied. For the regions outside of the potential mini-magnetospheres, the thermal pressure of the ionospheric plasma for the altitude range 145-185 km has been estimated. In the high latitude ionosphere at Mars, the total pressure at altitudes 160 and 180 km has been mapped. The solar wind interaction with the ionosphere of Mars and origin of the sharp drop of the electron density at the altitudes 200-210 km will be discussed.

  18. Inverting Coseismic TEC Disturbances for Neutral Atmosphere Pressure Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. F.; Mikesell, D.; Rolland, L.

    2017-12-01

    Research from the past 20 years has shown that we can detect coseismic disturbances in the total electron content (TEC) using global navigation space systems (GNSS). In the near field, TEC disturbances are created by the direct wave from rupture on the surface. This pressure wave travels through the neutral atmosphere to the ionosphere within about 10 minutes. This provides the opportunity to almost immediately characterize the source of the acoustic disturbance on the surface using methods from seismology. In populated areas, this could provide valuable information to first responders. To retrieve the surface motion amplitude information we must account for changes in the waveform caused by the geomagnetic field, motion of the satellites and the geometry of the satellites and receivers. One method is to use a transfer function to invert for the neutral atmosphere pressure wave. Gómez et al (2015) first employed an analytical model to invert for acoustic waves produced by Rayleigh waves propagating along the Earth's surface. Here, we examine the same model in the near field using the TEC disturbances from the direct wave produced by rupture at the surface. We compare results from the forward model against a numerical model that has been shown to be in good agreement with observations from the 2011 Van (Turkey) earthquake. We show the forward model predictions using both methods for the Van earthquake. We then analyze results for hypothetical events at different latitudes and discuss the reliability of the analytical model in each scenario. Gómez, D., R. Jr. Smalley, C. A. Langston, T. J. Wilson, M. Bevis, I. W. D. Dalziel, E. C. Kendrick, S. A. Konfal, M. J. Willis, D. A. Piñón, et al. (2015), Virtual array beamforming of GPS TEC observations of coseismic ionospheric disturbances near the Geomagnetic South Pole triggered by teleseismic megathrusts, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9087-9101, doi:10.1002/2015JA021725.

  19. Studies on Microscopic Structure of Diesel Sprays under Atmospheric and High Gas Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Deshmukh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the spray structure of diesel from a 200-μm, single-hole solenoid injector is studied using microscopic imaging at injection pressures of 700, 1000 and 1400 bar for various gas pressures. A long-distance microscope with a high resolution camera is used for spray visualization with a direct imaging technique. This study shows that even at very high injection pressures, the spray structure in an ambient environment of atmospheric pressure reveals presence of entangled ligaments and non-spherical droplets during the injection period. With increase in the injection pressure, the ligaments tend to get smaller and spread radially. The spray structure studies are also conducted at high gas pressures in a specially designed high pressure chamber with optical access. The near nozzle spray structure at the end of the injection shows that the liquid jet breakup is improved with increase in gas density. The droplet size measurement is possible only late in the injection duration when the breakup appears to be complete and mostly spherical droplets are observed. Hence, droplet size measurements are performed after 1.3 ms from start of the injection pulse. Spatial and temporal variation in Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD is observed and reported for the case corresponding to an injection pressure of 700 bar. Overall, this study has highlighted the importance of verifying the extentof atomization and droplet shape even in dense sprays before using conventional dropsizing methods such as PDPA.

  20. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Ding; C. B. Fu; X. Q. Yang; J. N. Sun; T. Petäjä; V.-M. Kerminen; T. Wang; Y. N. Xie; E. Herrmann; L. F. Zheng; W. Nie; X. L. Wei; M. Kulmala

    2013-01-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural ...

  1. Use of Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma for Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juri; Lee, Cheol Woo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2017-01-01

    Novel, effective methods to control and prevent spoilage and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products are in constant demand. Non-thermal pasteurization is an ideal method for the preservation of meat and meat products because it does not use heat during the pasteurization process. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) is a new technology for the non-thermal pasteurization of meat and meat products. Several recent studies have shown that APCP treatment reduces the number of pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products. Furthermore, APCP treatment can be used to generate nitrite, which is an essential component of the curing process. Here, we introduce the effectiveness of APCP treatment as a pasteurization method and/or curing process for use in the meat and meat product processing industry.

  2. Electron-ion recombination study in argon at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafrouni, Hanna.

    1979-01-01

    This study deals with a wall-stabilized arc burning in argon at atmospheric pressure. A transient mode is obtained using a fast thyristor connected to the electrodes, which short-circuits the discharge. By means of two wavelengths laser interferometry and spectroscopy measurements we have determined the temporal changes of the electron density, ground state atom density and excited atom density. We have shown that, when the electric field is suppressed, the electron temperature rapidly decreases to the gas temperature before changing electron and atom densities. This phenomenon is applied to determine the gas temperature and to evaluate the role played by ionization in electron density balance. The coefficients of ambipolar diffusion, ionization and recombination and an apparent recombination coefficient are determined versus electron temperature and compared with theoretical values [fr

  3. The Effect of the Interannual Variability of the OH Sink on the Interannual Variability of the Atmospheric Methane Mixing Ratio and Carbon Stable Isotope Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo Nuñez Ramirez, Tonatiuh; Houweling, Sander; Marshall, Julia; Williams, Jason; Brailsford, Gordon; Schneising, Oliver; Heimann, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentration (OH) varies due to changes in the incoming UV radiation, in the abundance of atmospheric species involved in the production, recycling and destruction of OH molecules and due to climate variability. Variability in carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning induced by El Niño Southern Oscillation are particularly important. Although the OH sink accounts for the oxidation of approximately 90% of atmospheric CH4, the effect of the variability in the distribution and strength of the OH sink on the interannual variability of atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C-CH4) has often been ignored. To show this effect we simulated the atmospheric signals of CH4 in a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model (TM3). ERA Interim reanalysis data provided the atmospheric transport and temperature variability from 1990 to 2010. We performed simulations using time dependent OH concentration estimations from an atmospheric chemistry transport model and an atmospheric chemistry climate model. The models assumed a different set of reactions and algorithms which caused a very different strength and distribution of the OH concentration. Methane emissions were based on published bottom-up estimates including inventories, upscaled estimations and modeled fluxes. The simulations also included modeled concentrations of atomic chlorine (Cl) and excited oxygen atoms (O(1D)). The isotopic signal of the sources and the fractionation factors of the sinks were based on literature values, however the isotopic signal from wetlands and enteric fermentation processes followed a linear relationship with a map of C4 plant fraction. The same set of CH4emissions and stratospheric reactants was used in all simulations. Two simulations were done per OH field: one in which the CH4 sources were allowed to vary interannually, and a second where the sources were climatological. The simulated mixing ratios and

  4. Enhancement of cell growth on honeycomb-structured polylactide surface using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuang-Yao; Chang, Chia-Hsing; Yang, Yi-Wei; Liao, Guo-Chun; Liu, Chih-Tung; Wu, Jong-Shinn, E-mail: chongsin@faculty.nctu.edu.tw

    2017-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Atmospheric-pressure plasma enhances cell growth on two different pore sizes of honeycomb pattern on polylactide surface. - Highlights: • Different pore sizes of honeycomb pattern on PLA film are created. • The two-step plasma treatment provided the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups that had a major impact on cell cultivation. • The plasma treatment had a significant effect for cell proliferation. • The surface structures are the main influence on cell cultivation, while plasma treatment can indeed improve the growth environment. - Abstract: In this paper, we compare the cell growth results of NIH-3T3 and Neuro-2A cells over 72 h on flat and honeycomb structured PLA films without and with a two-step atmospheric-pressure nitrogen-based plasma jet treatment. We developed a fabrication system used for forming of a uniform honeycomb structure on PLA surface, which can produce two different pore sizes, 3–4 μm and 7–8 μm, of honeycomb pattern. We applied a previously developed nitrogen-based atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet system to treat the PLA film without and with honeycomb structure. NIH-3T3 and a much smaller Neuro-2A cells were cultivated on the films under various surface conditions. The results show that the two-step plasma treatment in combination with a honeycomb structure can enhance cell growth on PLA film, should the cell size be not too smaller than the pore size of honeycomb structure, e.g., NIH-3T3. Otherwise, cell growth would be better on flat PLA film, e.g., Neuro-2A.

  5. Molar enthalpy of mixing and refractive indices of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chunyan; Guo, Yanhua; Li, Dongxue; Zong, Jianpeng; Ji, Xiaoyan; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Molar enthalpy of mixing and refractive indices for binary mixtures of different deep eutectic solvents with water. • The Redlich–Kister equation and the NRTL model was used to fit the experimental data. • The NRTL model with fitted parameters were used to predict the vapour pressure and compared with experimental data. - Abstract: The molar enthalpies of mixing were measured for binary systems of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents (glycerol, ethylene glycol and malonic acid) with water at 298.15 K and 308.15 K, and atmospheric pressure with an isothermal calorimeter. Refractive indices were also measured at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The binary mixtures of {chcl/glycerol (1:2) + water, chcl/ethylene glycol (1:2) + water} showed exothermic behaviour over the entire range of composition, while the binary mixture of {chcl/malonic acid (1:1) + water} showed endothermic behaviour at first and then changed to be exothermic with the increasing content of chcl/malonic acid (1:1). Experimental refractive indices were fitted with the Redlich–Kister equation, and experimental molar enthalpies of mixing were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation and the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model. The NRTL model with the fitted parameters was used to predict the vapour pressures of these three mixtures. For mixtures of {chcl/glycerol (1:2) + water} and {chcl/ethylene glycol (1:2) + water}, the predicted vapour pressures agreed well with the experimental results from the literature. While for mixture of {chcl/malonic acid (1:1) + water}, the predicted vapour pressures showed deviation at the high concentration of chcl/malonic acid (1:1), and this was probably because of the complex molecular interaction between chcl/malonic acid (1:1) and water.

  6. Degradation of the Neonicotinoid Pesticides in the Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yunfeng; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2018-02-01

    During the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticide standards (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid) by mass spectrometry, the degradation of these pesticides (M-C=N-R is degraded into M-C=O, M is the skeleton moiety, and R is NO2 or CN) was observed in the atmospheric pressure ionization interfaces (ESI and APCI). In APCI, the degradation of all the five neonicotinoid pesticides studied took place, and the primary mechanism was in-source ion/molecule reaction, in which a molecule of water (confirmed by use of H2 18O) attacked the carbon of the imine group accompanying with loss of NH2R (R=NO2, CN). For the nitroguanidine neonicotinoid pesticides (R=NO2, including thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and imidacloprid), higher auxiliary gas heater temperature also contributed to their degradation in APCI due to in-source pyrolysis. The degradation of the five neonicotinoid pesticides studied in ESI was not significant. In ESI, only the nitroguanidine neonicotinoid pesticides could generate the degradation products through in-source fragmentation mechanism. The degradation of cyanoamidine neonicotinoid pesticides (R=CN, including acetamiprid and thiacloprid) in ESI was not observed. The degradation of neonicotinoid pesticides in the ion source of mass spectrometer renders some adverse consequences, such as difficulty interpreting the full-scan mass spectrum, reducing the sensitivity and accuracy of quantitative analysis, and misleading whether these pesticides have degraded in the real samples. Therefore, a clear understanding of these unusual degradation reactions should facilitate the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

  7. Degradation of the Neonicotinoid Pesticides in the Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yunfeng; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2018-02-01

    During the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticide standards (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid) by mass spectrometry, the degradation of these pesticides (M-C=N-R is degraded into M-C=O, M is the skeleton moiety, and R is NO 2 or CN) was observed in the atmospheric pressure ionization interfaces (ESI and APCI). In APCI, the degradation of all the five neonicotinoid pesticides studied took place, and the primary mechanism was in-source ion/molecule reaction, in which a molecule of water (confirmed by use of H 2 18 O) attacked the carbon of the imine group accompanying with loss of NH 2 R (R=NO 2 , CN). For the nitroguanidine neonicotinoid pesticides (R=NO 2 , including thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and imidacloprid), higher auxiliary gas heater temperature also contributed to their degradation in APCI due to in-source pyrolysis. The degradation of the five neonicotinoid pesticides studied in ESI was not significant. In ESI, only the nitroguanidine neonicotinoid pesticides could generate the degradation products through in-source fragmentation mechanism. The degradation of cyanoamidine neonicotinoid pesticides (R=CN, including acetamiprid and thiacloprid) in ESI was not observed. The degradation of neonicotinoid pesticides in the ion source of mass spectrometer renders some adverse consequences, such as difficulty interpreting the full-scan mass spectrum, reducing the sensitivity and accuracy of quantitative analysis, and misleading whether these pesticides have degraded in the real samples. Therefore, a clear understanding of these unusual degradation reactions should facilitate the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry. Graphical Abstract.

  8. Impact of aerosol particles on the structure of an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma afterglow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Chunku [Ceramic and Composite Materials Centre, 209 Farris Engineering Centre, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS C930, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2002-05-21

    Several novel ceramic processing technologies (e.g. oxide ceramic melting and spheroidization) using an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma torch were recently developed in our lab. Understanding the processes and optimization requires complete characterization of the plasma as a function of operating condition. As a first step, a non-intrusive spectroscopic method was employed to map rotational (gas), electron and excitation temperatures and electron densities of the afterglow region of microwave generated atmospheric plasmas with and without alumina particle aerosol. Two-dimensional spatially resolved mapping of rotational (gas), excitation and electron temperatures and electron densities as a function of operating conditions during material processing were developed. It was shown that the passage of an aerosol dramatically changes the structure of the afterglow. Also the non-equilibrium nature of microwave generated atmospheric argon plasma was confirmed, suggesting that only multi-temperature models are capable of modelling this region of the plasma. (author)

  9. Searching for order in atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jan; Sigeneger, Florian; Šperka, Jiří; Rodenburg, Cornelia; Foest, Rüdiger

    2018-01-01

    The self-organized discharge behaviour occurring in a non-thermal radio-frequency plasma jet in rare gases at atmospheric pressure was investigated. The frequency of the azimuthal rotation of filaments in the active plasma volume and their inclination were measured along with the gas temperature under varying discharge conditions. The gas flow and heating were described theoretically by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The rotation frequencies obtained by both methods qualitatively agree. The results demonstrate that the plasma filaments forming an inclination angle α with the axial gas velocity u z are forced to a transversal movement with the velocity {u}φ =\\tan (α )\\cdot {u}z, which is oriented in the inclination direction. Variations of {u}φ in the model reveal that the observed dynamics minimizes the energy loss due to convective heat transfer by the gas flow. The control of the self-organization regime motivates the application of the plasma jet for precise and reproducible material processing.

  10. Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet using a combination of 50 kHz/2 MHz dual-frequency power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong-Jie; Yuan, Qiang-Hua; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Gui-Qin; Dong, Chen-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated by dual sinusoidal wave (50 kHz and 2 MHz). The dual-frequency plasma jet exhibits the advantages of both low frequency and radio frequency plasmas, namely, the long plasma plume and the high electron density. The radio frequency ignition voltage can be reduced significantly by using dual-frequency excitation compared to the conventional radio frequency without the aid of the low frequency excitation source. A larger operating range of α mode discharge can be obtained using dual-frequency excitation which is important to obtain homogeneous and low-temperature plasma. A larger controllable range of the gas temperature of atmospheric pressure plasma could also be obtained using dual-frequency excitation

  11. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura [INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Trieste (Italy); Provenzale, Antonello [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-CNR, Torino (Italy); Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio, E-mail: vladilo@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  12. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura; Provenzale, Antonello; Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  13. An ion-neutral model to investigate chemical ionization mass spectrometry analysis of atmospheric molecules - application to a mixed reagent ion system for hydroperoxides and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikes, Brian G.; Treadaway, Victoria; McNeill, Ashley S.; Silwal, Indira K. C.; O'Sullivan, Daniel W.

    2018-04-01

    An ion-neutral chemical kinetic model is described and used to simulate the negative ion chemistry occurring within a mixed-reagent ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). The model objective was the establishment of a theoretical basis to understand ambient pressure (variable sample flow and reagent ion carrier gas flow rates), water vapor, ozone and oxides of nitrogen effects on ion cluster sensitivities for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl peroxide (CH3OOH), formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc). The model development started with established atmospheric ion chemistry mechanisms, thermodynamic data and reaction rate coefficients. The chemical mechanism was augmented with additional reactions and their reaction rate coefficients specific to the analytes. Some existing reaction rate coefficients were modified to enable the model to match laboratory and field campaign determinations of ion cluster sensitivities as functions of CIMS sample flow rate and ambient humidity. Relative trends in predicted and observed sensitivities are compared as instrument specific factors preclude a direct calculation of instrument sensitivity as a function of sample pressure and humidity. Predicted sensitivity trends and experimental sensitivity trends suggested the model captured the reagent ion and cluster chemistry and reproduced trends in ion cluster sensitivity with sample flow and humidity observed with a CIMS instrument developed for atmospheric peroxide measurements (PCIMSs). The model was further used to investigate the potential for isobaric compounds as interferences in the measurement of the above species. For ambient O3 mixing ratios more than 50 times those of H2O2, O3-(H2O) was predicted to be a significant isobaric interference to the measurement of H2O2 using O2-(H2O2) at m/z 66. O3 and NO give rise to species and cluster ions, CO3-(H2O) and NO3-(H2O), respectively, which interfere in the measurement of CH3OOH using O2-(CH3OOH) at m/z 80. The CO3-(H2O

  14. Electrical characterization of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, P.; Subedi, D.P.; Joshi, U.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the electrical characterization of dielectric barrier discharge produced at atmospheric pressure using a high voltage power supply operating at 50Hz. The characteristics of the discharge have been studied under different values as such applied voltage and the electrode gap width. The results presented in this work can be helpful in understanding the influence of dielectric material on the nature of the discharge. An attempt has also been made to investigate the influence of ballast resistor on the magnitude of discharge current and also the density of micro-discharges. Our results indicated that with this power supply and electrode geometry, a relatively more homogenous discharge is observed for 3 mm spacing. (author)

  15. Plasmid DNA damage induced by helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cantrell, William A.; Escobar, Erika E.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    A helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is applied to induce damage to aqueous plasmid DNA. The resulting fractions of the DNA conformers, which indicate intact molecules or DNA with single- or double-strand breaks, are determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA strand breaks increase with a decrease in the distance between the APPJ and DNA samples under two working conditions of the plasma source with different parameters of applied electric pulses. The damage level induced in the plasmid DNA is also enhanced with increased plasma irradiation time. The reactive species generated in the APPJ are characterized by optical emission spectra, and their roles in possible DNA damage processes occurring in an aqueous environment are also discussed.

  16. Hydrostatic-pressure-induced GAMMA-X mixing in delta-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Ramos, M E [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, MOR. (Mexico); Duque, C A, E-mail: memora@buzon.uaem.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    The mixing between GAMMA and X points in the conduction band is known to manifest in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures. Application of hydrostatic pressure leads to the variation of both the GAMMA- and X-energy gaps in such a way that around P = 39 kbar, the GaAs becomes an indirect gap one. Within a narrow interval of P around this value, both minima remain almost energetically aligned. Therefore, it can be expected that some kind of mixing between the states corresponding to the delta-quantum-wells formed at those points should manifest. In this work, we investigate the occurrence of GAMMA-X mixing induced by the application of hydrostatic pressure in n-type delta doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As, by means of a variational scheme that uses a 2x2 Hamiltonian with the off-diagonal element being a variational potential energy. Diagonal Schroedinger-like effective mass elements are written with potential functions given by the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The effect of the hydrostatic pressure is incorporated via the dependence on P of the different input parameters in the system: energy gaps, effective masses and dielectric constant. We report the variation of the ground state of the system as a function of P.

  17. Are clusters important in understanding the mechanisms in atmospheric pressure ionization? Part 1: Reagent ion generation and chemical control of ion populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Sonja; Derpmann, Valerie; Wißdorf, Walter; Klopotowski, Sebastian; Kersten, Hendrik; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten; Albrecht, Sascha; Bruins, Andries P; Dousty, Faezeh; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto; O'Brien, Rob; Robb, Damon B; Syage, Jack A

    2014-08-01

    It is well documented since the early days of the development of atmospheric pressure ionization methods, which operate in the gas phase, that cluster ions are ubiquitous. This holds true for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, as well as for more recent techniques, such as atmospheric pressure photoionization, direct analysis in real time, and many more. In fact, it is well established that cluster ions are the primary carriers of the net charge generated. Nevertheless, cluster ion chemistry has only been sporadically included in the numerous proposed ionization mechanisms leading to charged target analytes, which are often protonated molecules. This paper series, consisting of two parts, attempts to highlight the role of cluster ion chemistry with regard to the generation of analyte ions. In addition, the impact of the changing reaction matrix and the non-thermal collisions of ions en route from the atmospheric pressure ion source to the high vacuum analyzer region are discussed. This work addresses such issues as extent of protonation versus deuteration, the extent of analyte fragmentation, as well as highly variable ionization efficiencies, among others. In Part 1, the nature of the reagent ion generation is examined, as well as the extent of thermodynamic versus kinetic control of the resulting ion population entering the analyzer region.

  18. Inter-annual and seasonal variations in transport to a measuring site in western Siberia, and their impact on the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eneroth, Kristina

    2002-05-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric transport to a CO{sub 2} measuring site in western Siberia were studied using three-dimensional trajectories. We identified large differences in transport between summer and winter, but also some differences between the years. Cluster analysis was applied to the trajectory data to determine to what degree different atmospheric flow patterns influence the variability of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratio. The observed CO{sub 2} mixing ratio was also compared to observed CO{sub 2} surface fluxes to study the impact of local sources and sinks. It was found that during July the correlation between atmospheric transport from distant source regions and CO{sub 2} mixing ratios was poor. Furthermore the correlation was also weak between the CO{sub 2} mixing ratio and the local eddy flux measurements. We conclude that the short-term variability in atmospheric CO{sub 2} during summer probably is dominated by larger scale (tens up to one hundred kilometers) CO{sub 2} surface fluxes and local meteorology. The weaker biogenic CO{sub 2} fluxes during winter, resulted in CO{sub 2} mixing ratios more clearly influenced by long-range transport Of CO{sub 2}. However, the highest atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations were not observed in connection with westerly winds representing transport of polluted air from Europe, but during periods with stagnant flow conditions. It was conjected that these high CO{sub 2} mixing ratios were due to respired CO{sub 2} trapped and accumulated in the lower parts of the planetary boundary layer. The mean duration for the identified flow patterns was in the order of two days, with a maximum duration of a week. This means that to have a chance to detect variations in CO{sub 2} mixing ratio due to air mass changes the sampling frequency (e.g. flask samples and flight measurements) must be at least every other day. Our results show that the atmospheric transport varies with season, year and altitude

  19. Emission and absorption spectroscopy study of Ar excited states in 13.56 MHz argon plasma operating at sub-atmospheric to atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L. [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium); Nikiforov, A., E-mail: anton.nikiforov@ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium); Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science, Academicheskaya St., 1, Ivanovo, 153045 (Russian Federation); Britun, N. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Universite de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Universite de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Centre, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Leys, C. [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    The densities of metastable and resonant states of Ar atoms are measured in high pressure Ar radio frequency discharge. Resonant absorption spectroscopy for the case of a low pressure spectral lamp and high-pressure plasma absorption lines is implemented for this purpose. The necessary generalizations for the high-pressure resonant absorption method are given. Absolute density of Ar 1s levels obtained at different RF input power and operating pressures are of the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, which is in a good agreement with those reported in the literature. The population distribution on the Ar 2p (excited) levels, obtained from the optical emission spectroscopy, reveals strong deviation from thermal equilibrium for these levels in the high-pressure case. The generation of the Ar excited states in the studied discharges is compared to the previously reported results. - Highlights: • Strong non-equilibrium distribution of Ar 2p levels is observed. • The absolute number density of non-radiative Ar 1s states is determined by the easier and low cost spectral-lamp absorption method. • The modified absorption theory of Mitchell and Zemanski was used to obtain the absolute number density of Ar 1s states at high pressure. • The developed RF source with 5 cm long gap can be a possible alternative to micro-plasma working in Ar at atmospheric pressure.

  20. Growth of aligned ZnO nanowires via modified atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuping; Li, Chengchen [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Chen, Mingming, E-mail: andychain@live.cn [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Yu, Xiao; Chang, Yunwei [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Chen, Anqi [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhu, Hai, E-mail: zhuhai5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Tang, Zikang, E-mail: zktang@umac.mo [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); The Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau (China)

    2016-12-09

    In this work, we report the growth of high-quality aligned ZnO nanowires via a facile atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The CVD reactor chamber used was more complicated than a conventional one due to the quartz boats loaded with sources (ZnO/C) and substrates being inserted into a semi-open quartz tube, and then placed inside the CVD reactor. The semi-open quartz tube played a very important role in growing the ZnO nanowires, and demonstrated that the transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber. Aligned ZnO nanowires were successfully obtained, though they were only found at substrates located upstream. The very high crystalline quality of the obtained ZnO nanowires was demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence investigations. Such ZnO nanowires with high crystalline quality may provide opportunities for the fabrication of ZnO-based nano-devices in future. - Highlights: • High-quality aligned ZnO nanowires were obtained via modified chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure. • The semi-open quartz tube plays very important roles in growing ZnO nanowires. • The transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber.

  1. Growth of aligned ZnO nanowires via modified atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuping; Li, Chengchen; Chen, Mingming; Yu, Xiao; Chang, Yunwei; Chen, Anqi; Zhu, Hai; Tang, Zikang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the growth of high-quality aligned ZnO nanowires via a facile atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The CVD reactor chamber used was more complicated than a conventional one due to the quartz boats loaded with sources (ZnO/C) and substrates being inserted into a semi-open quartz tube, and then placed inside the CVD reactor. The semi-open quartz tube played a very important role in growing the ZnO nanowires, and demonstrated that the transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber. Aligned ZnO nanowires were successfully obtained, though they were only found at substrates located upstream. The very high crystalline quality of the obtained ZnO nanowires was demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence investigations. Such ZnO nanowires with high crystalline quality may provide opportunities for the fabrication of ZnO-based nano-devices in future. - Highlights: • High-quality aligned ZnO nanowires were obtained via modified chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure. • The semi-open quartz tube plays very important roles in growing ZnO nanowires. • The transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber.

  2. Two-Dimensional Electron Density Measurement of Positive Streamer Discharge in Atmospheric-Pressure Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Yuki; Ono, Ryo; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko; Maeyama, Mitsuaki

    2016-09-01

    The electron density of streamer discharges propagating in atmospheric-pressure air is crucially important for systematic understanding of the production mechanisms of reactive species utilized in wide ranging applications such as medical treatment, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, ozone production and environmental pollutant processing. However, electron density measurement during the propagation of the atmospheric-pressure streamers is extremely difficult by using the conventional localized type measurement systems due to the streamer initiation jitters and the irreproducibility in the discharge paths. In order to overcome the difficulties, single-shot two-dimensional electron density measurement was conducted by using a Shack-Hartmann type laser wavefront sensor. The Shack-Hartmann sensor with a temporal resolution of 2 ns was applied to pulsed positive streamer discharges generated in an air gap between pin-to-plate electrodes. The electron density a few ns after the streamer initiation was 7*1021m-3 and uniformly distributed along the streamer channel. The electron density and its distribution profile were compared with a previous study simulating similar streamers, demonstrating good agreement. This work was supported in part by JKA and its promotion funds from KEIRIN RACE. The authors like to thank Mr. Kazuaki Ogura and Mr. Kaiho Aono of The University of Tokyo for their support during this work.

  3. Effects of atmospheric pressure trends on calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects and other animals sometimes modify behavior in response to changes in atmospheric pressure, an environmental cue that can provide warning of potentially injurious windy and rainy weather. To determine if Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis behaviors w...

  4. Characteristics of meter-scale surface electrical discharge propagating along water surface at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Sugiyama, Y.; Hosseini, S.H.R.; Akiyama, H.; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 41 (2016), č. článku 415202. ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : water surface * spectroscopy * high-speed photography * pulsed plasma discharge * Atmospheric-pressure plasmas * electric discharges * liquids * water Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/49/41/415202

  5. Characteristics of meter-scale surface electrical discharge propagating along water surface at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Sugiyama, Y.; Hosseini, S.H.R.; Akiyama, H.; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 41 (2016), č. článku 415202. ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : water surface * spectroscopy * high-speed photography * pulsed plasma discharge * Atmospheric - pressure plasmas * electric discharges * liquids * water Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/49/41/415202

  6. Influence of the coupling between an atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometer and the low pressure ion inlet of a mass spectrometer on the mobility measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunzer Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS are versatile gas analyzers. Due to their small size and robustness, combined with a very high sensitivity, they are often used in gas sensing applications such as environmental monitoring. In order to improve the selectivity, they are typically combined with a mass spectrometer (MS. Since IMS works at atmospheric pressure, and MS works at vacuum, a special interface reducing the pressure over normally two stages has to be used. In this paper the influence of this coupling of different pressure areas on the IMS signal will be analyzed with help of finite elements method simulations.

  7. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization H/D-exchange Mass Spectrometry for Speciation of Sulfur-containing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-08-01

    Herein we report the observation of atmospheric pressure in-source hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) of thiol group for the first time. The HDX for thiol group was optimized for positive atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) mass spectrometry (MS). The optimized HDX-MS was applied for 31 model compounds (thiols, thiophenes, and sulfides) to demonstrate that exchanged peaks were observed only for thiols. The optimized method has been successfully applied to the isolated fractions of sulfur-rich oil samples. The exchange of one and two thiol hydrogens with deuterium was observed in the thiol fraction; no HDX was observed in the other fractions. Thus, the results presented in this study demonstrate that the HDX-MS method using APPI ionization source can be effective for speciation of sulfur compounds. This method has the potential to be used to access corrosion problems caused by thiol-containing compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  9. The surface pressure dynamics and appearance of mixed monolayers of cholesterol and different sized polystyrenes at an air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Dennis, Gary R; Millar, Thomas J

    2005-02-15

    Synthetic polymers are increasingly being used in situations where they are designed to interact with biological systems. As a result, it is important to investigate the interactions of the polymers with biochemicals. We have used cholesterol, as an example of an important biological surfactant component, to study its interactions with polystyrene. Mixed monolayers of cholesterol and one of two different molecular weight polystyrenes were formed at an air-water interface to investigate their interactions and to determine whether the size of the polystyrene affected the interaction. The pressure-area (pi-A) isocycles of mixed monolayers of cholesterol and polystyrene MW 2700 or polystyrene MW32700 showed that strongest attractive interactions occur at high surface pressures and in polystyrene rich films. The excess area and excess free energy of mixing were most negative at high surface pressures and at high mole fraction of polystyrene. The most stable mixed monolayers were formed with X(PS2700) = 0.9 and X(PS32700) = 0.09. Microscopic observation of the mixed monolayers of cholesterol and polystyrene showed the formation of stable islands in the cholesterol/polystyrene mixtures. These observations, the nature of the inflection points in the isocycles, and the anomalous changes in free energy lead us to conclude that there is a stable rearrangement of polystyrene into compact islands when it is mixed with cholesterol. Any excess cholesterol is excluded from these islands and remains as a separate film surrounding the islands.

  10. Small surface wave discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss' ovski, Zh; Kolev, M; Ivanov, A; Lishev, St; Koleva, I, E-mail: kissov@phys.uni-sofia.b [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-09-21

    A small surface wave driven source produces plasma at atmospheric pressure. Microwave power at frequency 2.45 GHz is coupled with the source and a discharge is ignited at power levels below 10 W. The coaxial exciter of the surface waves has a length of 10 mm because its dielectric is a high permittivity discharge tube. The plasma source operates as a plasma jet in the case of plasma columns longer than the tube length. The source maintains stable plasma columns over a wide range of neutral gas flow and applied power in continuous and pulse regimes. An additional advantage of this source is the discharge self-ignition. An electron temperature of T{sub e} {approx} 1.9 eV and a density of n{sub e} {approx} 3.9 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} are estimated by the probe diagnostics method. The emission spectra in the wavelength range 200-1000 nm under different experimental conditions are analysed and they prove the applicability of the source for analytical spectroscopy. The dependences of column length, reflected power and plasma parameters on the gas flow and the input power are discussed. (fast track communication)

  11. High photoconductive hydrogenated silicon by reactive sputtering in helium containing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohbiki, Tohru; Imura, Takeshi; Hiraki, Akio

    1982-01-01

    Mixed phase of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon-hydrogen alloys has been fabricated by reactive sputtering in He containing H 2 of which mole fraction is less than about 5 mole%. The degree of the crystallization, evaluated by electron microscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy, becomes high as the amount of H 2 in the atmosphere increases. The conductivity in dark and photoconductivity increase as the partial pressure of H 2 increases (form 0 to 1 mole%) and also as the pressure during sputtering increases. This increase in conductivity and photoconductivity is supposed to be related to the development of microcrystals. The highest photoconductivity is observed at the H 2 mole fraction of about 1 mole%. This film contains a small amount of microcrystals and show the photoconductivity higher by 2 orders of magnitude than that in a film sputter-deposited in Ar and H 2 atmosphere in the same apparatus. (author)

  12. Study and Optimization on graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, and its application to metal adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Yuji; Chandra Dafader, Nirmal; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto non-woven polyethylene (NWPE) fabric was achieved under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, without using unique apparatus such as glass ampoules or vacuum lines. To attain graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, the effects of the pre-irradiation dose, pre-irradiation atmosphere, pre-irradiation temperature, de-aeration of GMA-emulsion, grafting atmosphere in a reactor, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in GMA-emulsion on the degree of grafting (Dg) were investigated in detail. It was found that the DO concentration had the strongest influence, the pre-irradiation dose, de-aeration of emulsion and grafting atmosphere had a relatively strong impact, and the pre-irradiation atmosphere and pre-irradiation temperature had the least effect on Dg. The optimum DO concentration before grafting was 2.0 mg/L or less. When a polyethylene bottle was used as a reactor instead of a glass ampoule, graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions could be achieved under the following conditions; the pre-irradiation dose was more than 50 kGy, the volume ratio of GMA-emulsion to air was 50:1 or less, and the DO concentration in GMA-emulsion during grafting was below 2.0 mg/L. Under these grafting conditions, Dg was controlled within a range of up to 362%. The prepared GMA–grafted NWPE (GMA–g-NWPE) fabric was modified with a phosphoric acid to obtain an adsorbent for heavy metal ions. In the column-mode adsorption tests of Pb(II), the adsorption performance of the produced phosphorylated GMA–g-NWPE fabric (fibrous metal adsorbent) was not essentially dependent on the flow rate of the feed. The breakthrough points of 200, 500, and 1000 h −1 in space velocity were 483, 477 and 462 bed volumes, and the breakthrough capacities of the three flow rates were 1.16, 1.15 and 1.16 mmol-Pb(II)/g-adsorbent.

  13. Study and Optimization on graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, and its application to metal adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Yuji; Chandra Dafader, Nirmal; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto non-woven polyethylene (NWPE) fabric was achieved under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, without using unique apparatus such as glass ampoules or vacuum lines. To attain graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions, the effects of the pre-irradiation dose, pre-irradiation atmosphere, pre-irradiation temperature, de-aeration of GMA-emulsion, grafting atmosphere in a reactor, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in GMA-emulsion on the degree of grafting (Dg) were investigated in detail. It was found that the DO concentration had the strongest influence, the pre-irradiation dose, de-aeration of emulsion and grafting atmosphere had a relatively strong impact, and the pre-irradiation atmosphere and pre-irradiation temperature had the least effect on Dg. The optimum DO concentration before grafting was 2.0 mg/L or less. When a polyethylene bottle was used as a reactor instead of a glass ampoule, graft polymerization under normal pressure and air atmospheric conditions could be achieved under the following conditions; the pre-irradiation dose was more than 50 kGy, the volume ratio of GMA-emulsion to air was 50:1 or less, and the DO concentration in GMA-emulsion during grafting was below 2.0 mg/L. Under these grafting conditions, Dg was controlled within a range of up to 362%. The prepared GMA-grafted NWPE (GMA-g-NWPE) fabric was modified with a phosphoric acid to obtain an adsorbent for heavy metal ions. In the column-mode adsorption tests of Pb(II), the adsorption performance of the produced phosphorylated GMA-g-NWPE fabric (fibrous metal adsorbent) was not essentially dependent on the flow rate of the feed. The breakthrough points of 200, 500, and 1000 h-1 in space velocity were 483, 477 and 462 bed volumes, and the breakthrough capacities of the three flow rates were 1.16, 1.15 and 1.16 mmol-Pb(II)/g-adsorbent.

  14. Parameters of the constricted plasma discharge produced by radio-frequency for atmospheric pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambrano R, G.

    1987-01-01

    The main electrophysical characteristics of high-frequency discharge between two electrodes for pressures of the order of atmospheric pressure were investigated. The vibrational and kinetic temperatures of the discharge, and the possibilities for creating the conditions which using these type of discharge an instability between vibrational and kinetic temperatures can be obtained. For determining main characteristics of this type of discharge, argon gas, nitrogen gas and air, when oxygen and nitrogen are predominated, were used. The obtained electrical discharge parameters were: the high frequency voltage between electrocathodes, the current, the phase displacement between current and voltage, and the discharge power. The kinetic temperature distribution in the discharge region, and the vibrational temperature of the nitrogen molecules in discharge channel were also obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HIGH LEVELS OF SO2 REMOVAL IN ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE FUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests conducted in an atmospheric-pressure-fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a cross-section of 1 x 1.6 m) to demonstrate high levels of S02 removal when burning a high-sulfur coal and feeding limestone sorbent for S02 removal. The goal was to achieve 90-plu...

  16. Bubble formation occurs in insulin pumps in response to changes in ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure but not as a result of vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Prudence E; King, Bruce R; Goss, Peter W; Chockalingam, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Bubble formation in insulin pump giving sets is a common problem. We studied change in temperature, change in atmospheric pressure, and vibration as potential mechanisms of bubble formation. 5 Animas 2020 pumps with 2 mL cartridges and Inset II infusion systems, 5 Medtronic Paradigm pumps with 1.8 mL cartridge and Quickset and 3 Roche Accu-chek pumps with 3.15 mL cartridges were used. Temperature study: insulin pumps were exposed to a temperature change from 4°C to 37°C. Pressure study: insulin pumps were taken to an altitude of 300 m. Vibration study: insulin pumps were vigorously shaken. All were observed for bubble formation. Bubble formation was observed with changes in temperature and atmospheric pressure. Bubble formation did not occur with vibration. Changes in insulin temperature and atmospheric pressure are common and may result in bubble formation. Vibration may distribute bubbles but does not cause bubble formation.

  17. Final Report DE-FG02-00ER54583: 'Physics of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharges' and 'Nanoparticle Nucleation and Dynamics in Low-Pressure Plasmas'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortshagen, Uwe; Heberlein, Joachim; Girshick, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    This project was funded over two periods of three years each, with an additional year of no-cost extension. Research in the first funding period focused on the physics of uniform atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the second funding period was devoted to the study of the dynamics of nanometer-sized particles in plasmas.

  18. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Masahiko; Daishima, Shigeki; Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and the recently introduced atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed. The parameters investigated for the optimization of APPI were the ion source parameters fragmentor voltage, capillary voltage, and vaporizer temperature, and also mobile phase composition and flow rate. Furthermore, chemical noise and signal suppression of analyte signals due to sample matrix interference were investigated for both APCI and APPI. The results indicated that APPI provides lower chemical noise and signal suppression in comparison with APCI. The linear range for patulin in apple juice (correlation coefficient >0.999) was 0.2-100 ng mL(-1). Mean recoveries of patulin in three apple juices ranged from 94.5 to 103.2%, and the limit of detection (S/N = 3), repeatability and reproducibility were 1.03-1.50 ng mL(-1), 3.9-5.1% and 7.3-8.2%, respectively. The total analysis time was 10.0 min. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Sterilization and Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated With Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents Using Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garate, Eusebio

    1999-01-01

    ... based on the application of an atmospheric pressure plasma. We used both a DC corona and dielectric barrier discharge for the sterilization tests which were conducted on a variety of substrates including metals and chemically resistant fabrics...

  20. Cathode fall parameters of a self-sustained normal glow discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipenko, V.I.; Zgirovskii, S.M.; Kirillov, A.A.; Simonchik, L.V.

    2002-01-01

    Results from comprehensive studies of a high-current self-sustained glow discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium are presented. The main parameters of the cathode fall, namely, the electric field profile, cathode fall thickness, current density, gas temperature, and heat flux to the cathode are determined. The results obtained are discussed using one-dimensional models of the cathode fall with allowance for volumetric heat release

  1. Atmospheric Pressure and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture : Results from a Time Series Analysis and Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning De Vries, Bas B.L.; Kolkert, Joé L.P.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Associations between atmospheric pressure and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk have been reported, but empirical evidence is inconclusive and largely derived from studies that did not account for possible nonlinearity, seasonality, and confounding by temperature. Methods:

  2. 50-Hz plasma treatment of glass fibre reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50-Hz dielectric barrier discharge at peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of around...

  3. How to increase the hydrophobicity of PTFE surfaces using an r.f. atmospheric-pressure plasma torch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, E.A.D.; Boucher, N.; Sferrazza, M.; Reniers, F.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) by an Ar and Ar/O2 plasma created with an atmospheric-pressure radio frequency (r.f.) torch is presented here. The surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), XPS and water contact angle (WCA) to

  4. Quantitative Imaging of Turbulent Mixing Dynamics in High-Pressure Fuel Injection to Enable Predictive Simulations of Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Jonathan H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Pickett, Lyle M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Bisson, Scott E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Remote Sensing and Energetic Materials Dept.; Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). combustion Chemistry Dept.; Ruggles, Adam J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Skeen, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Manin, Julien Luc [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Huang, Erxiong [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Cicone, Dave J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Sphicas, Panos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.

    2015-09-01

    In this LDRD project, we developed a capability for quantitative high - speed imaging measurements of high - pressure fuel injection dynamics to advance understanding of turbulent mixing in transcritical flows, ignition, and flame stabilization mechanisms, and to provide e ssential validation data for developing predictive tools for engine combustion simulations. Advanced, fuel - efficient engine technologies rely on fuel injection into a high - pressure, high - temperature environment for mixture preparation and com bustion. Howe ver, the dynamics of fuel injection are not well understood and pose significant experimental and modeling challenges. To address the need for quantitative high - speed measurements, we developed a Nd:YAG laser that provides a 5ms burst of pulses at 100 kHz o n a robust mobile platform . Using this laser, we demonstrated s patially and temporally resolved Rayleigh scattering imaging and particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent mixing in high - pressure gas - phase flows and vaporizing sprays . Quantitativ e interpretation of high - pressure measurements was advanced by reducing and correcting interferences and imaging artifacts.

  5. Atmospheric pressure plasma cleaning of contamination surfaces. 1997 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.; Selwyn, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    'Goals of the project are to (1) identify the key physics and chemistry underlying the use of high pressure plasmas for etching removal of actinides and actinide surrogates; and (2) identify key surface reactions and plasma physics necessary for optimization of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Technical description of the work decommissioning of transuranic waste (TRU) into low-level radioactive waste (LLW) represents the largest cleanup cost associated with the nuclear weapons complex. This work is directed towards developing a low-cost plasma technology capable of converting TRU into LLW, based upon highly selective plasma etching of plutonium and other actinides from contaminated surfaces. In this way, only the actinide material is removed, leaving the surface less contaminated. The plasma etches actinide material by producing a volatile halide compound, which may be efficiently trapped using filters. To achieve practical, low-cost operation of a plasma capable of etching actinide materials, the authors have developed a y-mode, resonant-cavity, atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In contrast to conventional, low pressure plasmas, the APPJ produces a purely-chemical effluent free of ions, and so achieves very high selectivity and produces negligible damage to the surface. Since the jet operates outside a chamber, many nuclear wastes may be treated including machinery, duct-work, concrete and other building materials. In some cases, it may be necessary to first remove paint from contaminated surfaces using a plasma selective for that surface, then to switch to the actinide etching chemistry for removal of actinide contamination. The goal of this work is to develop the underlying science required for maturation of this technology and to establish early version engineering prototypes. Accomplishments to Date The authors have made significant progress in this program. The work conducted jointly at Los Alamos and at UCLA. This has been facilitated by exchange

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma cleaning of contamination surfaces. 1997 mid-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selwyn, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Hicks, R. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (US)

    1997-06-01

    'Goals of the project are to (1) identify the key physics and chemistry underlying the use of high pressure plasmas for etching removal of actinides and actinide surrogates; and (2) identify key surface reactions and plasma physics necessary for optimization of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Technical description of the work decommissioning of transuranic waste (TRU) into low-level radioactive waste (LLW) represents the largest cleanup cost associated with the nuclear weapons complex. This work is directed towards developing a low-cost plasma technology capable of converting TRU into LLW, based upon highly selective plasma etching of plutonium and other actinides from contaminated surfaces. In this way, only the actinide material is removed, leaving the surface less contaminated. The plasma etches actinide material by producing a volatile halide compound, which may be efficiently trapped using filters. To achieve practical, low-cost operation of a plasma capable of etching actinide materials, the authors have developed a y-mode, resonant-cavity, atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In contrast to conventional, low pressure plasmas, the APPJ produces a purely-chemical effluent free of ions, and so achieves very high selectivity and produces negligible damage to the surface. Since the jet operates outside a chamber, many nuclear wastes may be treated including machinery, duct-work, concrete and other building materials. In some cases, it may be necessary to first remove paint from contaminated surfaces using a plasma selective for that surface, then to switch to the actinide etching chemistry for removal of actinide contamination. The goal of this work is to develop the underlying science required for maturation of this technology and to establish early version engineering prototypes. Accomplishments to Date The authors have made significant progress in this program. The work conducted jointly at Los Alamos and at UCLA. This has been facilitated by

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma assisted calcination by the preparation of TiO2 fibers in submicron scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecká, Veronika; Kováčik, Dušan; Zahoranová, Anna; Černák, Mirko

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma assisted calcination by the preparation of TiO2 submicron fibers as a low-temperature alternative to the conventional thermal annealing was studied. A special type of dielectric barrier discharge was used for plasma treatment of hybrid titanium butoxide/polyvinylpyrrolidone (Ti(Bu)/PVP) fibers prepared by forcespinning to decompose and oxidize the base polymer and precursor. The obtained fibers were characterized by changes in chemical bonds on the surface using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), chemical composition by using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology of fibers was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A significant decrease of organic components was reached by short plasma exposure times less than 1 h. The obtained fibers exhibit a high surface porosity without degradation of the fibrous structure. The results obtained indicate that atmospheric pressure plasma assisted calcination can be a viable low-temperature, energy- and time-saving alternative or pre-treatment method for the conventional high-temperature thermal calcination.

  8. Behaviour of OH radicals in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge studied by two-dimensional numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    The production process of OH radicals in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge is studied. A streamer discharge model is developed to analyse the characteristics of a pulsed positive streamer discharge in point-to-plane electrodes filled with humid air at atmospheric pressure. The results indicate that the behaviour of OH radicals in and after the discharge pulse is characterized by three reaction processes: ‘OH-production’, ‘OH-cycle’ and ‘OH-recombination’. The first process of OH-production includes dissociation reactions of H 2 O with O( 1 D) and N 2 (a' 1 Σ u - ), which are the main production processes of OH in the discharge. Immediately after the OH-production process, the OH radicals are destroyed by a reaction with O( 3 P) to form O 2 and H. Then the subsequent reactions produce OH again through the reaction of H + HO 2 , which is the OH-cycle process. Finally, the OH radicals are consumed by the OH-recombination process. (paper)

  9. Atmospheric temperature and pressure influence the onset of spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motono, Nozomu; Maeda, Sumiko; Honda, Ryumon; Tanaka, Makoto; Machida, Yuichiro; Usuda, Katsuo; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the influence of the changes in the atmospheric temperature (ATemp) and the atmospheric pressure (APres) on the occurrence of a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP). From January 2000 to March 2014, 192 consecutive SP events were examined. The ATemp and APres data at the onset of SP, as well as those data at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h prior to the onset time, were analyzed. The frequencies of SP occurrence were not statistically different according to the months or seasons, but were statistically different according to the time period (P < .01) and SP events occurred most frequently from 12:00 to 18:00. SP events frequently occurred at an ATemp of 25 degrees Celsius or higher. There was a significantly negative correlation between the APres and the ATemp at the SP onset time. The values of change in the APres from 36 to 24 h prior to SP onset were significantly lower than the preceding values. In this study, we observed that a SP event was likely to occur in the time period from 12:00 to 18:00, at an ATemp of 25 degrees Celsius or higher, and at 24-36 h after a drop of APres. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet Surface Treatment for Use in Improving Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are a method of plasma treatment that plays an important role in material processing and modifying surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Gas plasmas react with polymer surfaces in numerous ways such as oxidation, radical formation, degradation, and promotion of cross-linking. Because of this, gas and plasma conditions can be explored for chosen processes to maximize desired properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate plasma parameters in order to modify surface properties for improved adhesion between aluminum and epoxy substrates using two types of adhesives. The background, results to date, and future work will be discussed.

  11. Effect of vesicle size on the prodan fluorescence in diheptadecanoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane under atmospheric and high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masaki; Sawaguchi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Nobutake; Matsuki, Hitoshi; Kaneshina, Shoji

    2010-08-17

    The bilayer phase behavior of diheptadecanoylphosphatidylcholine (C17PC) with different vesicle sizes (large multilamellar vesicle (LMV) and giant multilamellar vesicle (GMV)) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy using a polarity-sensitive fluorescent probe Prodan under atmospheric and high pressures. The difference in phase transitions and thermodynamic quantities of the transition was hardly observed between LMV and GMV used here. On the contrary, the Prodan fluorescence in the bilayer membranes changed depending on the size of vesicles as well as on the phase states. From the second derivative of fluorescence spectra, the three-dimensional image plots in which we can see the location of Prodan in the bilayer membrane as blue valleys were constructed for LMV and GMV under atmospheric pressure. The following characteristic behavior was found: (1) the Prodan molecules in GMV can be distributed to not only adjacent glycerol backbone region, but also near bulk-water region in the lamellar gel or ripple gel phase; (2) the blue valleys of GMV became deeper than those of LMV because of the greater surface density of the Prodan molecules per unit area of GMV than LMV; (3) the liquid crystalline phase of the bilayer excludes the Prodan molecules to a more hydrophilic region at the membrane surface with an increase in vesicle size; (4) the accurate information as to the phase transitions is gradually lost with increasing vesicle size. Under the high-pressure condition, the difference in Prodan fluorescence between LMV and GMV was essentially the same as the difference under atmospheric pressure except for the existence of the pressure-induced interdigitated gel phase. Further, we found that Prodan fluorescence spectra in the interdigitated gel phase were especially affected by the size of vesicles. This study revealed that the Prodan molecules can move around the headgroup region by responding not only to the phase state but also to the vesicle size, and they

  12. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, T.; Grunwald, G.; Rohde, U.

    1998-10-01

    For the analysis of boron dilution transients and main steam like break scenarios the modelling of the coolant mixing inside the reactor vessel is important. The reactivity insertion due to overcooling or deboration depends strongly on the coolant temperature and boron concentration. The three-dimensional flow distribution in the downcomer and the lower plenum of PWR's was calculated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (CFX-4). Calculations were performed for the PWR's of SIEMENS KWU, Westinghouse and VVER-440 / V-230 type. The following important factors were identified: exact representation of the cold leg inlet region (bend radii etc.), extension of the downcomer below the inlet region at the PWR Konvoi, obstruction of the flow by the outlet nozzles penetrating the downcomer, etc. The k-ε turbulence model was used. Construction elements like perforated plates in the lower plenum have large influence on the velocity field. It is impossible to model all the orifices in the perforated plates. A porous region model was used to simulate perforated plates and the core. The porous medium is added with additional body forces to simulate the pressure drop through perforated plates in the VVER-440. For the PWR Konvoi the whole core was modelled with porous media parameters. The velocity fields of the PWR Konvoi calculated for the case of operation of all four main circulation pumps show a good agreement with experimental results. The CFD-calculation especially confirms the back flow areas below the inlet nozzles. The downcomer flow of the Russian VVER-440 has no recirculation areas under normal operation conditions. By CFD calculations for the downcomer and the lower plenum an analytical mixing model used in the reactor dynamic code DYN3D was verified. The measurements, the analytical model and the CFD-calculations provided very well agreeing results particularly for the inlet region. The difficulties of analytical solutions and the uncertainties of turbulence

  14. Supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with in-source atmospheric pressure ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for compound speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunju; Choi, Man-Ho; Kim, Byungjoo; Kim, Sunghwan

    2016-04-29

    An experimental setup for the speciation of compounds by hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) with atmospheric pressure ionization while performing chromatographic separation is presented. The proposed experimental setup combines the high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) system that can be readily used as an inlet for mass spectrometry (MS) and atmospheric pressure photo ionization (APPI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) HDX. This combination overcomes the limitation of an approach using conventional liquid chromatography (LC) by minimizing the amount of deuterium solvents used for separation. In the SFC separation, supercritical CO2 was used as a major component of the mobile phase, and methanol was used as a minor co-solvent. By using deuterated methanol (CH3OD), AP HDX was achieved during SFC separation. To prove the concept, thirty one nitrogen- and/or oxygen-containing standard compounds were analyzed by SFC-AP HDX MS. The compounds were successfully speciated from the obtained SFC-MS spectra. The exchange ions were observed with as low as 1% of CH3OD in the mobile phase, and separation could be performed within approximately 20min using approximately 0.24 mL of CH3OD. The results showed that SFC separation and APPI/APCI HDX could be successfully performed using the suggested method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature and atmospheric pressure may be considered as predictors for the occurrence of bacillary dysentery in Guangzhou, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiegang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The control of bacillary dysentery (BD remains a big challenge for China. Methods Negative binomial multivariable regression was used to study relationships between meteorological variables and the occurrence of BD during the period of 2006-2012. Results Each 1°C rise of temperature corresponded to an increase of 3.60% (95%CI, 3.03% to 4.18% in the monthly number of BD cases, whereas a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of BD cases by 2.85% (95%CI = 3.34% to 2.37% decrease. Conclusions Temperature and atmospheric pressure may be considered as predictors for the occurrence of BD in Guangzhou.

  16. Methods of gas purification and effect on the ion composition in an RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet investigated by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Huebner, Simon; Schneider, Simon; Keudell, Achim von; Benedikt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the ion chemistry of atmospheric pressure plasmas is essential to evaluate ionic reaction pathways during plasma-surface or plasma-analyte interactions. In this contribution, the ion chemistry of a radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ) operated in helium is investigated by mass spectrometry (MS). It is found, that the ion composition is extremely sensitive to impurities such as N 2 , O 2 and H 2 O. Without gas purification, protonated water cluster ions of the form H + (H 2 O) n are dominating downstream the positive ion mass spectrum. However, even after careful feed gas purification to the sub-ppm level using a molecular sieve trap and a liquid nitrogen trap as well as operation of the plasma in a controlled atmosphere, the positive ion mass spectrum is strongly influenced by residual trace gases. The observations support the idea that species with a low ionization energy serve as a major source of electrons in atmospheric pressure helium plasmas. Similarly, the neutral density of atomic nitrogen measured by MS in a He/N 2 mixture is varying up to a factor 3, demonstrating the significant influence of impurities on the neutral species chemistry as well. (orig.)

  17. Methods of gas purification and effect on the ion composition in an RF atmospheric pressure plasma jet investigated by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Huebner, Simon; Schneider, Simon; Keudell, Achim von; Benedikt, Jan [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institute for Experimental Physics II, Bochum (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The analysis of the ion chemistry of atmospheric pressure plasmas is essential to evaluate ionic reaction pathways during plasma-surface or plasma-analyte interactions. In this contribution, the ion chemistry of a radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet (μ-APPJ) operated in helium is investigated by mass spectrometry (MS). It is found, that the ion composition is extremely sensitive to impurities such as N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Without gas purification, protonated water cluster ions of the form H{sup +}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} are dominating downstream the positive ion mass spectrum. However, even after careful feed gas purification to the sub-ppm level using a molecular sieve trap and a liquid nitrogen trap as well as operation of the plasma in a controlled atmosphere, the positive ion mass spectrum is strongly influenced by residual trace gases. The observations support the idea that species with a low ionization energy serve as a major source of electrons in atmospheric pressure helium plasmas. Similarly, the neutral density of atomic nitrogen measured by MS in a He/N{sub 2} mixture is varying up to a factor 3, demonstrating the significant influence of impurities on the neutral species chemistry as well. (orig.)

  18. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  19. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring

  20. Cavity ring down spectroscopy of CH, CH2, HCO, and H2CO in a premixed flat flame at both atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evertsen, R.; Staicu, A.D.; Oijen, van J.A.; Dam, N.J.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Meulen, ter J.J.; Cheauveau, C.; Vovelle, C.

    2003-01-01

    Density distributions of CH, CH2, HCO and H2CO have been measured in a premixed CH4/air flat flame by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). At atmospheric pressure problems are encountered due to the narrow spatial distribution of these species. Rotational flame Temperatures have been derived from

  1. In vitro digestion and physicochemical characteristics of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying

    2018-03-01

    The digestibility and molecular structure of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low-pressure treatment (LPT) was investigated. Amino acid induced a significant increase in the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and decrease in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) after LPT. The reason is the formation of ester bond between the molecular chains of amino acid and starch. Low pressure treatment altered greatly the morphology of corn starch mixed with or without amino acid. After LPT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for starch-amino acid complex. An increase in size distribution was obvious after LPT and the size distribution curves provided from a new variety. We found that higher enthalpy and relative crystallinity of the starch-amino acid complex were associated with a higher SDS content. It can be inferred that LPT had a greater impact on the digestion and structural characterization of corn starch mixed with amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetonitrile Ion Suppression in Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizza, Kevin; Mahoney, Keira E.; Yevdokimov, Alexander V.; Smith, James L.; Oxley, Jimmie C.

    2016-11-01

    Efforts to analyze trace levels of cyclic peroxides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence that acetonitrile suppressed ion formation. Further investigations extended this discovery to ketones, linear peroxides, esters, and possibly many other types of compounds, including triazole and menadione. Direct ionization suppression caused by acetonitrile was observed for multiple adduct types in both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The addition of only 2% acetonitrile significantly decreased the sensitivity of analyte response. Efforts to identify the mechanism were made using various nitriles. The ion suppression was reduced by substitution of an acetonitrile hydrogen with an electron-withdrawing group, but was exacerbated by electron-donating or steric groups adjacent to the nitrile. Although current theory does not explain this phenomenon, we propose that polar interactions between the various functionalities and the nitrile may be forming neutral aggregates that manifest as ionization suppression.

  3. Electron Density in Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Surface Wave Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.; Mizeraczyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present results of the spectroscopic measurements of the electron density in a microwave surface wave sustained discharges in Ar and Ne at atmospheric pressure. The discharge in the form of a plasma column was generated inside a quartz tube cooled with a dielectric liquid. The microwave power delivered to the discharge via rectangular waveguide was applied in the range of 200-1500 W. In all investigations presented in this paper, the gas flow rate was relatively low (0.5 l/min), so the plasma column was generated in the form of a single filament, and the lengths of the upstream and downstream plasma columns were almost the same. The electron density in the plasma columns was determined using the method based on the Stark broadening of H β spectral line, including plasma region inside the waveguide which was not investigated earlier

  4. Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Data using Orthonormal Polynomials in the Linear Mixed Model

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lloyd J.; Simpson, Sean L.

    2010-01-01

    The use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in clinical practice and observational epidemiological studies has grown considerably in the past 25 years. ABPM is a very effective technique for assessing biological, environmental, and drug effects on blood pressure. In order to enhance the effectiveness of ABPM for clinical and observational research studies via analytical and graphical results, developing alternative data analysis approaches are important. The linear mixed mo...

  5. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High photoconductive hydrogenated silicon by reactive sputtering in helium containing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohbiki, Tohru; Imura, Takeshi; Hiraki, Akio

    1982-08-01

    Mixed phase of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon-hydrogen alloys has been fabricated by reactive sputtering in He containing H/sub 2/ of which mole fraction is less than about 5 mole%. The degree of the crystallization, evaluated by electron microscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy, becomes high as the amount of H/sub 2/ in the atmosphere increases. The conductivity in dark and photoconductivity increase as the partial pressure of H/sub 2/ increases (form 0 to 1 mole%) and also as the pressure during sputtering increases. This increase in conductivity and photoconductivity is supposed to be related to the development of microcrystals. The highest photoconductivity is observed at the H/sub 2/ mole fraction of about 1 mole%. This film contains a small amount of microcrystals and show the photoconductivity higher by 2 orders of magnitude than that in a film sputter-deposited in Ar and H/sub 2/ atmosphere in the same apparatus.

  7. Coolant Mixing in a Pressurized Water Reactor: Deboration Transients, Steam-Line Breaks, and Emergency Core Cooling Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, Horst-Michael; Grunwald, Gerhard; Hoehne, Thomas; Kliem, Soeren; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2003-01-01

    The reactor transient caused by a perturbation of boron concentration or coolant temperature at the inlet of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) depends on the mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Initial steep gradients are partially lessened by turbulent mixing with coolant from the unaffected loops and with the water inventory of the RPV. Nevertheless the assumption of an ideal mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum of the reactor leads to unrealistically small reactivity inserts. The uncertainties between ideal mixing and total absence of mixing are too large to be acceptable for safety analyses. In reality, a partial mixing takes place. For realistic predictions it is necessary to study the mixing within the three-dimensional flow field in the complicated geometry of a PWR. For this purpose a 1:5 scaled model [the Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model (ROCOM) facility] of the German PWR KONVOI was built. Compared to other experiments, the emphasis was put on extensive measuring instrumentation and a maximum of flexibility of the facility to cover as much as possible different test scenarios. The use of special electrode-mesh sensors together with a salt tracer technique provided distributions of the disturbance within downcomer and core entrance with a high resolution in space and time. Especially, the instrumentation of the downcomer gained valuable information about the mixing phenomena in detail. The obtained data were used to support code development and validation. Scenarios investigated are the following: (a) steady-state flow in multiple coolant loops with a temperature or boron concentration perturbation in one of the running loops, (b) transient flow situations with flow rates changing with time in one or more loops, such as pump startup scenarios with deborated slugs in one of the loops or onset of natural circulation after boiling-condenser-mode operation, and (c) gravity-driven flow caused by large density gradients, e.g., mixing of cold

  8. The determination of carbon dioxide concentration using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopic dilution and errors in concentration measurements caused by dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLacy, Brendan G; Bandy, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopically labeled standard (APIMS/ILS) method has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration. Descriptions of the instrumental components, the ionization chemistry, and the statistics associated with the analytical method are provided. This method represents an alternative to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) technique, which is currently used in the atmospheric community to determine atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The APIMS/ILS and NDIR methods exhibit a decreased sensitivity for CO(2) in the presence of water vapor. Therefore, dryers such as a nafion dryer are used to remove water before detection. The APIMS/ILS method measures mixing ratios and demonstrates linearity and range in the presence or absence of a dryer. The NDIR technique, on the other hand, measures molar concentrations. The second half of this paper describes errors in molar concentration measurements that are caused by drying. An equation describing the errors was derived from the ideal gas law, the conservation of mass, and Dalton's Law. The purpose of this derivation was to quantify errors in the NDIR technique that are caused by drying. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the errors created solely by the dryer in CO(2) concentration measurements post-dryer. The laboratory experiments verified the theoretically predicted errors in the derived equations. There are numerous references in the literature that describe the use of a dryer in conjunction with the NDIR technique. However, these references do not address the errors that are caused by drying.

  9. Advancements, Challenges and Prospects of Chemical Vapour Pressure at Atmospheric Pressure on Vanadium Dioxide Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Drosos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium (IV oxide (VO2 layers have received extensive interest for applications in smart windows to batteries and gas sensors due to the multi-phases of the oxide. Among the methods utilized for their growth, chemical vapour deposition is a technology that is proven to be industrially competitive because of its simplicity when performed at atmospheric pressure (APCVD. APCVD’s success has shown that it is possible to create tough and stable materials in which their stoichiometry may be precisely controlled. Initially, we give a brief overview of the basic processes taking place during this procedure. Then, we present recent progress on experimental procedures for isolating different polymorphs of VO2. We outline emerging techniques and processes that yield in optimum characteristics for potentially useful layers. Finally, we discuss the possibility to grow 2D VO2 by APCVD.

  10. The Relationship of the MOLA Topography of Mars to the Mean Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    1999-01-01

    The MOLA topography of Mars is based on a new mean radius of the planet and new equipotential surface for the areoid. The mean atmospheric pressure surface of 6.1mbars that has been used in the past as a reference level for topography does not apply to the zero level of MOLA elevations. The MOLA mean radius of the planet is 3389508 meters and the mean equatorial radius is 339600 meters. The areoid of the zero level of the MOLA altimetry is defined to be the potential surface with the same potential as the mean equatorial radius. The MOLA topography differs from the USGS digital elevation data by approximately 1.6 km, with MOLA higher. The average pressure on the MOLA reference surface for Ls =0 is approximately 5.1 mbars and has been derived from occultation data obtained from the tracking of Viking, Mariner, and MGS spacecraft and interpolated with the aid of the Ames Mars GCM. The new topography and the new occultation data are providing a more reliable relationship between elevation and surface pressure.

  11. Investigation of hydrogen isotope exchange reaction rate in mixed gas (H2 and D2) at pressure up to 200 MPa using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Musyayev, R.K.; Gurkin, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a relevant method for obtaining objective data on isotopic exchange rate in a gaseous mix of hydrogen isotopes, since it allows one to determine a gaseous mix composition in real time without sampling. We have developed a high-pressure fiber-optic probe to be used for obtaining protium Raman spectra under pressures up to 400 MPa and we have recorded spectral line broadening induced by molecule collisions starting from ∼ 40 MPa. Using this fiber-optic probe we have performed experiments to study isotopic exchange kinetics in a gaseous mix of hydrogen isotopes (protium-deuterium) at pressures up to 200 MPa. Preliminary results show that the dependence of the average isotopic exchange rate related to pressure take unexpected values at the very beginning of the time evolution. More work is required to understand this inconsistency

  12. Curiosity and the Four Seasons: In Situ Measurements of the Atmospheric Composition over Three Mars Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, M. G.; Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malespin, C.; Wong, M. H.; Atreya, S. K.; Becker, R. H.; Conrad, P. G.; Lefèvre, F.; Manning, H. L. K.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; McConnochie, T.; McKay, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Pepin, R. O.; Webster, C. R.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover measures the chemical composition of major atmospheric species in the vicinity of the rover through a dedicated atmospheric inlet. We report here on measurements of atmospheric volume mixing ratios in Gale Crater using the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), over a period of nearly three Mars years (5 Earth years) from landing. The observation period spans the southern winter of MY 31, solar longitude (Ls) of 175° through southern fall of MY 34, Ls = 12°. The initial mixing ratios measured by the SAM QMS were reported for the first 105 sols of the mission [1], and were updated to account for newly developed calibration factors [2]. The SAM QMS atmospheric measurements were continued, periodically interspersed between solid sample measurements and other rover activities, with a cumulative coverage of 4 or 5 experiments per season. The three major volatiles - CO2, N2, and 40Ar - are compatible with the annual pressure cycle but with a repeatable lag that indicates incomplete mixing and the influences of seasonal circulation patterns. The mixing ratios for the two inert, non-condensable species are qualitatively consistent with what is predicted from annual cycle of CO2 deposition and sublimation at the poles, which is manifested in a large enhancement of Ar mixing ratio at the winter poles (and assumed for N2) [3]. The mixing ratio for the minor species O2 appears to follow a distinct seasonal trend and may be indicative of possible deviations from known atmospheric chemistry or a surface flux of oxygen from an unknown source, or both. This unprecedented seasonal coverage and precision in mixing ratio determination provides valuable data for understanding the seasonal chemical and dynamics cycles. Further, this measurement campaign supplies useful ground-truth data for global climate model simulations, which can study atmospheric effects for other locations on Mars

  13. Gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric aerosols: interplay of physical state, non-ideal mixing and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, Manabu; Zuend, Andreas; Bertram, Allan K; Seinfeld, John H

    2013-07-21

    Atmospheric aerosols, comprising organic compounds and inorganic salts, play a key role in air quality and climate. Mounting evidence exists that these particles frequently exhibit phase separation into predominantly organic and aqueous electrolyte-rich phases. As well, the presence of amorphous semi-solid or glassy particle phases has been established. Using the canonical system of ammonium sulfate mixed with organics from the ozone oxidation of α-pinene, we illustrate theoretically the interplay of physical state, non-ideality, and particle morphology affecting aerosol mass concentration and the characteristic timescale of gas-particle mass transfer. Phase separation can significantly affect overall particle mass and chemical composition. Semi-solid or glassy phases can kinetically inhibit the partitioning of semivolatile components and hygroscopic growth, in contrast to the traditional assumption that organic compounds exist in quasi-instantaneous gas-particle equilibrium. These effects have significant implications for the interpretation of laboratory data and the development of improved atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  14. Composition and structure of the martian atmosphere: preliminary results from Viking 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nier, A.O.; Hanson, W.B.; Seiff, A.; McElroy, M.B.; Spencer, N.W.; Duckett, R.J.; Knight, T.C.D.; Cook, W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results from the aeroshell-mounted neutral mass spectrometer on Viking 1 indicate that the upper atmosphere of Mars is composed mainly of CO 2 with trace quantities of N 2 , Ar, O, O 2 , and CO. The mixing ratios by volume relative to CO 2 for N 2 , Ar, and O 2 are about 0.06, 0.015, and 0.003, respectively, at an altitude near 135 kilometers. Molecular oxygen (O 2 + ) is a major component of the ionosphere according to results from the retarding potential analyzer. The atmosphere between 140 and 200 kilometers has an average temperature of about 180 0 +- 20 0 K. Atmospheric pressure at the landing site for Viking 1 was 7.3 millibars at an air temperature of 241 0 K. The descent data are consistent with the view that CO 2 should be the major constituent of the lower martian atmosphere

  15. Atmospheric pressure DBD gun and its application in ink printability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Zhang Yuefei; Han Erli; Ge Yuanjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a plasma source discharging at atmospheric pressure and its characterization diagnosed by a Langmuir probe and a digital camera are presented. As an application the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) gun modifying an ultraviolet cured resin surface for ink printability is reported. The results from the digital camera indicate the uniformity and homogeneity of the plasma generated from the gun in the downstream but depending on the input power, diameter of electrodes, gas flow rates and the distance between the substrates and the nozzle. The contact angle measurement proves the efficiency of gun during the surface modification. The ink printability following DBD gun processing described here was significantly improved. The performed surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared indicates that the polarity of surface grafted in plasma is responsible for the film printability

  16. Development of data logger for atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity for gas-filled detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    At IoP-NISER an initiative has been taken to build and test micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects. Temperature (t), atmospheric pressure (p) and relative humidity (RH) monitor and recording is very important for gas filled detector development. A data logger to monitor and record the ambient parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and pressure has been developed. With this data logger continuous recording of t, p, RH and time stamp can be done with a programmable sampling interval. This data is necessary to correct the gain of a gas filled detector

  17. Optimal buffer gas pressure for laser-induced fluorescence detection of the iodine-129 isotope in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kireev, S.V.; Pit'ko, A.V.; Shnyrev, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric air pressure on the intensity of iodine-129 vapor fluorescence excited by a He-Ne (633 nm) laser is studied. It is shown that to achieve the maximum intensity of fluorescence of molecular iodine-129, it is advantageous, first, to use a 3 He- 20 Ne laser for excitation, and second, to detect atmospheric iodine impurities in the gas mixture under analysis evacuated to 2 x 10 18 - 4 x 10 18 mol/cm 3 . In this case, the sensitivity increases about twofold. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. Adhesion improvement of fibres by continuous plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Y.; Andersen, Tom L.; Soerensen, B.F.; Toftegaard, H.L.; Teodoru, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, Charles M. [Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2013-09-01

    Carbon fibres and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres were continuously treated by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure for adhesion improvement with epoxy resins. The plasma treatment improved wettability, increased the oxygen containing polar functional groups at the surface, and subsequently improved adhesion to the epoxy and fracture resistance of epoxy composites. Hansen solubility parameters (HSP), quantitatively describing physical interactions among molecules, were measured for the UHMWPE fibre surfaces. The result identifies two distinct types of surfaces in both the plasma treated and the untreated fibres. One type is typical of polyethylene polymers while the other is characteristic of the oxygenated surface at much higher values of HSP. (Author)

  19. Foam glass obtained through high-pressure sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Foam glasses are usually prepared through a chemical approach, that is, by mixing glass powder with foaming agents, and heating the mixture to a temperature above the softening point (106.6 Pa s) of the glass. The foaming agents release gas, enabling expansion of the sint